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1

Assessment of Selective Attention with CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The SCWT (Stroop Color-Word Test) is a quick and frequently used measure for assessing selective attention and cognitive flexibility. This study determines age, sex and education level influence on attention and cognitive flexibility by CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among healthy Iranian children and adults. There were 78 healthy…

Afsaneh, Zarghi; Alireza, Zali; Mehdi, Tehranidost; Farzad, Ashrafi; Reza, Zarindast Mohammad; Mehdi, Moazzezi; Mojtaba, Khodadadi Seyed

2012-01-01

2

Development of computerized color vision testing as a replacement for Martin Lantern  

PubMed Central

Background Development and standardization of computerized color vision testing as a replacement for Martin Lantern test. Non-randomized comparative trial. Methods All candidates of SSB, Allahabad, reporting for SMB underwent color vision testing at the eye dept by computerized eye test and currently available tests. Results All candidates were subjected to Ishihara chart testing and those found to be CP III were subjected to the confirmatory test on Martin Lantern and the Software. Candidates requiring CP I standards for eligibility were tested on the same on Martin Lantern and on the new software method. On comparison between the Standard Martin Lantern and the Software, the results were consistent and comparable with 82 patients testing CP I on the Martin Lantern and 81 on the software. Of the CP III patients, 253 tested positive on the Standard lantern test as compared to 251 on the software and of the CP IV group, 147 tested positive on the Standard lantern and 149 by the software method. Conclusion It was found that the software replicated the existing Martin Lantern accurately and consistently. The Martin Lantern Software can be used as a replacement for existing old Lanterns which are not in production since the early 20th century. PMID:24532927

Kapoor, Gaurav; Vats, D.P.; Parihar, J.K.S.

2012-01-01

3

Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a system in which questions tailored to the examinee's capabilities are administered by computer. Enumerates possible benefits of the system, reviews the "state of the art," and predicts potential applications of computerized adaptive testing. (MCG)

McBride, James R.

1985-01-01

4

Computerized Adaptive Testing  

SciTech Connect

Using exceedingly easy or difficult test items on a conventional fixed-length mastery test can result in a less-than-optimal measurement of achievement. Studies suggest that the use of variable-length adaptive tests may decrease the average test length, while improving the accuracy of the estimate of achievement. This paper presents an overview of criterion-referenced computerized adaptive testing and described an exploratory study at Westinghouse Hanford Company. 5 refs., 4 figs.

Bickerstaff, D.D.; Gardner, P.R. (Eastern Washington Univ., Cheney (USA). Dept. of Chemistry; Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA))

1989-10-01

5

Bias-Free Computerized Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Summarized in this report is research from a project designed to investigate the utility of item characteristic curve theory and computerized adaptive testing as means of measuring and reducing ethnic bias and unfairness in ability tests. During the theor...

S. M. Pine, D. J. Weiss

1979-01-01

6

Color vision test  

MedlinePLUS

... test checks your ability to distinguish between different colors. ... Eye test - color; Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test ... be asked to determine the intensity of a color, especially in one eye compared to the other. This is often tested ...

7

Computerized Adaptive Testing under Nonparametric IRT Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonparametric item response models have been developed as alternatives to the relatively inflexible parametric item response models. An open question is whether it is possible and practical to administer computerized adaptive testing with nonparametric models. This paper explores the possibility of computerized adaptive testing when using…

Xu, Xueli; Douglas, Jeff

2006-01-01

8

Graphical Models and Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers computerized adaptive testing from the perspective of graphical modeling (GM). GM provides methods for making inferences about multifaceted skills and knowledge and for extracting data from complex performances. Provides examples from language-proficiency assessment. (SLD)

Almond, Russell G.; Mislevy, Robert J.

1999-01-01

9

An Introduction to the Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has unsurpassable advantages over traditional testing. It has become the mainstream in large scale examinations in modern society. This paper gives a brief introduction to CAT including differences between traditional testing and CAT, the principles of CAT, psychometric theory and computer algorithms of CAT, the…

Tian, Jian-quan; Miao, Dan-min; Zhu, Xia; Gong, Jing-jing

2007-01-01

10

The NASA/LRC Computerized Test System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new testing package, including apparatus and tasks for the behavioral study of a number of species in a variety of experiments is presented. The package is described with respect to the kinds of comparative psychological investigations for which it is best suited. The preliminary data generated within this new testing paradigm demonstrate that the NASA/LRC Computerized Test System provides a flexible yet powerful environment for the investigation of behavioral and psychological processes.

Richardson, W. Kirk; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Sue; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

1990-01-01

11

Evaluation of reliability of computerized neurobehavioral tests in Korean children.  

PubMed

Neurobehavioral tests are among the most efficient methods of identifying the adverse health effects of neurotoxicants. The reliability of neurobehavioral tests may be affected by racial or cultural backgrounds, but the widely used computerized neurobehavioral tests have been developed and standardized for Western children. It is thus necessary to assess the reliability of the existing computerized neurobehavioral tests for Korean children. For this reason, 254 healthy 7- to 8-year-old Korean children completed a neurobehavioral test-retest, with the test and retest held two months apart. Six neurobehavioral test items adapted from Korean Computerized Neurobehavioral Tests (KCNT) and modified to match the children's ability levels: Simple Reaction Time, Choice Reaction Time, Color Word Vigilance, Addition, Symbol Digit, and Finger Tapping Speed. The test reliability was assessed using the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ICCs ranged from 0.46 to 0.84 and were very similar to the Pearson coefficients. High reliability was detected in Symbol Digit (r=0.84, ICC=0.83), followed by the Finger Tapping Speed of the dominant hand (r=0.67, ICC=0.67) and of the non-dominant hand (r=0.65, ICC=0.65). The study findings suggest that the reliability of most computerized neurobehavioral tests is appropriate for epidemiological researches on Korean children, and that Symbol Digit and Finger Tapping Speed are more satisfactory bases for the periodic examination of neurobehavioral performance. These findings can also be useful in the future assembly of a neurobehavioral test battery, by providing more stable neurobehavioral test items for Korean children. PMID:22981304

Lee, Kyeong-Soo; Jeon, Man-Joong; Hwang, Tae-Yoon; Kim, Chang-Yoon; Sakong, Joon

2012-10-01

12

Computerized Adaptive Testing: An Introduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computers are revolutionizing almost every aspect of society and testing is no exception. Delivering tests on a computer often improves exam security, testing efficiency, and scoring, and it often allows for measurement of knowledge, skills, and abilities that cannot be measured using traditional assessment formats. One of the most widely cited…

Sereci, Stephen G.

13

Computerized Mastery Testing With Nonequivalent Testlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for determining the effect of testlet nonequivalence on the operating characteristics of a testlet-based computerized mastery test (CMT) is introduced. The procedure involves estimating the CMT decision rule twice—once with testlets treated as equivalent and once with testlets treated as nonequivalent. In the equivalent testlet mode, the likelihood functions (LFS) estimated for specific number-correct (NC) scores are assumed

Kathleen Sheehan; Charles Lewis

1992-01-01

14

The Mackworth Clock Test: a computerized version.  

PubMed

The Mackworth Clock Test (MCT; N. H. Mackworth, 1948) was developed to evaluate vigilance in British Air Force radar technicians during World War II. Homemade versions of the MCT have since varied with respect to both the characteristics of the device and the procedures of its administration. This article is a report on a computerized version of the MCT developed by the authors to closely emulate Mackworth's test. MCT data were collected from 25 undergraduate students; their performance was found to be equivalent to Mackworth's participants' data. This is the first MCT version that has been validated against the original. PMID:10766107

Lichstein, K L; Riedel, B W; Richman, S L

2000-03-01

15

Computerized Adaptive Personality Testing: A Review and Illustration With the MMPI-2 Computerized Adaptive Version.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized adaptive testing in personality assessment can improve efficiency by significantly reducing the number of items administered to answer an assessment question. Two approaches have been explored for adaptive testing in computerized personality assessment: item response theory and the countdown method. In this article, the authors…

Forbey, Johnathan D.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

2007-01-01

16

Online Calibration via Variable Length Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Item calibration is an essential issue in modern item response theory based psychological or educational testing. Due to the popularity of computerized adaptive testing, methods to efficiently calibrate new items have become more important than that in the time when paper and pencil test administration is the norm. There are many calibration…

Chang, Yuan-chin Ivan; Lu, Hung-Yi

2010-01-01

17

Computerized Adaptive Testing with the Generalized Graded Unfolding Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the use of the generalized graded unfolding model (GGUM) in computerized adaptive testing, using simulation and attempting to minimize the number of items required to produce equiprecise estimates of person locations. Results suggest that adaptive testing with the GGUM is a good method for achieving estimates with an approximately uniform…

Roberts, James S.; Lin, Yan; Laughlin, James E.

2001-01-01

18

Computerized Adaptive Testing: From Inquiry to Operation [Book Review].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book documents the research, development, and implementation efforts that allowed the U.S. Department of Defense to initiate the Computerized Adaptive Testing Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery Program for enlistment testing. Traces the history of this program over 30 years. (SLD)

Gierl, Mark J.

1998-01-01

19

"catR": An R Package for Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is an active current research field in psychometrics and educational measurement. However, there is very little software available to handle such adaptive tasks. The R package "catR" was developed to perform adaptive testing with as much flexibility as possible, in an attempt to provide a developmental and…

Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles

2011-01-01

20

Computerized Adaptive Math Tests for Elementary Talent Development Selection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three study cohorts involving 199 gifted fifth graders, 190 gifted sixth graders, and 683 typical sixth graders were used to construct, validate, and pilot a computerized adaptive math test for placing fifth graders in a middle school mathematics gifted program. Results suggest the adaptive test has potential for talent identification. (Author/CR)

Shermis, Mark D.; And Others

1996-01-01

21

When Cognitive Diagnosis Meets Computerized Adaptive Testing: CD-CAT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a mode of testing which enables more efficient and accurate recovery of one or more latent traits. Traditionally, CAT is built upon Item Response Theory (IRT) models that assume unidimensionality. However, the problem of how to build CAT upon latent class models (LCM) has not been investigated until recently,…

Cheng, Ying

2009-01-01

22

A Framework for the Development of Computerized Adaptive Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A substantial amount of research has been conducted over the past 40 years on technical aspects of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), such as item selection algorithms, item exposure controls, and termination criteria. However, there is little literature providing practical guidance on the development of a CAT. This paper seeks to collate some…

Thompson, Nathan A.; Weiss, David J.

2011-01-01

23

Auditory Performance Characteristics of the Computerized Revised Token Test (CRTT)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To assess the Computerized Revised Token Test (CRTT) performance of individuals with normal hearing under several intensity conditions and under several spectral and temporal perturbation conditions. Method: Sixty normal-hearing listeners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. Group 1 provided performance-intensity information about…

Eberwein, Cynthia A.; Pratt, Sheila R.; McNeil, Malcolm R.; Fossett, Tepanta R. D.; Szuminsky, Neil J.; Doyle, Patrick J.

2007-01-01

24

Computerized Classification Testing under the Generalized Graded Unfolding Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The generalized graded unfolding model (GGUM) has been recently developed to describe item responses to Likert items (agree-disagree) in attitude measurement. In this study, the authors (a) developed two item selection methods in computerized classification testing under the GGUM, the current estimate/ability confidence interval method and the cut…

Wang, Wen-Chung; Liu, Chen-Wei

2011-01-01

25

A Computerized Stroop Test for the Evaluation of Psychotropic Drugs in Healthy Participants  

PubMed Central

Background: The Stroop paradigm evaluates susceptibility to interference and is sensitive to dysfunction in frontal lobes and drug effects. The aim of the present study was to establish a simple and reliable computerized version of Stroop color-word test, which can be used for screening of various psychotropic drugs. Materials and Methods: The standardized method was followed in all cases, by recording the reaction time (RT) in msec in 24 healthy participants using computerized version of Stroop color-word test. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by recording the RTs by a single experimenter on two sessions (interday reproducibility). Validity of the model was further tested by evaluating the psychotropic effect of Zolpidem 5 mg, Caffeine 500 mg, or Placebo on 24 healthy subjects in a randomized, double blind three-way crossover design. Results: The method was found to produce low variability with coefficient of variation less than 10%. Interday reproducibility was very good as shown by Bland-Altman plot with most of the values within ±2SD. There was a significant increase in RTs in Stroop performance with Zolpidem at 1 hr and 2 hrs; in contrast, caffeine significantly decreased RTs in Stroop performance at 1 hr only compared to placebo. Conclusion: The Stroop color-word recording and analysis system is simple, sensitive to centrally acting drug effects, and has potential for future experimental psychomotor assessment studies. PMID:24049230

Pilli, Raveendranadh; Naidu, MUR; Pingali, Usha Rani; Shobha, J. C.; Reddy, A. Praveen

2013-01-01

26

The efficacy of individualized computerized testing in nursing education.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of an individualized computerized testing system for baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in health assessment and obstetrics/women's health during a 3-year period. One hundred twenty-seven students participated in the study. The testing software, Pedagogue, was used to generate the computer tests, and the students took all quizzes on-line. The mean scores on computer tests in both courses were as good as, or better than, previous scores on paper-pencil forms of the tests (P < .05). PMID:9099027

Bloom, K C; Trice, L B

1997-01-01

27

Assessment of Minimal HE (with emphasis on computerized psychometric tests)  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is associated with a high risk of development of overt hepatic encephalopathy, impaired quality of life and driving accidents. The detection of MHE requires specialized testing since it cannot by definition, be diagnosed on standard clinical examination. Psychometric (paper-pencil or computerized or a combination) and neuro-physiological techniques are often used to test for MHE. Paper-pencil psychometric batteries like the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) have been validated in several countries but do not have US normative values. Computerized tests such as the inhibitory control test (ICT), cognitive drug research system and Scan test have proven useful to diagnose MHE and predict outcomes. The specificity and sensitivity of these tests are similar to the recommended gold standards. Neuro-physiological tests such as the EEG and its interpretations, evoked potentials and Critical Flicker Frequency (CFF) also provide useful information. The diagnosis of MHE is an important issue for clinicians and patients alike and the testing strategies depend on the normative data available, patient comfort and local expertise. PMID:22321464

Kappus, Matthew R; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

2012-01-01

28

Computerized Neurocognitive Test Performance in Schizophrenia: A Lifespan Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Computerized neurocognitive batteries based on advanced behavioral neuroscience methods are increasingly used in large-scale clinical and genomic studies. Favorable construct validity in younger schizophrenia patients has been reported, but not in older patients. New variables afforded by computerized assessments were used to clarify age-associated cognitive impairment across the lifespan. Methods 624 patients with schizophrenia and 624 healthy comparison (HC) subjects aged 16–75 completed a 1–2 hour computerized neurocognitive battery (CNB) that assessed abstraction and mental flexibility, attention, working memory, recognition memory (verbal, facial, spatial), language, visuospatial and emotion processing. Linear mixed effects models tested for group differences in accuracy, response time, and efficiency scores. Contrasts were stratified by age. Results 91% of older (45+) and 94% of younger (<45) groups provided “good” data quality. After controlling for parental education and project, there were significant three-way interactions for diagnosis x domain x age group on all three outcome variables. Patients performed worse than HC across all neurocognitive domains, except in the oldest group of 60+ patients. Age-stratified analyses did not show differences between younger (16–45) and older patients (45–60, 60+), except for the attention domain. Older patients’ reduced working memory efficiency was due to worse speed, not accuracy. Older patients were quicker than younger patients in processing emotions. Conclusions Computerized assessments are feasible in large cohorts of schizophrenia patients. There is stable and generalized neurocognitive dysfunction across the lifespan in schizophrenia, albeit with fewer differences in some domains between older patients and HC after age 60. Speed-accuracy tradeoff strategies suggest deceleration of some frontal networks and improvements in speed of emotional processing. PMID:22183011

Irani, Farzin; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Richard, Jan; Calkins, Monica E.; Moberg, Paul J.; Bilker, Waren; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

2011-01-01

29

Tomato Analyzer Color Test User Manual (v10.2007) TOMATO ANALYZER COLOR TEST: USER MANUAL  

E-print Network

, the angle of view will also affect color sensitivity of the eye. Colors are perceived most precisely if they strike the area of the fovea in the eye, which is most sensitive to color. The 2o #12;Tomato AnalyzerTomato Analyzer ­ Color Test User Manual (v10.2007) TOMATO ANALYZER ­ COLOR TEST: USER MANUAL 4

van der Knaap, Esther

30

A-Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing with Unequal Item Exposure across Strata.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare a proposed revised a-stratified, or alpha-stratified, USTR method of test item selection with the original alpha-stratified multistage computerized adaptive testing approach (STR) and the use of maximum Fisher information (FSH) with respect to test efficiency and item pool usage using simulated computerized

Deng, Hui; Chang, Hua-Hua

31

Development and Evaluation of a Confidence-Weighting Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine whether the efficiency, precision, and validity of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) could be improved by assessing confidence differences in knowledge that examinees possessed. We proposed a novel polytomous CAT model called the confidence-weighting computerized adaptive testing (CWCAT), which combined a…

Yen, Yung-Chin; Ho, Rong-Guey; Chen, Li-Ju; Chou, Kun-Yi; Chen, Yan-Lin

2010-01-01

32

Optimal Testing with Easy or Difficult Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized adaptive tests (CATs) are individualized tests that, from a measurement point of view, are optimal for each individual, possibly under some practical conditions. In the present study, it is shown that maximum information item selection in CATs using an item bank that is calibrated with the one- or the two-parameter logistic model…

Eggen, Theo J. H. M.; Verschoor, Angela J.

2006-01-01

33

Revisiting a Cognitive Framework for Test Design: Applications for a Computerized Perceptual Speed Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights the need for a systematic, content aware, and theoretically-based approach to test design. The cognitive components approach is endorsed, and is applied to the development of a computerized perceptual speed test. Psychometric literature is reviewed and shows that: every major multi-factor theory includes a clerical/perceptual…

Alderton, David L.

34

Software configurable optical test system: a computerized reverse Hartmann test.  

PubMed

A software configurable optical test system (SCOTS) based on the geometry of the fringe reflection or phase measuring deflectometry method was developed for rapidly, robustly, and accurately measuring large, highly aspherical shapes such as solar collectors and primary mirrors for astronomical telescopes. In addition to using phase shifting methods for data collection and reduction, we explore the test from the point view of performing traditional optical testing methods, such as Hartmann or Hartmann-Shack tests, in a reverse way. Using this concept, the slope data calculation and unwrapping in the test can also be done with centroiding and line-scanning methods. These concepts expand the test to work in more general situations where fringe illumination is not practical. Experimental results show that the test can be implemented without complex calibration for many applications by taking the geometric advantage of working near the center curvature of the test part. The results also show that the test has a large dynamic range, can achieve measurement accuracy comparable with interferometric methods, and can provide a good complement to interferometric tests in certain circumstances. A variation of this method is also useful for measuring refractive optics and optical systems. As such, SCOTS provides optical manufacturers with a new tool for performing quantitative full field system evaluation. PMID:20697443

Su, Peng; Parks, Robert E; Wang, Lirong; Angel, Roger P; Burge, James H

2010-08-10

35

Mutual Information Item Selection Method in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing with Short Test Length  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) purports to combine the strengths of both CAT and cognitive diagnosis. Cognitive diagnosis models aim at classifying examinees into the correct mastery profile group so as to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of each examinee whereas CAT algorithms choose items to determine those…

Wang, Chun

2013-01-01

36

Reliability and validity of a computerized neurocognitive test battery, CNS Vital Signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

CNS Vital Signs (CNSVS) is a computerized neurocognitive test battery that was developed as a routine clinical screening instrument. It is comprised of seven tests: verbal and visual memory, finger tapping, symbol digit coding, the Stroop Test, a test of shifting attention and the continuous performance test. Because CNSVS is a battery of well-known neuropsychological tests, one should expect its

C. Thomas Gualtieri; Lynda G Johnson

2006-01-01

37

Computerized ordering of experimental animals and test authorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The authorization procedure required by law in Switzerland and the internal set-up at Roche for acquiring experimental animals has made a computerized system for monitoring author- izations and animal deliveries essential. The INQUIRE software program, which can be run on the central computer, was used to set-up databases with information on all personnel who place orders and perform experiments

ULRICH MAERKII; Albert Walther; WALTER ROSSBACHI

1990-01-01

38

Computerized neurocognitive testing in the management of sport-related concussion: an update.  

PubMed

Since the late nineties, computerized neurocognitive testing has become a central component of sport-related concussion (SRC) management at all levels of sport. In 2005, a review of the available evidence on the psychometric properties of four computerized neuropsychological test batteries concluded that the tests did not possess the necessary criteria to warrant clinical application. Since the publication of that review, several more computerized neurocognitive tests have entered the market place. The purpose of this review is to summarize the body of published studies on psychometric properties and clinical utility of computerized neurocognitive tests available for use in the assessment of SRC. A review of the literature from 2005 to 2013 was conducted to gather evidence of test-retest reliability and clinical validity of these instruments. Reviewed articles included both prospective and retrospective studies of primarily sport-based adult and pediatric samples. Summaries are provided regarding the available evidence of reliability and validity for the most commonly used computerized neurocognitive tests in sports settings. PMID:24306287

Resch, Jacob E; McCrea, Michael A; Cullum, C Munro

2013-12-01

39

The Influence of Item Calibration Error on Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Variable-length computerized adaptive testing (VL-CAT) allows both items and test length to be "tailored" to examinees, thereby achieving the measurement goal (e.g., scoring precision or classification) with as few items as possible. Several popular test termination rules depend on the standard error of the ability estimate, which in turn depends…

Patton, Jeffrey M.; Cheng, Ying; Yuan, Ke-Hai; Diao, Qi

2013-01-01

40

Test-Retest Reliability of Colored Filter Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The test-retest reliability of colored filter testing in relation to two symptom levels of dyslexia was evaluated using a forced-choice test procedure. Two tests, separated by two weeks, were conducted with 41 participants (ages 15 to 17). Results indicated poor test-retest reliability. (Author/DB)

Woerz, Marc; Maples, Willis C.

1997-01-01

41

A computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus  

PubMed Central

Background A tool for standardized and repeated neuropsychological assessments in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is needed. The objective of this study was to develop a computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for INPH and to evaluate its reliability, validity and patient’s ability to complete the tests. Methods Based on a structured review of the literature on neuropsychological testing in INPH, the eight tests most sensitive to the INPH cognitive profile were implemented in a computerized format. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was also included. Tests were presented on a touch-screen monitor, with animated instructions and speaker sound. The battery was evaluated with the following cohorts: A. Test-retest reliability, 44 healthy elderly; B. Validity against standard pen and pencil testing, 28 patients with various cognitive impairments; C. Ability to complete test battery, defined as completion of at least seven of the eight tests, 40 investigated for INPH. Results A. All except the figure copy test showed good test-retest reliability, r?=?0.67-0.90; B. A high correlation was seen between conventional and computerized tests (r?=?0.66-0.85) except for delayed recognition and figure copy task; C. Seventy-eight percent completed the computerized battery; Patients diagnosed with INPH (n?=?26) performed worse on all tests, including depression score, compared to healthy controls. Conclusions A new computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for patients with communicating hydrocephalus and INPH was introduced. Its reliability, validity for general cognitive impairment and completion rate for INPH was promising. After exclusion of the figure copy task, the battery is ready for clinical evaluation and as a next step we suggest validation for INPH and a comparison before and after shunt surgery. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.org NCT01265251. PMID:25279138

2014-01-01

42

Comparing Assessments of Students' Knowledge by Computerized Open-Ended and Multiple-Choice Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interactive computerized tests accepting unrestricted natural-language input were used to assess knowledge of clinical biophysics at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Comparison of responses to open-ended sequential questions and multiple-choice questions on the same material found the two formats test different aspects of competence.…

Anbar, Michael

1991-01-01

43

An Examination of the Effects of Mode of Access on the Computerized Revised Token Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate normal young participants' performance on subtest and overall scores obtained from touchscreen versus mouse on the Computerized Revised Token Test (CRTT). The study also examined CRTT test-retest reliability for both input devices and for user preference. Forty young, healthy adults participated in this study. All were native English speakers, without a history

Laura E. Heilman; Malcolm R. McNeil; Katharine J. Hill; Sheila R. Pratt

44

A Comparative Study of Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated and compared the properties of five methods of item exposure control within the purview of estimating examinees' abilities in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) context. Each of the exposure control algorithms was incorporated into the item selection procedure and the adaptive testing progressed based on the CAT design…

Chang, Shun-Wen; Twu, Bor-Yaun

45

Trait Parameter Recovery Using Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing in Reading and Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under a multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) computerized adaptive testing (CAT) testing scenario, a trait estimate (theta) in one dimension will provide clues for subsequently seeking a solution in other dimensions. This feature may enhance the efficiency of MIRT CAT's item selection and its scoring algorithms compared with its…

Li, Yuan H.; Schafer, William D.

2005-01-01

46

PERFORMANCE TESTS FOR THE EVALUATION OF COMPUTERIZED GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY EQUIPMENT AND LABORATORIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of ten general purpose tests are described which are used to evaluate the performance of computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems. All of the tests use the continuous, repetitive measurement of spectra method of data acquisition, and no selected ion moni...

47

Evaluation of the Usability of a Brief Computerized Cognitive Screening Test in Older People for Epidemiological Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Computerized cognitive testing has the potential to be an effective way to assess and monitor cognition in large neuroepidemiological studies. CogState is a game-like computerized test with demonstrated validity and reliability that has shown sensitivity to decline in older individuals over time. This study aimed to evaluate the serial usability of the test specifically within an older community cohort.

J. Fredrickson; P. Maruff; M. Woodward; L. Moore; A. Fredrickson; J. Sach; D. Darby; V. S. Pankratz; R. C. Petersen; R. S. Wilson

2010-01-01

48

Testing Accommodations for University Students with AD/HD: Computerized vs. Paper-Pencil/Regular vs. Extended Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prompted by a previous study investigating the effects of pacing on the academic testing performance of college students with AD/HD, we further explored our preliminary findings, which suggested that a computerized testing environment enhanced the testing performance of college students with AD/HD. We compared the effects of a computerized vs.…

Lee, Kathryn S.; Osborne, Randall E.; Carpenter, David N.

2010-01-01

49

A Genre-Based Perspective for the Development of Communicative Computerized Adaptive Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the communicative potentials of Computerized Adaptive Testing. The study is based on a model that offers a set of independent communicative concepts to describe the Genre of an interactive application. This model will be the starting point to analyze the stages of the interaction cycle that are typically inherent to every…

Lopez-Cuadrado, Javier; Armendariz, Ana J.; Latapy, Marion; Lopisteguy, Philippe

2008-01-01

50

A Stochastic Method for Balancing Item Exposure Rates in Computerized Classification Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized classification tests (CCTs) classify examinees into categories such as pass/fail, master/nonmaster, and so on. This article proposes the use of stochastic methods from sequential analysis to address item overexposure, a practical concern in operational CCTs. Item overexposure is traditionally dealt with in CCTs by the Sympson-Hetter…

Huebner, Alan; Li, Zhushan

2012-01-01

51

Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information index but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection index or in…

Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan

2011-01-01

52

A Computerized Approach to Scoring Verbal Responses to the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a study of a computerized approach to scoring the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). A total of 153 students from grades four through seven were involved, 100 in a developmental sample on which the computorized scoring procedures were developed, and a cross validation sample composed of the remaining 53. This research…

Archambault, Francis X., Jr.

53

Examinee Judgments of Changes in Item Difficulty: Implications for Item Review in Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether providing item review on a computerized adaptive test could be used by examinees to inflate their scores. Two studies involving 139 undergraduates suggest that examinees are not highly proficient at discriminating item difficulty. A simulation study showed the usefulness of a strategy identified by G. Kingsbury (1996) as a way to…

Wise, Steven L.; Finney, Sara J.; Enders, Craig K.; Freeman, Sharon A.; Severance, Donald D.

1999-01-01

54

The Design and Evaluation of a Computerized Adaptive Test on Mobile Devices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has expanded rapidly over recent years mainly due to the advances in communication and information technology. Availability of advanced mobile technologies provides several benefits to e-learning by creating an additional channel of access with mobile devices such as PDAs and mobile phones. This paper…

Triantafillou, Evangelos; Georgiadou, Elissavet; Economides, Anastasios A.

2008-01-01

55

The Accuracy of Examinee Judgments of Relative Item Difficulty: Implications for Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The degree to which item review on a computerized adaptive test (CAT) could be used by examinees to inflate their scores artificially was studied. G. G. Kingsbury (1996) described a strategy in which examinees could use the changes in item difficulty during a CAT to determine which items' answers are incorrect and should be changed during item…

Wise, Steven L.; And Others

56

Optimal Item Pool Design for a Highly Constrained Computerized Adaptive Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Item pool quality has been regarded as one important factor to help realize enhanced measurement quality for the computerized adaptive test (CAT) (e.g., Flaugher, 2000; Jensema, 1977; McBride & Wise, 1976; Reckase, 1976; 2003; van der Linden, Ariel, & Veldkamp, 2006; Veldkamp & van der Linden, 2000; Xing & Hambleton, 2004). However, studies are…

He, Wei

2010-01-01

57

Solving Complex Constraints in a-Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing Designs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information based item selection methods in computerized adaptive tests (CATs) tend to choose the item that provides maximum information at an examinee's estimated trait level. As a result, these methods can yield extremely skewed item exposure distributions in which items with high "a" values may be overexposed, while those with low "a" values…

Leung, Chi-Keung; Chang, Hua-Hua; Hau, Kit-Tai

58

Performance of Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing: Further Explorations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effectiveness of the Sympson and Hetter conditional procedure (SHC), a modification of the Sympson and Hetter (1985) algorithm, in controlling the exposure rates of items in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) environment. The properties of the procedure were compared with those of the Davey and Parshall (1995) and the…

Chang, Shun-Wen; Ansley, Timothy N.; Lin, Sieh-Hwa

59

SimulCAT: Windows Software for Simulating Computerized Adaptive Test Administration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most, if not all, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs use simulation techniques to develop and evaluate CAT program administration and operations, but such simulation tools are rarely available to the public. Up to now, several software tools have been available to conduct CAT simulations for research purposes; however, these existing…

Han, Kyung T.

2012-01-01

60

Firestar-"D": Computerized Adaptive Testing Simulation Program for Dichotomous Item Response Theory Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) enables efficient and flexible measurement of latent constructs. The majority of educational and cognitive measurement constructs are based on dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models. An integral part of developing various components of a CAT system is conducting simulations using both known and empirical…

Choi, Seung W.; Podrabsky, Tracy; McKinney, Natalie

2012-01-01

61

Computerized Classification Testing under the One-Parameter Logistic Response Model with Ability-Based Guessing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The one-parameter logistic model with ability-based guessing (1PL-AG) has been recently developed to account for effect of ability on guessing behavior in multiple-choice items. In this study, the authors developed algorithms for computerized classification testing under the 1PL-AG and conducted a series of simulations to evaluate their…

Wang, Wen-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Yun

2011-01-01

62

A Comparative Study of Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the properties of five methods of item exposure control in the context of estimating examinees' abilities in a computerized adaptive testing situation. Findings show advantages to the Stocking and Lewis conditional multinomial procedure (M. Stocking and C. Lewis, 1995) and, to a lesser degree, the Davy and Parshall method (T. Davey and C.…

Chang, Shun-Wen; Ansley, Timothy N.

2003-01-01

63

Three Response Types for Broadening the Conception of Mathematical Problem Solving in Computerized Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three open-ended response types that could broaden the conception of mathematical problem solving used in computerized admissions tests: (1) mathematical expression (ME); (2) generating examples (GE); and (3) and graphical modeling (GM). Illustrates how combining ME, GE, and GM can form extended constructed response problems. (SLD)

Bennett, Randy Elliot; Morley, Mary; Quardt, Dennis

2000-01-01

64

A Method for the Comparison of Item Selection Rules in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a typical study comparing the relative efficiency of two item selection rules in computerized adaptive testing, the common result is that they simultaneously differ in accuracy and security, making it difficult to reach a conclusion on which is the more appropriate rule. This study proposes a strategy to conduct a global comparison of two or…

Barrada, Juan Ramon; Olea, Julio; Ponsoda, Vicente; Abad, Francisco Jose

2010-01-01

65

Computerized Adaptive Testing with the Partial Credit Model: Estimation Procedures, Population Distributions, and Item Pool Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of this research is to examine the impact of estimation methods, actual latent trait distributions, and item pool characteristics on the performance of a simulated computerized adaptive testing (CAT) system. In this study, three estimation procedures are compared for accuracy of estimation: maximum likelihood estimation (MLE),…

Gorin, Joanna; Dodd, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Steven; Shieh, Yann

2005-01-01

66

Evaluation of reliability of traditional and computerized neurobehavioral tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most Korean blue-collar workers are taking government-mandated medical screening periodically. The periodic neurobehavioral test provides a great chance to evaluate the functional change of the central nervous system. To utilize periodic neurobehavioral tests effectively, the reliability of currently used neurobehavioral tests needs to be evaluated. Test–retest of neurobehavioral tests were conducted to evaluate the reliability of neurobehavioral tests that are

Joon Sakong; Pock-Soo Kang; Chang-Yoon Kim; Tae-Yoon Hwang; Man-Joong Jeon; Si-Young Park; Se-jin Lee; Kyu-Chang Won; Sam-Beom Lee; Jong-Hak Chung

2007-01-01

67

Using Bayesian Decision Theory to Design a Computerized Mastery Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical framework for mastery testing based on item response theory and Bayesian deci sion theory is described. The idea of sequential testing is developed, with the goal of providing shorter tests for individuals who have clearly mastered (or clearly not mastered) a given subject and longer tests for those individuals for whom the mastery decision is not as clear-cut.

Charles Lewis; Kathleen Sheehan

1990-01-01

68

The Development of a Computerized Version of Vandenburg's Mental Rotation Test and the Effect of Visuo-spatial Working Memory Loading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of a test designed to allow meaningful and widespread computerized testing of various spatial factors. Examines the differences between traditional paper and pencil and computerized versions of the same test. Compares an interactive test designed to measure a working memory factor to the computerized version of…

Strong, Shawn; Smith, Roger

2002-01-01

69

Tomato Analyzer Color Test User Manual Version 3 August, 2010  

E-print Network

, the angle of view will also affect color sensitivity of the eye. Colors are perceived most precisely if they strike the area of the fovea in the eye, which is most sensitive to color. The 2o Standard Observer angleTomato Analyzer Color Test User Manual Version 3 August, 2010 Jaymie Strecker, Gustavo Rodríguez

van der Knaap, Esther

70

A computerized Klinger cavity mode conversion test set  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mode conversion test set utilizing the Klinger cavity technique has been developed for characterizing circular waveguide components in the millimeter waveguide region. The test set incorporates a precision linear displacement optical encoder and a specially designed controller which interfaces the test set to a Hewlett-Packard 2100 series computer. Control commands of a stored computer program are used by the

B. S. Seip; L. W. Hinderks

1974-01-01

71

A Computerized Klinger Cavity Mode Conversion Test Set  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mode conversion test set utilizing the klinger cavity technique has been developed for characterizing circular waveguide components in the millimeter waveguide region. The test set incorporates a precision linear displacement optical encoder and a specially designed controller which interfaces the test set to a Hewlett-Packard 2100 series computer. Control commands of a stored computer program are used by the

B. S. Seip; L. W. Hinderks

1974-01-01

72

The Potential, Pitfalls and Promise of Computerized Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Imagine administering an online standardized test to an entire class of 11th-grade students when, halfway through the exam, the server holding the test hits a snag and throws everyone offline. Imagine another scenario in which an elementary school has very few computers so teachers must bus their students to the local high school for a timed test.…

McHenry, Bill; Griffith, Leonard; McHenry, Jim

2004-01-01

73

Optimal Design of Item Banks for Computerized Adaptive Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applied optimal design methods to the item-bank design of adaptive testing for continuous testing situations using a version of the weighted-deviations model (M. Stocking and L. Swanson, 1993) in a simulation. Independent and overlapping item banks used items more efficiently than did a large item bank. (SLD)

Stocking, Martha L.; Swanson, Len

1998-01-01

74

Testing primates with joystick-based automated apparatus - Lessons from the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonhuman primates provide useful models for studying a variety of medical, biological, and behavioral topics. Four years of joystick-based automated testing of monkeys using the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) are examined to derive hints and principles for comparable testing with other species - including humans. The results of multiple parametric studies are reviewed, and reliability data are presented to reveal the surprises and pitfalls associated with video-task testing of performance.

Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

1992-01-01

75

Random Walker Test: a computerized alternative to the Road-Map Test.  

PubMed

The Road-Map Test (RMT) is a popular neurological assessment of left-right orientation, using a simplified road map. Inspired by the RMT, we developed a new computerized navigation test, the Random Walker Test (RWT), for further quantitative assessment of left-right orientation ability. RWT provides verbal or nonverbal instructions for the direction (left, right, or front) in which to proceed, and participants must judge the spatially correct direction. Perspectives rotate by 90 degrees during navigation. Verbal judgments demand verbal-to-spatial mapping of left/right/front and, if necessary, egocentric perspective rotation. Using the RWT, we evaluated the left-right orientation of normal male participants. The RWT reliably recorded the response times and error rates for participant performance and also revealed egocentric perspective rotation as an unreliable mental process with large intra- and interpersonal variability. These results indicate that the RWT may be useful in investigating left-right orientation and/or egocentric perspective rotation in both normal participants and neuropathological patients. PMID:19897833

Uchiyama, Hiroyuki; Mitsuishi, Kohsei; Ohno, Hiroshi

2009-11-01

76

Computerized magnetic test and evaluation of hysteretic materials [hysteresis motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques are described which enable highly nonlinear hysteretic materials to be fully characterized. Major hysteresis loops and minor trajectories are presented for one particular material sample. Test time is reduced to less than 10s, ensuring that heating effects in the ring sample are negligible. The method is appropriate for detailed material investigation for design or development applications. It is recognized,

P. T. Jowett; D. I. MacInnes

1989-01-01

77

[Item selection rules in a Computerized Adaptive Test for the assessment of written English].  

PubMed

Item selection rules in a Computerized Adaptive Test for the assessment of written English. e-CAT is a Computerized Adaptive Test for the evaluation of written English knowledge, using the item selection rule most commonly employed: the maximum Fisher information criterion. Some of the problems of this criterion have a negative impact in the estimation accuracy and in the item bank security. In this study, the performance of this item selection rule is compared, by means of simulation, with two other rules: selecting the item with maximum Fisher information in an interval (Veerkamp y Berger, 1997) and a new criterion, called "maximum Fisher information in an interval with geometric mean". In general, this new rule shows smaller measurement error and smaller item overlap rates. It seems, thus, recommendable, as it allows the simultaneous improvement of estimation accuracy and the maintenance of the item bank security of e-CAT. PMID:17296125

Barrada, Juan Ramón; Olea, Julio; Ponsoda, Vicente; Abad, Francisco J

2006-11-01

78

Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) - Video-formatted tasks for comparative primate research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automation of a computerized test system for comparative primate research is shown to improve the results of learning in standard paradigms. A mediational paradigm is used to determine the degree to which criterion in the learning-set testing reflects stimulus-response associative or mediational learning. Rhesus monkeys are shown to exhibit positive transfer as the criterion levels are shifted upwards, and the effectiveness of the computerized testing system is confirmed.

Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.; Hopkins, William D.; Richardson, W. K.

1991-01-01

79

Validity and internal consistency reliability of a computerized test to assess prone extension in children ages four to six years.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop a computerized test of prone extension to measure performance of prone extension in children 4 to 6 years of age. The participants were selected from kindergartens, comprising 132 boys and 107 girls with a mean age of 5 yr. 2 mo. (SD = 6 mo.). Sensitivity and specificity of the computerized test of prone extension were assessed by comparison with the judgments of an expert, an occupational therapist with more than 20 yr. of pediatric experience, as the criterion standard. The computerized test of prone extension identified children with poor outcomes with a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.88, and an accuracy of 0.87. The internal reliability index was 0.81. The computerized test of prone extension could be of value in detecting problems of antigravity posture in prone extension and permitting early intervention to correct it. PMID:21058600

Lin, Chin-Kai; Wu, Huey-Min; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Li, Cheng-Hsaun

2010-08-01

80

Phoenix Test Sample Site in Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This color image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken.

Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

81

[Transcranial color Doppler guided Matas' test].  

PubMed

Carotid artery involvement in head and neck tumor is a great concern to surgeons because of the unpredictable effects of its resection. For the investigation of brain collateral circulation, color Doppler guided Matas' test has been performed to examine blood flow in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and internal carotid artery (ICA). SSA-270A convex (3.75MHz) and linear (3.75MHz, 2.5MHz) array probes (Toshiba Co., Ltd.) were used for this investigation. A temporary occlusion test (60 sec) was performed on the common carotid artery (CCA) in thirty patients who were scheduled to undergo radical neck dissection. The blood flow velocity of MCA during Matas' test was recorded. Then relative flow (percent blood flow before the test) of MCA during the 60 sec Matas' test was measured. The relative mean flow was 72% with a standard deviation of 15%. The results of thirty patients were classified into four groups according to the relative flow of MCA after 60 sec occlusion of the common carotid artery: Group A, over 87% (three cases); Group B, 86-72% (twelve cases); Group C, 71-57% (twelve cases); Group D, under 56% (three cases). Brain collateral circulation (BCC) of the Group A patients was considered to be excellent, and therefore reconstructive vascular surgery (RVS) was not necessarily indicated. In Group B patients (fair) and Group C patients (slightly poor) further investigation of BCC, i.e., Balloon Matas' test (occlusion of CCA and ICA), SPECT and brain angiography, was considered to be necessary. In Group D patients (poor) RVS was inevitable if either CCA or ICA had to be resected. Important information is provided by this noninvasive examination to predict the risk of carotid resection. This test seems to be useful to determine whether or not RVS is indicated. PMID:1744794

Takeuchi, Y

1991-09-01

82

Development and Pilot Testing of Computerized Order Entry Algorithms for Geriatric Problems in Nursing Homes  

PubMed Central

Objectives Computerized order entry algorithms can improve the quality of care; but are rarely used in nursing homes (NHs). We conducted a pilot study to: (1) develop order entry algorithms for 5 common NH problems, and (2) test their acceptance, use, and preliminary impact on quality indicators and resource utilization. Design Pre-post, quasi-experimental study. Setting: 2 Veterans Affairs NHs. Participants Randomly selected residents (n=265) with one or more target conditions, and 42 nursing home providers. Intervention Expert panels developed computerized order entry algorithms based on clinical practice guidelines. Each was displayed on a single screen and included an array of diagnostic and treatment options, and means to communicate with the interdisciplinary team. Medical records were abstracted for the 6 months preceding and following deployment. Results Despite positive provider attitudes toward the computerized order entry algorithms, their use was infrequent and varied by condition: Falls (73%), Fever (9%), Pneumonia (8%), UTI (7%), and Osteoporosis (3%). In subjects with falls, we observed trends for improvements in quality measures for the 6/9 measures, including measuring orthostatic blood pressure (17.5% to 30%, p=0.29), reducing neuroleptics (53.8% to 75%, p=0.27), reducing sedative-hypnotics (16.7% to 50.0%, p=0.50), prescription of calcium (22.5% to 32.5%, p=0.45), vitamin D (20.0 to 35.0%, p=0.21), and external hip protectors (25.0 to 47.5%, p=0.06). Little improvement was observed in the other conditions. There was no change in resource utilization. Conclusion Computerized order entry algorithms were used infrequently, except for falls. Further study may determine whether their use leads to improved care. PMID:19682123

Colon-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Schmader, Kenneth E.; Twersky, Jack; Kuchibhatla, Maragantha; Kellum, Sally; Weinberger, Morris

2009-01-01

83

Quantitative Tests of Color Evaporation: Charmonium Production  

E-print Network

The color evaporation model simply states that charmonium production is described by the same dynamics as $D \\bar D$ production, {\\em i.e.}, by the formation of a colored $c \\bar c$ pair. Its color happens to be bleached by soft final-state interactions. We show that the model gives a complete picture of charmonium production including low-energy production by proton, photon and antiproton beams, and high-energy production at the Tevatron and HERA. Our analysis includes the first next-to-leading-order calculation in the color evaporation model.

J. F. Amundson; O. J. P. Eboli; E. M. Gregores; F. Halzen

1996-05-13

84

Relationship between the Luscher Color Test and the MMPI.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administered the Luscher Color Test and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory to 42 counseling graduate students. Personality reports were written from test results, and the degree of agreement was rated. Results showed little agreement between the two, suggesting cautious use of the Color Test. (JAC)

Holmes, Cooper B.; And Others

1984-01-01

85

Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using this project will expose you to concepts of color, color wheels, color combinations, and techniques of using color. Use the following links, follow the directions to define color terms, create color schemes and explore the use of color in creating designs. Color Scheme Generator 2 This site identifiesbasic terms related to color, using acolor wheeland making color schemes. Color Theory This site explains terminology of color. Color Theory Tutorial This site gives excellent examples and information about ...

Dent, Mrs.

2010-03-23

86

Computerized stroop test to assess selective attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Research shows abnormal function of the pre-frontal cortex in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This cortex is involved in the control of executive functions related to planning and execution of goal-oriented strategies, working memory, inhibitions, cognitive flexibility, and selective attention. Selective attention involves focus on the target stimulus, ignoring competing distractions. The Stroop Test (Stroop, 1935) is usually used to evaluate selective attention. This study investigated whether children with ADHD could exhibit modified performance in the Stroop Test. Using a computerized version of this test (Capovilla, Montiel, Macedo, & Charin, 2005), the study compared the reaction times (RTs) of 62 Brazilian children, between 8 and 12 years of age, 31 of whom were diagnosed with ADHD and sent to psychiatric clinics, and 31 without ADHD studying in regular schools. All children with ADHD satisfied the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR and were evaluated with the Conners Abbreviated Questionnaire (Goyette, Conners, & Ulrich, 1978), completed by parents and teachers. The results revealed that children with ADHD exhibit greater interference in RT than children without ADHD. This corroborated the hypothesis that children with ADHD exhibit a deficit in selective attention, consisting in augmented RTs, as measured by the Computerized Stroop Test. PMID:17549876

Assef, Ellen Carolina dos Santos; Capovilla, Alessandra Gotuzo Seabra; Capovilla, Fernando Cesar

2007-05-01

87

Rapid Color Test Identification System for Screening of Counterfeit Fluoroquinolone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protocol of rapid identification system consists of three chemical color reactions; two group tests for fluoroquinolone class and a compound specific test each for norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and sparfloxacin. The group color reactions are based on (a) Oxidizing behavior of quinolone and (b) Fluorine functional groups, both of which are characteristic of fluoroquinolone class. The compound specific

B K. SINGH; D V. PARWATE; S K. SHUKLA

88

Testing k-colorability Michael Krivelevich  

E-print Network

as every graph on n vertices is at most n2/(2k) edges far from being k-colorable). Similarly, let gk] 1/2} . Again, gk(G) = if (G) k. Let gk(n, ) = max{gk(G) : G is an -robustly non-k-colorable graph on n vertices} . Obviously, fk(G) gk(G) for any graph G, thus implying fk(n, ) gk(n, ). A few

Shamir, Ron

89

Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing: Adaptation of the A-Stratified Strategy in Item Selection with Content Balancing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Variable-length computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can provide examinees with tailored test lengths. With the fixed standard error of measurement ("SEM") termination rule, variable-length CAT can achieve predetermined measurement precision by using relatively shorter tests compared to fixed-length CAT. To explore the application of…

Huo, Yan

2009-01-01

90

Evaluation of a new computerized psychometric test battery: Effects of zolpidem and caffeine  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the effects of centrally active drugs using a new indigenously developed automated psychometric test system and compare the results with that obtained using pencil- and paper-based techniques. Materials and Methods: The tests were standardized in 24 healthy participants. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by performing the tests by a single experimenter on two occasions (interday reproducibility). To evaluate the sensitivity of the tests, the effects of zolpidem (5 mg) and caffeine (500 mg) versus placebo were studied in 24 healthy participants in a randomized, double-blind three-way crossover design. Results: Psychometric tests were performed at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 h after administration of study medication. The effects of zolpidem and caffeine on the psychomotor performance were most pronounced 1 h after administration. At this time, a significant impairment of performance in the simple reaction test (SRT), choice discrimination test (CDT), digit symbol substitution test (DSST), digit vigilance test (DVT), and card sorting test (CST) was observed with zolpidem. In contrast, caffeine showed a significant improvement in performance in CDT and DVT only. Conclusion: The results suggest that the tests of the computerized system are more sensitive and reliable then the pencil and paper tests in detecting the effects of central acting agents and are suitable for use in clinical areas to conduct studies with patients. PMID:24250201

Pilli, Raveendranadh; Naidu, MUR; Pingali, Usharani; Shobha, JC

2013-01-01

91

Relationship between the Luscher Color Test and the MMPI.  

PubMed

Administered the short form of the Luscher Color Test and the booklet form of the MMPI to 42 graduate students in a counseling program. For every S a report that described personality was written from the test results, i.e., each S had two reports, one from the Color Test and one from the MMPI. These reports were written independently by two separate examiners. Two independent raters then read the reports on each S and noted the degree of agreement between the two reports. The overall results showed very little agreement between the Color Test and the MMPI. Reasons for the poor rate of agreement are discussed. PMID:6746918

Holmes, C B; Wurtz, P J; Waln, R F; Dungan, D S; Joseph, C A

1984-01-01

92

WindoWorks: A flexible program for computerized testing of accelerator control system electronic circuit boards  

SciTech Connect

Since most accelerator control system circuit boards reside in a commercial bus architecture, such as CAMAC or VMEbus, a computerized test station is needed for exercising the boards. This test station is needed for the development of newly designed prototypes, for commissioning newly manufactured boards, for diagnosing boards which have failed in service, and for long term testing of boards with intermittent failure problems. WindoWorks was created to address these needs. It is a flexible program which runs on a PC compatible computer and uses a PC to bus crate interface. WindoWorks was designed to give the user a flexible way to test circuit boards. Each test is incapsulated into a window. By bringing up several different windows the user can run several different tests simultaneously. The windows are sizable, and moveable. They have data entry boxes so that the test can be customized to the users preference. The windows can be used in conjunction with each other in order to create supertests. There are several windows which are generic. They can be used to test basic functions on any VME (or CAMAC) board. There are other windows which have been created to test specific boards. New windows for testing specific boards can be easily created by a Pascal programmer using the WindoWorks framework.

Utterback, J.

1993-09-01

93

Further development of forensic eye color predictive tests.  

PubMed

In forensic analysis predictive tests for external visible characteristics (or EVCs), including inference of iris color, represent a potentially useful tool to guide criminal investigations. Two recent studies, both focused on forensic testing, have analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes underlying common eye color variation (Mengel-From et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 4:323 and Walsh et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 5:170). Each study arrived at different recommendations for eye color predictive tests aiming to type the most closely associated SNPs, although both confirmed rs12913832 in HERC2 as the key predictor, widely recognized as the most strongly associated marker with blue and brown iris colors. Differences between these two studies in identification of other eye color predictors may partly arise from varying approaches to assigning phenotypes, notably those not unequivocally blue or dark brown and therefore occupying an intermediate iris color continuum. We have developed two single base extension assays typing 37 SNPs in pigmentation-associated genes to study SNP-genotype based prediction of eye, skin, and hair color variation. These assays were used to test the performance of different sets of eye color predictors in 416 subjects from six populations of north and south Europe. The presence of a complex and continuous range of intermediate phenotypes distinct from blue and brown eye colors was confirmed by establishing eye color populations compared to genetic clusters defined using Structure software. Our study explored the effect of an expanded SNP combination beyond six markers has on the ability to predict eye color in a forensic test without extending the SNP assay excessively - thus maintaining a balance between the test's predictive value and an ability to reliably type challenging DNA with a multiplex of manageable size. Our evaluation used AUC analysis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves) and naïve Bayesian likelihood-based classification approaches. To provide flexibility in SNP-based eye color predictive tests in forensic applications we modified an online Bayesian classifier, originally developed for genetic ancestry analysis, to provide a straightforward system to assign eye color likelihoods from a SNP profile combining additional informative markers from the predictors analyzed by our study plus those of Walsh and Mengel-From. Two advantages of the online classifier is the ability to submit incomplete SNP profiles, a common occurrence when typing challenging DNA, and the ability to handle physically linked SNPs showing independent effect, by allowing the user to input frequencies from SNP pairs or larger combinations. This system was used to include the submission of frequency data for the SNP pair rs12913832 and rs1129038: indicated by our study to be the two SNPs most closely associated to eye color. PMID:22709892

Ruiz, Y; Phillips, C; Gomez-Tato, A; Alvarez-Dios, J; Casares de Cal, M; Cruz, R; Maroñas, O; Söchtig, J; Fondevila, M; Rodriguez-Cid, M J; Carracedo, A; Lareu, M V

2013-01-01

94

A Comparison of Validity Rates between Paper-and-Pencil and Computerized Testing with the MMPI-2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the use of computerized testing in psychopathology assessment has increased in recent years, limited research has examined the impact of this format in terms of potential differences in test validity rates. The current study explores potential differences in the rates of valid and invalid Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2…

Blazek, Nicole L.; Forbey, Johnathan D.

2011-01-01

95

Proceedings of the First Conference on Computerized Adaptive Testing (Washington, D.C., June 12-13, 1975).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principal objectives of this conference were to exchange information, discuss theoretical and empirical developments, and to coordinate research efforts. The papers and their authors are: "The Graded Response Model of Latent Trait Theory and Tailored Testing" by Fumiko Samejima; (Incomplete Orders and Computerized Testing" by Norman Cliff;…

Clark, Cynthia L., Ed.

96

Comparison between Dichotomous and Polytomous Scoring of Innovative Items in a Large-Scale Computerized Adaptive Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the impact of partial credit scoring of one type of innovative items (multiple-response items) in a computerized adaptive version of a large-scale licensure pretest and operational test settings. The impacts of partial credit scoring on the estimation of the ability parameters and classification decisions in operational test

Jiao, Hong; Liu, Junhui; Haynie, Kathleen; Woo, Ada; Gorham, Jerry

2012-01-01

97

Evaluation of an updated HRR color vision test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HRR pseudoisochromatic plate (pip) test was originally designed as a screening and diagnostic test for color vision deficiencies. The original HRR test is now long out of print. We evaluate here the new 4th edition of the HRR test, produced in 2002 by Richmond Products. The 2002 edition was compared to the original 1955 edition for a group of

JAMES E. BAILEY; MAUREEN NEITZ; DIANE M. TAIT; JAY NEITZ

2004-01-01

98

Personal Profiles of Color Synesthesia: Developing a Testing Method for Artists and Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a practical method for assessing personal profiles of color:word, color:taste, color:music and color:odor synesthesia. The Netherlands Color Synesthesia (NeCoSyn) method is based on the Swedish Natural Color System and the test of genuineness for colored-word synesthesia developed by Baron-Cohen et al. The NeCoSyn method has been tested scientifically and shown to reliably distinguish different types of color

Crétien van Campen; Clara Froger

2003-01-01

99

Improving Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing by Balancing Attribute Coverage: The Modified Maximum Global Discrimination Index Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a new item selection method, namely, the modified maximum global discrimination index (MMGDI) method, for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT). The new method captures two aspects of the appeal of an item: (a) the amount of contribution it can make toward adequate coverage of every attribute and (b) the…

Cheng, Ying

2010-01-01

100

On the Reliability and Validity of a Numerical Reasoning Speed Dimension Derived from Response Times Collected in Computerized Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 181 college students were used to assess whether math reasoning item response times in computerized testing can provide valid and reliable measures of a speed dimension. The alternate forms reliability of the speed dimension was .85. A two-dimensional structural equation model suggests that the speed dimension is related to the accuracy…

Davison, Mark L.; Semmes, Robert; Huang, Lan; Close, Catherine N.

2012-01-01

101

Analysis of CSF dynamics by computerized pressure-elastance resorption test in hydrocephalic children. Indications for surgery.  

PubMed

Since 1982, 23 hydrocephalic children have been studied for compensatory mechanisms of the cerebrospinal fluid system. The authors describe the method and results of a computerized pressure-elastance resorption test (CPERT), a spinal steady-state infusion test, in hydrocephalic children. Computerized analysis of the P/V and AMP/P curve provides valuable data that precisely describe the degree of disturbances of CSF dynamics. The following parameters were quantitatively determined: out-flow resistance, opening pressure, elastance, elasticity, reference pressure and optimum (break-point) pressure. It is concluded that the described test allows the differential diagnosis of chronic hydrocephalus in children. The value of optimum pressure (analysis of AMP-P relation) gives precise indications for surgery and the selection of a valve system with adequate opening pressure. In some cases, the CPERT test can be used instead of continuous ICP monitoring. PMID:3731175

Wocjan, J; Roszkowski, M; Sliwka, S; Batorski, L; Paw?owski, G

1986-01-01

102

Comparing countdown- and IRT-based approaches to computerized adaptive personality testing.  

PubMed

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is an emerging technology in the personality assessment literature given the greater efficiency it affords compared with traditional methods. However, few studies have directly compared the efficiency and validity of 2 competing methods for personality CAT: (a) methods based on item response theory (IRT-CAT) versus (b) methods based on the countdown method (CM-CAT). To that end, we conducted real-data simulations with previously collected responses (N = 8,690) to the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP). Three CAT algorithms (IRT-CAT, IRT-CAT with 5-item minimum, CM-CAT) were evaluated for item savings, classification accuracy, and convergent/discriminant validity. All CATs yielded lower classification accuracy and validity than traditional testing but required 18%-86% fewer items. Ultimately, the IRT-CAT, with minimum 5-item requirement, struck the most ideal balance of highest item savings, and generally fewer costs to validity and accuracy. These results confirm findings regarding item savings trends from previous CAT studies. In addition, this study provides a model for how the validity and precision of CATs may be compared across personality assessments. PMID:23647045

Rudick, Monica M; Yam, Wern How; Simms, Leonard J

2013-09-01

103

The Language Research Center's Computerized Test System for environmental enrichment and psychological assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the spring of 1987, we undertook to provide environmental enrichment to nonhuman primate subjects in ways that would complement and even contribute to the bio-behaviorial science that justified the monkeys' captivity. Of course, the psychological well-being of captive primates--and indeed all research species-- has been an area of intense research activity since the 1985 amendment of the Animal Welfare Act. This mandate for researchers to ensure the psychological, as well as physical, fitness of experimental animals catalyzed the humane and scientific interests of the research community. The contemporary literature is replete with proposed means both of assaying and of providing enrichment and well-being. Notwithstanding, consensus on either assessment or intervention has yet to be reached. The paradigm we employed was modelled after successful efforts with chimpanzees. An automated test system was constructed in which subjects responded to computer tasks by manipulating a joystick. The tasks, interactive game-like versions of many of the classic testing paradigms of cognitive and comparative psychology, permitted the controlled presentation of stimuli and demands without the required presence of a human experimenter. Despite significant barriers to the success, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and a variety of other primate species (including, of course, humans) have mastered the skills necessary for testing in this paradigm. Previous experiments have illustrated the utility of the test system for addressing questions of learning, memory, attention, perception, and motivation. Additional data have been reported to support the contention that the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) serves its other raison d'etre--providing environmental enrichment and assessing psychological well-being. This paper is designed to augment previous descriptions of the technology and the paradigm for scientists and caretakers interested in environmental enrichment and performance assessment with primates.

Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.

1992-01-01

104

Colors, Colors?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to the famous "Stroop Effect," learners explore how words influence what we see and how the brain handles "mixed messages." Learners read colored words and are asked to say the color of the word, not what the word says. Learners use a data table to keep track of where they have trouble reading the colors. They analyze this data by answering questions and drawing conclusions. Learners can also take this test using the online version.

Songstad, Susan

2009-01-01

105

Computerized Ultrasonic Testing System (CUTS) for in-process thickness determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Computerized Ultrasonic Testing System (CUTS) was developed to measure, in real-time, the rate of deposition and thickness of chromium plated on the inside of thick steel tubes. The measurements are made from the outside of the tubes with the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The resolution of the system is 2.5 micron. (0.0001 in.) and the accuracy is better than 10 micron (0.0004 in.). The thickness is measured using six transducers mounted at different locations on the tube. In addition, two transducers are mounted on two reference standards, thereby allowing the system to be continuously calibrated. The tube temperature varies during the process, thus the input from eight thermocouples, located at the measurement sites, is used to calculate and compensate for the change in return time of the ultrasonic echo due to the temperature dependence of the sound velocity. CUTS is applicable to any commercial process where real-time change of thickness of a sample has to be known, with the advantage of facilitating increased efficiency and of improving process control.

Frankel, J.; Doxbeck, M.; Schroeder, S. C.; Abbate, A.

1994-01-01

106

[Color personality test for patients with atopic dermatitis].  

PubMed

Famous psychiatrist V. M. Bekhterev asserted that "Skillfully selected color gamma is able to have more wholesome effect on nervous system than the any medicine". Max Lusher worked out Functional Psychology of the color perception and developed well known psycho diagnostic color test, devoted to study of situational emotional state of personality and its adaptation to different social and psychological situations. The aim of presented study was investigation of some peculiarities of psychological state of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) by means of Lusher's Color Personality Test. 37 patients with atopic dermatitis were involved in this study. Typical anamneses and clinical findings were used for diagnosis of AD. The group of obligatory and confirmatory diagnostic criteria has been used as well. The duration of disease was from 1 to 7 years. Students of Medical University formed the control group. In patients with disseminated form of illness, preference of dark and rejection of light tones were observed. This testifies that the instability of vegetative nervous system had long history and possibly already caused the significant patho-physiological alterations. At evaluation of patient's capacity for work the possible volitional disorders, loss of purposefulness, general asthenia of nervous system and exhaustion of physical energy were observed. Analysis of received data revealed following regularity: overwhelming majority of patients with atopic dermatitis have developed stress and excessive self-restrictions because emotional dissatisfaction and modest assessment from the others. Taking into account all above-mentioned we can say that the possibilities of application for color are inexhaustible. We can suggest rejected colors in homoeopathic doses, especially when we are talking about aversion of main colors. Thus, in case of atopic dermatitis opportunity for control of living systems and psychic processes are given naturally without using of synthetic medicine and complicated physiotherapeutic actions. PMID:18560034

Tsiskarishvili, N V; Tsiskarishvili, Ts I

2008-05-01

107

Test-Retest Reliability of Computerized, Everyday Memory Measures and Traditional Memory Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Test-retest reliabilities and practice effect magnitudes were considered for nine computer-simulated tasks of everyday cognition and five traditional neuropsychological tests. The nine simulated everyday memory tests were from the Memory Assessment Clinic battery as follows: (1) simple reaction time while driving; (2) divided attention (driving…

Youngjohn, James R.; And Others

108

Po?íta?ový kognitivní test - implementace ?eského jazyka Computerized cognitive test - implementation of Czech language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The assessment of cognitive functions and theirs monitoring through disease progression and therapy are important in clinical practice. Common neuropsychological tests are traditionally administered using paper-pencil and by trained psychologist. Recently, several, computer based cognitive tests were developed. No appropriate computer based cognitive tests for elderly, mainly computer-naive subjects, has been implemented in the Czech Republic and was translated

Vered Aharonson; Amos D. Korczyn; Michaela Mazancová

109

Sensitivity and Specificity of Subacute Computerized Neurocognitive Testing and Symptom Evaluation in Predicting Outcomes After Sports-Related Concussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Concussions affect an estimated 136 000 high school athletes yearly. Computerized neurocognitive testing has been shown to be appropriately sensitive and specific in diagnosing concussions, but no studies have assessed its utility to predict length of recovery. Determining prognosis during subacute recovery after sports concussion will help clinicians more confidently address return-to-play and academic decisions.Purpose: To quantify the prognostic

Brian C. Lau; Michael W. Collins; Mark R. Lovell

2011-01-01

110

Applying Computerized Adaptive Testing to the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised: Rasch Analysis of Workplace Bullying  

PubMed Central

Background Workplace bullying is a prevalent problem in contemporary work places that has adverse effects on both the victims of bullying and organizations. With the rapid development of computer technology in recent years, there is an urgent need to prove whether item response theory–based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can be applied to measure exposure to workplace bullying. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative efficiency and measurement precision of a CAT-based test for hospital nurses compared to traditional nonadaptive testing (NAT). Under the preliminary conditions of a single domain derived from the scale, a CAT module bullying scale model with polytomously scored items is provided as an example for evaluation purposes. Methods A total of 300 nurses were recruited and responded to the 22-item Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R). All NAT (or CAT-selected) items were calibrated with the Rasch rating scale model and all respondents were randomly selected for a comparison of the advantages of CAT and NAT in efficiency and precision by paired t tests and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Results The NAQ-R is a unidimensional construct that can be applied to measure exposure to workplace bullying through CAT-based administration. Nursing measures derived from both tests (CAT and NAT) were highly correlated (r=.97) and their measurement precisions were not statistically different (P=.49) as expected. CAT required fewer items than NAT (an efficiency gain of 32%), suggesting a reduced burden for respondents. There were significant differences in work tenure between the 2 groups (bullied and nonbullied) at a cutoff point of 6 years at 1 worksite. An AUROC of 0.75 (95% CI 0.68-0.79) with logits greater than –4.2 (or >30 in summation) was defined as being highly likely bullied in a workplace. Conclusions With CAT-based administration of the NAQ-R for nurses, their burden was substantially reduced without compromising measurement precision. PMID:24534113

Ma, Shu-Ching; Li, Yu-Chi; Yui, Mei-Shu

2014-01-01

111

HIV Testing Patterns Among Urban YMSM of Color.  

PubMed

The heightened level of risk for HIV infection among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is driven by multilevel influences. Using cross-sectional data, we examined HIV testing patterns among urban YMSM of color in a high-HIV seroprevalence area (ages 16 to 21 years). Self-reported frequency of testing was high, with 42% of youth reporting testing at a greater frequency than recommended guidelines. There were no differences between less frequent and more frequent testers on sexual risk behaviors. Most (80%) youth cited reassurance of HIV-negative status as a reason for testing. Further, over half of the sample reported numerous other reasons for HIV testing, which spanned individual, partner, social, and structural levels of influence. Approximately half of respondents indicated that peers, family members, and counselors influenced their motivation to get tested. Of concern, their first HIV test occurred approximately 2 years after their first sexual experience with another male. These results indicate the need to consider developmental issues as well as comprehensive, multilevel efforts to ensure that YMSM of color test at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended frequency but not less than this or too frequently. PMID:24973260

Leonard, Noelle R; Rajan, Sonali; Gwadz, Marya V; Aregbesola, Temi

2014-12-01

112

Computerized adaptive test for patients with foot or ankle impairments produced valid and responsive measures of function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We tested the item response theory (IRT) model assumptions of the original item bank, and evaluated the practical and psychometric\\u000a adequacy, of a computerized adaptive test (CAT) for patients with foot or ankle impairments seeking rehabilitation in outpatient\\u000a therapy clinics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data from 10,287 patients with foot or ankle impairments receiving outpatient physical therapy were analyzed. We first examined\\u000a the unidimensionality,

Dennis L. Hart; Ying-Chih Wang; Paul W. Stratford; Jerome E. Mioduski

2008-01-01

113

COLORS!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students will learn about primary, secondary, and complementary colors. After exploring a few sites and participating in a few deep questions as a class, they will create an optical illusion using complimentary colors. Younger students who are learning this unit will need to do this activity with a parent or as a class with a teacher or aide. INTRODUCTION: Questions to discuss with the students: 1. What colors do you see in this room? 2. What are some jobs that use colors? An Artist? Decorator? ...

Sarah

2009-09-28

114

Testing the Determinants of Computerized Reservation System Users’ Intention to Use Via a Structural Equation Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between users’ personal perceptions and beliefs of the proposed system and their normal day-to-day usage in the context of the travel industry’s computerized reservation systems (CRSs). Using a technology acceptance model as a theoretical background, the influences of three dimensions of fit (i.e., task fit, career fit, and organization fit) on CRS users’ daily routine

Hae Young Lee; Woo Gon Kim; Yong-Ki Lee

2006-01-01

115

Color-Object Interference: Further Tests of an Executive Control Account  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children are slower in naming the color of a meaningful picture than in naming the color of an abstract form (Stroop-like color-object interference). The current experiments tested an executive control account of this phenomenon. First, color-object interference was observed in 6- and 8-year-olds but not in 12- and 16-year-olds (Experiment…

La Heij, Wido; Boelens, Harrie

2011-01-01

116

Sharks Are Color-Blind, Retina Study Suggests Ten species tested had no color-sensing cells, while seven had  

E-print Network

Sharks Are Color-Blind, Retina Study Suggests Ten species tested had no color-sensing cells, while at the retinas of 17 shark species caught off the coasts of eastern and western Australia, including tiger sharks and bull sharks. Retinas use two main types of light-sensitive cells to allow animals to see: Rod cells

Belogay, Eugene A.

117

Effects of Multidimensionality on IRT Item Characteristics and True Score Estimates: Implications for Computerized Test Assembly. Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multidimensionality is known to affect the accuracy of item parameter and ability estimations, which subsequently influences the computation of item characteristic curves (ICCs) and true scores. By judiciously combining sections of a Law School Admission Test (LSAT), 11 sections of varying degrees of uni- and multidimensional structures are used…

Wang, Xiang-Bo; Harris, Vincent; Roussos, Louis

118

The Use of Statistical Process Control-Charts for Person-Fit Analysis on Computerized Adaptive Testing. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study a cumulative-sum (CUSUM) procedure from the theory of Statistical Process Control was modified and applied in the context of person-fit analysis in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) environment. Six person-fit statistics were proposed using the CUSUM procedure, and three of them could be used to investigate the CAT in online test

Meijer, Rob R.; van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith M. L. A.

119

7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract specifications by using the Munsell Color Standards for Frozen French Fried Potatoes, Third Edition, 1972, 64-1. 5 Select a minimum of twenty (20) potatoes at random from the official...

2010-01-01

120

Color changes in the red-green plates of the 50-year-old AO HRR color vision test.  

PubMed

The original AO HRR color vision test has been considered by many as one of the best plate tests. It is still accepted by many governmental agencies for color vision certification. In their 1954 publication, Hardy, Rand, and Rittler stated that specially compounded inks were used for printing to avoid color changes with time. Fifty years later, it is both important and interesting to determine whether the wear and tear cause significant color changes. The chance finding of a never-used second edition offers an opportunity to evaluate the color changes. A GretagMacbeth Spectrolino spectrophotometer was used to measure the chromaticities of the never-used book, and an extensively used book. Four plates (#4, 7, 13, 16), selected randomly from the four red-green sections, were analyzed. The colored dots from each of the eight plates were plotted on a CIE chromaticity diagram. Isocolor lines were drawn to evaluate chromatic alignment. Chromaticities for plates #4 and 7 are significantly different between the two books. With regard to alignment with isocolor lines, the extensively used book is better than the never-used book for plate #4. There is significant misalignment on plate #7 for both books. Chromaticities for plates #13 and 16 are essentially identical between books, all with good alignment with isocolor lines. The overall comparison shows that the chromatic alignment characteristics of the extensively used book are not worse than the never-used book. Since colors in these plates have to be aligned with both the protan and deutan axes, any significant color changes would have disturbed this delicate requirement. The findings of many plates with good alignment, and the lack of differences on plates #13 and 16 between books, suggest that there are no significant color changes over time. Differences between books on plates #4 and 7 were likely the result of the original printing process. PMID:16962013

Lee, David Y

2006-01-01

121

IRAS colors of carbon stars - An optical spectroscopic test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical spectra are obtained of 57 photographic counterparts to IRAS sources not previously studied spectroscopically, and expected on the basis of their IRAS colors to be M or C type stars. Confirmed carbon stars are found only in a restricted range of 12-25 index, and constitute a striking 'vertical' sequence in the 12-25-60 micron color-color diagram. This sequence is in accord with evolutionary models for AGB stars that convert M into C stars by dredge-up, and follow loops in the color-color plane. Optically visible and optically invisible carbon stars occupy different color-color locations consistent with their representations of different evolutionary states in the life of relatively low-mass stars.

Cohen, Martin; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Walker, Helen J.; Volk, Kevin; Schwartz, Deborah E.

1989-01-01

122

Individual and combined effects of LD and ADHD on computerized neurocognitive concussion test performance: evidence for separate norms.  

PubMed

Decreased neurocognitive performance in individuals with self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disability (LD) is well documented in the neuropsychological research literature. Previous studies employing paper-and-pencil neurocognitive assessments report lower performance in individuals with ADHD and LD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of a self-reported diagnosis of LD, ADHD, and combined LD/ADHD on baseline computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT) used for the concussion assessment. Results revealed athletes with a self-reported diagnosis of LD, ADHD, and/or combined LD/ADHD demonstrated lower performance on baseline CNT and reported larger numbers of symptoms than did control athletes without these diagnoses. These findings provide evidence for the development of separate normative data for athletes with LD, ADHD, and LD/ADHD diagnoses on CNT batteries commonly used for concussion management. PMID:23608188

Elbin, R J; Kontos, Anthony P; Kegel, Nate; Johnson, Eric; Burkhart, Scott; Schatz, Philip

2013-08-01

123

Measuring color differences in automotive samples with lightness flop: a test of the AUDI2000 color-difference formula.  

PubMed

From a set of gonioapparent automotive samples from different manufacturers we selected 28 low-chroma color pairs with relatively small color differences predominantly in lightness. These color pairs were visually assessed with a gray scale at six different viewing angles by a panel of 10 observers. Using the Standardized Residual Sum of Squares (STRESS) index, the results of our visual experiment were tested against predictions made by 12 modern color-difference formulas. From a weighted STRESS index accounting for the uncertainty in visual assessments, the best prediction of our whole experiment was achieved using AUDI2000, CAM02-SCD, CAM02-UCS and OSA-GP-Euclidean color-difference formulas, which were no statistically significant different among them. A two-step optimization of the original AUDI2000 color-difference formula resulted in a modified AUDI2000 formula which performed both, significantly better than the original formula and below the experimental inter-observer variability. Nevertheless the proposal of a new revised AUDI2000 color-difference formula requires additional experimental data. PMID:24663636

Melgosa, Manuel; Martínez-García, Juan; Gómez-Robledo, Luis; Perales, Esther; Martínez-Verdú, Francisco M; Dauser, Thomas

2014-02-10

124

DICHROMATIC COLOR PERCEPTION IN A TWO STAGE MODEL: TESTING FOR CONE REPLACEMENT AND CONE LOSS MODELS  

E-print Network

in a single eye and have normal trichromatic color vision in the other eye. These individuals can compare the color per- ceptions of their two eyes and the results of such comparisons allow us to better understandDICHROMATIC COLOR PERCEPTION IN A TWO STAGE MODEL: TESTING FOR CONE REPLACEMENT AND CONE LOSS

Sharma, Gaurav

125

Author's personal copy Testing limits on matte surface color perception in  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Testing limits on matte surface color perception in three-dimensional scenes variation in complex lights field when estimating Lambertian surface color. Directional variation envi- ronment maps. SIGGRAPH 01. New York: ACM Press, pp. 497­500] to accurately estimate surface color

Maloney, Laurence T.

126

Evaluation of an Item Bank for a Computerized Adaptive Test of Activity in Children With Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Background: Contemporary clinical assessments of activity are needed across the age span for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has the potential to efficiently administer items for children across wide age spans and functional levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a new item bank and simulated computerized adaptive test to assess activity level abilities in children with CP. Design: This was a cross-sectional item calibration study. Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 308 children and youth with CP, aged 2 to 20 years (X=10.7, SD=4.0), recruited from 4 pediatric hospitals. We collected parent-report data on an initial set of 45 activity items. Using an Item Response Theory (IRT) approach, we compared estimated scores from the activity item bank with concurrent instruments, examined discriminate validity, and developed computer simulations of a CAT algorithm with multiple stop rules to evaluate scale coverage, score agreement with CAT algorithms, and discriminant and concurrent validity. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis supported scale unidimensionality, local item dependence, and invariance. Scores from the computer simulations of the prototype CATs with varying stop rules were consistent with scores from the full item bank (r=.93–.98). The activity summary scores discriminated across levels of upper-extremity and gross motor severity and were correlated with the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) physical function and sports subscale (r=.86), the Functional Independence Measure for Children (Wee-FIM) (r=.79), and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory–Cerebral Palsy version (r=.74). Limitations: The sample size was small for such IRT item banks and CAT development studies. Another limitation was oversampling of children with CP at higher functioning levels. Conclusions: The new activity item bank appears to have promise for use in a CAT application for the assessment of activity abilities in children with CP across a wide age range and different levels of motor severity. PMID:19423642

Haley, Stephen M.; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A.; Dumas, Helene M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Gorton, George E.; Watson, Kyle; Montpetit, Kathleen; Bilodeau, Nathalie; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Tucker, Carole A.

2009-01-01

127

Color Vision in Horses (Equus caballus): Deficiencies Identified Using a Pseudoisochromatic Plate Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, equine color vision was tested with stimuli composed either of painted cards or photographic slides or through physiological testing using electroretinogram flicker photometry. Some studies produced similar results, but others did not, demonstrating that there was not yet a definitive answer regarding color vision in horses (Equus caballus). In this study, a pseudoisochromatic plate test—which is highly

Evelyn B. Hanggi; Jerry F. Ingersoll; Terrace L. Waggoner

2007-01-01

128

Construct Validity of the Computerized Continuous Performance Test with Measures of Intelligence, Achievement, and Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administered Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised, Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, and reading comprehension subtest of Peabody Individual Achievement Test to 54 school-aged children and adolescents referred for evaluation of learning disabilities. Parents…

Campbell, Janice Whitten; And Others

1991-01-01

129

The Applicability of Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Cognitive Ability Measurement in Organizational Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive ability tests are widely used in organizations around the world because they have high predictive validity in selection contexts. Although these tests typically measure several subdomains, testing is usually carried out for a single subdomain at a time. This can be ineffective when the subdomains assessed are highly correlated. This…

Makransky, Guido; Glas, Cees A. W.

2013-01-01

130

A Generic Scheme for Color Image Retrieval Based on the Multivariate Wald-Wolfowitz Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a conceptually simple, yet flexible and extendable strategy to contrast two different color images is introduced. The proposed approach is based on the multivariate Wald-Wolfowitz test, a nonparametric test that assesses the commonality between two different sets of multivariate observations. It provides an aggregate gauge of the match between color images, taking into consideration all the (selected)

Christos Theoharatos; Nikolaos A. Laskaris; George Economou; Spiros Fotopoulos

2005-01-01

131

Comparability of Conventional and Computerized Tests of Reading in a Second Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses issues surrounding the effect of mode of presentation on second language (L2) reading test performance, reviewing the literature in cognitive ability testing in educational and psychological measurement and the non-assessment literature in ergonomics, education, psychology, and first language reading research. Generalization of the…

Sawaki, Yasuyo

2001-01-01

132

Reducing the Impact of Inappropriate Items on Reviewable Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a test, the testing score would be closer to examinee's actual ability when careless mistakes were corrected. In CAT, however, changing the answer of one item in CAT might cause the following items no longer appropriate for estimating the examinee's ability. These inappropriate items in a reviewable CAT might in turn introduce bias in ability…

Yen, Yung-Chin; Ho, Rong-Guey; Liao, Wen-Wei; Chen, Li-Ju

2012-01-01

133

A Minimax Sequential Procedure in the Context of Computerized Adaptive Mastery Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to derive optimal rules for variable-length mastery tests in case three mastery classification decisions (nonmastery, partial mastery, and mastery) are distinguished. In a variable-length or adaptive mastery test, the decision is to classify a subject as a master, a partial master, a nonmaster, or continuing sampling…

Vos, Hans J.

134

Computerized In Vitro Test for Chemical Toxicity Based on Tetrahymena Swimming Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and a method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity have been evaluated as an alternative to the rabbit eye initancy test (Draize). The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The method, called the motility assay (MA), is tested for 30 s to determine the chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy.

Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

1994-01-01

135

Dynamics of heart rate parameters in students with various personal anxiety levels during computerized testing.  

PubMed

Students with low level of initial (pre-test) personal anxiety demonstrated a high level of modulating effects on the heart rate in all basic frequency ranges (VLF, LF, and HF) resulting in a greater total power of heart rate variability spectrum compared to students with high personal anxiety. The peculiarities of dynamics of heart rate variability were revealed during a real learning task, which correlated with personal anxiety level. In comparison with highly anxious students, the low-anxious group demonstrated more pronounced drop in the power of all ranges of the heart rate variability spectrum during testing followed by restoration of these power indices to initial levels after completion of the test. In contrast, the drop of the total power of the heart rate variability spectrum and in the power of its individual components persisted in students with high anxiety level even after the end of the testing. PMID:23113242

Dzhebrailova, T D; Sulejmanova, R G

2012-09-01

136

Experimental Tests for Heritable Morphological Color Plasticity in Non-Native Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) Populations  

PubMed Central

The success of invasive species is frequently attributed to phenotypic plasticity, which facilitates persistence in novel environments. Here we report on experimental tests to determine whether the intensity of cryptic coloration patterns in a global invader (brown trout, Salmo trutta) was primarily the result of plasticity or heritable variation. Juvenile F1 offspring were created through experimental crosses of wild-caught parents and reared for 30 days in the laboratory in a split-brood design on either light or dark-colored gravel substrate. Skin and fin coloration quantified with digital photography and image analysis indicated strong plastic effects in response to substrate color; individuals reared on dark substrate had both darker melanin-based skin color and carotenoid-based fin colors than other members of their population reared on light substrate. Slopes of skin and fin color reaction norms were parallel between environments, which is not consistent with heritable population-level plasticity to substrate color. Similarly, we observed weak differences in population-level color within an environment, again suggesting little genetic control on the intensity of skin and fin colors. Taken as whole, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that phenotypic plasticity may have facilitated the success of brown trout invasions and suggests that plasticity is the most likely explanation for the variation in color intensity observed among these populations in nature. PMID:24260385

Westley, Peter A. H.; Stanley, Ryan; Fleming, Ian A.

2013-01-01

137

Computerized neurocognitive testing within 1 week of sport-related concussion: meta-analytic review and analysis of moderating factors.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to perform a meta-analysis assessing the effects of sport-related concussion as measured by computerized neurocognitive tests (NCT) 1-week post injury. Thirty-seven studies involving 3960 participants between 2000 and 2011 were included. Hedge's g provides an adjusted effect size for smaller sample sizes and was calculated for overall and cognitive task effects, and subgroup analyses were conducted for age, type of NCT, and sport. Concussions had a low negative effect (g = -0.16; p < .001) across all groups, outcomes, and time points. Code substitution (g = -0.27; p < .05), visual memory (g = -0.25; p < .05), processing speed (g = -0.18; p < .05), and memory (g = -0.21; p < .05) tasks demonstrated negative effects for concussion. Younger adolescents had lower (g = -0.29; p < .05) NCT performance than older adolescents (g = -0.01) and college aged athletes (g = -0.11). ImPACT studies (g = -0.19; p < .05) demonstrated a negative effect for concussion as did those involving contact sports (g = -0.20; p < .05). A low to moderate overall effect size of concussion on neurocognitive performance was supported. Subgroup analyses revealed different effect sizes for specific cognitive tasks, types of NCTs, age, and type of sport. PMID:24521662

Kontos, Anthony P; Braithwaite, Rock; Dakan, Scott; Elbin, R J

2014-03-01

138

Differentiation of Jack Pine from Other Conifers by the Analysis of Color Appearance from Chemical Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts had been made to differentiate jack pine from some common eastern Canadian conifers (balsam fir, tamarack and black spruce) by analyzing the color appearance from three different chemical tests on wood. The tests conducted were based on either the major extractives (ferric chloride test), the pH (bromophenol blue test) or the resin acids (phenol\\/bromine test). The chemical tests work

Kwei N. Law; Bohuslav V. Kokta; Changbin Mao

2000-01-01

139

Empirical vs. Expected IRT-Based Reliability Estimation in Computerized Multistage Testing (MST)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two IRT-based procedures to estimate test reliability for a certification exam that used both adaptive (via a MST model) and non-adaptive design were considered in this study. Both procedures rely on calibrated item parameters to estimate error variance. In terms of score variance, one procedure (Method 1) uses the empirical ability distribution…

Zhang, Yanwei; Breithaupt, Krista; Tessema, Aster; Chuah, David

2006-01-01

140

Computerized Test Construction Using an Average Growth Approximation of Target Information Functions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The derivation of several item selection algorithms for use in fitting test items to target information functions is described. These algorithms circumvent iterative solutions by using the criteria of moving averages of the distance to a target information function and simultaneously considering an entire range of ability points used to condition…

Luecht, Richard M.; Hirsch, Thomas M.

141

Examining the Relationship between Purposeful Heading in Soccer and Computerized Neuropsychological Test Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between purposeful heading in soccer and neuropsychological test performance. Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics throughput scores were derived on seven subset variables that measure a variety of neurocognitive abilities. Simple Spearman's rank correlations were…

Kaminski, Thomas W.; Cousino, Eric S.; Glutting, Joseph J.

2008-01-01

142

Acute effects of irradiation on cognition: changes in attention on a computerized continuous performance test during radiotherapy in pediatric patients with localized primary brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess sustained attention, impulsivity, and reaction time during radiotherapy (RT) for pediatric patients with localized primary brain tumors.Methods and Materials: Thirty-nine patients (median age 12.3 years, range 5.9–22.9) with primary brain tumors were evaluated prospectively using the computerized Conners’ continuous performance test (CPT) before and during conformal RT (CRT). The data were modeled to assess the longitudinal changes

Thomas E Merchant; Erin N Kiehna; Mark A Miles; Junhong Zhu; Xiaoping Xiong; Raymond K Mulhern

2002-01-01

143

The Takeda Three Colors Combination Test: A Screening Test for Detection of Very Mild Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and is prevalent worldwide. It is expected that AD, for which aging is a risk factor, will increase in the future. Because early detection of AD has become increasingly important, promoting demand for screening tests with adequate sensitivity. In this study, we examined the usefulness of the Takeda Three Colors Combination Test (TTCC) for screening of the very mild AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods. 154 senior persons participated in the research: 55 with very mild AD, 45 with aMCI, and 54 control group. The TTCC, which was a colored cards configuration memory task, was examined for sensitivity and specificity. Results. The sensitivity of the TTCC was 76% and 47% for the very mild AD and aMCI groups, and the specificity was 83%. Conducting TTCC (including instruction and evaluation) was accomplished within 2 minutes for all subjects. Conclusion. The TTCC is useful screening test for early detection of AD. Furthermore, administration time is short and requires no special training or skills. Thus, we believe the TTCC shows great potential for use as an AD screening test by a general practitioner in communities worldwide. PMID:25386623

Tajime, Kayo; Taniguchi, Toshiatsu

2014-01-01

144

Performances on Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Color Trails Test, and modified Stroop test in a healthy, elderly Danish sample.  

PubMed

This study presents Danish data for the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Color Trails Test (CTT), and a modified Stroop test from 100 subjects aged 60-87 years. Among the included demographic variables, age had the highest impact on test performances. Thus, the study presents separate data for different age groups. For SDMT and CTT1, Danish Adult Reading Test (DART) score also had a significant impact on test performances. The incongruent version of the modified Stroop test was significantly correlated to education. Moderate and significant correlations were found between the three tests. Even though the three tests are commonly used, few normative data for elderly exists. SDMT and CTT performances from this study were in the same range as previously published international norms, but the validity of the result from the modified Stroop test could not be investigated. PMID:23013462

Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Jørgensen, Kasper

2013-01-01

145

Color-Word Stroop test performance across the adult life span.  

PubMed

In the Color-Word Stroop test (CWST), the basic task is to name the ink color of rows of XXXs, and performance in this condition is compared with performance in naming the ink-color of color words under conditions where word meanings and ink colors mismatch or are incongruent (e.g., the word red printed in green ink). The present study investigated whether Stroop test interference, defined as the cost associated with ink-color naming in the incongruous stimulus condition versus in the basic color-naming condition, provides positive evidence for a kind of processing qualitatively different than that which is required for color naming or for word reading. Does the pattern of age-related differences in Stroop interference force the conclusion that the incongruous condition taps a qualitatively different kind of processing than that required for color naming or for word reading? We gave the CWST to 310 healthy adults. Their performance in each condition of the test replicates and extends previous findings. Structural equation modeling of the data showed a significant, direct link between age and performance in the latent factor associated with the incongruent condition. However, this direct link with age produced a relatively small increase in the model's fit; it amounted to only a .024 increase in the proportion of variance explained in the incongruent condition. In light of this small direct influence due to age, the most parsimonious explanation of our findings is that age effects in Stroop interference are due to age-related slowing (which is also indexed by color naming and by word reading) primarily; the findings do not provide evidence for a qualitatively different kind of processing that declines with age. PMID:9268815

Uttl, B; Graf, P

1997-06-01

146

Experimental Test of Three-Color Resonance Ionization of Bismuth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion beam sputtering is a powerful technique for depositing multi-component thin films provided the relative sputtering yields are known. Since few models accurately predict sputtering yields for multi-component targets, these relative sputtering yields must usually be determined experimentally. One potential method of determining relative sputtering yields is sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy (SIRIS) provided a suitable resonance ionization scheme for the element of interest exists. Our present work involves the measuring of sputter yields from a segregated Bi and Ga sample using SIRIS and a recently proposed but previously unverified three-color Bi ionization scheme.

Marble, Daniel; Burrus, Marsalee; Weathers, Duncan

2002-10-01

147

The stability of color discrimination threshold determined using pseudoisochromatic test plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Congenital red-green color vision deficiency is one of the most common genetic disorders. A previously printed set of pseudoisochromatic plates (KAMS test, 2012) was created for individual discrimination threshold determination in case of mild congenital red-green color vision deficiency using neutral colors (colors confused with gray). The diagnostics of color blind subjects was performed with Richmond HRR (4th edition, 2002) test, Oculus HMC anomaloscope, and further the examination was made using the KAMS test. 4 male subjects aged 20 to 24 years old participated in the study: all of them were diagnosed with deuteranomalia. Due to the design of the plates, the threshold of every subject in each trial was defined as the plate total color difference value ?E at which the stimulus was detected 75% of the time, so the just-noticeable difference (jnd) was calculated in CIE LAB DeltaE (?E) units. Authors performed repeated discrimination threshold measurements (5 times) for all four subjects under controlled illumination conditions. Psychophysical data were taken by sampling an observer's performance on a psychophysical task at a number of different stimulus saturation levels. Results show that a total color difference value ?E threshold exists for each individual tested with the KAMS pseudoisochromatic plates, this threshold value does not change significantly in multiple measurements. Deuteranomal threshold values aquired using greenish plates of KAMS test are significantly higher than thresholds acquired using reddish plates. A strong positive correlation (R=0.94) exists between anomaloscope matching range (MR) and deuteranomal thresholds aquired by the KAMS test and (R=0.81) between error score in the Richmond HRR test and thresholds aquired by the KAMS test.

Zutere, B.; Jurasevska Luse, K.; Livzane, A.

2014-09-01

148

A two-colored chewing gum test for assessing masticatory performance: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to compare subjective and objective assessment methods of a two-colored chewing gum test and to find out whether these methods are capable of discriminating masticatory performances between sexes. 31 adults, 16 males and 15 females participated in this study. Each subject chewed five samples of two-colored chewing gum sticks for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 chewing strokes, respectively. The subjective color-mixing and shape indices for the gum bolus (SCMI-B, SSI-B) and the subjective color-mixing index and objective color-mixing ratio for the gum wafer (SCMI-W, OCMR-W) were evaluated by two independent examiners and, on a different day, re-evaluated by one of the examiners. The SCMI-B and SCMI-W assessments had inter- and intra-examiner reliable agreement at 20 or more chewing strokes. The OCMR-W measurement demonstrated high accuracy and low reproducibility between and within the examiners. There were significant gender differences in the distribution of SCMI-W scores (P = 0.044) and in the mean OCMI-W (P = 0.007). The SCMI-B and SCMI-W assessments and the OCMR-W measurement were reliable and valid at the 20 and 30 chewing strokes in this two-colored chewing gum test. The subjective color-mixing index (SCMI-W) and objective color-mixing ratio (OCMR-W) for the chewing gum wafer are capable of discriminating masticatory performance between sexes in this two-colored chewing gum test and that the OCMR-W measurement is discriminating better than the SCMI-W assessment. PMID:23076496

Endo, Toshiya; Komatsuzaki, Akira; Kurokawa, Hiroomi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Kojima, Koji

2014-01-01

149

The stroop color-word interference test as an indicator of ADHD in poor readers.  

PubMed

The performance on the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test of 36 boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was compared with performances of a matched control sample. The control group outperformed their counterparts on the control and interference conditions of the Stroop test, suggesting ADHD-specific executive and reading deficits. When individuals with both ADHD and reading disorders were excluded from the analysis, the authors found a significant difference between the ADHD group and the control group on the color-word test, indicating that poor reading skills may produce false negatives on the Stroop test. However, fast and slow readers with ADHD did not perform differently from each other on the color-word test. The authors postulated the existence of two different causes of reading problems: phonological deficits and attentional deficits. PMID:14521215

Savitz, J B; Jansen, P

2003-09-01

150

Test-retest of computerized health status questionnaires frequently used in the monitoring of knee osteoarthritis: a randomized crossover trial  

PubMed Central

Background To compare data based on touch screen to data based on traditional paper versions of questionnaires frequently used to examine patient reported outcomes in knee osteoarthritis patients and to examine the impact of patient characteristics on this comparison Methods Participants were recruited from an ongoing trial (http://ClinicalTrials.Gov Identifier: NCT00655941). 20 female participants, mean age 67 (SD 7), completed KOOS, VAS pain, function and patient global, SF-36, Physical Activity Scale, painDETECT, and the ADL Taxonomy. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two subgroups, completing either the paper or touch screen version first. Mean, mean differences (95% CI), median, median differences and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for all questionnaires. Results ICCs between data based on computerized and paper versions ranged from 0.86 to 0.99. Analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between versions of the ADL Taxonomy, but not for the remaining questionnaires. Age, computer experience or education-level had no significant impact on the results. The computerized questionnaires were reported to be easier to use. Conclusion The computerized questionnaires gave comparable results to answers given on paper. Patient characteristics did not influence results and implementation was feasible. PMID:21851618

2011-01-01

151

A Randomized Experiment to Compare Conventional, Computerized, and Computerized Adaptive Administration of Ordinal Polytomous Attitude Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 520 high school students were randomly assigned to a paper-and-pencil test (PPT), a computerized standard test (CST), or a computerized adaptive test (CAT) version of the Dutch School Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ), consisting of ordinal polytomous items. The CST administered items in the same order as the PPT. The CAT administered all…

Hol, A. Michiel; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

2005-01-01

152

The Measurement of Creativity by the Stroop Color and Word Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship of the Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT) to three independent measures of creativity: a verbal task, nonverbal task and teacher ratings were investigated. The purpose of this investigation was to test the validity of the SCWT as a measure of creativity. (Author/DEP)

Golden, Charles J.

1975-01-01

153

Comparative diagnostic value of a new computerized vectorcardiographic method (cardiogoniometry) and other noninvasive tests in medically treated patients with chest pain  

SciTech Connect

The diagnostic value of cardiogoniometry (CGM), a new computerized vectorcardiographic method, for the identification of coronary artery disease was compared with other noninvasive tests in 48 medically treated patients with chest pain. Coronary angiography revealed one-vessel disease in 18, two- or three-vessel disease in 21, and normal coronary arteries in 9 patients. Cardiogoniometry was less sensitive (63%) than thallium-/sup 201/ (201T1) scanning (82%), but slightly more sensitive than the exercise ECG (50%) or a recently proposed parameter of exercise performance (50%). On the other hand, specificity was comparable among these tests (exercise ECG 78%, thallium-201 scanning 72%, CGM 67%, new parameter of exercise performance 66%). Moreover, the false negative rate of noninvasive testing was reduced from 8 to 3% when CGM was added to thallium-201 scanning and exercise ECG. Our findings indicate that in view of the easier feasibility with computerized technology, the future role of vectorcardiographic methods such as CGM in the noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease should be redefined.

Meier, A.; Hoeflin, F.H.; Herrmann, H.J.; Wolf, C.; Gurtner, H.P.; Roesler, H.

1987-05-01

154

The Truth about Students of Color and Standardized Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year, when standardized test scores are published for California students, the same message tends to surface: In general, the scores of blacks and Latinos trail those of other groups, especially whites. This pattern emerges so often that it usually doesn't surprise educators or researchers. In the author's search to better understand the…

Thompson, Gail L.

2007-01-01

155

[Theoretical patterns of the panel D-15 test in congenital dichromatic color vision defects].  

PubMed

In order to study the theoretical patterns of the panel D-15 test for congenital dichromatic color vision defects, the spectral reflectance for the 16 color caps of the panel D-15 test was measured with a spectro-photometer. Then, the chromaticity-coordinates of each color cap were calculated using the spectral distribution of standard illuminant C. The theoretical patterns of the panel D-15 test for dichromats were obtained based on the confusion lines. For this procedure, the slope of the line between the color cap and the convergence point on the CIE chromaticity diagram was obtained first. Then, the order of the arrangement was decided starting with the slope having the smallest cap number and continuing progressively. For the chromaticity coordinates of the convergence points the following values were used; x = 0.7465, y = 0.2535 for protanopia, x = 1.08, y = -0.08, x = 1.40, y = -0.40, and x = 1.70, y = -0.70 for deuteranopia, and x = 0.171, y = 0.000 for tritanopia. The results show a very clear similarity between the orientation axis obtained by simulation and the actual data. Therefore, it was confirmed that dichromats arrange the color caps in the order of the slope of the line between the color cap and the convergence point, when performing the panel D-15 test. Furthermore, it was suggested that the patterns of the panel D-15 test differ by the convergence points among dichromats even of the same type. PMID:2629498

Kandatsu, A; Okabe, T; Kitahara, K

1989-12-01

156

The Stroop Color-Word Test: Genetic and Environmental Influences; Reading, Mental Ability, and Personality Correlates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates prior findings of reading, mental ability, and personality correlates of Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT) scores. In spite of significant correlations between the SCWT scores and selected measures of mental ability, genetic influence on SCWT scores was relatively unaffected when the influences of correlated ability measures were removed.…

Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.; Segal, Nancy L.; Keyes, Margaret; Samuels, Jay

2003-01-01

157

The Color-Word Interference Test and Its Relation to Performance Impairment under Auditory Distraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to resist distraction is an important requirement for air traffic controllers. The study examined the relationship between performance on the Stroop color-word interference test (a suggested measure of distraction susceptibility) and impairment under auditory distraction on a task requiring the subject to generate random sequences of…

Thackray, Richard I.; And Others

158

Euro: A new color vision test in the pockets of three hundred million Europeans.  

PubMed

As of 1 January 2002, twelve European Union countries have a new common currency - the euro. Amongst the many advantages that the use of this single currency may bring, there is one that is serendipitous from the viewpoint of studying anomalies in color vision: the eurocent coins serve as a ready-made test to detect anomalous chromatic vision. PMID:19436392

Pardo, Pedro; Perez, A; Suero, M

2002-07-01

159

Euro: A new color vision test in the pockets of three hundred million Europeans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As of 1 January 2002, twelve European Union countries have a new common currency - the euro. Amongst the many advantages that the use of this single currency may bring, there is one that is serendipitous from the viewpoint of studying anomalies in color vision: the eurocent coins serve as a ready-made test to detect anomalous chromatic vision.

Pardo, Pedro J.; Perez, A. L.; Suero, M. I.

2002-07-01

160

HIV Testing Preferences Among Young Men of Color Who Have Sex With Men  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed awareness of and preferences for rapid HIV testing among young, urban men of color who have sex with men and are engaged in high-risk behaviors for HIV. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in New York City among 177 young men who have sex with men (MSM). Results. Among the 85% of the participants who had previously undergone HIV testing, 43% reported rapid testing at their most recent test. In terms of future tests, 64% would seek rapid testing, as compared with 36% who preferred traditional testing. Those who preferred rapid testing were significantly more likely to have attended at least some college, to have discussed HIV testing with a sexual partner, to be aware of rapid testing, and to have had a previous HIV test. Conclusions. In general, young MSM of color seem aware of rapid testing. However, our results indicate the need to carefully consider the unique needs of those who are particularly disenfranchised or engaged in high-risk behaviors and who may need concerted efforts around HIV counseling and testing. Likewise, our findings point to a need for more effective education and social marketing strategies. PMID:20075330

Dini, Sheila; Nye, Andrea; Dye, Bonnie; Neu, Natalie; Hyden, Christel

2010-01-01

161

Computerized training management system  

DOEpatents

A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) is disclosed for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base{trademark}, an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches. 18 figs.

Rice, H.B.; McNair, R.C.; White, K.; Maugeri, T.

1998-08-04

162

Computerized training management system  

DOEpatents

A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base.RTM., an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches.

Rice, Harold B. (Franklin Furnace, OH); McNair, Robert C. (East Setauket, NY); White, Kenneth (Shirley, NY); Maugeri, Terry (Wading River, NY)

1998-08-04

163

Determination of Ochratoxin A in colored food products: Sample preparation and an immunoassay test method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is proposed for the purification of highly colored food products (red wine, red pepper) for the immunochemical test\\u000a determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA) with visual detection. The method is based on passing an analyzed sample (wine diluted with a solution of polyethylene glycol\\u000a and sodium hydrocarbonate or water-ethanol extract of pepper diluted with a solution of sodium hydrocarbonate)

I. Yu. Goryacheva; T. Yu. Rusanova; N. V. Beloglazova; I. I. Voronov; S. De Saeger

2010-01-01

164

Color Categories and Color Appearance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

2012-01-01

165

Disposable platform provides visual and color-based point-of-care anemia self-testing.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND. Anemia, or low blood hemoglobin (Hgb) levels, afflicts 2 billion people worldwide. Currently, Hgb levels are typically measured from blood samples using hematology analyzers, which are housed in hospitals, clinics, or commercial laboratories and require skilled technicians to operate. A reliable, inexpensive point-of-care (POC) Hgb test would enable cost-effective anemia screening and chronically anemic patients to self-monitor their disease. We present a rapid, stand-alone, and disposable POC anemia test that, via a single drop of blood, outputs color-based visual results that correlate with Hgb levels. METHODS. We tested blood from 238 pediatric and adult patients with anemia of varying degrees and etiologies and compared hematology analyzer Hgb levels with POC Hgb levels, which were estimated via visual interpretation using a color scale and an optional smartphone app for automated analysis. RESULTS. POC Hgb levels correlated with hematology analyzer Hgb levels (r = 0.864 and r = 0.856 for visual interpretation and smartphone app, respectively), and both POC test methods yielded comparable sensitivity and specificity for detecting any anemia (n = 178) (<11 g/dl) (sensitivity: 90.2% and 91.1%, specificity: 83.7% and 79.2%, respectively) and severe anemia (n = 10) (<7 g/dl) (sensitivity: 90.0% and 100%, specificity: 94.6% and 93.9%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS. These results demonstrate the feasibility of this POC color-based diagnostic test for self-screening/self-monitoring of anemia. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Not applicable. FUNDING. This work was funded by the FDA-funded Atlantic Pediatric Device Consortium, the Georgia Research Alliance, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, the Georgia Center of Innovation for Manufacturing, and the InVenture Prize and Ideas to Serve competitions at the Georgia Institute of Technology. PMID:25157824

Tyburski, Erika A; Gillespie, Scott E; Stoy, William A; Mannino, Robert G; Weiss, Alexander J; Siu, Alexa F; Bulloch, Rayford H; Thota, Karthik; Cardenas, Anyela; Session, Wilena; Khoury, Hanna J; O'Connor, Siobhán; Bunting, Silvia T; Boudreaux, Jeanne; Forest, Craig R; Gaddh, Manila; Leong, Traci; Lyon, L Andrew; Lam, Wilbur A

2014-10-01

166

Computerized Adaptive Assessment of Cognitive Abilities among Disabled Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined computerized adaptive testing and cognitive ability testing of adults with cognitive disabilities. Adult subjects (N=250) were given computerized tests on language usage and space relations in one of three administration conditions: paper and pencil, fixed length computer adaptive, and variable length computer adaptive.…

Engdahl, Brian

167

[Computerized analysis of esophageal manometry].  

PubMed

Computerized analysis of esophageal manometry should consider the following objectives: a) objectivation of data acquisition; b) precision in calculating the various parameters; c) speed of analysis; d) an easy-to-read and promptly understandable graphic display of the manometric data; e) computation of new parameters capable of defining normal and pathologic function. It is with these objectives in mind that we launched our research project. Five normal subjects and 10 patients, of whom 5 presented esophageal achalasia and 5 gastroesophageal reflux disease, underwent computerized esophageal manometry and were evaluated on the basis of both traditional and innovative parameters, of our own inception. Among the various indexes tested, the "Esophageal transport" parameter, calculated as the ratio of momentum (dp*dT) over speed of propagation of the esophageal contractions, gave rise to particular interest. In our opinion, this parameter can be used as an index of the dynamic function of the organ. PMID:2067691

Spigno, L; Pandolfo, N; Guiddo, G; Calci, G; Mattioli, G; De Salvo, L

1991-04-15

168

Estimation of Item Dimensional Measurement Direction Using Conditional Covariance Patterns. Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several nonparametric dimensionality assessment tools have demonstrated the usefulness of item pair conditional covariances as building blocks for investigating multidimensional test structure. Recently, J. Zhang and W. Stout (1999) have related the structural properties of conditional covariances in a generalized compensatory framework to a test

Bolt, Daniel; Roussos, Louis; Stout, William

169

Comparison of the commercial color LCD and the medical monochrome LCD using randomized object test patterns.  

PubMed

Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP) commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT) was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p?=?0.265) and OT (p?=?0.07). The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration. PMID:22701534

Wu, Jay; Wu, Tung H; Han, Rou P; Chang, Shu J; Shih, Cheng T; Sun, Jing Y; Hsu, Shih M

2012-01-01

170

Comparison of the Commercial Color LCD and the Medical Monochrome LCD Using Randomized Object Test Patterns  

PubMed Central

Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP) commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT) was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p?=?0.265) and OT (p?=?0.07). The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration. PMID:22701534

Wu, Jay; Wu, Tung H.; Han, Rou P.; Chang, Shu J.; Shih, Cheng T.; Sun, Jing Y.; Hsu, Shih M.

2012-01-01

171

Computerized Energy Information Sources  

E-print Network

Many computerized files of energy- and energy conservation-related information are currently available through commercial and governmental sources such as Lockheed Information Systems, System Development Corporation, and DOE/RECON. Private...

Gordon, D.

1979-01-01

172

Can automated alerts within computerized physician order entry improve compliance with laboratory practice guidelines for ordering Pap tests?  

PubMed Central

Background: The electronic health record (EHR) provides opportunity to improve health and enhance appropriate test utilization through decision support. Electronic alerts in the order entry system can guide test use. Few published reports have assessed the impact of automated alerts on compliance of Pap ordering with published screening guidelines. Methods: Programming rules for Pap test ordering were developed within the EHR (Epic, Madison, WI) of the University of California, Davis Health System using American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology's 2009 guidelines and implemented in primary care clinics in 2010. Alerts discouraged Pap orders in women <21 and >71 years and displayed when an order was initiated. Providers were not prevented from placing an order. Results were measured during four calendar periods: (1) pre-alert (baseline) (July 2010 to June 2011), (2) post alert (alerts on) (July 2011 to December 2011), (3) inadvertent alert turn-off (“glitch”) (January 2012 to December 2012), (5) post-glitch (alerts re-instated) (1/2013-7/2013). Metrics used to measure alert impact were between time and period seasonally adjusted relative frequency ratios. Results: Alerts were most effective in the <21 year old age group. During the baseline period 2.7 Pap tests were order in patients less than age 21 for every 100 Paps in those 21-71 years of age. This relative frequency decreased to 1.7 in the post-alert period and 1.4 during the glitch, with an even greater decline to 0.8 post-glitch when alerts were reinstated. Less impact was observed in the >70 year old group where the baseline relative frequency was 2.4 and declined to 2.1 post-alert, remained stable at 2.0 during the glitch period, and declined again to 1.7 post-glitch when alerts were reinstated. This likely reflects inclusion of women with a history of abnormal Pap tests for whom continued Pap testing is indicated, as well as reluctance by providers and patients to accept discontinuation of Pap testing for women with a history of normal Pap results. In both age groups, decreases in ordering were greatest when the alerts were functioning, indicating that the alerts had an effect beyond the influences of the environment. Conclusions: Discouraging alerts can impact ordering of Pap tests and improve compliance with established guidelines, thus avoiding unnecessary follow-up tests that can create potential patient harm and unnecessary expense. Alerts represent a potential model to address utilization of other lab tests. Longer study intervals are necessary to determine if provider compliance is maintained. PMID:25337434

Howell, Lydia Pleotis; MacDonald, Scott; Jones, Jacqueline; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Melnikow, Joy

2014-01-01

173

Color categories and color appearance  

PubMed Central

We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

2011-01-01

174

Pretest Item Analyses Using Polynomial Logistic Regression: An Approach to Small Sample Calibration Problems Associated with Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many large-scale testing programs routinely pretest new items alongside operational (or scored) items to determine their empirical characteristics. If these pretest items pass certain statistical criteria, they are placed into an operational item pool; otherwise they are edited and re-pretested or simply discarded. In these situations, reliable…

Patsula, Liane N.; Pashley, Peter J.

175

Estimating Item Parameters from Classical Indices for Item Pool Development with a Computerized Classification Test. ACT Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Item pools supporting computer-based tests are not always completely calibrated. Occasionally, only a small subset of the items in the pool may have actual calibrations, while the remainder of the items may only have classical item statistics, (e.g., "p"-values, point-biserial correlation coefficients, or biserial correlation coefficients).…

Huang, Chi-Yu; Kalohn, John C.; Lin, Chuan-Ju; Spray, Judith

176

A simulated reality scenario compared with the computerized Wisconsin card sorting test: an analysis of preliminary results.  

PubMed

Neuropsychologists and other clinicians often comment on the minimal relationship that frequently exists between formal assessments of executive functions, analysis of findings, recommendations, and the person's real-life functioning. The authors' believe that current assessments of executive functions do not transfer easily to real-world behavior. There are limitations in the current examinations and in the settings in which they are given. The tests are artificial and the test settings lack the usual stresses, distractions, and multiple demands common to real life. The interactions are unlike what they experience in everyday life. The examiner often, but unintentionally orients the participant to relevant information that in turn can help the person compensate for the difficulties with executive control processes and bias the findings. We believe that virtual reality (VR) more closely approximates real life settings, the distractions, and the common interchanges (VR) provides a "life-like," three-dimensional (3-D) highly interactive environment, and safety from potential dangers that could arise in actual situations. VR can increase motivation because of its gaming, interactive, and immersive qualities and features are easily modified and allow for multiple applications. Our goal is to develop VR assessments that can be administered under controlled and safe conditions, but which are more sensitive to difficulties with executive control processes critical to safe, independent living. This initial study compares several functions assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) with our three-dimensional, stereographic scenario, Look for a Match (LFAM) Study participants completed questionnaires, alternately began with either the WCST or LFAM, and then took the second test. All participants completed motion sickness and follow-up questionnaires. The results demonstrated that the study participants found LFAM to be more enjoyable and interesting, but found the WCST to be easier. While there is an effect of order with participants doing relatively better on the assessment tool administered second, overall the LFAM performance was inferior to that on the WCST. However, even considering the order effect, LFAM seemed to be more difficult than the WCST. PMID:11708728

Elkind, J S; Rubin, E; Rosenthal, S; Skoff, B; Prather, P

2001-08-01

177

76 FR 23824 - Guidance for Industry: “Computer Crossmatch” (Computerized Analysis of the Compatibility Between...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...Guidance for Industry: ``Computer Crossmatch'' (Computerized...Guidance for Industry: `Computer Crossmatch' (Computerized...compatibility testing using a computer crossmatch system to...

2011-04-28

178

Using Mobile and Web-Based Computerized  

E-print Network

test; mobile learning; web-based education INTRODUCTION Computer-assisted assessment or quizzes as potential educational environments [5]. Mobile learning can be defined as e-Learning using handheld devicesUsing Mobile and Web-Based Computerized Tests to Evaluate University Students CRISTOBAL ROMERO,1

De Bra, Paul

179

Evaluation of brain collateral circulation by the transcranial color Doppler-guided Matas' test.  

PubMed

For the determination of the indication for reconstruction of the carotid artery in patients with head and neck cancer, a color Doppler-guided Matas' test was performed to examine brain collateral circulation and blood flow of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and internal carotid artery (ICA). Both SSA-270A convex (3.75 MHz) and linear (3.75 MHz and 2.5 MHz) array probes (Toshiba Co, Ltd) were used for this investigation. A temporary occlusion test (60 seconds) by digital pressure on the common carotid artery was performed on 30 patients with head and neck cancer. The results were classified into four groups according to the relative flow volume (percent blood flow volume before the test) of the MCA: group A, with a flow volume of 87% or more; group B, with a flow volume between 72% and 86%; group C, with a flow volume between 57% and 71%; and group D, with a flow volume of 56% or less. The relative flow volume of the MCA was correlated with the ICA stump pressure and single photon emission computed tomography during a balloon Matas' test (ICA occlusion). This test seems to be useful in predicting the risk of carotid resection without reconstruction and in determining the indication for reconstruction of the carotid artery. PMID:8420466

Takeuchi, Y; Numata, T; Konno, A; Suzuki, H; Hino, T; Kaneko, T; Kobayashi, S

1993-01-01

180

Computerized Drug Information Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To compare computerized services in chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical medicine of pharmaceutical interest, equivalent profiles were run on magnetic tape files of CA-Condensates," CBAC," Excerpta Medica," MEDLARS" and Ringdoc." The results are tabulated for overlap of services, relative speed of citing references, and unique…

And Others; Smith, Daniel R.

1972-01-01

181

Computerized Transportation Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past six years, Los Angeles County Office of Education (California) has used a state-of-the-art computerized transportation management system that produces $2 million annual net savings and provides prompt, accurate bus service for students, parents, and teachers. This article details routing and scheduling programs used. Includes seven…

Caswell, Peter J.; Hall, Calvin W.

1987-01-01

182

Psychosocial Communication and Computerization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effect of computerization of the work environment on psychosocial communication. The RAM program, developed at Stockholm University to explore the effect of computers on the structure of organizations and the psychosocial work environment, is described; theoretical models are explained; and the future use of knowledge-based systems…

Bradley, Gunilla; And Others

1993-01-01

183

Computerized geophysical tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized tomography is used as an aid in geophysical exploration. With this method, detailed pictures of electromagnetic properties in the regions between pairs of boreholes can be reconstructed. The spatial distribution of attenuation or propagation velocity is calculated from line integrals along rays in the plane between boreholes, and displayed as a digital picture. In principle, the transmission of seismic

K. A. Dines; R. J. Lytle

1979-01-01

184

An experimental test of female choice relative to male structural coloration in eastern bluebirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experimental studies have shown that female birds use ornamental melanin and carotenoid plumage coloration as criteria\\u000a in mate choice. Whether females choose mates based on natural variation in structural coloration, however, has not been well\\u000a established. Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) display brilliant ultraviolet (UV)-blue plumage coloration on their head, back, wings, and tail, which is positively correlated\\u000a with

Mark Liu; Lynn Siefferman; Geoffrey E. Hill

2007-01-01

185

Egg coloration in ring-billed gulls ( Larus delawarensis ): a test of the sexual signaling hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many avian eggs appear to be cryptically colored, many species also lay vibrant blue green eggs. This seemingly conspicuous\\u000a coloration has puzzled biologists since Wallace, as natural selection should favor reduced egg visibility to minimize predation\\u000a pressure. The sexual signaling hypothesis posits that blue green egg coloration serves as a signal of female quality and that\\u000a males exert post-mating

Daniel Hanley; Stéphanie M. Doucet

2009-01-01

186

Color and Communication in Habronattus Jumping Spiders: Tests of Sexual and Ecological Selection.  

E-print Network

??Differences between males and females can evolve through a variety of mechanisms, including sexual and ecological selection. Because coloration is evolutionarily labile, sexually dichromatic species… (more)

Taylor, Lisa A.

2012-01-01

187

Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

1983-01-01

188

Relationship between Shyness in Children and Constricted Cognitive Control as Measured by the Stroop Color-Word Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the relationship of shyness in children (N=103) to the constricted flexible dimension of cognitive control. Findings showed a significant difference in performance of the shy and nonshy group on the Stroop Color-Word Test. The shy group was less effective in maintaining performance in the presence of interfering stimuli. (JAC)

Ludwig, Robert P.; Lazarus, Philip J.

1983-01-01

189

The anxiogenic video-recorded Stroop Color–Word Test: psychological and physiological alterations and effects of diazepam  

Microsoft Academic Search

From among the few human experimental models that can be used to predict the clinical activity of new anxiolytic drugs, the video-recorded Stroop Color–Word Test (VRSCWT), which uses subjective scales to evaluate anxious states, is notable for its simplicity. However, considering that the choice of treatment for anxiety disorders is heavily dependent on the level of somatic symptomatology, a quantitative

Flavia Teixeira-Silva; Gabriela Bordini Prado; L??dia Christine Goulart Ribeiro; José Roberto Leite

2004-01-01

190

Stroop Color-Word Test: A Screening Measure of Selective Attention to Differentiate LD From Non LD Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used the Stroop Color-Word Test to measure selective attention in learning disabled (N=45) and nonLD (N=50) children. Results indicated that LD children have a significant weakness in the process of selective attention compared to the nonLD children. Findings suggested that the Stroop is an effective screening measure. (JAC)

Lazarus, Philip J.; And Others

1984-01-01

191

The Colors of Hilda Group Asteroids: Complications For Use in Testing Dynamical Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hilda group asteroids are in a stable 3:2 resonance with Jupiter which may have been reshaped by giant planet migration in the early epochs of solar system formation. Although the population is currently dynamically stable, the dynamics of this population suggest at minimum an inward migration of Jupiter by ~0.4 AU (Franklin et al. 2004, AJ, 128, 1391). As this population of objects is relatively isolated, compositional types can be used to test dynamical models such as the Grand Tack and Nice Model which suggest that objects of outer solar system (beyond Saturn) origin would be found in the Hilda population. We have undertaken a multi-year observational program at the 2.3-m Bok Telescope to obtain compositional types for a large sample of Hilda group asteroids. With a preliminary sample of ~400 objects from our observations and the literature, we find complications for direct compositional tests of the giant planet migration models. Specifically, we find that the two dynamical families within the Hilda group, Schubart and Hilda, have disparate dynamical ages ( 1.7 +/- 0.7 Gyr vs > 4 Gyr ; Broz & Vokrouhlicky 2008, MNRAS, 390, 715) but similar colors not seen elsewhere in the Hilda group population. This suggests dynamical family members should be removed from samples when using Hilda group asteroid compositions as a test of giant planet migration models. This research was supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at Goddard Space Flight Center, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA. This work also funded by NASA Planetary Astronomy Grant NNX13AJ11G.

Ryan, Erin L.; Noll, Keith; Woodward, Charles E.

2014-11-01

192

Steep-Slope Assembly Testing of Clay and Concrete Tile With and Without Cool Pigmented Colors  

SciTech Connect

Cool color pigments and sub-tile venting of clay and concrete tile roofs significantly impact the heat flow crossing the roof deck of a steep-slope roof. Field measures for the tile roofs revealed a 70% drop in the peak heat flow crossing the deck as compared to a direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The Tile Roofing Institute (TRI) and its affiliate members are keenly interested in documenting the magnitude of the drop for obtaining solar reflectance credits with state and federal "cool roof" building efficiency standards. Tile roofs are direct-nailed or are attached to a deck with batten or batten and counter-batten construction. S-Misson clay and concrete tile roofs, a medium-profile concrete tile roof, and a flat slate tile roof were installed on fully nstrumented attic test assemblies. Temperature measures of the roof, deck, attic, and ceiling, heat flows, solar reflectance, thermal emittance, and the ambient weather were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and directnailed asphalt shingle roof. ORNL measured the tile's underside temperature and the bulk air temperature and heat flows just underneath the tile for batten and counter-batten tile systems and compared the results to the conventional asphalt shingle.

Miller, William A [ORNL

2005-11-01

193

Testing the Ginzburg-Landau approximation for three-flavor crystalline color superconductivity  

SciTech Connect

It is an open challenge to analyze the crystalline color superconducting phases that may arise in cold dense, but not asymptotically dense, three-flavor quark matter. At present the only approximation within which it seems possible to compare the free energies of the myriad possible crystal structures is the Ginzburg-Landau approximation. Here, we test this approximation on a particularly simple 'crystal' structure in which there are only two condensates {approx}{delta}exp(iq{sub 2}{center_dot}r) and {approx}{delta}exp(iq{sub 3}{center_dot}r) whose position-space dependence is that of two plane waves with wave vectors q{sub 2} and q{sub 3} at arbitrary angles. For this case, we are able to solve the mean-field gap equation without making a Ginzburg-Landau approximation. We find that the Ginzburg-Landau approximation works in the {delta}{yields}0 limit as expected, find that it correctly predicts that {delta} decreases with increasing angle between q{sub 2} and q{sub 3} meaning that the phase with q{sub 2} parallel q{sub 3} has the lowest free energy, and find that the Ginzburg-Landau approximation is conservative in the sense that it underestimates {delta} at all values of the angle between q{sub 2} and q{sub 3}.

Mannarelli, Massimo; Sharma, Rishi [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Rajagopal, Krishna [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Nuclear Science Division, MS 70R319, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2006-06-01

194

Testing Color Evaporation in Photon-Photon Production of J/Psi at CERN LEP II  

E-print Network

The DELPHI Collaboration has recently reported the measurement of J/Psi production in photon-photon collisions at LEP II. These newly available data provide an additional proof of the importance of colored c bar{c} pairs for the production of charmonium because these data can only be explained by considering resolved photon processes. We show here that the inclusion of color octet contributions to the J/Psi production in the framework of the color evaporation model is able to reproduce this data. In particular, the transverse-momentum distribution of the J/Psi mesons is well described by this model.

O. J. P. Eboli; E. M. Gregores; J. K. Mizukoshi

2003-08-11

195

Testing the Relationship Between UV-VIS Color and TiO2 Content in the Lunar Maria.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remotely sensed data are used to classify the lunar maria on the basis of "color"; where mature maria with steep UV-VIS continuum slopes are defined as "red", and those with relatively flatter continuum slopes are termed "blue". The canonical view is that large apparent color variations are due to TiO2 concentration, as TiO2 is the primary variable in lunar basalts, ranging from <1 wt.% to >14 wt.% TiO2. This interpretation was based on the observation of compositional and color extremes juxtaposed in Mare Serenitatis and Tranquillitatis. Lunar Prospector (LP) data allows direct testing of the assumption of the control of lunar UVVIS color by TiO2 in the mare. We compare LP gamma-ray (GRS) and neutron spectrometer (NS) data for TiO2 with Clementine Spectral Reflectance (CSR) data in order to examine basalts with a full range of TiO2 concentrations. Areas were selected on the basis of uniform color over 2-degree areas, to match the resolution of the LPGRS data. First we conducted a comparison between LP-GRS and LP-NS data. This comparison yields an approximate two-to-one correlation (the NS data exhibiting higher values), a significant amount of scatter (R2 = 0.63), and an offset +1.7 TiO2 NS data. This is an important observation as it shows that even direct measurements of surface TiO2 contain considerable uncertainty, even for the best possible scenario for determining TiO2 contents in the maria. A comparison of LPGRS TiO2 and CSR color data yields a poor correlation (R2 = 0.53), that is, UV-VIS color is a poor predictor of LPGRS TiO2 in mature mare. A comparison of LPNS and CSR color data, however, yields a better correlation (R2 = 0.85). On the basis of this preliminary analysis, we conclude that TiO2 controls UVVIS color in the mare. However, we will continue this analysis at the higher resolution accessible to LPNS data to further explore the correlation between data sets. We will present an empirical model that uses a relationship between LPNS and CSR UV-VIS data to predict TiO2 contents globally and at full Clementine resolution (250 m/pixel).

Gillis, J. J.; Lucey, P. G.

2003-12-01

196

Research and Teaching: Does the Color-Coding of Examination Versions Affect College Science Students' Test Performance? Countering Claims of Bias  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To circumvent the problem of academic dishonesty through the mass administration of multiple-choice exams in college classrooms, a study was conducted from 2003 to 2005, in which multiple versions of the same examination were color coded during testing in a large-enrollment classroom. Instructors reported that this color-coded exam system appeared to work remarkably well. However, some students strongly asserted that they only performed well on the blue tests, or that certain examination colors negatively affected their test performance. As a result, this study attempts to determine, through the investigation of the test scores earned by students on the different colored examination versions, whether there was any significant effect of examination paper color on student test performance.

Wandersee, James; Elias, Janet S.; Clary, Renee

2007-09-01

197

Computerized procedures system  

DOEpatents

An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

Lipner, Melvin H. (Monroeville, PA); Mundy, Roger A. (North Huntingdon, PA); Franusich, Michael D. (Upper St. Clair, PA)

2010-10-12

198

Computerized ionospheric tomography  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the background of computerized tomography (CT) and its application to the ionosphere is reviewed. CT techniques, using only total electron content (TEC) data, can be used to reconstruct a two-dimensional image of the electron density in the ionosphere. The limitations of this technique are discussed and examples showing the limitations and capabilities are presented. Simulation results for two applications are presented: imaging the high latitude trough, and the correction of tracking radar range rate errors. Some possible extensions of the technique are presented.

Austen, J.R.; Raymund, T.D.; Klobuchar, J.A.; Stalker, J.; Liu, C.H.

1990-05-03

199

Beyond interference control impairment in ADHD: evidence from increased intraindividual variability in the color-stroop test.  

PubMed

The present study investigates intraindividual variability (IIV) in the Color-Stroop test and in a simple reaction time (SRT) task. Performance level and variability in reaction times (RTs)-quantified with different measures such as individual standard deviation (ISD) and coefficient of variation (ICV), as well as ex-Gaussian parameters (mu, sigma, tau)-were analyzed in 24 children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 24 typically developing children (TDC). Children with ADHD and TDC presented equivalent Color-Stroop interference effects when mean RTs were considered, and the two groups did not differ in the SRT task. Interestingly, compared to TDC, children with ADHD were more variable in their responses, showing increased ISD and ICV in the Color-Stroop interference condition and in the SRT task. Moreover, children with ADHD exhibited higher tau values-that is, more frequent abnormally long RTs-in the Color-Stroop interference condition than did the TDC, but comparable tau values in the SRT, suggesting more variable responses. These results speak in favor of a general deficit in more basic and central processes that only secondarily may affect the efficiency of inhibitory processes in children with ADHD. Overall the present findings confirm the role of IIV as a cornerstone in the ADHD cognitive profile and support the search for fine-grained analysis of performance fluctuations. PMID:22738031

Borella, Erika; de Ribaupierre, Anik; Cornoldi, Cesare; Chicherio, Christian

2013-09-01

200

The video-recorded stroop color-word test as a new model of experimentally-induced anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. The use of the Stroop Color-Word Test as a model of experimentally induced anxiety was evaluated.2.2. First, the authors examined the influence of trait anxiety and the type of instructions on the anxiety state level. Subjects with high trait anxiety (above 50 on State-Trait Anxiety Scale —STAI) showed a significant increase in anxiety state only with limited time (2

JoséRoberto Leite; Maria De Lourdes V. Seabra; Vania A. Sartori; Roberto Andreatini

1999-01-01

201

Block Design Test Performance as a Function of Race and Block Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to see if a relationship between color sensitivity and skin pigmentation would affect performance on the WISC block design subtest when both the standard red/white design and the blue/yellow design were used. It was hypothesized that the white children would perform better overall because black children have been…

Mitchell, Nancy B.; Pollack, Robert H.

202

A Quick Test for the Highly Colored Ions of the Aluminum-Nickel Group.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a technique for eliminating errors in the analysis of the nickel subgroup of the aluminum-nickel group cations. Describes the process of color and chemical changes that occur in this group as a result of ligand and coordination number changes. Discusses opportunities for student observations. (TW)

Grenda, Stanley C.

1986-01-01

203

Computerized Physician Order Entry  

PubMed Central

Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) has been promoted as an important component of patient safety, quality improvement, and modernization of medical practice. In practice, however, CPOE affects health care delivery in complex ways, with benefits as well as risks. Every implementation of CPOE is associated with both generally recognized and unique local factors that can facilitate or confound its rollout, and neurohospitalists will often be at the forefront of such rollouts. In this article, we review the literature on CPOE, beginning with definitions and proceeding to comparisons to the standard of care. We then proceed to discuss clinical decision support systems, negative aspects of CPOE, and cultural context of CPOE implementation. Before concluding, we follow the experiences of a Chief Medical Information Officer and neurohospitalist who rolled out a CPOE system at his own health care organization and managed the resulting workflow changes and setbacks. PMID:24381708

Khanna, Raman; Yen, Tony

2014-01-01

204

Cosmetology. Computerized Learning Modules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help reading-limited students meet course objectives, these 11 modules are based on instructional materials in cosmetology that have a higher readability equivalent. Modules cover bacteriology, chemical waving, scalp and hair massage, chemistry, hair shaping, hairstyling, chemical hair relaxing, hair coloring, skin and scalp,…

Finnerty, Kathy, Ed.

205

A simple modification of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test for much faster assessment of color vision  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) 100-hue test is well known but is also time consuming, especially its analytical component. To reduce this needless time-waste during precious working hours, a simple modification was devised. Design: Prospective, comparative, observational study. Materials and Methods: A transparent clear plastic carrier box replaced the opaque one, allowing ready digital photodocumentation of top and bottom without even opening the box, or handling/inverting the caps -200 reportedly normals and 50 known color vision defectives could be easily tested on this modified-FM and results stored, allowing rapid turnover. The captured scores with patient ID were analyzed, at leisure, outside hospital time, saving 45-60 minutes/patient. After recording, the box was promptly handed over to the next subject for rearrangement. Times taken for test/patient were recorded. Results: Running time was reduced from 60-75 min to ~15 min/patient with no waste of invaluable lab hours. Turnover time is limited to capturing two photographs (~60 sec). The box is relatively cheap and easy to maintain. Conclusions: Our simplified FM 100-hue test allowed rapid assessment of color visions with easy data storage of both top and bottom. PMID:25005203

Ghose, Supriyo; Shrey, Dinesh; Venkatesh, Pradeep; Parmar, Twinkle; Sharma, Sourabh

2014-01-01

206

Tests of the harassment-reduction function and frequency-dependent maintenance of a female-specific color polymorphism in a damselfly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color polymorphisms have provided classical examples of how frequency-dependent selection maintains genetic variation in natural\\u000a populations. Here we tested for the first time, the hypothesized adaptive function of a female-specific color polymorphism\\u000a in odonates to lower male harassment towards females generally. Under conditions controlling for sex ratio, population density\\u000a and morph frequency, we also tested two major frequency-dependent selection hypotheses

Mingzi Xu; Ola M. Fincke

2011-01-01

207

A color spot test for the detection of Kryptofix 2.2.2 in [ 18F]FDG preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A color spot test is described that can confirm the absence of Kryptofix 2.2.2 in 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([18F]FDG) in less than 5 min. Pretreated strips of plastic-backed silica gel 60 thin-layer chromatographic medium, saturated with iodoplatinate reagent, are over-spotted with separate droplets of final product [18F]FDG and Kryptofix standard solutions. A blue-black circular spot is clearly visible at Kryptofix concentrations as

Bruce H. Mock; Wendy Winkle; Michael T. Vavrek

1997-01-01

208

Computerized international geothermal information systems  

SciTech Connect

The computerized international geothermal energy information system is reviewed. The review covers establishment of the Italy - United States linked data centers by the NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society, through a bilateral agreement, and up to the present time. The result of the information exchange project is given as the bibliographic and numerical data available from the data centers. Recommendations for the exchange of computerized geothermal information at the international level are discussed.

Phillips, S.L.; Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.

1980-03-01

209

NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. IV. TESTING THE NONLINEARITY SCENARIO FOR COLOR BIMODALITY VIA HST/WFC3 u-BAND PHOTOMETRY OF M84 (NGC 4374)  

SciTech Connect

Color distributions of globular clusters (GCs) in most massive galaxies are bimodal. Assuming linear color-to-metallicity conversions, bimodality is viewed as the presence of merely two GC subsystems with distinct metallicities, which serves as a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Recent studies, however, revealed that the color-metallicity relations (CMRs) often used to derive GC metallicities (e.g., CMRs of g - z, V - I, and C - T{sub 1}) are in fact inflected. Such inflection can create bimodal color distributions if the underlying GC metallicity spread is simply broad as expected from the hierarchical merging paradigm of galaxy formation. In order to test the nonlinear-CMR scenario for GC color bimodality, the u-band photometry is proposed because the u-related CMRs (e.g., CMRs of u - g and u - z) are theoretically predicted to be least inflected and most distinctive among commonly used optical CMRs. Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3 F336W (u-band) photometry of the GC system in M84, a giant elliptical in the Virgo galaxy cluster. Combining the u data with the existing HST ACS/WFC g and z data, we find that the u - z and u - g color distributions are different from the g - z distribution in a very systematic manner and remarkably consistent with our model predictions based on the nonlinear-CMR hypothesis. The results lend further confidence to the validity of the nonlinear-CMR scenario as an explanation for GC color bimodality. There are some GC systems showing bimodal spectroscopic metallicity, and in such systems the inflected CMRs often create stronger bimodality in the color domain.

Yoon, Suk-Jin; Kim, Hak-Sub; Chung, Chul; Cho, Jaeil; Lee, Sang-Yoon [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Sangmo T. [Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Blakeslee, John P., E-mail: sjyoon@galaxy.yonsei.ac.kr [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

2013-05-10

210

Computerized Anesthesia Personnel System.  

PubMed

CAPS, (Computerized Anesthesia Personnel System), is a personnel management system for a large anesthesia department. It is written in BASIC for the IBM PC or IBM-compatible computer using 2 or more 5 1/4 inch disk drives or a hard disk. CAPS is designed to facilitate assignment of up to 30 attending anesthesiologists, 40 residents, 15 CRNAs, 5 interns, 5 anesthesia assistants, and up to 15 medical students to the operating room schedule. The system supports part-time personnel, regular laboratory/office/reading days, and resident rotations inside the operating suite, outside the operating suite, and to secondary hospitals. CAPS generates an availability list each day, listing all persons available for the operating room and the rotations and call days assigned. It then lists all persons not available that day and the reason for the absence. CAPS also tracts vacation, meeting, administrative and compensatory time for all members of the department, and maintains an absence record for each person listing sick times and all other absences. CAPS generates a weekly staffing list showing days each person is available to the operating room and the total number of attendings, residents, CRNAs, and assistants available each day. This article discusses why the program was developed, how it was designed, and how well it has met the objectives of the designers. PMID:3397611

Holley, H S; Heller, F

1988-01-01

211

Automatic conjunctival provocation test combining Hough circle transform and self-calibrated color measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer-aided diagnosis is developed for assessment of allergic rhinitis/rhinoconjunctivitis measuring the relative redness of sclera under application of allergen solution. Images of the patient's eye are taken using a commercial digital camera. The iris is robustly localized using a gradient-based Hough circle transform. From the center of the pupil, the region of interest within the sclera is extracted using geometric anatomy-based apriori information. The red color pixels are extracted thresholding in the hue, saturation and value color space. Then, redness is measured by taking mean of saturation projected into zero hue. Evaluation is performed with 98 images taken from 14 subjects, 8 responders and 6 non-responders, which were classified according to an experienced otorhinolaryngologist. Provocation is performed with 100, 1,000 and 10,000 AU/ml allergic solution and normalized to control images without provocation. The evaluation yields relative redness of 1.01, 1.05, 1.30 and 0.95, 1.00, 0.96 for responders and non-responders, respectively. Variations in redness measurements were analyzed according to alteration of parameters of the image processing chain proving stability and robustness of our approach. The results indicate that the method improves visual inspection and may be suitable as reliable surrogate endpoint in controlled clinical trials.

Bista, Suman Raj; Sárándi, István.; Dogan, Serkan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Mösges, Ralph; Deserno, Thomas M.

2013-02-01

212

A Multiplex Two-Color Real-Time PCR Method for Quality-Controlled Molecular Diagnostic Testing of FFPE Samples  

PubMed Central

Background Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) tests support personalized cancer treatment through more clinically meaningful diagnosis. However, samples obtained through standard clinical pathology procedures are formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and yield small samples with low integrity RNA containing PCR interfering substances. RT-qPCR tests able to assess FFPE samples with quality control and inter-laboratory reproducibility are needed. Methods We developed an RT-qPCR method by which 1) each gene was measured relative to a known number of its respective competitive internal standard molecules to control for interfering substances, 2) two-color fluorometric hydrolysis probes enabled analysis on a real-time platform, 3) external standards controlled for variation in probe fluorescence intensity, and 4) pre-amplification maximized signal from FFPE RNA samples. Reagents were developed for four genes comprised by a previously reported lung cancer diagnostic test (LCDT) then subjected to analytical validation using synthetic native templates as test articles to assess linearity, signal-to-analyte response, lower detection threshold, imprecision and accuracy. Fitness of this method and these reagents for clinical testing was assessed in FFPE normal (N?=?10) and malignant (N?=?10) lung samples. Results Reagents for each of four genes, MYC, E2F1, CDKN1A and ACTB comprised by the LCDT had acceptable linearity (R2>0.99), signal-to-analyte response (slope 1.0±0.05), lower detection threshold (<10 molecules) and imprecision (CV <20%). Poisson analysis confirmed accuracy of internal standard concentrations. Internal standards controlled for experimentally introduced interference, prevented false-negatives and enabled pre-amplification to increase signal without altering measured values. In the fitness for purpose testing of this two-color fluorometric LCDT using surgical FFPE samples, the diagnostic accuracy was 93% which was similar to that previously reported for analysis of fresh samples. Conclusions This quality-controlled two-color fluorometric RT-qPCR approach will facilitate the development of reliable, robust RT-qPCR-based molecular diagnostic tests in FFPE clinical samples. PMID:24586747

Yeo, Jiyoun; Crawford, Erin L.; Blomquist, Thomas M.; Stanoszek, Lauren M.; Dannemiller, Rachel E.; Zyrek, Jill; De Las Casas, Luis E.; Khuder, Sadik A.; Willey, James C.

2014-01-01

213

Ionospheric imaging using computerized tomography  

SciTech Connect

Computerized tomography (CT) techniques can be used to produce a two-dimensional image of the electron density in the ionosphere. The necessary data are transionospheric satellite beacon total electron content (TEC) data recorded simultaneously at multiple ground stations. The ionospheric imaging case presents a difficult problem due to large amounts of missing data. This is a consequence of the locations of the transmitter (in orbit) and receivers (ground-based) and causes the reconstruction algorithm to fail to correctly reconstruct the background density profile. Despite this limitation, a method has been developed which successfully reconstructs the irregularities and variations in the profile. A computer program simulates the data collection and image reconstruction process. This allows the method to be tested with several electron density models, transmitter and receiver locations, and noniterative and iterative reconstruction algorithms. Simulations are performed assuming a 1,000-km-altitude polar-orbiting satellite and several ground stations. The imaged region is 3,500 km wide by 800 km high. A new algorithm, which is a modification of the discrete backprojection algorithm, is developed for use with nonuniform sampling geometries.

Austen, J.R.

1991-01-01

214

Color Thieves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This story poses a challenge to its readers to solve the mystery of light, color, and how we see color. It also asks the question, "What is color?" After investigating the phenomena of color and color filters, students should realize that light is made up

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2009-04-01

215

Affective priming using a color-naming task: a test of an affective-motivational account of affective priming effects.  

PubMed

The affective priming effect, i.e. shorter response latencies for affectively congruent as compared to affectively incongruent prime-target pairs, is now a well-documented phenomenon. Nevertheless, little is known about the specific processes that underlie the affective priming effect. Several mechanisms have been put forward by different authors, but these theoretical accounts only apply to specific types of tasks (e.g. evaluation lexical decisions) or are rather unparsimonious. Hermans, De Houwer, and Eelen (1996) recently proposed a model of the affective priming effect that is based on the idea of the activation of corresponding or conflicting affective-motivational action tendencies. According to this model, affectively incongruent prime-target pairs should not only lead to relatively longer response latencies on tasks that concern the target word itself (target-specific tasks, e.g. evaluation pronunciation), but also on tasks that are unrelated to the actual identity of the specific target word. This hypothesis was tested in a series of four experiments in which participants had to name the color in which the target word was printed. In spite of procedural variations, results showed that the congruence between the valence of prime and target did not influence the color-naming times. The present results therefore provide no direct support for the affective-motivational account of the affective priming effect. Suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:9677860

Hermans, D; Van den Broeck, A; Eelen, P

1998-01-01

216

241-AZ-101 Waste Tank Color Video Camera System Shop Acceptance Test Report  

SciTech Connect

This report includes shop acceptance test results. The test was performed prior to installation at tank AZ-101. Both the camera system and camera purge system were originally sought and procured as a part of initial waste retrieval project W-151.

WERRY, S.M.

2000-03-23

217

Primary Colors of Pigment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this laboratory activity, students create secondary colors by mixing primary colors. Food coloring, test tubes, and a test tube stand are used. The activity is composed of a student handout with directions and a data sheet. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA Why Files: The Case of the Mysterious Red Light. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

218

ON USING THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAM MORPHOLOGY OF M67 TO TEST SOLAR ABUNDANCES  

SciTech Connect

The open cluster M67 has solar metallicity and an age of about 4 Gyr. The turnoff (TO) mass is close to the minimum mass for which solar metallicity stars develop a convective core during main sequence evolution as a result of the development of hydrogen burning through the CNO cycle. The morphology of the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of M67 around the TO shows a clear hook-like feature, a direct sign that stars close to the TO have convective cores. VandenBerg et al. investigated the possibility of using the morphology of the M67 TO to put constraints on the solar metallicity, particularly CNO elements, for which solar abundances have been revised downward by more than 30% over the last few years. Here, we extend their work, filling the gaps in their analysis. To this aim, we compute isochrones appropriate for M67 using new (low metallicity) and old (high metallicity) solar abundances and study whether the characteristic TO in the CMD of M67 can be reproduced or not. We also study the importance of other constitutive physics on determining the presence of such a hook, particularly element diffusion, overshooting and nuclear reaction rates. We find that using the new solar abundance determinations, with low CNO abundances, makes it more difficult to reproduce the characteristic CMD of M67. This result is in agreement with results by VandenBerg et al. However, changes in the constitutive physics of the models, particularly overshooting, can influence and alter this result to the extent that isochrones constructed with models using low CNO solar abundances can also reproduce the TO morphology in M67. We conclude that only if all factors affecting the TO morphology are completely under control (and this is not the case), M67 could be used to put constraints on solar abundances.

Magic, Z.; Serenelli, A.; Weiss, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Chaboyer, B., E-mail: magic@mpa-garching.mpg.d [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

2010-08-01

219

The Stroop Color-Word Test: Influence of Age, Sex, and Education; and Normative Data for a Large Sample Across the Adult Age Range  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to 1,856 cognitively screened, healthy Dutch-speaking participants aged 24 to 81 years. The effects of age, gender, and education on Stroop test performance were investigated to adequately stratify the normative data. The results showed that especially the speed-dependent Stroop scores (time to complete…

Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

2006-01-01

220

Development of a Computerized In-Basket Exercise for the Classroom: A Sales Management Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article follows the development of a sales management in-basket exercise for use in the classroom. The authors have computerized the exercise and added features to allow for additional and more quantitative input from the students. The exercise has evolved and been tested in numerous classroom situations. The computerized in-basket exercise…

Pearson, Michael M.; Barnes, John W.; Onken, Marina H.

2006-01-01

221

Computerized Assessment System for Academic Satisfaction (ASAS) for First-Year University Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Computerized tests have become one of the most widely used and efficient educational assessment methods. Increasing efforts to generate computerized assessment systems to identify students at risk for drop out have been recently noted. An important variable influencing student retention is academic satisfaction. Accordingly, the…

Medrano, Leonardo Adrian; Liporace, Mercedes Fernandez; Perez, Edgardo

2014-01-01

222

The effect of sport on computerized electrocardiogram measurements in college athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Broad criteria for abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) findings, requiring additional testing, have been recommended for preparticipation exams (PPE) of athletes. As these criteria have not considered the sport in which athletes participate, we examined the effect of sports on the computerized ECG measurements obtained in college athletes.Methods: During the Stanford 2007 PPE, computerized 12-lead ECGs (Schiller AG) were obtained in

Maaike GJ Gademan; Abhimanyu Uberoi; Vy-Van Le; Sandra Mandic; Eddy R van Oort; Jonathan Myers; Victor F Froelicher

2012-01-01

223

Using Response-Time Constraints in Item Selection To Control for Differential Speededness in Computerized Adaptive Testing. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes an item selection algorithm that can be used to neutralize the effect of time limits in computer adaptive testing. The method is based on a statistical model for the response-time distributions of the test takers on the items in the pool that is updated each time a new item has been administered. Predictions from the model are…

van der Linden, Wim J.; Scrams, David J.; Schnipke, Deborah L.

224

Color realism and color science  

E-print Network

The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, ...

Byrne, Alex

225

Colored lattices  

PubMed Central

Combinations of translations and color permutations are derived that leave a periodic array of colored points—a colored lattice—apparently unchanged. It is found that there are three types of colored lattices: (1) those in which all rows and nets have more than one color, (2) those in which there are rows with only one color, and (3) those in which there are both rows and nets with only one color. The color permutation groups of colored lattices are all Abelian. The direct product of three independent cyclic subgroups is required by type 1, but only two are required by type 2; in type 3 the color permutation group consists of the n powers of a cyclic permutation of all n colors present—i.e., the group consists of a single cycle. PMID:16592585

Harker, David

1978-01-01

226

Hands-On Science: Is It an Acid or a Base? These Colorful Tests Tell All!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two hands-on science activities for K-6 students teach them how to determine if something is an acid or a base. The activities require acid/base indicator juice, testing strips, and a base solution. A recipe for making them in the classroom using red cabbage and baking soda is provided. (SM)

VanCleave, Janice

1998-01-01

227

Test-retest reliability of the computerized DSM-IV version of the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and content of the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) for the assessment of DSM-IV\\u000a symptoms, syndromes, and diagnoses is described along with findings from a test-retest reliability study. A sample of 60 community\\u000a respondents were interviewed twice independently by trained interviewers with an average time interval of 38 days between\\u000a investigations. Test-retest reliability was good for almost all

H.-U. Wittchen; G. Lachner; U. Wunderlich; H. Pfister

1998-01-01

228

Total Library Computerization for Windows.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a general review of features of version 2.1 of Total Library Computerization (TLC) for Windows from On Point, Inc. Includes information about pricing, hardware and operating systems, modules/functions available, user interface, security, on-line catalog functions, circulation, cataloging, and documentation and online help. A table…

Combs, Joseph, Jr.

1999-01-01

229

Ionospheric imaging using computerized tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized tomography (CT) techniques can be used to produce a two-dimensional image of the electron density in the ionosphere. The CT problem requires that the measured data be the line integral through the medium of the unknown parameter; transionospheric satellite beacon total electron content data recorded simultaneously at multiple ground stations fulfill this requirement. In this paper the CT problem

Jeffrey R. Austen; Steven J. Franke; C. H. Liu

1988-01-01

230

Computerized Proof Techniques for Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete…

Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

2012-01-01

231

Computerized Multi-Media Instructional Television. COMIT. Proceedings of a Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A joint research project in educational techniques, which was conducted by the University of Waterloo and the IBM Corporation, explored the use of color television with random-access videotape under computer control. At the end of the three-year project, papers were solicited from all COMIT (Computerized Multi-Media Instructional Television)…

Andrews, Gordon C., Ed.; Knapper, Christopher K., Ed.

232

Test of primary channel independence of LCD and wavelength piecewise LCD color model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment with EIZO CG 19, DELL 19, IBM 19 and HP 19 LCD was designed and carried out to test the interaction between RGB channels, and then to test the spectral additive property of LCDs. The results show that the interaction between channels is very weak and spectral additivity is held well. This result indicates that the manufacture technology of LCDs is improved greatly. But the computation results of tristimuli addition are not very accurate. A new calculation method based on spectral additivity, in which gamma is fitted by a cubic polynomial in each piece of wavelength, is proposed and discussed. The proposed method is proved simple and very few samples need to measure while the computation precision is very high.

Liu, Haoxue; Liu, Yu; Huang, Min; Xu, Yangfang; Wu, Bing

2012-01-01

233

Color test for selective detection of secondary amines on resin and in solution.  

PubMed

Resins for solid-phase synthesis give orange to red-brown resin beads selectively when secondary amines are present on the resin when treated with a solution of acetaldehyde and an Fmoc-amino acid in NMP. The method shows good specificity and gives colorless beads when exposed to a variety of other functional groups. Furthermore, the acetaldehyde/Fmoc amino acid method can be used as a selective colorimetric test for secondary amines in solution. PMID:25360626

Boas, Ulrik; Mirsharghi, Sahar

2014-11-21

234

Demographically Corrected Norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version  

PubMed Central

Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised), and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African-Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African-Americans than Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African-Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings. PMID:21547817

Norman, Marc A.; Moore, David J.; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K.

2011-01-01

235

Colorful Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an color-making activity where students use food coloring, eyedroppers, and water to make various colored solutions. Included are the needed materials and procedures. Students are asked to write up the formulas for making their favorite color. (KR)

Williams, Suzanne

1991-01-01

236

Color Mixing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online activity where learners can virtually mix different colors of light or paint (you can switch between them) and see how the colors combine. It demonstrates how millions of colors are created on computer monitors and TVs, and in art and printing. Learners can try to match a given target color ("Mix to Match"), or simply play around with mixtures ("Mix for Fun"). Background information explains how light is additive (more colors tends towards white), whereas paint absorbs color and is subtractive (more colors tends towards black). There's also information about how the human eye works.

Industry, Oregon M.

2002-01-01

237

The Development, Pilot Test, Assessment, and Evaluation of a Computerized Online Internet Community System at Programs for Higher Education, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study to design, develop, pilot test, evaluate, and assess an online Internet community system during the months May-July, 1997 at Nova Southeastern University-Programs for Higher Education (NSU PHE). The system was used as a prototype for developing and studying techniques for building virtual communities. Project research…

Watkins, Diana Sell

238

Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

Meurant, Robert C.

239

CUSUM Statistics for Large Item Banks: Computation of Standard Errors. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a previous study (1998), how to evaluate whether adaptive testing data used for online calibration sufficiently fit the item response model used by C. Glas was studied. Three approaches were suggested, based on a Lagrange multiplier (LM) statistic, a Wald statistic, and a cumulative sum (CUMSUM) statistic respectively. For all these methods,…

Glas, C. A. W.

240

Evaluation of computerized nursing care plan: Instrument development  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasingly popular use of information technology in patient care, the need for reliable instrumentation to evaluate information systems has become critical. This article describes the psychometric testing of a scale developed to evaluate a computerized nursing care plan (CNCP) system. A review of the literature generated a 44-item questionnaire, which was then administered to a convenience sample of

Ting-Ting Lee

2004-01-01

241

Research Paper: Communication Outcomes of Critical Imaging Results in a Computerized Notification System  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveCommunication of abnormal test results in the outpatient setting is prone to error. Using information technology can improve communication and improve patient safety. We standardized processes and procedures in a computerized test result notification system and examined their effectiveness to reduce errors in communication of abnormal imaging results.DesignWe prospectively analyzed outcomes of computerized notification of abnormal test results (alerts) that

Hardeep Singh; Harvinder S. Arora; Meena S. Vij; Raghuram Rao; Myrna M. Khan; Laura A. Petersen

2007-01-01

242

Clinical applications of computerized thermography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computerized or digital, thermography is a rapidly growing diagnostic imaging modality. It has superseded contact thermography and analog imaging thermography which do not allow effective quantization. Medical applications of digital thermography can be classified in two groups: static and dynamic imaging. They can also be classified into macro thermography (resolution greater than 1 mm) and micro thermography (resolution less than 100 microns). Both modalities allow a thermal resolution of 0.1 C. The diagnostic power of images produced by any of these modalities can be augmented by the use of digital image enhancement and image recognition procedures. Computerized thermography has been applied in neurology, cardiovascular and plastic surgery, rehabilitation and sports medicine, psychiatry, dermatology and ophthalmology. Examples of these applications are shown and their scope and limitations are discussed.

Anbar, Michael

1988-01-01

243

Measuring Global Physical Health in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Illustration of a Multidimensional Bi-factor Model and Computerized Adaptive Testing  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to apply a bi-factor model for the determination of test dimensionality and a multidimensional CAT using computer simulations of real data for the assessment of a new global physical health measure for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Parent respondents of 306 children with cerebral palsy were recruited from four pediatric rehabilitation hospitals and outpatient clinics. We compared confirmatory factor analysis results across four models: (1) one-factor unidimensional; (2) two-factor multidimensional (MIRT); (3) bi-factor MIRT with fixed slopes; and (4) bi-factor MIRT with varied slopes. We tested whether the general and content (fatigue and pain) person score estimates could discriminate across severity and types of CP, and whether score estimates from a simulated CAT were similar to estimates based on the total item bank, and whether they correlated as expected with external measures. Results Confirmatory factor analysis suggested separate pain and fatigue sub-factors; all 37 items were retained in the analyses. From the bi-factor MIRT model with fixed slopes, the full item bank scores discriminated across levels of severity and types of CP, and compared favorably to external instruments. CAT scores based on 10- and 15-item versions accurately captured the global physical health scores. Conclusions The bi-factor MIRT CAT application, especially the 10- and 15-item version, yielded accurate global physical health scores that discriminated across known severity groups and types of CP, and correlated as expected with concurrent measures. The CATs have potential for collecting complex data on the physical health of children with CP in an efficient manner. PMID:19221892

Haley, Stephen M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Dumas, Helene M.; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Montpetit, Kathleen; Bilodeau, Nathalie; Gorton, George E.; Watson, Kyle; Tucker, Carole A

2009-01-01

244

CAT (Computerized Axial Tomography) scans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page about CAT (computerized axial tomography) scans gives a brief overview of this imaging technique. CAT (or CT) scanning captures a lot of 2-dimensional X-rays that a computer then joins together to generate 3-dimensional images of internal structures. As part of a set of materials about brain scanning technologies, this page mentions what researchers can learn about the brain from CAT scans. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Productions, David G.; York, Thirteen/wnet N.

2001-01-01

245

A multifactorial test of the effects of carotenoid access, food intake and parasite load on the production of ornamental feathers and bill coloration in American goldfinches.  

PubMed

It has been well established that carotenoid and melanin pigmentation are often condition-dependent traits in vertebrates. Expression of carotenoid coloration in birds has been shown to reflect pigment intake, food access and parasite load; however, the relative importance of and the potential interactions among these factors have not been previously considered. Moreover, carotenoid and melanin pigmentation have been proposed to signal fundamentally different aspects of individual condition but few data exist to test this idea. We simultaneously manipulated three environmental conditions under which American goldfinches (Cardeulis tristis) grew colorful feathers and developed carotenoid pigmentation of their bills. Male goldfinches were held with either high or low carotenoid supplementation, pulsed or continuous antimicrobial drug treatment, or restricted or unlimited access to food. Carotenoid supplementation had an overriding effect on yellow feather coloration. Males given more lutein and zeaxanthin grew yellow feathers with hue shifted toward orange and with higher yellow chroma than males supplemented with fewer carotenoids. Parasites and food access did not significantly affect yellow feather coloration, and there were only minor interaction effects for the three treatments. By contrast, bill coloration was significantly affected by all three treatments. Carotenoid supplementation had a significant effect on yellow chroma of bills, drug treatment and food access both had a significant effect on bill hue, and food access had a significant effect on the yellow brightness of bills. Neither the size nor blackness of the black caps of male goldfinches was affected by any treatment. These results indicate that pigment intake, food access and parasite load can have complex and variable effects on color displays, and that feather and bill coloration signal different aspects of male condition. PMID:19329755

Hill, Geoffrey E; Hood, Wendy R; Huggins, Kristal

2009-04-01

246

Assessment of performance validity in the Stroop Color and Word Test in mild traumatic brain injury patients: a criterion-groups validation design.  

PubMed

The current study assessed performance validity on the Stroop Color and Word Test (Stroop) in mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) using criterion-groups validation. The sample consisted of 77 patients with a reported history of mild TBI. Data from 42 moderate-severe TBI and 75 non-head-injured patients with other clinical diagnoses were also examined. TBI patients were categorized on the basis of Slick, Sherman, and Iverson (1999) criteria for malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND). Classification accuracy is reported for three indicators (Word, Color, and Color-Word residual raw scores) from the Stroop across a range of injury severities. With false-positive rates set at approximately 5%, sensitivity was as high as 29%. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23253228

Guise, Brian J; Thompson, Matthew D; Greve, Kevin W; Bianchini, Kevin J; West, Laura

2014-03-01

247

Color realism and color science.  

PubMed

The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in the mind." The article has two other purposes: First, to introduce an interdisciplinary audience to some distinctively philosophical tools that are useful in tackling the problem of color realism and, second, to clarify the various positions and central arguments in the debate. The first part explains the problem of color realism and makes some useful distinctions. These distinctions are then used to expose various confusions that often prevent people from seeing that the issues are genuine and difficult, and that the problem of color realism ought to be of interest to anyone working in the field of color science. The second part explains the various leading answers to the problem of color realism, and (briefly) argues that all views other than our own have serious difficulties or are unmotivated. The third part explains and motivates our own view, that colors are types of reflectances and defends it against objections made in the recent literature that are often taken as fatal. PMID:14598439

Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

2003-02-01

248

The Stroop Color-Word TestInfluence of Age, Sex, and Education; and Normative Data for a Large Sample Across the Adult Age Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to 1,856 cognitively screened, healthy Dutchspeaking participants aged 24 to 81 years. The effects of age, gender, and education on Stroop test performance were investigated to adequately stratify the normative data. The results showed that especially the speed-dependent Stroop scores (time to complete a subtest), rather than the accuracy measures (the errors made per

Wim Van der Elst; Martin P. J. Van Boxtel; Gerard J. P. Van Breukelen; Jelle Jolles

2006-01-01

249

Color notations  

E-print Network

This study presents research regarding the language of colors and of computers. The focus was color: translated through personal imagery, transferred and changed through media, and programmed through the computer. The ...

Gardner, Nancy

1981-01-01

250

Bubble Colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Exploratorium site provides an explanation of how soap films produce color bands. Wave interference is used to explain the colors observed without mathematics. Photos illustrate the phenomenon and drawings help make the explanation clear.

2008-06-19

251

Seeing Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

Texley, Juliana

2005-01-01

252

Brief Report: Cognitive Flexibility and Focused Attention in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism as Measured on the Computerized Version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present study was to assess mental flexibility and set maintenance of a group of individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) (N = 13; mean age 16,4), as compared with a matched group of typically developing children and adolescents (N = 13; mean age 15,6) on the computerized version of the Wisconsin Card…

Kaland, Nils; Smith, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

2008-01-01

253

Color Quiz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Please take this Quiz. It is not that hard. Remember If you understand color, you will be able to use color in your artwork more effectively. For your Quiz please answer the 18 questions below. Here are some sites you have already seen that will help you answer the questions. Color Theory Color Vocabulary Wikipedia color theory You may write your answers down on a piece of paper or you can type the answers up. Make sure name, period, and date are on assignment ...

Freeman, Ms.

2006-02-14

254

Color Quiz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Please take this Quiz. It is not that hard. Remember If you understand color, you will be able to use color in your artwork more effectively. For your Quiz please answer the 18 questions below. Here are some sites you have already seen that will help you answer the questions. Color Theory Color Vocabulary Wikipedia color theory You may write your answers down on a piece of paper or you can type the answers up. Make sure name, period, and date are on assignment ...

Jolene

2008-09-29

255

Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (4)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report is af ollow-up to SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8, SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7866 78660J-1-8 and SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 8292 829206-1-8. Colors are used to communicate information in various situations, not just for design and apparel. However, visual information given only by color may be perceived differently by individuals with different color vision types. Human color vision is non-uniform and the variation in most cases is genetically linked to L-cones and M-cones. Therefore, color appearance is not the same for all color vision types. Color Universal Design is an easy-to-understand system that was created to convey color-coded information accurately to most people, taking color vision types into consideration. In the present research, we studied trichromat (C-type), prolan (P-type), and deutan (D-type) forms of color vision. We here report the result of two experiments. The first was the validation of the confusion colors using the color chart on CIELAB uniform color space. We made an experimental color chart (total of color cells is 622, the color difference between color cells is 2.5) for fhis experiment, and subjects have P-type or D-type color vision. From the data we were able to determine "the limits with high probability of confusion" and "the limits with possible confusion" around various basing points. The direction of the former matched with the theoretical confusion locus, but the range did not extend across the entire a* range. The latter formed a belt-like zone above and below the theoretical confusion locus. This way we re-analyzed a part of the theoretical confusion locus suggested by Pitt-Judd. The second was an experiment in color classification of the subjects with C-type, P-type, or D-type color vision. The color caps of fhe 100 Hue Test were classified into seven categories for each color vision type. The common and different points of color sensation were compared for each color vision type, and we were able to find a group of color caps fhat people with C-, P-, and D-types could all recognize as distinguishable color categories. The result could be used as the basis of a color scheme for future Color Universal Design.

Ikeda, Tomohiro; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Kojima, Natsuki; Tanaka, Hisaya; Ito, Kei

2013-02-01

256

Color Terms and Color Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

Davidoff, Jules

2006-01-01

257

Color quality scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The color rendering index (CRI) has been shown to have deficiencies when applied to white light-emitting-diode-based sources. Furthermore, evidence suggests that the restricted scope of the CRI unnecessarily penalizes some light sources with desirable color qualities. To solve the problems of the CRI and include other dimensions of color quality, the color quality scale (CQS) has been developed. Although the CQS uses many of elements of the CRI, there are a number of fundamental differences. Like the CRI, the CQS is a test-samples method that compares the appearance of a set of reflective samples when illuminated by the test lamp to their appearance under a reference illuminant. The CQS uses a larger set of reflective samples, all of high chroma, and combines the color differences of the samples with a root mean square. Additionally, the CQS does not penalize light sources for causing increases in the chroma of object colors but does penalize sources with smaller rendered color gamut areas. The scale of the CQS is converted to span 0-100, and the uniform object color space and chromatic adaptation transform used in the calculations are updated. Supplementary scales have also been developed for expert users.

Davis, Wendy; Ohno, Yoshi

2010-03-01

258

Computerized building energy simulation handbook  

SciTech Connect

This book provides practical, down-to-earth coverage of the non-software aspects of using computerized building energy simulation. While software is the principal tool in the process, the focus of this presentation is on the data needed to build a model, how to build a model, examining the results, diagnosing problems with a model, and calibrating them to reality. For those who have been frustrated trying to build faithful models of existing buildings, or have become skeptical of the efficacy of building simulation -- or are just trying to do a better job simulating buildings -- this book will offer welcome assistance.

Waltz, J.P.

1999-09-01

259

Ionospheric imaging using computerized tomography  

SciTech Connect

Computerized tomography (CT) techniques can be used to produce a two-dimensional image of the electron density in the ionosphere. The CT problem requires that the measured data be the line integral through the medium of the unknown parameter; transionospheric satellite beacon total electron content data recorded simultaneously at multiple ground stations fulfill this requirement. In this paper the CT problem is formulated as it applies to ionospheric imaging and limitations of the technique are investigated. Simulations are performed assuming a 1000-km-altitude polar-orbiting satellite and both five and three ground stations; the results demonstrate the feasibility of this technique. 14 references.

Austen, J.R.; Franke, S.J.; Liu, C.H.

1988-06-01

260

Reduced Stroop Interference for Opponent Colors May Be Due to Input Factors: Evidence from Individual Differences and a Neural Network Simulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sensory or input factors can influence the strength of interference in the classic Stroop color-word task. Specifically, in a single-trial computerized version of the Stroop task, when color-word pairs were incongruent, opponent color pairs (e.g., the word BLUE in yellow) showed reduced Stroop interference compared with nonopponent color pairs…

Laeng, Bruno; Torstein, Lag; Brennen, Tim

2005-01-01

261

Mixed results in the safety performance of computerized physician order entry.  

PubMed

Computerized physician order entry is a required feature for hospitals seeking to demonstrate meaningful use of electronic medical record systems and qualify for federal financial incentives. A national sample of sixty-two hospitals voluntarily used a simulation tool designed to assess how well safety decision support worked when applied to medication orders in computerized order entry. The simulation detected only 53 percent of the medication orders that would have resulted in fatalities and 10-82 percent of the test orders that would have caused serious adverse drug events. It is important to ascertain whether actual implementations of computerized physician order entry are achieving goals such as improved patient safety. PMID:20368595

Metzger, Jane; Welebob, Emily; Bates, David W; Lipsitz, Stuart; Classen, David C

2010-04-01

262

Color Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

263

45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems. 307.5 Section 307.5 Public...SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems. (a) Basic requirement....

2013-10-01

264

Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

2009-01-01

265

Color axis evaluation of the Farnsworth Munsell 100-hue test in primary open-angle glaucoma and normal-pressure glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

• Background: It was the aim of the present study to analyze a separate color-axis evaluation of the Farnsworth Munsell 100-hue\\u000a test (FM100) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and normal pressure glaucoma (NPG). • Patients and methods: One eye of\\u000a each of 112 individuals (age 35–65 years, visual acuity >20\\/28, myopia

Wido M. Budde; Anselm Jiinemann; Matthias Korth

1996-01-01

266

A First Life with Computerized Business Simulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses the theoretical lens, origins, and environment of his work on computerized business simulations. Key ideas that inform his work include the two dimensions (control and interaction) of computerized simulation, the two ways of representing a natural process (phenotypical and genotypical) in a simulation, which he defines as a…

Thavikulwat, Precha

2011-01-01

267

The Evaluation of SISMAKOM (Computerized SDI Project).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 88 users of SISMAKOM, a computerized selective dissemination of information (SDI) and document delivery service provided by the Universiti Sains Malaysia and four other Malaysian universities, was conducted in August 1982 in order to collect data about SISMAKOM and to assess the value of a computerized SDI service in a developing…

University of Science, Penang (Malaysia).

268

Year 2000 Computerized Farm Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ongoing project was funded to develop and demonstrate a computerized approach to operation and management of a commercial-sized farm. Other project objectives were to facilitate the demonstration of the computerized farm to the public and to develop individual software packages and make them available to the public. Project accomplishments…

McGrann, James M.; Lippke, Lawrence A.

269

How to Compare Apples and Oranges: Infants' Object Identification Tested with Equally Salient Shape, Luminance, and Color Changes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What kind of featural information do infants rely on when they are trying to recognize a previously seen object? The question of whether infants use certain features (e.g., shape or color) more than others (e.g., luminance) can only be studied legitimately if visual salience is controlled, as the magnitude of feature values--how noticeable and…

Kaldy, Zsuzsa; Blaser, Erik

2009-01-01

270

How to Compare Apples and Oranges: Infants' Object Identification Tested With Equally Salient Shape, Luminance and Color Changes  

PubMed Central

What kind of featural information do infants rely on when they are trying to recognize a previously seen object? The question of whether infants use certain features (e.g. shape or color) more than others (e. g. luminance), can only be studied legitimately if visual salience is controlled, since the magnitude of feature values – how noticeable and interesting they are – will affect results. We employed a novel methodology, ‘Interdimensional Salience Mapping’, that allowed us to quantify and calibrate salience changes along shape, luminance and color feature dimensions. We then compared 9-month-old infants' identification of objects, employing feature changes that were equally salient. These results show that infants more readily identify objects on the basis of color and shape than luminance. Additionally, we show that relative salience changes rapidly in infancy – in particular, we found significantly higher salience thresholds for color in younger (6.5-month-old) infants – but that individual differences within an age group are remarkably modest. PMID:20161281

Kaldy, Zsuzsa; Blaser, Erik

2009-01-01

271

Testing the reliability of skin color as an indicator of quality for early season ‘Brooks’ ( Prunus avium L.) cherry  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1997–1999 seasons, we investigated the relationship between ‘Brooks’ cherry skin color at harvest (full light red, 50% bright red, full bright red and full dark red) and consumer acceptance using fruit grown in different geographic locations in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Soluble solids concentration (SSC) increased, but titratable acidity (TA) levels did not decrease as cherries matured

Carlos H. Crisosto; Gayle M. Crisosto; Mark A. Ritenour

2002-01-01

272

An automated Computerized Severity Index.  

PubMed Central

The Computerized Severity Index (CSI) is a commercially available scoring system for hospital inpatients. Trained abstractors review the patient's paper medical record and enter the diagnoses and relevant physiological attributes. The HELP (Health Evaluation through Logical Processing) System at LDS Hospital stores patient data in discrete codes. This paper describes the development of an automatic interface between the standalone, personal-computer-based severity system and the mainframe-based hospital information system. The interface scores patient severity without the need for manual chart review. Severity scores from the automated and manual methods were identical for 70% of 222 general medical patients scored retrospectively. An evaluation of the causes for differing scores between the two methods is presented. PMID:7949945

Gibson, R. F.; Haug, P. J.

1994-01-01

273

Maternal Experiences with Everyday Discrimination and Infant Birth Weight: A Test of Mediators and Moderators among Young, Urban Women of Color  

PubMed Central

Background Racial/ethnic disparities in birth weight persist within the United States. Purpose Examine the association between maternal everyday discrimination and infant birth weight among young, urban women of color; as well as mediators (depressive symptoms, pregnancy distress, pregnancy symptoms) and moderators (age, race/ethnicity, attributions of discrimination) of this association. Methods 420 women participated (14–21 years old; 62% Latina, 38% Black), completing measures of everyday discrimination and moderators during their second trimester of pregnancy and mediators during their third trimester. Birth weight was primarily recorded from medical record review. Results Path analysis demonstrated that everyday discrimination was associated with lower birth weight. Depressive symptoms mediated this relationship, and no tested factors moderated this relationship. Conclusions Given the association between birth weight and health across the lifespan, it is critical to reduce discrimination directed at young, urban women of color so that all children can begin life with greater promise for health. PMID:22927016

Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Rosenthal, Lisa; Lewis, Jessica B.; Stasko, Emily C.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Lewis, Tene T.; Reid, Allecia E.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

2012-01-01

274

Testing Galaxy Formation Models with the GHOSTS Survey: The Color Profile of M81's Stellar Halo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the properties of the stellar populations in M81's outermost part, which hereafter we will call the stellar halo, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys observations of 19 fields from the GHOSTS survey. The observed fields probe the stellar halo out to a projected distance of ~50 kpc from the galactic center. Each field was observed in both F606W and F814W filters. The 50% completeness levels of the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) are typically at 2 mag below the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). Fields at distances closer than 15 kpc show evidence of disk-dominated populations whereas fields at larger distances are mostly populated by halo stars. The red giant branch (RGB) of the M81's halo CMDs is well matched with isochrones of ~10 Gyr and metallicities [Fe/H] ~ - 1.2 dex, suggesting that the dominant stellar population of M81's halo has a similar age and metallicity. The halo of M81 is characterized by a color distribution of width ~0.4 mag and an approximately constant median value of (F606W - F814W) ~1 mag measured using stars within the magnitude range 23.7 <~ F814W <~ 25.5. When considering only fields located at galactocentric radius R > 15 kpc, we detect no color gradient in the stellar halo of M81. We place a limit of 0.03 ± 0.11 mag difference between the median color of RGB M81 halo stars at ~15 and at 50 kpc, corresponding to a metallicity difference of 0.08 ± 0.35 dex over that radial range for an assumed constant age of 10 Gyr. We compare these results with model predictions for the colors of stellar halos formed purely via accretion of satellite galaxies. When we analyze the cosmologically motivated models in the same way as the HST data, we find that they predict no color gradient for the stellar halos, in good agreement with the observations. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; Radburn-Smith, David J.; Vlaji?, Marija; de Jong, Roelof S.; Bailin, Jeremy; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Streich, David

2013-04-01

275

TESTING GALAXY FORMATION MODELS WITH THE GHOSTS SURVEY: THE COLOR PROFILE OF M81's STELLAR HALO  

SciTech Connect

We study the properties of the stellar populations in M81's outermost part, which hereafter we will call the stellar halo, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys observations of 19 fields from the GHOSTS survey. The observed fields probe the stellar halo out to a projected distance of {approx}50 kpc from the galactic center. Each field was observed in both F606W and F814W filters. The 50% completeness levels of the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) are typically at 2 mag below the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). Fields at distances closer than 15 kpc show evidence of disk-dominated populations whereas fields at larger distances are mostly populated by halo stars. The red giant branch (RGB) of the M81's halo CMDs is well matched with isochrones of {approx}10 Gyr and metallicities [Fe/H] {approx} - 1.2 dex, suggesting that the dominant stellar population of M81's halo has a similar age and metallicity. The halo of M81 is characterized by a color distribution of width {approx}0.4 mag and an approximately constant median value of (F606W - F814W) {approx}1 mag measured using stars within the magnitude range 23.7 {approx}< F814W {approx}< 25.5. When considering only fields located at galactocentric radius R > 15 kpc, we detect no color gradient in the stellar halo of M81. We place a limit of 0.03 {+-} 0.11 mag difference between the median color of RGB M81 halo stars at {approx}15 and at 50 kpc, corresponding to a metallicity difference of 0.08 {+-} 0.35 dex over that radial range for an assumed constant age of 10 Gyr. We compare these results with model predictions for the colors of stellar halos formed purely via accretion of satellite galaxies. When we analyze the cosmologically motivated models in the same way as the HST data, we find that they predict no color gradient for the stellar halos, in good agreement with the observations.

Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; Bailin, Jeremy [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Radburn-Smith, David J.; Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Vlajic, Marija; De Jong, Roelof S.; Streich, David [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)] [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Holwerda, Benne W., E-mail: antonela@umich.edu [European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands)

2013-04-01

276

Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

2010-01-01

277

Computerized maintenance boosts reliability, trims costs  

SciTech Connect

A natural gas-fired combined-cycle power plant has operated successfully for the past three years at the 3800-acre Pitchess Honor Rancho jail complex in Saugus, Calif. One of the reasons for the plant's success has been its computerized maintenance system. This paper reports that utilization of the computerized plant maintenance system program, in conjunction with several data base programs, has increased the plant's reliability and trimmed costs. As we learned at Pitchess, a computerized maintenance program provides two key advantages over the traditional breakdown maintenance approach: minimal equipment breakdown, and a reduction in operations and maintenance man-hours.

Hammer, K. (County of Los Angeles, CA (US)); Egleston, P.C.; Steinert, M.P.; Goldstein, M. (Charles T. Main Inc. (US))

1992-01-01

278

Color Blind or Color Conscious?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A color-blind approach often signifies that an educator has not considered what racial/ethnic identity means to youngsters. Students want to find themselves reflected in the faces of teachers and other students. Color-conscious teachers seek out materials that positively reflect students' identities and initiate discussions about race and racism.…

Tatum, Beverly Daniel

1999-01-01

279

Evaluating the use of computerized stimulus preference assessments in foster care.  

PubMed

The purpose of these studies was to extend the use of stimulus preference assessments to children in foster care. In Study 1, subjects completed a computerized 4-point Likert-type questionnaire designed to assess preference for a wide range of stimuli and activities. Next, items identified as highly preferred (HP) and less preferred (LP) on the questionnaire were tested using a computerized paired-stimulus preference assessment. Results showed complete correspondence between the results of the computerized preference assessments for 11 of 17 subjects. Studies 2 and 3 evaluated whether the stimuli identified as HP in Study 1 would function as reinforcers. Overall, subjects allocated their engagement to HP items, and those HP items could be used as reinforcers for math problem completion. Collectively, these studies demonstrated that computerized preference assessments may be a feasible method of identifying preferences in the foster care system. Implications for their use in foster care are discussed. PMID:24966135

Whitehouse, Cristina M; Vollmer, Timothy R; Colbert, Bennie

2014-01-01

280

A subjective evaluation of high-chroma color with wide color-gamut display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Displays tends to expand its color gamut, such as multi-primary color display, Adobe RGB and so on. Therefore displays got possible to display high chroma colors. However sometimes, we feel unnatural some for the image which only expanded chroma. Appropriate gamut mapping method to expand color gamut is not proposed very much. We are attempting preferred expanded color reproduction on wide color gamut display utilizing high chroma colors effectively. As a first step, we have conducted an experiment to investigate the psychological effect of color schemes including highly saturated colors. We used the six-primary-color projector that we have developed for the presentation of test colors. The six-primary-color projector's gamut volume in CIELAB space is about 1.8 times larger than the normal RGB projector. We conducted a subjective evaluation experiment using the SD (Semantic Differential) technique to find the quantitative psychological effect of high chroma colors.

Kishimoto, Junko; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

2009-01-01

281

Color Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, developed by the Exploratories Project at Brown University, provides a series of applets to help users understand the various concepts in Color Theory. In the combined Color Mixing applet, undergraduate and high school students can discover how lights, paints, and filters interact. Users can learn about the properties of incoming light, frequency, and reflectance. The site also provides activities for metamers, Triple Cell Response, and much more. Anyone seeking help with color concepts will benefit from this educational, interactive Web site.

282

Comparison of the Richmond HRR 4th edition and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test for quantitative assessment of tritan color deficiencies.  

PubMed

Drugs and environmental factors can induce tritan deficiencies. The Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) 100 Hue Test has become the gold standard in measuring these acquired defects. However, the test is time consuming, and color discrimination is confounded by concentration and patience. Here, we describe a test that compares six tritan plates from the HRR Pseudoisochromatic Plates 4th edition to 16 FM 100 Hue tritan caps. CIE Standard Illuminant C was reduced over five light intensities to simulate the effects of acquired losses in the S-cone pathway. Both tests showed quantitative differences in error rates with all light levels; thus they could serve equally well for assessing acquired deficiencies. However, compared to the FM 100, the HRR took subjects about 20-40 s per trial, making it more practical. PMID:24695168

Foote, Katharina G; Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

2014-04-01

283

Colorful Electrophoresis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners follow step-by-step instructions to build a gel electrophoresis chamber using inexpensive materials from local hardware and electronic stores. Then, learners follow instructions to simulate DNA electrophoresis using food colors from the kitchen pantry.

Utah, University O.

2012-01-01

284

Computerized Bus Routing in San Francisco.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computerized routing and scheduling system for the San Francisco Public Schools includes the batch processing of bus route assignments and schedules for all schools and the online terminal processing of daily changes. (Author/MLF)

Caswell, Peter J.; Jungherr, J. Anton

1979-01-01

285

Local Computerized Safeguards System for THTR-300.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes a possible way of realizing the safeguards approach for the THTR-300 pebble bed reactor by means of a computerized monitoring system. The system structure is presented and also the appropriate safeguards instrumentation. The concept of...

F. Arning, H. Reuters, H. Bueker, S. Nicolai

1982-01-01

286

HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures in nuclear power plant control rooms. It is beyond the scope of this paper to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper provides a review of HRA as applied to traditional paper-based procedures, followed by a discussion of what specific factors should additionally be considered in HRAs for computerized procedures. Performance shaping factors and failure modes unique to computerized procedures are highlighted. Since there is no definitive guide to HRA for paper-based procedures, this paper also serves to clarify the existing guidance on paper-based procedures before delving into the unique aspects of computerized procedures.

Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Katya Le Blanc

2011-09-01

287

The Computerized Reference Department: Buying the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basis for systematic computerization of academic research library's reference, collection development, and collection management functions emphasizes productivity enhancement for librarians and support staff. Use of microcomputer and university's mainframe computer to develop applications of database management systems, electronic spreadsheets,…

Kriz, Harry M.; Kok, Victoria T.

1985-01-01

288

Training synesthetic letter-color associations by reading in color.  

PubMed

Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing, hearing and thinking about letters, words and numbers. We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. In this protocol, participants are given specially prepared books to read in which four high-frequency letters are paired with four high-frequency colors. Participants receive unique sets of letter-color pairs based on their pre-existing preferences for colored letters. A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. In addition to objective testing, a reading experience questionnaire is administered that is designed to probe for differences in subjective experience. A subset of questions may predict how well an individual learned the associations from reading in color. Importantly, we are not claiming that this method will cause each individual to develop grapheme-color synesthesia, only that it is possible for certain individuals to form letter-color associations by reading in color and these associations are similar in some aspects to those seen in developmental grapheme-color synesthetes. The method is quite flexible and can be used to investigate different aspects and outcomes of training synesthetic associations, including learning-induced changes in brain function and structure. PMID:24638033

Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Rouw, Romke

2014-01-01

289

Functional computational model for optimal color coding  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a computational model for color coding that provides a functional explanation of how humans perceive colors in a homogeneous color space. Beginning with known properties of human cone photoreceptors, the model estimates the locations of the reflectance spectra of Munsell color chips in perceptual color space as represented in the CIE L*a*b* color system. The fit between the two structures is within the limits of expected measurement error. Estimates of the structure of perceptual color space for color anomalous dichromats missing one of the normal cone photoreceptors correspond closely to results from the Farnsworth–Munsell color test. An unanticipated outcome of the model provides a functional explanation of why additive lights are always red, green, and blue and provide maximum gamut for color monitors and color television even though they do not correspond to human cone absorption spectra. PMID:19497870

Romney, A. Kimball; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

2009-01-01

290

Computerized Dental Injection Fear Treatment  

PubMed Central

One in four adults reports a clinically significant fear of dental injections, leading many to avoid dental care. While systematic desensitization is the most common therapeutic method for treating specific phobias such as fear of dental injections, lack of access to trained therapists, as well as dentists’ lack of training and time in providing such a therapy, means that most fearful individuals are not able to receive the therapy needed to be able to receive necessary dental treatment. Computer Assisted Relaxation Learning (CARL) is a self-paced computerized treatment based on systematic desensitization for dental injection fear. This multicenter, block-randomized, dentist-blind, parallel-group study conducted in 8 sites in the United States compared CARL with an informational pamphlet in reducing fear of dental injections. Participants completing CARL reported significantly greater reduction in self-reported general and injection-specific dental anxiety measures compared with control individuals (p < .001). Twice as many CARL participants (35.3%) as controls (17.6%) opted to receive a dental injection after the intervention, although this was not statistically significant. CARL, therefore, led to significant changes in self-reported fear in study participants, but no significant differences in the proportion of participants having a dental injection (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00609648). PMID:23690352

Heaton, L.J.; Leroux, B.G.; Ruff, P.A.; Coldwell, S.E.

2013-01-01

291

Computerized grading of anatomy laboratory practical examinations.  

PubMed

At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the items were anatomical structures that could be tagged on a given lab practical examination. Each lab exam featured an anatomy laboratory component and a computer laboratory component. For the anatomy lab component, students moved from one question station to another at timed intervals and identified tagged anatomical structures. As students identified a tagged structure, they referred to a copy of the list (provided with their answer sheet) and wrote the number corresponding to the structure on their answer sheet. Immediately after the anatomy lab component, students were escorted to a computer instruction laboratory where they typed their answer numbers into a secured testing component of a learning management system that recorded their answers for automatic grading. After a brief review of examination scores and item analysis by faculty, exam scores were reported to students electronically. Adding this brief computer component to each lab exam greatly reduced faculty grading time, reduced grading errors and provided faster performance feedback for students without changing overall student performance. PMID:19177415

Krippendorf, Beth B; Bolender, David L; Kolesari, Gary L

2008-01-01

292

High-School Chemistry Students' Performance and Gender Differences in a Computerized Molecular Modeling Learning Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computerized molecular modeling (CMM) contributes to the development of visualization skills via vivid animation of three dimensional representations. Its power to illustrate and explore phenomena in chemistry teaching stems from the convenience and simplicity of building molecules of any size and color in a number of presentation styles. A new CMM-based learning environment for teaching and learning chemistry in Israeli high schools has been designed and implemented. Three tenth grade experimental classes used this discovery CMM approach, while two other classes, who studied the same topic in the customary approach, served as a control group. We investigated the effects of using molecular modeling on students' spatial ability, understanding of new concepts related to geometric and symbolic representations and students' perception of the model concept. Each variable was examined for gender differences. Students of the experimental group performed better than control group students in all three performance aspects. Experimental group students scored higher than the control group students in the achievement test on structure and bonding. Students' spatial ability improved in both groups, but students from the experimental group scored higher. For the average students in the two groups the improvement in all three spatial ability sub-tests —paper folding, card rotation, and cube comparison—was significantly higher for the experimental group. Experimental group students gained better insight into the model concept than the control group and could explain more phenomena with the aid of a variety of models. Hence, CMM helps in particular to improve the examined cognitive aspects of the average student population. In most of the achievement and spatial ability tests no significant differences between the genders were found, but in some aspects of model perception and verbal argumentation differences still exist. Experimental group females improved their model perception more than the control group females in understanding ways to create models and in the role of models as mental structures and prediction tools. Teachers' and students' feedback on the CMM learning environment was found to be positive, as it helped them understand concepts in molecular geometry and bonding. The results of this study suggest that teaching/learning of topics in chemistry that are related to three dimensional structures can be improved by using a discovery approach in a computerized learning environment.

Barnea, Nitza; Dori, Yehudit J.

1999-12-01

293

Computerized feature systems for identifying suspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In suspect identification, witnesses examine photos of known offenders in mugshot albums. The probability of correct identification deteriorates rapidly, however, as the number of mugshots examined increases. Feature approaches, where mugshots are displayed in order of similarity to witness descriptions of suspects, increase identification success by reducing this number. In our computerized feature system, both police raters and witnesses describe facial features of suspects on rating scales such as nose size: small 1 2 3 4 5 large. Feature users consistently identify more target suspects correctly than do album users. Previous experimental tests have failed, however, to examine the effects of feature system performance of the use of live targets as suspects rather than photos, the use of realistic crime scenarios, the number of police raters/mugshot, and differences among raters in their effect on system perfomance. In three experiments, we investigated those four issues. The first experiment used photos as target suspects but with multiple distractors, the second tested live suspects, while the third tested live suspects in a realistic crime scenario. The database contained the official mugshots of 1,000 offenders. Across the three experiments, a second and sometimes a third rater/mugshot significantly reduced the number of photos examined. More raters/mugshot did not affect performance further. Raters differed significantly in their effect on system perfomance. Significantly, our feature system performed well both with target suspects seen live and with live suspects in realistic crime scenarios (performance was comparable to that in previous experiments for photos of target suspects). These results strongly support our contention that feature systems are superior to album systems.

Lee, Eric; Whalen, Thom; McCarthy, Andrew; Sakalauskas, John; Wotton, Cynthia

1995-09-01

294

An experimental test of the contributions and condition dependence of microstructure and carotenoids in yellow plumage coloration  

PubMed Central

A combination of structural and pigmentary components is responsible for many of the colour displays of animals. Despite the ubiquity of this type of coloration, neither the relative contribution of structures and pigments to variation in such colour displays nor the relative effects of extrinsic factors on the structural and pigment-based components of such colour has been determined. Understanding the sources of colour variation is important because structures and pigments may convey different information to conspecifics. In an experiment on captive American goldfinches Carduelis tristis, we manipulated two parameters, carotenoid availability and food availability, known to affect the expression of carotenoid pigments in a full-factorial design. Yellow feathers from these birds were then analysed in two ways. First, we used full-spectrum spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography to examine the extent to which variation in white structural colour and total carotenoid content was associated with variation in colour properties of feathers. The carotenoid content of yellow feathers predicted two colour parameters (principal component 1—representing high values of ultraviolet and yellow chroma and low values of violet–blue chroma—and hue). Two different colour parameters (violet–blue and yellow chroma) from white de-pigmented feathers, as well as carotenoid content, predicted reflectance measurements from yellow feathers. Second, we determined the relative effects of our experimental manipulations on white structural colour and yellow colour. Carotenoid availability directly affected yellow colour, while food availability affected it only in combination with carotenoid availability. None of our manipulations had significant effects on the expression of white structural colour. Our results suggest that the contribution of microstructures to variation in the expression of yellow coloration is less than the contribution of carotenoid content, and that carotenoid deposition is more dependent on extrinsic variability than is the production of white structural colour. PMID:17015356

Shawkey, Matthew D; Hill, Geoffrey E; McGraw, Kevin J; Hood, Wendy R; Huggins, Kristal

2006-01-01

295

An experimental test of the contributions and condition dependence of microstructure and carotenoids in yellow plumage coloration.  

PubMed

A combination of structural and pigmentary components is responsible for many of the colour displays of animals. Despite the ubiquity of this type of coloration, neither the relative contribution of structures and pigments to variation in such colour displays nor the relative effects of extrinsic factors on the structural and pigment-based components of such colour has been determined. Understanding the sources of colour variation is important because structures and pigments may convey different information to conspecifics. In an experiment on captive American goldfinches Carduelis tristis, we manipulated two parameters, carotenoid availability and food availability, known to affect the expression of carotenoid pigments in a full-factorial design. Yellow feathers from these birds were then analysed in two ways. First, we used full-spectrum spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography to examine the extent to which variation in white structural colour and total carotenoid content was associated with variation in colour properties of feathers. The carotenoid content of yellow feathers predicted two colour parameters (principal component 1--representing high values of ultraviolet and yellow chroma and low values of violet-blue chroma-and hue). Two different colour parameters (violet-blue and yellow chroma) from white de-pigmented feathers, as well as carotenoid content, predicted reflectance measurements from yellow feathers. Second, we determined the relative effects of our experimental manipulations on white structural colour and yellow colour. Carotenoid availability directly affected yellow colour, while food availability affected it only in combination with carotenoid availability. None of our manipulations had significant effects on the expression of white structural colour. Our results suggest that the contribution of microstructures to variation in the expression of yellow coloration is less than the contribution of carotenoid content, and that carotenoid deposition is more dependent on extrinsic variability than is the production of white structural colour. PMID:17015356

Shawkey, Matthew D; Hill, Geoffrey E; McGraw, Kevin J; Hood, Wendy R; Huggins, Kristal

2006-12-01

296

78 FR 17940 - Certain Computerized Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Computerized Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof...Computerized Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof...computerized orthopedic surgical devices, software, implants, and components...

2013-03-25

297

Colored Shadows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity demonstrates the additive properties of light. Different-colored lights are shown on the same spot on a screen so that the reflecting light is white. Colored shadows, however, can be made by holding an object between the light sources and the screen. The site provides an explanation for how this occurs along with extension activities and information about the eyeâÂÂs retina. Materials needed and assembly instructions are also included. This activity is part of Exploratorium's Science Snacks series.

2008-06-19

298

A Method for Peat Inventory Based on LANDSAT Data and Computerized Mapping. [Ontario  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wetlands were preliminarily delineated on a geometrically-corrected color composite map printed from digital LANDSAT data using a computerized color plotting system. A digital classification was performed to identify the location and extent of wetland types (e.g., open bog, types of treed fen and black spruce-alder swamp). A map is printed from the results of this classification using the computerized color plotter. This color-coded map, produced at several different scales, provides a basis for pre-selecting field sampling sites. Helicopter-aided spot sampling based on the LANDSAT-derived map was conducted over the entire 1700 sq km area of North Ontario. Traditional transect sampling was carried out over a portion of the area, so that the two methods could be compared. Spot sampling based on the LANDSAT-derived map was found to produce results virtually identical to those produced by the transect sampling technique, in approximately one-fifteenth of the time and with a proportionate reduction in cost.

Pala, S.

1982-01-01

299

The Colors of the Alphabet: Naturally-Biased Associations between Shape and Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many letters of the alphabet are consistently mapped to specific colors in English-speaking adults, both in the general population and in individuals with grapheme-color synaesthesia who perceive letters in color. Here, across six experiments, we tested the ubiquity of the color/letter associations with typically developing toddlers, literate…

Spector, Ferrinne; Maurer, Daphne

2011-01-01

300

Profiling Color  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines philosophically the nature and possible moral justification of racial profiling in terms of color profiling.\\u000a Precisely what is such profiling, and can it ever be morally justified? If so, under what conditions is it morally justified?

J. Angelo Corlett

2011-01-01

301

7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade...

2013-01-01

302

7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade...

2011-01-01

303

7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.  

...2014-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade...

2014-01-01

304

7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade...

2012-01-01

305

A demonstration of direct access to colored stimuli following cueing by color.  

PubMed

To test whether cueing by color can affect orienting without first computing the location of the cued color, the impact of reorienting on the validity effect was examined. In Experiment 1 subjects were asked to detect a black dot target presented at random on either of two colored forms. The forms started being presented 750 ms before the onset of a central cue (either an arrow or a colored square). In some proportion of the trials the colors switched locations 150 ms after cue onset, simultaneously with target onset. The color switch was not found to retard responses following a color cue more than following a location cue. Furthermore, it did not reduce the validity effect of the color cue: Though the validity effect of the location cue was quite larger than the validity effect of the color cue, both effects were additive with the presence/absence of a color switch. In Experiment 2, subjects were rather asked to detect a change in shape of one of the colored forms. In this case, color switch was found to affect performance even less following a color cue. The fact that across experiments, color switch did not retard neither responding nor orienting selectively in the color cue condition, indicates that when attention is set to a certain color, reorienting to a new object following color switch does not require re-computing the address of the cued color. That finding is argued to embarrass a strong space-based view of visual attention. PMID:21621179

Navon, David; Kasten, Ronen

2011-09-01

306

The Ability of Color-Vision Defective and Color-Normal Early Elementary and Junior High Students to Utilize Color. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The investigation was undertaken to obtain data on the number of kindergarten, second, and seventh grade Ss classified as having color vision defects by the American Optical-Hardy, Rand, Rittler Test (AO-HRR) and two tests by S. Ishihara. Also studied was the ability of color vision defective and color normal Ss to utilize color as measured by the…

Cook, Ann C. N.; Hannaford, Alonzo E.

307

Validation of a self-administered computerized system to detect cognitive impairment in older adults.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in the development of economical and accurate approaches to identifying persons in the community who have mild, undetected cognitive impairments. Computerized assessment systems have been suggested as a viable approach to identifying these persons. The validity of a computerized assessment system for identification of memory and executive deficits in older individuals was evaluated in the current study. Volunteers (N = 235) completed a 3-hr battery of neuropsychological tests and a computerized cognitive assessment system. Participants were classified as impaired (n = 78) or unimpaired (n = 157) on the basis of the Mini Mental State Exam, Wechsler Memory Scale-III and the Trail Making Test (TMT), Part B. All six variables (three memory variables and three executive variables) derived from the computerized assessment differed significantly between groups in the expected direction. There was also evidence of temporal stability and concurrent validity. Application of computerized assessment systems for clinical practice and for identification of research participants is discussed in this article. PMID:25332303

Brinkman, Samuel D; Reese, Robert J; Norsworthy, Larry A; Dellaria, Donna K; Kinkade, Jacob W; Benge, Jared; Brown, Kimberly; Ratka, Anna; Simpkins, James W

2014-12-01

308

11 CFR 9033.12 - Production of computerized information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(9) of this section, the committee shall provide computerized magnetic media, such as magnetic tapes or magnetic diskettes, containing the computerized information at the times specified in 11 CFR...

2012-01-01

309

11 CFR 9033.12 - Production of computerized information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(9) of this section, the committee shall provide computerized magnetic media, such as magnetic tapes or magnetic diskettes, containing the computerized information at the times specified in 11 CFR...

2013-01-01

310

11 CFR 9033.12 - Production of computerized information.  

...paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(9) of this section, the committee shall provide computerized magnetic media, such as magnetic tapes or magnetic diskettes, containing the computerized information at the times specified in 11 CFR...

2014-01-01

311

Computerized microscopic image analysis of follicular lymphoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Follicular Lymphoma (FL) is a cancer arising from the lymphatic system. Originating from follicle center B cells, FL is mainly comprised of centrocytes (usually middle-to-small sized cells) and centroblasts (relatively large malignant cells). According to the World Health Organization's recommendations, there are three histological grades of FL characterized by the number of centroblasts per high-power field (hpf) of area 0.159 mm2. In current practice, these cells are manually counted from ten representative fields of follicles after visual examination of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides by pathologists. Several studies clearly demonstrate the poor reproducibility of this grading system with very low inter-reader agreement. In this study, we are developing a computerized system to assist pathologists with this process. A hybrid approach that combines information from several slides with different stains has been developed. Thus, follicles are first detected from digitized microscopy images with immunohistochemistry (IHC) stains, (i.e., CD10 and CD20). The average sensitivity and specificity of the follicle detection tested on 30 images at 2×, 4× and 8× magnifications are 85.5+/-9.8% and 92.5+/-4.0%, respectively. Since the centroblasts detection is carried out in the H&E-stained slides, the follicles in the IHC-stained images are mapped to H&E-stained counterparts. To evaluate the centroblast differentiation capabilities of the system, 11 hpf images have been marked by an experienced pathologist who identified 41 centroblast cells and 53 non-centroblast cells. A non-supervised clustering process differentiates the centroblast cells from noncentroblast cells, resulting in 92.68% sensitivity and 90.57% specificity.

Sertel, Olcay; Kong, Jun; Lozanski, Gerard; Catalyurek, Umit; Saltz, Joel H.; Gurcan, Metin N.

2008-03-01

312

Color naming by boys and girls.  

PubMed

The present study describes a field experiment conducted to test the hypothesis that color naming varies for 56 adolescent boys and 39 girls. No standard color chart such as Munsell, Pantone, or Crayola was used. Instead, subjects identified 15 computer-generated color samples assigned a score based on thescale devised by Rich in 1977 of four color descriptor categories. Findings differed from those of most previous studies, in which women aged over 16 years showed a more elaborate color vocabulary than men. Among the 14- to 16-yr.-old subjects, there was no significant difference in color naming. PMID:11883586

Machen, V

2002-02-01

313

Computerized Grading of Anatomy Laboratory Practical Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the…

Krippendorf, Beth B.; Bolender, David L.; Kolesari, Gary L.

2008-01-01

314

Computerized management information systems and organizational structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computerized management of information systems and organizational structures is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) critical factors favoring centralization and decentralization of organizations, (2) classification of organizations by relative structure, (3) attempts to measure change in organization structure, and (4) impact of information technology developments on organizational structure changes.

Zannetos, Z. S.; Sertel, M. R.

1970-01-01

315

A Survey of Computerized School Bus Routing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of significant activities in the area of computerized school bus routing is conducted. The various factors which contribute to the complexity of transporting students to and from school are first surveyed and, following this, the overall problem is formalized in terms of a system of nodes and links. An analysis of several routing systems…

Richards, Thomas C.

316

NATIONAL ARCHIVE OF COMPUTERIZED DATA ON AGING  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Archive of Computerized Data on Aging (NACDA), located within ICPSR, is funded by the National Institute on Aging. NACDA's mission is to advance research on aging by helping researchers to profit from the under-exploited potential of a broad range of datasets. NACDA ...

317

Computerized certification of digital ultrasonic instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized inspection system is being set up at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to enable certification of the Krautkramer Branson ultrasonic instrumentation used extensively in Y-12 production operations. The system takes the data required to certify the linearity and frequency response of the receiver and to certify the correct operation of the pulsers, gates, and computer interface. A subset

M. W. Moyer

1987-01-01

318

Computerizing Maintenance Management Improves School Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS), a centralized maintenance operations database that facilitates work order procedures and staff directives, can help individual school campuses and school districts to manage maintenance. Presents the benefits of CMMS and things to consider in CMMS selection. (EV)

Conroy, Pat

2002-01-01

319

Implementation of a Computerized Maintenance Management System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A primer Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) has been established for NASA Ames pressure component certification program. The CMMS takes full advantage of the latest computer technology and SQL relational database to perform periodic services for vital pressure components. The Ames certification program is briefly described and the aspects of the CMMS implementation are discussed as they are related to the certification objectives.

Shen, Yong-Hong; Askari, Bruce

1994-01-01

320

Special Education Curriculum (Computerized IEP Catalog).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special education curriculum, developed by the Garland (Texas) Independent School District, outlines the basic tools for preparing an Individual Educational Plan (IEP) for each handicapped student. The curricular information is organized and coded to facilitate computerized printing of the IEP. The document begins with a list of 13…

Garland Independent School District, TX.

321

Computerized management support for swine breeding farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. INTRODUCTION<\\/strong>The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and definition of farm management and management information systems (MIS), (2) individual farm analysis, and (3) sow replacement optimization. As part of the study, a

R. B. M. Huirne

1990-01-01

322

A computerized surveillance system for asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airways disease characterized by acute exacerbations interspaced by symptom-free periods. Its management imposes a substantial burden on healthcare services, as well as personal suffering and significant financial tolls. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate links between routinely used computerized databases and to establish an automatic mechanism for monitoring asthma patients. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Isabella Karakis; Moshe Blumenfeld; Yaron Yegev; Dan Goldfarb; Arkady Bolotin; Zeev Weiler; Rafael Carel

2011-01-01

323

PERCEIVING COLOR Visual Perception  

E-print Network

also on the response of the eye Multiplication of color spectrum with the luminous efficacy function X's Additive Color Wheel Three colors to create a reasonable subset Devices Even Eye Same color can be created1 PERCEIVING COLOR Visual Perception Slide 2 Aditi Majumder, UCI Functions of Color Vision Object

Majumder, Aditi

324

Hidden Color  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the acceptance of QCD as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, one of the basic problems in the analysis of nuclear phenomena became how to consistently account for the effects of the underlying quark/gluon structure of nucleons and nuclei. Besides providing more detailed understanding of conventional nuclear physics, QCD may also point to novel phenomena accessible by new or upgraded nuclear experimental facilities. We discuss a few interesting applications of QCD to nuclear physics with an emphasis on the hidden color degrees of freedom.

Ji, C.-R.

2014-10-01

325

Technology and Language Testing. A Collection of Papers from the Annual Colloquium on Language Testing Research (7th, Princeton, New Jersey, April 6-9, 1985).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays on measurement theory and language testing includes: "Computerized Adaptive Testing: Implications for Language Test Developers" (Peter Tung); "The Promise and Threat of Computerized Adaptive Assessment of Reading Comprehension" (Michael Canale); "Computerized Rasch Analysis of Item Bias in ESL Tests" (Harold S. Madsen,…

Stansfield, Charles W., Ed.

326

Further Evidence for a Multifaceted Model of Mental Speed: Factor Structure and Validity of Computerized Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to replicate the structure of mental speed and relations evidenced with fluid intelligence (Gf) found in a number of recent studies. Specifically, a battery of computerized tasks examined whether results with paper-and-pencil assessments held across different test media. Participants (N = 186) completed the battery,…

Danthiir, Vanessa; Wilhelm, Oliver; Roberts, Richard D.

2012-01-01

327

Computerizing Organizational Attitude Surveys: An Investigation of the Measurement Equivalence of a Multifaceted Job Satisfaction Measure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two quasi-experimental field studies were conducted to evaluate the psychometric equivalence of computerized and paper-and-pencil job satisfaction measures. The present research extends previous work in the area by providing better control of common threats to validity in quasi-experimental research on test mode effects and by evaluating a more…

Mueller, Karsten; Liebig, Christian; Hattrup, Keith

2007-01-01

328

Evaluating the Validity of Computerized Content Analysis Programs for Identification of Emotional Expression in Cancer Narratives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological interventions provide linguistic data that are particularly useful for testing mechanisms of action and improving intervention methodologies. For this study, emotional expression in an Internet-based intervention for women with breast cancer (n = 63) was analyzed via rater coding and 2 computerized coding methods (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count [LIWC] and Psychiatric Content Analysis and Diagnosis [PCAD]). Although the

Erin O'Carroll Bantum; Jason E. Owen

2009-01-01

329

Body Morph Assessment: Preliminary Report on the Development of a Computerized Measure of Body Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

STEWART, TIFFANY M., DONALD A. WILLIAMSON, MONIQUE A. M. SMEETS, AND FRANK L. GREENWAY. Body morph assessment: preliminary report on the development of a computerized measure of body image.Objective: To develop a prototype of the Body Morph Assessment (BMA), and to test the reliability and validity of this new measure of body image. The BMA is a realistic and relatively

Tiffany M. Stewart; Donald A. Williamson; Monique A. M. Smeets; Frank L. Greenway

2001-01-01

330

Computerized Aid Improves Safety Decision Process for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user.…

Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B.; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

2010-01-01

331

Unexpected Increased Mortality After Implementation of a Commercially Sold Computerized Physician Order Entry System  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective. In response to the landmark 1999 report by the Institute of Medicine and safety initi- atives promoted by the Leapfrog Group, our institution implemented a commercially sold computerized physi- cian order entry (CPOE) system in an effort to reduce medical errors and mortality. We sought to test the hy- pothesis that CPOE implementation results in reduced mortality among

Yong Y. Han; Joseph A. Carcillo; Shekhar T. Venkataraman; Robert S. b. Clark; R. Scott Watson; Mph Trung C. Nguyen; Hulya Bayir; Richard A. Orr

332

Comprehensive Computerized Assessment of Cognitive Sequelae of a Complete 12–16 Hour Fast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food deprivation has been shown to deleteriously affect human cognition, but findings are equivocal, and few studies have examined several cognitive domains. In this study, the authors used computerized testing to describe the profile of shifts in cognition attributable to short-term religious fasting. Multiple cognitive domains were evaluated at midday and late afternoon following complete abstention from eating and drinking

Glen M. Doniger; Ely S. Simon; Ari Z. Zivotofsky

2006-01-01

333

Improving Emergency Department Triage Classification with Computerized Clinical Decision Support at a Pediatric Hospital  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Emergency Severity Index (ESI) is an emergency department (ED) triage classification system based on estimated patient-specific resource utilization. Rules for a computerized clinical decision support (CDS) system based on a patient's chief complaint were developed and tested using a stochastic model for predicting ESI scores.…

Kunisch, Joseph Martin

2012-01-01

334

Color Theory for Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will introduce students to color theory with a focus on the use of color in digital design. Students will discover the color wheel, and color harmonies. Color is a very powerful tool in design. It can, enhance a message, give an object visual weight and emphasis, and add richness and depth to a design. We can use color to signify data, to draw attention to a particular object, or to set a mood. Color ...

Jensen, Mr.

2009-10-04

335

Learning About Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students will learn about primary, secondary, and complementary colors. Students will also learn about warm & cool colors, along with tints & shades. Lastly, they will create an optical illusion using complimentary colors. INTRODUCTION: Welcome students! Begin by watching this fun video about colors. LEARNING ABOUT COLOR: Now, that you've had an introduction to colors, lets play a little game! Click on the link below. Carmine s Introduction to Color Awesome! Click on the links below ...

Erickson, Whitni

2009-04-18

336

COLORS Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

COLORS Magazine was willed into existence in 1991 by photographer Oliviero Toscani and art director Tibor Kalman. Its goal was simple: "to show the world to the world.â The publication looks at social issues around the world through thoughtful prose and meaningful visuals. Visitors can click on the Stories tab to click through a visual field of photos that lead to such stories as military service in South Korea and cuts to public spending in the United Kingdom. The Notebooks area brings together commentaries from all over the world as part of a collaboration with Reporters sans Frontieres. The Projects area contains links to special issues and projects, such as the News Machine that "churns your tweets through different media filters.â Interested users can learn about obtaining a print subscription or explore the corresponding blog.

337

Disruptive Coloration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most animals are patterned. While some markings may serve as an advertisement, many appear to function in concealment. Because of the principal way in which they seem to function, such markings are often termed disruptive coloration . Although there are a number of characteristics that may influence the effectiveness of markings in disruption; this study will only focus on two aspects: (1) the effectiveness of the position of markings in blurring or enhancing outline, and (2) the degree to which strongly contrasting markings may interfere with or aid recognition. In regard to the former, it must be kept in mind that the profile changes with change in viewing angle. Thus the pattern seen in relation to the profile most commonly presented to predator (or prey) is of most interest to us here.

Ipsen, David; Gillfillan, Gretchen L.; Judy Diamond (Revised New Edition); Judy Scotchmoor (Revised New Edition); Stebbins, Robert

2009-04-01

338

Computerized quantification of ultrasonic heterogeneity in thyroid nodules.  

PubMed

To test whether computerized quantification of ultrasonic heterogeneity can be of help in the diagnosis of thyroid malignancy, we evaluated ultrasonic heterogeneity with an objective and quantitative computerized method in a prospective setting. A total of 400 nodules including 271 benign thyroid nodules and 129 malignant thyroid nodules were evaluated. Patient clinical data were collected, and the grading of heterogeneity on conventional gray-scale ultrasound images was retrospectively reviewed by a thyroid specialist. Quantification of ultrasonic heterogeneity (heterogeneity index, HI) was performed by a proprietary program implemented with methods proposed in this article. HI values differed significantly between benign and malignant nodules, diagnosed by a combination of fine-needle aspiration and surgical pathology results (p < 0.001, area under the curve = 0.714). The ultrasonic heterogeneity of these samples, as assessed by an experienced clinician, could not significantly differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. However, nodules with marked ultrasonic heterogeneity had higher HI values than nodules with homogeneous nodules. These results indicate that the new computer-aided diagnosis method for evaluation of the ultrasonic heterogeneity of thyroid nodules is an objective and quantitative method that is correlated with conventional ultrasonic heterogeneity assessment, but can better aid in the diagnosis of thyroid malignancy. PMID:25218450

Chen, Kuen-Yuan; Chen, Chiung-Nien; Wu, Ming-Hsun; Ho, Ming-Chih; Tai, Hao-Chih; Kuo, Wen-Hong; Huang, Wen-Chang; Wang, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Argon; Chang, King-Jen

2014-11-01

339

Preferred color correction for digital LCD TVs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instead of colorimetirc color reproduction, preferred color correction is applied for digital TVs to improve subjective image quality. First step of the preferred color correction is to survey the preferred color coordinates of memory colors. This can be achieved by the off-line human visual tests. Next step is to extract pixels of memory colors representing skin, grass and sky. For the detected pixels, colors are shifted towards the desired coordinates identified in advance. This correction process may result in undesirable contours on the boundaries between the corrected and un-corrected areas. For digital TV applications, the process of extraction and correction should be applied in every frame of the moving images. This paper presents a preferred color correction method in LCH color space. Values of chroma and hue are corrected independently. Undesirable contours on the boundaries of correction are minimized. The proposed method change the coordinates of memory color pixels towards the target color coordinates. Amount of correction is determined based on the averaged coordinate of the extracted pixels. The proposed method maintains the relative color difference within memory color areas. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated using the paired comparison. Results of experiments indicate that the proposed method can reproduce perceptually pleasing images to viewers.

Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Choon-Woo; Ahn, Ji-Young; Kang, Dong-Woo; Shin, Hyun-Ho

2009-01-01

340

Computerized device for critical flicker fusion frequency determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The critical fusion flicker frequency of the human visual system is the threshold sensitivity for a sine wave-modulated patch of monochromatic flickering light measured as a function of its temporal frequency and average luminance level. The critical flicker fusion frequency changes in different ocular and non-ocular conditions, for example: high-myopia, AMR, glaucoma, schizophrenia, after alcohol intake, fatigue. A computerized test for critical flicker fusion frequency determination was developed. Visual stimuli are two monochromatic LED light sources that are connected to a microcircuit driven by a computer program. The control of the device is realized through the parallel port of the PC. During the test a patient has to choose which one of two light sources is flickering. The critical cliker fusion frequency is determined by a psychophysical procedure, where the stimulus frequency that showed detection probability 75% is considered as threshold.

Racene, Diana

2003-08-01

341

Demographically corrected norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test–Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test–Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64Card Version  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race\\/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief

Marc A. Norman; David J. Moore; Michael Taylor; Donald Franklin; Lucette Cysique; Chris Ake; Deborah Lazarretto; Florin Vaida; Robert K. Heaton

2011-01-01

342

Experiences with HIV testing, entry, and engagement in care by HIV-infected women of color, and the need for autonomy, competency, and relatedness.  

PubMed

Self-determination theory examines the needs of people adopting new behaviors but has not been applied to the adoption of HIV healthcare behaviors. The current study applied self-determination theory to descriptions of healthcare behaviors adopted by ethnic minority women after an HIV diagnosis. Women of color were asked to describe their experiences with HIV testing, entry, and engagement-in-care in qualitative interviews and focus groups. Participants were mostly African-American (88%), over 40 years old (70%), had been diagnosed for more than 6 years (87%) and had disclosed their HIV infection to more than 3 people (73%). Women described unmet self-determination needs at different time points along the HIV Continuum of Care. Women experienced a significant loss of autonomy at the time of HIV diagnosis. Meeting competency and relatedness needs assisted women in entry and engagement-in-care. However, re-establishing autonomy was a key element for long-term engagement-in-care. Interventions that satisfy these needs at the optimal time point in care could improve diagnosis, entry-to-care, and retention-in-care for women living with HIV. PMID:23829331

Quinlivan, E Byrd; Messer, Lynne C; Adimora, Adaora A; Roytburd, Katya; Bowditch, Natasha; Parnell, Heather; Seay, Julia; Bell, Lynda; Pierce, Jonah K

2013-07-01

343

Instrumental determination of the color index of natural fresh waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color is one of the main indices of the quality of fresh waters. An instrumental method of determining color, modeling the process of its visual determination by a ''standard observer'' and based on the theory of colors is described in this article. This method allows the evaluation of the admissibility of indirect methods of determining color and also to ''test''

I. A. Struganova; V. V. Chubarov; V. V. Fadeev

1986-01-01

344

Color Blindness Simulations  

MedlinePLUS

Color blindness Simulations Normal Color Vision Deuteranopia Color blindness marked by confusion of purplish red and green Tritanopia A dichromatism in ... and green and reduced sensitivity to monochromatic lights. Simulations created using Image J 1.22d, National Institutes ...

345

EDF field operation computerization study  

SciTech Connect

The main control room has been the subject of extensive research and actions into improved operations assistance. On the other hand, few studies concern the need for field operation improvements, which have few assistance resources adapted to working requirements. Why? Past studies have shown the inability of technology to assume job constraints (insufficient screen readability, excessive equipment weight, prohibitive response times). Nevertheless, today new technologies can be adapted to field operations, and they justify further study. Real needs exist: local operations are often complex and are led in difficult environments where conditions prevent the use of paper-based documents. The issue is a significant risk of error which might impact plant reliability. The cumbersome nature of paper procedures, the working environment and the operational feed-back of experience led us to concentrate on the field operation to identify how it may be improved by the use of these new technologies. Such equipment would allow a better traceability and quality of actions. Possibility of communications with other plant personnel and information sharing may be also immediately available for all. This paper presents a study which intends to collect assistance requirements through an analysis of working practices and organizations with local personnel. Our aim is to identify which of those might benefit from IT support. This collection was obtained through interviews and observations. These two methods helped us to define potential needs, constraints and consequences for work organization. This paper presents the study results and findings, identifies professions which may benefit from the use of wearable computers and describes how the reliability and efficiency of human actions would be improved. Finally we identify design requirements and criteria to be used for writing the technical specifications for a test prototype. (authors)

Guillot, L.; Pirus, D. [EDF SEPTEN, Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires, 12-14, Avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

2006-07-01

346

New approach to color calibration of high fidelity color digital camera by using unique wide gamut color generator based on LED diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of a high accuracy color reproduction system requires certain instrumentation and reference for color calibration. Our research led to development of a high fidelity color digital camera with implemented filters that realize the color matching functions. The output signal returns XYZ values which provide absolute description of color. In order to produce XYZ output a mathematical conversion must be applied to CCD output values introducing a conversion matrix. The conversion matrix coefficients are calculated by using a color reference with known XYZ values and corresponding output signals from the CCD sensor under each filter acquisition from a certain amount of color samples. The most important feature of the camera is its ability to acquire colors from the complete theoretically visible color gamut due to implemented filters. However market available color references such as various color checkers are enclosed within HDTV gamut, which is insufficient for calibration in the whole operating color range. This led to development of a unique color reference based on LED diodes called the LED Color Generator (LED CG). It is capable of displaying colors in a wide color gamut estimated by chromaticity coordinates of 12 primary colors. The total amount of colors possible to produce is 25512. The biggest advantage is a possibility of displaying colors with desired spectral distribution (with certain approximations) due to multiple primary colors it consists. The average color difference obtained for test colors was found to be ?E~0.78 for calibration with LED CG. The result is much better and repetitive in comparison with the Macbeth ColorCheckerTM which typically gives ?E~1.2 and in the best case ?E~0.83 with specially developed techniques.

Kretkowski, M.; Shimodaira, Y.; Jab?o?ski, R.

2008-11-01

347

Color based properties query for CBIR: HSV global color histogram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These days there are millions of digital images stored in image database. People will take a lot of time to find the right image for their query. Similarly, using keyword image retrieval may produce wrong result due to incorrect annotation. An image retrieval system is one of the tools that can be used for searching and retrieving images from a large database of digital images. In general, images features (color, texture, shape) are extracted to represent the images. This project focuses on color image features by applying global color histogram matching technique for HSV color space. The CBIR system is tested through query image of about 100 images from database. The retrieval obtained was good. From the result of precision and recall, we suggest some importing to consider for the future research.

Md Nor, Danial; Ogier, Jean-Marc; Manani, Faizal; Zarar Mohamed Jenu, Muhammad

2011-10-01

348

Color of Salts (Flame Test)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a laboratory exercise designed to allow students to further investigate the light spectrum. This lab is used to have students view the light spectrum first hand as opposed to using lecture alone.

Ramsey Miller, Menahga High School, Menahga, MN, based on an original activity from the Prentice Hall Chemistry (2005), Flame Tests, p.142.

349

Development of Ambulatory Quality Assurance Program Using Computerized Medical Records  

PubMed Central

As part of the computerization of the ambulatory teaching facility for our residency program, we have successfully utilized a comprehensive computerized medical records system to develop a specific quality assurance program. Our QA program includes allergy audits, health screening audits, drug utilization and recall audits, and nursing care plan audits. With a computerized QA program, specific question about individual patients as well as questions regarding our patient population are quickly addressed. Also, our routine health screening has been greatly enhanced.

Shrader, J.; Wright, C.; Mieczkowski, L.; McDonald, S.

1993-01-01

350

Infants' recognition of objects using canonical color.  

PubMed

We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object placed side by side: a correctly colored picture (e.g., red strawberry) and an inappropriately colored picture (e.g., green-blue strawberry). The results showed that, overall, the 6- to 8-month-olds showed preference for the correctly colored pictures for color-specific objects, whereas they did not show preference for the correctly colored pictures for the non-color-specific object. The 5-month-olds showed no significant preference for the correctly colored pictures for all object conditions. These findings imply that the recognition of canonical color for objects emerges at 6 months of age. PMID:20015514

Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

2010-03-01

351

Computerized Manufacturing Cell An Earthworm and a Leech robot  

E-print Network

Computerized Manufacturing Cell An Earthworm and a Leech robot Flexible Robot Gripper Professor S completed recently involved developing a unique design and development of a biologically inspired robot

Major, Arkady

352

Computerized adaptive control weld skate with CCTV weld guidance project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes progress of the automatic computerized weld skate development portion of the Computerized Weld Skate with Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) Arc Guidance Project. The main goal of the project is to develop an automatic welding skate demonstration model equipped with CCTV weld guidance. The three main goals of the overall project are to: (1) develop a demonstration model computerized weld skate system, (2) develop a demonstration model automatic CCTV guidance system, and (3) integrate the two systems into a demonstration model of computerized weld skate with CCTV weld guidance for welding contoured parts.

Wall, W. A.

1976-01-01

353

Evaluation of computerized nursing care plan: instrument development.  

PubMed

With the increasingly popular use of information technology in patient care, the need for reliable instrumentation to evaluate information systems has become critical. This article describes the psychometric testing of a scale developed to evaluate a computerized nursing care plan (CNCP) system. A review of the literature generated a 44-item questionnaire, which was then administered to a convenience sample of 729 hospital nurses in Taiwan. Factor analysis (principal component analysis with varimax rotation) and item analysis were applied to establish the scale's construct validity and reliability. Twenty-two items selected from the original 44-item pool were grouped into 6 major constructs: patient care, nursing efficiency, professionalism, usage benefit, education and training, and usability. The alpha coefficient was 0.85. The statistical results showed that nurses generally valued using the CNCP system. Further psychometric analysis of the scale is suggested in other nursing populations, for subscale development and to refine item wording. PMID:15343497

Lee, Ting-Ting

2004-01-01

354

Computerized seismic intensities of recently felt earthquakes in Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional process of evaluating seismic intensities from questionnaires is laborious and very subjective. An attempt here is made to introduce computerized processing of questionnaires. This is made possible by modifying the questionnaire forms and developing a computer program that performs the evaluation in a rather objective manner. The prime assumption behind this procedure is that observed intensities in a certain location are normally distributed. This new approach has been tested successfully with recently obtained data on earthquakes in Israel, yielding evaluated intensities and isoseismal maps for earthquakes in the Jordan Valley (January 13, 1982), Lebanon (June 3, 1983), the Gulf of Suez (June 12, 1983), the Jezreel Valley (August 24, 1984), and near Jericho (January 25, 1985).

Shapira, Avi

1988-02-01

355

Computerized acoustical characterization system of medical phantoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a computerized acoustical characterization system of medical phantoms is described in this paper. The system employs the insertion technique and it was developed using LabView 2011 where the ultrasound signal was acquired through the interfacing scheme of an oscilloscope to a personal computer. The system performance was validated by comparing measured acoustical properties with values obtained from the previous studies. Other than faster measurement time, the developed system carried percentage difference at less than 1.00% for all of the acoustical properties measurements at 23.0°C to 25.0°C respectively.

Nazihah, M. D.; Kadri, S.; Yaacob, M. I. H.; Rosly, J.

2013-05-01

356

Ambulatory Computerized Physician Order Entry Implementation  

PubMed Central

As part of a broader effort to identify success factors for implementing computerized physician order entry (CPOE), factors specific to the ambulatory setting were investigated in the field at Kaiser Permanente Northwest. A multidisciplinary team of five qualitative researchers spent seven months at four clinics conducting observations, interviews, and focus groups. The team analyzed the data using a combination of template and grounded theory approaches. The result is a description of fourteen themes, clustered into technology, organizational, personal, and environmental categories. While similar to inpatient study results in many respects, this outpatient CPO investigation generated subtly different themes. PMID:16778992

Ash, Joan S.; Chin, Homer L.; Sittig, Dean F.; Dykstra, Richard

2005-01-01

357

Uniform color space based on color matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research intends to explore with a uniform color space based on the CIE 1931 x-y chromatic coordinate system. The goal is to improve the non-uniformity of the CIE 1931 x-y chromaticity diagram such as to approach the human color sensation as possible; however, its simple methodology still can be kept. In spite of the existence of various kinds of the uniform color coordinate systems built up early (CIE u'-v', CIE Lab, CIE LUV, etc.), the establishment of a genuine uniform color space is actually still an important work both for the basic research in color science and the practical applications of colorimetry, especially for recent growing request in illumination engineering and in display technology. In this study, the MacAdam ellipses and the Munsell color chips are utilized for the comparison with the human color sensation. One specific linear transformation matrix is found for the CIE 1931 color matching functions (see manuscript) to become the novel uniform ones. With the aid of the optimization method, the transformation matrix can be easily discovered and makes the 25 MacAdam ellipses are similar to each other in the novel uniform color space. On the other hand, the perfectiveness of the equal-hue curves and the equal-chroma contours from the Mnusell color chips evaluates for the best optimization conditions among several different definitions for the similarity of all the MacAdam ellipses. Finally, the color difference between any two colors can be simply measured by the Euclidean distance in the novel uniform color space and is still fitted to the human color sensation.

Liao, Shih-Fang; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Lee, Cheng-Chung

2007-09-01

358

15 CFR 950.9 - Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. 950.9 Section...Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. The Environmental...industry. A computerized, information retrieval service provides a...

2011-01-01

359

15 CFR 950.9 - Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. 950.9 Section...Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. The Environmental...industry. A computerized, information retrieval service provides a...

2013-01-01

360

15 CFR 950.9 - Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. 950.9 Section...Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. The Environmental...industry. A computerized, information retrieval service provides a...

2012-01-01

361

Color Me Understood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the "color system" as a way of grouping children into different personality types based on a certain color: orange, blue, green, and gold. Lists stress producers for specific color people. Asserts that, through making groups of different colors, children begin to see the various specialties others can bring to the group and learn to…

Harris, Judy J.

2000-01-01

362

Color Transfer between Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Often this means removing a dominant and undesirable color cast, such as the yellow in photos taken under incandescent illumination. This article describes a method for a more general form of color correction that borrows one image's color characteristics from anoth-er. Figure 1 shows an example of this process, where we applied the colors of a sunset photograph to a

Erik Reinhard; Michael Ashikhmin; Bruce Gooch; Peter Shirley

2001-01-01

363

Color Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners conduct the "Stroop Effect" test and explore what happens when they try to complete two simple tasks at the same time. Use this activity to explain how the brain can get confused when it tries to process two different stimuli at the same time.

Television, Twin C.

2013-01-01

364

Relative Role of Flower Color and Scent on Pollinator Attraction: Experimental Tests using F1 and F2 Hybrids of Daylily and Nightlily  

PubMed Central

The daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) and nightlily (H. citrina) are typical examples of a butterfly-pollination system and a hawkmoth-pollination system, respectively. H. fulva has diurnal, reddish or orange-colored flowers and is mainly pollinated by diurnal swallowtail butterflies. H. citrina has nocturnal, yellowish flowers with a sweet fragrance and is pollinated by nocturnal hawkmoths. We evaluated the relative roles of flower color and scent on the evolutionary shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina. We conducted a series of experiments that mimic situations in which mutants differing in either flower color, floral scent or both appeared in a diurnally flowering population. An experimental array of 6×6 potted plants, mixed with 24 plants of H. fulva and 12 plants of either F1 or F2 hybrids, were placed in the field, and visitations of swallowtail butterflies and nocturnal hawkmoths were recorded with camcorders. Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers. Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission. Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent. PMID:22720016

Hirota, Shun K.; Nitta, Kozue; Kim, Yuni; Kato, Aya; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Yasumoto, Akiko A.; Yahara, Tetsukazu

2012-01-01

365

Computerized interpretation of solitary pulmonary nodules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In physicians' interpretation, morphologic characteristics of pulmonary nodules are not only important signs for the discrimination, but also important features for the diagnosis with a reasonable degree of confidence. This paper describes about the computerized interpretation system which is developed to analyze the relation between the measuring values and the morphologic characteristics, and to make clear the logic of physicians' diagnosis. We think that the four basic morphologic characteristics of the discriminative diagnosis between benign and malignant nodules exist which are: (1) the density; (2) the homogeneity; (3) the definition; and (4) the convergence. To obtain each grade of the parameters, we developed an interpretation system. On the other hand, to obtain digital feature values, we used our computer aided diagnosis system. Interpretation experiments were performed by using 15 benign and 19 malignant cases of chest x-ray CT images. As the result of a statistical analysis, some digital features have the significant differences between benign and malignant nodules, and the morphological characteristics have also differences. Therefore the computerized system is feasible to help physicians' interpretation to distinct between malignant and benign nodules by showing digital feature values as some references.

Suzuki, Hideo; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Mitani, Masanobu; Natori, Hiroshi

1998-04-01

366

RGB Additive Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Color is all around us. RGB is the color system that is used when mixing light. The RGB system is what we use in computers, televisions, stage lighting, displays and more. It is also called the additive color system because the colors are combined or added to each other to make the colors that we see. What wavelength goes with a color? Remember that a a nanometer is a unit of length in the metric system equal to one billionth of a meter. NASA What is a wave? NASA Color Why is the sky blue? What is RGB and how and where is it used? RGB World 21st Century Color Theory RGB colors are identified on computers by a color value that ranges for R, G, and B, ...

Engelman, Mr.

2010-12-05

367

Color Gamut of Blackness in a Liquid Crystal Display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A guest-host mode liquid crystal display of a transmission type is investigated. Color gamut of blackness is established from an estimation experiment of color matching and is shown by the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram and color solid. Color gamut of blackness under the influence of a light source and ambient illumination is discussed. A Munsell color ship, N-1 is used as a matching black color sample and fifty hues of liquid crystal cells are used as test sample colors. Six observers participate in the estimation experiment and measurement is done from ascending- and descending-series in the method of adjustment.

Shimomura, Teruo; Kobayashi, Shunsuke

1985-02-01

368

Synesthesia: When colors count  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tacitly held assumption in synesthesia research is the unidirectionality of digit–color associations. This notion is based on synesthetes' report that digits evoke a color percept, but colors do not elicit any numerical impression. In a random color generation task, we found evidence for an implicit co-activation of digits by colors, a finding that constrains neurological theories concerning cross-modal associations

Daria Knoch; Lorena R. R. Gianotti; Christine Mohr; Peter Brugger

2005-01-01

369

Computerized Mappings of the Cerebral Cortex: A Multiresolution Flattening Method  

E-print Network

Computerized Mappings of the Cerebral Cortex: A Multiresolution Flattening Method and a Surface two-dimensionnl maps of the cerebral cortex. Our computerized,two-stageflat- tening method takes finer resolution maps.We demonstr;ite INTRODUCTION The extensive convolutions of the cerebral cortex

Van Essen, David

370

Application of computerized tomography to the investigation of ionospheric structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements, obtained simultaneously at several locations, can be processed using computerized tomography (CT) algorithms to obtain two-dimensional images of ionospheric electron density. Using TEC data computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) reconstructs an image of the electron density structures in a vertical slice above the receiving stations. We successfully applied this technique to realistic simulations of ionospheric

T. D. Raymund; J. R. Austen; S.J. Franke; J. A. Klobuchar; J. Stalker

1990-01-01

371

Effects of Computerized Advance Organizers on Elementary School Mathematics Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to develop and analyze the effects of computerized advance organizers with multimedia. The system design adopts computer multimedia to link three frameworks: mathematic learning, computer mindtools and problem solving. The system also uses examples of students' daily life to compose two types (with Flash and Powerpoint) of computerized advance organizers. Taking probability as examples, the influences of

Chienhsun Tseng; Weichung Wang; Yijinn Lin; Pi-hsia Hung

2002-01-01

372

The Reality, Direction, and Future of Computerized Publications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sharing information in digital form by using a computer is a growing phenomenon. Many universities are making their applications available on computer. More than one hundred and thirty-six universities have developed computerized applications on their own or through a commercial vendor. Universities developed computerized applications in order to…

Levenstein, Nicholas

2012-01-01

373

Physicians' Decisions to Override Computerized Drug Alerts in Primary Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although computerized physician order entry reduces medication errors among inpatients, little is known about the use of this system in primary care. Methods: We calculated the override rate among 3481 consecutivealertsgeneratedat5adultprimarycareprac- tices that use a common computerized physician order entry system for prescription writing. For detailed re- view, we selected a random sample of 67 alerts in which physicians

Saul N. Weingart; Maria Toth; Daniel Z. Sands; Mark D. Aronson; Roger B. Davis; Russell S. Phillips

2003-01-01

374

Color Constancy of Red-Green Dichromats and Anomalous Trichromats  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Color-vision deficiency is associated with abnormalities in color matching and color discrimination, but its impact on the ability of people to judge the constancy of surface colors under different lights (color constancy) is less clear. This work had two aims: first, to quantify the degree of color constancy in subjects with congenital red-green color deficiency; second, to test whether the degree of color constancy in anomalous trichromats can be predicted from their Rayleigh anomaloscope matches. Methods. Color constancy of red-green color-deficient subjects was tested in a task requiring the discrimination of illuminant changes from surface-reflectance changes. Mondrian-like colored patterns, generated on the screen of a computer monitor, were used as stimuli to avoid the spatial cues provided by natural objects and scenes. Spectral reflectances were taken from the Munsell Book of Color and from natural scenes. Illuminants were taken from the daylight locus. Results. Protanopes and deuteranopes performed more poorly than normal trichromats with Munsell spectral reflectances but were less impaired with natural spectral reflectances. Protanomalous and deuteranomalous trichromats performed as well as, or almost as well as, normal trichromats, independent of the type of reflectance. Individual differences were not correlated with Rayleigh anomaloscope matches. Conclusions. Despite the evidence of clinical color-vision tests, red-green color-deficient persons are less disadvantaged than might be expected in their judgments of surface colors under different lights. PMID:19892868

Foster, David H.; Amano, Kinjiro; Nascimento, Sérgio M. C.

2010-01-01

375

Color constancy of red-green dichromats and anomalous trichromats.  

PubMed

Purpose. Color-vision deficiency is associated with abnormalities in color matching and color discrimination, but its impact on the ability of people to judge the constancy of surface colors under different lights (color constancy) is less clear. This work had two aims: first, to quantify the degree of color constancy in subjects with congenital red-green color deficiency; second, to test whether the degree of color constancy in anomalous trichromats can be predicted from their Rayleigh anomaloscope matches. Methods. Color constancy of red-green color-deficient subjects was tested in a task requiring the discrimination of illuminant changes from surface-reflectance changes. Mondrian-like colored patterns, generated on the screen of a computer monitor, were used as stimuli to avoid the spatial cues provided by natural objects and scenes. Spectral reflectances were taken from the Munsell Book of Color and from natural scenes. Illuminants were taken from the daylight locus. Results. Protanopes and deuteranopes performed more poorly than normal trichromats with Munsell spectral reflectances but were less impaired with natural spectral reflectances. Protanomalous and deuteranomalous trichromats performed as well as, or almost as well as, normal trichromats, independent of the type of reflectance. Individual differences were not correlated with Rayleigh anomaloscope matches. Conclusions. Despite the evidence of clinical color-vision tests, red-green color-deficient persons are less disadvantaged than might be expected in their judgments of surface colors under different lights. PMID:19892868

Baraas, Rigmor C; Foster, David H; Amano, Kinjiro; Nascimento, Sérgio M C

2010-04-01

376

Progress in color reflection holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recording technique of Denisyuk color reflection holograms has been simplified by using `white' laser light. The Slavich red-green-blue (RGB) sensitized ultra-high resolution silver halide emulsion was used for the hologram recording. The employed laser wavelengths were 633 nm, 531 nm, and 476 nm, generated by a helium-neon, a mixed argon- krypton ion, and an argon ion laser, respectively. A beam combination mechanism with dichroic filters enabled a simultaneously RGB exposure, which made the color balance and overall exposure energy easy to control as well as simplifying the recording procedure. Various approaches have been investigated in generating color hologram which have sufficiently high diffraction efficiency combined with improved color saturation. A specially designed test object consisting of the 1931 CIE chromaticity diagram, a rainbow ribbon cable, pure yellow dots, and a cloisonne elephant was used for color recording experiments. In addition, the Macbeth Color Checker chart was used. Both colorimetric evaluation and scattering noise measurements were performed using the PR-650 Photo Research SpectraScan SpectraCalorimeter.

Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Huang, Qiang; Jeong, Tung H.

1998-02-01

377

FFDM image quality assessment using computerized image texture analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative measures of image quality (IQ) are routinely obtained during the evaluation of imaging systems. These measures, however, do not necessarily correlate with the IQ of the actual clinical images, which can also be affected by factors such as patient positioning. No quantitative method currently exists to evaluate clinical IQ. Therefore, we investigated the potential of using computerized image texture analysis to quantitatively assess IQ. Our hypothesis is that image texture features can be used to assess IQ as a measure of the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). To test feasibility, the "Rachel" anthropomorphic breast phantom (Model 169, Gammex RMI) was imaged with a Senographe 2000D FFDM system (GE Healthcare) using 220 unique exposure settings (target/filter, kVs, and mAs combinations). The mAs were varied from 10%-300% of that required for an average glandular dose (AGD) of 1.8 mGy. A 2.5cm2 retroareolar region of interest (ROI) was segmented from each image. The SNR was computed from the ROIs segmented from images linear with dose (i.e., raw images) after flat-field and off-set correction. Image texture features of skewness, coarseness, contrast, energy, homogeneity, and fractal dimension were computed from the Premium ViewTM postprocessed image ROIs. Multiple linear regression demonstrated a strong association between the computed image texture features and SNR (R2=0.92, p<=0.001). When including kV, target and filter as additional predictor variables, a stronger association with SNR was observed (R2=0.95, p<=0.001). The strong associations indicate that computerized image texture analysis can be used to measure image SNR and potentially aid in automating IQ assessment as a component of the clinical workflow. Further work is underway to validate our findings in larger clinical datasets.

Berger, Rachelle; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Kontos, Despina

2010-04-01

378

Computerized maze navigation and on-road performance by drivers with dementia.  

PubMed

This study examined the ability of computerized maze test performance to predict the road test performance of cognitively impaired and normal older drivers. The authors examined 133 older drivers, including 65 with probable Alzheimer disease, 23 with possible Alzheimer disease, and 45 control subjects without cognitive impairment. Subjects completed 5 computerized maze tasks employing a touch screen and pointer as well as a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Parameters measured for mazes included errors, planning time, drawing time, and total time. Within 2 weeks, subjects were examined by a professional driving instructor on a standardized road test modeled after the Washington University Road Test. Road test total score was significantly correlated with total time across the 5 mazes. This maze score was significant for both Alzheimer disease subjects and control subjects. One maze in particular, requiring less than 2 minutes to complete, was highly correlated with driving performance. For the standard neuropsychological tests, highest correlations were seen with Trail Making A (TrailsA) and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Tests Trial 1 (HVLT1). Multiple regression models for road test score using stepwise subtraction of maze and neuropsychological test variables revealed significant independent contributions for total maze time, HVLT1, and TrailsA for the entire group; total maze time and HVLT1 for Alzheimer disease subjects; and TrailsA for normal subjects. As a visual analog of driving, a brief computerized test of maze navigation time compares well to standard neuropsychological tests of psychomotor speed, scanning, attention, and working memory as a predictor of driving performance by persons with early Alzheimer disease and normal elders. Measurement of maze task performance appears to be useful in the assessment of older drivers at risk for hazardous driving. PMID:18287166

Ott, Brian R; Festa, Elena K; Amick, Melissa M; Grace, Janet; Davis, Jennifer D; Heindel, William C

2008-03-01

379

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 012113 (2013) Detection efficiency for loophole-free Bell tests with entangled states affected by colored noise  

E-print Network

with entangled states affected by colored noise Gustavo Ca~nas,1,2,3 Johanna F. Barra,1,2,3 Esteban S. G´omez,1 at the speed of light or slower can connect them) exhibit correlations that do not admit any explanation crit that depends on the Bell inequality and the noise affecting the entangled state received

Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

380

PCBQ: computerized quantification of total PCB and congeners in environmental samples  

SciTech Connect

Computerized methodologies for the quantification of total PCBs, PCB in Aroclor mixtures and individual PCB congeners in environmental samples are presented. The method for total PCBs is based on a multiple-linear regression analysis using data from capillary gas chromatography of aroclor standards. PCB congeners were identified and their weight percentages determined in Aroclor mixtures by GC/MS. PCB congeners and total PCBs were accurately quantified in predetermined test data and environmental samples.

Capel, P.D.; Rapaport, R.A.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Looney, B.B.

1985-01-01

381

Biotechnological production of colorants.  

PubMed

The color of food and drinks is important, as it is associated with freshness and taste. Despite that natural colorants are more expensive to produce, less stable to heat and light, and less consistent in color range, natural colorants have been gaining market share in recent years. The background is that artificial colorants are often associated with negative health aspects. Considerable progress has been made towards the fermentative production of some colorants. Because colorant biosynthesis is under close metabolic control, extensive strain and process development are needed in order to establish an economical production process. Another approach is the synthesis of colors by means of biotransformation of adequate precursors. Algae represent a promising group of microorganisms that have shown a high potential for the production of different colorants, and dedicated fermentation and downstream technologies have been developed. This chapter reviews the available information with respect to these approaches. PMID:24037500

de Boer, Lex

2014-01-01

382

From A Physical Color Stimulus To A Psychological Color Percept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper discusses the complexity of color vision in humans, considering the main aspects involved: the physical aspect, the psychophysical aspect, the physiological aspect and the psychological aspect. The meanings of the term color associated to each such aspect (asfor example, color stimulus, color valence, neural color signal and color percept) are introduced. Some types of color defective vision, relevant for color display users, are indicated. The methods to generate color stimuli in modern display devices, employing different technologies, are compared.

Sporea, Dan G.; Tonnquist, Gunnar

1989-08-01

383

Economic Evaluation of Computerized Structural Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This completed effort involved a technical and economic study of the capabilities of computer programs in the area of structural analysis. The applicability of the programs to NASA projects and to other users was studied. The applications in other industries was explored including both research and development and applied areas. The costs of several alternative analysis programs were compared. A literature search covered applicable technical literature including journals, trade publications and books. In addition to the literature search, several commercial companies that have developed computerized structural analysis programs were contacted and their technical brochures reviewed. These programs include SDRC I-DEAS, MSC/NASTRAN, SCADA, SUPERSAP, NISA/DISPLAY, STAAD-III, MICAS, GTSTRUDL, and STARS. These programs were briefly reviewed as applicable to NASA projects.

Fortin, P. E.

1985-01-01

384

Bold colors in a cryptic lineage: do Eastern Indigo Snakes exhibit color dimorphism?  

PubMed

Many species exhibit variation in the color of their scales, feathers, or fur. Various forms of natural selection, such as mimicry, crypsis, and species recognition, as well as sexual selection, can influence the evolution of color. Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi), a federally threatened species, have coloration on the sides of the head and the chin that can vary from black to red or cream. Despite significant conservations efforts for this species, little is known about its biology in the field. Past researchers have proposed that the color variation on the head and chin is associated with the sex of the individual. Alternatively, color might vary among individuals because it is controlled by genes that are under natural selection or neutral evolution. We tested these alternative hypotheses by examining whether coloration of the sublabial, submaxillary, and ventral scales of this species differed by sex or among clutches. We used color spectrometry to characterize important aspects of color in two ways: by examining overall color differences across the entire color spectrum and by comparing differences within the ultraviolet, yellow, and red colorbands. We found that Eastern Indigo Snakes do not exhibit sexual dichromatism, but their coloration does vary among clutches; therefore, the pattern of sexual selection leading to sexual dichromatism observed in many squamates does not appear to play a role in the evolution and maintenance of color variation in Eastern Indigo Snakes. We suggest that future studies should focus on determining whether color variation in these snakes is determined by maternal effects or genetic components and if color is influenced by natural selection or neutral evolutionary processes. Studying species that exhibit bright colors within lineages that are not known for such coloration will contribute greatly to our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological factors that drive these differences. PMID:23691245

Deitloff, Jennifer; Johnson, Valerie M; Guyer, Craig

2013-01-01

385

Bold Colors in a Cryptic Lineage: Do Eastern Indigo Snakes Exhibit Color Dimorphism?  

PubMed Central

Many species exhibit variation in the color of their scales, feathers, or fur. Various forms of natural selection, such as mimicry, crypsis, and species recognition, as well as sexual selection, can influence the evolution of color. Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi), a federally threatened species, have coloration on the sides of the head and the chin that can vary from black to red or cream. Despite significant conservations efforts for this species, little is known about its biology in the field. Past researchers have proposed that the color variation on the head and chin is associated with the sex of the individual. Alternatively, color might vary among individuals because it is controlled by genes that are under natural selection or neutral evolution. We tested these alternative hypotheses by examining whether coloration of the sublabial, submaxillary, and ventral scales of this species differed by sex or among clutches. We used color spectrometry to characterize important aspects of color in two ways: by examining overall color differences across the entire color spectrum and by comparing differences within the ultraviolet, yellow, and red colorbands. We found that Eastern Indigo Snakes do not exhibit sexual dichromatism, but their coloration does vary among clutches; therefore, the pattern of sexual selection leading to sexual dichromatism observed in many squamates does not appear to play a role in the evolution and maintenance of color variation in Eastern Indigo Snakes. We suggest that future studies should focus on determining whether color variation in these snakes is determined by maternal effects or genetic components and if color is influenced by natural selection or neutral evolutionary processes. Studying species that exhibit bright colors within lineages that are not known for such coloration will contribute greatly to our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological factors that drive these differences. PMID:23691245

Deitloff, Jennifer; Johnson, Valerie M.; Guyer, Craig

2013-01-01

386

Colors of maximal saturation.  

PubMed

The spectrum locus on the CIE Chromaticity Diagram represents monochromatic stimuli which have been exposed to a dark adapted fovea. Some of these colors can be made to appear more saturated by chromatic adaptation. The colors both inside the spectrum locus and the supersaturated colors outside are bounded by a four-sided boundary line which constitutes the locus of colors of maximal saturation. An attempt has been made to show how this quadrilateral is related to the fundamental colors and to a zone theory of color vision. PMID:8539020

Fry, G A

1995-08-01

387

Radiation coloration resistant glass  

DOEpatents

A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

Tomozawa, Minoru (Troy, NY); Watson, E. Bruce (Troy, NY); Acocella, John (Troy, NY)

1986-01-01

388

Radiation coloration resistant glass  

DOEpatents

A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

1986-11-04

389

Modelling the IRAS colors of galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A physical interpretation is proposed for the color-color diagram of galaxies which are powered only by star formation. The colors of each galaxy result from the combination of two components: cirrus-like emission from the neutral disk, and warmer emission from regions directly involved in on-going star formation. This approach to modelling the emission is based on dust properties, but independent evidence for it is found in the relation between the color sequence and the luminosity sequence. Implications of data and interpretations are discussed and possible tests mentioned for the model.

Helou, George

1987-01-01

390

Statistical pressure snakes based on color images.  

SciTech Connect

The traditional mono-color statistical pressure snake was modified to function on a color image with target errors defined in HSV color space. Large variations in target lighting and shading are permitted if the target color is only specified in terms of hue. This method works well with custom targets where the target is surrounded by a color of a very different hue. A significant robustness increase is achieved in the computer vision capability to track a specific target in an unstructured, outdoor environment. By specifying the target color to contain hue, saturation and intensity values, it is possible to establish a reasonably robust method to track general image features of a single color. This method is convenient to allow the operator to select arbitrary targets, or sections of a target, which have a common color. Further, a modification to the standard pixel averaging routine is introduced which allows the target to be specified not only in terms of a single color, but also using a list of colors. These algorithms were tested and verified by using a web camera attached to a personal computer.

Schaub, Hanspeter [ORION International Technologies, Albuquerque, NM] [ORION International Technologies, Albuquerque, NM

2004-05-01

391

Computerized image processing in the Reginald Denny beating trial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New image processing techniques may have significant benefits to law enforcement officials but need to be legally admissible in court. Courts have different tests for determining the admissibility of new scientific procedures, requiring their reliability to be established by expert testimony. The first test developed was whether there has been general acceptance of the new procedure within the scientific community. In 1993 the U.S. Supreme Court loosened the requirements for admissibility of new scientific techniques, although the California Supreme Court later retained the general acceptance test. What the proper standard is for admission of such evidence is important to both the technical community and to the legal community because of the conflict between benefits of rapidly developing technology, and the dangers of 'junk science.' The Reginald Denny beating case from the 1992 Los Angeles riots proved the value of computerized image processing in identifying persons committing crimes on videotape. The segmentation process was used to establish the presence of a tattoo on one defendant, which was key in his identification. Following the defendant's conviction, the California Court of Appeal approved the use of the evidence involving the segmentation process. This published opinion may be cited as legal precedent.

Morrison, Lawrence C.

1997-02-01

392

Tongue Color Analysis for Medical Application  

PubMed Central

An in-depth systematic tongue color analysis system for medical applications is proposed. Using the tongue color gamut, tongue foreground pixels are first extracted and assigned to one of 12 colors representing this gamut. The ratio of each color for the entire image is calculated and forms a tongue color feature vector. Experimenting on a large dataset consisting of 143 Healthy and 902 Disease (13 groups of more than 10 samples and one miscellaneous group), a given tongue sample can be classified into one of these two classes with an average accuracy of 91.99%. Further testing showed that Disease samples can be split into three clusters, and within each cluster most if not all the illnesses are distinguished from one another. In total 11 illnesses have a classification rate greater than 70%. This demonstrates a relationship between the state of the human body and its tongue color. PMID:23737824

Wang, Xingzheng; You, Jane

2013-01-01

393

The nature of infant color categorization: Evidence from eye movements on a target detection task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants respond categorically to color. However, the nature of infants’ categorical responding to color is unclear. The current study investigated two issues. First, is infants’ categorical responding more absolute than adults’ categorical responding? That is, can infants discriminate two stimuli from the same color category? Second, is color categorization in infants truly perceptual? Color categorization was tested by recording adults’

Anna Franklin; Michael Pilling; Ian Davies

2005-01-01

394

Dynamics of Color Contrast Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Many forms of color adaptation have been found to reflect both short- and long-term adjustments. We explored the buildup and decay of adaptation to chromatic contrast (temporal modulations of color) for which the dynamics are unknown. A matching task was used to track the perceived contrast of chromatic pulses of varying physical contrast during and after adapting for one hour to a high contrast modulation repeated over 5 successive days. The adaptation was characterized by rapid response changes that remained stable in both time course and form across sessions. There was no consistent evidence for long-term plasticity over the timescales we tested. PMID:24695188

Tregillus, Katherine; Webster, Michael A.

2014-01-01

395

A Computerized System for Benefit-Cost Analysis in Vocational Education. Final Report, June 15, 1978 through June 30, 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computerized system for analysis of the cost/benefits of public investment in vocational education program in the state of Florida was developed and pilot tested. The Bobitt procedure, developed at the University of Florida to assess the economic benefits of selected vocational programs, was revised and expanded to permit determination of…

Alexander, Kern; And Others

396

Show Your Colors!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this family or group activity, learners conduct a chromatography experiment to reveal the colors that leaves "hide" under their green pigments. Use this experiment to predict what colors the leaves will "turn" in the fall.

Park, Smithsonian N.

2011-08-20

397

Color realism redux  

E-print Network

Our reply is in three parts. The first part concerns some foundational issues in the debate about color realism. The second part addresses the many objections to the version of physicalism about color (“productance ...

Byrne, Alex

398

The Trouble with Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses problems with color quality in Web sites. Topics include differences in monitor settings, including contrast; amount of video RAM; user preference settings; browser-safe colors; cross-platform readability; and gamma values. (LRW)

Merchant, David

1999-01-01

399

Light, Color, and Mirrors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an exercise in which students can use flashlights, mirrors, and colored paper to discover scientific principles regarding optics. Addresses the concepts of angles of incidence and reflection, colored vs. white light, and mirror images. (WRM)

Tiburzi, Brian; Tamborino, Laurie; Parker, Gordon A.

2000-01-01

400

Computerized symbolic manipulation in structural mechanics Progress and potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Status and recent applications of computerized symbolic manipulation to structural mechanics problems are summarized. The applications discussed include; (1) generation of characteristic arrays of finite elements; (2) evaluation of effective stiffness and mass coefficients of continuum models for repetitive lattice structures; and (3) application of Rayleigh-Ritz technique to free vibration analysis of laminated composite elliptic plates. The major advantages of using computerized symbolic manipulation in each of these applications are outlined. A number of problem areas which limit the realization of the full potential of computerized symbolic manipulation in structural mechanics are examined and some of the means of alleviating them are discussed.

Noor, A. K.; Andersen, C. M.

1978-01-01

401

Problems and Solutions of Popularization of Accounting Computerization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the integration of China's economy and international markets, accounting computerization, which conducts accounting and accounting control by taking advantage of computer, has become a major component sector of accounting modernization and the main content of accounting reform. The popularization of accounting computerization is beyond question. Only this popularization can meet the requirement of knowledge economy for accounting information. It is the need to deepen accounting reform, to further enhance the level of accounting work and to achieve China's modernization of science and technology as well. This paper discusses problems and relevant solutions in the popularization process of accounting computerization so as to carry out this popularization better.

Lu, Kan; Fu, YingLi; Gu, CaiDong; Zhang, Liang

402

Outpatient prescribing errors and the impact of computerized prescribing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Medication errors are common among inpatients and many are preventable with computerized prescribing. Relatively little is\\u000a known about outpatient prescribing errors or the impact of computerized prescribing in this setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To assess the rates, types, and severity of outpatient prescribing errors and understand the potential impact of computerized\\u000a prescribing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in 4 adult primary care

Tejal K. Gandhi; Saul N. Weingart; Andrew C. Seger; Joshua Borus; Elisabeth Burdick; Eric G. Poon; Lucian L. Leape; David W. Bates

2005-01-01

403

Quantum Dots and Colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the physical concept of the colors of rainbows as light energy in the form of waves with distinct wavelengths, but in a different manner than traditional kaleidoscopes. Looking at different quantum dot solutions, they make observations and measurements, and graph their data. They come to understand how nanoparticles interact with absorbing photons to produce colors. They learn the dependence of particle size and color wavelength and learn about real-world applications for using these colorful liquids.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

404

Down to Earth: Colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students identify the actual colors of objects bathed in monochromatic light and learn how three colors of light can be combined to produce colors ranging from black to white. Students see how space observatories make use of monochromatic filters to collect data on the color of objects in space. The activity is in unit four of the "Space-Based Astronomy" guide that contains background information, worksheets, assessment activities, extensions, and alignment to national education standards.

405

A system of regional agricultural land use mapping tested against small scale Apollo 9 color infrared photography of the Imperial Valley (California)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Interpretation results of the small scale ClR photography of the Imperial Valley (California) taken on March 12, 1969 by the Apollo 9 earth orbiting satellite have shown that world wide agricultural land use mapping can be accomplished from satellite ClR imagery if sufficient a priori information is available for the region being mapped. Correlation of results with actual data is encouraging although the accuracy of identification of specific crops from the single image is poor. The poor results can be partly attributed to only one image taken during mid-season when the three major crops were reflecting approximately the same and their ClR image appears to indicate the same crop type. However, some incapacity can be attributed to lack of understanding of the subtle variations of visual and infrared color reflectance of vegetation and surrounding environment. Analysis of integrated color variations of the vegetation and background environment recorded on ClR imagery is discussed. Problems associated with the color variations may be overcome by development of a semi-automatic processing system which considers individual field units or cells. Design criteria for semi-automatic processing system are outlined.

Johnson, Claude W.; Browden, Leonard W.; Pease, Robert W.

1969-01-01

406

Spinning Your (Color) Wheels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this optics activity, learners use everyday materials to make a color wheel. When learners spin the wheel like a top, they will be surprised to see all the colors mixing together to appear white. Use this activity to introduce learners to color and the visible spectrum.

America, Optical S.

2008-01-01

407

Color imaging for multimedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To a significant degree, multimedia applications derive their effectiveness from the use of color graphics, images, and video. However, the requirements for accurate color reproduction and for the preservation of this information across display and print devices that have very different characteristics and may be geographically apart are often not clearly understood. This paper describes the basics of color science,

GAURAV SHARMA; MICHAEL J. VRHEL; H. JOEL TRUSSELL

1998-01-01

408

Strong Colorings of Hypergraphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strong vertex coloring of a hypergraph assigns distinct col- ors to vertices that are contained in a common hyperedge. This captures many previously studied graph coloring problems. We present nearly tight upper and lower bound on approximating general hypergraphs, both oine and online. We then consider various parameters that make coloring easier, and give a unied treatment. In particular,

Geir Agnarsson; Magnús M. Halldórsson

2004-01-01

409

Color Discrimination Work Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's ability to see likenesses or differences in colors or shades, identifying or matching certain colors, and selecting colors that go together. Section 1 describes the assessment and lists related occupations and DOT codes. Instructions to the evaluator are provided in the…

Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

410

Biology of Skin Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

Corcos, Alain

1983-01-01

411

Reimagining the Color Wheel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

Snyder, Jennifer

2011-01-01

412

[Skin photophysics and colors].  

PubMed

The optical properties of skin and of chromophores orientate and absorbe light. The resulting skin colour can be assessed by visual inspection or by objective methods. Spectrophotometry, tristimulus colorimetry and computerized image analysis are well codified methods. Epidermal melanisation is detected with great sensitivity under ultraviolet light illumination. PMID:15909553

Piérard, G E; Uhoda, E

2005-01-01

413

Occupational color vision standards: new prospects.  

PubMed

Occupational color vision standards in transport have been implemented for 100 years. A review of these standards has taken place early this century prompted by antidiscrimination laws in the workplace and several transport accidents. The Australian and Canadian Railways have developed new lanterns to address their occupational medical requirements. The Civil Aviation Authority in the UK has adopted the Color Assessment and Diagnosis (CAD) test as the standard for assessing color vision for professional flight crews. The methodology employed using the CAD test ensures that color deficient pilot applicants able to complete the most safety-critical task with the same accuracy as normal trichromats can be accepted for pilot training. This methodology can be extended for setting new color vision standards in other work environments. PMID:24695202

Birch, Jennifer; Rodríguez-Carmona, Marisa

2014-04-01

414

Molecular Expressions: Color Separation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an interactive Java simulation for introductory physics students on the topic of color. It explores how individual subtractive primary colors can be separated from a full-color photograph and then be reassembled to create the original scene. The mouse cursor may be used to superimpose color separations over one another. As additional separations are added, the resulting image exhibits the realism of a color photograph. This item is part of a larger collection of materials on optics and microscopy developed by the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and Florida State University.

Davidson, Michael; Parry-Hill, Matthew J.; Sutter, Robert

2008-08-21

415

Color quality inspection and compensation for color LED display modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an automated color inspection and compensation solutions for color LED modules which are main components of a color LED display panel. Initially, a self-developed color optical sensing module and a colorimeter were used to measure the colors of LED pixels. After the color matching functions from the collected data was corrected by least-squares approximation method, the calibrated

Ming-Jong Tsai; Shu-Huai Chang; Chia-Liang Lee; Chia-Te Chou

2011-01-01

416

Color planner for designers based on color emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of

Ka-Man Cheng; John H. Xin; Gail Taylor

2002-01-01

417

Rainbow Coloring of Graphs Rainbow Coloring of Graphs  

E-print Network

Rainbow Coloring of Graphs Rainbow Coloring of Graphs L. Sunil Chandran Computer Science and Automation Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Email: sunil@csa.iisc.ernet.in #12;Rainbow Coloring of Graphs What is Rainbow Coloring? Consider an edge coloring, not necessarily proper. #12;Rainbow Coloring

Narasayya, Vivek

418

Survey of methods for improving operator acceptance of computerized aids  

SciTech Connect

The success of current attempts to improve the operational performance and safety of nuclear power plants by installing computerized operational aids in the control rooms is dependent, in part, on the operator's attitude toward the aid. Utility experience with process computer systems indicates that problems may already exist with operator acceptance of computerized aids. The growth of the role that computers have in nuclear power plants makes user acceptance of computer technology an important issue for the nuclear industry. The purpose of this report is to draw from the literature factors related to user acceptance of computerized equipment that may also be applicable to the acceptance of computerized aids used in the nuclear power plant control room.

Frey, P. R.; Kisner, R. A.

1982-04-01

419

45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...action taken to modify the system if the system contributed to the deficiency...disapproval is a final administrative decision and is not subject to administrative...FFP for costs of computerized support enforcement systems. (2) FFP for...

2011-10-01

420

45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...action taken to modify the system if the system contributed to the deficiency...disapproval is a final administrative decision and is not subject to administrative...FFP for costs of computerized support enforcement systems. (2) FFP for...

2010-10-01

421

Computerized Patient Care Data: An Educational Program for Nurses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the five-year educational program at the Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health that teaches utilization of a computerized Medical Information System for documenting the nursing process. (CT)

Butters, Shirley; And Others

1982-01-01

422

Color Classification of Coordination Compounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that colored compounds be classified by reference to a standard color-order system incorporating a color dictionary. Argues that the colors of new compounds could be incorporated into the characterization process and into computer storage systems. (TW)

Poncini, Laurence; Wimmer, Franz L.

1987-01-01

423

A correlation study between two color-measuring spectrophotometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Army recently completed a four phase effort to develop an objective computerized method for evaluating shade acceptability of dyed and printed textiles for the government quality assurance program. Rapidly emerging developments in the field of optics and computers have made older instruments obsolete. This study evaluates the repeatability and correlation between two spectrophotometers manufactured 8 years apart by Applied Color Systems of Princeton, New Jersey. The samples (20 fabric swatches, 22 porcelain tiles, and a color difference pair) were measured for short- and long-term repeatability. Each instrument was found to show a repeatability of 0.12 CIELAB color difference units or less for the two time periods studied. The largest color difference observed between the two instruments for these samples was 0.5 CIELAB color difference units. The color difference pair correlation measurements and repeatability of the instruments data were very good. Measurements in the infrared region (up to 900 nm) for the two instruments demonstrated very good repeatability and correlation results.

St. Pere, Robin R.

1991-01-01

424

Cross-cultural color-odor associations.  

PubMed

Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents), using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience. PMID:25007343

Levitan, Carmel A; Ren, Jiana; Woods, Andy T; Boesveldt, Sanne; Chan, Jason S; McKenzie, Kirsten J; Dodson, Michael; Levin, Jai A; Leong, Christine X R; van den Bosch, Jasper J F

2014-01-01

425

General Atomics Sciences: Chromatics - The Science of Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is a comprehensive module for grades 8-12 on the origin of colors in materials, including liquids, solids, and gases. "Color in gases" includes experiments that explore the color of fireworks, the origin of smog, the cause of rainbows, and why the sky is blue. The "Color in liquids" section includes investigations into why plants are green, the color change of acid/base indicators, why objects change color when they rust, and how glowsticks and fireflies produce colored light. The section dealing with "Color in solids" examines how colors are produced by the interference of light using an audio CD, how UV light can be detected using fluorescence, and how light emitting diodes work. This resource is aligned with national science education standards and has been refined through classroom testing. This item is part of a larger collection of inquiry-based modules. SEE RELATED ITEMS on this page for a link to these materials.

Woolf, Lawrence

2009-05-25

426

A technique to evaluate the performance of computerized ECG analysis systems.  

PubMed

No objective method to test computerized ECG systems has been available. Until now, tests have been conducted separately for instrumentation and algorithms. Hence, to facilitate objective verification and testing of modern computerized ECG equipment, a dedicated high resolution, low noise instrument (an "electronic test patient") has been developed. The purpose of this communication is to describe this new instrument and its electrocardiographic database. The instrument is designed not to cause any disturbances to the original ECG signals in the frequency range from 0 to 1 kHz. The input channels accommodating standard 12-lead and 3-lead Frank systems are sampled simultaneously at 10 kHz each with 90 dB dynamic range. The overall RMS noise figure of the instrument is 1 microV. The integral part of the instrument is a high resolution, high bandwidth minidatabase consisting of selected A-type and B-type verified electrocardiograms such as infarctions, ventricular hypertrophies, atrial fibrillations, etc. The minidatabase was collected with the aid of a computerized ECG system, which has a program for searching for specific electrocardiographic diagnosis. Each database record consists of simultaneous electrocardiographic signals of all standard leads and Frank leads, and a validated diagnostic report. A system under test is typically connected via its patient cable to the analog output of the instrument. The testing is performed with reference to the validated ECG from the database. In that way, our minidatabase is compatible with any electrocardiographic system. The only similar database assembled for testing purposes is that of the CSE group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3694104

Teppner, U; Lobodzinski, S; Neubert, D; Laks, M M

1987-10-01

427

Color Use in Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, you will learn a little bit about color theory and how it can effect the colors that you choose for a design. This activity covers the Arizona State CTE Standard for demonstrating drawing and visualization skills required for graphic communications (Standard #13). Read each section below carefully and follow the links provided to find more information on the topics discussed. When you are finished with the lesson, complete the assignment at the bottom of the screen. Introduction There are certain colors that look good together in designs and there is a reason for it. Colors that look good together are based on their relationship to each other on a color wheel. In the following lesson, you are going explore the color wheel and the color relationships ...

Pope

2008-10-07

428

Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on Bayesian Theory  

E-print Network

and efficient assessment of a learner's proficiency has always been a high priority for intelligent e approach. For assessing multiple skills at once, which is called for in e-learning environments because and practical basis for performing skills assessment, of which Item Response Theory (IRT) is the best recognized

Desmarais, Michel C.

429

Concerns with Computerized Adaptive Oral Proficiency Assessment. A Commentary on "Comparing Examinee Attitudes Toward Computer-Assisted and Other Oral Proficient Assessments" [and] Response to the Norris Commentary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to an article on computerized adaptive second language (L2) testing, expressing concerns about the appropriateness of such tests for informing language educators about the language skills of L2 learners and users and fulfilling the intended purposes and achieving the desired consequences of language test use.The authors of the original…

Norris, John M.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Malabonga, Valerie

2001-01-01

430

Development of a full-color LED backlight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in SiC blue LED technology have led to the viability of Full-Color LED Displays. In this paper, a full-color LED backlight is constructed and tested. The results show that a full-color LED backlight is effective for a wide variety of avionics, automotive, commercial and industrial applications.

Gary Weessies

1992-01-01

431

Improving Scores on Computerized Reading Assessments: The Effects of Colored Overlay Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual stress is a perceptual dysfunction that appears to affect how information is processed as it passes from the eyes to the brain. Photophobia, visual resolution, restricted focus, sustaining focus, and depth perception are all components of visual stress. Because visual stress affects what is perceived by the eye, students with this disorder…

Adams, Tracy A.

2012-01-01

432

Color Reproduction with a Smartphone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

2013-01-01

433

Colors Change Appearance Crayola Supplies  

E-print Network

wonder about how your eyes perceive color and shape? Form a question about your experience. Use books color looks different to your eye when surrounded by other colors. Adaptations Older students work students. Find out more about color. Are there colors the human eye does not see? What colors do different

Zanibbi, Richard

434

Space Simulation, 7th. [facilities and testing techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space simulation facilities and techniques are outlined that encompass thermal scale modeling, computerized simulations, reentry materials, spacecraft contamination, solar simulation, vacuum tests, and heat transfer studies.

1973-01-01

435

Modeling of display color parameters and algorithmic color selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithmic approach to color selection, which is based on psychophysical models of color processing, is described. The factors that affect color differentiation, such as wavelength separation, color stimulus size, and brightness adaptation level, are discussed. The use of the CIE system of colorimetry and the CIELUV color difference metric for display color modeling is examined. The computer program combines the selection algorithm with internally derived correction factors for color image field size, ambient lighting characteristics, and anomalous red-green color vision deficiencies of display operators. The performance of the program is evaluated and uniform chromaticity scale diagrams for six-color and seven-color selection problems are provided.

Silverstein, Louis D.; Lepkowski, James S.; Carter, Robert C.; Carter, Ellen C.

1986-01-01

436

Color improves “visual” acuity via sound  

PubMed Central

Visual-to-auditory sensory substitution devices (SSDs) convey visual information via sound, with the primary goal of making visual information accessible to blind and visually impaired individuals. We developed the EyeMusic SSD, which transforms shape, location, and color information into musical notes. We tested the “visual” acuity of 23 individuals (13 blind and 10 blindfolded sighted) on the Snellen tumbling-E test, with the EyeMusic. Participants were asked to determine the orientation of the letter “E.” The test was repeated twice: in one test, the letter “E” was drawn with a single color (white), and in the other test, with two colors (red and white). In the latter case, the vertical line in the letter, when upright, was drawn in red, with the three horizontal lines drawn in white. We found no significant differences in performance between the blind and the sighted groups. We found a significant effect of the added color on the “visual” acuity. The highest acuity participants reached in the monochromatic test was 20/800, whereas with the added color, acuity doubled to 20/400. We conclude that color improves “visual” acuity via sound.

Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Riemer, Dar; Amedi, Amir

2014-01-01

437

Is there a link between the hospital-acquired injurious fall rates in US acute care hospitals and these institutions' implementation levels of computerized systems?  

PubMed

Medicare no longer reimburses acute care hospitals for the costs of additional care required due to hospital-acquired injuries. Consequently, this study explored the effective computerized systems to inform practice for better interventions to reduce fall risk. It provided a correlation between type of computerized system and hospital-acquired injurious fall rates at acute care hospitals in California, Florida, and New York. It used multiple publicly available data sets, with the hospital as the unit of analysis. Descriptive and Pearson correlation analyses were used. The analysis included 462 hospitals. Significant correlations could be categorized into two groups: (1) meaningful computerized systems that were associated with lower injurious fall rates: the decision support systems for drug allergy alerts, drug-drug interaction alerts, and drug-laboratory interaction alerts; and (2) computerized systems that were associated with higher injurious fall rates: the decision support system for drug-drug interaction alerts and the computerized provider order entry system for radiology tests. Future research may include additional states, multiple years of data, and patient-level data to validate this study's findings. This effort may further inform policy makers and the public about effective clinical computerized systems provided to clinicians to improve their practice decisions and care outcomes. PMID:21825973

Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Hu, Hsou Mei; Yin, Chang-Yi

2011-12-01

438

The nature of colors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color is a visible aspect of objects and lights, and as such is an objective characteristic of our phenomenal world. Correspondingly also objects and lights are objective, although their subjectivity cannot be disregarded since they belong to our phenomenal world. The distinction between perception and sensation deals with colors seen either in complex displays or in isolation. Reality of colors is apparently challenged by virtual reality, while virtual reality is a good example of what colors are. It seems difficult to combine that aspect of reality colors have in our experience and the concept that colors represent something in the external environment: the distinction between stimulation and perceived object is crucial for understanding the relationships between phenomenal world and physical reality. A modern concept of isomorphism seems useful in interpreting the role of colors. The relationship between the psychological structure of colors and the physical stimulation is enlightened by the analysis of pseudocolors. The perceptual, subjective characteristics of colors go along with the subjectivity of scientific concepts. Colors, emotions, and concepts are all in some people's mind: none of them is independent of the subject mind. Nevertheless they can be communicated from person to person by an appropriate scientific terminology.

da Pos, Osvaldo

2002-06-01

439

Computerized methods for the clinical interpretation of myocardial scintigrams  

SciTech Connect

Computer processing of medical images is mainly used in order to improve the image quality or to derive some quantitative data from the study. Clinical interpretation of the pictures is usually based on criteria which depend on the experience of the observer, who decides to establish a relationship between the results of the study and the clinical situation of the patient. Computerized classification techniques may overcome the operator variability and optimize the criteria which affect pictures to normal or various pathological classes. In order to test the ability of factorial discriminant analysis to interpret thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams, 207 studies (at rest = 95, after stress + redistribution = 50, after dipyridamole + redistribution = 62) performed in patients undergoing coronary angiography have been first evaluated using various criteria of increasing severity, according to a regional tracer uptake model with 10 territories. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves demonstrated, that sensitivity and specificity varied in opposite directions, a high sensitivity (89% to 100%) being only achieved when accepting a lack of specificity (33% to 57%). Discriminant analysis, on the contrary, provided for each type of scintigraphic protocol a single optimal combination of sensitivity (74% to 87%) and specificity (92% to 100%).

Itti, R.; Benjelloun, L.; Benjelloun, H.; Rosenberg, S.; Laudet, M.

1985-05-01

440

Computerized system for the performance of environmental impact assessments  

SciTech Connect

A wide range of techniques and methods are employed in the performance of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) worldwide. There is currently a great need for consistency in approach, so that predicted impacts from project to project, and region to region can be readily compared. A systematic approach has been developed and computerized so as to provide for a consistent, rapid and cost-effective means of performing EIAs for a wide variety of projects. The system also facilitates iterative, least-cost gaming to arrive at the most appropriate project design and location. The system is supported by custom developed knowledge bases and a geographic information system (GIS). The system was originally developed under contract to the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The system has been distributed to all ADB-member countries. Current applications also include US Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded conversion of the system to support performance of EIAs in Russia, to satisfy Russian regulatory requirements, and the requirements of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). The World Bank (WB) is also current testing the system for applications on WB-financed or funded projects.

Rose, M. [ESSA Software Ltd. (United States); Hodges, M. [CH2M Hill (United States)

1997-12-31

441

Color night vision based on color transfer in YUV color space  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain a color night vision image, we proposed a color transfer algorithm in YUV color space based on the color transfer algorithm in lalphabeta color space which Reinhard proposed. After rendering the simple statistics (means and standard deviations) of the target image to the source image, the color appearance of the target image is transferred to the source image.

Shiming Shi; Lingxue Wang; Wei-qi Jin; Yuanmeng Zhao

2008-01-01

442

Improvement on reflective color measurement using a tri-color LED by multi-point calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a reflective color measurement using a tri-color LED. The color of the tested sample was determined by measuring three reflected intensities in different colors. Modulation/demodulation technique was used to distinguish three reflected intensities. The three reflected signals can be processed by a computer to give the ( x, y) coordinate in CIE chromaticity diagram. Since three-points measurements give poor estimate on the whole spectral reflectance, the predicted results deviate much from those measured from some well-calibrated instrument. We have also successfully developed a calibrating procedure to correct it.

Yang, P. K.; Chen, J. C.; Chuang, Y. H.

2007-04-01

443

General Atomics Sciences: It's a Colorful Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is a multi-day module for grades 8-12 on the topic of color. It was designed as a set of six interlinked experiments to explore how colors are formed by light absorption and emission. Activities include: physical models to experiment with additive and subtractive color and explore how objects reflect and absorb light; examining color mixing by using a simple Power Point tool called CMYK; using magnification to examine the dot colors produced by an ink jet printer, and more. Detailed lesson plans, student activity guides, and background information are freely accessible online. The module was developed to be used with a set of unique hands-on lab materials sold by the publisher, however, many items are readily obtainable from teacher supply stores. This resource is aligned with national science education standards and has been refined through classroom testing. This item is part of a larger collection of inquiry-based modules.

Woolf, Lawrence

444

Color priming in pop-out search depends on the relative color of the target  

PubMed Central

In visual search for pop-out targets, search times are shorter when the target and non-target colors from the previous trial are repeated than when they change. This priming effect was originally attributed to a feature weighting mechanism that biases attention toward the target features, and away from the non-target features. However, more recent studies have shown that visual selection is strongly context-dependent: according to a relational account of feature priming, the target color is always encoded relative to the non-target color (e.g., as redder or greener). The present study provides a critical test of this hypothesis, by varying the colors of the search items such that either the relative color or the absolute color of the target always remained constant (or both). The results clearly show that color priming depends on the relative color of a target with respect to the non-targets but not on its absolute color value. Moreover, the observed priming effects did not change over the course of the experiment, suggesting that the visual system encodes colors in a relative manner from the start of the experiment. Taken together, these results strongly support a relational account of feature priming in visual search, and are inconsistent with the dominant feature-based views. PMID:24782795

Becker, Stefanie I.; Valuch, Christian; Ansorge, Ulrich

2014-01-01

445

Vision Research 39 (1999) 15311550 Simultaneous color constancy: how surface color perception varies  

E-print Network

Vision Research 39 (1999) 1531­1550 Simultaneous color constancy: how surface color perception the test illuminant so that it (a) had the same hue, saturation, and brightness (appearance match) or (b a much higher level of constancy than the appearance matches. The adjustment in the surface matches

Schubart, Christoph

446

Is Skin Color a Marker for Racial Discrimination? Explaining the Skin Color–Hypertension Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely assumed that dark-skinned Blacks have higher rates of hypertension than their lighter-skinned cohorts because the former experience greater racial discrimination. However, there is no empirical evidence linking skin color to discrimination. This study tested the extent to which skin color is associated with differential exposure to discrimination for a sample of 300 Black adults. Results revealed that

Elizabeth A. Klonoff; Hope Landrine

2000-01-01

447

Colored diffraction catastrophes.  

PubMed Central

On fine scales, caustics produced with white light show vividly colored diffraction fringes. For caustics described by the elementary catastrophes of singularity theory, the colors are characteristic of the type of singularity. We study the diffraction colors of the fold and cusp catastrophes. The colors can be simulated computationally as the superposition of monochromatic patterns for different wavelengths. Far from the caustic, where the luminosity contrast is negligible, the fringe colors persist; an asymptotic theory explains why. Experiments with caustics produced by refraction through irregular bathroom-window glass show good agreement with theory. Colored fringes near the cusp reveal fine lines that are not present in any of the monochromatic components; these lines are explained in terms of partial decoherence between rays with widely differing path differences. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:11607642

Berry, M V; Klein, S

1996-01-01

448

Coloring Soybeans with Anthocyanins?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The seed coats of black soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) accumulate all anthocyanins required for the red (cyanidin-), blue\\u000a (delphinidin-), purple (petunidin-), and orange (pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside) coloration of plant tissues. Metabolic engineering of anthocyanin biosynthesis in black soybean may potentially\\u000a be used to generate distinct colors for the visible identification of transgenic seeds. Presently the causal agents of black\\u000a coloration in

Nikola Kovinich; John T. Arnason; Vincenzo De Luca; Brian Miki

449

Restorer: Four Color Chart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Restorer is a visualization technique for indicating the location of missing data in a scientific visualization. Rather than filling missing data regions with interpolated data colored with the same scale as real data or simply leaving such regions empty, the restorer technique fills the regions with interpolated data colored with a color table with only luminance values. This technique allows missing data to be indicated clearly without distracting from the content of the real data.

Cavallo, John; Shiri, Shahram; Twiddy, Ray

1994-08-24

450

NCI Color Palette  

Cancer.gov

NCI's official colors are red and gray. To create a strong, cohesive NCI presence and an intuitive website experience, the main NCI website was designed in light of this color scheme. NCI's official colors are used consistently throughout the main NCI website to help create a uniform look for the site and to reinforce the tie between the site's home page and its constituent pages.

451

COLORS FOR LEVEL PLOTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Friele-MacAdam-Chickering FMC-1 formula appears to provide a good auto- matic spectrum of equally spaced colors for use in color level plots. Other candidates include: the CIE Luv uniform color space, the Optical Society of America L j g space, the MacLeod—Boynton space, and the Alvy Ray Smith hexcone model. To get a C routine generating the FMC rainbow, type

ERIC GROSSE

452

Holographic color schlieren.  

PubMed

A 20-in (51-cm) diam schlieren system was convereted to a genrualized holographic flow visualization system. The system has been used successfully in producing the following types of visualization from a single holographic plate: three-dimensional photography, variable focus shadowgraph, variable knife-edge position schlieren, color-schlieren, and interferometry. All of these except for holographic color schlieren have previously been reported with varying degrees of success. This paper presents a technique for producing color schlierent photographs from holograms formed in the above system and shows preliminary results of the application. The method possesses a number of advantages over conventional color schlieren photography. PMID:20072572

O'Hare, J E; Trolinger, J D

1969-10-01

453

Fibromyalgia Patients Had Normal Distraction Related Pain Inhibition but Cognitive Impairment Reflected in Caudate Nucleus and Hippocampus during the Stroop Color Word Test  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms causing cognitive problems in chronic pain patients are not well understood. We used the Stroop color word task (SCWT) to investigate distraction-induced analgesia, cognitive performance, and cerebral activation patterns in 29 fibromyalgia (FM) patients (mean age 49.8 years, range 25–64 years) and 31 healthy controls (HC) (mean age 46.3 years, range 20–63 years). In the first study, SCWT was used to investigate distraction-induced analgesia in FM patients. Two versions of the task were applied, one with only congruent color-word images and one with incongruent images. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed using a pressure algometer before, during, and following SCWT. In the second study, reaction times (RTs) were assessed and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate cerebral activation patterns in FM patients and HC during the SCWT. An event-related task mixing incongruent and congruent images was used. In study one, we found reduced pressure pain sensitivity during SCWT in both groups alike and no statistically significant differences were seen between the incongruent and congruent conditions. The study two revealed longer RTs during the incongruent compared to the congruent condition in both groups. FM patients had longer RTs than HC in both conditions. Furthermore, we found a significant interaction between group and congruency; that is, the group differences in RTs were more pronounced during the incongruent condition. This was reflected in a reduced activation of the caudate nucleus, lingual gyrus, temporal areas, and the hippocampus in FM patients compared to HC. In conclusion, we found normal pain inhibition during SWTC in FM patients. The cognitive difficulties seen in FM patients, reflected in longer RTs, were related to reduced activation of the caudate nucleus and hippocampus during incongruent SCWT, which most likely affected the mechanisms of cognitive learning in FM patients. PMID:25275449

Martinsen, Sofia; Flodin, Par; Berrebi, Jonathan; Lofgren, Monika; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Ingvar, Martin; Fransson, Peter; Kosek, Eva

2014-01-01

454

Color silver halide hologram production and mastering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color reflection holograms recorded with the Denisyuk geometry have been demonstrated by the recently formed HOLOS Corporation in New Hampshire. The Slavich red-green-blue (RGB) sensitized ultra-high resolution silver halide emulsion was used for the hologram recording. The employed laser wavelengths were 647 nm, 532 nm, and 476 nm, generated by an argon ion, a frequency doubled Nd:YAG, and a krypton ion laser, respectively. A beam combination mechanism with dichroic filters enabled a simultaneous RGB exposure, which made the color balance and overall exposure energy easy to control as well as simplifying the recording procedure. HOLOS has been producing limited edition color holograms in various sizes from 4' X 5' to 12' X 16'. A 30 foot long optical table and high power lasers will enable HOLOS to record color holograms up to the size of one meter square in the near future. Various approaches have been investigated in generating color hologram masters which have sufficiently high diffraction efficiency to contact copy the color images onto photopolymer materials. A specially designed test object including the 1931 CIE chromaticity diagram, a rainbow ribbon cable, pure yellow dots, and a cloisonne elephant was used for color recording experiments. In addition, the Macbeth Color Checker chart was used. Both colorimetric evaluation and scattering noise measurements were performed using the PR-650 Photo Research SpectraScan SpectraCalorimeter.

Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Huang, Qiang

1997-04-01

455

The colorful language of Australian flowers  

PubMed Central

The enormous increase in phylogenetic information in recent years has allowed many old questions to be reexamined from a macroevolutionary perspective. We have recently considered evolutionary convergence in floral colors within pollination syndromes, using bird-pollinated species in Australia. We combined quantitative measurements of floral reflectance spectra, models of avian color vision, and a phylogenetic tree of 234 Australian species to show that bird-pollinated flowers as a group do not have colors that are significantly different from the colors of insect-pollinated flowers. However, about half the bird-pollinated flowers have convergently evolved a narrow range of colors with dominant long-wavelength reflection far more often than would be expected by chance. These convergent colors would be seen as distinctly different from other floral colors in our sample when viewed by honeyeaters (family Meliphagidae), birds with a phylogenetically ancestral type of color vision and the dominant avian pollinators in Australia. Our analysis shows how qualitative ideas in natural history, like the concept of pollination syndromes, can be given more precise definition and rigorous statistical testing that takes into account phylogenetic information.

Burd, Martin; Stayton, C Tristan; Shrestha, Mani; Dyer, Adrian G

2014-01-01

456

Change of Color Appearance in Photopic, Mesopic and Scotopic Vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesopic vision describes a range of light levels where vision is mediated by both cones and rods. The appearance of color in mesopic vision differs drastically from that in photopic vision, where only cones mediate visual information. We used a haploscopic color matching technique to investigate the color appearance under various illuminance levels, ranging from photopic to scotopic via mesopic levels. The observers did color matching between a test color chip under various illuminance levels and a matching color stimulus presented on the Cathode-Ray Tube (CRT) display under the photopic illuminance condition. The results showed that not only chroma and lightness but hue of most color chips changed with illuminance. The manner of the hue changed depended on the color of the test chip, while matching points approached a neutral gray with decrease in illuminance level for all test chips. Chroma reduced continuously with decrease of the illuminance level until 0.1 lx for reddish and yellowish color chips or until 1 lx for greenish and bluish ones. Beyond those illuminance levels, chroma was approximately constant. Lightness decreased with decreasing illuminance level for all test chips except bluish color chips, for which lightness did not decrease much in general and even increased in some cases as predicted by the Purkinje shift. The experimental results obtained in the present study provide critical features that should be considered in predicting the appearance of color at low light levels.

Shin, Jae Chul; Yaguchi, Hirohisa; Shioiri, Satoshi

2004-07-01

457

Color reproduction with a smartphone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition and understand how colors are made on digital displays.

Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

2013-10-01

458

Contrasting signals of positive selection in genes involved in human skin color variation from tests based on SNP scans and resequencing  

E-print Network

involved in pigmentation traits. However, it is unclear how well the signatures discovered by such haplotype-based test statistics can be reproduced in tests based on full resequencing data. Four genes (oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), tyrosinase...

de Gruijter, Johanna Maria; Lao, Oscar; Vermeulen, Mark; Xue, Yali; Woodwark, Cara; Gillson, Christopher J; Coffey, Alison J; Ayub, Qasim; Mehdi, S QASIM; Kayser, Manfred; Tyler-Smith, Chris

2011-12-01

459

Specifying color differences in a linear color space (LEF)  

E-print Network

Specifying color differences in a linear color space (LEF) N. Rudaz, R. D. Hersch, V. Ostromoukhov way of generating color differenc- es for synthesizing artistically screened color images. A sin- gle and on a constant hue plane within the LEF color space (the orthogonal space formed by the RGB cube's black

Ostromoukhov, Victor

460

Color constancy and the complexity of color David Hilbert  

E-print Network

the eye (the color signal) from the various objects in the environment is the joint productColor constancy and the complexity of color David Hilbert Department of Philosophy Laboratory of color vision and color constancy We can start with a definition. "[C]olour constancy is the constancy

Hilber, David

461

Assessing tooth color differences in digital facial portraits.  

PubMed

Although a large body of scientific literature shows that background color and luminance affect color perception, previous measurements of tooth color difference thresholds have not taken the effects of viewing context into account. The present study tested the hypothesis that differences in skin/gingival color influence individuals' judgments of tooth color differences. Perceptibility and acceptability thresholds were determined in 10 individuals using a signal detection paradigm. They evaluated 500 pseudo-random presentations of two facial portraits: an African-American and a Caucasian. These portraits varied trial-to-trial only in the direction (CIELAB +L*, +a*, or +b*) or magnitude of the color difference between a portrait's two central incisors. The individuals were significantly less sensitive to tooth color differences in the +L* direction in the Caucasian portrait than for any other combination of color direction or portrait type. Furthermore, comparable perceptibility and acceptability thresholds were generally not statistically significant from each other. PMID:20739690

Lindsey, D T; Wee, A G

2010-11-01

462

Human vision based color edge detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edge detection can be of great importance to image processing in various digital imaging applications such as digital television and camera. Therefore, extracting more accurate edge properties are significantly demanded for achieving a better image understanding. In vector gradient edge detection, absolute difference of RGB values between a center pixel value, and its neighborhood values are usually used, although such a device-dependent color space does not account for human visual characteristics well. The goal of this study is to test a variety of color difference equations and propose the most effective model that can be used for the purpose of color edge detection. Three of synthetic images generated using perceptibility threshold of the human visual system were used for objectively evaluate to 5 color difference equations studied in this paper. A set of 6 complex color images was also used to testing the 5 color difference equations psychophysically. The equations include ?RGB, ?E* ab, ?ECMC, CIEDE2000 (?E00) and CIECAM02-UCS delta E (?ECAM-UCS). Consequently, there were not significant performance variations observed between those 5 color difference equations for the purpose of edge detection. However, ?E00 and ?ECAM-UCS showed slightly higher mean opinion score (MOS) in detected edge information.

Kim, Ari; Kim, Hong-suk; Park, Seung-ok

2011-01-01

463

Lossless predictive coding of color graphics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General purpose image compression algorithms do not fully exploit the redundancy of color graphical images because the statistics of graphics differ substantially from those of other types of images, such as natural scenes or medical images. This paper reports the results of a study of lossless predictive coding techniques specifically optimized for the compression of computer generated color graphics. In order to determine the most suitable color representation space for coding purposes the Karhunen-Loeve (KL) transform was calculated for a set of test images and its energy compaction ability was compared with those of other color spaces, e.g., the RGB, or the YUV signal spaces. The KL transform completely decorrelates the input color data for a given image and provides a lower bound on the color entropy. Based on the color statistics measured on a corpus of test images a set of optimal spatial predictive coders were designed. These schemes process each component channel independently. The prediction error signal was compressed by both lossless textual substitutional codes and statistical codes to achieve distortionless reproduction. The performance of the developed schemes is compared with that of the lossless function of the JPEG standard.

Yovanof, Gregory S.; Sullivan, James R.

1992-05-01

464

Military Services Fitness Database: Development of a Computerized Physical Fitness and Weight Management Database for the U.S. Army  

PubMed Central

The Department of Defense (DoD) has mandated development of a system to collect and manage data on the weight, percent body fat (%BF), and fitness of all military personnel. This project aimed to (1) develop a computerized weight and fitness database to track individuals and Army units over time allowing cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluations and (2) test the computerized system for feasibility and integrity of data collection over several years of usage. The computer application, the Military Services Fitness Database (MSFD), was designed for (1) storage and tracking of data related to height, weight, %BF for the Army Weight Control Program (AWCP) and Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores and (2) generation of reports using these data. A 2.5-year pilot test of the MSFD indicated that it monitors population and individual trends of changing body weight, %BF, and fitness in a military population. PMID:19216292

Williamson, Donald A.; Bathalon, Gaston P.; Sigrist, Lori D.; Allen, H. Raymond; Friedl, Karl E.; Young, Andrew J.; Martin, Corby K.; Stewart, Tiffany M.; Burrell, Lolita; Han, Hongmei; Hubbard, Van S.; Ryan, Donna

2009-01-01

465

Science Shorts: Seeing Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Colors can open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine things they cannot see. This article looks at color as a powerful tool for engaging children of all ages. A corresponding activity is included.

Texley, Juliana

2005-09-01

466

OPPS: Light and Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide to a workshop for primary teachers provides an introduction to the concepts of color. It is designed to provide teachers with an inquiry-based learning experience for the basic concepts of light and color perception. It is part of the Operation Primary Physical Science materials.

Kirwin, Gayle

2005-06-23

467

Color-Changing Carnations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners place cut flowers in colored water and observe how the flowers change. The flowers absorb the water through the stem and leaves. By watching the journey of harmless food coloring, learners can see all the places water goes in a plant.

Museum Of Science And Industry, Chicago

2012-01-01

468

Food colorants: Anthocyanins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in food colorants as shown by the number of patents has doubled in recent years with natural pigments outnumbering synthetics by five to one. The natural colorant area can be subdivided into anthocyanins, betalains, chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids, polyphenols, Monascus, hemes, quinones, biliproteins, safflower, turmeric, and miscellaneous. All involve different groups of chemical compounds which may be used directly as

F. J. Francis; Pericles C. Markakis

1989-01-01

469

Color appearance in stereoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness,

Davide Gadia; Alessandro Rizzi; Cristian Bonanomi; Daniele Marini; Alessandra Galmonte; Tiziano Agostini

2011-01-01

470

The Colors of Flowers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners perform an experiment to find out what determines a flower's color. Learners extract petal juice, use acid and base indicators, and observe chemical reactions to investigate how the amount of acid or base influences the color of a flower petal.

Friday, Science

2010-01-01

471

Color names, color categories, and color-cued visual search: Sometimes, color perception is not categorical  

PubMed Central

The relation between colors and their names is a classic case-study for investigating the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis that categorical perception is imposed on perception by language. Here, we investigate the Sapir-Whorf prediction that visual search for a green target presented among blue distractors (or vice versa) should be faster than search for a green target presented among distractors of a different color of green (or for a blue target among different blue distractors). Gilbert, Regier, Kay & Ivry (2006) reported that this Sapir-Whorf effect is restricted to the right visual field (RVF), because the major brain language centers are in the left cerebral hemisphere. We found no categorical effect at the Green|Blue color boundary, and no categorical effect restricted to the RVF. Scaling of perceived color differences by Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS) also showed no categorical effect, including no effect specific to the RVF. Two models fit the data: a color difference model based on MLDS and a standard opponent-colors model of color discrimination based on the spectral sensitivities of the cones. Neither of these models, nor any of our data, suggested categorical perception of colors at the Green|Blue boundary, in either visual field. PMID:21980188

Brown, Angela M; Lindsey, Delwin T; Guckes, Kevin M

2011-01-01

472

Measurements of ocean color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phytoplankton density is determined by ocean color measurements. Phytoplankton is detected by remote sensing systems, because they contain chlorophyll. Chlorophyll has two strong absorption bands in the visible spectrum. The algae Chlorella shows the strongest absorptions at 450 and 675 nm. The measured spectrum of ocean color at low and high altitudes is shown.

Hovis, W. A.

1972-01-01

473

Color Control in Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a detailed manual for instructing a laboratory exercise in invertebrate marine physiology. Students investigate the environmental and physiological causes of color change in shrimp. This exercise is suitable for introductory animal or invertebrate physiology courses, and could be adapted further to explore the ecological consquences of color change.

Mary-Jane O'Halloran (Dalhousie University;)

1990-01-01

474

Colors of Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners observe colors in the flame of a burning candle to explore connections between matter, light, color and temperature -- basic concepts of matter and energy. Then, learners elaborate on these basic concepts in a new context of astronomy by drawing scale models of s