Sample records for computerized color test

  1. Assessment of Selective Attention with CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afsaneh, Zarghi; Alireza, Zali; Mehdi, Tehranidost; Farzad, Ashrafi; Reza, Zarindast Mohammad; Mehdi, Moazzezi; Mojtaba, Khodadadi Seyed

    2012-01-01

    The SCWT (Stroop Color-Word Test) is a quick and frequently used measure for assessing selective attention and cognitive flexibility. This study determines age, sex and education level influence on attention and cognitive flexibility by CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among healthy Iranian children and adults. There were 78 healthy…

  2. Computerized Test Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosser, Jon; And Others

    The application of a well-known and fairly simple information retrieval technology to the process of testing undergraduate college students is described. The Computerized Test Library allows the student and/or the professor to extract questions of varying difficulty covering whatever topic the student is studying; if the student performs at the…

  3. Student Perceptions of Computerized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino-Silva, Juan

    2008-01-01

    The challenge to test small groups by means of microcomputers demands appropriate software design and sound test design. To comply with this demand, students' beliefs or perceptions on the advantages and disadvantages of a computerized test were tapped. Overall, self-reported advantages outnumbered disadvantages to a significant degree. This was…

  4. Computerized Classification Testing with the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    If classification in a limited number of categories is the purpose of testing, computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with algorithms based on sequential statistical testing perform better than estimation-based CATs (e.g., Eggen & Straetmans, 2000). In these computerized classification tests (CCTs), the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) (Wald,…

  5. Computerized Adaptive Testing under Nonparametric IRT Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xueli; Douglas, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Nonparametric item response models have been developed as alternatives to the relatively inflexible parametric item response models. An open question is whether it is possible and practical to administer computerized adaptive testing with nonparametric models. This paper explores the possibility of computerized adaptive testing when using…

  6. Computerized Adaptive Testing: Overview and Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, Rob R.; Nering, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    Provides an overview of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and introduces contributions to this special issue. CAT elements discussed include item selection, estimation of the latent trait, item exposure, measurement precision, and item-bank development. (SLD)

  7. Graphical Models and Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Russell G.; Mislevy, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Considers computerized adaptive testing from the perspective of graphical modeling (GM). GM provides methods for making inferences about multifaceted skills and knowledge and for extracting data from complex performances. Provides examples from language-proficiency assessment. (SLD)

  8. Dichotomous Search Strategies for Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Beiling

    Dichotomous search strategies (DSSs) for computerized adaptive testing are similar to golden section search strategies (GSSSs). Each middle point of successive search regions is a testing point. After each item is administered, the subject's obtained score is compared with the expected score at successive testing points. If the subject's obtained…

  9. Strategies for Computerized Adaptive Grading Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Beiling

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated three strategies for assigning examinees to grading categories in computerized adaptive testing. The expected a posteriori-based method had more correct classifications in the middle range of grade levels and more errors for the extremes than the golden section search grading test and the Z-score grading test. (SLD)

  10. An Introduction to the Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Jian-quan; Miao, Dan-min; Zhu, Xia; Gong, Jing-jing

    2007-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has unsurpassable advantages over traditional testing. It has become the mainstream in large scale examinations in modern society. This paper gives a brief introduction to CAT including differences between traditional testing and CAT, the principles of CAT, psychometric theory and computer algorithms of CAT, the…

  11. Individual Differences in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, JinGyu

    Research on the major computerized adaptive testing (CAT) strategies is reviewed, and some findings are reported that examine effects of examinee demographic and psychological characteristics on CAT strategies. In fixed branching strategies, all examinees respond to a common routing test, the score of which is used to assign examinees to a…

  12. Graphical Models and Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Almond, Russell G.

    This paper synthesizes ideas from the fields of graphical modeling and education testing, particularly item response theory (IRT) applied to computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Graphical modeling can offer IRT a language for describing multifaceted skills and knowledge, and disentangling evidence from complex performances. IRT-CAT can offer…

  13. Color identification testing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brawner, E. L.; Martin, R.; Pate, W.

    1970-01-01

    Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.

  14. Computerized Mastery Testing with Nonequivalent Testlets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Kathleen; Lewis, Charles

    1992-01-01

    A procedure is introduced for determining the effect of testlet nonequivalence on operating characteristics of a testlet-based computerized mastery test (CMT). The procedure, which involves estimating the CMT decision rule twice with testlet likelihoods treated as equivalent or nonequivalent, is demonstrated with testlet pools from the Architect…

  15. The NASA/LRC Computerized Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, W. Kirk; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Sue; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1990-01-01

    A new testing package, including apparatus and tasks for the behavioral study of a number of species in a variety of experiments is presented. The package is described with respect to the kinds of comparative psychological investigations for which it is best suited. The preliminary data generated within this new testing paradigm demonstrate that the NASA/LRC Computerized Test System provides a flexible yet powerful environment for the investigation of behavioral and psychological processes.

  16. Computerized Adaptive Testing: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sereci, Stephen G.

    Computers are revolutionizing almost every aspect of society and testing is no exception. Delivering tests on a computer often improves exam security, testing efficiency, and scoring, and it often allows for measurement of knowledge, skills, and abilities that cannot be measured using traditional assessment formats. One of the most widely cited…

  17. A table of color distance scores for quantitative scoring of the Lanthony Desaturate color vision test.

    PubMed

    Geller, A M

    2001-01-01

    The Lanthony Desaturate Panel D-15 (D-15d) color vision test is used in neurotoxicological testing to assess acquired color vision deficits. The original test design included a qualitative scoring method. Quantitative scoring requires mapping the colored objects used in the test into a color space describing perceptual distances. A table of these distances has previously been published for the saturated version of this color vision test, but not the desaturate test. This communication includes a table of color distances for the calculation of Bowman's Total Color Distance Score (TCDS) for the D-15d. This table should be useful for non-computerized scoring under field test conditions or for devising one's own computerized scoring methods using the tabulated color distances for a look-up table. Data analysis programs using SAS or Matlab are available from the author. PMID:11418268

  18. Color vision test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... less anxious about the test if you explain what will happen and why. Usually there is a sample card of multicolored dots that almost everyone can identify, even people with color vision problems. If you or your child normally wears glasses, wear them ...

  19. Computerized Adaptive Testing, Anxiety Levels, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritts, Barbara E.; Marszalek, Jacob M.

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the amount of test anxiety experienced on a computerized adaptive test (CAT) to a paper-and-pencil test (P&P), as well as the state test anxiety experienced between males and females. Ninety-four middle school CAT examinees were compared to 65 middle school P&P examinees on their responses to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory…

  20. Computerized video image analysis to quantify color of potato chips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Scanlon; R. Roller; G. Mazza; M. K. Pritchard

    1994-01-01

    Color analysis is a critical quality evaluation procedure in the potato processing industry. This research sought to determine\\u000a whether potato chip color could be quantified by video image analysis. Russet Burbank and Shepody potatoes, stored at 8 and\\u000a 5 C, were processed into 8 mm thick chips, which were fried for three time periods. Chip color was characterised by mean

  1. Duplicated laboratory tests: evaluation of a computerized alert intervention abstract.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Sharon A; Papa, Linda; Norris, Anne E; Chase, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Redundant testing contributes to reductions in healthcare system efficiency. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine if the use of a computerized alert would reduce the number and cost of duplicated Acute Hepatitis Profile (AHP) laboratory tests and (2) assess what patient, test, and system factors were associated with duplication. This study used a quasi-experimental pre- and post-test design to determine the proportion of duplication of the AHP test before and after implementation of a computerized alert intervention. The AHP test was duplicated if the test was requested again within 15 days of the initial test being performed and the result present in the medical record. The intervention consisted of a computerized alert (pop-up window) that indicated to the clinician that the test had recently been ordered. A total of 674 AHP tests were performed in the pre-intervention period and 692 in the postintervention group. In the pre-intervention period, 53 (7.9%) were duplicated and in postintervention, 18 (2.6%) were duplicated (p<.001). The implementation of the alert was shown to significantly reduce associated costs of duplicated AHP tests (p?.001). Implementation of computerized alerts may be useful in reducing duplicate laboratory tests and improving healthcare system efficiency. PMID:22963261

  2. Using Bayesian Decision Theory to Design a Computerized Mastery Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Charles; Sheehan, Kathleen

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical framework for mastery testing based on item response theory and Bayesian decision theory is described and illustrated. Implementation depends on the availability of (1) a computerized test delivery system; (2) a pool of pretested items; and (3) a model relating observed test performance to true mastery status. (SLD)

  3. Balancing Flexible Constraints and Measurement Precision in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Eric L.; Galindo, Jennifer L.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2012-01-01

    Managing test specifications--both multiple nonstatistical constraints and flexibly defined constraints--has become an important part of designing item selection procedures for computerized adaptive tests (CATs) in achievement testing. This study compared the effectiveness of three procedures: constrained CAT, flexible modified constrained CAT,…

  4. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Testing Children for Color Blindness Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye ... study shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian ...

  5. Assessing the Efficiency of Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    This study investigated the efficiency of item selection in a computerized adaptive test (CAT), where efficiency was defined in terms of the accumulated test information at an examinee's true ability level. A simulation methodology compared the efficiency of 2 item selection procedures with 5 ability estimation procedures for CATs of 5, 10, 15,…

  6. Computerized Adaptive Testing through the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; Mzumara, Howard; Brown, Mike; Lillig, Clo

    An important problem facing institutions of higher education is the number of students reporting that they are not adequately prepared for the difficulty of college-level courses. To meet this problem, a computerized adaptive testing package was developed that permitted remote placement testing of high school students via the World Wide Web. The…

  7. When Cognitive Diagnosis Meets Computerized Adaptive Testing: CD-CAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a mode of testing which enables more efficient and accurate recovery of one or more latent traits. Traditionally, CAT is built upon Item Response Theory (IRT) models that assume unidimensionality. However, the problem of how to build CAT upon latent class models (LCM) has not been investigated until recently,…

  8. "catR": An R Package for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is an active current research field in psychometrics and educational measurement. However, there is very little software available to handle such adaptive tasks. The R package "catR" was developed to perform adaptive testing with as much flexibility as possible, in an attempt to provide a developmental and…

  9. Computerized Classification Testing under the Generalized Graded Unfolding Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Liu, Chen-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The generalized graded unfolding model (GGUM) has been recently developed to describe item responses to Likert items (agree-disagree) in attitude measurement. In this study, the authors (a) developed two item selection methods in computerized classification testing under the GGUM, the current estimate/ability confidence interval method and the cut…

  10. Estimation of Trait Level in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Philip E.; Liou, Michelle

    2000-01-01

    Reviewed methods of estimating theta suitable for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and discussed the differences between Fisher and Kullback-Leibler information criteria for selecting items. Examined the accuracy of different CAT algorithms using samples from the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Results show when correcting for…

  11. A New Stopping Rule for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Seung W.; Grady, Matthew W.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to introduce a new stopping rule for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The predicted standard error reduction (PSER) stopping rule uses the predictive posterior variance to determine the reduction in standard error that would result from the administration of additional items. The performance of the PSER was…

  12. Content Balancing in Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Chi-Keung; Chang, Hua-Hua; Hau, Kit-Tai

    Item selection methods in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can yield extremely skewed item exposure distribution in which items with high "a" values may be over-exposed while those with low "a" values may never be selected. H. Chang and Z. Ying (1999) proposed the a-stratified design (ASTR) that attempts to equalize item exposure distribution…

  13. Application of the Bifactor Model to Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong Gi

    2011-01-01

    Most computerized adaptive tests (CAT) have been studied under the framework of unidimensional item response theory. However, many psychological variables are multidimensional and might benefit from using a multidimensional approach to CAT. In addition, a number of psychological variables (e.g., quality of life, depression) can be conceptualized…

  14. Multiple Maximum Exposure Rates in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramon Barrada, Juan; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Olea, Julio

    2009-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing is subject to security problems, as the item bank content remains operative over long periods and administration time is flexible for examinees. Spreading the content of a part of the item bank could lead to an overestimation of the examinees' trait level. The most common way of reducing this risk is to impose a…

  15. COMPUTERIZED LABORATORY NOTEBOOK CONCEPT FOR GENETIC TOXICOLOGY EXPERIMENTATION AND TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe a microcomputer system utilizing the Computerized Laboratory Notebook (CLN) concept developed in our laboratory for the purpose of automating the Battery of Leukocyte Tests (BLT). The BLT was designed to evaluate blood specimens for toxic, immunotoxic, and genotoxic e...

  16. Item Overexposure in Computerized Classification Tests Using Sequential Item Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Computerized classification tests (CCTs) often use sequential item selection which administers items according to maximizing psychometric information at a cut point demarcating passing and failing scores. This paper illustrates why this method of item selection leads to the overexposure of a significant number of items, and the performances of…

  17. Alpha-Stratified Multistage Computerized Adaptive Testing with beta Blocking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hua-Hua; Qian, Jiahe; Yang, Zhiliang

    2001-01-01

    Proposed a refinement, based on the stratification of items developed by D. Weiss (1973), of the computerized adaptive testing item selection procedure of H. Chang and Z. Ying (1999). Simulation studies using an item bank from the Graduate Record Examination show the benefits of the new procedure. (SLD)

  18. Computerized Mastery Testing Using Fuzzy Set Decision Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yi; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A new computerized mastery test is described that builds on the Lewis and Sheehan procedure (sequential testlets) (1990), but uses fuzzy set decision theory to determine stopping rules and the Rasch model to calibrate items and estimate abilities. Differences between fuzzy set and Bayesian methods are illustrated through an example. (SLD)

  19. Multistage Computerized Adaptive Testing with Uniform Item Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Michael C.; Flora, David B.; Thissen, David

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a computerized adaptive test (CAT) based on the uniform item exposure multi-form structure (uMFS). The uMFS is a specialization of the multi-form structure (MFS) idea described by Armstrong, Jones, Berliner, and Pashley (1998). In an MFS CAT, the examinee first responds to a small fixed block of items. The items comprising…

  20. A Framework for the Development of Computerized Adaptive Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.; Weiss, David J.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has been conducted over the past 40 years on technical aspects of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), such as item selection algorithms, item exposure controls, and termination criteria. However, there is little literature providing practical guidance on the development of a CAT. This paper seeks to collate some…

  1. Does familiarity with computers affect computerized neuropsychological test performance?

    PubMed

    Iverson, Grant L; Brooks, Brian L; Ashton, V Lynn; Johnson, Lynda G; Gualtieri, C Thomas

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported computer familiarity is related to performance on computerized neurocognitive testing. Participants were 130 healthy adults who self-reported whether their computer use was "some" (n = 65) or "frequent" (n = 65). The two groups were individually matched on age, education, sex, and race. All completed the CNS Vital Signs (Gualtieri & Johnson, 2006b) computerized neurocognitive battery. There were significant differences on 6 of the 23 scores, including scores derived from the Symbol-Digit Coding Test, Stroop Test, and the Shifting Attention Test. The two groups were also significantly different on the Psychomotor Speed (Cohen's d = 0.37), Reaction Time (d = 0.68), Complex Attention (d = 0.40), and Cognitive Flexibility (d = 0.64) domain scores. People with "frequent" computer use performed better than people with "some" computer use on some tests requiring rapid visual scanning and keyboard work. PMID:18972312

  2. Flawed Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potenza, Maria T.; Stocking, Martha L.

    A multiple choice test item is identified as flawed if it has no single best answer. In spite of extensive quality control procedures, the administration of flawed items to test-takers is inevitable. Common strategies for dealing with flawed items in conventional testing, grounded in the principle of fairness to test-takers, are reexamined in the…

  3. Development of a Computerized Visual Search Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Denise; Babani, Harsha; Jon, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Visual attention and visual search are the features of visual perception, essential for attending and scanning one's environment while engaging in daily occupations. This study describes the development of a novel web-based test of visual search. The development information including the format of the test will be described. The test was designed…

  4. Flawed Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potenza, Maria T.; Stocking, Martha L.

    1997-01-01

    Common strategies for dealing with flawed items in conventional testing, grounded in principles of fairness to examinees, are re-examined in the context of adaptive testing. The additional strategy of retesting from a pool cleansed of flawed items is found, through a Monte Carlo study, to bring about no practical improvement. (SLD)

  5. Computerized Adaptive Testing with Item Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2003-01-01

    Developed a multilevel item response (IRT) model that allows for differences between the distributions of item parameters of families of item clones. Results from simulation studies based on an item pool from the Law School Admission Test illustrate the accuracy of the item pool calibration and adaptive testing procedures based on the model. (SLD)

  6. Are Our Kids Ready for Computerized Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullen, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    As standardized assessments tied to the Common Core standards approach for K-12 students, U.S. teachers correctly feel that how we test students will change. Will students be ready for tests of proficiency done on computers? Gullen debriefed with 500 students in various grades who had just taken pilot assessment items connected to the coming…

  7. Identifying neurocognitive impairment in depression using computerized testing.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Grant L; Brooks, Brian L; Young, Allan H

    2009-10-01

    There is considerable interest in the identification of neurocognitive impairment in patients with depression. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a methodology for identifying frank neurocognitive impairment in clinical practice and research using a computerized battery of neuropsychological tests. Participants were 100 adult patients with depression who were not on antidepressants. They were carefully matched on age, education, gender, and ethnicity to 100 healthy adult control subjects. All participants completed the Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNS-VS) computerized assessment battery, which takes approximately 30-40 minutes to administer. Patients with depression performed more poorly than controls on all five domain scores (Cohen's d ranged from d = .37 to .72). When using two or more scores below the 5th percentile as the cutoff for frank neurocognitive impairment, 31.0% of the depressed sample and only 5.0% of the control sample scored in this range. In this study, patients with depression were 8.5 times more likely to have two or more index scores that were below the 5th percentile. Computerized testing, using the interpretive methodology presented, represents an efficient methodology for identifying cognitive problems in patients who present with untreated depression. PMID:20183180

  8. Computerized Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: comparison with manual administration.

    PubMed

    Tien, A Y; Spevack, T V; Jones, D W; Pearlson, G D; Schlaepfer, T E; Strauss, M E

    1996-08-01

    Computer-based testing in neuropsychology potentially offers important advantages. These include improvement in reliability and more efficient use of resources. For tests such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in which examiners must provide on-going feedback to subjects, reliability may be decreased by variability and errors in test presentation, errors in response recording and feedback, and errors in scoring. In addition, an important aspects of neuropsychological assessment is qualitative, that is, observations of the processes by which the subject responds to the test situation. The mechanics of administering the WCST hinder the examiner from allocating attention for observing these processes. Accordingly, we have automated both the administration and the scoring of the WCST. Although potential benefits of computerizing the WCST seem likely, it is possible that factors which cannot at present be duplicated by a computer may effect performance. This study compared performance between the standard manual Heaton version of the WCST and the computerized version. In a group of 33 normal and psychiatric subjects, there were significant differences in the number of Errors and the number of Correct responses, but no significant differences in performance were found for Perseverative Responses, Perseverative Errors, and Set Breaks. The mean number of Categories achieved was 2.0 for the computer administered version and 2.4 for the manual version: this difference was only marginally significant (p = 0.065). The computerized form of the WCST appears to yield similar quantitative results on scores which are most specifically affected by brain injuries in testing with the manual form. Lower variance was seen in the computer scores. This result is consistent with more reliable administration and accuracy in data acquisition and scoring in the computer version. The results overall indicate that the computer version is not a substitute for a human examiner, rather, the computer can function as a reliable partner, carrying out the mechanics of test presentation and scoring, freeing the examiner to more fully support the subject in taking the test and to observe the non-quantitative aspects of test performance. PMID:8774117

  9. Tomato Analyzer Color Test User Manual (v10.2007) TOMATO ANALYZER COLOR TEST: USER MANUAL

    E-print Network

    van der Knaap, Esther

    Tomato Analyzer ­ Color Test User Manual (v10.2007) TOMATO ANALYZER ­ COLOR TEST: USER MANUAL 4 Part 1: Overview of color and Tomato Analyzer ­ Color Test (TACT) Digital color and the RGB color space Tomato Analyzer and the CIELab color space Standard illuminant and observer angle TACT application Part 2

  10. A Procedure for Controlling General Test Overlap in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shu-Ying

    2010-01-01

    To date, exposure control procedures that are designed to control test overlap in computerized adaptive tests (CATs) are based on the assumption of item sharing between pairs of examinees. However, in practice, examinees may obtain test information from more than one previous test taker. This larger scope of information sharing needs to be…

  11. A-Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing with Unequal Item Exposure across Strata.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Hui; Chang, Hua-Hua

    The purpose of this study was to compare a proposed revised a-stratified, or alpha-stratified, USTR method of test item selection with the original alpha-stratified multistage computerized adaptive testing approach (STR) and the use of maximum Fisher information (FSH) with respect to test efficiency and item pool usage using simulated computerized

  12. A Multiple Objective Test Assembly Approach for Exposure Control Problems in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Verschoor, Angela J.; Eggen, Theo J. H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Overexposure and underexposure of items in the bank are serious problems in operational computerized adaptive testing (CAT) systems. These exposure problems might result in item compromise, or point at a waste of investments. The exposure control problem can be viewed as a test assembly problem with multiple objectives. Information in the test has…

  13. Influence of Demographics on Computerized Cognitive Testing in a Military Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Roebuck-Spencer; D. L. Reeves; J. Bleiberg; A. N. Cernich; K. Schwab; B. Ivins; A. Salazar; S. Harvey; F. Brown; D. Warden

    2008-01-01

    Computerized cognitive testing with software programs such as the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) have long been used to assess cognition in military samples. This study describes demographic influences on computerized testing performance in a large active duty military sample (n = 2366). Performance differences between men and women were minimal on most ANAM subtests, but there was a clear

  14. Severity of Organized Item Theft in Computerized Adaptive Testing: A Simulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qing; Zhang, Jinming; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2008-01-01

    Criteria had been proposed for assessing the severity of possible test security violations for computerized tests with high-stakes outcomes. However, these criteria resulted from theoretical derivations that assumed uniformly randomized item selection. This study investigated potential damage caused by organized item theft in computerized adaptive…

  15. Revisiting a Cognitive Framework for Test Design: Applications for a Computerized Perceptual Speed Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderton, David L.

    This paper highlights the need for a systematic, content aware, and theoretically-based approach to test design. The cognitive components approach is endorsed, and is applied to the development of a computerized perceptual speed test. Psychometric literature is reviewed and shows that: every major multi-factor theory includes a clerical/perceptual…

  16. Optimal Testing with Easy or Difficult Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.; Verschoor, Angela J.

    2006-01-01

    Computerized adaptive tests (CATs) are individualized tests that, from a measurement point of view, are optimal for each individual, possibly under some practical conditions. In the present study, it is shown that maximum information item selection in CATs using an item bank that is calibrated with the one- or the two-parameter logistic model…

  17. The Effect of Review on Student Ability and Test Efficiency for Computerized Adaptive Tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary E. Lunz; Betty A. Bergstrom; Benjamin D. Wright

    1992-01-01

    The effect of reviewing items and altering responses on the efficiency of computerized adap tive tests and the resultant ability estimates of examinees were explored. 220 students were ran domly assigned to a review condition; their test instructions indicated that each item must be answered when presented, but that the responses could be reviewed and altered at the end of

  18. Computerized Cognitive Testing in the Management of Youth Sports-Related Concussion.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Anthony P; Broshek, Donna K

    2014-12-01

    Computerized neurocognitive testing has become a growing practice across medical populations, but particularly within sports medicine and the management of sports-related concussion. Although traditional neuropsychological measures are solely administered and interpreted by neuropsychologists, computerized cognitive tests are marketed to and utilized by a wide range of professionals involved in the management of sports-related concussions, many of whom lack specialized psychometric training. Although the benefits of computerized testing allow for many youth athletes to be evaluated quickly, professionals implementing their use should be aware of the potential pitfalls and the high potential for misuse. After briefly reviewing the recommended guidelines set forth by the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology, we review the benefits/limitations of computerized testing in the management of sports-related concussion and the basic psychometric properties of some of the more widely used computerized measures. Lastly, we discuss the practical application of these devices. PMID:25477270

  19. Development of a Computerized Adaptive Test for Schizotypy Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Menéndez, Luis Fernando; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Muńiz, José

    2013-01-01

    Background Schizotypal traits in adolescents from the general population represent the behavioral expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Schizotypy assessment in this sector of population has advanced considerably in the last few years; however, it is necessary to incorporate recent advances in psychological and educational measurement. Objective The main goal of this study was to develop a Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT) to evaluate schizotypy through “The Oviedo Questionnaire for Schizotypy Assessment” (ESQUIZO-Q), in non-clinical adolescents. Methods The final sample consisted of 3,056 participants, 1,469 males, with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD?=?1.2). Results The results indicated that the ESQUIZO-Q scores presented adequate psychometric properties under both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory. The Information Function estimated using the Gradual Response Model indicated that the item pool effectively assesses schizotypy at the high end of the latent trait. The correlation between the CAT total scores and the paper-and-pencil test was 0.92. The mean number of presented items in the CAT with the standard error fixed at ?0.30 was of 34 items. Conclusion The CAT showed adequate psychometric properties for schizotypy assessment in the general adolescent population. The ESQUIZO-Q adaptive version could be used as a screening method for the detection of adolescents at risk for psychosis in both educational and mental health settings. PMID:24019907

  20. Computerized Adaptive Testing for Polytomous Motivation Items: Administration Mode Effects and a Comparison with Short Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hol, A. Michiel; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

    2007-01-01

    In a randomized experiment (n = 515), a computerized and a computerized adaptive test (CAT) are compared. The item pool consists of 24 polytomous motivation items. Although items are carefully selected, calibration data show that Samejima's graded response model did not fit the data optimally. A simulation study is done to assess possible…

  1. Mutual Information Item Selection Method in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing with Short Test Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) purports to combine the strengths of both CAT and cognitive diagnosis. Cognitive diagnosis models aim at classifying examinees into the correct mastery profile group so as to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of each examinee whereas CAT algorithms choose items to determine those…

  2. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment in Aging: Testing Efficacy and Clinical Ecology of Different Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Catricalŕ, Eleonora; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Digital technologies have opened new opportunities for psychological testing, allowing new computerized testing tools to be developed and/or paper and pencil testing tools to be translated to new computerized devices. The question that rises is whether these implementations may introduce some technology-specific effects to be considered in neuropsychological evaluations. Two core aspects have been investigated in this work: the efficacy of tests and the clinical ecology of their administration (the ability to measure real-world test performance), specifically (1) the testing efficacy of a computerized test when response to stimuli is measured using a touch-screen compared to a conventional mouse-control response device; (2) the testing efficacy of a computerized test with respect to different input modalities (visual versus verbal); and (3) the ecology of two computerized assessment modalities (touch-screen and mouse-control), including preference measurements of participants. Our results suggest that (1) touch-screen devices are suitable for administering experimental tasks requiring precise timings for detection, (2) intrinsic nature of neuropsychological tests should always be respected in terms of stimuli presentation when translated to new digitalized environment, and (3) touch-screen devices result in ecological instruments being proposed for the computerized administration of neuropsychological tests with a high level of preference from elderly people. PMID:25147578

  3. A Computerized Test of Self-Control Predicts Classroom Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hoerger, Marguerite L; Mace, F. Charles

    2006-01-01

    We assessed choices on a computerized test of self-control (CTSC) for a group of children with features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a group of controls. Thirty boys participated in the study. Fifteen of the children had been rated by their parents as hyperactive and inattentive, and 15 were age- and gender-matched controls in the same classroom. The children were observed in the classroom for three consecutive mornings, and data were collected on their activity levels and attention. The CTSC consisted of two tasks. In the delay condition, children chose to receive three rewards after a delay of 60?s or one reward immediately. In the task-difficulty condition, the children chose to complete a difficult math problem and receive three rewards or complete an easier problem for one reward. The children with ADHD features made more impulsive choices than their peers during both conditions, and these choices correlated with measures of their activity and attention in the classroom. PMID:16813037

  4. Test Procedure for 170.304.a Computerized Provider Order Entry APPROVED Version 1.1 September 24, 2010

    E-print Network

    Test Procedure for §170.304.a Computerized Provider Order Entry APPROVED Version 1.1 September 24, 2010 1 Test Procedure for §170.304 (a) Computerized Provider Order Entry This document describes and Human Services (HHS) on July 28, 2010. §170.304 (a) Computerized provider order entry. Enable a user

  5. Computerized Neurocognitive Testing for the Management of Sport-Related Concussions

    PubMed Central

    d’Hemecourt, Pierre; Collins, Christy L.; Taylor, Alex M.; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the prevalence of computerized neurocognitive testing for the assessment of high school athletes who sustain concussions, and to describe associations between using computerized neurocognitive tests, timing of return-to-play, and medical provider managing the athlete. Methods: Concussions recorded in the High School Reporting Information Online injury surveillance system during the 2009–2010 academic year were included. Measures of association between use of computerized neurocognitive testing and outcomes were analyzed. A questionnaire was sent to athletic trainers (ATs) querying the use of computerized neurocognitive testing. ?2 analyses were conducted for categorical variables. Logistic regression analyses were used to adjust for potential confounders. Statistical significance was set at P < .05. Results: High School Reporting Information Online recorded 1056 concussions. Athletes who underwent computerized neurocognitive testing were less likely to be returned to play within 10 days of injury (38.5% vs 55.7%, P < .001) and more likely to be returned to play by a physician (60.9% vs 45.6%, P < .001). We had a response rate of 97.3% for the survey. Of respondents, 39.9% used computerized neurocognitive testing; 93.0% of those used ImPACT. Tests were most often interpreted by ATs (78.9%) and/or physicians (78.8%), as opposed to neuropsychologists (16.9%). Conclusions: Approximately 40% of US high schools that employ an AT use computerized neurocognitive tests when managing sport-related concussions. Tests are most often interpreted by ATs and physicians, as opposed to neuropsychologists. Computerized neurocognitive tests are significantly associated with the timing of return-to-play. PMID:22129538

  6. Reliability and validity of a computerized neurocognitive test battery, CNS Vital Signs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Thomas Gualtieri; Lynda G Johnson

    2006-01-01

    CNS Vital Signs (CNSVS) is a computerized neurocognitive test battery that was developed as a routine clinical screening instrument. It is comprised of seven tests: verbal and visual memory, finger tapping, symbol digit coding, the Stroop Test, a test of shifting attention and the continuous performance test. Because CNSVS is a battery of well-known neuropsychological tests, one should expect its

  7. Item Pocket Method to Allow Response Review and Change in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.

    2013-01-01

    Most computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs do not allow test takers to review and change their responses because it could seriously deteriorate the efficiency of measurement and make tests vulnerable to manipulative test-taking strategies. Several modified testing methods have been developed that provide restricted review options while…

  8. Adaptation of a-Stratified Method in Variable Length Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Jian-Bing; Chang, Hua-Hua; Hau, Kit-Tai

    Test security has often been a problem in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) because the traditional wisdom of item selection overly exposes high discrimination items. The a-stratified (STR) design advocated by H. Chang and his collaborators, which uses items of less discrimination in earlier stages of testing, has been shown to be very…

  9. The Mode Effect: A Literature Review of Human and Technological Issues in Computerized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeson, Heidi V.

    2006-01-01

    In addition to the potential that computer-based testing (CBT) offers, empirical evidence has found that identical computerized and paper-and-pencil tests have not produced equivalent test-taker performance. Referred to as the "mode effect," previous literature has identified many factors that may be responsible for such differential performance.…

  10. Computerized system for acceptance leak testing for hydraulic systems in mechanized props

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radulov

    1987-01-01

    In the production of hydraulic systems for use in mines as mechanized props, particular importance attaches to precision checks on working characteristics after assembly, especially leakage in working cavities and safety valves. A new algorithm is described for testing hydraulic props, which has been used in a computerized test system. The sensitivity in leak testing has been improved considerably by

  11. An Efficiency Balanced Information Criterion for Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.

    2012-01-01

    Successful administration of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs in educational settings requires that test security and item exposure control issues be taken seriously. Developing an item selection algorithm that strikes the right balance between test precision and level of item pool utilization is the key to successful implementation…

  12. The Influence of Item Calibration Error on Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jeffrey M.; Cheng, Ying; Yuan, Ke-Hai; Diao, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Variable-length computerized adaptive testing (VL-CAT) allows both items and test length to be "tailored" to examinees, thereby achieving the measurement goal (e.g., scoring precision or classification) with as few items as possible. Several popular test termination rules depend on the standard error of the ability estimate, which in turn depends…

  13. A computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A tool for standardized and repeated neuropsychological assessments in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is needed. The objective of this study was to develop a computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for INPH and to evaluate its reliability, validity and patient’s ability to complete the tests. Methods Based on a structured review of the literature on neuropsychological testing in INPH, the eight tests most sensitive to the INPH cognitive profile were implemented in a computerized format. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was also included. Tests were presented on a touch-screen monitor, with animated instructions and speaker sound. The battery was evaluated with the following cohorts: A. Test-retest reliability, 44 healthy elderly; B. Validity against standard pen and pencil testing, 28 patients with various cognitive impairments; C. Ability to complete test battery, defined as completion of at least seven of the eight tests, 40 investigated for INPH. Results A. All except the figure copy test showed good test-retest reliability, r?=?0.67-0.90; B. A high correlation was seen between conventional and computerized tests (r?=?0.66-0.85) except for delayed recognition and figure copy task; C. Seventy-eight percent completed the computerized battery; Patients diagnosed with INPH (n?=?26) performed worse on all tests, including depression score, compared to healthy controls. Conclusions A new computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for patients with communicating hydrocephalus and INPH was introduced. Its reliability, validity for general cognitive impairment and completion rate for INPH was promising. After exclusion of the figure copy task, the battery is ready for clinical evaluation and as a next step we suggest validation for INPH and a comparison before and after shunt surgery. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.org NCT01265251. PMID:25279138

  14. A Mixture Rasch Model-Based Computerized Adaptive Test for Latent Class Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Hong; Macready, George; Liu, Junhui; Cho, Youngmi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a computerized adaptive test delivery algorithm for latent class identification based on the mixture Rasch model. Four item selection methods based on the Kullback-Leibler (KL) information were proposed and compared with the reversed and the adaptive KL information under simulated testing conditions. When item separation was…

  15. Direct and Inverse Problems of Item Pool Design for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belov, Dmitry I.; Armstrong, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    The recent literature on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has developed methods for creating CAT item pools from a large master pool. Each CAT pool is designed as a set of nonoverlapping forms reflecting the skill levels of an assumed population of test takers. This article presents a Monte Carlo method to obtain these CAT pools and discusses…

  16. Computerized Clinical Simulation Testing: Its Use for Competence Assessment in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersky, Anna K.; Yocom, Carolyn J.

    1994-01-01

    Computerized Clinical Simulation Testing is an uncued, dynamic, interactive test that permits examinees to simulate the clinical decision-making skills used in the nursing management of client needs. It has the potential for helping boards of nursing to make more valid assessments about who is competent to practice nursing. (JOW)

  17. The Application of the Monte Carlo Approach to Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing With Content Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Xiuzhen; Xin, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The Monte Carlo approach which has previously been implemented in traditional computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is applied here to cognitive diagnostic CAT to test the ability of this approach to address multiple content constraints. The performance of the Monte Carlo approach is compared with the performance of the modified maximum global…

  18. Computerized Adaptive Testing for Effective and Efficient Measurement in Counseling and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is described and compared with conventional tests, and its advantages summarized. Some item response theory concepts used in CAT are summarized and illustrated. The author describes the potential usefulness of CAT in counseling and education and reviews some current issues in the implementation of CAT.

  19. Development of the CAT-ANX: A Computerized Adaptive Test for Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Robert D.; Weiss, David J.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Frank, Ellen; Moore, Tara; Kim, Jong Bae; Kupfer, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The authors developed a computerized adaptive test for anxiety that decreases patient and clinician burden and increases measurement precision. Method A total of 1,614 individuals with and without generalized anxiety disorder from a psychiatric clinic and community mental health center were recruited. The focus of the present study was the development of the Computerized Adaptive Testing–Anxiety Inventory (CAT-ANX). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to obtain diagnostic classifications of generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder. Results An average of 12 items per subject was required to achieve a 0.3 standard error in the anxiety severity estimate and maintain a correlation of 0.94 with the total 431-item test score. CAT-ANX scores were strongly related to the probability of a generalized anxiety disorder diagnosis. Using both the Computerized Adaptive Testing–-Depression Inventory and the CAT-ANX, comorbid major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder can be accurately predicted. Conclusions Traditional measurement fixes the number of items but allows measurement uncertainty to vary. Computerized adaptive testing fixes measurement uncertainty and allows the number and content of items to vary, leading to a dramatic decrease in the number of items required for a fixed level of measurement uncertainty. Potential applications for inexpensive, efficient, and accurate screening of anxiety in primary care settings, clinical trials, psychiatric epidemiology, molecular genetics, children, and other cultures are discussed. PMID:23929270

  20. An Investigation of the Cognitive Equivalence of Computerized and Paper-and-Pencil Reading Comprehension Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    The comparability of computerized and paper-and-pencil tests was examined from cognitive perspective, using verbal protocols rather than psychometric methods, as the primary mode of inquiry. Reading comprehension items from the Graduate Record Examinations were completed by 48 college juniors and seniors, half of whom took the computerized test

  1. A Semiparametric Model for Jointly Analyzing Response Times and Accuracy in Computerized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Fan, Zhewen; Chang, Hua-Hua; Douglas, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    The item response times (RTs) collected from computerized testing represent an underutilized type of information about items and examinees. In addition to knowing the examinees' responses to each item, we can investigate the amount of time examinees spend on each item. Current models for RTs mainly focus on parametric models, which have the…

  2. A Comparison of Item Selection Rules at the Early Stages of Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shu-Ying; Ankenmann, Robert D.; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2000-01-01

    Compared five item selection rules with respect to the efficiency and precision of trait (theta) estimation at the early stages of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The Fisher interval information, Fisher information with a posterior distribution, Kullback-Leibler information, and Kullback-Leibler information with a posterior distribution…

  3. A Stochastic Method for Balancing Item Exposure Rates in Computerized Classification Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Alan; Li, Zhushan

    2012-01-01

    Computerized classification tests (CCTs) classify examinees into categories such as pass/fail, master/nonmaster, and so on. This article proposes the use of stochastic methods from sequential analysis to address item overexposure, a practical concern in operational CCTs. Item overexposure is traditionally dealt with in CCTs by the Sympson-Hetter…

  4. The Design and Evaluation of a Computerized Adaptive Test on Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triantafillou, Evangelos; Georgiadou, Elissavet; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has expanded rapidly over recent years mainly due to the advances in communication and information technology. Availability of advanced mobile technologies provides several benefits to e-learning by creating an additional channel of access with mobile devices such as PDAs and mobile phones. This paper…

  5. A Strategy for Controlling Item Exposure in Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Ip, Edward H.; Fuh, Cheng-Der

    2008-01-01

    Although computerized adaptive tests have enjoyed tremendous growth, solutions for important problems remain unavailable. One problem is the control of item exposure rate. Because adaptive algorithms are designed to select optimal items, they choose items with high discriminating power. Thus, these items are selected more often than others,…

  6. Solving Complex Constraints in a-Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Chi-Keung; Chang, Hua-Hua; Hau, Kit-Tai

    Information based item selection methods in computerized adaptive tests (CATs) tend to choose the item that provides maximum information at an examinee's estimated trait level. As a result, these methods can yield extremely skewed item exposure distributions in which items with high "a" values may be overexposed, while those with low "a" values…

  7. Item Response Theory and Computerized Adaptive Testing Conference Proceedings (Wayzata, Minnesota, July 27-30, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J., Ed.

    This report contains the Proceedings of the 1982 Item Response Theory and Computerized Adaptive Testing Conference. The papers and their discussions are organized into eight sessions: (1) "Developments in Latent Trait Theory," with papers by Fumiko Samejima and Michael V. Levine; (2) "Parameter Estimation," with papers by Frederic M. Lord and…

  8. A Feedback Control Strategy for Enhancing Item Selection Efficiency in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    A computerized adaptive test (CAT) may be modeled as a closed-loop system, where item selection is influenced by trait level ([theta]) estimation and vice versa. When discrepancies exist between an examinee's estimated and true [theta] levels, nonoptimal item selection is a likely result. Nevertheless, examinee response behavior consistent with…

  9. Optimum Number of Strata in the a-Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hau, Kit-Tai; Wen, Jian-Bing; Chang, Hua-Hua

    In the a-stratified method, a popular and efficient item exposure control strategy proposed by H. Chang (H. Chang and Z. Ying, 1999; K. Hau and H. Chang, 2001) for computerized adaptive testing (CAT), the item pool and item selection process has usually been divided into four strata and the corresponding four stages. In a series of simulation…

  10. A Genre-Based Perspective for the Development of Communicative Computerized Adaptive Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Cuadrado, Javier; Armendariz, Ana J.; Latapy, Marion; Lopisteguy, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the communicative potentials of Computerized Adaptive Testing. The study is based on a model that offers a set of independent communicative concepts to describe the Genre of an interactive application. This model will be the starting point to analyze the stages of the interaction cycle that are typically inherent to every…

  11. Optimal Item Pool Design for a Highly Constrained Computerized Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Item pool quality has been regarded as one important factor to help realize enhanced measurement quality for the computerized adaptive test (CAT) (e.g., Flaugher, 2000; Jensema, 1977; McBride & Wise, 1976; Reckase, 1976; 2003; van der Linden, Ariel, & Veldkamp, 2006; Veldkamp & van der Linden, 2000; Xing & Hambleton, 2004). However, studies are…

  12. Using Response-Time Constraints To Control for Differential Speededness in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Scrams, David J.; Schnipke, Deborah L.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes an item-selection algorithm for neutralizing the differential effects of time limits on computerized adaptive test scores. Uses a statistical model for distributions of examinees' response times on items in a bank that is updated each time an item is administered. Demonstrates the method using an item bank from the Armed Services…

  13. Computerized Classification Testing under the One-Parameter Logistic Response Model with Ability-Based Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Yun

    2011-01-01

    The one-parameter logistic model with ability-based guessing (1PL-AG) has been recently developed to account for effect of ability on guessing behavior in multiple-choice items. In this study, the authors developed algorithms for computerized classification testing under the 1PL-AG and conducted a series of simulations to evaluate their…

  14. SimulCAT: Windows Software for Simulating Computerized Adaptive Test Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.

    2012-01-01

    Most, if not all, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs use simulation techniques to develop and evaluate CAT program administration and operations, but such simulation tools are rarely available to the public. Up to now, several software tools have been available to conduct CAT simulations for research purposes; however, these existing…

  15. Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on Cognitive Diagnosis Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chia-Ling; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Shu-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Interest in developing computerized adaptive testing (CAT) under cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) has increased recently. CAT algorithms that use a fixed-length termination rule frequently lead to different degrees of measurement precision for different examinees. Fixed precision, in which the examinees receive the same degree of measurement…

  16. Computerized Adaptive Testing Using a Class of High-Order Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Chen, Po-Hsi; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2012-01-01

    In the human sciences, a common assumption is that latent traits have a hierarchical structure. Higher order item response theory models have been developed to account for this hierarchy. In this study, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) algorithms based on these kinds of models were implemented, and their performance under a variety of…

  17. Item Pool Design for an Operational Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wei; Reckase, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    For computerized adaptive tests (CATs) to work well, they must have an item pool with sufficient numbers of good quality items. Many researchers have pointed out that, in developing item pools for CATs, not only is the item pool size important but also the distribution of item parameters and practical considerations such as content distribution…

  18. Firestar-"D": Computerized Adaptive Testing Simulation Program for Dichotomous Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Seung W.; Podrabsky, Tracy; McKinney, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) enables efficient and flexible measurement of latent constructs. The majority of educational and cognitive measurement constructs are based on dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models. An integral part of developing various components of a CAT system is conducting simulations using both known and empirical…

  19. Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information index but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection index or in…

  20. The components of a computerized test-scoring service

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Beekman

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the systems, human and computer, that make up the Oregon State University Computer Center Test-Scoring Service. The Test-Scoring Service makes it possible for faculty members from OSU and elsewhere to have their objective tests scored quickly and accurately by computer at a relatively low cost. The service offers the instructor an unusual degree of flexibility in test

  1. Seed viability detection using computerized false-color radiographic image enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vozzo, J. A.; Marko, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Seed radiographs are divided into density zones which are related to seed germination. The seeds which germinate have densities relating to false-color red. In turn, a seed sorter may be designed which rejects those seeds not having sufficient red to activate a gate along a moving belt containing the seed source. This results in separating only seeds with the preselected densities representing biological viability lending to germination. These selected seeds demand a higher market value. Actual false-coloring isn't required for a computer to distinguish the significant gray-zone range. This range can be predetermined and screened without the necessity of red imaging. Applying false-color enhancement is a means of emphasizing differences in densities of gray within any subject from photographic, radiographic, or video imaging. Within the 0-255 range of gray levels, colors can be assigned to any single level or group of gray levels. Densitometric values then become easily recognized colors which relate to the image density. Choosing a color to identify any given density allows separation by morphology or composition (form or function). Additionally, relative areas of each color are readily available for determining distribution of that density by comparison with other densities within the image.

  2. Using Out-of-Level Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Hua; Lin, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-level testing refers to the practice of assessing a student with a test that is intended for students at a higher or lower grade level. Although the appropriateness of out-of-level testing for accountability purposes has been questioned by educators and policymakers, incorporating out-of-level items in formative assessments for accurate…

  3. Simulating the Use of Disclosed Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocking, Martha L.; Ward, William C.; Potenza, Maria T.

    1998-01-01

    Explored, using simulations, the use of disclosed items on continuous testing conditions under a worse-case scenario that assumes that disclosed items are always answered correctly. Some item pool and test designs were identified in which the use of disclosed items produces effects on test scores that may be viewed as negligible. (Author/MAK)

  4. Testing primates with joystick-based automated apparatus - Lessons from the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Nonhuman primates provide useful models for studying a variety of medical, biological, and behavioral topics. Four years of joystick-based automated testing of monkeys using the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) are examined to derive hints and principles for comparable testing with other species - including humans. The results of multiple parametric studies are reviewed, and reliability data are presented to reveal the surprises and pitfalls associated with video-task testing of performance.

  5. Implementation and Measurement Efficiency of Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi

    2004-01-01

    Multidimensional adaptive testing (MAT) procedures are proposed for the measurement of several latent traits by a single examination. Bayesian latent trait estimation and adaptive item selection are derived. Simulations were conducted to compare the measurement efficiency of MAT with those of unidimensional adaptive testing and random…

  6. Implementation and Measurement Efficiency of Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Chung Wang; Po-Hsi Chen

    2004-01-01

    Multidimensional adaptive testing (MAT) procedures are proposed for the measurement of several latent traits by a single examination. Bayesian latent trait estimation and adaptive item selection are derived. Simulations were conducted to compare the measurement efficiency of MAT with those of unidimensional adaptive testing and random administration. The results showed that the higher the correlation between latent traits, the more

  7. Proceedings of the 1977 Computerized Adaptive Testing Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J., Ed.

    The 27 papers in this collection (26 of which were presented at the conference) are organized according to the eight topical sessions: (1) Improving Ability Measurement Using Different Item Formats, (2) Alternative Models for Adaptive Testing, (3) Psychological and Subgroup Effects, (4) Performance Testing by Interactive Simulation, (5)…

  8. Development and Application of Detection Indices for Measuring Guessing Behaviors and Test-Taking Effort in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shu-Ren; Plake, Barbara S.; Kramer, Gene A.; Lien, Shu-Mei

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the amount of time that different ability-level examinees spend on questions they answer correctly or incorrectly across different pretest item blocks presented on a fixed-length, time-restricted computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Results indicate that different ability-level examinees require different amounts of time to…

  9. Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) - Video-formatted tasks for comparative primate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.; Hopkins, William D.; Richardson, W. K.

    1991-01-01

    Automation of a computerized test system for comparative primate research is shown to improve the results of learning in standard paradigms. A mediational paradigm is used to determine the degree to which criterion in the learning-set testing reflects stimulus-response associative or mediational learning. Rhesus monkeys are shown to exhibit positive transfer as the criterion levels are shifted upwards, and the effectiveness of the computerized testing system is confirmed.

  10. Item Response Theory and Computerized Adaptive Testing: Implications for Outcomes Measurement in Rehabilitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ware John E. Jr; Barbara Gandek; Samuel J. Sinclair; Jakob B. Bjorner

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate computerized adaptive testing (CAT) measures of rehabilitation outcomes.\\u000aStudy Design: Physical functioning questions were calibrated via item response theory (IRT) and administered with CAT software.\\u000aSubjects: 485 adults interviewed during postacute care rehabilitation (simulation study) and 26 adults who completed CAT and personal interviews (CAT pilot study).\\u000aMain Outcome Measures: Patient acceptance and respondent burden, reliability, and

  11. Identifying Cognitive Problems in Children and Adolescents with Depression Using Computerized Neuropsychological Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian L. Brooks; Grant L. Iverson; Elisabeth M. S. Sherman; Marie-Claude Roberge

    2010-01-01

    Depression in children and adolescents can negatively impact cognitive functioning, social development, and academic performance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a computerized battery of neuropsychological tests could detect neurocognitive difficulties in children and adolescents with depression. Participants included 30 children and adolescents between the ages of 9 and 17 years (M = 14.6, SD = 2.1) with a clinical diagnosis

  12. Validity and internal consistency reliability of a computerized test to assess prone extension in children ages four to six years.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Kai; Wu, Huey-Min; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Li, Cheng-Hsaun

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a computerized test of prone extension to measure performance of prone extension in children 4 to 6 years of age. The participants were selected from kindergartens, comprising 132 boys and 107 girls with a mean age of 5 yr. 2 mo. (SD = 6 mo.). Sensitivity and specificity of the computerized test of prone extension were assessed by comparison with the judgments of an expert, an occupational therapist with more than 20 yr. of pediatric experience, as the criterion standard. The computerized test of prone extension identified children with poor outcomes with a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.88, and an accuracy of 0.87. The internal reliability index was 0.81. The computerized test of prone extension could be of value in detecting problems of antigravity posture in prone extension and permitting early intervention to correct it. PMID:21058600

  13. Proximity Judgments in Color Space: Tests of a Euclidean Color Geometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SOPHIE M. WUERGER; LAURENCE T. MALONEY; JOHN KRAUSKOPF

    1995-01-01

    We describe two tests of the hypothesis that human judgments of the proximity of colors are consistent with a Euclidean :geometry on color matching space. The first test uses proximity judgments to measure the angle between any two intersecting lines in color space. Pairwise estimates of the angles between three lines in a plane were made in order to test

  14. Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing: Improving the a-Stratified Design with the Sympson-Hetter Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Chi-Keung; Chang, Hua-Hua; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2002-01-01

    Item exposure control, test-overlap minimization, and the efficient use of item pool are some of the important issues in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) designs. The overexposure of some items and high test-overlap rate may cause both item and test security problems. Previously these problems associated with the maximum information (Max-I)…

  15. Heuristic Evaluation and Usability Testing of a Computerized Patient-Reported Outcomes Survey for Headache Sufferers

    PubMed Central

    Saris-Baglama, Renee N.; Smith, Kevin J.; DeRosa, Michael A.; Paulsen, Christine A.; Hogue, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate usability of a prototype tablet PC-administered computerized adaptive test (CAT) of headache impact and patient feedback report, referred to as HEADACHE-CAT. Materials and Methods Heuristic evaluation specialists (n?=?2) formed a consensus opinion on the application's strengths and areas for improvement based on general usability principles and human factors research. Usability testing involved structured interviews with headache sufferers (n?=?9) to assess how they interacted with and navigated through the application, and to gather input on the survey and report interface, content, visual design, navigation, instructions, and user preferences. Results Specialists identified the need for improved instructions and text formatting, increased font size, page setup that avoids scrolling, and simplified presentation of feedback reports. Participants found the tool useful, and indicated a willingness to complete it again and recommend it to their healthcare provider. However, some had difficulty using the onscreen keyboard and autoadvance option; understanding the difference between generic and headache-specific questions; and interpreting score reports. Conclusions Heuristic evaluation and user testing can help identify usability problems in the early stages of application development, and improve the construct validity of electronic assessments such as the HEADACHE-CAT. An improved computerized HEADACHE-CAT measure can offer headache sufferers an efficient tool to increase patient self-awareness, monitor headaches over time, aid patient–provider communications, and improve quality of life. PMID:21214341

  16. Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing: Adaptation of the A-Stratified Strategy in Item Selection with Content Balancing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huo, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Variable-length computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can provide examinees with tailored test lengths. With the fixed standard error of measurement ("SEM") termination rule, variable-length CAT can achieve predetermined measurement precision by using relatively shorter tests compared to fixed-length CAT. To explore the application of…

  17. The Computerized Laboratory Notebook concept for genetic toxicology experimentation and testing.

    PubMed

    Strauss, G H; Stanford, W L; Berkowitz, S J

    1989-03-01

    We describe a microcomputer system utilizing the Computerized Laboratory Notebook (CLN) concept developed in our laboratory for the purpose of automating the Battery of Leukocyte Tests (BLT). The BLT was designed to evaluate blood specimens for toxic, immunotoxic, and genotoxic effects after in vivo exposure to putative mutagens. A system was developed with the advantages of low cost, limited spatial requirements, ease of use for personnel inexperienced with computers, and applicability to specific testing yet flexibility for experimentation. This system eliminates cumbersome record keeping and repetitive analysis inherent in genetic toxicology bioassays. Statistical analysis of the vast quantity of data produced by the BLT would not be feasible without a central database. Our central database is maintained by an integrated package which we have adapted to develop the CLN. The clonal assay of lymphocyte mutagenesis (CALM) section of the CLN is demonstrated. PC-Slaves expand the microcomputer to multiple workstations so that our computerized notebook can be used next to a hood while other work is done in an office and instrument room simultaneously. Communication with peripheral instruments is an indispensable part of many laboratory operations, and we present a representative program, written to acquire and analyze CALM data, for communicating with both a liquid scintillation counter and an ELISA plate reader. In conclusion we discuss how our computer system could easily be adapted to the needs of other laboratories. PMID:2922007

  18. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418 Agriculture ...for Processing 1 § 51.3418 Optional test for fry color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract...

  19. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418 Agriculture ...for Processing 1 § 51.3418 Optional test for fry color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract...

  20. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418 Agriculture ...for Processing 1 § 51.3418 Optional test for fry color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract...

  1. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418 Agriculture ...for Processing 1 § 51.3418 Optional test for fry color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract...

  2. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418 Agriculture ...for Processing 1 § 51.3418 Optional test for fry color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract...

  3. Proceedings of the First Conference on Computerized Adaptive Testing (Washington, D.C., June 12-13, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Cynthia L., Ed.

    The principal objectives of this conference were to exchange information, discuss theoretical and empirical developments, and to coordinate research efforts. The papers and their authors are: "The Graded Response Model of Latent Trait Theory and Tailored Testing" by Fumiko Samejima; (Incomplete Orders and Computerized Testing" by Norman Cliff;…

  4. Modeling Time To Respond and Probability of Correct Answer in a Simulated Computerized Test-taking Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarte, Alejandro A.

    Two experiments reproduced in a simulated computerized test-taking situation the effect of two of the main determinants in answering an item in a test: the difficulty of the item and the time available to answer it. A model is proposed for the time to respond or abandon an item and for the probability of abandoning it or answering it correctly. In…

  5. Construct Validity and Measurement Invariance of Computerized Adaptive Testing: Application to Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shudong; McCall, Marty; Jiao, Hong; Harris, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study are twofold. First, to investigate the construct or factorial structure of a set of Reading and Mathematics computerized adaptive tests (CAT), "Measures of Academic Progress" (MAP), given in different states at different grades and academic terms. The second purpose is to investigate the invariance of test factorial…

  6. An Empirical Evaluation of the Slip Correction in the Four Parameter Logistic Models with Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Yung-Chin; Ho, Rong-Guey; Laio, Wen-Wei; Chen, Li-Ju; Kuo, Ching-Chin

    2012-01-01

    In a selected response test, aberrant responses such as careless errors and lucky guesses might cause error in ability estimation because these responses do not actually reflect the knowledge that examinees possess. In a computerized adaptive test (CAT), these aberrant responses could further cause serious estimation error due to dynamic item…

  7. Conceptualising computerized adaptive testing for measurement of latent variables associated with physical objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, F. R.; Henson, B.

    2015-02-01

    The notion of that more or less of a physical feature affects in different degrees the users' impression with regard to an underlying attribute of a product has frequently been applied in affective engineering. However, those attributes exist only as a premise that cannot directly be measured and, therefore, inferences based on their assessment are error-prone. To establish and improve measurement of latent attributes it is presented in this paper the concept of a stochastic framework using the Rasch model for a wide range of independent variables referred to as an item bank. Based on an item bank, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can be developed. A CAT system can converge into a sequence of items bracketing to convey information at a user's particular endorsement level. It is through item banking and CAT that the financial benefits of using the Rasch model in affective engineering can be realised.

  8. Phoenix Test Sample Site in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This color image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken.

    Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Application of an Empirical Bayes Enhancement of Mantel-Haenszel Differential Item Functioning Analysis to a Computerized Adaptive Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Thayer, Dorothy T.

    2002-01-01

    Used a simulation to investigate the applicability to computerized adaptive test data of a differential item functioning (DIF) analysis method. Results show the performance of this empirical Bayes enhancement of the Mantel Haenszel DIF analysis method to be quite promising. (SLD)

  10. "Computerized Adaptive Testing: Theory and Practice." Wim J. van der Linden and Cees A. W. Glas, Eds. [book review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reise, Steven P.

    2001-01-01

    This book contains a series of research articles about computerized adaptive testing (CAT) written for advanced psychometricians. The book is divided into sections on: (1) item selection and examinee scoring in CAT; (2) examples of CAT applications; (3) item banks; (4) determining model fit; and (5) using testlets in CAT. (SLD)

  11. The Effect of Fitting a Unidimensional IRT Model to Multidimensional Data in Content-Balanced Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Tian

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of fitting a unidimensional IRT model to multidimensional data in content-balanced computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Unconstrained CAT with the maximum information item selection method is chosen as the baseline, and the performances of three content balancing procedures, the constrained CAT (CCAT), the…

  12. Examination of the Construct Validity of Impact™ Computerized Test, Traditional, and Experimental Neuropsychological Measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Maerlender; L. Flashman; A. Kessler; S. Kumbhani; R. Greenwald; T. Tosteson; T. McAllister

    2010-01-01

    Although computerized neuropsychological screening is becoming a standard for sports concussion identification and management, convergent validity studies are limited. Such studies are important for several reasons: reference to established measures is needed to establish validity; examination of the computerized battery relative to a more traditional comprehensive battery will help understand the strengths and limitations of the computer battery; and such

  13. The Language Research Center's Computerized Test System for environmental enrichment and psychological assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.

    1992-01-01

    In the spring of 1987, we undertook to provide environmental enrichment to nonhuman primate subjects in ways that would complement and even contribute to the bio-behaviorial science that justified the monkeys' captivity. Of course, the psychological well-being of captive primates--and indeed all research species-- has been an area of intense research activity since the 1985 amendment of the Animal Welfare Act. This mandate for researchers to ensure the psychological, as well as physical, fitness of experimental animals catalyzed the humane and scientific interests of the research community. The contemporary literature is replete with proposed means both of assaying and of providing enrichment and well-being. Notwithstanding, consensus on either assessment or intervention has yet to be reached. The paradigm we employed was modelled after successful efforts with chimpanzees. An automated test system was constructed in which subjects responded to computer tasks by manipulating a joystick. The tasks, interactive game-like versions of many of the classic testing paradigms of cognitive and comparative psychology, permitted the controlled presentation of stimuli and demands without the required presence of a human experimenter. Despite significant barriers to the success, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and a variety of other primate species (including, of course, humans) have mastered the skills necessary for testing in this paradigm. Previous experiments have illustrated the utility of the test system for addressing questions of learning, memory, attention, perception, and motivation. Additional data have been reported to support the contention that the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) serves its other raison d'etre--providing environmental enrichment and assessing psychological well-being. This paper is designed to augment previous descriptions of the technology and the paradigm for scientists and caretakers interested in environmental enrichment and performance assessment with primates.

  14. Computerized Ultrasonic Testing System (CUTS) for in-process thickness determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankel, J.; Doxbeck, M.; Schroeder, S. C.; Abbate, A.

    1994-01-01

    A Computerized Ultrasonic Testing System (CUTS) was developed to measure, in real-time, the rate of deposition and thickness of chromium plated on the inside of thick steel tubes. The measurements are made from the outside of the tubes with the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The resolution of the system is 2.5 micron. (0.0001 in.) and the accuracy is better than 10 micron (0.0004 in.). The thickness is measured using six transducers mounted at different locations on the tube. In addition, two transducers are mounted on two reference standards, thereby allowing the system to be continuously calibrated. The tube temperature varies during the process, thus the input from eight thermocouples, located at the measurement sites, is used to calculate and compensate for the change in return time of the ultrasonic echo due to the temperature dependence of the sound velocity. CUTS is applicable to any commercial process where real-time change of thickness of a sample has to be known, with the advantage of facilitating increased efficiency and of improving process control.

  15. Computerized neuropsychological testing to rapidly evaluate cognition in pediatric patients with neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; Sherman, Elisabeth M S

    2012-08-01

    Computerized neuropsychological tests represent a viable method for rapidly screening cognition. The purpose of this study was to explore performance on the CNS Vital Signs in a large pediatric neurology sample. Participants included 166 neurology patients (mean age, 13.0 years; standard deviation, 3.2) and 281 controls (mean age, 13.2 years; standard deviation, 3.2) between 7 and 19 years. The neurology sample performed significantly worse on all domain scores and nearly all subtest scores. Cohen d effect sizes were small to medium for verbal memory (d= 0.44), visual memory (d= 0.40), and reaction time (d= 0.48) and very large for psychomotor speed (d= 1.19), complex attention (d = 0.94), cognitive flexibility (d = 0.94), and the overall composite score (d = 1.08). Using the criterion for cognitive impairment of 2 or more scores ?5th percentile, 36.6% of the neurology sample was identified as having an uncommon cognitive profile. This is the first study to demonstrate the performance of pediatric patients with neurologic disorders on CNS Vital Signs. PMID:22290863

  16. Implementing computerized adaptive tests in routine clinical practice: experience implementing CATs.

    PubMed

    Hart, Dennis L; Deutscher, Daniel; Werneke, Mark W; Holder, Judy; Wang, Ying-Chih

    2010-01-01

    This paper traces the development, testing and use of CATs in outpatient rehabilitation from the perspective of one proprietary international medical rehabilitation database management company, Focus On Therapeutic Outcomes, Inc. (FOTO). Between the FOTO data in the United States and Maccabi Healthcare Services data in Israel, over 1.5 million CATs have been administered. Using findings from published studies and results of internal public relations surveys, we discuss (1) reasons for CAT development, (2) how the CATs were received by clinicians and patients in the United States and Israel, (3) results of psychometric property assessments of CAT estimated measures of functional status in routine clinical practice, (4) clinical interpretation of CAT functional status measures, and (5) future development directions. Results of scientific studies and business history provide confidence that CATs are pertinent and valuable to clinicians, patients and payers, and suggest CATs will be prominent in the development of future integrated computerized electronic medical record systems with electronic outcomes data collection. PMID:20847476

  17. Color-discrimination threshold determination using pseudoisochromatic test plates

    PubMed Central

    Jurasevska, Kaiva; Ozolinsh, Maris; Fomins, Sergejs; Gutmane, Ausma; Zutere, Brigita; Pausus, Anete; Karitans, Varis

    2014-01-01

    We produced a set of pseudoisochromatic plates for determining individual color-difference thresholds to assess test performance and test properties, and analyzed the results. We report a high test validity and classification ability for the deficiency type and severity level [comparable to that of the fourth edition of the Hardy–Rand–Rittler (HRR) test]. We discuss changes of the acceptable chromatic shifts from the protan and deutan confusion lines along the CIE xy diagram, and the high correlation of individual color-difference thresholds and the red–green discrimination index. Color vision was tested using an Oculus HMC anomaloscope, a Farnsworth D15, and an HRR test on 273 schoolchildren, and 57 other subjects with previously diagnosed red–green color-vision deficiency. PMID:25505891

  18. Age-Related Decrements in Stroop Color Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Nancy B.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Administered a modified Stroop Color-Word Test to healthy males (N=80) aged 21-90 years as part of a study of neuropsychological functioning. Results showed differences on simple reading tasks; however, significant age effects were observed for the color naming and interference tasks. (LLL)

  19. A Web-Based Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) to Assess Patient Perception in Hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Tsair-Wei; Wang, Wen-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Yun; Lai, Wen-Pin

    2011-01-01

    Background Many hospitals have adopted mobile nursing carts that can be easily rolled up to a patient’s bedside to access charts and help nurses perform their rounds. However, few papers have reported data regarding the use of wireless computers on wheels (COW) at patients’ bedsides to collect questionnaire-based information of their perception of hospitalization on discharge from the hospital. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative efficiency of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and the precision of CAT-based measures of perceptions of hospitalized patients, as compared with those of nonadaptive testing (NAT). An Excel module of our CAT multicategory assessment is provided as an example. Method A total of 200 patients who were discharged from the hospital responded to the CAT-based 18-item inpatient perception questionnaire on COW. The numbers of question administrated were recorded and the responses were calibrated using the Rasch model. They were compared with those from NAT to show the advantage of CAT over NAT. Results Patient measures derived from CAT and NAT were highly correlated (r = 0.98) and their measurement precisions were not statistically different (P = .14). CAT required fewer questions than NAT (an efficiency gain of 42%), suggesting a reduced burden for patients. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of gender and other demographic characteristics. Conclusions CAT-based administration of surveys of patient perception substantially reduced patient burden without compromising the precision of measuring patients’ perceptions of hospitalization. The Excel module of animation-CAT on the wireless COW that we developed is recommended for use in hospitals. PMID:21844001

  20. Color

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Dent

    2010-03-23

    Using this project will expose you to concepts of color, color wheels, color combinations, and techniques of using color. Use the following links, follow the directions to define color terms, create color schemes and explore the use of color in creating designs. Color Scheme Generator 2 This site identifiesbasic terms related to color, using acolor wheeland making color schemes. Color Theory This site explains terminology of color. Color Theory Tutorial This site gives excellent examples and information about ...

  1. Applying Computerized Adaptive Testing to the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised: Rasch Analysis of Workplace Bullying

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shu-Ching; Li, Yu-Chi; Yui, Mei-Shu

    2014-01-01

    Background Workplace bullying is a prevalent problem in contemporary work places that has adverse effects on both the victims of bullying and organizations. With the rapid development of computer technology in recent years, there is an urgent need to prove whether item response theory–based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can be applied to measure exposure to workplace bullying. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative efficiency and measurement precision of a CAT-based test for hospital nurses compared to traditional nonadaptive testing (NAT). Under the preliminary conditions of a single domain derived from the scale, a CAT module bullying scale model with polytomously scored items is provided as an example for evaluation purposes. Methods A total of 300 nurses were recruited and responded to the 22-item Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R). All NAT (or CAT-selected) items were calibrated with the Rasch rating scale model and all respondents were randomly selected for a comparison of the advantages of CAT and NAT in efficiency and precision by paired t tests and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Results The NAQ-R is a unidimensional construct that can be applied to measure exposure to workplace bullying through CAT-based administration. Nursing measures derived from both tests (CAT and NAT) were highly correlated (r=.97) and their measurement precisions were not statistically different (P=.49) as expected. CAT required fewer items than NAT (an efficiency gain of 32%), suggesting a reduced burden for respondents. There were significant differences in work tenure between the 2 groups (bullied and nonbullied) at a cutoff point of 6 years at 1 worksite. An AUROC of 0.75 (95% CI 0.68-0.79) with logits greater than –4.2 (or >30 in summation) was defined as being highly likely bullied in a workplace. Conclusions With CAT-based administration of the NAQ-R for nurses, their burden was substantially reduced without compromising measurement precision. PMID:24534113

  2. Use of computerized tests to evaluate psychomotor performance in children with specific learning disabilities in comparison to normal children

    PubMed Central

    Taur, Santosh; Karande, Sunil; Saxena, Akriti A.; Gogtay, Nithya J.; Thatte, Urmila M.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) have an unexplained difficulty in acquiring basic academic skills resulting in a significant discrepancy between their academic potential and achievements. This study was undertaken to compare the performance on a battery of six psychomotor tests of children with SpLD and those without any learning disabilities (controls) using computerized tests. Methods: In this study, 25 children with SpLD and 25 controls (matched for age, socio-economic status and medium of instruction) were given three training sessions over one week. Then children were asked to perform on the six computerized psychomotor tests. Results were compared between the two groups. Results: Children with SpLD fared significantly worse on finger tapping test, choice reaction test, digit picture substitution test and card sorting test compared to the controls (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Children with SpLD have impairment of psychomotor skills like attention, sensory-motor coordination and executive functioning. Further research is needed to evaluate if the remedial education plan results in improvement in psychomotor performance of children with SpLD on these selected tests. PMID:25579146

  3. Prevalence of Invalid Computerized Baseline Neurocognitive Test Results in High School and Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, Philip; Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Solomon, Gary S.; Ott, Summer D.; Karpf, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Context: Limited data are available regarding the prevalence and nature of invalid computerized baseline neurocognitive test data. Objective: To identify the prevalence of invalid baselines on the desktop and online versions of ImPACT and to document the utility of correcting for left-right (L-R) confusion on the desktop version of ImPACT. Design: Cross-sectional study of independent samples of high school (HS) and collegiate athletes who completed the desktop or online versions of ImPACT. Participants or Other Participants: A total of 3769 HS (desktop ?=? 1617, online ?=? 2152) and 2130 collegiate (desktop ?=? 742, online ?=? 1388) athletes completed preseason baseline assessments. Main Outcome Measure(s): Prevalence of 5 ImPACT validity indicators, with correction for L-R confusion (reversing left and right mouse-click responses) on the desktop version, by test version and group. Chi-square analyses were conducted for sex and attentional or learning disorders. Results: At least 1 invalid indicator was present on 11.9% (desktop) versus 6.3% (online) of the HS baselines and 10.2% (desktop) versus 4.1% (online) of collegiate baselines; correcting for L-R confusion (desktop) decreased this overall prevalence to 8.4% (HS) and 7.5% (collegiate). Online Impulse Control scores alone yielded 0.4% (HS) and 0.9% (collegiate) invalid baselines, compared with 9.0% (HS) and 5.4% (collegiate) on the desktop version; correcting for L-R confusion (desktop) decreased the prevalence of invalid Impulse Control scores to 5.4% (HS) and 2.6% (collegiate). Male athletes and HS athletes with attention deficit or learning disorders who took the online version were more likely to have at least 1 invalid indicator. Utility of additional invalidity indicators is reported. Conclusions: The online ImPACT version appeared to yield fewer invalid baseline results than did the desktop version. Identification of L-R confusion reduces the prevalence of invalid baselines (desktop only) and the potency of Impulse Control as a validity indicator. We advise test administrators to be vigilant in identifying invalid baseline results as part of routine concussion management and prevention programs. PMID:22892410

  4. Color

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    JoLene

    2008-09-29

    This project will be used to teach the importance of color. Watch the following video about color Primary Colors Click on the link Exploration of Color. When you get into the website select the different colors to see what secondary colors are made from the primary colors. Review the following siteColor Theory and then design and paint a color wheel. ...

  5. Documentation of CTRS--Computerized Test-Result Reporting System. The Illinois Series on Educational Application of Computers, No. 22e.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muiznieks, Viktors J.; Cox, John

    The Computerized Test-Result Reporting System (CTRS), which consists of three programs written in the BASIC language, was developed to analyze obective tests, test items, test results, and to provide the teacher-user with interpreted data about the performance of tests, Lest items, and students. This paper documents the three programs from the…

  6. Color-shape associations revealed with implicit association tests.

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Tanaka, Kanji; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Kandinsky proposed a correspondence theory that suggests associations between specific colors and shapes (i.e., circle-blue, square-red, triangle-yellow). Makin and Wuerger tested the theory using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and did not find clear evidence for Kandinsky's color-shape associations among British participants. In the present study, we first replicated the previous study among Japanese participants and found similar results to those of Makin and Wuerger, showing little support for Kandinsky's theory. In the subsequent experiment, we tested another set of color-shape associations that had been revealed by using an explicit matching method (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow) in Japanese participants. The IAT tests showed that response times were significantly faster when circle-red, square-blue, and triangle-yellow combinations were mapped onto the same response key, rather than different key combinations, indicating that these color-shape combinations were encoded. These results provide the first empirical evidence that color-shape associations can be measured by indirect behavioral methods, and in particular, Japanese people's color-shape associations (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow) can be observed by both direct and indirect experimental methods. PMID:25625717

  7. Color-Shape Associations Revealed with Implicit Association Tests

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Na; Tanaka, Kanji; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Kandinsky proposed a correspondence theory that suggests associations between specific colors and shapes (i.e., circle-blue, square-red, triangle-yellow). Makin and Wuerger tested the theory using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and did not find clear evidence for Kandinsky’s color-shape associations among British participants. In the present study, we first replicated the previous study among Japanese participants and found similar results to those of Makin and Wuerger, showing little support for Kandinsky’s theory. In the subsequent experiment, we tested another set of color-shape associations that had been revealed by using an explicit matching method (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow) in Japanese participants. The IAT tests showed that response times were significantly faster when circle-red, square-blue, and triangle-yellow combinations were mapped onto the same response key, rather than different key combinations, indicating that these color-shape combinations were encoded. These results provide the first empirical evidence that color-shape associations can be measured by indirect behavioral methods, and in particular, Japanese people’s color-shape associations (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow) can be observed by both direct and indirect experimental methods. PMID:25625717

  8. Examination of the construct validity of ImPACT™ computerized test, traditional, and experimental neuropsychological measures.

    PubMed

    Maerlender, A; Flashman, L; Kessler, A; Kumbhani, S; Greenwald, R; Tosteson, T; McAllister, T

    2010-11-01

    Although computerized neuropsychological screening is becoming a standard for sports concussion identification and management, convergent validity studies are limited. Such studies are important for several reasons: reference to established measures is needed to establish validity; examination of the computerized battery relative to a more traditional comprehensive battery will help understand the strengths and limitations of the computer battery; and such an examination will help inform the output of the computerized battery. We compared scores on the ImPACT™ battery to a comprehensive battery of traditional neuropsychological measures and several experimental measures used in the assessment of sports-related concussion in 54 healthy male athletes. Convergent validity was demonstrated for four of the five ImPACT™ domain scores. Two cognitive domains often compromised as a result of mild TBI were not directly identified by the ImPACT™ battery: sustained attention and auditory working memory. Affective symptoms correlated with performance on measures of attention and working memory. In this healthy sample the correlations between the domains covered by ImPACT™ and the neuropsychological battery supports ImPACT™ as a useful screening tool for assessing many of the cognitive factors related to mTBI. However, the data suggest other sources of data need to be considered when identifying and managing concussions. PMID:20924979

  9. An application of graph coloring to printed circuit testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Garey; D. Johnson; Hing So

    1976-01-01

    A proposed method for testing printed circuit boards for the existence of possible (undesired) short circuits transforms the test minimization problem into one of finding minimum vertex colorings of certain special graphs, called line-of-sight graphs. Under certain assumptions on the possible types of short circuits, we analyze the structure of such graphs and show that a well known and efficient

  10. HIV Testing Patterns among Urban YMSM of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Noelle R.; Rajan, Sonali; Gwadz, Marya V.; Aregbesola, Temi

    2014-01-01

    The heightened level of risk for HIV infection among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is driven by multilevel influences. Using cross-sectional data, we examined HIV testing patterns among urban YMSM of color in a high-HIV seroprevalence area (ages 16 to 21 years). Self-reported frequency of testing was high, with 42% of…

  11. Estimation of an examinee's ability in the web-based computerized adaptive testing program IRT-CAT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Hwan; Park, Jung-Ho; Park, In-Yong

    2006-01-01

    We developed a program to estimate an examinee s ability in order to provide freely available access to a web-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) program. We used PHP and Java Script as the program languages, PostgresSQL as the database management system on an Apache web server and Linux as the operating system. A system which allows for user input and searching within inputted items and creates tests was constructed. We performed an ability estimation on each test based on a Rasch model and 2- or 3-parametric logistic models. Our system provides an algorithm for a web-based CAT, replacing previous personal computer-based ones, and makes it possible to estimate an examinee's ability immediately at the end of test. PMID:19223996

  12. A Comparison of Item Selection Procedures Using Different Ability Estimation Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Tsung-Han

    2010-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) provides a highly efficient alternative to the paper-and-pencil test. By selecting items that match examinees' ability levels, CAT not only can shorten test length and administration time but it can also increase measurement precision and reduce measurement error. In CAT, maximum information (MI) is the most…

  13. Computerized measurement of cognitive impairment and associated neuropsychiatric dimensions.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, L A; Bechtel, R J; Maguire, G A; Harrington, D E; Levinson, D M; Franklin, D L; Carcamo, D

    2000-01-01

    This study aimed to cross-validate the capacity of a computer software program to detect and measure, using a measurement method applied to the content and form analysis of 5-minute speech samples, cognitive impairment and associated comorbid neuropsychiatric psychobiological dimensions in drug-abusing patients. At the University of California-Irvine (UCI) Neuropsychiatric Center, 28 drug-abusing inpatients using illegal drugs were clinically evaluated. Their scores for cognitive impairment derived by the computerized content analysis method were compared with scores derived from selected tests from the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery, the computerized Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metric Battery (ANAM), the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Portion, the Stroop Color and Word Test, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test. The statistical significance (P value) of the correlations of scores from these different measures with scores obtained from the computerized content analysis measures was less than .05 to .001. The comparative "hit rate," detecting cognitive impairment above the norms for each measure administered to these drug-abusing patients, for the computerized content analysis measures and some of the ANAM neuropsychological measures was 75% to 89%, and for the other neuropsychological measures, 25% to 64%. In conclusion, the computerized content analysis methodology applied to 5-minute verbal samples is a valid, rapid, easily administered measurement instrument for assessing the magnitude of cognitive impairment and comorbid neuropsychiatric dimensions. PMID:11011827

  14. Test and evaluation of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    In accordance with the definition of a Material Balance Area (MBA) as a well-defined geographical area involving an Integral operation, the building housing the BFS-1 and BFS-1 critical facilities is considered to consist of one MBA. The BFS materials are in the form of small disks clad in stainless steel and each disk with nuclear material has its own serial number. Fissile material disks in the BFS MBA can be located at three key monitoring points: BFS-1 facility, BFS-2 facility and main storage of BFS fissile materials (storage 1). When used in the BFS-1 or BFS-2 critical facilities, the fissile material disks are loaded in tubes (fuel rods) forming critical assembly cores. The following specific features of the BFS MBA should be taken into account for the purpose of computerized accounting of nuclear material: (1) very large number of nuclear material items (about 70,000 fissile material items); and (2) periodically very intensive shuffling of nuclear material items. Requirements for the computerized system are determined by basic objectives of nuclear material accounting: (1) providing accurate information on the identity and location of all items in the BFS material balance area; (2) providing accurate information on location and identity of tamper-indicating devices; (3) tracking nuclear material inventories; (4) issuing periodic reports; (5) assisting with the detection of material gains or losses; (6) providing a history of nuclear material transactions; (7) preventing unauthorized access to the system and data falsification. In August 1995, the prototype computerized accounting system was installed on the BFS facility for trial operation. Information on two nuclear material types was entered into the data base: weapon-grade plutonium metal and 36% enriched uranium dioxide. The total number of the weapon-grade plutonium disks is 12,690 and the total number of the uranium dioxide disks is 1,700.

  15. Sharks Are Color-Blind, Retina Study Suggests Ten species tested had no color-sensing cells, while seven had

    E-print Network

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    Sharks Are Color-Blind, Retina Study Suggests Ten species tested had no color-sensing cells, while seven had only one type. Tiger sharks (pictured) are among the 17 species that appear to lack color Published January 19, 2011 Sharks may be able to smell blood from miles away, but they probably don't know

  16. The Use of Statistical Process Control-Charts for Person-Fit Analysis on Computerized Adaptive Testing. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, Rob R.; van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith M. L. A.

    In this study a cumulative-sum (CUSUM) procedure from the theory of Statistical Process Control was modified and applied in the context of person-fit analysis in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) environment. Six person-fit statistics were proposed using the CUSUM procedure, and three of them could be used to investigate the CAT in online test

  17. An application of graph coloring to printed circuit testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Garey; D. S. Johnson; H. C. So

    1975-01-01

    A proposed method for testing printed circuit boards for the existence of possible (undesired) short circuits transforms the test minimization problem into one of finding minimum vertex colorings of certain special graphs, called line-of-sight graphs. Under certain assumptions on the possible types of short circuits, we analyze the structure of such graphs and show that a well-known and efficient algorithm

  18. Development of a Computerized Adaptive Test to Assess Health-related Quality of Life in Adults with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Bowker, DM; DeRosa, MA; Saris-Baglama, RN; Bjorner, JB

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this research was to calibrate an item bank for a computerized adaptive test (CAT) of asthma impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), test CAT versions of varying lengths, conduct preliminary validity testing, and evaluate item bank readability. Methods Asthma Impact Survey (AIS) bank items that passed focus group, cognitive testing, and clinical and psychometric reviews were administered to adults with varied levels of asthma control. Adults self-reporting asthma (N=1106) completed an Internet survey including 88 AIS items, the Asthma Control Test (ACT), and other HRQOL outcome measures. Data were analyzed using classical and modern psychometric methods, real-data CAT simulations, and known groups validity testing. Results A bi-factor model with a general factor (asthma impact) and several group factors (cognitive function, fatigue, mental health, physical function, role function, sexual function, self-consciousness/stigma, sleep, and social function) was tested. Loadings on the general factor were above 0.5 and were substantially larger than group factor loadings, and fit statistics were acceptable. Item functioning for most items and fit to the model was acceptable. CAT simulations demonstrated several options for administration and stopping rules. AIS distinguished between respondents with differing levels of asthma control. Conclusions The new 50-item AIS item bank demonstrated favorable psychometric characteristics, preliminary evidence of validity, and accessibility at moderate reading levels. Developing item banks for CAT can improve the precise, efficient, and comprehensive monitoring of asthma outcomes, and may facilitate patient-centered care. PMID:22115275

  19. Colors, Colors?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Susan Songstad

    2009-01-01

    In this activity related to the famous "Stroop Effect," learners explore how words influence what we see and how the brain handles "mixed messages." Learners read colored words and are asked to say the color of the word, not what the word says. Learners use a data table to keep track of where they have trouble reading the colors. They analyze this data by answering questions and drawing conclusions. Learners can also take this test using the online version.

  20. The stochastically curtailed generalized likelihood ratio: A new termination criterion for variable-length computerized classification tests.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Alan R; Fina, Anthony D

    2014-06-01

    Computerized classification tests (CCTs) are used to classify examinees into categories in the context of professional certification testing. The term "variable-length" refers to CCTs that terminate (i.e., cease administering items to the examinee) when a classification can be made with a prespecified level of certainty. The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) is a common criterion for terminating variable-length CCTs, but recent research has proposed more efficient methods. Specifically, the stochastically curtailed SPRT (SCSPRT) and the generalized likelihood ratio criterion (GLR) have been shown to classify examinees with accuracy similar to the SPRT while using fewer items. This article shows that the GLR criterion itself may be stochastically curtailed, resulting in a new termination criterion, the stochastically curtailed GLR (SCGLR). All four criteria-the SPRT, SCSPRT, GLR, and the new SCGLR-were compared using a simulation study. In this study, we examined the criteria in testing conditions that varied several CCT design features, including item bank characteristics, pass/fail threshold, and examinee ability distribution. In each condition, the termination criteria were evaluated according to their accuracy (proportion of examinees classified correctly), efficiency (test length), and loss (a single statistic combing both accuracy and efficiency). The simulation results showed that the SCGLR can yield increased efficiency without sacrificing accuracy, relative to the SPRT, SCSPRT, and GLR in a wide variety of CCT designs. PMID:24907003

  1. An Evaluation of Computerized Tests as Predictors of Job Performance: II. Differential Validity for Global and Job Element Criteria. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cory, Charles H.

    This report presents data concerning the validity of a set of experimental computerized and paper-and-pencil tests for measures of on-job performance on global and job elements. It reports on the usefulness of 30 experimental and operational variables for predicting marks on 42 job elements and on a global criterion for Electrician's Mate,…

  2. Development of a Computerized Adaptive Testing for Diagnosing the Cognitive Process of Grade 7 Students in Learning Algebra, Using Multidimensional Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senarat, Somprasong; Tayraukham, Sombat; Piyapimonsit, Chatsiri; Tongkhambanjong, Sakesan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multidimensional computerized adaptive test for diagnosing the cognitive process of grade 7 students in learning algebra by applying multidimensional item response theory. The research is divided into 4 steps: 1) the development of item bank of algebra, 2) the development of the multidimensional…

  3. Examining Differences in Examinee Performance in Paper and Pencil and Computerized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhan, Gautam; Boughton, Keith; Kim, Sooyeon

    2007-01-01

    The study evaluated the comparability of two versions of a certification test: a paper-and-pencil test (PPT) and computer-based test (CBT). An effect size measure known as Cohen's d and differential item functioning (DIF) analyses were used as measures of comparability at the test and item levels, respectively. Results indicated that the effect…

  4. Color-Object Interference: Further Tests of an Executive Control Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Heij, Wido; Boelens, Harrie

    2011-01-01

    Young children are slower in naming the color of a meaningful picture than in naming the color of an abstract form (Stroop-like color-object interference). The current experiments tested an executive control account of this phenomenon. First, color-object interference was observed in 6- and 8-year-olds but not in 12- and 16-year-olds (Experiment…

  5. Comparability of Conventional and Computerized Tests of Reading in a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Yasuyo

    2001-01-01

    Addresses issues surrounding the effect of mode of presentation on second language (L2) reading test performance, reviewing the literature in cognitive ability testing in educational and psychological measurement and the non-assessment literature in ergonomics, education, psychology, and first language reading research. Generalization of the…

  6. Computerized Adaptive Testing with the Zinnes and Griggs Pairwise Preference Ideal Point Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Stephen; Chernyshenko, Oleksandr S.

    2011-01-01

    This article delves into a relatively unexplored area of measurement by focusing on adaptive testing with unidimensional pairwise preference items. The use of such tests is becoming more common in applied non-cognitive assessment because research suggests that this format may help to reduce certain types of rater error and response sets commonly…

  7. Fairness in Computerized Testing: Detecting Item Bias Using CATSIB with Impact Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Man-Wai; Lai, Hollis

    2013-01-01

    In educational assessment, there is an increasing demand for tailoring assessments to individual examinees through computer adaptive tests (CAT). As such, it is particularly important to investigate the fairness of these adaptive testing processes, which require the investigation of differential item function (DIF) to yield information about item…

  8. Reducing the Impact of Inappropriate Items on Reviewable Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Yung-Chin; Ho, Rong-Guey; Liao, Wen-Wei; Chen, Li-Ju

    2012-01-01

    In a test, the testing score would be closer to examinee's actual ability when careless mistakes were corrected. In CAT, however, changing the answer of one item in CAT might cause the following items no longer appropriate for estimating the examinee's ability. These inappropriate items in a reviewable CAT might in turn introduce bias in ability…

  9. Age-dependent discrepancies between computerized and paper cognitive testing in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Grignon, Sylvain; Grégoire, Claire-Anne; Durand, Myriam; Mury, Marie; Elie, Dominique; Chianetta, Jean Marc

    2009-01-01

    Computer-based cognitive testing is gaining in popularity because of desirable features such as ease of use, standardized administration and online data acquisition. Information technology and computer familiarity are clearly influenced by age in the general population, but the impact of this situation on cognitive testing of patients with schizophrenia has received little attention. In the present paper, participants underwent cognitive testing with computer and paper versions of the same tests. Patients underperformed controls by 1.36 DS (paper tests) and 2.27 DS (computer tests) after controlling for education. Results were highly correlated but patients with schizophrenia were disproportionately impaired on computer tests compared with their paper counterparts. Moreover, for subtests implying active keyboard input from the participant, the difference between paper and computer scores correlated with age in patients, a pattern that was not found in controls. These results have methodological implications because of the implied risk of measuring (lack of) computer proficiency in addition to bona fide cognitive deficits. They confirm, moreover, that patients with schizophrenia are victims of the "digital divide", which adds to the potential benefits of approaches like computer assisted cognitive remediation in this population. PMID:18661086

  10. Computerized In Vitro Test for Chemical Toxicity Based on Tetrahymena Swimming Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and a method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity have been evaluated as an alternative to the rabbit eye initancy test (Draize). The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The method, called the motility assay (MA), is tested for 30 s to determine the chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy.

  11. Randomized controlled trial to test a computerized psychosocial cancer assessment and referral program: methods and research design.

    PubMed

    O'Hea, Erin L; Cutillo, Alexandra; Dietzen, Laura; Harralson, Tina; Grissom, Grant; Person, Sharina; Boudreaux, Edwin D

    2013-05-01

    The National Cancer Coalition Network, National Cancer Institute, and American College of Surgeons all emphasize the need for oncology providers to identify, address, and monitor psychosocial needs of their patients. The Mental Health Assessment and Dynamic Referral for Oncology (MHADRO) is a patient-driven, computerized, psychosocial assessment that identifies, addresses, and monitors physical, psychological, and social issues faced by oncology patients. This paper presents the methodology of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that tested the impact of the MHADRO on patient outcomes at 2, 6, and 12 months. Patient outcomes including overall psychological distress, depression, anxiety, functional disability, and use of psychosocial resources will be presented in future publications after all follow-up data is gathered. Eight hundred and thirty six cancer patients with heterogeneous diagnoses, across three comprehensive cancer centers in different parts of the United States, were randomized to the MHADRO (intervention) or an assessment-only control group. Patients in the intervention group were provided detailed, personalized reports and, when needed, referrals to mental health services; their oncology provider received detailed reports designed to foster clinical decision making. Those patients who demonstrated high levels of psychosocial problems were given the option to authorize that a copy of their report be sent electronically to a "best match" mental health professional. Demographic and patient cancer-related data as well as comparisons between patients who were enrolled and those who declined enrollment are presented. Challenges encountered during the RCT and strategies used to address them are discussed. PMID:23395772

  12. Computerized in vitro test for chemical toxicity based on tetrahymena swimming patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity was evaluated. The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The device, called the Motility Assay Apparatus (MAA) is tested for 30 second determination of chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy, in addition to agreeing for all chemicals with previous manual evaluations of single cell motility.

  13. Color schlieren system using square color filter and its application to aerofoil test in transonics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruiyi Chen; Zhoufang Ge

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the principle of the color schlieren technique which uses a piece of square color filter for the source mask and a square hole for the cutoff mask. The relationship between the color of the element on the image and the deflection of the emitting light rays is discussed, and the formulas of the amount and the direction

  14. Construction of a Computerized Adaptive Testing Version of the Quebec Adaptive Behavior Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasse, Marc J.; And Others

    Multilog (Thissen, 1991) was used to estimate parameters of 225 items from the Quebec Adaptive Behavior Scale (QABS). A database containing actual data from 2,439 subjects was used for the parameterization procedures. The two-parameter-logistic model was used in estimating item parameters and in the testing strategy. MicroCAT (Assessment Systems…

  15. A CEFR-Based Computerized Adaptive Testing System for Chinese Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hsuan-Po; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Tsai, Ya-Hsun; Liao, Chen-Huei

    2012-01-01

    In the era of globalization, the trend towards learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) has become increasingly popular worldwide. The increasing demand in learning CFL has raised the profile of the Chinese proficiency test (CPT). This study will analyze in depth the inadequacy of current CPT's utilizing the common European framework of…

  16. COLORS!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sarah

    2009-09-28

    In this project, students will learn about primary, secondary, and complementary colors. After exploring a few sites and participating in a few deep questions as a class, they will create an optical illusion using complimentary colors. Younger students who are learning this unit will need to do this activity with a parent or as a class with a teacher or aide. INTRODUCTION: Questions to discuss with the students: 1. What colors do you see in this room? 2. What are some jobs that use colors? An Artist? Decorator? ...

  17. Multispectral colour analysis for quantitative evaluation of pseudoisochromatic color deficiency tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Fomins, Sergejs

    2010-11-01

    Multispectral color analysis was used for spectral scanning of Ishihara and Rabkin color deficiency test book images. It was done using tunable liquid-crystal LC filters built in the Nuance II analyzer. Multispectral analysis keeps both, information on spatial content of tests and on spectral content. Images were taken in the range of 420-720nm with a 10nm step. We calculated retina neural activity charts taking into account cone sensitivity functions, and processed charts in order to find the visibility of latent symbols in color deficiency plates using cross-correlation technique. In such way the quantitative measure is found for each of diagnostics plate for three different color deficiency carrier types - protanopes, deutanopes and tritanopes. Multispectral color analysis allows to determine the CIE xyz color coordinates of pseudoisochromatic plate design elements and to perform statistical analysis of these data to compare the color quality of available color deficiency test books.

  18. Versatile computerized system for tracking and analysis of water maze tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatyana V. Mukhina; Sergei O. Bachurin; Nadejda N. Lermontova; Nikolai S. Zefirov

    2001-01-01

    A crucial step in the estimation of properties of compounds in behavioral experiments is the quantification and description\\u000a of the different effects observed. The goal of the present work was the automation of the Morris water maze test, one of the\\u000a most popular behavioral methods for the study of animal memory. An original system was developed that provides fast and

  19. Perfusion MRI and computerized cognitive test abnormalities in abstinent methamphetamine users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Chang; Thomas Ernst; Oliver Speck; Hetal Patel; Menaka DeSilva; Maria Leonido-Yee; Eric N. Miller

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to determine possible persistent abnormalities in regional cerebral blood flow (relative rCBF) and cognitive function in abstinent methamphetamine (METH) users. Twenty METH-dependent subjects (abstinent for 8±2 months) and 20 age- and gender-matched controls were evaluated with perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI) and neuropsychological tests. METH users showed decreased relative rCBF bilaterally in putamen\\/insular cortices (right: ?12%; left:

  20. The Effect of Test and Examinee Characteristics on the Occurrence of Aberrant Response Patterns in a Computerized Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizavi, Saba; Hariharan, Swaminathan

    2001-01-01

    The advantages that computer adaptive testing offers over linear tests have been well documented. The Computer Adaptive Test (CAT) design is more efficient than the Linear test design as fewer items are needed to estimate an examinee's proficiency to a desired level of precision. In the ideal situation, a CAT will result in examinees answering…

  1. Study of Factors Involved in Tongue Color Diagnosis by Kampo Medical Practitioners Using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test and Tongue Color Images

    PubMed Central

    Oji, Takeshi; Namiki, Takao; Ueda, Keigo; Takeda, Kanako; Nakamura, Michimi; Hirasaki, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    In traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo medicine), tongue color is important in discerning a patient's constitution and medical conditions. However, tongue color diagnosis is susceptible to the subjective factors of the observer. To investigate factors involved in tongue color diagnosis, both color discrimination and tongue color diagnosis were researched in 68 Kampo medical practitioners. Color discrimination was studied by the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test, and tongue color diagnosis was studied by 84 tongue images. We found that overall color discrimination worsened with aging. However, the color discrimination related to tongue color regions was maintained in subjects with 10 or more years of Kampo experience. On the other hand, tongue color diagnosis significantly differed between subjects with <10 years of experience and ?10 years of experience. Practitioners with ?10 years of experience could maintain a consistent diagnosis of tongue color regardless of their age. PMID:24808919

  2. Orbital docking system centerline color television camera system test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mongan, Philip T.

    1993-01-01

    A series of tests was run to verify that the design of the centerline color television camera (CTVC) system is adequate optically for the STS-71 Space Shuttle Orbiter docking mission with the Mir space station. In each test, a mockup of the Mir consisting of hatch, docking mechanism, and docking target was positioned above the Johnson Space Center's full fuselage trainer, which simulated the Orbiter with a mockup of the external airlock and docking adapter. Test subjects viewed the docking target through the CTVC under 30 different lighting conditions and evaluated target resolution, field of view, light levels, light placement, and methods of target alignment. Test results indicate that the proposed design will provide adequate visibility through the centerline camera for a successful docking, even with a reasonable number of light failures. It is recommended that the flight deck crew have individual switching capability for docking lights to provide maximum shadow management and that centerline lights be retained to deal with light failures and user preferences. Procedures for light management should be developed and target alignment aids should be selected during simulated docking runs.

  3. An Evaluative Study of Color-Vision Tests for Kindergarten and First Grade Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampe, John M.

    Because of the increasing use of color in instructional materials at the level of the primary grades, the Health Service Department of the Denver Public Schools became interested in investigating the color vision of 5- and 6-year-olds. A project was established to create color-vision testing methods and to use those methods to ascertain incidence…

  4. IRAS colors of carbon stars - An optical spectroscopic test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Walker, Helen J.; Volk, Kevin; Schwartz, Deborah E.

    1989-01-01

    Optical spectra are obtained of 57 photographic counterparts to IRAS sources not previously studied spectroscopically, and expected on the basis of their IRAS colors to be M or C type stars. Confirmed carbon stars are found only in a restricted range of 12-25 index, and constitute a striking 'vertical' sequence in the 12-25-60 micron color-color diagram. This sequence is in accord with evolutionary models for AGB stars that convert M into C stars by dredge-up, and follow loops in the color-color plane. Optically visible and optically invisible carbon stars occupy different color-color locations consistent with their representations of different evolutionary states in the life of relatively low-mass stars.

  5. IRAS colors of carbon stars - An optical spectroscopic test

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.; Wainscoat, R.J.; Walker, H.J.; Volk, K.; Schwartz, D.E. (California Univ., Berkeley (USA); Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Los Altos, CA (USA))

    1989-06-01

    Optical spectra are obtained of 57 photographic counterparts to IRAS sources not previously studied spectroscopically, and expected on the basis of their IRAS colors to be M or C type stars. Confirmed carbon stars are found only in a restricted range of 12-25 index, and constitute a striking vertical sequence in the 12-25-60 micron color-color diagram. This sequence is in accord with evolutionary models for AGB stars that convert M into C stars by dredge-up, and follow loops in the color-color plane. Optically visible and optically invisible carbon stars occupy different color-color locations consistent with their representations of different evolutionary states in the life of relatively low-mass stars. 16 refs.

  6. Measuring color differences in automotive samples with lightness flop: a test of the AUDI2000 color-difference formula.

    PubMed

    Melgosa, Manuel; Martínez-García, Juan; Gómez-Robledo, Luis; Perales, Esther; Martínez-Verdú, Francisco M; Dauser, Thomas

    2014-02-10

    From a set of gonioapparent automotive samples from different manufacturers we selected 28 low-chroma color pairs with relatively small color differences predominantly in lightness. These color pairs were visually assessed with a gray scale at six different viewing angles by a panel of 10 observers. Using the Standardized Residual Sum of Squares (STRESS) index, the results of our visual experiment were tested against predictions made by 12 modern color-difference formulas. From a weighted STRESS index accounting for the uncertainty in visual assessments, the best prediction of our whole experiment was achieved using AUDI2000, CAM02-SCD, CAM02-UCS and OSA-GP-Euclidean color-difference formulas, which were no statistically significant different among them. A two-step optimization of the original AUDI2000 color-difference formula resulted in a modified AUDI2000 formula which performed both, significantly better than the original formula and below the experimental inter-observer variability. Nevertheless the proposal of a new revised AUDI2000 color-difference formula requires additional experimental data. PMID:24663636

  7. An initial application of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for measuring disability in patients with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Elhan, Atilla Halil; Öztuna, Derya; Kutlay, ?ehim; Küçükdeveci, Ay?e A; Tennant, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent approaches to outcome measurement involving Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) offer an approach for measuring disability in low back pain (LBP) in a way that can reduce the burden upon patient and professional. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of CAT in LBP for measuring disability as defined in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) which includes impairments, activity limitation, and participation restriction. Methods 266 patients with low back pain answered questions from a range of widely used questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to identify disability dimensions which were then subjected to Rasch analysis. Reliability was tested by internal consistency and person separation index (PSI). Discriminant validity of disability levels were evaluated by Spearman correlation coefficient (r), intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC(2,1)] and the Bland-Altman approach. A CAT was developed for each dimension, and the results checked against simulated and real applications from a further 133 patients. Results Factor analytic techniques identified two dimensions named "body functions" and "activity-participation". After deletion of some items for failure to fit the Rasch model, the remaining items were mostly free of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) for age and gender. Reliability exceeded 0.90 for both dimensions. The disability levels generated using all items and those obtained from the real CAT application were highly correlated (i.e. > 0.97 for both dimensions). On average, 19 and 14 items were needed to estimate the precise disability levels using the initial CAT for the first and second dimension. However, a marginal increase in the standard error of the estimate across successive iterations substantially reduced the number of items required to make an estimate. Conclusion Using a combination approach of EFA and Rasch analysis this study has shown that it is possible to calibrate items onto a single metric in a way that can be used to provide the basis of a CAT application. Thus there is an opportunity to obtain a wide variety of information to evaluate the biopsychosocial model in its more complex forms, without necessarily increasing the burden of information collection for patients. PMID:19094219

  8. Computerized tomography calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Herbert P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A set of interchangeable pieces comprising a computerized tomography calibrator, and a method of use thereof, permits focusing of a computerized tomographic (CT) system. The interchangeable pieces include a plurality of nestable, generally planar mother rings, adapted for the receipt of planar inserts of predetermined sizes, and of predetermined material densities. The inserts further define openings therein for receipt of plural sub-inserts. All pieces are of known sizes and densities, permitting the assembling of different configurations of materials of known sizes and combinations of densities, for calibration (i.e., focusing) of a computerized tomographic system through variation of operating variables thereof. Rather than serving as a phanton, which is intended to be representative of a particular workpiece to be tested, the set of interchangeable pieces permits simple and easy standardized calibration of a CT system. The calibrator and its related method of use further includes use of air or of particular fluids for filling various openings, as part of a selected configuration of the set of pieces.

  9. Retrieving Object Color: The Influence of Color Congruity and Test Format

    PubMed Central

    Cycowicz, Yael M.; Nessler, Doreen; Horton, Cort; Friedman, David

    2009-01-01

    Incongruous relative to congruous episodes engender better memory, but it is unclear whether recollection or familiarity is responsible. Hence, objects were encoded in either natural (yellow banana) or unnatural (blue banana) outline colors. ERPs were recorded while memory was assessed by item (IT) and source (ST) tasks. During IT, unnatural- relative to natural-color objects produced better memory and more positive parietal activity (500-600 ms) indicative of recollection. Surprisingly, the converse occurred in ST. Because the encoding task required a natural/unnatural decision, an unnatural-color object would have required activation of its natural counterpart to make an informed decision. Thus, source confusion during ST relative to IT would have led to a recollection disadvantage for unnatural-color objects. PMID:18766017

  10. Utility testing of an apple skin color MdMYB1 marker in two progenies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A reported allele-specific dCAP PCR marker associated with apple fruit red skin color was tested in 18 elite breeding parents and two apple cross populations. Among all tested cultivars except one, a consistent relationship was observed between red fruit color and the presence of allele. In both pop...

  11. A Randomized Experiment to Compare Conventional, Computerized, and Computerized Adaptive Administration of Ordinal Polytomous Attitude Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hol, A. Michiel; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

    2005-01-01

    A total of 520 high school students were randomly assigned to a paper-and-pencil test (PPT), a computerized standard test (CST), or a computerized adaptive test (CAT) version of the Dutch School Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ), consisting of ordinal polytomous items. The CST administered items in the same order as the PPT. The CAT administered all…

  12. Color-object interference: further tests of an executive control account.

    PubMed

    La Heij, Wido; Boelens, Harrie

    2011-01-01

    Young children are slower in naming the color of a meaningful picture than in naming the color of an abstract form (Stroop-like color-object interference). The current experiments tested an executive control account of this phenomenon. First, color-object interference was observed in 6- and 8-year-olds but not in 12- and 16-year-olds (Experiment 1). Second, meaningful pictures did not interfere in 5- to 7-year-olds' manual sorting of objects on the basis of color (Experiment 2) or in their naming the number of colored objects in the display, that is, subitizing (Experiment 3). These findings provide support for the view that color-object interference results from the children's immature inhibition of the prepotent but irrelevant task of object naming. PMID:20869723

  13. Comparative diagnostic value of a new computerized vectorcardiographic method (cardiogoniometry) and other noninvasive tests in medically treated patients with chest pain

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, A.; Hoeflin, F.H.; Herrmann, H.J.; Wolf, C.; Gurtner, H.P.; Roesler, H.

    1987-05-01

    The diagnostic value of cardiogoniometry (CGM), a new computerized vectorcardiographic method, for the identification of coronary artery disease was compared with other noninvasive tests in 48 medically treated patients with chest pain. Coronary angiography revealed one-vessel disease in 18, two- or three-vessel disease in 21, and normal coronary arteries in 9 patients. Cardiogoniometry was less sensitive (63%) than thallium-/sup 201/ (201T1) scanning (82%), but slightly more sensitive than the exercise ECG (50%) or a recently proposed parameter of exercise performance (50%). On the other hand, specificity was comparable among these tests (exercise ECG 78%, thallium-201 scanning 72%, CGM 67%, new parameter of exercise performance 66%). Moreover, the false negative rate of noninvasive testing was reduced from 8 to 3% when CGM was added to thallium-201 scanning and exercise ECG. Our findings indicate that in view of the easier feasibility with computerized technology, the future role of vectorcardiographic methods such as CGM in the noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease should be redefined.

  14. Experimental Tests for Heritable Morphological Color Plasticity in Non-Native Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Westley, Peter A. H.; Stanley, Ryan; Fleming, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    The success of invasive species is frequently attributed to phenotypic plasticity, which facilitates persistence in novel environments. Here we report on experimental tests to determine whether the intensity of cryptic coloration patterns in a global invader (brown trout, Salmo trutta) was primarily the result of plasticity or heritable variation. Juvenile F1 offspring were created through experimental crosses of wild-caught parents and reared for 30 days in the laboratory in a split-brood design on either light or dark-colored gravel substrate. Skin and fin coloration quantified with digital photography and image analysis indicated strong plastic effects in response to substrate color; individuals reared on dark substrate had both darker melanin-based skin color and carotenoid-based fin colors than other members of their population reared on light substrate. Slopes of skin and fin color reaction norms were parallel between environments, which is not consistent with heritable population-level plasticity to substrate color. Similarly, we observed weak differences in population-level color within an environment, again suggesting little genetic control on the intensity of skin and fin colors. Taken as whole, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that phenotypic plasticity may have facilitated the success of brown trout invasions and suggests that plasticity is the most likely explanation for the variation in color intensity observed among these populations in nature. PMID:24260385

  15. Using color-color diagrams to test models for the 'blue bump'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, O.; Mcdowell, J. C.; Elvis, M.; Wilkes, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    Color-color diagrams are used to study the set of accretion disk plus power-law models and to determine whether they can adequately fit the optical/UV continua of a sample of 34 quasars, and the soft X-ray excesses measured for seven of the sample objects by Masnou et al. (1991). The loci of pure disk models for cos theta is greater than 0 are virtually superimposed on each other regardless of cos theta, demonstrating that a given observed spectrum cannot be described by a unique combination of S and cos theta. The distributions of model and data colors are found to overlap, showing that the disk plus power-law models do fit the distribution of data colors. For six of the seven objects, the soft X-ray excesses may be fit with an accretion disk plus power-law model without requiring the assumption of super-Eddington accretion; this shows the utility of employing Kerr disks.

  16. Additional usage possibilities for the computerized Hess screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svede, Aiga; Dzenis, Janis

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to work out a method how to use the computerized Hess screen in proximal vergence measurements. Proximal vergence or vergence due to knowledge of nearness is one of four independent components making up the total vergence response. Proximal vergence is expressed as a ratio - proximal convergence/test distance (PC/T). The computerized Hess screen is usually used to detect and to measure an ocular misalignment in patients with paralytic strabismus in different directions of gaze. The computerized Hess screen can be used to assess PC/T ratio in different directions of gaze, providing the open-loop disparity vergence and accommodation systems and assuming that tonic vergence is stable. The fusional system loop is opned using red/green filter goggles, objects with different size and color, a completely darkened room, and vertical dissociation (using a prism). The accommodation system loop is opened using pinhole. The test was performed on 16 neurologically and binocularly normal subjects (14 women, 2 men; average 24 y., 20-38 y.) Average PC/T ratio in a primary position for the whole group was 2.8pd/D with a standard deviation +/-0.8 pd/D, which correlates with results in literature obtained by other methods.

  17. [Limitations of the traditional manometric test and advantages of computerized manometry in the study of esophageal motility].

    PubMed

    Zaninotto, G; Costantini, M; Polo, R; Rossi, M; Finco, C; Cecolin, G; Sebartoli, G; Ancona, E

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of esophageal motility tracings is laborious, time consuming and subject to reader variability. The motility traces of five patients were analyzed separately by five experienced readers, in order to assess the inter and intra observer variability. Later on, the manual analysis of the motility traces of five healthy volunteers and four patients was compared to the automatic analysis performed by a computerized system. The inter- and intra-observer variability (expressed as coefficient of variation) was high in the manual analysis, especially for the abdominal length of the lower sphincter and the duration of the esophageal body contractions (coefficient of variation ranging from 18 to 43%). On the contrary, automatic readings proved almost identical to the means obtained by manual analysis (Pearson factor 0.988 for amplitude and 0.89 for the duration of contractions). Moreover, the computerized automatic analysis gave a significant time gain in respect to manual readings and eliminated the inter and intra-observer variability. PMID:1873325

  18. Assessment of the hemispheric lateralization of grapheme-color synesthesia with stroop-type tests.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Mathieu J; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia, the idiosyncratic, arbitrary association of colors to letters or numbers, develops in childhood once reading is mastered. Because language processing is strongly left-lateralized in most individuals, we hypothesized that grapheme-color synesthesia could be left-lateralized as well. We used synesthetic versions of the Stroop test with colored letters and numbers presented either in the right or the left visual field of thirty-four synesthetes. Interference by synesthetic colors was stronger for stimuli in the right hemifield (first experiment, color naming task). Synesthetes were also faster in the right hemifield when naming the synesthetic color of graphemes (second experiment). Overall, the lateralization effect was 7 ms (the 95% confidence interval was [1.5 12] ms), a delay compatible with an additional callosal transfer for stimuli presented in the left hemifield. Though weak, this effect suggests that the association of synesthetic colors to graphemes may be preferentially processed in the left hemisphere. We speculate that this left-lateralization could be a landmark of synesthetic grapheme-color associations, if not found for color associations learnt by non-synesthete adults. PMID:25793307

  19. Assessment of the Hemispheric Lateralization of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia with Stroop-Type Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Mathieu J.; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia, the idiosyncratic, arbitrary association of colors to letters or numbers, develops in childhood once reading is mastered. Because language processing is strongly left-lateralized in most individuals, we hypothesized that grapheme-color synesthesia could be left-lateralized as well. We used synesthetic versions of the Stroop test with colored letters and numbers presented either in the right or the left visual field of thirty-four synesthetes. Interference by synesthetic colors was stronger for stimuli in the right hemifield (first experiment, color naming task). Synesthetes were also faster in the right hemifield when naming the synesthetic color of graphemes (second experiment). Overall, the lateralization effect was 7 ms (the 95% confidence interval was [1.5 12] ms), a delay compatible with an additional callosal transfer for stimuli presented in the left hemifield. Though weak, this effect suggests that the association of synesthetic colors to graphemes may be preferentially processed in the left hemisphere. We speculate that this left-lateralization could be a landmark of synesthetic grapheme-color associations, if not found for color associations learnt by non-synesthete adults. PMID:25793307

  20. Computerized training management system

    DOEpatents

    Rice, H.B.; McNair, R.C.; White, K.; Maugeri, T.

    1998-08-04

    A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) is disclosed for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base{trademark}, an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches. 18 figs.

  1. Computerized training management system

    DOEpatents

    Rice, Harold B. (Franklin Furnace, OH); McNair, Robert C. (East Setauket, NY); White, Kenneth (Shirley, NY); Maugeri, Terry (Wading River, NY)

    1998-08-04

    A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base.RTM., an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches.

  2. The stability of color discrimination threshold determined using pseudoisochromatic test plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zutere, B.; Jurasevska Luse, K.; Livzane, A.

    2014-09-01

    Congenital red-green color vision deficiency is one of the most common genetic disorders. A previously printed set of pseudoisochromatic plates (KAMS test, 2012) was created for individual discrimination threshold determination in case of mild congenital red-green color vision deficiency using neutral colors (colors confused with gray). The diagnostics of color blind subjects was performed with Richmond HRR (4th edition, 2002) test, Oculus HMC anomaloscope, and further the examination was made using the KAMS test. 4 male subjects aged 20 to 24 years old participated in the study: all of them were diagnosed with deuteranomalia. Due to the design of the plates, the threshold of every subject in each trial was defined as the plate total color difference value ?E at which the stimulus was detected 75% of the time, so the just-noticeable difference (jnd) was calculated in CIE LAB DeltaE (?E) units. Authors performed repeated discrimination threshold measurements (5 times) for all four subjects under controlled illumination conditions. Psychophysical data were taken by sampling an observer's performance on a psychophysical task at a number of different stimulus saturation levels. Results show that a total color difference value ?E threshold exists for each individual tested with the KAMS pseudoisochromatic plates, this threshold value does not change significantly in multiple measurements. Deuteranomal threshold values aquired using greenish plates of KAMS test are significantly higher than thresholds acquired using reddish plates. A strong positive correlation (R=0.94) exists between anomaloscope matching range (MR) and deuteranomal thresholds aquired by the KAMS test and (R=0.81) between error score in the Richmond HRR test and thresholds aquired by the KAMS test.

  3. Real time computerization of two-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Garcia, E; Gueret, P; Bennett, M; Corday, E; Zwehl, W; Meerbaum, S; Corday, S; Swan, H J; Berman, D

    1981-06-01

    A computerized system was developed for real time acquisition, enhanced processing, analysis, and display of cross-sectional images of the left ventricle derived by two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE). The new methodology couples a standard medical imaging computer system to the video output of any current 2DE unit, uses a 128 x 128 or 64 x 64 matrix window and stores the real time 30 frames/sec digitized images on a magnetic disk. Computerized beat-to-beat and frame-by-frame processing employs space-time smoothing the automatic detection of endocardial interfaces by standard threshold and second derivative techniques. Multiple views are displayed in real time with 256 levels of gray and color. The methodology was used to analyze and graphically display frame-by-frame changes throughout the cardiac cycle. In addition, regional wall motion and thickness were analyzed in 12 sectors of individual cross-sections using a standardized angular subdivision originating at the center of area and indexed by an external reference point. An algorithm was developed to correct cross-sectional interference definition from the commonly used trailing-to-leading edge to the more valid leading-to-leading outline technique. Computerized analysis of spatial and temporal variations of cardiac contraction were demonstrated in several clinical and experimental applications, including bicycle exercise testing, investigation of acute myocardial infarction, and assessment of interventions. Initial evaluation indicates that the new real time computerized digital acquisition and data analysis represents a major advances toward quantitation of left ventricular function using 2DE. PMID:7234656

  4. Simultaneous assessment of cognitive and affective functions in multiple system atrophy and cortical cerebellar atrophy in relation to computerized touch-panel screening tests.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Yuko; Ikeda, Yoshio; Deguchi, Kentaro; Kurata, Tomoko; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Sato, Kota; Kono, Syoichiro; Yunoki, Taijun; Omote, Yoshio; Yamashita, Toru; Abe, Koji

    2015-04-15

    Cognitive impairment and affective dysfunction of multiple system atrophy (MSA) and cortical cerebellar atrophy (CCA) have not been simultaneously examined comparing standard test batteries and a sensitive tool to detect subtle cognitive decline in patients. In the present study, we simultaneously examined cognitive and affective ability in MSA with predominant cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C, n=25), MSA with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P, n=8), and CCA (n=14) patients using computerized touch panel screening tests. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Hasegawa dementia scale-revised (HDS-R), frontal assessment battery (FAB), and Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) scores were significantly lower in MSA-C patients than in age-and gender-matched normal controls. One MSA-C patient showed a decrease in the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of the frontal lobe. MSA-P patients showed no such cognitive decline. Only FAB and MoCA scores were significantly lower in the CCA patients. MSA and CCA patients also showed a mild to moderate depressive state. Touch-panel screening tests demonstrated a significant decline of beating devils game in all three disease groups including MSA-P patients, and a significant extension of the flipping cards game only in MSA-C patients. The present study demonstrated different cognitive and affective functions among MSA-C, MSA-P, and CCA patients, and a sensitive screening method for cognitive assessment using touch-panel tests. PMID:25727351

  5. The Measurement of Creativity by the Stroop Color and Word Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Charles J.

    1975-01-01

    The relationship of the Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT) to three independent measures of creativity: a verbal task, nonverbal task and teacher ratings were investigated. The purpose of this investigation was to test the validity of the SCWT as a measure of creativity. (Author/DEP)

  6. A Group Version of the Stroop Color and Word Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Charles J.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to develop a form of the Stroop Test which could be used in both group and individual settings and serve as a basic form for interested researchers. Group and individual measures differ only in that the group test does not require a spoken response. (Author/BJG)

  7. Carotenoid pixels characterization under color space tests and RGB formulas for mesocarp of mango's fruits cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammad, Ahmed Yahya; Kassim, Farid Saad Eid Saad

    2010-01-01

    This study experimented the pulp (mesocarp) of fourteen cultivars were healthy ripe of Mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.) selected after picking from Mango Spp. namely Taimour [Ta], Dabsha [Da], Aromanis [Ar], Zebda [Ze], Fagri Kelan [Fa], Alphonse [Al], Bulbek heart [Bu], Hindi- Sinnara [Hi], Compania [Co], Langra [La], Mestikawi [Me], Ewais [Ew], Montakhab El Kanater [Mo] and Mabroka [Ma] . Under seven color space tests included (RGB: Red, Green and Blue), (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (HSL: Hue, Saturation and Lightness), (CMYK%: Cyan%, Magenta%, Yellow% and Black%), (HSV: Hue, Saturation and Value), (HşSB%: Hueş, Saturation% and Brightness%) and (Lab). (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (HSL: Hue, Saturation and Lightness), (CMYK%: Cyan%, Magenta%, Yellow% and Black%), (HSV: Hue, Saturation and Value), (HşSB%: Hueş, Saturation% and Brightness%) and (Lab). Addition, nine formula of color space tests included (sRGB 0÷1, CMY, CMYK, XYZ, CIE-L*ab, CIE-L*CH, CIE-L*uv, Yxy and Hunter-Lab) and (RGB 0÷FF/hex triplet) and Carotenoid Pixels Scale. Utilizing digital color photographs as tool for obtainment the natural color information for each cultivar then the result expounded with chemical pigment estimations. Our location study in the visual yellow to orange color degrees from the visible color of electromagnetic spectrum in wavelength between (~570 to 620) nm and frequency between (~480 to 530) THz. The results found carotene very strong influence in band Red while chlorophyll (a & b) was very lower subsequently, the values in band Green was depressed. Meanwhile, the general ratios percentage for carotenoid pixels in bands Red, Green and Blue were 50%, 39% and 11% as orderliness opposite the ratios percentage for carotene, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b which were 63%, 22% and 16% approximately. According to that the pigments influence in all color space tests and RGB formulas. Band Yellow% in color test (CMYK%) as signature color for carotene. Bands K% and band C were equal zero in almost cells indicted to a mystical induction for chlorophyll (a & b). The results detection two bands regard as numeric chromatic filter. In RGB formulas the digits of carotenoid pixels under the effects of the various bands followed two characters including (Separation and Isotopic) effects these consider numeric chromatography. Digits of carotenoid pixels physically are disparate the trend and features under each band mostly. The RGB formulas present treatment for the symmetrically values in the columns data of the total pigments percentage and color space tests. Our objective physical study for pigments carotene to present standard evolution for pigment estimations. Addition to study the possibility to obtainment numeric chromatography for separation accuracy of the pigments.

  8. Use of the color trails test as an embedded measure of performance validity.

    PubMed

    Henry, George K; Algina, James

    2013-01-01

    One hundred personal injury litigants and disability claimants referred for a forensic neuropsychological evaluation were administered both portions of the Color Trails Test (CTT) as part of a more comprehensive battery of standardized tests. Subjects who failed two or more free-standing tests of cognitive performance validity formed the Failed Performance Validity (FPV) group, while subjects who passed all free-standing performance validity measures were assigned to the Passed Performance Validity (PPV) group. A cutscore of ?45 seconds to complete Color Trails 1 (CT1) was associated with a classification accuracy of 78%, good sensitivity (66%) and high specificity (90%), while a cutscore of ?84 seconds to complete Color Trails 2 (CT2) was associated with a classification accuracy of 82%, good sensitivity (74%) and high specificity (90%). A CT1 cutscore of ?58 seconds, and a CT2 cutscore ?100 seconds was associated with 100% positive predictive power at base rates from 20 to 50%. PMID:23581577

  9. A novel useful tool of computerized touch panel-type screening test for evaluating cognitive function of chronic ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Kentaro; Kono, Syoichiro; Deguchi, Shoko; Morimoto, Nobutoshi; Kurata, Tomoko; Ikeda, Yoshio; Abe, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive and affective impairments are important non-motor features of ischemic stroke (IS) related to white-matter hyperintensity, including periventricular hyperintensity (PVH). To confirm the usefulness of a novel computerized touch panel-type screening test, we investigated cognitive and affective functioning among 142 IS patients and 105 age-and gender-matched normal control subjects. Assessment using the mini-mental state examination, Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, and frontal assessment battery revealed reduced cognitive function in IS patients, with the most severe reduction exhibited by cardiogenic embolism patients, followed by lacunar infarction patients, and atherothrombotic infarction patients. Our novel touch panel screening test revealed a similar pattern of results. In addition, PVH grading, classified using Fazekas' magnetic resonance imaging method, was also correlated with cognitive decline and touch panel screening test performance. In contrast, affective function, assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, vitality index, and apathy scale, was not significantly decreased in IS, and did not correlate with touch panel screening test results or PVH, although the number of microbleeds was correlated with apathy scale results. The present findings revealed that IS and PVH grading were significantly correlated with decline in general cognitive status (mini-mental state examination and Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised) and frontal lobe function (frontal assessment battery). Performance on all touch panel screening tests was correlated with IS and PVH grading, but was largely independent of depression or apathy. Touch panel screening tests were easily understood and performed by almost all patients with mild cognitive and motor dysfunction, due to visually clear images and simple methods not involving detailed manual-handling tasks such as writing. Touch panel screening tests may provide a useful tool for the early screening of cognitive function. PMID:23290436

  10. Estimation of Item Dimensional Measurement Direction Using Conditional Covariance Patterns. Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Daniel; Roussos, Louis; Stout, William

    Several nonparametric dimensionality assessment tools have demonstrated the usefulness of item pair conditional covariances as building blocks for investigating multidimensional test structure. Recently, J. Zhang and W. Stout (1999) have related the structural properties of conditional covariances in a generalized compensatory framework to a test

  11. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Genetic and Environmental Influences; Reading, Mental Ability, and Personality Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.; Segal, Nancy L.; Keyes, Margaret; Samuels, Jay

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates prior findings of reading, mental ability, and personality correlates of Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT) scores. In spite of significant correlations between the SCWT scores and selected measures of mental ability, genetic influence on SCWT scores was relatively unaffected when the influences of correlated ability measures were removed.…

  12. Predation Cost of Conspicuous Male Coloration in Collared Lizards (Crotaphytus collaris): An Experimental Test Using

    E-print Network

    Husak, Jerry F.

    Predation Cost of Conspicuous Male Coloration in Collared Lizards (Crotaphytus collaris): An Experimental Test Using Clay-Covered Model Lizards Jerry F. Husak*, Joseph M. Macedonia , Stanley F. Fox- ator (e.g., Endler 1991). As one example for lizards, populations of chuckwallas (Sauromalus obesus

  13. Interference as measured by the Stroop Color-Word Test and the Direction-Word Test with varied comparison stimuli.

    PubMed

    Cannon, B J

    1998-06-01

    The current investigation explored the influence of irrelevant stimuli on the standard Stroop color-word effect. Also investigated is the effectiveness of a new direction-related test which, unlike previous direction-related Stroop-like measures, exactly parallels format of the original Stroop in administration. This Direction-Word Test uses arrowheads at the ends of each target word to depict direction, e.g., left, right, and middle. 92 undergraduate students volunteered to participate. Analysis indicated that interference is found on the Color-Word Test, even with noncolor words as stimuli. Interference also occurred on the new Direction-Word Test. The correlation between the two forms of the Stroop effect was low, although significant, perhaps indicating there are different systems involved in response interference. PMID:9656302

  14. Computerized Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerardi, Robert J.; Benedict, Gary C.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews computerized information systems used for providing career, vocational, and educational information and guidance. Briefly describes three direct inquiry systems used for career planning. Lists advantages for students and counselors using such programs. (ABB)

  15. Correlations for the Stroop Color and Word Test with measures of reading and language achievement.

    PubMed

    Leverett, J Patrick; Lassiter, Kerry S; Buchanan, Gray M

    2002-04-01

    The present investigation examined the relationships for scores on the Stroop Color and Word Test with measures of reading and language achievement within an adult population. The Stroop Color and Word Test, Nelson-Denny Reading Test, Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised, and Wide Range Achievement Test-3 were administered to 99 men ranging in age from 18 to 27 years. Pearson product-moment correlations indicated that the Stroop Word task was positively associated with scores on the WRAT-3 Spelling task, the Woodcock-Johnson Basic and Broad Reading tasks, and the Nelson-Denny Rcading Rate and Comprehension tasks. These and other significant relationships were discussed in terms of possible implications regarding the assessment of reading achievement. PMID:12027339

  16. Computerized accounting methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the research performed under the Task Order on computerized accounting methods in a period from 03 August to 31 December 1994. Computerized nuclear material accounting methods are analyzed and evaluated. Selected methods are implemented in a hardware-software complex developed as a prototype of the local network-based CONMIT system. This complex has been put into trial operation for test and evaluation of the selected methods at two selected ``Kurchatov Institute`` Russian Research Center (``KI`` RRC) nuclear facilities. Trial operation is carried out since the beginning of Initial Physical Inventory Taking in these facilities that was performed in November 1994. Operation of CONMIT prototype system was demonstrated in the middle of December 1994. Results of evaluation of CONMIT prototype system features and functioning under real operating conditions are considered. Conclusions are formulated on the ways of further development of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. The most important conclusion is a need to strengthen computer and information security features supported by the operating environment. Security provisions as well as other LANL Client/Server System approaches being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory are recommended for selection of software and hardware components to be integrated into production version of CONMIT system for KI RRC.

  17. Visual determinants of reduced performance on the Stroop color-word test in normal aging individuals.

    PubMed

    van Boxtel, M P; ten Tusscher, M P; Metsemakers, J F; Willems, B; Jolles, J

    2001-10-01

    It is unknown to what extent the performance on the Stroop color-word test is affected by reduced visual function in older individuals. We tested the impact of common deficiencies in visual function (reduced distant and close acuity, reduced contrast sensitivity, and color weakness) on Stroop performance among 821 normal individuals aged 53 and older. After adjustment for age, sex, and educational level, low contrast sensitivity was associated with more time needed on card I (word naming), red/green color weakness with slower card 2 performance (color naming), and reduced distant acuity with slower performance on card 3 (interference). Half of the age-related variance in speed performance was shared with visual function. The actual impact of reduced visual function may be underestimated in this study when some of this age-related variance in Stroop performance is mediated by visual function decrements. It is suggested that reduced visual function has differential effects on Stroop performance which need to be accounted for when the Stroop test is used both in research and in clinical settings. Stroop performance measured from older individuals with unknown visual status should be interpreted with caution. PMID:11778639

  18. Some Features of the Sampling Distribution of the Ability Estimate in Computerized Adaptive Testing According to Two Stopping Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blais, Jean-Guy; Raiche, Gilles

    This paper examines some characteristics of the statistics associated with the sampling distribution of the proficiency level estimate when the Rasch model is used. These characteristics allow the judgment of the meaning to be given to the proficiency level estimate obtained in adaptive testing, and as a consequence, they can illustrate the…

  19. Development, test and evaluation of a computerized procedure for using Landsat data to estimate spring small grains acreage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, R. R. J.; Palmer, W. F.; Smyrski, M. M.; Baker, T. C.; Nazare, C. V.

    1982-01-01

    A number of methods which can provide information concerning crop acreages on the basis of a utilization of multispectral scanner (MSS) data require for their implementation a comparatively large amount of labor. The present investigation is concerned with a project designed to improve the efficiency of analysis through increased automation. The Caesar technique was developed to realize this objective. The processability rates of the Caesar procedure versus the historical state-of-the-art proportion estimation procedures were determined in an experiment. Attention is given to the study site, the aggregation technology, the results of the aggregation test, and questions of error characterization. It is found that the Caesar procedure, which has been developed for the spring small grains region of North America, is highly efficient and provides accurate results.

  20. Lack of sex differences on the Stroop Color-Word Test across three age groups.

    PubMed

    Daniel, D B; Pelotte, M; Lewis, J

    2000-04-01

    The present study investigated recent reports of sex differences on the Stroop Color-Word Test by age. Present results indicate no sex differences at 7-8 years, 9-10 years, and 18-24 years. The two school-age samples reported similar amounts of interference and significantly more than the college-age sample. Inconsistencies in the literature may be a function of response modality rather than interference. PMID:10833743

  1. 3. SOUTH TEST STAND WITH X15 IN PLACE. A color ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH TEST STAND WITH X-15 IN PLACE. A color photograph taken from a lift boom or from atop a truck, looking northwest to NASA hangars in the far distance. Also shows the shop building at left, and two observation bunkers with hatches open; one at right (Bldg. 1933) and the other in front of Liquid Oxygen tank truck at left (Bldg. 1934). - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Computerized Fleet Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldo, John J.

    The computerization of school bus maintenance records by the Niskayuna (New York) Central School District enabled the district's transportation department to engage in management practices resulting in significant savings. The district obtains computer analyses of the work performed on all vehicles, including time spent, parts, labor, costs,…

  3. Computerized Drug Information Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Smith, Daniel R.

    1972-01-01

    To compare computerized services in chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical medicine of pharmaceutical interest, equivalent profiles were run on magnetic tape files of CA-Condensates," CBAC," Excerpta Medica," MEDLARS" and Ringdoc." The results are tabulated for overlap of services, relative speed of citing references, and unique…

  4. Computerizing Your Attendance System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaby, Robert

    A computerized attendance system is presented that includes immediate access to attendance records and allows same-day notification to parents of a child's absence. The system, used at Carson City High School (Nevada), is broken down into five chronological steps, generating several possible attendance updates during the day: (1) compiling a…

  5. Computerized Language Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Steven

    1985-01-01

    The article describes a computerized language analysis system that produces a detailed description and summary statistics to track language growth within student populations. This microcomputer-based language assessment system simplifies identification of deficits in productive language, enabling the teacher or clinician to spend more time…

  6. Psychosocial Communication and Computerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Gunilla; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the effect of computerization of the work environment on psychosocial communication. The RAM program, developed at Stockholm University to explore the effect of computers on the structure of organizations and the psychosocial work environment, is described; theoretical models are explained; and the future use of knowledge-based systems…

  7. Disposable platform provides visual and color-based point-of-care anemia self-testing

    PubMed Central

    Tyburski, Erika A.; Gillespie, Scott E.; Stoy, William A.; Mannino, Robert G.; Weiss, Alexander J.; Siu, Alexa F.; Bulloch, Rayford H.; Thota, Karthik; Cardenas, Anyela; Session, Wilena; Khoury, Hanna J.; O’Connor, Siobhán; Bunting, Silvia T.; Boudreaux, Jeanne; Forest, Craig R.; Gaddh, Manila; Leong, Traci; Lyon, L. Andrew; Lam, Wilbur A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Anemia, or low blood hemoglobin (Hgb) levels, afflicts 2 billion people worldwide. Currently, Hgb levels are typically measured from blood samples using hematology analyzers, which are housed in hospitals, clinics, or commercial laboratories and require skilled technicians to operate. A reliable, inexpensive point-of-care (POC) Hgb test would enable cost-effective anemia screening and chronically anemic patients to self-monitor their disease. We present a rapid, stand-alone, and disposable POC anemia test that, via a single drop of blood, outputs color-based visual results that correlate with Hgb levels. METHODS. We tested blood from 238 pediatric and adult patients with anemia of varying degrees and etiologies and compared hematology analyzer Hgb levels with POC Hgb levels, which were estimated via visual interpretation using a color scale and an optional smartphone app for automated analysis. RESULTS. POC Hgb levels correlated with hematology analyzer Hgb levels (r = 0.864 and r = 0.856 for visual interpretation and smartphone app, respectively), and both POC test methods yielded comparable sensitivity and specificity for detecting any anemia (n = 178) (<11 g/dl) (sensitivity: 90.2% and 91.1%, specificity: 83.7% and 79.2%, respectively) and severe anemia (n = 10) (<7 g/dl) (sensitivity: 90.0% and 100%, specificity: 94.6% and 93.9%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS. These results demonstrate the feasibility of this POC color-based diagnostic test for self-screening/self-monitoring of anemia. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Not applicable. FUNDING. This work was funded by the FDA-funded Atlantic Pediatric Device Consortium, the Georgia Research Alliance, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, the Georgia Center of Innovation for Manufacturing, and the InVenture Prize and Ideas to Serve competitions at the Georgia Institute of Technology. PMID:25157824

  8. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  9. Comparison of the Commercial Color LCD and the Medical Monochrome LCD Using Randomized Object Test Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jay; Wu, Tung H.; Han, Rou P.; Chang, Shu J.; Shih, Cheng T.; Sun, Jing Y.; Hsu, Shih M.

    2012-01-01

    Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP) commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT) was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p?=?0.265) and OT (p?=?0.07). The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration. PMID:22701534

  10. Industrial computerized tomography applications

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.E.; Schneberk, D.J.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1991-02-01

    Over the past five years, we have performed research and developed many computerized tomography (CT) systems. Our CT R D efforts have been concentrated in three main areas: scanners, software tools, and applications. The first two areas are discussed in the next section. The CT systems (scanners and software tools) have been used to nondestructively evaluate (NDE) many industrial objects as discussed in the Applications section. We end by summarizing the use of these systems in NDE applications. 8 refs.

  11. Computerized forensic facial reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Wilkinson

    2005-01-01

    Forensic investigations frequently utilize facial reconstructions\\/approximations to stimulate recognition and identification.\\u000a Over the past 25 years, many computer-based systems have been developed, and with the recent rapid advances in medical imaging\\u000a and computer technology, the current systems claim high levels of efficiency, objectivity, and flexibility. The history of\\u000a computerized facial approximation\\/reconstruction is presented, along with a discussion of the advantages

  12. A marvel of colors and ingredients. The story of urine test strip.

    PubMed

    Voswinckel, P

    1994-11-01

    The history of the urinary test papers does not being in the post-war period. As early as the 1880's some practitioners and pharmacists tried to replace the complicated wet-chemical procedures and apparatus by "dry chemistry." The first popular test paper for sugar and albumin originated in England in 1883. Dry reagents for proving hematuria have been available since the beginning of this century. Until the 1930s a wide palette of commercial urine tests with "modern" brand names was established. A methodological breakthrough was created by the spot test chemistry inaugurated by the Austrian, Fritz Feigl, about 1920. Using the capillary properties of filter paper in enhancing color reactions he founded a new area of analytical chemistry. Many of the pioneers were recruited from Jewish scientists. In this lecture is proposed that their emigration and banishment as well as the Second World War have stopped the development of urinary diagnostics on the European continent. In the post-war period the American industry succeeded to the leading position in the researching and marketing of test papers. In 1956, the triumphal progress of the "stick tests" began with the "Clinistix" (Ames Company, today Bayer Diagnostic). PMID:7869669

  13. Color categories and color appearance.

    PubMed

    Webster, Michael A; Kay, Paul

    2012-03-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue-green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  14. Human skin-color sexual dimorphism: a test of the sexual selection hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Madrigal, Lorena; Kelly, William

    2007-03-01

    Applied to skin color, the sexual selection hypothesis proposes that male preference for light-skinned females explains the presence of light skin in areas of low solar radiation. According to this proposal, in areas of high solar radiation, natural selection for dark skin overrides the universal preference of males for light females. But in areas in which natural selection ceases to act, sexual selection becomes more important, and causes human populations to become light-skinned, and females to be lighter than males. The sexual selection hypothesis proposes that human sexual dimorphism of skin color should be positively correlated with distance from the equator. We tested the prediction that sexual dimorphism should increase with increasing latitude, using adult-only data sets derived from measurements with standard reflectance spectrophotometric devices. Our analysis failed to support the prediction of a positive correlation between increasing distance from the equator and increased sexual dimorphism. We found no evidence in support of the sexual selection hypothesis. PMID:16685728

  15. Cognitive and neuropathologic correlates of Stroop Color-Word Test performance in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bondi, Mark W; Serody, Adam B; Chan, Agnes S; Eberson-Shumate, Sonja C; Delis, Dean C; Hansen, Lawrence A; Salmon, David P

    2002-07-01

    The Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT; C. Golden, 1978) was examined in 59 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in 51 demographically comparable normal control (NC) participants. AD patients produced significantly larger Stroop interference effects than NC participants, and level of dementia severity significantly influenced SCWT performance. Principal-components analyses demonstrated a dissociation in the factor structure of the Stroop trials between NC participants and AD patients, suggesting that disruption of semantic knowledge and speeded verbal processing in AD may be a major contributor to impairment on the incongruent trial. Results of clinicopathologic correlations in an autopsy-confirmed AD subgroup further suggest the invocation of a broad network of integrated cortical regions and executive and language processes underlying successful SCWT performance. PMID:12146681

  16. The Discriminant Validity of the Stroop Color and Word Test: Toward a Cost-Effective Strategy to Distinguish Subgroups of Disruptive Preadolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavoie, Marc E.; Charlebois, Pierre

    1994-01-01

    Compared 16 disruptive preadolescent boys with symptoms of attention deficit (AD) to 16 disruptive boys without attention deficit (DIS) and 16 controls (CO) using Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT). Found AD group was significantly distinct (had lower score) in comparison to DIS and CO on color-word score. ADs showed more hesitations on color-word…

  17. Computerized valve packing program

    SciTech Connect

    Taraszki, R. [Argo Packing Co., Aurora, IL (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the advantages of a computerized valve packing program and demonstrate Valveman{trademark}, a windows based, completely automated valve packing program. With deregulation of the power industry, it is evident to be more competitive, utilities are decreasing maintenance staffs. This challenges the personnel to be more productive. One area that is usually duplicated by various groups on a site is valve packing. So it is evident that a way of simplifying this process is very beneficial, not only from an efficiency stand point but also to a greater consistency and higher quality level. By establishing a consistency, it is easier to change personnel with a minimum learning curve. Also, the administration can get a complete picture of each job for better evaluation or to measure performance.

  18. Tests of model of color reconnection and a search for glueballs using gluon jets with a rapidity gap

    E-print Network

    The OPAL collaboration; G. Abbiendi

    2003-06-06

    Gluon jets with a mean energy of 22 GeV and purity of 95% are selected from hadronic Z0 decay events produced in e+e- annihilations. A subsample of these jets is identified which exhibits a large gap in the rapidity distribution of particles within the jet. After imposing the requirement of a rapidity gap, the gluon jet purity is 86%. These jets are observed to demonstrate a high degree of sensitivity to the presence of color reconnection, i.e. higher order QCD processes affecting the underlying color structure. We use our data to test three QCD models which include a simulation of color reconnection: one in the Ariadne Monte Carlo, one in the Herwig Monte Carlo, and the other by Rathsman in the Pythia Monte Carlo. We find the Rathsman and Ariadne color reconnection models can describe our gluon jet measurements only if very large values are used for the cutoff parameters which serve to terminate the parton showers, and that the description of inclusive Z0 data is significantly degraded in this case. We conclude that color reconnection as implemented by these two models is disfavored. The signal from the Herwig color reconnection model is less clear and we do not obtain a definite conclusion concerning this model. In a separate study, we follow recent theoretical suggestions and search for glueball-like objects in the leading part of the gluon jets. No clear evidence is observed for these objects.

  19. SPITZER IRS SPECTRA OF LUMINOUS 8 {mu}m SOURCES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: TESTING COLOR-BASED CLASSIFICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Catherine L. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Kastner, Joel H. [Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Hrivnak, Bruce J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383 (United States); Sahai, Raghvendra [NASA/JPL, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)], E-mail: clb@unimelb.edu.au

    2009-12-15

    We present archival Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of 19 luminous 8 {mu}m selected sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The object classes derived from these spectra and from an additional 24 spectra in the literature are compared with classifications based on Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)/MSX (J, H, K, and 8 {mu}m) colors in order to test the 'JHK8' (Kastner et al.) classification scheme. The IRS spectra confirm the classifications of 22 of the 31 sources that can be classified under the JHK8 system. The spectroscopic classification of 12 objects that were unclassifiable in the JHK8 scheme allow us to characterize regions of the color-color diagrams that previously lacked spectroscopic verification, enabling refinements to the JHK8 classification system. The results of these new classifications are consistent with previous results concerning the identification of the most infrared-luminous objects in the LMC. In particular, while the IRS spectra reveal several new examples of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with O-rich envelopes, such objects are still far outnumbered by carbon stars (C-rich AGB stars). We show that Spitzer IRAC/MIPS color-color diagrams provide improved discrimination between red supergiants and oxygen-rich and carbon-rich AGB stars relative to those based on 2MASS/MSX colors. These diagrams will enable the most luminous IR sources in Local Group galaxies to be classified with high confidence based on their Spitzer colors. Such characterizations of stellar populations will continue to be possible during Spitzer's warm mission through the use of IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] and 2MASS colors.

  20. Color Constant Color Indexing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian V. Funt; Graham D. Finlayson

    1995-01-01

    Objects can be recognized on the basis of their color alone by color indexing, a technique developed by Swain-Ballard (1991) which involves matching color-space histograms. Color indexing fails, however, when the incident illumination varies either spatially or spectrally. Although this limitation might be overcome by preprocessing with a color constancy algorithm, we instead propose histogramming color ratios. Since the ratios

  1. The achromatic 'philosophical zombie', a syndrome of cerebral achromatopsia with color anopsognosia.

    PubMed

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    We describe a patient with persistent cerebral achromatopsia occurring after bilateral occipital strokes. Blinded color recognition was assessed with a computerized experimental paradigm and the patient reported the degree of confidence in the response exactness on a visual percent scale. Color recognition was accurate and above chance (Fisher's exact test, p < 0.002). The degree of confidence in the answers showed a significant correlation with recognition scores (Spearman rank order correlation, p < 0.0001). These findings constitute the exceptional condition of what we called color anopsognosia (not knowing of seeing colors) and recall the theoretic figure of the 'philosophical zombie'. However, the cognitive mechanisms of the dissociation between a subjective colorless vision and good performance for color naming still remain poorly understood. PMID:23687498

  2. The Achromatic ‘Philosophical Zombie’, a Syndrome of Cerebral Achromatopsia with Color Anopsognosia

    PubMed Central

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    We describe a patient with persistent cerebral achromatopsia occurring after bilateral occipital strokes. Blinded color recognition was assessed with a computerized experimental paradigm and the patient reported the degree of confidence in the response exactness on a visual percent scale. Color recognition was accurate and above chance (Fisher's exact test, p < 0.002). The degree of confidence in the answers showed a significant correlation with recognition scores (Spearman rank order correlation, p < 0.0001). These findings constitute the exceptional condition of what we called color anopsognosia (not knowing of seeing colors) and recall the theoretic figure of the ‘philosophical zombie’. However, the cognitive mechanisms of the dissociation between a subjective colorless vision and good performance for color naming still remain poorly understood. PMID:23687498

  3. An experimental test of female choice relative to male structural coloration in eastern bluebirds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Liu; Lynn Siefferman; Geoffrey E. Hill

    2007-01-01

    Several experimental studies have shown that female birds use ornamental melanin and carotenoid plumage coloration as criteria\\u000a in mate choice. Whether females choose mates based on natural variation in structural coloration, however, has not been well\\u000a established. Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) display brilliant ultraviolet (UV)-blue plumage coloration on their head, back, wings, and tail, which is positively correlated\\u000a with

  4. Proportional Slowing or Disinhibition in ADHD?: A Brinley Plot Meta-Analysis of Stroop Color and Word Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pocklington, Barbara; Maybery, Murray

    2006-01-01

    A meta-analysis in the form of Brinley plots was conducted on the mean reaction times of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Control groups of children and adolescents on the Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT). ADHD reaction times were regressed on Control group reaction times for 17 data sets (accessed from 13 published studies).…

  5. Patterns of Performance on the Stroop Color and Word Test in Children with Learning, Attentional, and Psychiatric Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Zarabeth L.; Golden, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the performance of children with learning, psychiatric, and attentional disabilities on the Stroop Color and Word Test. Results indicated clear differences between groups, with the learning disabled (LD) and the psychiatric/attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) groups generating unique profiles. Children with LD showed…

  6. Relationship between Shyness in Children and Constricted Cognitive Control as Measured by the Stroop Color-Word Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Robert P.; Lazarus, Philip J.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the relationship of shyness in children (N=103) to the constricted flexible dimension of cognitive control. Findings showed a significant difference in performance of the shy and nonshy group on the Stroop Color-Word Test. The shy group was less effective in maintaining performance in the presence of interfering stimuli. (JAC)

  7. Stroop Color-Word Test: A Screening Measure of Selective Attention to Differentiate LD From Non LD Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Philip J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Used the Stroop Color-Word Test to measure selective attention in learning disabled (N=45) and nonLD (N=50) children. Results indicated that LD children have a significant weakness in the process of selective attention compared to the nonLD children. Findings suggested that the Stroop is an effective screening measure. (JAC)

  8. Identifying Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder with the WISC-R and the Stroop Color and Word Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lufi, Dubi; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared 29 children with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), 21 emotionally disturbed (ED) children, and control (CO) group of 20 nonproblem children using 12 subtests of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and Stroop Color and Word Test. Results showed CO group superior to ADHD and ED groups and ED group superior to ADHD…

  9. Evaluation Plan for the Computerized Adaptive Vocational Aptitude Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bert F.; And Others

    The United States Armed Services are planning to introduce computerized adaptive testing (CAT) into the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB), which is a major part of the present personnel assessment procedures. Adaptive testing will improve efficiency greatly by assessing each candidate's answers as the test progresses and posing…

  10. The Colors of Hilda Group Asteroids: Complications For Use in Testing Dynamical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Erin L.; Noll, Keith; Woodward, Charles E.

    2014-11-01

    Hilda group asteroids are in a stable 3:2 resonance with Jupiter which may have been reshaped by giant planet migration in the early epochs of solar system formation. Although the population is currently dynamically stable, the dynamics of this population suggest at minimum an inward migration of Jupiter by ~0.4 AU (Franklin et al. 2004, AJ, 128, 1391). As this population of objects is relatively isolated, compositional types can be used to test dynamical models such as the Grand Tack and Nice Model which suggest that objects of outer solar system (beyond Saturn) origin would be found in the Hilda population. We have undertaken a multi-year observational program at the 2.3-m Bok Telescope to obtain compositional types for a large sample of Hilda group asteroids. With a preliminary sample of ~400 objects from our observations and the literature, we find complications for direct compositional tests of the giant planet migration models. Specifically, we find that the two dynamical families within the Hilda group, Schubart and Hilda, have disparate dynamical ages ( 1.7 +/- 0.7 Gyr vs > 4 Gyr ; Broz & Vokrouhlicky 2008, MNRAS, 390, 715) but similar colors not seen elsewhere in the Hilda group population. This suggests dynamical family members should be removed from samples when using Hilda group asteroid compositions as a test of giant planet migration models. This research was supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at Goddard Space Flight Center, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA. This work also funded by NASA Planetary Astronomy Grant NNX13AJ11G.

  11. The ocean color experiment (OCE) on the second orbital flight test of the Space Shuttle (OSTA-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Der Piepen, H.; Amann, V.; Helbig, H.; Kim, H. H.; Hart, W. D.; Fiuza, A. F. G.; Viollier, M.; Doerffer, R.

    1983-01-01

    The Ocean Color Experiment was one of the six remote-sensing experiments which for the first time were launched and successfully operated on board of the second flight of the Space Shuttle during November 1981. The experiment consists of a multispectral image scanner dedicated to the measurement of water color and its interpretation in terms of major water constituents and circulation patterns. The objectives of the experiment, the test site selection, and associated activities are described. The actual mission and results of an initial data analysis is discussed.

  12. Computerized molecular modeling of carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Computerized molecular modleing continues to increase in capability and applicability to carbohydrates. This chapter covers nomenclature and conformational aspects of carbohydrates, perhaps of greater use to carbohydrate-inexperienced computational chemists. Its comments on various methods and studi...

  13. Computerized Control of Environmental Systems

    E-print Network

    Gatti, F. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the actual implementation of two computerized environmental system maintenance control centers. Project "A" is a candy manufacturing plant where controlled systems included subfreezing storage, HVAC, and cold storage (40F to 55F...

  14. A color matching experiment using two displays: design considerations and pilot test results

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    focused on cross-media color matching, an application context that is different from color matching on two, although acceptable as average matches, can often be significantly and unacceptably different from 2006 model did not accurately predict the average Stiles-Burch observer data [5] for two subgroups

  15. Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

  16. Steep-Slope Assembly Testing of Clay and Concrete Tile With and Without Cool Pigmented Colors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A [ORNL

    2005-11-01

    Cool color pigments and sub-tile venting of clay and concrete tile roofs significantly impact the heat flow crossing the roof deck of a steep-slope roof. Field measures for the tile roofs revealed a 70% drop in the peak heat flow crossing the deck as compared to a direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The Tile Roofing Institute (TRI) and its affiliate members are keenly interested in documenting the magnitude of the drop for obtaining solar reflectance credits with state and federal "cool roof" building efficiency standards. Tile roofs are direct-nailed or are attached to a deck with batten or batten and counter-batten construction. S-Misson clay and concrete tile roofs, a medium-profile concrete tile roof, and a flat slate tile roof were installed on fully nstrumented attic test assemblies. Temperature measures of the roof, deck, attic, and ceiling, heat flows, solar reflectance, thermal emittance, and the ambient weather were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and directnailed asphalt shingle roof. ORNL measured the tile's underside temperature and the bulk air temperature and heat flows just underneath the tile for batten and counter-batten tile systems and compared the results to the conventional asphalt shingle.

  17. TESTING STELLAR POPULATION SYNTHESIS MODELS WITH SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY COLORS OF M31's GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Maccarone, Thomas J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Kundu, Arunav, E-mail: mpeacock@msu.edu [Eureka Scientific, Inc., 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602 (United States)

    2011-08-10

    Accurate stellar population synthesis models are vital in understanding the properties and formation histories of galaxies. In order to calibrate and test the reliability of these models, they are often compared with observations of star clusters. However, relatively little work has compared these models in the ugriz filters, despite the recent widespread use of this filter set. In this paper, we compare the integrated colors of globular clusters in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with those predicted from commonly used simple stellar population (SSP) models. The colors are based on SDSS observations of M31's clusters and provide the largest population of star clusters with accurate photometry available from the survey. As such, it is a unique sample with which to compare SSP models with SDSS observations. From this work, we identify a significant offset between the SSP models and the clusters' g - r colors, with the models predicting colors which are too red by g - r {approx} 0.1. This finding is consistent with previous observations of luminous red galaxies in the SDSS, which show a similar discrepancy. The identification of this offset in globular clusters suggests that it is very unlikely to be due to a minority population of young stars. The recently updated SSP model of Maraston and Stroembaeck better represents the observed g - r colors. This model is based on the empirical MILES stellar library, rather than theoretical libraries, suggesting an explanation for the g - r discrepancy.

  18. Research and Teaching: Does the Color-Coding of Examination Versions Affect College Science Students' Test Performance? Countering Claims of Bias

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    James Wandersee

    2007-09-01

    To circumvent the problem of academic dishonesty through the mass administration of multiple-choice exams in college classrooms, a study was conducted from 2003 to 2005, in which multiple versions of the same examination were color coded during testing in a large-enrollment classroom. Instructors reported that this color-coded exam system appeared to work remarkably well. However, some students strongly asserted that they only performed well on the blue tests, or that certain examination colors negatively affected their test performance. As a result, this study attempts to determine, through the investigation of the test scores earned by students on the different colored examination versions, whether there was any significant effect of examination paper color on student test performance.

  19. Testing the Relationship Between UV-VIS Color and TiO2 Content in the Lunar Maria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, J. J.; Lucey, P. G.

    2003-12-01

    Remotely sensed data are used to classify the lunar maria on the basis of "color"; where mature maria with steep UV-VIS continuum slopes are defined as "red", and those with relatively flatter continuum slopes are termed "blue". The canonical view is that large apparent color variations are due to TiO2 concentration, as TiO2 is the primary variable in lunar basalts, ranging from <1 wt.% to >14 wt.% TiO2. This interpretation was based on the observation of compositional and color extremes juxtaposed in Mare Serenitatis and Tranquillitatis. Lunar Prospector (LP) data allows direct testing of the assumption of the control of lunar UVVIS color by TiO2 in the mare. We compare LP gamma-ray (GRS) and neutron spectrometer (NS) data for TiO2 with Clementine Spectral Reflectance (CSR) data in order to examine basalts with a full range of TiO2 concentrations. Areas were selected on the basis of uniform color over 2-degree areas, to match the resolution of the LPGRS data. First we conducted a comparison between LP-GRS and LP-NS data. This comparison yields an approximate two-to-one correlation (the NS data exhibiting higher values), a significant amount of scatter (R2 = 0.63), and an offset +1.7 TiO2 NS data. This is an important observation as it shows that even direct measurements of surface TiO2 contain considerable uncertainty, even for the best possible scenario for determining TiO2 contents in the maria. A comparison of LPGRS TiO2 and CSR color data yields a poor correlation (R2 = 0.53), that is, UV-VIS color is a poor predictor of LPGRS TiO2 in mature mare. A comparison of LPNS and CSR color data, however, yields a better correlation (R2 = 0.85). On the basis of this preliminary analysis, we conclude that TiO2 controls UVVIS color in the mare. However, we will continue this analysis at the higher resolution accessible to LPNS data to further explore the correlation between data sets. We will present an empirical model that uses a relationship between LPNS and CSR UV-VIS data to predict TiO2 contents globally and at full Clementine resolution (250 m/pixel).

  20. What Is Color Blindness?

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Play next Play now Are You Color Blind? TEST - Duration: 12:04. by Good Mythical Morning 3, ... 04 Play next Play now Color Blindness Quiz Test, What Kind Of Colorblind Are You? (infographic) - Duration: ...

  1. Color adjustment techniques to improve utility of stereo flicker chronoscopy and chronometry assessment of serial optic disk photographs in glaucoma patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eikelboom, Robert H.; Yogesan, Kanagasingam; Barry, Christopher J.; Jitskaia, Ludmila; House, Phillip H.; Morgan, William H.

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a computerized stereo- flicker chronoscopy and chronometry system to improve the technique of neuroretinal optic disc rim assessment. Digitized stereo photographs of 22 eyes of glaucoma patients were analyzed subjectively by computerized flickering of serial images, and objectively by measuring the width of the neuroretinal rim at 18 positions around the optic disc. A major source of error was identified as color changes in the images over time. Color adjustment algorithms were developed and the assessments and measurements were repeated. For chronometry after color adjustment there was improvement to most of the tests on the data: agreement (50% to 73%), specificity (45% to 84%), positive agreement (50% to 71%) and negative agreement (50% to 73%). Sensitivity remained constant at about 55%.

  2. Effects of an On-Screen versus Bring-Your-Own Calculator Policy on Performance on the Computerized SAT I: Reasoning Test in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Potenza, Maria

    Students taking the paper-based Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) mathematics test are permitted to bring and use their own hand-held calculators, and this policy was continued for the computer-adaptive tests (CAT) designed for use in talent search programs. An on-screen calculator may also be used with the CAT. The bring-your-own option has raised…

  3. Development of a Computerized In-Basket Exercise for the Classroom: A Sales Management Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Michael M.; Barnes, John W.; Onken, Marina H.

    2006-01-01

    This article follows the development of a sales management in-basket exercise for use in the classroom. The authors have computerized the exercise and added features to allow for additional and more quantitative input from the students. The exercise has evolved and been tested in numerous classroom situations. The computerized in-basket exercise…

  4. A versatile transition metal salt reaction for a wide range of common biochemical reagents: an instantaneous and quantifiable color test.

    PubMed

    Fleming, N; Nixon, R A

    1986-05-01

    A rapid and sensitive spot test amenable to visual or spectrophotometric quantitation has been developed for a wide variety of biochemical reagents by utilizing the transition metal salt cupric chloride and its large number of related colored compounds. This assay is potentially a widely applicable multipurpose test for rapidly detecting the presence of unknown substances. Combination of the test sample with the working reagent results in the immediate formation of a distinctive colored product that may be precipitable. Some compounds require the further addition of sodium hydroxide in order to generate the distinctively colored product. Distinctive reactions occur with the following reagents, and their limit of visual detection is indicated in parentheses: ammonium bicarbonate (12.5 mM), ammonium acetate (25 mM), ammonium hydroxide (0.1%), ammonium sulfate (2%), ammonium persulfate (0.02 mM), L-(+)-cysteine (0.07 mM), dithiothreitol (DTT) (1.25 mM), EDTA (0.6 mM), ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether) N,N'-tetraacetic acid (5 mM), D-glucose (6 mM), glycerol (0.3%), imidazol (12.5 mM), DL-methionine (100 mM), mercaptoethanol (0.05%), sodium azide (19 mM, 0.1%), sodium dithionite (0.25%), sodium metabisulfite (25 mM), sodium nitrite (6.2 mM), sodium periodate (3.1 mM), sodium sulfite (12.5 mM), sodium thiosulfite (12.5 mM), sucrose (6 mM), and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (0.05%). A distinctive exothermic reaction occurs with hydrogen peroxide, but without color change. Compounds reacting insignificantly include 50 mM Tris buffer, urea, N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide, sodium dodecyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, sodium fluoride, trichloroacetic acid, phenol, mannose, K2HPO4, guanidine HCl, chloramine-T, magnesium chloride, and boric acid, where the solids were tested at approximately 10 mg/ml. Spectrophotometric standard curves were developed for DTT and sodium azide utilizing the clear supernatants resulting from these reactions. Combinations of at least four reagents could be discriminated, as demonstrated with mixtures of glucose, sodium azide, EDTA, and DTT. In addition ammonium sulfate could be detected to a limit of 4% in the presence of protein, DTT, and EDTA in a 50 mM Tris buffer. Spot tests were developed which utilized reagent-impregnated filter paper and gave distinctive colored products on addition of 5 microliter of test sample. PMID:3728975

  5. Color Theory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Sturgell

    2009-12-02

    This project will be used to teach the importance of color. Watch the following video about color Primary Colors Click on the link Exploration of Color. When you get into the website select the different colors to see what secondary colors are made from the primary colors. Review the following siteColor Theory and then design and paint a color wheel. ...

  6. "Does Hope Change? Testing a Project-Based Health Intervention among Urban Students of Color"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusevics, Kaija L.; Johnson, Sheri

    2014-01-01

    Hope is positively correlated with educational attainment and health. Interventions based on project-based learning (PBL) may increase youth hope. This study examined how a PBL intervention affected hope among urban students of color. Students in health classes were invited to participate. A PBL health class was implemented in four classrooms. The…

  7. Block Design Test Performance as a Function of Race and Block Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Nancy B.; Pollack, Robert H.

    The purpose of this study was to see if a relationship between color sensitivity and skin pigmentation would affect performance on the WISC block design subtest when both the standard red/white design and the blue/yellow design were used. It was hypothesized that the white children would perform better overall because black children have been…

  8. COMP (Computerized Operational Materials Prescription).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkranz, Catherine I.

    Described is Project COMP (Computerized Operational Materials Prescription), an individualized reading instructional program for educable mentally retarded (EMR) children in regular or special classes. The program is designed to correlate with the Wisconsin Design for Reading (WDR) and to utilize a diagnostic teaching specialist who uses specific…

  9. Experimental Computerized Alarm Display System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1979-01-01

    Computer-based systems are being used in an increasing number of nuclear materials management and safeguards applications. The goal of the Experimental Computerized Alarm Display System (ECADS) project is to demonstrate and evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of hardware components and software techniques for security console communication and interaction. The focus of these investigations is on the human factors of

  10. Computerized Clinical Electroencephalography in Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Barlow

    1979-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of computerized clinical electroencephalography (EEG) are surveyed, with particular reference to techniques of analysis of background (stationary) EEG activity, transient (nonstationary) activity, and to integrated systems for multichannel clinical EEG's. A variety of approaches have been used for the basic EEG analyses. For background activity, the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and autoregressive approaches have predominated.

  11. Development of a computerized adverse drug event monitor.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R. S.; Pestotnik, S. L.; Classen, D. C.; Bass, S. B.; Menlove, R. L.; Gardner, R. M.; Burke, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    Adverse events during drug therapy are receiving renewed attention. Some adverse drug events (ADEs) are identified only after the widespread clinical use of a drug. The Food and Drug Administration advocates post-marketing surveillance systems to provide early warnings of previously undetected ADEs. The identification of ADEs by U.S. hospitals is now required by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. We developed a series of computer programs and data files on the HELP System to help identify ADEs. The HELP System monitors laboratory test results, drug orders, and data entered through a computerized ADE reporting program. A nurse or pharmacist verifies computer alerts of possible ADEs. The computerized system identified 401 ADEs during the first year of use compared to 9 by voluntary reporting methods during the previous year (p less than 0.001). This paper describes the development and early use of the computerized ADE surveillance system. PMID:1807594

  12. Will Claims Workers Dislike a Computerized Fraud Detector?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Smith

    2002-01-01

    The computerized fraud detector (CFRD) assigns suspicion scores to questionable automobile insurance claims. Evaluators pilot tested this algorithm in three offices, comparing its effects with three matched offices. Observers uncovered that in two target offices and one comparison office, Millennium 2000 (M2K) also was being installed. The study design thus became as follows: Two offices had two interventions, one office

  13. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. II. A TEST ON THE NONLINEARITY SCENARIO FOR COLOR BIMODALITY USING THE u-BAND COLORS: THE CASE OF M87 (NGC 4486)

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Hak-Sub; Cho, Jaeil; Chung, Chul [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Sangmo T. [Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Blakeslee, John P., E-mail: sjyoon@galaxy.yonsei.ac.kr [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2011-12-20

    The optical color distributions of globular clusters (GCs) in most large elliptical galaxies are bimodal. Based on the assumed linear relationship between GC colors and their metallicities, the bimodality has been taken as evidence of two GC subsystems with different metallicities in each galaxy and has led to a number of theories in the context of galaxy formation. More recent observations and modeling of GCs, however, suggests that the color-metallicity relations (CMRs) are inflected, and thus colors likely trace metallicities in a nonlinear manner. The nonlinearity could produce bimodal color distributions from a broad underlying metallicity spread, even if it is unimodal. Despite the far-reaching implications, whether CMRs are nonlinear and whether the nonlinearity indeed causes the color bimodality are still open questions. Given that the spectroscopic refinement of CMRs is still very challenging, we here propose a new photometric technique to probe the possible nonlinear nature of CMRs. In essence, a color distribution of GCs is a 'projected' distribution of their metallicities. Since the form of CMRs hinges on which color is used, the shape of color distributions varies depending significantly on the colors. Among other optical colors, the u-band related colors (e.g., u - g and u - z) are theoretically predicted to exhibit significantly less inflected CMRs than other preferred CMRs (e.g., for g - z). As a case study, we performed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFPC2 archival u-band photometry for the M87 (NGC 4486) GC system with confirmed color bimodality. We show that the u-band color distributions are significantly different from that of g - z and consistent with our model predictions. With more u-band measurements, this method will support or rule out the nonlinear CMR scenario for the origin of GC color bimodality with high confidence. The HST/WFC3 observations in F336W for nearby large elliptical galaxies are highly anticipated in this regard.

  14. Testing limits on matte surface color perception in three-dimensional scenes with complex light fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Doerschner; H. Boyaci; L. T. Maloney

    2007-01-01

    We investigated limits on the human visual system’s ability to discount directional variation in complex lights field when estimating Lambertian surface color. Directional variation in the light field was represented in the frequency domain using spherical harmonics.The bidirectional reflectance distribution function of a Lambertian surface acts as a low-pass filter on directional variation in the light field. Consequently, the visual

  15. Reliability Concerns in the Repeated Computerized Assessment of Attention in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Andrew Zabel; Christian von Thomsen; Carolyn Cole; Rebecca Martin; E. Mark Mahone

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of attentional processes via computerized assessment is frequently used to quantify intra-individual cognitive improvement or decline in response to treatment. However, assessment of intra-individual change is highly dependent on sufficient test reliability. We examined the test–retest reliability of selected variables from one popular computerized continuous performance test (CPT)—i.e., the Conners’ CPT – Second Edition (CPT-II). Participants were 39 healthy

  16. Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

  17. High-School Chemistry Students' Performance and Gender Differences in a Computerized Molecular Modeling Learning Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nitza Barnea; Yehudit J. Dori

    1999-01-01

    Computerized molecular modeling (CMM) contributes to the development of visualization skills via vivid animation of three dimensional representations. Its power to illustrate and explore phenomena in chemistry teaching stems from the convenience and simplicity of building molecules of any size and color in a number of presentation styles. A new CMM-based learning environment for teaching and learning chemistry in Israeli

  18. Feasibility tests for treating shampoo and hair colorant wastewaters using anaerobic processes.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, Shaikh Z; Yakubu, A; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

    2012-01-01

    Wastes from the personal care product (PCP) industry are often high in biodegradable carbon, which makes them amenable to aerobic biological treatment, although process costs are usually high due to aeration inefficiencies, high electricity demand and production of large amounts of sludge. As such, anaerobic treatment technologies are being considered to lower net energy costs by reducing air use and increasing methane production. To assess the amenability of PCP wastes to anaerobic treatment, methane yields and rates were quantified in different anaerobic reactors treating typical PCP wastes, including wastes from shampoo and hair colorant products. Overall, shampoo wastes were more amenable to methanogenesis with almost double the methane yields compared with colour wastes. To assess relevant microbial guilds, qPCR was performed on reactor biomass samples. Methanosaetaceae abundances were always significantly higher than Methanosarcinaceae and Methanomicrobiales abundances (P < 0.05), and did not differ significantly between waste types. Although colour wastes were less amenable to anaerobic treatment than shampoo wastes, differences cannot be explained by relative microbial abundances and probably result from the presence of inhibiting compounds in hair colorants (e.g., oxidants) at higher levels. Results showed that anaerobic technologies have great potential for treating PCP wastes, but additional work is needed to establish the basis of elevated methane yields and inhibition, especially when colorant wastes are present. PMID:22233909

  19. Comparing color-word and picture-word Stroop-like effects: a test of the Glaser and Glaser (1989) model.

    PubMed

    De Houwer, J; Fias, W; d'Ydewalle, G

    1994-01-01

    Glaser and Glaser (1989) assume that the processing of colors and pictures is highly similar in that, compared to words, both kinds of stimulis have privileged access to semantic information. This assumption was tested in the present research. In Experiment 1, the season corresponding to the color or to the word of color-word Stroop stimuli had to be named (e.g., green for spring). In Experiment 2, subjects had to name the season corresponding to the picture or the word of a picture-word stimulus (e.g., flower for spring). According to Glaser and Glaser (1989), privileged semantic processing of colors and pictures should be evidenced by a larger interfering power of color and picture distractors than of word distractors. However, the asymmetric pattern of interference was observed only with picture-word stimuli (Experiment 2), but not with color-word stimuli (Experiment 1), suggesting that, unlike pictures, colors do not have privileged access to semantic information. It was also found that word distractors interfered with the semantic processing of pictures, a result that is incompatible with the dominance rule postulated by Glaser and Glaser (1989). From these results, an adapted version of the Glaser and Glaser model is proposed: colors are assumed to have privileged access to a separate color-processing system and the pattern of interference depends upon the relative activation strength of the response alternatives activated by the target and the distractor. PMID:8090863

  20. Foreign Language Experience and Color Word Interference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, Cyrus R.

    If various color names are printed in various color inks, an observer has great difficulty in rapidly naming the ink colors (Stroop Color Word Test) unless the color names and the ink colors are mutually reinforcing, or the color names are unknown to the observer. The latter suggests a partial measure of second-language fluency, the feasibility of…

  1. Development of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner for NIMBUS 7. Volume 2: Test and performance data, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner protoflight tests are examined in detail while some of the test results are evaluated with respect to expected performance. Performance characteristics examined include spectral response, signal to noise ratio as a function of radiance input, radiance response, the modulation transfer function, and the field of view and coregistration. The results of orbital sequence tests are also included. The in orbit performance or return of radiometric data in the six spectral bands is evaluated along with the data processing sequence necessary to derive the final data products. Examples of the raw data are given and the housekeeping or diagnostic data which provides information on the day to day health or status of the instrument are discussed.

  2. The Stroop task: comparison between the original paradigm and computerized versions in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Penner, Iris-Katharina; Kobel, Maja; Stöcklin, Markus; Weber, Peter; Opwis, Klaus; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    The Stroop task has a long-standing history in psychological research and diagnostics, and many variants have emerged. Computerized versions have recently gained popularity because of their applicability in brain-imaging studies. It remains unclear, however, whether computerized versions are content valid with reference to the original task. We compare the performance in the original task with two computerized versions. All three versions show high test-retest reliability and are able to elicit interference effects, but to varying degrees. However, performances in the computerized versions and in the original task do not correlate. The transition from oral to manual response and from listed to single stimulus presentation seems not only to diminish the interference effect, but also to alter its nature in such a way that it no longer looks genuinely "Stroop-like". These findings have important clinical implications on the use and interpretation of computerized Stroop tasks in children and adults. PMID:22928670

  3. Iterative Evaluation in a Mobile Counseling and Testing Program to Reach People of Color at Risk for HIV--New Strategies Improve Program Acceptability, Effectiveness, and Evaluation Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberg, Freya; Kurth, Ann; Reidy, William; McKnight, Teka; Dikobe, Wame; Wilson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights findings from an evaluation that explored the impact of mobile versus clinic-based testing, rapid versus central-lab based testing, incentives for testing, and the use of a computer counseling program to guide counseling and automate evaluation in a mobile program reaching people of color at risk for HIV. The program's…

  4. The Color Object Association Test (COAT): The Development of a New Measure of Declarative Memory for 18- to 36-Month-Old Toddlers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine M. Jordan; Andrea L. Johnson; Steven J. Hughes; Elsa G. Shapiro

    2007-01-01

    Few methods exist to measure declarative (explicit) memory in children during the toddler and preschool stages of development. We report the development and psychometric properties of a new measure of declarative memory for this age group, the Color Object Association Test (COAT). In pilot testing and large scale application of the test, the COAT was demonstrated to be a reliable

  5. Clinical applications of computerized thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anbar, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Computerized or digital, thermography is a rapidly growing diagnostic imaging modality. It has superseded contact thermography and analog imaging thermography which do not allow effective quantization. Medical applications of digital thermography can be classified in two groups: static and dynamic imaging. They can also be classified into macro thermography (resolution greater than 1 mm) and micro thermography (resolution less than 100 microns). Both modalities allow a thermal resolution of 0.1 C. The diagnostic power of images produced by any of these modalities can be augmented by the use of digital image enhancement and image recognition procedures. Computerized thermography has been applied in neurology, cardiovascular and plastic surgery, rehabilitation and sports medicine, psychiatry, dermatology and ophthalmology. Examples of these applications are shown and their scope and limitations are discussed.

  6. Measuring Global Physical Health in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Illustration of a Multidimensional Bi-factor Model and Computerized Adaptive Testing

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Stephen M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Dumas, Helene M.; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Montpetit, Kathleen; Bilodeau, Nathalie; Gorton, George E.; Watson, Kyle; Tucker, Carole A

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to apply a bi-factor model for the determination of test dimensionality and a multidimensional CAT using computer simulations of real data for the assessment of a new global physical health measure for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Parent respondents of 306 children with cerebral palsy were recruited from four pediatric rehabilitation hospitals and outpatient clinics. We compared confirmatory factor analysis results across four models: (1) one-factor unidimensional; (2) two-factor multidimensional (MIRT); (3) bi-factor MIRT with fixed slopes; and (4) bi-factor MIRT with varied slopes. We tested whether the general and content (fatigue and pain) person score estimates could discriminate across severity and types of CP, and whether score estimates from a simulated CAT were similar to estimates based on the total item bank, and whether they correlated as expected with external measures. Results Confirmatory factor analysis suggested separate pain and fatigue sub-factors; all 37 items were retained in the analyses. From the bi-factor MIRT model with fixed slopes, the full item bank scores discriminated across levels of severity and types of CP, and compared favorably to external instruments. CAT scores based on 10- and 15-item versions accurately captured the global physical health scores. Conclusions The bi-factor MIRT CAT application, especially the 10- and 15-item version, yielded accurate global physical health scores that discriminated across known severity groups and types of CP, and correlated as expected with concurrent measures. The CATs have potential for collecting complex data on the physical health of children with CP in an efficient manner. PMID:19221892

  7. CAT (Computerized Axial Tomography) scans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Grubin Productions

    2001-01-01

    This web page about CAT (computerized axial tomography) scans gives a brief overview of this imaging technique. CAT (or CT) scanning captures a lot of 2-dimensional X-rays that a computer then joins together to generate 3-dimensional images of internal structures. As part of a set of materials about brain scanning technologies, this page mentions what researchers can learn about the brain from CAT scans. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  8. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. IV. TESTING THE NONLINEARITY SCENARIO FOR COLOR BIMODALITY VIA HST/WFC3 u-BAND PHOTOMETRY OF M84 (NGC 4374)

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Suk-Jin; Kim, Hak-Sub; Chung, Chul; Cho, Jaeil; Lee, Sang-Yoon [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Sangmo T. [Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Blakeslee, John P., E-mail: sjyoon@galaxy.yonsei.ac.kr [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2013-05-10

    Color distributions of globular clusters (GCs) in most massive galaxies are bimodal. Assuming linear color-to-metallicity conversions, bimodality is viewed as the presence of merely two GC subsystems with distinct metallicities, which serves as a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Recent studies, however, revealed that the color-metallicity relations (CMRs) often used to derive GC metallicities (e.g., CMRs of g - z, V - I, and C - T{sub 1}) are in fact inflected. Such inflection can create bimodal color distributions if the underlying GC metallicity spread is simply broad as expected from the hierarchical merging paradigm of galaxy formation. In order to test the nonlinear-CMR scenario for GC color bimodality, the u-band photometry is proposed because the u-related CMRs (e.g., CMRs of u - g and u - z) are theoretically predicted to be least inflected and most distinctive among commonly used optical CMRs. Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3 F336W (u-band) photometry of the GC system in M84, a giant elliptical in the Virgo galaxy cluster. Combining the u data with the existing HST ACS/WFC g and z data, we find that the u - z and u - g color distributions are different from the g - z distribution in a very systematic manner and remarkably consistent with our model predictions based on the nonlinear-CMR hypothesis. The results lend further confidence to the validity of the nonlinear-CMR scenario as an explanation for GC color bimodality. There are some GC systems showing bimodal spectroscopic metallicity, and in such systems the inflected CMRs often create stronger bimodality in the color domain.

  9. The gap in the color-magnitude diagram of NGC 2420: A test of convective overshoot and cluster age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarque, Pierre; Sarajedini, Ata; Guo, X.-J.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical isochrones have been constructed using the OPAL opacities specifically to study the color-magnitude diagram of the open star cluster NGC 2420. This cluster provides a rare test of core convection in intermediate-mass stars. At the same time, its age is of interest because of its low metallicity and relatively high Galactic latitude for an open cluster. The excellent color-magnitude diagram constructed by Anthony-Twarog et al. (1990) allows a detailed fit of the isochrones to the photometric data. We discuss the importance of convective overshoot at the convective core edge in determining the morphology of the gap located near the main-sequence turnoff. We find that given the assumptions made in the models, a modest amount of overshoot (0.23 H(sub p)) is required for the best fit. Good agreement is achieved with all features of the turnoff gap for a cluster age of 2.4 +/- 0.2 Gyr. We note that a photometrically complete luminosity function near the main-sequence turnoff and subgiant branch would also provide an important test of the overshoot models.

  10. Computerized lie detection: Advancing the state of the art

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis C. Brown

    1995-01-01

    Several questions addressing human versus computerized lie detection have been answered as a result of technological advances\\u000a in the computer field. User friendly software has enabled the polygraph examiner to make necessary test adjustments in “real\\u000a time” clinical environments. Many of the issues surrounding test procedures and chart evaluation are resolved incorporating\\u000a this proven technology. Particularly significant is the conversion

  11. An Example Crossover Experiment for Testing New Vicarious Calibration Techniques for Satellite Ocean Color Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, Kenneth J.; McLean, Scott; Lewis, Marlon; Johnson, Carol; Flora, Stephanie; Feinholz, Michael; Yarbrough, Mark; Trees, Charles; Twardowski, Mike; Clark, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Vicarious calibration of ocean color satellites involves the use of accurate surface measurements of water-leaving radiance to update and improve the system calibration of ocean color satellite sensors. An experiment was performed to compare a free-fall technique with the established MOBY measurement. We found in the laboratory that the radiance and irradiance instruments compared well within their estimated uncertainties for various spectral sources. The spectrally averaged differences between the NIST values for the sources and the instruments were less than 2.5% for the radiance sensors and less than 1.5% for the irradiance sensors. In the field, the sensors measuring the above-surface downwelling irradiance performed nearly as well as they had in the laboratory, with an average difference of less than 2%. While the water-leaving radiance, L(sub w) calculated from each instrument agreed in almost all cases within the combined instrument uncertainties (approximately 7%), there was a relative bias between the two instrument classes/techniques that varied spectrally. The spectrally averaged (400 nm to 600 nm) difference between the two instrument classes/techniques was 3.1 %. However the spectral variation resulted in the free fall instruments being 0.2% lower at 450 nm and 5.9% higher at 550 nm. Based on the analysis of one matchup, the bias in the L(sub w), was similar to that observed for L(sub u)(1 m) with both systems, indicating the difference did not come from propagating L(sub u)(1 m) to L(sub w).

  12. Two-color medium-infrared scanning interferometer for the Frascati tokamak upgrade fusion test device.

    PubMed

    Canton, A; Innocente, P; Tudisco, O

    2006-12-20

    A scanning beam interferometer installed on the Frascati tokamak upgrade (FTU) experiment is presented. The scanning beam scheme combined with the small dimensions of the beams produces a system with very high spatial resolution: more than 30 adjacent (nonoverlapping) chords sample most of the plasma cross section. A good time resolution is achieved by the use of a proper scanning device, with a scanning frequency >or=8 kHz. Very fast events are measured by three additional fixed lines of sight providing a time resolution >or=100 kHz. The instrument is a two-color medium-infrared-compensated-type interferometer; two wavelengths (colors) are used to measure both the density and the mechanical vibrations of optical components. A CO2 laser (lambda=10.6 microm) is the main light source, and a CO laser (lambda=5.4 microm) is the compensation one. The optical scheme is a double pass Mach-Zehnder type. All the retroreflector mirrors are mounted directly on the FTU mechanical structure thanks to the compensation system that allows for large vibration amplitudes of optical components. Heterodyne detection at 30 and 40 MHz is obtained by frequency shifting the reference beams with two acousto-optic modulators (Bragg cells). Many features are implemented to achieve high measurement accuracy and reliability. A real-time system computes the integral density measured on one of the fixed lines of sight and provides an analog signal for density feedback control. The interferometer was used to measure density profiles both in medium-density discharges (n(e) approximately 10(20) m(-3)) and in high-density pellet injected discharges (n(e) approximately 7-8 x 10(20) m(-3)). The measurement error is approximately 2 x 10(18) m(-2) under optimal conditions but can be higher in some cases, mainly because of the large tilt of the retroreflector mirrors. PMID:17151749

  13. Brief Report: Cognitive Flexibility and Focused Attention in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism as Measured on the Computerized Version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaland, Nils; Smith, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess mental flexibility and set maintenance of a group of individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) (N = 13; mean age 16,4), as compared with a matched group of typically developing children and adolescents (N = 13; mean age 15,6) on the computerized version of the Wisconsin Card…

  14. Digital research on standard of color about colored drawing of Summer Palace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Dang; Jian Ma; Gang Liu; Chao Cai

    2010-01-01

    For protectively mending colored drawing and assuring authenticity of world heritage, the article quantitatively research standard of color about colored drawing of Summer Palace, by adopting the method of testing colored drawing with Scientific Instruments in Site and analyzing data with software in laboratory, and reference traditional technology of colored drawing, ascertains digital standard of color and make standard color

  15. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Influence of Age, Sex, and Education; and Normative Data for a Large Sample Across the Adult Age Range

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

    2006-01-01

    The Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to 1,856 cognitively screened, healthy Dutch-speaking participants aged 24 to 81 years. The effects of age, gender, and education on Stroop test performance were investigated to adequately stratify the normative data. The results showed that especially the speed-dependent Stroop scores (time to complete…

  16. Demographically Corrected Norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Marc A.; Moore, David J.; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised), and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African-Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African-Americans than Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African-Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings. PMID:21547817

  17. Demographically corrected norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version.

    PubMed

    Norman, Marc A; Moore, David J; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K

    2011-08-01

    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised) and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n?=?143) and African Americans (n?=?103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African Americans than for Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and were unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings. PMID:21547817

  18. Color blindness

    MedlinePLUS

    Color deficiency; Blindness - color ... Color blindness occurs when there is a problem with the pigments in certain nerve cells of the eye that sense color. These cells are called cones. They are found ...

  19. Color Blindness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... three color cone cells to determine our color perception. Color blindness can occur when one or more ... Anyone who experiences a significant change in color perception should see an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.). Next ...

  20. We introduce a general technique for "colorizing" greyscale images by transferring color between a source, color image and a

    E-print Network

    Mueller, Klaus

    approach for pseudocoloring greyscale images of luggage acquired by X-ray equipment at an airport which only acquire greyscale images such Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), X-ray and Computerized is a common technique for adding color to greyscale images such as X-ray, MRI, scanning electron micros- copy

  1. Variations in the photoperiodic cloacal response of Japanese quail: association with testes weight and feather color

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, T.; Konishi, T.

    1983-04-01

    The size of the cloacal gland was found to be a reliable indicator of testicular activity of Japanese quail. Six experiments were performed to examine the effects of alternating long and short photoperiod on the size of the cloacal gland of male Japanese quail. Three types of photoperiodic cloacal responses were distinguished. Type I birds became refractory to short photoperiods after they had experienced 5 weeks or more of short days. They maintained large cloacal glands under subsequent condition of alternating long and short photoperiod. Type II birds were intermediate types I and III birds did not become refractory to short photoperiods after experiencing 5 weeks or more of short days. The cloacal glands responded to conditions of alternating long and short photoperiods with increases or decreases in size. Feather color on the throat was found to correspond to the type of cloacal response. Type I birds had brick-red throat feathers. Type II birds had white feathers intermingled with brick-red feathers. Type III had white throat feathers. The percentages of types I, II, and III observed in the experimental population was 67, 18, and 15%, respectively. Type III birds were used to study the effects of blinding on the cloacal response to short photoperiod. Five out of eight blinded type III birds did not lose the responsiveness to short photoperiod. These results are consistent with the view that extraocular photoreceptors participate in the photoperiodic gonadal response of Japanese quail.

  2. Innovative Item Types for Computerized Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia G. Parshall; Tim Davey; Peter J. Pashley

    Initial applications of a new technology often retain many of the characteristics of the older products or processes that they are displacing. Early automobiles were horse-drawn carriages simply fitted with motors. Television programming remains firmly rooted in the formats pioneered by radio. And air travel initially featured the elegance and service that passengers had come to expect on board trains

  3. X-ray computerized tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wellington, S.L.; Vinegar, H.J.

    1987-08-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) is a new radiological imaging technique that measures density and atomic composition inside opaque objects. A revolutionary advance in medical radiology since 1972, CT has only recently been applied in petrophysics and reservoir engineering. This paper discusses several petrophysical applications, including three-dimensional (3D) measurement of density and porosity; rock mechanics studies; correlation of core logs with well logs; characterization of mud invasion, fractures, and disturbed core; and quantification of complex mineralogies and sand/shale ratios. Reservoir engineering applications presented include fundamental studies of CO/sub 2/ displacement in cores, focussing on viscous fingering, gravity segregation, miscibility, and mobility control.

  4. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems. 307.5 Section 307.5 Public...SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems. (a) Basic requirement....

  5. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems. 307.5 Section 307.5 Public...SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems. (a) Basic requirement....

  6. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...computerized support enforcement systems. 307.5 Section 307...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems. (a) Basic...

  7. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems. 307.5 Section 307.5 Public...SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems. (a) Basic requirement....

  8. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems. 307.5 Section 307.5 Public...SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems. (a) Basic requirement....

  9. On Using the Color-Magnitude Diagram Morphology of M67 to Test Solar Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magic, Z.; Serenelli, A.; Weiss, A.; Chaboyer, B.

    2010-08-01

    The open cluster M67 has solar metallicity and an age of about 4 Gyr. The turnoff (TO) mass is close to the minimum mass for which solar metallicity stars develop a convective core during main sequence evolution as a result of the development of hydrogen burning through the CNO cycle. The morphology of the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of M67 around the TO shows a clear hook-like feature, a direct sign that stars close to the TO have convective cores. VandenBerg et al. investigated the possibility of using the morphology of the M67 TO to put constraints on the solar metallicity, particularly CNO elements, for which solar abundances have been revised downward by more than 30% over the last few years. Here, we extend their work, filling the gaps in their analysis. To this aim, we compute isochrones appropriate for M67 using new (low metallicity) and old (high metallicity) solar abundances and study whether the characteristic TO in the CMD of M67 can be reproduced or not. We also study the importance of other constitutive physics on determining the presence of such a hook, particularly element diffusion, overshooting and nuclear reaction rates. We find that using the new solar abundance determinations, with low CNO abundances, makes it more difficult to reproduce the characteristic CMD of M67. This result is in agreement with results by VandenBerg et al. However, changes in the constitutive physics of the models, particularly overshooting, can influence and alter this result to the extent that isochrones constructed with models using low CNO solar abundances can also reproduce the TO morphology in M67. We conclude that only if all factors affecting the TO morphology are completely under control (and this is not the case), M67 could be used to put constraints on solar abundances.

  10. Cassel Psych Center Computerized Biofeedback Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Cassel Psych Center, a computerized biofeedback clinic, where the "well" patient is a major concern, and where biofeedback instruments are used with computers to form a Computerized-Biofeedback Clinical Support System. The Center's activities are designed to parallel the services of the pathologist in a medical setting. (PAS)

  11. A First Life with Computerized Business Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thavikulwat, Precha

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses the theoretical lens, origins, and environment of his work on computerized business simulations. Key ideas that inform his work include the two dimensions (control and interaction) of computerized simulation, the two ways of representing a natural process (phenotypical and genotypical) in a simulation, which he defines as a…

  12. Computerized Management of Physical Plant Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkey, Earl W.; Kleinpeter, Joseph

    Outlining the major areas to be considered when deciding whether or not to computerize physical plant services in higher education institutions, the author points out the shortcomings of manual record keeping systems. He gives five factors to consider when deciding to computerize: (1) time and money, (2) extent of operation, (3) current and future…

  13. Physiological modifications and increase in state anxiety in volunteers submitted to the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Silva, F T; Leite, J R

    For the experimental evaluation of new drugs with a potential anxiolytic effect, there are animal models that can accurately predict clinical activity. However, because of ethical factors, there are few experimental models that allow a reliable evaluation of the anxiolytic activity of drugs in studies performed with human beings. From among them, the Simulated Public Speaking and Stroop Color-Word Interference Test are notable although they are limited by the need to use subjective evaluation scales. The present study was aimed at making the determination of anxiolytic activity of drugs in normal volunteers less subjective by evaluating physiological as well as psychological alterations in subjects submitted to the anxiogenic situation of the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test. Twenty-four volunteers were submitted to the recorded version of Stroop Color-Word Interference Test, and psychological parameters (state anxiety) and physiological parameters (arterial pressure, heart rate, temperature, skin conductance, and frontal and forearm electromyograms) were evaluated before, during, and after the test. Significant differences in temperature, skin conductance and state anxiety of the volunteers were observed between the test situations. These results indicated that the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test can induce, beyond psychological alterations, some physiological alterations that could be used to make the evaluation of the anxiolytic activity of drugs more objective. PMID:10978485

  14. Computerized Prostate Models Tumor Progression | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Using a type of computer simulation known as cellular automata modeling, a research team led by David Basanta of the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute has created a computerized view of the human prostate gland that faithfully represents the interactions between early tumors and adjacent tissues. More importantly, this model generated hypotheses about tumor growth that were successfully tested in vivo. The investigators describe their model in the journal Cancer Research.

  15. Primary Colors of Pigment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this laboratory activity, students create secondary colors by mixing primary colors. Food coloring, test tubes, and a test tube stand are used. The activity is composed of a student handout with directions and a data sheet. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA Why Files: The Case of the Mysterious Red Light. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

  16. Colored Shadows

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-10-31

    In this optics activity, learners discover that not all shadows are black. Learners explore human color perception by using colored lights to make additive color mixtures. With three colored lights, learners can make shadows of seven different colors. They can also explore how to make shadows of individual colors, including black. Use this activity demonstrate how receptors in the retina of the eye work to see color.

  17. Introduction to Color Superconductivity

    E-print Network

    G. Nardulli

    2006-10-23

    At high nuclear density and small temperature, due to the asymptotic freedom property of Quantum ChromoDynamics and to the existence of an attractive channel in the color interaction, diquark condensates might be formed. Since these condensates break the color gauge symmetry, this phenomenon has the name of color superconductivity. In the last few years this has become a very active field of research. While a direct experimental test is still missing, color superconductivity might have implications in astrophysics because for some compact stars, e.g. pulsars, the baryon densities necessary for color superconductivity can probably be reached.

  18. A significant component of ageing (DNA damage) is reflected in fading breeding colors: an experimental test using innate antioxidant mimetics in painted dragon lizards.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Mats; Tobler, Michael; Healey, Mo; Perrin, Cecile; Wilson, Mark

    2012-08-01

    A decade ahead of their time, von Schantz et al. united sexual selection and free radical biology by identifying causal links between deep-rooted physiological processes that dictate resistance to toxic waste from oxidative metabolism (reactive oxygen species, ROS), and phenotypic traits, such as ornaments. Ten years later, these ideas have still only been tested with indirect estimates of free radical levels (oxidative stress) subsequent to the action of innate and dietary antioxidants. Here, we measure net superoxide (a selection pressure for antioxidant production) and experimentally manipulate superoxide antioxidation using a synthetic mimetic of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Eukarion 134 (EUK). We then measure the toxic effect of superoxide in terms of DNA erosion and concomitant loss of male breeding coloration in the lizard, Ctenophorus pictus. Control males suffered more DNA damage than EUK males. Spectroradiometry showed that male coloration is lost in relation to superoxide and covaries with DNA erosion; in control males, these variables explained loss of color, whereas in EUK males, the fading of coloration was unaffected by superoxide and unrelated to DNA damage. Thus, EUK's powerful antioxidation removes the erosion effect of superoxide on coloration and experimentally verifies the prediction that colors reflect innate capacity for antioxidation. PMID:22834746

  19. Colorful Creatures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2003-09-26

    For animals, bright, flashy coloration can serve as a warning or as an invitation. Either way, colorful skin, feathers, and scales yell, Notice me! This collection of images shows examples of some of the world's most colorful creatures.

  20. What is color for? Color

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, David

    What is color for? #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Color · Physics ­ Light is E-M radiation of different frequencies. ­ Superposition principle · Perception ­ 3 cones -> 3D color space. (Metamers). ­ Convex subset of 3D linear space. ­ Color matching: can't represent w/ 3 primaries. · Color Spaces ­ CIE

  1. Is Color-Flow Duplex a Good Diagnostic Test for Detection of Isolated Calf Vein Thrombosis in High-Risk Patients?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroatsu Sugimoto; Tracey Richardson; Marshall W. Webster; Michel S. Makaroun; Mark K. Eskandari

    2000-01-01

    Color-flow duplex scanning (CDS) is a good diagnostic test for lower extremity proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT). This report aims to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CDS in detecting isolated calf DVT in two in-hospital populations. A total of 166 patients had routine DVT testing with both CDS and venography: 99 total joint arthroplasty patients and 67 symptomatic in-hospital patients.

  2. Quality Control of On-Line Calibration in Computerized Assessment. Research Report 98-03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.

    In computerized adaptive testing, updating parameter estimates using adaptive testing data is often called online calibration. In this paper, how to evaluate whether the adaptive testing model used for online calibration fits the item response model used sufficiently is studied. Three approaches are investigated, based on a Lagrange multiplier…

  3. Validation of a Computerized Cognitive Assessment System for Persons with Stroke: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Chi Kwong; Man, David W. K.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the validity of a newly developed computerized cognitive assessment system (CCAS) that is equipped with rich multimedia to generate simulated testing situations and considers both test item difficulty and the test taker's ability. It is also hypothesized that better predictive validity of the CCAS in self-care of persons…

  4. The Ocean Color Experiment (OCE) on the Second Orbital Flight Test of the Space Shuttle (OSTA-I)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinz Vab Der Piepen; H. H. Kim; W. D. Hart; V. Amann; H. Helbig; Armando F. G. Fiuza; Michel Viollier; R. Doerffer

    1983-01-01

    The Ocean Color Experiment was one of the six remote-sensing experiments which for the first time were launched and success fully operated on board of the second flight of the Space Shuttle during November 1981. The experiment consists of a multispectral image scanner dedicated to the measurement of water color and its interpretation in terms of major water constituents and

  5. Minority mating advantage of certain eye color mutants of Drosophila melanogaster . I. Multiple-choice and single-female tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eliot B. Spiess; William A. Schwer

    1978-01-01

    Alleles at the brown locus ofDrosophila melanogaster combined with homozygous scarlet provide a useful model to demonstrate minority advantage of males in mating. Heterozygotes with orange (O) eyes equal in numbers to homozygotes with red (R) eyes (10?10 in both sexes) displayed no bias favoring either eye color, but each eye color was favored when males occurred in a minority

  6. Replicating Colors: Using tints, shades and primary colors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students will mix paints and create a formula to match a muted color. The formula will be tested. Students will discuss their observations and develop new questions about color mixing to pursue.

  7. Electrodermically nonresponsive schizophrenia patients make more errors in the Stroop Color Word Test, indicating selective attention deficit.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Machado, Eleomar Ziglia; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Guimarăes, Francisco Silveira; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated whether skin conductance responsivity is associated with selective attention assessed by the Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) in schizophrenia patients. The subjects (31 schizophrenia patients and 20 patients with other psychotic diagnoses) were selected from among inpatients of a general hospital psychiatric ward or day hospital attendees. They were matched with 31 healthy volunteers. The patients began experimental sessions immediately after remission of an acute episode. The three groups of participants were subdivided according to electrodermal responsivity into nonresponsive (NR) and responsive (R) groups. After the psychophysiological recording, the SCWT was applied. Results indicated that on the SCWT, the error interference of the NR schizophrenia group was significantly higher than that of all the other groups. Furthermore, the NR schizophrenia patients had significantly more negative symptoms than the R schizophrenia patients. These results suggest that there is a homogeneous subgroup of schizophrenia patients characterized by low neurovegetative responsiveness to external stimuli, predominance of negative symptoms, and selective attention deficit. PMID:12645677

  8. Color realism and color science

    E-print Network

    Byrne, Alex

    The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, ...

  9. The Auditing of Computerized Accounting Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skudrna, Vincent J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes an investigation undertaken to indicate the curricular content (knowledge and skills) needed to prepare the accounting student to audit computerized accounting systems. Areas studied included programing languages, data processing, desired course training, and computer audit techniques. (CT)

  10. HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Katya Le Blanc

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures in nuclear power plant control rooms. It is beyond the scope of this paper to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper provides a review of HRA as applied to traditional paper-based procedures, followed by a discussion of what specific factors should additionally be considered in HRAs for computerized procedures. Performance shaping factors and failure modes unique to computerized procedures are highlighted. Since there is no definitive guide to HRA for paper-based procedures, this paper also serves to clarify the existing guidance on paper-based procedures before delving into the unique aspects of computerized procedures.

  11. Classifying mammographic lesions using computerized image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kilday, J; Palmieri, F; Fox, M D

    1993-01-01

    The classification of 3 common breast lesions, fibroadenomas, cysts, and cancers, was achieved using computerized image analysis of tumor shape in conjunction with patient age. The process involved the digitization of 69 mammographic images using a video camera and a commercial frame grabber on a PC-based computer system. An interactive segmentation procedure identified the tumor boundary using a thresholding technique which successfully segmented 57% of the lesions. Several features were chosen based on the gross and fine shape describing properties of the tumor boundaries as seen on the radiographs. Patient age was included as a significant feature in determining whether the tumor was a cyst, fibroadenoma, or cancer and was the only patient history information available for this study. The concept of a radial length measure provided a basis from which 6 of the 7 shape describing features were chosen, the seventh being tumor circularity. The feature selection process was accomplished using linear discriminant analysis and a Euclidean distance metric determined group membership. The effectiveness of the classification scheme was tested using both the apparent and the leaving-one-out test methods. The best results using the apparent test method resulted in correctly classifying 82% of the tumors segmented using the entire feature space and the highest classification rate using the leaving-one-out test method was 69% using a subset of the feature space. The results using only the shape descriptors, and excluding patient age resulted in correctly classifying 72% using the entire feature space (except age), and 51% using a subset of the feature space. PMID:18218460

  12. Reduced Stroop Interference for Opponent Colors May Be Due to Input Factors: Evidence from Individual Differences and a Neural Network Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laeng, Bruno; Torstein, Lag; Brennen, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Sensory or input factors can influence the strength of interference in the classic Stroop color-word task. Specifically, in a single-trial computerized version of the Stroop task, when color-word pairs were incongruent, opponent color pairs (e.g., the word BLUE in yellow) showed reduced Stroop interference compared with nonopponent color pairs…

  13. Colorful Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Described is an color-making activity where students use food coloring, eyedroppers, and water to make various colored solutions. Included are the needed materials and procedures. Students are asked to write up the formulas for making their favorite color. (KR)

  14. Color Addition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Horton

    2009-05-30

    This activity is inquiry in that students do not know how colors are combined. They likely think that the primary colors are red, yellow, and blue. In fact, there are two sets of primary colors: red, green, and blue for additive colors of light, and cyan,

  15. Language networks associated with computerized semantic indices.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Jones, David T; Knopman, David S

    2015-01-01

    Tests of generative semantic verbal fluency are widely used to study organization and representation of concepts in the human brain. Previous studies demonstrated that clustering and switching behavior during verbal fluency tasks is supported by multiple brain mechanisms associated with semantic memory and executive control. Previous work relied on manual assessments of semantic relatedness between words and grouping of words into semantic clusters. We investigated a computational linguistic approach to measuring the strength of semantic relatedness between words based on latent semantic analysis of word co-occurrences in a subset of a large online encyclopedia. We computed semantic clustering indices and compared them to brain network connectivity measures obtained with task-free fMRI in a sample consisting of healthy participants and those differentially affected by cognitive impairment. We found that semantic clustering indices were associated with brain network connectivity in distinct areas including fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal and fusiform gyrus regions. This study shows that computerized semantic indices complement traditional assessments of verbal fluency to provide a more complete account of the relationship between brain and verbal behavior involved organization and retrieval of lexical information from memory. PMID:25315785

  16. Color Mixing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Oregon Museum of Science and Industry

    2002-01-01

    This is an online activity where learners can virtually mix different colors of light or paint (you can switch between them) and see how the colors combine. It demonstrates how millions of colors are created on computer monitors and TVs, and in art and printing. Learners can try to match a given target color ("Mix to Match"), or simply play around with mixtures ("Mix for Fun"). Background information explains how light is additive (more colors tends towards white), whereas paint absorbs color and is subtractive (more colors tends towards black). There's also information about how the human eye works.

  17. Tests of models of color reconnection and a search for glueballs using gluon jets with a rapidity gap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Giunta; C Ainsley; P F Ĺkesson; G Alexander; J Allison; P Amaral; G Anagnostou; K J Anderson; S Arcelli; S Asai; D A Axen; Georges Azuelos; I Bailey; E Barberio; R J Barlow; J Richard Batley; P Bechtle; T Behnke; K W Bell; P J Bell; G Bella; A Bellerive; G Benelli; Siegfried Bethke; O Biebel; P Bock; O Boeriu; M Boutemeur; S Braibant; L Brigliadori; R M Brown; H J Burckhart; K Büsser; S Campana; R K Carnegie; B Caron; A A Carter; J R Carter; C Y Chang; D G Charlton; Akos Csilling; M Cuffiani; S Dado; A de Roeck; E A De Wolf; Klaus Desch; B Dienes; M Donkers; J Dubbert; E Duchovni; G Duckeck; I P Duerdoth; E Etzion; Franco Luigi Fabbri; L Feld; P Ferrari; F Fiedler; I Fleck; M Ford; A Frey; A Fürtjes; P Gagnon; J W Gary; G Gaycken; C Geich-Gimbel; G Giacomelli; P Giacomelli; J Goldberg; E Gross; Jacob Grunhaus; M Gruwé; P O Günther; C Hajdu; M Hamann; G G Hanson; K Harder; A Harel; M Harin-Dirac; M Hauschild; C M Hawkes; R Hawkings; Richard J Hemingway; C Hensel; G Herten; R D Heuer; J C Hill; K Hoffman; D Horváth; P Igo-Kemenes; K Ishii; H Jeremie; P Jovanovic; T R Junk; N Kanaya; J Kanzaki; G V Karapetian; Dean A Karlen; K Kawagoe; T Kawamoto; Richard K Keeler; R G Kellogg; B W Kennedy; D H Kim; K Klein; A Klier; S Kluth; T Kobayashi; M Kobel; S Komamiya; L L Kormos; T Kramer; P Krieger; J Von Krogh; K Krüger; M Kupper; T Kühl; G D Lafferty; Hagar Yaël Landsman; D Lanske; J G Layter; A Leins; D Lellouch; J Letts; L Levinson; J Lillich; S L Lloyd; F K Loebinger; J Lü; J Ludwig; A MacPherson; W Mader; S Marcellini; A J Martin; G Masetti; T Mashimo; W J McDonald; J A McKenna; T J McMahon; R A McPherson; F Meijers; W Menges; F S Merritt; H Mes; Aldo Michelini; S Mihara; G Mikenberg; D J Miller; S Moed; W Mohr; T Mori; A Mutter; P Mättig; K Nagai; I Nakamura; H Nanjo; H A Neal; R Nisius; S W O'Neale; A Oh; A N Okpara; M J Oreglia; S Orito; C Pahl; J R Pater; G N Patrick; J E Pilcher; J L Pinfold; D E Plane; B Poli; J Polok; O Pooth; M B Przybycien; G Pásztor; A Quadt; K Rabbertz; C Rembser; P Renkel; J M Roney; S Rosati; Y Rozen; K Runge; K Sachs; T Saeki; E Sarkisyan-Grinbaum; A D Schaile; O Schaile; P Scharff-Hansen; J Schieck; M Schröder; M Schumacher; C Schwick; T Schörner-Sadenius; W G Scott; A Sen-Gupta; R Seuster; T G Shears; B C Shen; P Sherwood; G P Siroli; A Skuja; A M Smith; R J Sobie; F Spanó; A Stahl; K Stephens; D Strom; R Ströhmer; S Söldner-Rembold; S Tarem; M Tasevsky; R J Taylor; R Teuscher; M A Thomson; E Torrence; D Toya; P Tran; I Trigger; Z L Trócsányi; E Tsur; M F Turner-Watson; I Ueda; B Ujvári; P Vannerem; R Vertesi; M Verzocchi; C F Vollmer; H Voss; Joost Herman Vossebeld; D Waller; C P Ward; D R Ward; P M Watkins; A T Watson; N K Watson; P S Wells; T Wengler; N Wermes; D Wetterling; G W Wilson; J A Wilson; G Wolf; T R Wyatt; S Yamashita; D Zer-Zion; L Zivkovic

    2003-01-01

    Gluon jets are selected from hadronic Z0 decay events produced in e+e- annihilations. A subsample of these jets is identified which exhibits a large gap in the rapidity distribution of particles within the jet. These jets are observed to demonstrate a high degree of sensitivity to the presence of color reconnection, i.e. higher order QCD processes affecting the underlying color

  18. 78 FR 17940 - Certain Computerized Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ...Computerized Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof...Computerized Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof...computerized orthopedic surgical devices, software, implants, and components...

  19. High-School Chemistry Students' Performance and Gender Differences in a Computerized Molecular Modeling Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnea, Nitza; Dori, Yehudit J.

    1999-12-01

    Computerized molecular modeling (CMM) contributes to the development of visualization skills via vivid animation of three dimensional representations. Its power to illustrate and explore phenomena in chemistry teaching stems from the convenience and simplicity of building molecules of any size and color in a number of presentation styles. A new CMM-based learning environment for teaching and learning chemistry in Israeli high schools has been designed and implemented. Three tenth grade experimental classes used this discovery CMM approach, while two other classes, who studied the same topic in the customary approach, served as a control group. We investigated the effects of using molecular modeling on students' spatial ability, understanding of new concepts related to geometric and symbolic representations and students' perception of the model concept. Each variable was examined for gender differences. Students of the experimental group performed better than control group students in all three performance aspects. Experimental group students scored higher than the control group students in the achievement test on structure and bonding. Students' spatial ability improved in both groups, but students from the experimental group scored higher. For the average students in the two groups the improvement in all three spatial ability sub-tests —paper folding, card rotation, and cube comparison—was significantly higher for the experimental group. Experimental group students gained better insight into the model concept than the control group and could explain more phenomena with the aid of a variety of models. Hence, CMM helps in particular to improve the examined cognitive aspects of the average student population. In most of the achievement and spatial ability tests no significant differences between the genders were found, but in some aspects of model perception and verbal argumentation differences still exist. Experimental group females improved their model perception more than the control group females in understanding ways to create models and in the role of models as mental structures and prediction tools. Teachers' and students' feedback on the CMM learning environment was found to be positive, as it helped them understand concepts in molecular geometry and bonding. The results of this study suggest that teaching/learning of topics in chemistry that are related to three dimensional structures can be improved by using a discovery approach in a computerized learning environment.

  20. Different color Same color Similarityrating

    E-print Network

    Thompson-Schill, Sharon

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Different color Same color Similarityrating Object pair A central principle color localizer. Feature diagnosticity affects semantic representations of novel and common object. blobby 3. round 4. Using color as the diagnostic feature, we used a training paradigm to investigate how

  1. Identifying and classifying hyperostosis frontalis interna via computerized tomography.

    PubMed

    May, Hila; Peled, Nathan; Dar, Gali; Hay, Ori; Abbas, Janan; Masharawi, Youssef; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to recognize the radiological characteristics of hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) and to establish a valid and reliable method for its identification and classification. A reliability test was carried out on 27 individuals who had undergone a head computerized tomography (CT) scan. Intra-observer reliability was obtained by examining the images three times, by the same researcher, with a 2-week interval between each sample ranking. The inter-observer test was performed by three independent researchers. A validity test was carried out using two methods for identifying and classifying HFI: 46 cadaver skullcaps were ranked twice via computerized tomography scans and then by direct observation. Reliability and validity were calculated using Kappa test (SPSS 15.0). Reliability tests of ranking HFI via CT scans demonstrated good results (K > 0.7). As for validity, a very good consensus was obtained between the CT and direct observation, when moderate and advanced types of HFI were present (K = 0.82). The suggested classification method for HFI, using CT, demonstrated a sensitivity of 84%, specificity of 90.5%, and positive predictive value of 91.3%. In conclusion, volume rendering is a reliable and valid tool for identifying HFI. The suggested three-scale classification is most suitable for radiological diagnosis of the phenomena. Considering the increasing awareness of HFI as an early indicator of a developing malady, this study may assist radiologists in identifying and classifying the phenomena. PMID:21046669

  2. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451...TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton...

  3. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451...TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton...

  4. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451...TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton...

  5. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451...TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton...

  6. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451...TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton...

  7. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color

  8. Validation of a self-administered computerized system to detect cognitive impairment in older adults.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Samuel D; Reese, Robert J; Norsworthy, Larry A; Dellaria, Donna K; Kinkade, Jacob W; Benge, Jared; Brown, Kimberly; Ratka, Anna; Simpkins, James W

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing interest in the development of economical and accurate approaches to identifying persons in the community who have mild, undetected cognitive impairments. Computerized assessment systems have been suggested as a viable approach to identifying these persons. The validity of a computerized assessment system for identification of memory and executive deficits in older individuals was evaluated in the current study. Volunteers (N = 235) completed a 3-hr battery of neuropsychological tests and a computerized cognitive assessment system. Participants were classified as impaired (n = 78) or unimpaired (n = 157) on the basis of the Mini Mental State Exam, Wechsler Memory Scale-III and the Trail Making Test (TMT), Part B. All six variables (three memory variables and three executive variables) derived from the computerized assessment differed significantly between groups in the expected direction. There was also evidence of temporal stability and concurrent validity. Application of computerized assessment systems for clinical practice and for identification of research participants is discussed in this article. PMID:25332303

  9. Evaluation of Ocean Color Scanner (OCS) photographic and digital data: Santa Barbara Channel test site, 29 October 1975 overflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, S. P.; Estes, J. E.; Kronenberg, M. R.; Hajic, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    A summary of Ocean Color Scanner data was examined to evaluate detection and discrimination capabilities of the system for marine resources, oil pollution and man-made sea surface targets of opportunity in the Santa Barbara Channel. Assessment of the utility of OCS for the determination of sediment transport patterns along the coastal zone was a secondary goal. Data products provided 1975 overflight were in digital and analog formats. In evaluating the OCS data, automated and manual procedures were employed. A total of four channels of data in digital format were analyzed, as well as three channels of color combined imagery, and four channels of black and white imagery. In addition, 1:120,000 scale color infrared imagery acquired simultaneously with the OCS data were provided for comparative analysis purposes.

  10. Color notations

    E-print Network

    Gardner, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    This study presents research regarding the language of colors and of computers. The focus was color: translated through personal imagery, transferred and changed through media, and programmed through the computer. The ...

  11. A Method for Peat Inventory Based on LANDSAT Data and Computerized Mapping. [Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pala, S.

    1982-01-01

    Wetlands were preliminarily delineated on a geometrically-corrected color composite map printed from digital LANDSAT data using a computerized color plotting system. A digital classification was performed to identify the location and extent of wetland types (e.g., open bog, types of treed fen and black spruce-alder swamp). A map is printed from the results of this classification using the computerized color plotter. This color-coded map, produced at several different scales, provides a basis for pre-selecting field sampling sites. Helicopter-aided spot sampling based on the LANDSAT-derived map was conducted over the entire 1700 sq km area of North Ontario. Traditional transect sampling was carried out over a portion of the area, so that the two methods could be compared. Spot sampling based on the LANDSAT-derived map was found to produce results virtually identical to those produced by the transect sampling technique, in approximately one-fifteenth of the time and with a proportionate reduction in cost.

  12. Seeing Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

  13. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits...Postage Evidencing System or the provider...ACH credit or wire information. (h) Refunds...Computerized Meter Resetting System account, after...submit to a periodic audit of its system,...

  14. 11 CFR 9033.12 - Production of computerized information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(9) of this section, the committee shall provide computerized magnetic media, such as magnetic tapes or magnetic diskettes, containing the computerized information at the times specified in 11 CFR...

  15. How to Compare Apples and Oranges: Infants' Object Identification Tested with Equally Salient Shape, Luminance, and Color Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldy, Zsuzsa; Blaser, Erik

    2009-01-01

    What kind of featural information do infants rely on when they are trying to recognize a previously seen object? The question of whether infants use certain features (e.g., shape or color) more than others (e.g., luminance) can only be studied legitimately if visual salience is controlled, as the magnitude of feature values--how noticeable and…

  16. EVOLUTION OF COLOR VARIATION IN DRAGON LIZARDS: QUANTITATIVE TESTS OF THE ROLE OF CRYPSIS AND LOCAL ADAPTATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devi M. Stuart-Fox; Adnan Moussalli; Gregory R. Johnston; Ian P. F. Owens

    2004-01-01

    Many animal species display striking color differences with respect to geographic location, sex, and body region. Traditional adaptive explanations for such complex patterns invoke an interaction between selection for conspicuous signals and natural selection for crypsis. Although there is now a substantial body of evidence supporting the role of sexual selection for signaling functions, quantitative studies of crypsis remain comparatively

  17. An experimental test of the contributions and condition dependence of microstructure and carotenoids in yellow plumage coloration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew D. Shawkey; Geoffrey E. Hill; Kevin J. McGraw; Wendy R. Hood; Kristal Huggins

    2006-01-01

    A combination of structural and pigmentary components is responsible for many of the colour displays of animals. Despite the ubiquity of this type of coloration, neither the relative contribution of structures and pigments to variation in such colour displays nor the relative effects of extrinsic factors on the structural and pigment-based components of such colour has been determined. Understanding the

  18. Computerized microscopic image analysis of follicular lymphoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertel, Olcay; Kong, Jun; Lozanski, Gerard; Catalyurek, Umit; Saltz, Joel H.; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2008-03-01

    Follicular Lymphoma (FL) is a cancer arising from the lymphatic system. Originating from follicle center B cells, FL is mainly comprised of centrocytes (usually middle-to-small sized cells) and centroblasts (relatively large malignant cells). According to the World Health Organization's recommendations, there are three histological grades of FL characterized by the number of centroblasts per high-power field (hpf) of area 0.159 mm2. In current practice, these cells are manually counted from ten representative fields of follicles after visual examination of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides by pathologists. Several studies clearly demonstrate the poor reproducibility of this grading system with very low inter-reader agreement. In this study, we are developing a computerized system to assist pathologists with this process. A hybrid approach that combines information from several slides with different stains has been developed. Thus, follicles are first detected from digitized microscopy images with immunohistochemistry (IHC) stains, (i.e., CD10 and CD20). The average sensitivity and specificity of the follicle detection tested on 30 images at 2×, 4× and 8× magnifications are 85.5+/-9.8% and 92.5+/-4.0%, respectively. Since the centroblasts detection is carried out in the H&E-stained slides, the follicles in the IHC-stained images are mapped to H&E-stained counterparts. To evaluate the centroblast differentiation capabilities of the system, 11 hpf images have been marked by an experienced pathologist who identified 41 centroblast cells and 53 non-centroblast cells. A non-supervised clustering process differentiates the centroblast cells from noncentroblast cells, resulting in 92.68% sensitivity and 90.57% specificity.

  19. Maternal Experiences with Everyday Discrimination and Infant Birth Weight: A Test of Mediators and Moderators among Young, Urban Women of Color

    PubMed Central

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Rosenthal, Lisa; Lewis, Jessica B.; Stasko, Emily C.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Lewis, Tené T.; Reid, Allecia E.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Racial/ethnic disparities in birth weight persist within the United States. Purpose Examine the association between maternal everyday discrimination and infant birth weight among young, urban women of color; as well as mediators (depressive symptoms, pregnancy distress, pregnancy symptoms) and moderators (age, race/ethnicity, attributions of discrimination) of this association. Methods 420 women participated (14–21 years old; 62% Latina, 38% Black), completing measures of everyday discrimination and moderators during their second trimester of pregnancy and mediators during their third trimester. Birth weight was primarily recorded from medical record review. Results Path analysis demonstrated that everyday discrimination was associated with lower birth weight. Depressive symptoms mediated this relationship, and no tested factors moderated this relationship. Conclusions Given the association between birth weight and health across the lifespan, it is critical to reduce discrimination directed at young, urban women of color so that all children can begin life with greater promise for health. PMID:22927016

  20. Color Quiz

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Freeman

    2006-02-14

    Please take this Quiz. It is not that hard. Remember If you understand color, you will be able to use color in your artwork more effectively. For your Quiz please answer the 18 questions below. Here are some sites you have already seen that will help you answer the questions. Color Theory Color Vocabulary Wikipedia color theory You may write your answers down on a piece of paper or you can type the answers up. Make sure name, period, and date are on assignment ...

  1. Color Quiz

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    JoLene

    2008-09-29

    Please take this Quiz. It is not that hard. Remember If you understand color, you will be able to use color in your artwork more effectively. For your Quiz please answer the 18 questions below. Here are some sites you have already seen that will help you answer the questions. Color Theory Color Vocabulary Wikipedia color theory You may write your answers down on a piece of paper or you can type the answers up. Make sure name, period, and date are on assignment ...

  2. TESTING GALAXY FORMATION MODELS WITH THE GHOSTS SURVEY: THE COLOR PROFILE OF M81's STELLAR HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; Bailin, Jeremy [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Radburn-Smith, David J.; Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Vlajic, Marija; De Jong, Roelof S.; Streich, David [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)] [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Holwerda, Benne W., E-mail: antonela@umich.edu [European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2013-04-01

    We study the properties of the stellar populations in M81's outermost part, which hereafter we will call the stellar halo, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys observations of 19 fields from the GHOSTS survey. The observed fields probe the stellar halo out to a projected distance of {approx}50 kpc from the galactic center. Each field was observed in both F606W and F814W filters. The 50% completeness levels of the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) are typically at 2 mag below the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). Fields at distances closer than 15 kpc show evidence of disk-dominated populations whereas fields at larger distances are mostly populated by halo stars. The red giant branch (RGB) of the M81's halo CMDs is well matched with isochrones of {approx}10 Gyr and metallicities [Fe/H] {approx} - 1.2 dex, suggesting that the dominant stellar population of M81's halo has a similar age and metallicity. The halo of M81 is characterized by a color distribution of width {approx}0.4 mag and an approximately constant median value of (F606W - F814W) {approx}1 mag measured using stars within the magnitude range 23.7 {approx}< F814W {approx}< 25.5. When considering only fields located at galactocentric radius R > 15 kpc, we detect no color gradient in the stellar halo of M81. We place a limit of 0.03 {+-} 0.11 mag difference between the median color of RGB M81 halo stars at {approx}15 and at 50 kpc, corresponding to a metallicity difference of 0.08 {+-} 0.35 dex over that radial range for an assumed constant age of 10 Gyr. We compare these results with model predictions for the colors of stellar halos formed purely via accretion of satellite galaxies. When we analyze the cosmologically motivated models in the same way as the HST data, we find that they predict no color gradient for the stellar halos, in good agreement with the observations.

  3. Computerized Grading of Anatomy Laboratory Practical Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krippendorf, Beth B.; Bolender, David L.; Kolesari, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the…

  4. Developing a Computerized Multicampus Transfer Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Larry; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Origins and development of a computerized credit transfer system for students in the University of Wisconsin system is described. The program will become the official course equivalency and degree requirement schema for the university, and will also serve the Wisconsin Technical College system. (Author/MSE)

  5. Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. McCann; D. White

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well. The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes

  6. Implementation of a Computerized Maintenance Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Yong-Hong; Askari, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A primer Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) has been established for NASA Ames pressure component certification program. The CMMS takes full advantage of the latest computer technology and SQL relational database to perform periodic services for vital pressure components. The Ames certification program is briefly described and the aspects of the CMMS implementation are discussed as they are related to the certification objectives.

  7. Calibrator Blocks For Computerized Tomography (CT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, H. Peter

    1990-01-01

    Sets of calibrator blocks developed for use with industrial computerized tomography (CT) systems. Set of blocks (or number of stacked sets of blocks) placed on object table of CT system and scanned in usual way. Blocks include holes of known size, shape, and location. Appearance of holes in output image of CT system used to verify operation of system.

  8. Computerized business games in engineering education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Chapman; J. F. Martin

    1995-01-01

    Computerized business games can be used in developing students' appreciation of the complexities associated with the solution of multi-variable problems. Such exercises can assist in the development of more effective personal transferable skills such as team-work, problem solving techniques, and oral and written communication. Attention focuses primarily on the CRAC business game but reference is also made to some of

  9. NATIONAL ARCHIVE OF COMPUTERIZED DATA ON AGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Archive of Computerized Data on Aging (NACDA), located within ICPSR, is funded by the National Institute on Aging. NACDA's mission is to advance research on aging by helping researchers to profit from the under-exploited potential of a broad range of datasets. NACDA ...

  10. Computerized Collective Training for Teams. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurmond, Paul; Kribs, H. Dewey

    The purpose of this investigation was to empirically demonstrate and evaluate a brassboard for computerized collective training for teams (COLT2). The underlying tasks were to (1) conduct a state of the art assessment of instructional strategies appropriate for COLT2, (2) derive a conceptual framework for COLT2 instructional strategies, (3)…

  11. Computerized Readability Verification of Textbook Reading Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Gwyneth E.; Lumpkin, Margaret C.

    A new, computerized readability assessment program was developed to verify the reading levels of stories, as designated by publishers in current sixth grade reading texts. The Spache, Harris-Jacobson, Dale-Chall, Flesch, and Fry readability formulas were incorporated into one computer-based program designed for rapid calculation and comparative…

  12. Computerized Tailoring Interventions Workgroup Meeting - Implementation Science

    Cancer.gov

    The Computerized Tailored Interventions (CTI) Workgroup convened to discuss the translation of CTIs into practice. The Workgroup’s discussion over the two days addressed the designing of CTIs for broad dissemination with emerging and future technologies, and dissemination of existing CTIs in the absence of available support from the CTI developer.

  13. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. M. Huirne

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION<\\/strong>The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and definition of farm management and management information systems (MIS), (2) individual farm analysis, and (3) sow replacement optimization. As part of the study, a

  14. A standardized approach for iris color determination.

    PubMed

    Niggemann, Birgit; Weinbauer, Gerhard; Vogel, Friedhelm; Korte, Rainhart

    2003-01-01

    Latanoprost, the phenyl-substituted prostaglandin F2alpha, has been found to be an effective agent for glaucoma therapy. This prostaglandin derivative exerts ocular hypotensive activity but is also associated with an untoward side effect, namely iris color changes. Latanoprost provoked iris color changes in cynomolgus monkeys and in multicenter clinical trials. Until now photographs were taken and compared with color plates to document these changes. The disadvantage of this method is obvious, i.e., the color luminance varies between measurements due to changes in the developer. Furthermore, subjective comparison of color changes relative to color plates rendered judgment subject to impression and opinion rather than to objective data. Therefore, a computerized method using a 3-CCD video camera attached to a slit lamp was developed. The signals were transferred to a computer and a single frame, which was "frozen" by means of a "grabber card." Camera and the computer had previously been calibrated and color plates were measured to check the standard conditions. They were evaluated by a software program displaying average color (as red, green, and blue values) of the selected area. This method provides a fast and accurate way to quantify color changes in the iris of both experimental animals and clinical trials. PMID:12573949

  15. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  16. Computerized quantitative evaluation of mammographic accreditation phantom images

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih; Shinohara, Norimitsu [Department of Radiological Technology, School of Health Sciences, Niigata University, 2-746 Asahimachidori, Chuouku, Niigata 951-8518 (Japan); Department of Radiological Technology, Gifu Univesity of Medical Science, 1-795 Hiraga-aza-nagamine, Seki, Gifu 501-3892 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: The objective was to develop and investigate an automated scoring scheme of the American College of Radiology (ACR) mammographic accreditation phantom (RMI 156, Middleton, WI) images. Methods: The developed method consisted of background subtraction, determination of region of interest, classification of fiber and mass objects by Mahalanobis distance, detection of specks by template matching, and rule-based scoring. Fifty-one phantom images were collected from 51 facilities for this study (one facility provided one image). A medical physicist and two radiologic technologists also scored the images. The human and computerized scores were compared. Results: In terms of meeting the ACR's criteria, the accuracies of the developed method for computerized evaluation of fiber, mass, and speck were 90%, 80%, and 98%, respectively. Contingency table analysis revealed significant association between observer and computer scores for microcalcifications (p<5%) but not for masses and fibers. Conclusions: The developed method may achieve a stable assessment of visibility for test objects in mammographic accreditation phantom image in whether the phantom image meets the ACR's criteria in the evaluation test, although there is room left for improvement in the approach for fiber and mass objects.

  17. Assessing the effectiveness of a computerized blood order "consultation" system.

    PubMed Central

    Lepage, E. F.; Gardner, R. M.; Laub, R. M.; Jacobson, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    To optimize blood ordering and accurately assess transfusion practice, in 1987, an "on line" computerized, knowledge-based, blood order critiquing system was integrated into the HELP Hospital Information System (HIS) at LDS Hospital. Evaluations of the computerized ordering system demonstrated its benefits and limitations on transfusion practice. Based on this experience, a second generation blood ordering system using a consultation mode was developed. A pilot test of this blood order consultant system, using historical data in the HELP system's database, was performed. This pilot test demonstrated that the consultation system provided accurate recommendations for red blood cell (RBC) and platelet orders. Comparing the appropriateness of blood orders with the recommendations made by the director of the blood bank, the orders recommended by the computer "consultant" agreed 95.5% of the time. The computer consultation system also recommended fewer RBC units for transfusion. Preliminary results obtained using the consultant approach suggest that we may be able to simplify blood ordering practice and also reduce the number of units of blood products ordered. Based on these findings we are now preparing to compare the "critiquing" and "consultation" approaches using a clinical trial. PMID:1807617

  18. SHAWNEE LIME/LIMESTONE SCRUBBING COMPUTERIZED DESIGN/COST-ESTIMATE MODEL USERS MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual gives a general description of the Shawnee lime/limestone scrubbing computerized design/cost-estimate model and detailed procedures for using it. It describes all inputs and outputs, along with available options. The model, based on Shawnee Test Facility scrubbing data...

  19. Evaluating the Validity of Computerized Content Analysis Programs for Identification of Emotional Expression in Cancer Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Owen, Jason E.

    2009-01-01

    Psychological interventions provide linguistic data that are particularly useful for testing mechanisms of action and improving intervention methodologies. For this study, emotional expression in an Internet-based intervention for women with breast cancer (n = 63) was analyzed via rater coding and 2 computerized coding methods (Linguistic Inquiry…

  20. Improving Emergency Department Triage Classification with Computerized Clinical Decision Support at a Pediatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunisch, Joseph Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Emergency Severity Index (ESI) is an emergency department (ED) triage classification system based on estimated patient-specific resource utilization. Rules for a computerized clinical decision support (CDS) system based on a patient's chief complaint were developed and tested using a stochastic model for predicting ESI scores.…

  1. Body Morph Assessment: Preliminary Report on the Development of a Computerized Measure of Body Image

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiffany M. Stewart; Donald A. Williamson; Monique A. M. Smeets; Frank L. Greenway

    2001-01-01

    STEWART, TIFFANY M., DONALD A. WILLIAMSON, MONIQUE A. M. SMEETS, AND FRANK L. GREENWAY. Body morph assessment: preliminary report on the development of a computerized measure of body image.Objective: To develop a prototype of the Body Morph Assessment (BMA), and to test the reliability and validity of this new measure of body image. The BMA is a realistic and relatively

  2. Further Evidence for a Multifaceted Model of Mental Speed: Factor Structure and Validity of Computerized Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Wilhelm, Oliver; Roberts, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate the structure of mental speed and relations evidenced with fluid intelligence (Gf) found in a number of recent studies. Specifically, a battery of computerized tasks examined whether results with paper-and-pencil assessments held across different test media. Participants (N = 186) completed the battery,…

  3. SWS2 visual pigment evolution as a test of historically contingent patterns of plumage color evolution in warblers.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Natasha I; Morrow, James M; Chang, Belinda S W; Price, Trevor D

    2015-02-01

    Distantly related clades that occupy similar environments may differ due to the lasting imprint of their ancestors-historical contingency. The New World warblers (Parulidae) and Old World warblers (Phylloscopidae) are ecologically similar clades that differ strikingly in plumage coloration. We studied genetic and functional evolution of the short-wavelength-sensitive visual pigments (SWS2 and SWS1) to ask if altered color perception could contribute to the plumage color differences between clades. We show SWS2 is short-wavelength shifted in birds that occupy open environments, such as finches, compared to those in closed environments, including warblers. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate New World warblers were derived from a finch-like form that colonized from the Old World 15-20 Ma. During this process, the SWS2 gene accumulated six substitutions in branches leading to New World warblers, inviting the hypothesis that passage through a finch-like ancestor resulted in SWS2 evolution. In fact, we show spectral tuning remained similar across warblers as well as the finch ancestor. Results reject the hypothesis of historical contingency based on opsin spectral tuning, but point to evolution of other aspects of visual pigment function. Using the approach outlined here, historical contingency becomes a generally testable theory in systems where genotype and phenotype can be connected. PMID:25496318

  4. Color Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  5. Do Different Colors Absorb Heat Better?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students test whether the color of a material affects how much heat it absorbs. They leave ice cubes placed in boxes made of colored paper (one box per color; white, yellow, red and black) in the sun, and predict in which colored box ice cubes melt first. They record the order and time required for the ice cubes to melt.

  6. The Psychological Implications of Being Color Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, C. R.

    1973-01-01

    The author describes his experience with color-defective vision, and suggests that children be given a color-vision test at vision screening time in school to detect color-defective vision in children and thus minimize frustrating color-learning experiences. (MC)

  7. Tiny Multiple Choice Test Consider the following example XML tree in which the current node is colored black

    E-print Network

    Schwartzbach, Michael I.

    the current node is colored black: a g h b c i j k d e f l m n Question 1 Which nodes belong to the descendant axis for the current node in the above example XML tree? a d,e,f b c,e,f c b,c,d,e,f d a,b,c,d,e,f,c,i,j,k b a c b,c,d,e,f d b,c Question 3 Which nodes belong to the preceding axis for the current node

  8. Computerized rhinomanometry: a study of total nasal resistance normal values.

    PubMed

    Janosevi?, L; Dotli?, J; Janosevi?, S; Dudvarski, Z; Milovanovi?, A; Pendjer, I

    2009-01-01

    Computerized rhinomanometry with the practical software programmes is used widely as a research tool to evaluate objectively nasal air flow and resistance parameters, while the increase of its clinical application may be facilitated by further standardization of the method. The aim of the study was to determine the total nasal resistance normal values in healthy adult population using a method of computerized rhinomanometry. A randomized sample of 108 white healthy adults (216 nasal cavities), both sexs with a mean age of 32 (20-45) years comprised the test group. Nasal patency was measured by active anterior rhinomanometry in non-decongested mucosa ("at rest") during 10 repetitive measurements at inspiratory and expiratory reference pressure of 150 Pa. Nasal resistance was measured and calculated according to the recommendations of the Committee on objective assessment of the nasal airway, International Rhinologic Society. The mean total nasal resistance in the sample was found to be 0.179 Pa/cm3/s with the confidant interval from 0,167 to 0,191 Pa/cm3/s at the probability level of 95%. Total nasal resistance was very significantly influenced by sex (t = -4.614), height (F=11.625) and weight (F=11.529) of the examinees. This paper provides additional information on total nasal resistance normal values in healthy adult population important for computirezed rhinomanometry normative parameters standardization. PMID:20218102

  9. Testing the color charge and mass dependence of parton energy loss with heavy-to-light ratios at BNL RHIC and CERN LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Armesto, Nestor [Department of Physics, CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Departamento de Fisica de Particulas and Instituto Galego de Altas Enerxias, Facultade de Fisica, Campus Sur, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Dainese, Andrea [Universita degli Studi di Padova and INFN, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim [Department of Physics, CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2005-03-01

    The ratio of nuclear modification factors of high-p{sub T} heavy-flavored mesons to light-flavored hadrons ('heavy-to-light ratio') in nucleus-nucleus collisions tests the partonic mechanism expected to underlie jet quenching. Heavy-to-light ratios are mainly sensitive to the mass and color-charge dependences of medium-induced parton energy loss. Here, we assess the potential for identifying these two effects in D and B meson production at RHIC and at the LHC. To this end, we supplement the perturbative QCD factorized formalism for leading hadron production with radiative parton energy loss. For D meson spectra at high but experimentally accessible transverse momentum (10 < or approx. p{sub T} < or approx. 20 GeV) in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC, we find that charm quarks behave essentially like light quarks. However, since light-flavored hadron yields are dominated by gluon parents, the heavy-to-light ratio of D mesons is a sensitive probe of the color-charge dependence of parton energy loss. In contrast, due to the larger b quark mass, the medium modification of B mesons in the same kinematical regime provides a sensitive test of the mass dependence of parton energy loss. At RHIC energies, the strategies for identifying and disentangling the color charge and mass dependence of parton energy loss are more involved because of the smaller kinematical range accessible. We argue that at RHIC, the kinematical regime best suited for such an analysis of D mesons is 7 < or approx. p{sub T} < or approx. 12 GeV, whereas the study of lower transverse momenta is further complicated due to the known dominant contribution of additional, particle species dependent, nonperturbative effects.

  10. Computerized device for critical flicker fusion frequency determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racene, Diana

    2003-08-01

    The critical fusion flicker frequency of the human visual system is the threshold sensitivity for a sine wave-modulated patch of monochromatic flickering light measured as a function of its temporal frequency and average luminance level. The critical flicker fusion frequency changes in different ocular and non-ocular conditions, for example: high-myopia, AMR, glaucoma, schizophrenia, after alcohol intake, fatigue. A computerized test for critical flicker fusion frequency determination was developed. Visual stimuli are two monochromatic LED light sources that are connected to a microcircuit driven by a computer program. The control of the device is realized through the parallel port of the PC. During the test a patient has to choose which one of two light sources is flickering. The critical cliker fusion frequency is determined by a psychophysical procedure, where the stimulus frequency that showed detection probability 75% is considered as threshold.

  11. Color Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gude, Olivia

    2001-01-01

    Teaching about color and value scales emphasizes a systematic approach to the effects of color and may reinforce assumptions rooted in racism. Describes how an 8th grade art class challenged the symbolism of black as evil and white as good. By showing that this is a culturally constructed meaning, art teachers model that such meaning can also be…

  12. Computerized tomography in evaluation of hepatic neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, R.F.; Resende, C.; Tishler, J.M.A.; Aldrete, J.S.; Shin, M.S.; Rubin, E.; Rahn, N.H.

    1984-08-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen in 212 patients with histologically documented liver neoplasms seen during a 30-month period. The CT findings in cavernous hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia were specific, and permitted accurate diagnosis of this lesion before biopsy. The CT appearance of all other lesions was variable. CT is useful in providing an accurate evaluation of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic extent of the neoplasm.

  13. Computerized images: their value and deceptiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Grolleau-Raoux

    1998-01-01

    The principles and the technical procedures involved in the creation of computerized images are presented, and the low cost\\u000a of the materials is stressed. The technique is valuable for improving the quality and enriching the content of scientific\\u000a presentations. Warning is given that such images can be misleading; examples of retouched images are presented, these were\\u000a not detected when the

  14. Computerized implant-dentistry: Advances toward automation.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Minkle; Anand, Vishal; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Jain, Nikil; Gupta, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in the field of implantology such as three-dimensional imaging, implant-planning software, computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, computer-guided, and navigated implant surgery have led to the computerization of implant-dentistry. This three-dimensional computer-generated implant-planning and surgery has not only enabled accurate preoperative evaluation of the anatomic limitations but has also facilitated preoperative planning of implant positions along with virtual implant placement and subsequently transferring the virtual treatment plans onto the surgical phase via static (guided) or dynamic (navigated) systems aided by CAD/CAM technology. Computerized-implant-dentistry being highly predictable and minimally invasive in nature has also allowed implant placement in patients with medical comorbidities (e.g. radiation therapy, blood dyscrasias), in patients with complex problems following a significant alteration of the bony anatomy as a result of benign or malignant pathology of the jaws or trauma and in patients with other physical and emotional problems. With significant achievements accomplished in the field of computerized implant-dentistry, attempts are now been made toward complete automation of implant-dentistry. PMID:25810585

  15. Computerized implant-dentistry: Advances toward automation

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Minkle; Anand, Vishal; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Jain, Nikil; Gupta, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in the field of implantology such as three-dimensional imaging, implant-planning software, computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, computer-guided, and navigated implant surgery have led to the computerization of implant-dentistry. This three-dimensional computer-generated implant-planning and surgery has not only enabled accurate preoperative evaluation of the anatomic limitations but has also facilitated preoperative planning of implant positions along with virtual implant placement and subsequently transferring the virtual treatment plans onto the surgical phase via static (guided) or dynamic (navigated) systems aided by CAD/CAM technology. Computerized-implant-dentistry being highly predictable and minimally invasive in nature has also allowed implant placement in patients with medical comorbidities (e.g. radiation therapy, blood dyscrasias), in patients with complex problems following a significant alteration of the bony anatomy as a result of benign or malignant pathology of the jaws or trauma and in patients with other physical and emotional problems. With significant achievements accomplished in the field of computerized implant-dentistry, attempts are now been made toward complete automation of implant-dentistry.

  16. Computerized materials protection, control, and accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteson, R.; Seitz, S.; Landry, R.P.; Hadden, M.L.; Painter, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons, along with the technical knowledge and materials needed to make these weapons, is an enduring problem of international urgency. Current international nuclear nonproliferation efforts are aimed at deterring, detecting, and responding to proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. These safeguards efforts are being implemented by applying preeminent science and technology to the management and control of nuclear materials. By strengthening systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A), one can reduce the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation. Two major programs of international cooperation are now underway to achieve this goal. The first is between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Institutes of the Russian Federation (Laboratory-to-Laboratory Program), and the second is between the US Government and Governments of the former Soviet Republics (Government-to-Government Program). As part of these programs, the DOE is working with facilities to assist them in implementing computerized MPC and A systems. This work is a collaboration between computer scientists and safeguards experts in both the US and the new Republics. The US is making available technology and expertise to enable Russian experts to build on computerized MPC and A software developed in the US. This paper describes the joint efforts of these international teams to develop sophisticated computerized MPC and A systems using modern computer hardware and software technology. These systems are being customized to meet the site-specific needs of each facility.

  17. Training synesthetic letter-color associations by reading in color.

    PubMed

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Rouw, Romke

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing, hearing and thinking about letters, words and numbers. We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. In this protocol, participants are given specially prepared books to read in which four high-frequency letters are paired with four high-frequency colors. Participants receive unique sets of letter-color pairs based on their pre-existing preferences for colored letters. A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. In addition to objective testing, a reading experience questionnaire is administered that is designed to probe for differences in subjective experience. A subset of questions may predict how well an individual learned the associations from reading in color. Importantly, we are not claiming that this method will cause each individual to develop grapheme-color synesthesia, only that it is possible for certain individuals to form letter-color associations by reading in color and these associations are similar in some aspects to those seen in developmental grapheme-color synesthetes. The method is quite flexible and can be used to investigate different aspects and outcomes of training synesthetic associations, including learning-induced changes in brain function and structure. PMID:24638033

  18. High-speed computerized tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartzlander, E. E., Jr.; Gilbert, B. K.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a high-speed reconstruction processor and a channelized architecture to use with a high-resolution tomographic unit is discussed with attention to the convolution reconstruction algorithm. By means of this algorithm, input data and intermediate result precision required throughout the algorithm execution have been studied with computer simulation using profile data derived from mathematically simulated test objects and experimental animal data. A prototype section for a highly parallel all-digital system executes 60 million arithmetic operations per second, and the full-scale version is expected to reconstruct 500 to 1000 cross sections per second.

  19. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  20. Validation and workflow optimization of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing using INFORM HER2 dual-color in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung-Jig; Cantillep, Alegria; Carpenter, Philip M

    2013-11-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status is useful for predicting response to trastuzumab. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 gene amplification is accurate but limited because of cost, the need for fluorescence microscopy, the limited assessment of histology, and the fading of its signal over time. Dual-color in situ hybridization (Dual ISH) is fully automated, is viewable by bright-field microscopy, has a stable signal, and has separate colors for HER2 and chromosome 17 signals. HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC), FISH, and Dual ISH were performed on 101 breast cancer cases. Sixteen of 17 cases with 3+ HER2 by IHC showed gene amplification by FISH, and 15 showed amplification by Dual ISH. Three of the 2+ IHC cases were either amplified or equivocal by Dual ISH. None of the IHC-negative cases were amplified by either FISH or Dual ISH. Dual ISH agreed with FISH in 93% of cases. Among the 6 discrepancies, 4 were for an equivocal result for 1 test compared with either a positive or a negative result for the other test. The average differences in readings between Dual ISH and FISH in the discrepant cases were only 0.02, with a range of -1.37 to 1.85. Turnaround time for FISH as a send-out test from test ordering to reporting averaged 8.27 workdays, whereas the turnaround time for Dual ISH performed in-house averaged 4.94 workdays (P < .0000001). Our results indicated that automated Dual ISH is a useful method for evaluating HER2 status in a clinical setting. PMID:24075600

  1. An experimental test of the contributions and condition dependence of microstructure and carotenoids in yellow plumage coloration

    PubMed Central

    Shawkey, Matthew D; Hill, Geoffrey E; McGraw, Kevin J; Hood, Wendy R; Huggins, Kristal

    2006-01-01

    A combination of structural and pigmentary components is responsible for many of the colour displays of animals. Despite the ubiquity of this type of coloration, neither the relative contribution of structures and pigments to variation in such colour displays nor the relative effects of extrinsic factors on the structural and pigment-based components of such colour has been determined. Understanding the sources of colour variation is important because structures and pigments may convey different information to conspecifics. In an experiment on captive American goldfinches Carduelis tristis, we manipulated two parameters, carotenoid availability and food availability, known to affect the expression of carotenoid pigments in a full-factorial design. Yellow feathers from these birds were then analysed in two ways. First, we used full-spectrum spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography to examine the extent to which variation in white structural colour and total carotenoid content was associated with variation in colour properties of feathers. The carotenoid content of yellow feathers predicted two colour parameters (principal component 1—representing high values of ultraviolet and yellow chroma and low values of violet–blue chroma—and hue). Two different colour parameters (violet–blue and yellow chroma) from white de-pigmented feathers, as well as carotenoid content, predicted reflectance measurements from yellow feathers. Second, we determined the relative effects of our experimental manipulations on white structural colour and yellow colour. Carotenoid availability directly affected yellow colour, while food availability affected it only in combination with carotenoid availability. None of our manipulations had significant effects on the expression of white structural colour. Our results suggest that the contribution of microstructures to variation in the expression of yellow coloration is less than the contribution of carotenoid content, and that carotenoid deposition is more dependent on extrinsic variability than is the production of white structural colour. PMID:17015356

  2. Color Me Safe Coloring Book

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Me Safe is a coloring book designed for children ages four to seven. Throughout the book, the Safe Family takes simple steps to prevent injuries, such as installing smoke alarms and using child safety seats. Children can have fun coloring the pictures and reading ...

  3. Color Sudoku

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-10-22

    The popular sudoku puzzles use numbers, but the game could played with any set of 9 different objects! In this activity (on pages 56-75 of PDF), learners use objects of different colors (marbles, paper squares, candies) to solve sudoku puzzles. Learners use logic to determine where all the colored objects go, given the different colors already present on the puzzles. The activity includes suggestions for how to approach the game, 10 puzzles of varying size and difficulty, and links to websites with many more puzzles.

  4. Changing Colors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sciencenter

    2014-08-27

    In this challenge, learners have to figure out in what order to combine five solutions to change the color from clear, to yellow, to blue, and back to clear. The five chemicals are potassium iodide, sodium thiosulfate, sodium hypochlorite (Clorox bleach), soluble starch (Niagara spray starch), and water. The color changes indicate chemical reactions, and the lesson includes some background information about the reactions that create different colors. Suggestions are given for guiding learners through systematic approaches to making the different combinations and observing the results, and for explaining to different age groups what happens when the solutions are combined.

  5. Color Theory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site, developed by the Exploratories Project at Brown University, provides a series of applets to help users understand the various concepts in Color Theory. In the combined Color Mixing applet, undergraduate and high school students can discover how lights, paints, and filters interact. Users can learn about the properties of incoming light, frequency, and reflectance. The site also provides activities for metamers, Triple Cell Response, and much more. Anyone seeking help with color concepts will benefit from this educational, interactive Web site.

  6. Colorful Electrophoresis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners follow step-by-step instructions to build a gel electrophoresis chamber using inexpensive materials from local hardware and electronic stores. Then, learners follow instructions to simulate DNA electrophoresis using food colors from the kitchen pantry.

  7. The Colors of the Alphabet: Naturally-Biased Associations between Shape and Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Ferrinne; Maurer, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    Many letters of the alphabet are consistently mapped to specific colors in English-speaking adults, both in the general population and in individuals with grapheme-color synaesthesia who perceive letters in color. Here, across six experiments, we tested the ubiquity of the color/letter associations with typically developing toddlers, literate…

  8. Color-tuned neurons are spatially clustered according to color preference within alert macaque posterior

    E-print Network

    Color-tuned neurons are spatially clustered according to color preference within alert macaque, 2008) Large islands of extrastriate cortex that are enriched for color- tuned neurons have recently the globs and then used MRI-guided microelectrodes to test the color properties of single glob cells. We

  9. Finding Colors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sciencenter

    2014-08-27

    In this chemistry challenge, learners combine acids and bases in a universal indicator to create five different colors. Using vinegar, washing soda, and Bogen universal indicator, the goal is to find combinations that create red, orange, yellow, green, and blue solutions. Background information explains a little about how acids and bases interact to affect the pH of a solution, and how the indicator changes color based on the pH. Safety notes are included.

  10. Computerized topographical analysis of functionally homogeneous neuronal sets.

    PubMed

    Giannazzo, E; Licata, F; Li Volsi, G; Mio, G; Santangelo, F; Scivoli, M

    1992-11-01

    A computer-assisted analysis of the spatial distribution of neurons having homogeneous characteristics is described in this paper. The camera lucida drawings of sections of a brain nucleus and the points representing the neurons labeled on the basis of a specific behavior of discharge rates were digitized on a personal computer Amiga 2000 or IBM compatible. Our software provided: a) the computerized, stereotaxically oriented reconstruction of the stored sections and of the plotted neurons; b) the identification within each section of the mass center (MC) of the units sharing a given behavior and of the area where the density of such neurons was maximal (MDA). The routine was tested on the spatial distribution of neuronal responses to serotonin in the lateral vestibular nucleus. PMID:1297363

  11. Computerized adaptive control weld skate with CCTV weld guidance project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes progress of the automatic computerized weld skate development portion of the Computerized Weld Skate with Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) Arc Guidance Project. The main goal of the project is to develop an automatic welding skate demonstration model equipped with CCTV weld guidance. The three main goals of the overall project are to: (1) develop a demonstration model computerized weld skate system, (2) develop a demonstration model automatic CCTV guidance system, and (3) integrate the two systems into a demonstration model of computerized weld skate with CCTV weld guidance for welding contoured parts.

  12. Children's Book Color Preferences as Related to Their Favorite Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Jill L.

    Because young children disregard writing on the spine of a book, researchers chose to run a test on color preferences in books. In a library situation young children see most books from a spine-out angle; thus when allowed to select a book by themselves, the first characteristics noticed are size and color. This study is based on the hypothesis…

  13. The Ability of Color-Vision Defective and Color-Normal Early Elementary and Junior High Students to Utilize Color. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ann C. N.; Hannaford, Alonzo E.

    The investigation was undertaken to obtain data on the number of kindergarten, second, and seventh grade Ss classified as having color vision defects by the American Optical-Hardy, Rand, Rittler Test (AO-HRR) and two tests by S. Ishihara. Also studied was the ability of color vision defective and color normal Ss to utilize color as measured by the…

  14. Accountability in a Computerized Society 1 Accountability in a Computerized Society

    E-print Network

    Nissenbaum, Helen

    ownership without liability. The paper concludes with ideas on how to reverse this trend. If a builder has part we judge these changes to be beneficial, but we also recognize that imperfections life. Lives and well-being are increasingly dependent on computerized life-critical systems

  15. Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures

    E-print Network

    Li, Jia

    system: real-time automatic annotation of pictures Human evaluation on Web images Learning methodology D2 photos Jia Li, James Z. Wang alipr.com #12;Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures ALIPR: Automatic,lake, rural, building tree, plant, people, water, garden animal, people, wild-life, dog, landscape Jia Li

  16. Software diversity in computerized control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Voges, U.

    1988-01-01

    This book deals with the most important aspects of software diversity and its use in computerized control systems, including theoretical background, experiments, and industrial realizations (railway, flight and nuclear applications). Researchers describe their experiments with software diversity and explain their results, including benefits and drawbacks. Practitioners explain their use of it in real systems: why they use this means of fault-tolerance, and how they incorporate it into their systems. In addition to the papers the book contains a rather complete list of publications giving an overview on references about software diversity from its beginning until today.

  17. 45 CFR 307.20 - Submittal of advance planning documents for computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...computerized support enforcement systems. 307.20 Section 307...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.20 Submittal...computerized support enforcement systems. The State IV-D...

  18. 45 CFR 307.25 - Review and certification of computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...computerized support enforcement systems. 307.25 Section 307...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.25 Review and...computerized support enforcement systems. The Office will...

  19. 45 CFR 307.25 - Review and certification of computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...computerized support enforcement systems. 307.25 Section 307...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.25 Review and...computerized support enforcement systems. The Office will...

  20. 45 CFR 307.35 - Federal financial participation at the applicable matching rate for computerized support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...computerized support enforcement systems. 307.35 Section 307...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.35 Federal...computerized support enforcement systems. Federal financial...

  1. 45 CFR 307.20 - Submittal of advance planning documents for computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...computerized support enforcement systems. 307.20 Section 307...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.20 Submittal...computerized support enforcement systems. The State IV-D...

  2. 45 CFR 307.35 - Federal financial participation at the applicable matching rate for computerized support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...computerized support enforcement systems. 307.35 Section 307...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.35 Federal...computerized support enforcement systems. Federal financial...

  3. 45 CFR 307.20 - Submittal of advance planning documents for computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...computerized support enforcement systems. 307.20 Section 307...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.20 Submittal...computerized support enforcement systems. The State IV-D...

  4. 45 CFR 307.20 - Submittal of advance planning documents for computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...computerized support enforcement systems. 307.20 Section 307...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.20 Submittal...computerized support enforcement systems. The State IV-D...

  5. 45 CFR 307.20 - Submittal of advance planning documents for computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...computerized support enforcement systems. 307.20 Section 307...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.20 Submittal...computerized support enforcement systems. The State IV-D...

  6. 45 CFR 307.25 - Review and certification of computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...computerized support enforcement systems. 307.25 Section 307...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.25 Review and...computerized support enforcement systems. The Office will...

  7. 45 CFR 307.35 - Federal financial participation at the applicable matching rate for computerized support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...computerized support enforcement systems. 307.35 Section 307...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.35 Federal...computerized support enforcement systems. Federal financial...

  8. 45 CFR 307.25 - Review and certification of computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...computerized support enforcement systems. 307.25 Section 307...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.25 Review and...computerized support enforcement systems. The Office will...

  9. 45 CFR 307.25 - Review and certification of computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...computerized support enforcement systems. 307.25 Section 307...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.25 Review and...computerized support enforcement systems. The Office will...

  10. 45 CFR 307.13 - Security and confidentiality for computerized support enforcement systems in operation after...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...computerized support enforcement systems in operation after October...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.13 Security...computerized support enforcement systems in operation after...

  11. 45 CFR 307.13 - Security and confidentiality for computerized support enforcement systems in operation after...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...computerized support enforcement systems in operation after October...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.13 Security...computerized support enforcement systems in operation after...

  12. 45 CFR 307.35 - Federal financial participation at the applicable matching rate for computerized support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...computerized support enforcement systems. 307.35 Section 307...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.35 Federal...computerized support enforcement systems. Federal financial...

  13. 45 CFR 307.35 - Federal financial participation at the applicable matching rate for computerized support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...computerized support enforcement systems. 307.35 Section 307...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.35 Federal...computerized support enforcement systems. Federal financial...

  14. 45 CFR 307.13 - Security and confidentiality for computerized support enforcement systems in operation after...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...computerized support enforcement systems in operation after October...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.13 Security...computerized support enforcement systems in operation after...

  15. Colorful Mathematics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Funded by Industry Canada's SchoolNet initiative with the cooperation of the Canadian Mathematical Society, Colorful Mathematics takes a game-oriented approach to teaching K-12 mathematics. The project has developed five coloring games that teach children about problem solving, and pattern identification, which "are all at the very heart of mathematics." The coloring approach makes difficult graph concepts "that are still the subject of active research by mathematicians, computer scientists and industry researchers" more accessible to children. The software program, which is available for free from this website, is set up to check for mistakes and challenge students to improve on their results. A Teacher's Corner section gives an overview of the games, "some sample questions for discussion with the curious student," and an overview of terminology used in the software program. The website is also available in French.

  16. Colorful Waves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William C. Robertson, Ph.D.

    2003-01-01

    You're probably really upset that all you have so far is a simple little ray model of light. When do we get to the good stuff, you say? How about now? As a bonus, you get to look at lots of pretty colors. This chapter addresses how light can be modeled as a series of waves. These waves consist of changing electric and magnetic fields that can travel through empty space, as well as through other mediums. Different frequencies of light waves correspond to different colors of light. White light is composed of all the colors of visible light. Visible light is just a small portion of the entire spectrum of electromagnetic waves.

  17. Computerized measurement of negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alex S; Alpert, Murray; Nienow, Tasha M; Dinzeo, Thomas J; Docherty, Nancy M

    2008-08-01

    Accurate measurement of negative symptoms is crucial for understanding and treating schizophrenia. However, current measurement strategies are reliant on subjective symptom rating scales, which often have psychometric and practical limitations. Computerized analysis of patients' speech offers a sophisticated and objective means of evaluating negative symptoms. The present study examined the feasibility and validity of using widely-available acoustic and lexical-analytic software to measure flat affect, alogia and anhedonia (via positive emotion). These measures were examined in their relationships to clinically-rated negative symptoms and social functioning. Natural speech samples were collected and analyzed for 14 patients with clinically-rated flat affect, 46 patients without flat affect and 19 healthy controls. The computer-based inflection and speech rate measures significantly discriminated patients with flat affect from controls, and the computer-based measure of alogia and negative emotion significantly discriminated the flat and nonflat patients. Both the computer and clinical measures of positive emotion/anhedonia corresponded to functioning impairments. The computerized method of assessing negative symptoms offered a number of advantages over the symptom scale-based approach. PMID:17920078

  18. Evaluation of a Computerized Clinical Information System (Micromedex).

    PubMed

    Lundsgaarde, H P; Moreshead, G E

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes data collected as part of a project designed to identify and assess the technical and organizational problems associated with the implementation and evaluation of a Computerized Clinical Information System (CCIS), Micromedex, in three U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The study began in 1987 as a national effort to implement decision support technologies in the Veterans Administration Decentralized Hospital Computer Program (DHCP). The specific objectives of this project were to (1) examine one particular decision support technology, (2) identify the technical and organizational barriers to the implementation of a CCIS in the VA host environment, (3) assess the possible benefits of this system to VA clinicians in terms of therapeutic decision making, and (4) develop new methods for identifying the clinical utility of a computer program designed to provide clinicians with a new information tool. The project was conducted intermittently over a three-year period at three VA medical centers chosen as implementation and evaluation test sites for Micromedex. Findings from the Kansas City Medical Center in Missouri are presented to illustrate some of the technical problems associated with the implementation of a commercial database program in the DHCP host environment, the organizational factors influencing clinical use of the system, and the methods used to evaluate its use. Data from 4581 provider encounters with the CCIS are summarized. Usage statistics are presented to illustrate the methodological possibilities for assessing the "benefits and burdens" of a computerized information system by using an automated collection of user demographics and program audit trails that allow evaluators to monitor user interactions with different segments of the database. PMID:1807583

  19. Enhancing Writing-Related Metacognitions through a Computerized Writing Partner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellermayer, Michal; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Ongoing computerized procedural facilitation with strategies and writing-related metacognitions for improving writing during and after computerized assistance--the Writing Partner (WP)--was studied, using 60 Israeli high school students. Compared to two non-WP groups, the WP group wrote better essays, internalized explicitly provided guidance, and…

  20. Assessment Outcomes: Computerized Instruction in a Human Gross Anatomy Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, Elaine L.

    2002-01-01

    The first of three successive classes of beginning physical therapy students (n=17) completed traditional cadaver anatomy lecture/lab; the next 17 a self-study computerized anatomy lab, and the next 20 both lectures and computer lab. No differences in study times and course or licensure exam performance appeared. Computerized self-study is a…

  1. The effects of computerized performance monitoring: An ethical perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen R.. Hawk

    1994-01-01

    Considerable controversy has surrounded the use of computerized performance monitoring (CPM) by employers. Critics of this technology contend that CPM usage raises serious ethical concerns. Beliefs that the use of computerized performance monitors results in unfair performance evaluation, stress and health problems underlie much of the current concern over this technology. A field study was undertaken to provide empirical evidence

  2. Use of computerized decision support systems to improve antibiotic prescribing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Thursky

    2006-01-01

    This decade will see the emergence of the electronic medical record, electronic prescribing and computerized decision support in the hospital setting. Current opinion from key infectious diseases bodies supports the use of computerized decision support systems as potentially useful tools in antibiotic stewardship programs. However, although antibiotic decision support systems appear beneficial for improving the quality of prescribing and reducing

  3. Physicians' Decisions to Override Computerized Drug Alerts in Primary Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saul N. Weingart; Maria Toth; Daniel Z. Sands; Mark D. Aronson; Roger B. Davis; Russell S. Phillips

    2003-01-01

    Background: Although computerized physician order entry reduces medication errors among inpatients, little is known about the use of this system in primary care. Methods: We calculated the override rate among 3481 consecutivealertsgeneratedat5adultprimarycareprac- tices that use a common computerized physician order entry system for prescription writing. For detailed re- view, we selected a random sample of 67 alerts in which physicians

  4. One Laptop Per Child (OLPC): A Novel Computerization Movement?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth L. Kraemer; Jason L. Dedrick; Prakul Sharma

    2011-01-01

    This study applies concepts about computerization movements (CMs) to a case study of the diffusion of innovation in the developing world and thereby to draw lessons for undertaking similar technology projects. We identify the key characteristics of a computerization movement in the scholarly literature and then review the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) Project in terms of each, identifying where

  5. Mid-America Computerized Ionospheric Tomography Experiment (MACE ?93)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Kronschnabl; G. S. Bust; J. A. Cook

    1995-01-01

    . A computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) experiment, utilizing an arrayof nine Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS) receivers deployed along a north-southline from South Dakota to south Texas (spanning over 2000 km), is currently underway.The "Mid-America Computerized Ionospheric Tomography Experiment," or Mace \\

  6. Kool Colors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Oregon Museum of Science and Industry

    2007-01-01

    Learners investigate how temperature affects the rate of chemical reactions by observing how steel wool reacts with various types of Kool-Aid solutions at different temperatures. The reaction is monitored as the color fades in the Kool-Aid solutions. Background information includes how the dyes change color from an oxidation-reduction reaction. Extensions include investigating how surface area and concentration affect reaction rate. Part of the "No Hassle Messy Science with a Wow" activity guide by OMSI, where all activities use only household materials.

  7. Computerized atmospheric trace contaminant control simulation for manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Buildup of atmospheric trace contaminants in enclosed volumes such as a spacecraft may lead to potentially serious health problems for the crew members. For this reason, active control methods must be implemented to minimize the concentration of atmospheric contaminants to levels that are considered safe for prolonged, continuous exposure. Designing hardware to accomplish this has traditionally required extensive testing to characterize and select appropriate control technologies. Data collected since the Apollo project can now be used in a computerized performance simulation to predict the performance and life of contamination control hardware to allow for initial technology screening, performance prediction, and operations and contingency studies to determine the most suitable hardware approach before specific design and testing activities begin. The program, written in FORTRAN 77, provides contaminant removal rate, total mass removed, and per pass efficiency for each control device for discrete time intervals. In addition, projected cabin concentration is provided. Input and output data are manipulated using commercial spreadsheet and data graphing software. These results can then be used in analyzing hardware design parameters such as sizing and flow rate, overall process performance and program economics. Test performance may also be predicted to aid test design.

  8. Computerized experience sampling method (ESMc): Assessing feasibility and validity among individuals with schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kimhy; Philippe Delespaul; Cheryl Corcoran; Hongshik Ahn; Scott Yale; Dolores Malaspina

    2006-01-01

    The Experience Sampling Method (ESM) is an ecologically valid, time-sampling of self-reports developed to study the dynamic process of person–environment interactions. ESM with digital wristwatch and booklets (paper-based ESM; ESMp) has been used extensively to study schizophrenia. The present study is designed to test the feasibility and validity of using Computerized ESM (ESMc) among individuals with schizophrenia. ESMc is advantageous

  9. Examining Colors, Color Perception, and Sight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Eichinger

    2009-05-15

    Students of all ages are fascinated by color and how we perceive it. For the main activity in this chapter, your class explores colors and visual perception by mixing colors in several ways. Students learn more about colors, light, vision, and color compo

  10. Color Term Knowledge Does Not Affect Categorical Perception of Color in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, A.; Clifford, A.; Williamson, E.; Davies, I.

    2005-01-01

    Categorical perception of color is shown when colors from the same category are discriminated less easily than equivalently spaced colors that cross a category boundary. The current experiments tested various models of categorical perception. Experiment 1 tested for categorical responding in 2- to 4-year-olds, the age range for the onset…

  11. Colorful Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, C. Shane

    2006-01-01

    As instructors of accounting, we should take an abstract topic (at least to most students) and connect it to content known by students to help increase the effectiveness of our instruction. In a recent semester, ordinary items such as colors, a basketball, and baseball were used to relate the subject of accounting. The accounting topics of account…

  12. The effects of color on brightness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Beau Lotto; Dale Purves

    1999-01-01

    Observation of human subjects shows that the spectral returns of equiluminant colored surrounds govern the apparent brightness of achromatic test targets. The influence of color on brightness provides further evidence that perceptions of luminance are generated according to the empirical frequency of the possible sources of visual stimuli, and suggests a novel way of understanding color contrast and constancy.

  13. Computerized image processing in the Reginald Denny beating trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Lawrence C.

    1997-02-01

    New image processing techniques may have significant benefits to law enforcement officials but need to be legally admissible in court. Courts have different tests for determining the admissibility of new scientific procedures, requiring their reliability to be established by expert testimony. The first test developed was whether there has been general acceptance of the new procedure within the scientific community. In 1993 the U.S. Supreme Court loosened the requirements for admissibility of new scientific techniques, although the California Supreme Court later retained the general acceptance test. What the proper standard is for admission of such evidence is important to both the technical community and to the legal community because of the conflict between benefits of rapidly developing technology, and the dangers of 'junk science.' The Reginald Denny beating case from the 1992 Los Angeles riots proved the value of computerized image processing in identifying persons committing crimes on videotape. The segmentation process was used to establish the presence of a tattoo on one defendant, which was key in his identification. Following the defendant's conviction, the California Court of Appeal approved the use of the evidence involving the segmentation process. This published opinion may be cited as legal precedent.

  14. Computerized plutonium wound-analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Waechter, D.A.; Brake, R.J.; Vasilik, D.G.; Erkkila, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    A new plutonium wound monitor has been developed at Los Alamos to upgrade a system which has been in use for about five years. The instrument, called a Computerized Wound Screening System, is designed around a readily available personal computer. It includes a full-function 256-channel pulse height analyzer and software necessary to calculate plutonium and americium activity from a spectrum. This new system provides medical and health physics personnel with considerable flexability in recognizing and recording situations where a wound incurred in a plutonium processing facility might be contaminated. This flexibility includes fast, accurate determination of contaminants in a wound, hard copy printout of results, and full patient logging capabilities via flexible disk storage. Use of a low cost computer greatly simplifies hardware and software design, and makes duplication of the instrument very simple and inexpensive.

  15. Economic Evaluation of Computerized Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortin, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    This completed effort involved a technical and economic study of the capabilities of computer programs in the area of structural analysis. The applicability of the programs to NASA projects and to other users was studied. The applications in other industries was explored including both research and development and applied areas. The costs of several alternative analysis programs were compared. A literature search covered applicable technical literature including journals, trade publications and books. In addition to the literature search, several commercial companies that have developed computerized structural analysis programs were contacted and their technical brochures reviewed. These programs include SDRC I-DEAS, MSC/NASTRAN, SCADA, SUPERSAP, NISA/DISPLAY, STAAD-III, MICAS, GTSTRUDL, and STARS. These programs were briefly reviewed as applicable to NASA projects.

  16. Spectrophotometric and computerized evaluation of tooth bleaching employing 10 different home-bleaching procedures: In-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Peskersoy, Cem; Tetik, Ayhan; Ozturk, Veli Ozgen; Gokay, Necmi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of bleaching products, determine the applicability and validation of the measurement methods. Materials and Methods: Freshly extracted 110 human incisor teeth were stained with whole blood and hemolysate solution prior to the application of 10 different home-bleaching products. Spectrophotometric measurements of the tooth shades were performed for each specimen before and after bleaching at the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 14 days. Differences in lightness (?l), chroma (?c), hue (?h) values and shade changes were measured to evaluate process. Computerized digital imaging analyses to determine the color changes were performed with Photoshop CS4 software (Adobe, San Jose, CA, USA). Statistical analyses were performed with analysis of variance, Scheffe and Tukey tests. Results: In all of the test groups regardless of the material used, a significant increase in lightness and hue, and decrease of chroma were observed, as compared to the control group. After recommended bleaching applications, ?l and ?h values respectively increased in group Zaris White and Brite (ZWB) and group Pola Night and ?c values showed significant decrease in groups ZWB and Rembrandt REM3 (P < 0.05). At the end of the procedure both spectrophotometric and digital imaging analysis showed ZWB was the most effective product among the others while Yotuel and Happy Smile were the least (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Home-bleaching systems showed slower but almost permanent bleaching effect likewise office-based methods. Both software and spectrophotometric analyses have advantages such as evaluating the results objectively and numerically, also treatment outcomes could be preserved. PMID:25512738

  17. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  18. Fully automated sample preparation microsystem for genetic testing of hereditary hearing loss using two-color multiplex allele-specific PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Bin; Gan, Wupeng; Wang, Shuaiqin; Han, Junping; Xiang, Guangxin; Li, Cai-Xia; Sun, Jing; Liu, Peng

    2015-01-20

    A fully automated microsystem consisting of a disposable DNA extraction and PCR microchip, as well as a compact control instrument, has been successfully developed for genetic testing of hereditary hearing loss from human whole blood. DNA extraction and PCR were integrated into a single 15-?L reaction chamber, where a piece of filter paper was embedded for capturing genomic DNA, followed by in-situ PCR amplification without elution. Diaphragm microvalves actuated by external solenoids together with a "one-way" fluidic control strategy operated by a modular valve positioner and a syringe pump were employed to control the fluids and to seal the chamber during thermal cycling. Fully automated DNA extractions from as low as 0.3-?L human whole blood followed by amplifications of 59-bp ?-actin fragments can be completed on the microsystem in about 100 min. Negative control tests that were performed between blood sample analyses proved the successful elimination of any contamination or carryover in the system. To more critically test the microsystem, a two-color multiplex allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) assay for detecting c.176_191del16, c.235delC, and c.299_300delAT mutations in GJB2 gene that accounts for hereditary hearing loss was constructed. Two allele-specific primers, one labeled with TAMRA for wild type and the other with FAM for mutation, were designed for each locus. DNA extraction from blood and ASPCR were performed on the microsystem, followed by an electrophoretic analysis on a portable microchip capillary electrophoresis system. Blood samples from a healthy donor and five persons with genetic mutations were all accurately analyzed with only two steps in less than 2 h. PMID:25495389

  19. Color It!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    It doesn't take a Photoshop expert to create attractive graphics for the Web. To prove this, the folks at MicroFrontier have released three graphic creation/editing packages for the Macintosh, each aimed at a different user level. All three applications support Photoshop 3.0 compatible plug-ins and basic features such as scanner support, image and resolution scaling, and basic image enhancement. Color It! adds the ability to create animated GIFs, PNG, and progressive JPEG files, and client- and server-side image maps. It also supports an enhanced set of filters, fills, and imaging tools. A save-disabled demo version of each application is available at the MicroFrontier Website. The price for Color It! is $49.95.

  20. Computerized Aid Improves Safety Decision Process for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B.; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user. Women reported that the decision aid was useful and provided much-needed privacy for making safety decisions. The majority (69%) reported severe to extreme danger in their relationship as scored by Danger Assessment (DA); only 60% reported having made a safety plan. After using the safety decision aid, the women felt more supported in their decision (p = .012) and had less total decisional conflict (p = .014). The study demonstrated that a computerized safety decision aid improved the safety planning process, as demonstrated by reduced decisional conflict after only one use in a sample of abused women. PMID:20040709

  1. Retest reliability in adolescents of a computerized neuropsychological battery used to assess recovery from concussion.

    PubMed

    Segalowitz, Sidney J; Mahaney, Patrick; Santesso, Diane L; MacGregor, Leslie; Dywan, Jane; Willer, Barry

    2007-01-01

    We examined in a group of 15-year-old adolescents the retest reliability over one week of 7 subscales of the Automated Neuropsychological Metrics (ANAM), a computerized battery based on standard neuropsychological test measures that is one of several such batteries available to assess concussion effects. Since the principle behind these computerized batteries is to assess athletes before injury and after injury to determine the level of deficit and whether the individual is safe to return to play, it is critical that such batteries have excellent retest reliability. Retest reliability of the ANAM was good, especially for the aggregate of throughput scores, reaching 0.87, but lower for individual subtests, especially for those measuring only speed of processing. Thus, the ANAM aggregated score appears to have robust reliability for cognitive measures involving memory and attention in 15-year-olds. Limitations related to assessing return-to-baseline after concussion in adolescents are discussed. PMID:17917174

  2. Performance on the "Stroop Color-Word Test" as Related to Learning Potential Status of Educable Mentally Retarded Adolescents. Volume 1, Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pines, Ayala; Budoff, Milton

    Adolescents defined as educable retarded who have demonstrated their ability to profit from experiences (highscorers and gainers) were hypothesized to perform more adequately than nongainers on the Stroop Color-Word interference task. The tasks were administered on three successive days to each subject in the following order: color, word,…

  3. Outpatient prescribing errors and the impact of computerized prescribing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tejal K. Gandhi; Saul N. Weingart; Andrew C. Seger; Joshua Borus; Elisabeth Burdick; Eric G. Poon; Lucian L. Leape; David W. Bates

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medication errors are common among inpatients and many are preventable with computerized prescribing. Relatively little is\\u000a known about outpatient prescribing errors or the impact of computerized prescribing in this setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To assess the rates, types, and severity of outpatient prescribing errors and understand the potential impact of computerized\\u000a prescribing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in 4 adult primary care

  4. Survey of methods for improving operator acceptance of computerized aids

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, P. R.; Kisner, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    The success of current attempts to improve the operational performance and safety of nuclear power plants by installing computerized operational aids in the control rooms is dependent, in part, on the operator's attitude toward the aid. Utility experience with process computer systems indicates that problems may already exist with operator acceptance of computerized aids. The growth of the role that computers have in nuclear power plants makes user acceptance of computer technology an important issue for the nuclear industry. The purpose of this report is to draw from the literature factors related to user acceptance of computerized equipment that may also be applicable to the acceptance of computerized aids used in the nuclear power plant control room.

  5. The Carrot To Read: Computerized Reading Incentive Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engvall, Barb

    1999-01-01

    Describes and compares four computerized reading incentive programs that quiz students on their reading comprehension of self-selected books and award points for their efforts. Topics include price, hardware requirements, reading level, training, and recommendations. (LRW)

  6. Computerized Career Information and Guidance Systems: Caveat Emptor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Joseph A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Argues for examining computerized career information and guidance systems in the same way in which paper-and-pencil instruments are assessed. Considers issues related to programing, technical-service problems, and staffing. (Author/ABL)

  7. Sequential computerized hepatobiliary imaging during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Falchero, F.; Valentini, M.; Ciambellotti, E.; Becchi, G.

    1985-04-01

    Sequential computerized hepatobiliary imaging was performed in 11 jaundiced patients before, during, and after biliary decompression. The rates of plasma clearances and radionuclide accumulation in liver cells and biliary tree were calculated, in addition to the uptake and retention index.

  8. 21 CFR 884.2800 - Computerized Labor Monitoring System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...display that indicates the progress of labor. The computerized labor monitoring system includes a monitor and ultrasound transducers. Ultrasound transducers are placed on the maternal abdomen and cervix and on the fetal scalp to provide the...

  9. 21 CFR 884.2800 - Computerized Labor Monitoring System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...display that indicates the progress of labor. The computerized labor monitoring system includes a monitor and ultrasound transducers. Ultrasound transducers are placed on the maternal abdomen and cervix and on the fetal scalp to provide the...

  10. 21 CFR 884.2800 - Computerized Labor Monitoring System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...display that indicates the progress of labor. The computerized labor monitoring system includes a monitor and ultrasound transducers. Ultrasound transducers are placed on the maternal abdomen and cervix and on the fetal scalp to provide the...

  11. 21 CFR 884.2800 - Computerized Labor Monitoring System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...display that indicates the progress of labor. The computerized labor monitoring system includes a monitor and ultrasound transducers. Ultrasound transducers are placed on the maternal abdomen and cervix and on the fetal scalp to provide the...

  12. 21 CFR 884.2800 - Computerized Labor Monitoring System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...display that indicates the progress of labor. The computerized labor monitoring system includes a monitor and ultrasound transducers. Ultrasound transducers are placed on the maternal abdomen and cervix and on the fetal scalp to provide the...

  13. Color Burst

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson will help students gain experience in asking questions and conducting inquiry by exploring the separation of colors in water and other solvents; and to communicate and share findings of student investigations. The lesson uses a technique called paper chromatography, which is demonstrated using water, ink, and a coffee filter. Scientists use chromatography frequently to separate and identify the component parts of a mixture. This lesson will help young students gain experience in conducting simple investigations of their own while working in small groups.

  14. Preferred color correction for digital LCD TVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Choon-Woo; Ahn, Ji-Young; Kang, Dong-Woo; Shin, Hyun-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Instead of colorimetirc color reproduction, preferred color correction is applied for digital TVs to improve subjective image quality. First step of the preferred color correction is to survey the preferred color coordinates of memory colors. This can be achieved by the off-line human visual tests. Next step is to extract pixels of memory colors representing skin, grass and sky. For the detected pixels, colors are shifted towards the desired coordinates identified in advance. This correction process may result in undesirable contours on the boundaries between the corrected and un-corrected areas. For digital TV applications, the process of extraction and correction should be applied in every frame of the moving images. This paper presents a preferred color correction method in LCH color space. Values of chroma and hue are corrected independently. Undesirable contours on the boundaries of correction are minimized. The proposed method change the coordinates of memory color pixels towards the target color coordinates. Amount of correction is determined based on the averaged coordinate of the extracted pixels. The proposed method maintains the relative color difference within memory color areas. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated using the paired comparison. Results of experiments indicate that the proposed method can reproduce perceptually pleasing images to viewers.

  15. Cognitive aspects of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  16. Brain DC potential changes of computerized tasks and paper/pencil tasks.

    PubMed

    Trimmel, M; Strässler, F; Knerer, K

    2001-04-01

    Analysis of slow cortical potentials and their topography is currently discussed as an indication of cortical activity associated with cognitive operations/performance. In this paper, changes of the EEG DC potential were analyzed in two computerized tasks (correcting typing errors, performing Excel) and two paper/pencil tasks (correcting typing errors, a cognitive test) to assess mental load related to ergonomical and task characteristics. DC recordings were analyzed for the mean values of baseline and the first and the second 4 min of each task from 24 persons. A 2 (computer usage experience low vs. high)x4 (Task)x3 (Time: baseline, first half of task, second half)x6 (Lead) MANOVA of DC potential changes (DCPCs) showed at F3, F4 and C3 positive DCPCs for paper/pencil tasks and negative DCPCs for computerized tasks. Ratings of task difficulty were related to high vs. low task demands, whereas DCPCs were related to task medium, time on task and lead. Highly experienced persons showed a pronounced left-right difference at parietal locations and at frontal and central locations related to task medium by trend. Results were interpreted as higher cortical activation associated with mental load caused by additional attentional/controlling demands of computerized tasks. PMID:11228345

  17. Color of Salts (Flame Test)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ramsey Miller, Menahga High School, Menahga, MN, based on an original activity from the Prentice Hall Chemistry (2005), Flame Tests, p.142.

    This is a laboratory exercise designed to allow students to further investigate the light spectrum. This lab is used to have students view the light spectrum first hand as opposed to using lecture alone.

  18. Learning About Color

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Whitni Erickson

    2009-04-18

    In this project, students will learn about primary, secondary, and complementary colors. Students will also learn about warm & cool colors, along with tints & shades. Lastly, they will create an optical illusion using complimentary colors. INTRODUCTION: Welcome students! Begin by watching this fun video about colors. LEARNING ABOUT COLOR: Now, that you've had an introduction to colors, lets play a little game! Click on the link below. Carmine s Introduction to Color Awesome! Click on the links below ...

  19. Color Theory for Design

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Jensen

    2009-10-04

    This lesson will introduce students to color theory with a focus on the use of color in digital design. Students will discover the color wheel, and color harmonies. Color is a very powerful tool in design. It can, enhance a message, give an object visual weight and emphasis, and add richness and depth to a design. We can use color to signify data, to draw attention to a particular object, or to set a mood. Color ...

  20. Tetrachromatic color vision in goldfish: evidence from color mixture experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christa Neumeyer

    1992-01-01

    Additive color mixture experiments were performed in the goldfish using a behavioral training technique in which the fish had to discriminate between two test fields.1.When trained on monochromatic light of 570, 584, 599 or 608 nm, and tested against an additive mixture of 523 nm and 641 nm, the fish showed a “match” at certain mixture ratios. This was also

  1. Testing Our Limits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempel, Melissa Bollow

    2012-01-01

    Computerized testing, including the widely used MAP test, has infiltrated the public schools in Milwaukee and across the nation, bringing with it a frightening future for public education. High-stakes standardized tests can be scored almost immediately via the internet, and testing companies can now easily link districts to their online data…

  2. Locating Information about Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Richard M.; Redl, Vera A.

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe sources of information about tests. They note the existence of test publishers' manuals, Mental Measurement Yearbooks (including online updates), Tests in Print, and computerized databases of the Educational Resources Information Center and the Educational Testing Service. An annotated list of compendia of instruments and…

  3. The Initial Development of a Computerized Operator Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Roger Lew; Ronald L Boring; Thomas A Ulrich; Ken Thomas

    2014-08-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) is a collection of resilient software technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall nuclear power plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. The COSS provides rapid assessments, computations, and recommendations to reduce workload and augment operator judgment and decision-making during fast- moving, complex events. A prototype COSS for a chemical volume control system at a nuclear power plant has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The development process identified four underlying elements necessary for the prototype, which consist of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. An operational prototype resides at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) using the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). Several human-machine interface (HMI) considerations are identified and incorporated in the prototype during this initial round of development.

  4. Computerized adaptive measurement of depression: A simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, William; Shear, Katherine; Kelleher, Kelly J; Pajer, Kathleen A; Mammen, Oommen; Buysse, Daniel; Frank, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Background Efficient, accurate instruments for measuring depression are increasingly important in clinical practice. We developed a computerized adaptive version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We examined its efficiency and its usefulness in identifying Major Depressive Episodes (MDE) and in measuring depression severity. Methods Subjects were 744 participants in research studies in which each subject completed both the BDI and the SCID. In addition, 285 patients completed the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results The adaptive BDI had an AUC as an indicator of a SCID diagnosis of MDE of 88%, equivalent to the full BDI. The adaptive BDI asked fewer questions than the full BDI (5.6 versus 21 items). The adaptive latent depression score correlated r = .92 with the BDI total score and the latent depression score correlated more highly with the Hamilton (r = .74) than the BDI total score did (r = .70). Conclusions Adaptive testing for depression may provide greatly increased efficiency without loss of accuracy in identifying MDE or in measuring depression severity. PMID:15132755

  5. Computerized tomographic analysis of fluid flow in fractured tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, C.W.; Sharer, J.C. [Terra Tek, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Springer, E.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this summary is to demonstrate the usefulness of X-ray computerized tomography to observe fluid flow down a fracture and rock matrix imbibition in a sample of Bandelier tuff. This was accomplished by using a tuff sample 152.4 mm long and 50.8 mm in diameter. A longitudinal fracture was created by cutting the core with a wire saw. The fractured piece was then coupled to its adjacent section to that the fracture was not expected. Water was injected into a dry sample at five flow rates and CT scanning performed at set intervals during the flow. Cross sectional images and longitudinal reconstructions were built and saturation profiles calculated for the sample at each time interval at each flow rate. The results showed that for the test conditions, the fracture was not a primary pathway of fluid flow down the sample. At a slow fluid injection rate into the dry sample, the fluid was imbibed into the rock uniformly down the length of the core. With increasing injection rates, the flow remained uniform over the core cross section through complete saturation.

  6. Computerized tomographic analysis of fluid flow in fractured tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, C.W.; Sharer, J.C. (Terra Tek, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Springer, E.P. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this summary is to demonstrate the usefulness of X-ray computerized tomography to observe fluid flow down a fracture and rock matrix imbibition in a sample of Bandelier tuff. This was accomplished by using a tuff sample 152.4 mm long and 50.8 mm in diameter. A longitudinal fracture was created by cutting the core with a wire saw. The fractured piece was then coupled to its adjacent section to that the fracture was not expected. Water was injected into a dry sample at five flow rates and CT scanning performed at set intervals during the flow. Cross sectional images and longitudinal reconstructions were built and saturation profiles calculated for the sample at each time interval at each flow rate. The results showed that for the test conditions, the fracture was not a primary pathway of fluid flow down the sample. At a slow fluid injection rate into the dry sample, the fluid was imbibed into the rock uniformly down the length of the core. With increasing injection rates, the flow remained uniform over the core cross section through complete saturation.

  7. Computerized StrainGauge Plethysmography — An Alternative Method for the Detection of Lower Limb Deep Venous Thrombosis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JULIAN ELFORD; IRVING WELLS; JIM COWIE; CAROL HURLOCK; HILARY SANDERS

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To test the ability of computerized strain-gauge plethysmography to act as a screening test for lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT).MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over an 8-month period, all patients referred to our Medical Assessment Unit with suspected lower limb DVT were considered for inclusion in the study. Each patient underwent both plethysmography and ascending venography within 24h, and the

  8. Studying computerized emergency operating procedures to evaluate the impact of strong procedure guidance on operators' work practices

    SciTech Connect

    Filippi, G. [Electricite de France R and D, Industrial Risk Management Dept., 1 av du General de Gaule, 92141 Clamart Cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    This paper is based on EDF qualitative analysis of full-scope simulator tests which objective is to examine operators activity in NPP emergency operation. These tests have given insight on usually unexplored aspects of operator's characteristics using computerized emergency operation procedures. The first aspect concerns 'score-reading' and situation awareness, the second aspect concerns the attention-resources allocation, revealing the relationships between each operators courses of action and cooperation supported by the procedures. (authors)

  9. Vision Screening by Color Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R.; Richardson, J. R.; Kerr, J.; Hay, S.; Mcbride, R.

    1985-01-01

    Screening test developed for detecting a range of vision defects in eye, including common precursors to amblyopia. Test noninvasive, safe, and administered easily in field by operator with no medical training. Only minimal momentary cooperation of subject required: Thus, test shows promise for use with very young children. Test produces color-slide images of retinas of eyes under specially-controlled lighting conditions. Trained observer screens five children per minute.

  10. Disruptive Coloration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Ipsen

    2009-04-01

    Most animals are patterned. While some markings may serve as an advertisement, many appear to function in concealment. Because of the principal way in which they seem to function, such markings are often termed disruptive coloration . Although there are a number of characteristics that may influence the effectiveness of markings in disruption; this study will only focus on two aspects: (1) the effectiveness of the position of markings in blurring or enhancing outline, and (2) the degree to which strongly contrasting markings may interfere with or aid recognition. In regard to the former, it must be kept in mind that the profile changes with change in viewing angle. Thus the pattern seen in relation to the profile most commonly presented to predator (or prey) is of most interest to us here.

  11. COLORS Magazine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COLORS Magazine was willed into existence in 1991 by photographer Oliviero Toscani and art director Tibor Kalman. Its goal was simple: "to show the world to the world.â?ť The publication looks at social issues around the world through thoughtful prose and meaningful visuals. Visitors can click on the Stories tab to click through a visual field of photos that lead to such stories as military service in South Korea and cuts to public spending in the United Kingdom. The Notebooks area brings together commentaries from all over the world as part of a collaboration with Reporters sans Frontieres. The Projects area contains links to special issues and projects, such as the News Machine that "churns your tweets through different media filters.â?ť Interested users can learn about obtaining a print subscription or explore the corresponding blog.

  12. Colors and Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms.Campbell

    2012-04-04

    How do you name things by color and shape? Lets learn about shapes and colors! 1. Watch this Color Video 2. Play this Color Game 3. Complete this Color Page 4. Watch this Shape Video 5. Watch this Shape Video2 6. Play this Shape Game 7. ...

  13. Similarity of Color Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus A. Stricker; Markus Orengo

    1995-01-01

    We describe two new color indexing techniques. The first one is a more robust version of thecommonly used color histogram indexing. In the index we store the cumulative color histograms.The L 1 -, L 2 -, or L1 -distance between two cumulative color histograms can be used to define asimilarity measure of these two color distributions. We show that while

  14. Disappearing Colors Crayola Supplies

    E-print Network

    Zanibbi, Richard

    · · Social Studies Visual Arts · · Why Experiment with color perception by making your own color filter on the lens color. 2. Design your own experiment. Draw patterns of lines and shapes using Crayola to see how looking through different colored plastic wrap affects your perception of colorful patterns

  15. Color preferences change after experience with liked/disliked colored objects.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eli D; Schloss, Karen B; Palmer, Stephen E

    2013-10-01

    How are color preferences formed, and can they be changed by affective experiences with correspondingly colored objects? We examined these questions by testing whether affectively polarized experiences with images of colored objects would cause changes in color preferences. Such changes are implied by the ecological valence theory (EVT), which posits that color preferences are determined by people's average affective responses to correspondingly colored objects (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 8877-8882, 2010). Seeing images of strongly liked (and disliked) red and green objects, therefore, should lead to increased (and decreased) preferences for correspondingly colored red and green color patches. Experiment 1 showed that this crossover interaction did occur, but only if participants were required to evaluate their preferences for the colored objects when they saw them. Experiment 2 showed that these overall changes decreased substantially over a 24-h delay, but the degree to which the effect lasted for individuals covaried with the magnitude of the effects immediately after object exposure. Experiment 3 demonstrated a similar, but weaker, effect of affectively biased changes in color preferences when participants did not see, but only imagined, the colored objects. The overall pattern of results indicated that color preferences are not fixed, but rather are shaped by affective experiences with colored objects. Possible explanations for the observed changes in color preferences were considered in terms of associative learning through evaluative conditioning and/or priming of prior knowledge in memory. PMID:23616112

  16. Computerized sperm motility analysis in toxicity bioassays: a new approach to pore water quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Fabbrocini, Adele; Di Stasio, Michele; D'Adamo, Raffaele

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test the sensitivity of computerized sperm motility analysis in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus as the endpoint in toxicity bioassays. The tested matrices were pore water samples collected in an agriculture-impacted Mediterranean lagoon, Lake Varano (Italy). Two standardized bioassays were also conducted as controls, the P. lividus spermiotoxicity test and the Vibrio fischeri (Microtox®) test. VCL (curvilinear velocity), VSL (straight line velocity), VAP (average path velocity), and the percentage of rapid spermatozoa recorded by the Sperm Class Analyzer® system showed high sensitivity and discrimination ability, to a degree comparable with the larval development endpoint of the spermiotoxicity test. The test evaluated in this study requires small volumes of matrices, involves minimal sample manipulation, and can easily be extended to many other bioindicator species. It may therefore be considered a promising "quick response tool" following hazardous events that may adversely affect an aquatic ecosystem. PMID:20537390

  17. Relative Role of Flower Color and Scent on Pollinator Attraction: Experimental Tests using F1 and F2 Hybrids of Daylily and Nightlily

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Shun K.; Nitta, Kozue; Kim, Yuni; Kato, Aya; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Yasumoto, Akiko A.; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2012-01-01

    The daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) and nightlily (H. citrina) are typical examples of a butterfly-pollination system and a hawkmoth-pollination system, respectively. H. fulva has diurnal, reddish or orange-colored flowers and is mainly pollinated by diurnal swallowtail butterflies. H. citrina has nocturnal, yellowish flowers with a sweet fragrance and is pollinated by nocturnal hawkmoths. We evaluated the relative roles of flower color and scent on the evolutionary shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina. We conducted a series of experiments that mimic situations in which mutants differing in either flower color, floral scent or both appeared in a diurnally flowering population. An experimental array of 6×6 potted plants, mixed with 24 plants of H. fulva and 12 plants of either F1 or F2 hybrids, were placed in the field, and visitations of swallowtail butterflies and nocturnal hawkmoths were recorded with camcorders. Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers. Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission. Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent. PMID:22720016

  18. Military Services Fitness Database: Development of a Computerized Physical Fitness and Weight Management Database for the U.S. Army

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Donald A.; Bathalon, Gaston P.; Sigrist, Lori D.; Allen, H. Raymond; Friedl, Karl E.; Young, Andrew J.; Martin, Corby K.; Stewart, Tiffany M.; Burrell, Lolita; Han, Hongmei; Hubbard, Van S.; Ryan, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has mandated development of a system to collect and manage data on the weight, percent body fat (%BF), and fitness of all military personnel. This project aimed to (1) develop a computerized weight and fitness database to track individuals and Army units over time allowing cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluations and (2) test the computerized system for feasibility and integrity of data collection over several years of usage. The computer application, the Military Services Fitness Database (MSFD), was designed for (1) storage and tracking of data related to height, weight, %BF for the Army Weight Control Program (AWCP) and Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores and (2) generation of reports using these data. A 2.5-year pilot test of the MSFD indicated that it monitors population and individual trends of changing body weight, %BF, and fitness in a military population. PMID:19216292

  19. Computerization of the standard corsi block-tapping task affects its underlying cognitive concepts: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Claessen, Michiel H G; van der Ham, Ineke J M; van Zandvoort, Martine J E

    2015-01-01

    The tablet computer initiates an important step toward computerized administration of neuropsychological tests. Because of its lack of standardization, the Corsi Block-Tapping Task could benefit from advantages inherent to computerization. This task, which requires reproduction of a sequence of movements by tapping blocks as demonstrated by an examiner, is widely used as a representative of visuospatial attention and working memory. The aim was to validate a computerized version of the Corsi Task (e-Corsi) by comparing recall accuracy to that on the standard task. Forty university students (Mage = 22.9 years, SD = 2.7 years; 20 female) performed the standard Corsi Task and the e-Corsi on an iPad 3. Results showed higher accuracy in forward reproduction on the standard Corsi compared with the e-Corsi, whereas backward performance was comparable. These divergent performance patterns on the 2 versions (small-to-medium effect sizes) are explained as a result of motor priming and interference effects. This finding implies that computerization has serious consequences for the cognitive concepts that the Corsi Task is assumed to assess. Hence, whereas the e-Corsi was shown to be useful with respect to administration and registration, these findings also stress the need for reconsideration of the underlying theoretical concepts of this task. PMID:25258029

  20. Skin color - patchy

    MedlinePLUS

    Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. Mottling or mottled skin refers to blood vessel changes in ... in the skin cells that gives skin its color Growth of bacteria or other organisms on the ...