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1

Assessment of Selective Attention with CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The SCWT (Stroop Color-Word Test) is a quick and frequently used measure for assessing selective attention and cognitive flexibility. This study determines age, sex and education level influence on attention and cognitive flexibility by CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among healthy Iranian children and adults. There were 78 healthy…

Afsaneh, Zarghi; Alireza, Zali; Mehdi, Tehranidost; Farzad, Ashrafi; Reza, Zarindast Mohammad; Mehdi, Moazzezi; Mojtaba, Khodadadi Seyed

2012-01-01

2

Computerized simulation of color appearance for dichromats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an algorithm that transforms a digitized color image so as to simulate for normal observers the appearance of the image for people who have dichromatic forms of color blindness. The dichromat's color con- fusions are deduced from colorimetry, and the residual hues in the transformed image are derived from the reports of unilateral dichromats described in the literature.

Hans Brettel; Francoise Vienot; John D. Mollon

1997-01-01

3

Computerized Classification Testing with the Rasch Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|If classification in a limited number of categories is the purpose of testing, computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with algorithms based on sequential statistical testing perform better than estimation-based CATs (e.g., Eggen & Straetmans, 2000). In these computerized classification tests (CCTs), the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) (Wald,…

Eggen, Theo J. H. M.

2011-01-01

4

Computerized Adaptive Testing under Nonparametric IRT Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonparametric item response models have been developed as alternatives to the relatively inflexible parametric item response models. An open question is whether it is possible and practical to administer computerized adaptive testing with nonparametric models. This paper explores the possibility of computerized adaptive testing when using…

Xu, Xueli; Douglas, Jeff

2006-01-01

5

Computerized Adaptive Testing under Nonparametric IRT Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nonparametric item response models have been developed as alternatives to the relatively inflexible parametric item response models. An open question is whether it is possible and practical to administer computerized adaptive testing with nonparametric models. This paper explores the possibility of computerized adaptive testing when using…

Xu, Xueli; Douglas, Jeff

2006-01-01

6

Termination Criteria for Computerized Classification Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Computerized classification testing (CCT) is an approach to designing tests with intelligent algorithms, similar to adaptive testing, but specifically designed for the purpose of classifying examinees into categories such as "pass" and "fail." Like adaptive testing for point estimation of ability, the key component is the termination criterion,…

Thompson, Nathan A.

2011-01-01

7

An Introduction to the Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has unsurpassable advantages over traditional testing. It has become the mainstream in large scale examinations in modern society. This paper gives a brief introduction to CAT including differences between traditional testing and CAT, the principles of CAT, psychometric theory and computer algorithms of CAT,…

Tian, Jian-quan; Miao, Dan-min; Zhu, Xia; Gong, Jing-jing

2007-01-01

8

Applications of Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: A brief overview of adaptive testing; Estimation of latent trait status in adaptive testing procedures; Adaptive testing and the problem of classification; Applications of item characteristic curve theory to the problem of test bias; Application...

J. R. McBride J. B. Sympson C. D. Vale S. M. Pine I. I. Bejar

1977-01-01

9

Principles for Creating a Computerized Test Battery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The experience of developing a set of comprehensive aptitude batteries for computer administration for the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory's Learning Abilities Measurement Program resulted in the formulation of nine principles for creation of a computerized test battery. These principles are discussed in the context of research on…

Kyllonen, Patrick C.

1991-01-01

10

Outlier Measures and Norming Methods for Computerized Adaptive Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares four methods that map outlier statistics to a familiarity probability scale (a "P" value). Explored these methods in the context of computerized adaptive test data from a 1995 nationally administered computerized examination for professionals in the medical industry. (SLD)

Bradlow, Eric T.; Weiss, Robert E.

2001-01-01

11

Sequential estimation in variable length computerized adaptive testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of modern computer technology, there have been growing efforts in recent years to computerize standardized tests, including the popular Graduate Record Examination (GRE), the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) and the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). Many of such computer-based tests are known as the computerized adaptive tests, a major feature of which is

Yuan-chin Ivan Chang; Zhiliang Yingy

2004-01-01

12

New computer-controlled color vision test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer controlled color discrimination test is described which enables rapid testing using selected colors from the color space of normal CRT monitors. We have investigated whether difference sin color discrimination between groups of normal and color deficient observers could be detected using a computer-controlled test of color vision. The test accurately identified the differences between the normal and color deficient groups. New color discrimination test have been developed to more efficiently evaluate color vision.

Ladunga, Karoly; Wenzel, Klara; Abraham, Gyorgy

1999-12-01

13

Computerized video image analysis to quantify color of potato chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color analysis is a critical quality evaluation procedure in the potato processing industry. This research sought to determine\\u000a whether potato chip color could be quantified by video image analysis. Russet Burbank and Shepody potatoes, stored at 8 and\\u000a 5 C, were processed into 8 mm thick chips, which were fried for three time periods. Chip color was characterised by mean

M. G. Scanlon; R. Roller; G. Mazza; M. K. Pritchard

1994-01-01

14

MCATL: A Language for Authoring Computerized Adaptive Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The specification of a computerized adaptive test, like the specification of computer-assisted instruction, is easier and can be done by personnel who are not proficient in computer programming if an authoring language is provided. The Minnesota Computerized Adaptive Testing Language (MCATL) is an authoring language specifically designed for…

Vale, C. David

15

Does familiarity with computers affect computerized neuropsychological test performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported computer familiarity is related to performance on computerized neurocognitive testing. Participants were 130 healthy adults who self-reported whether their computer use was “some” (n?=?65) or “frequent” (n?=?65). The two groups were individually matched on age, education, sex, and race. All completed the CNS Vital Signs (Gualtieri & Johnson, 2006b) computerized

Grant L. Iverson; Brian L. Brooks; V. Lynn Ashton; Lynda G. Johnson; C. Thomas Gualtieri

2009-01-01

16

IMPROVING THE MEASUREMENT OF TONAL MEMORY WITH COMPUTERIZED ADAPTIVE TESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the first full implementation of a computerized adaptive test of tonal memory (Vispoel, 1987, 1991) is reported. The efficiency, reliability, and concurrent validity of scores from this test were compared to those derived from a commercially-available test. Thirty college students from a large midwestern university responded to the adaptive test on the PLATO™ mainframe computer system, and

Walter P. Vispoel

1992-01-01

17

Computerized Adaptive Testing, Anxiety Levels, and Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compares the amount of test anxiety experienced on a computerized adaptive test (CAT) to a paper-and-pencil test (P&P), as well as the state test anxiety experienced between males and females. Ninety-four middle school CAT examinees were compared to 65 middle school P&P examinees on their responses to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory…

Fritts, Barbara E.; Marszalek, Jacob M.

2010-01-01

18

catR: An R Package for Computerized Adaptive Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is an active current research field in psychometrics and educational measurement. However, there is very little software available to handle such adaptive tasks. The R package catR was developed to perform adaptive testing with as much flexibility as possible, in an attempt to provide a developmental and testing platform to the interested user. Several item-selection rules

David Magis; Gilles Raîche

2011-01-01

19

Balancing Flexible Constraints and Measurement Precision in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Managing test specifications--both multiple nonstatistical constraints and flexibly defined constraints--has become an important part of designing item selection procedures for computerized adaptive tests (CATs) in achievement testing. This study compared the effectiveness of three procedures: constrained CAT, flexible modified constrained CAT,…

Moyer, Eric L.; Galindo, Jennifer L.; Dodd, Barbara G.

2012-01-01

20

When Cognitive Diagnosis Meets Computerized Adaptive Testing: CD-CAT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a mode of testing which enables more efficient and accurate recovery of one or more latent traits. Traditionally, CAT is built upon Item Response Theory (IRT) models that assume unidimensionality. However, the problem of how to build CAT upon latent class models (LCM) has not been investigated until…

Cheng, Ying

2009-01-01

21

"catR": An R Package for Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is an active current research field in psychometrics and educational measurement. However, there is very little software available to handle such adaptive tasks. The R package "catR" was developed to perform adaptive testing with as much flexibility as possible, in an attempt to provide a developmental and…

Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles

2011-01-01

22

A Computerized Stroop Test for the Evaluation of Psychotropic Drugs in Healthy Participants  

PubMed Central

Background: The Stroop paradigm evaluates susceptibility to interference and is sensitive to dysfunction in frontal lobes and drug effects. The aim of the present study was to establish a simple and reliable computerized version of Stroop color-word test, which can be used for screening of various psychotropic drugs. Materials and Methods: The standardized method was followed in all cases, by recording the reaction time (RT) in msec in 24 healthy participants using computerized version of Stroop color-word test. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by recording the RTs by a single experimenter on two sessions (interday reproducibility). Validity of the model was further tested by evaluating the psychotropic effect of Zolpidem 5 mg, Caffeine 500 mg, or Placebo on 24 healthy subjects in a randomized, double blind three-way crossover design. Results: The method was found to produce low variability with coefficient of variation less than 10%. Interday reproducibility was very good as shown by Bland-Altman plot with most of the values within ±2SD. There was a significant increase in RTs in Stroop performance with Zolpidem at 1 hr and 2 hrs; in contrast, caffeine significantly decreased RTs in Stroop performance at 1 hr only compared to placebo. Conclusion: The Stroop color-word recording and analysis system is simple, sensitive to centrally acting drug effects, and has potential for future experimental psychomotor assessment studies.

Pilli, Raveendranadh; Naidu, MUR; Pingali, Usha Rani; Shobha, J. C.; Reddy, A. Praveen

2013-01-01

23

Sequential Computerized Mastery Tests--Three Simulation Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A simulation study of a sequential computerized mastery test is carried out with items modeled with the 3 parameter logistic item response theory model. The examinees' responses are either identically distributed, not identically distributed, or not identically distributed together with estimation errors in the item characteristics. The…

Wiberg, Marie

2006-01-01

24

Application of the Bifactor Model to Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most computerized adaptive tests (CAT) have been studied under the framework of unidimensional item response theory. However, many psychological variables are multidimensional and might benefit from using a multidimensional approach to CAT. In addition, a number of psychological variables (e.g., quality of life, depression) can be conceptualized…

Seo, Dong Gi

2011-01-01

25

Multistage Computerized Adaptive Testing with Uniform Item Exposure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a computerized adaptive test (CAT) based on the uniform item exposure multi-form structure (uMFS). The uMFS is a specialization of the multi-form structure (MFS) idea described by Armstrong, Jones, Berliner, and Pashley (1998). In an MFS CAT, the examinee first responds to a small fixed block of items. The items comprising…

Edwards, Michael C.; Flora, David B.; Thissen, David

2012-01-01

26

A Framework for the Development of Computerized Adaptive Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A substantial amount of research has been conducted over the past 40 years on technical aspects of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), such as item selection algorithms, item exposure controls, and termination criteria. However, there is little literature providing practical guidance on the development of a CAT. This paper seeks to collate some…

Thompson, Nathan A.; Weiss, David J.

2011-01-01

27

A New Stopping Rule for Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of the current study was to introduce a new stopping rule for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The predicted standard error reduction (PSER) stopping rule uses the predictive posterior variance to determine the reduction in standard error that would result from the administration of additional items. The performance of the PSER was…

Choi, Seung W.; Grady, Matthew W.; Dodd, Barbara G.

2011-01-01

28

A Global Information Approach to Computerized Adaptive Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most item selection in computerized adaptive testing is based on Fisher information (or item information). At each stage, an item is selected to maximize the Fisher information at the currently estimated trait level (?). However, this application of Fisher information could be much less efficient than assumed if the estimators are not close to the true ?, especially at early

Hua-Hua Chang; Zhiliang Ying

1996-01-01

29

Item Overexposure in Computerized Classification Tests Using Sequential Item Selection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Computerized classification tests (CCTs) often use sequential item selection which administers items according to maximizing psychometric information at a cut point demarcating passing and failing scores. This paper illustrates why this method of item selection leads to the overexposure of a significant number of items, and the performances of…

Huebner, Alan

2012-01-01

30

Computerized Adaptive Testing with Item Cloning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed a multilevel item response (IRT) model that allows for differences between the distributions of item parameters of families of item clones. Results from simulation studies based on an item pool from the Law School Admission Test illustrate the accuracy of the item pool calibration and adaptive testing procedures based on the model.…

Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

2003-01-01

31

Treatment of Test Anxiety: A Computerized Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Test anxiety creates problems for many students, and can have a negative impact on the academic performance of many who suffer from it (Jones & Petruzzi, 1995). Typical treatment components for test anxiety involve psychoeducation, relaxation training, gradual exposure, cognitive restructuring, study skills training, and relapse prevention.…

Pless, Anica

2010-01-01

32

Treatment of Test Anxiety: A Computerized Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Test anxiety creates problems for many students, and can have a negative impact on the academic performance of many who suffer from it (Jones & Petruzzi, 1995). Typical treatment components for test anxiety involve psychoeducation, relaxation training, gradual exposure, cognitive restructuring, study skills training, and relapse prevention.…

Pless, Anica

2010-01-01

33

COMPARABILITY OF CONVENTIONAL AND COMPUTERIZED TESTS OF READING IN A SECOND LANGUAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerization of L2 reading tests has been of interest among language assessment researchers for the past 15 years, but few empirical studies have evaluated the equivalence of the construct being measured in computerized and conventional L2 reading tests and the generalizability of computerized reading test results to other reading conditions. In order to address various issues surrounding the effect of

Yasuyo Sawaki

2001-01-01

34

On-Line Computerized Product Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general review and discussion of the approach and steps taken in performing a feasibility study of online product testing using a process control computer. The problems involved and factors to be considered for this type of project are pointed out. The philosophy and criteria considered in selecting a computer system are discussed along with the authors'

P. C. Chen; Ulrich Rembold; Jeremy S. Weinstein

1973-01-01

35

Assessment of Minimal HE (with emphasis on computerized psychometric tests)  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is associated with a high risk of development of overt hepatic encephalopathy, impaired quality of life and driving accidents. The detection of MHE requires specialized testing since it cannot by definition, be diagnosed on standard clinical examination. Psychometric (paper-pencil or computerized or a combination) and neuro-physiological techniques are often used to test for MHE. Paper-pencil psychometric batteries like the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) have been validated in several countries but do not have US normative values. Computerized tests such as the inhibitory control test (ICT), cognitive drug research system and Scan test have proven useful to diagnose MHE and predict outcomes. The specificity and sensitivity of these tests are similar to the recommended gold standards. Neuro-physiological tests such as the EEG and its interpretations, evoked potentials and Critical Flicker Frequency (CFF) also provide useful information. The diagnosis of MHE is an important issue for clinicians and patients alike and the testing strategies depend on the normative data available, patient comfort and local expertise.

Kappus, Matthew R; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

2012-01-01

36

The evaluation of a color-naming test for color blindness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple color-naming test for color blindness was developed using the Eastman Color Temperature Meter, and compared with three other color-vision tests: the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test, AO Pseudo-Isochromatic Plates, and Freeman Illuminant-Stable Color Vision Test on a sample of 100 Ss. \\

Jack J. Mayer; Michael A. Zaccaria

1955-01-01

37

Computerized adaptation of The Placing Test for early detection of both mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Changes in the hippocampal system have been proposed as a possible marker of incipient Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage. The Placing Test (TPT) evaluates the efficiency of the hippocampal system by measuring the ability to remember associations between images and their locations. Our aim was to validate a novel paper-and-pencil (PnP) version of TPT featuring people's faces in color (versus the traditional test carried out with black-and-white images) and a computerized Placing test with categories of objects, faces, and animals (versus a version featuring the categories of objects, faces, and shapes). A total of 78 subjects were divided into 2 groups; each group included 20 normal control subjects, 10 subjects with MCI, and 9 with AD. All subjects underwent TPT. The correlation between the two versions of the test was highly significant (r = .770, p < .001), demonstrating that the transfer of the test format from PnP to computer was acceptable. Computerized object and animal subtests had the highest overall sensitivity and specificity for discriminating MCI from AD, while PnP faces in color discriminated controls from MCI best. Although this was a preliminary assessment on a small sample of subjects, the results of our study demonstrated that total scores on both the traditional and computerized versions of the test discriminate all three diagnostic categories, but the subtests had varying discriminatory abilities. PMID:23985007

Vacante, Marco; Wilcock, Gordon K; de Jager, Celeste A

2013-08-28

38

A Procedure for Controlling General Test Overlap in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To date, exposure control procedures that are designed to control test overlap in computerized adaptive tests (CATs) are based on the assumption of item sharing between pairs of examinees. However, in practice, examinees may obtain test information from more than one previous test taker. This larger scope of information sharing needs to be…

Chen, Shu-Ying

2010-01-01

39

A Novel Computerized Visual Acuity Test for Children  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the efficacy of a computerized visual acuity test, the SNU visual acuity test for children. Methods Fifty-six children, ranging from 1 to 5 years of age, were included. In a dark room, children gazed at and followed a circular dot with 50% contrast moving at a fixed velocity of 10 pixels/sec on a computer monitor. Eye movement was captured using a charge coupled device camera and was expressed as coordinates on a graph. Movements of the eye and dot were superimposed on a graph and analyzed. Minimum visualized dot diameters were compared to the Teller visual acuity. Results Ten eyes (8.9%) of six children failed to perform the Teller visual acuity test, and two eyes (1.8%) of one patient failed to perform the SNU visual acuity test. The observed Teller visual acuity and SNU visual acuity were significantly correlated (p < 0.001). Visual angle degrees converted from the Teller visual acuity and SNU visual acuity were also significantly correlated (p < 0.001). Conclusion The SNU visual acuity using moving targets correlated well with Teller visual acuity and was more applicable than the Teller acuity test. Therefore, the SNU visual acuity test has potential clinical applications for children.

Shin, Young Joo; Lee, In Bum; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Jin Hak

2013-01-01

40

Constraining Item Exposure in Computerized Adaptive Testing with Shadow Tests. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Item-exposure control in computerized adaptive testing is implemented by imposing item-ineligibility constraints on the assembly process of the shadow tests. The method resembles J. Sympson and R. Hetter's (1985) method of item-exposure control in that the decisions to impose the constraints are probabilistic. However, the method does not require…

van der Linden, Wim J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

41

Revisiting a Cognitive Framework for Test Design: Applications for a Computerized Perceptual Speed Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights the need for a systematic, content aware, and theoretically-based approach to test design. The cognitive components approach is endorsed, and is applied to the development of a computerized perceptual speed test. Psychometric literature is reviewed and shows that: every major multi-factor theory includes a clerical/perceptual…

Alderton, David L.

42

Optimal Testing with Easy or Difficult Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Computerized adaptive tests (CATs) are individualized tests that, from a measurement point of view, are optimal for each individual, possibly under some practical conditions. In the present study, it is shown that maximum information item selection in CATs using an item bank that is calibrated with the one- or the two-parameter logistic model…

Eggen, Theo J. H. M.; Verschoor, Angela J.

2006-01-01

43

Influence of Demographics on Computerized Cognitive Testing in a Military Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized cognitive testing with software programs such as the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) have long been used to assess cognition in military samples. This study describes demographic influences on computerized testing performance in a large active duty military sample (n = 2366). Performance differences between men and women were minimal on most ANAM subtests, but there was a clear

T. M. Roebuck-Spencer; D. L. Reeves; J. Bleiberg; A. N. Cernich; K. Schwab; B. Ivins; A. Salazar; S. Harvey; F. Brown; D. Warden

2008-01-01

44

Development and Evaluation of a Confidence-Weighting Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine whether the efficiency, precision, and validity of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) could be improved by assessing confidence differences in knowledge that examinees possessed. We proposed a novel polytomous CAT model called the confidence-weighting computerized adaptive testing (CWCAT), which combined…

Yen, Yung-Chin; Ho, Rong-Guey; Chen, Li-Ju; Chou, Kun-Yi; Chen, Yan-Lin

2010-01-01

45

The Minnesota Clerical Assessment Battery: An Application of Computerized Testing to Business.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Minnesota Clerical Assessment Battery (MCAB), one of the first computerized tests for personnel selection to be made commercially available to businesses. Maintains that application of computerized testing to business is somewhat different from its application to education or counseling. Presents results of survey of potential users who…

Vale, C. David

1990-01-01

46

Implementing the Graduate Management Admission Test Computerized Adaptive Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Wise and Kingsbury (2000) argue that the success of an adaptive testing program is a function of how well the various practical\\u000a issues are addressed. Decisions must be made with regard to test specifications, item selection algorithms, pool design and\\u000a rotation, ability estimation, pretesting, item analysis, database design, and data security. The test sponsor is ultimately\\u000a responsible for each of

Lawrence M. Rudner

47

Development of a Computerized Adaptive Test for Schizotypy Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Schizotypal traits in adolescents from the general population represent the behavioral expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Schizotypy assessment in this sector of population has advanced considerably in the last few years; however, it is necessary to incorporate recent advances in psychological and educational measurement. Objective The main goal of this study was to develop a Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT) to evaluate schizotypy through “The Oviedo Questionnaire for Schizotypy Assessment” (ESQUIZO-Q), in non-clinical adolescents. Methods The final sample consisted of 3,056 participants, 1,469 males, with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD?=?1.2). Results The results indicated that the ESQUIZO-Q scores presented adequate psychometric properties under both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory. The Information Function estimated using the Gradual Response Model indicated that the item pool effectively assesses schizotypy at the high end of the latent trait. The correlation between the CAT total scores and the paper-and-pencil test was 0.92. The mean number of presented items in the CAT with the standard error fixed at ?0.30 was of 34 items. Conclusion The CAT showed adequate psychometric properties for schizotypy assessment in the general adolescent population. The ESQUIZO-Q adaptive version could be used as a screening method for the detection of adolescents at risk for psychosis in both educational and mental health settings.

Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Menendez, Luis Fernando; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Muniz, Jose

2013-01-01

48

The Score Comparability of Computerized and Paper-and-Pencil Formats for K-3 Reading Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the equivalence of scores from computerized and paper-and-pencil formats of a series of K-3 reading screening tests. Concerns about score equivalence on the computerized formats were warranted because of the use of reading passages, computer unfamiliarity of primary school students, and teacher versus computer…

Pomplun, Mark; Custer, Michael

2005-01-01

49

Computerized Adaptive Testing for Polytomous Motivation Items: Administration Mode Effects and a Comparison with Short Forms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a randomized experiment (n = 515), a computerized and a computerized adaptive test (CAT) are compared. The item pool consists of 24 polytomous motivation items. Although items are carefully selected, calibration data show that Samejima's graded response model did not fit the data optimally. A simulation study is done to assess possible…

Hol, A. Michiel; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

2007-01-01

50

Development and Validation of a Computerized Interpretation System for Personnel Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computerized system was developed for generating narrative interpretations of scores from a battery of personnel screening tests. Showed the computerized reports to be more accurate and thorough, as readable, and somewhat less coherent than interpretations generated by the typical human expert. (Author/ABB)

Vale, C. David; And Others

1986-01-01

51

Computerized Adaptive Screening Test (CAST): Development for Use in Military Recruiting Stations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Computerized Adaptive Screening Test (CAST), which is capable of operating on a stand-alone microcomputer system in recruiting stations, was designed and developed to replace the Enlistment Screening Test (EST) currently in use. CAST correlates .87 wi...

H. G. Baker B. A. Rafacz W. A. Sands

1984-01-01

52

Computerized vs. Experimenter Controlled Administration of the Matching Familiar Figures Test: Mean Test Scores and Reliabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) is a well-known instrument designed to measure the cognitive style reflection impulsivity. In the present study, a computerized MFFT version for the Apple MacIntosh (MacMFFT) is compared to the traditional, experimenter controlled MFFT. For a group of 80 subjects, age 17-21, no differences were found between internal consistencies and test-retest reliabilities of the MacMFFT

Jeroen J. G. Van Merriënboer; Otto Jelsma; Jacintha Timmermans; Jakob Sikken

1989-01-01

53

A case of canine chimerism diagnosed using coat color tests.  

PubMed

Through the use of PCR based coat color tests, we were able to diagnose a dog that exhibits an unusual coat color phenotype as an XX/XX chimera. Coat color alleles vary widely among dog breeds, presenting a novel method for detecting chimerism using diagnostic tests for known coat color alleles. PMID:22433982

Dreger, Dayna L; Schmutz, Sheila M

2012-03-13

54

Computerized Neurocognitive Testing for the Management of Sport-Related Concussions  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To describe the prevalence of computerized neurocognitive testing for the assessment of high school athletes who sustain concussions, and to describe associations between using computerized neurocognitive tests, timing of return-to-play, and medical provider managing the athlete. Methods: Concussions recorded in the High School Reporting Information Online injury surveillance system during the 2009–2010 academic year were included. Measures of association between use of computerized neurocognitive testing and outcomes were analyzed. A questionnaire was sent to athletic trainers (ATs) querying the use of computerized neurocognitive testing. ?2 analyses were conducted for categorical variables. Logistic regression analyses were used to adjust for potential confounders. Statistical significance was set at P < .05. Results: High School Reporting Information Online recorded 1056 concussions. Athletes who underwent computerized neurocognitive testing were less likely to be returned to play within 10 days of injury (38.5% vs 55.7%, P < .001) and more likely to be returned to play by a physician (60.9% vs 45.6%, P < .001). We had a response rate of 97.3% for the survey. Of respondents, 39.9% used computerized neurocognitive testing; 93.0% of those used ImPACT. Tests were most often interpreted by ATs (78.9%) and/or physicians (78.8%), as opposed to neuropsychologists (16.9%). Conclusions: Approximately 40% of US high schools that employ an AT use computerized neurocognitive tests when managing sport-related concussions. Tests are most often interpreted by ATs and physicians, as opposed to neuropsychologists. Computerized neurocognitive tests are significantly associated with the timing of return-to-play.

d'Hemecourt, Pierre; Collins, Christy L.; Taylor, Alex M.; Comstock, R. Dawn

2012-01-01

55

Computerized Testing System Software Conversion and Development: Identifying Software and Hardware Portability Issues and Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report identifies hardware and software issues associated with the transition of computerized tests from old hardware and software configurations to currently available hardware and software. Hardware issues addressed include real-time clock performa...

R. Rosse D. Dodd J. M. Silva

1993-01-01

56

Some Performance Effects of Age and Low Blood Alcohol Levels on a Computerized Neuropsychological Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

COGSCREEN is a computerized test battery developed for the Federal Aviation Administration as an airman neuropsychological screening instrument for cognitive functioning. This study explored a multifaceted application of the sensitivity of the battery to ...

D. J. Schroeder H. C. Harris W. E. Collins T. E. Nesthus

1995-01-01

57

Reliability and validity of a computerized neurocognitive test battery, CNS Vital Signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

CNS Vital Signs (CNSVS) is a computerized neurocognitive test battery that was developed as a routine clinical screening instrument. It is comprised of seven tests: verbal and visual memory, finger tapping, symbol digit coding, the Stroop Test, a test of shifting attention and the continuous performance test. Because CNSVS is a battery of well-known neuropsychological tests, one should expect its

C. Thomas Gualtieri; Lynda G Johnson

2006-01-01

58

Item Pocket Method to Allow Response Review and Change in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs do not allow test takers to review and change their responses because it could seriously deteriorate the efficiency of measurement and make tests vulnerable to manipulative test-taking strategies. Several modified testing methods have been developed that provide restricted review options while…

Han, Kyung T.

2013-01-01

59

Validity of a computerized version of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is a particularly sensitive measure of cognitive dysfunction in patients with multiple\\u000a sclerosis (MS). While computerized versions have been developed for use in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), none\\u000a has been validated in MS patients. The aim of this study was to validate a new computerized version of the SDMT for use in\\u000a MS

Nadine Akbar; Kimia Honarmand; Nancy Kou; Anthony Feinstein

2011-01-01

60

The Goal of Equity within and between Computerized Adaptive Tests and Paper and Pencil Forms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Score comparability is important to those who take tests and those who use them. One important concept related to test score comparability is that of "equity," which is defined as existing when examinees are indifferent as to which of two alternate forms of a test they would prefer to take. By their nature, computerized adaptive tests (CAT) add…

Thomasson, Gary L.

61

Computerized system for acceptance leak testing for hydraulic systems in mechanized props  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the production of hydraulic systems for use in mines as mechanized props, particular importance attaches to precision checks on working characteristics after assembly, especially leakage in working cavities and safety valves. A new algorithm is described for testing hydraulic props, which has been used in a computerized test system. The sensitivity in leak testing has been improved considerably by

Radulov

1987-01-01

62

An Efficiency Balanced Information Criterion for Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Successful administration of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs in educational settings requires that test security and item exposure control issues be taken seriously. Developing an item selection algorithm that strikes the right balance between test precision and level of item pool utilization is the key to successful implementation…

Han, Kyung T.

2012-01-01

63

The Influence of Item Calibration Error on Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Variable-length computerized adaptive testing (VL-CAT) allows both items and test length to be "tailored" to examinees, thereby achieving the measurement goal (e.g., scoring precision or classification) with as few items as possible. Several popular test termination rules depend on the standard error of the ability estimate, which in turn depends…

Patton, Jeffrey M.; Cheng, Ying; Yuan, Ke-Hai; Diao, Qi

2013-01-01

64

Assessment of Neurobehavioral Function with Computerized Tests in a Population of Hispanic Adolescents Working in Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there has been heightened concern over the potential of occupational or environmental exposures to affect neurological function in children and adolescents. The current study was designed to develop computerized tests to effectively assess neurobehavioral function in Hispanic adolescents working in agriculture and to evaluate those tests in Hispanic youths working in agriculture and in a non-agricultural group.

Diane S. Rohlman; Steffani R. Bailey; W. Kent Anger; Linda McCauley

2001-01-01

65

Comparing Assessments of Students' Knowledge by Computerized Open-Ended and Multiple-Choice Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interactive computerized tests accepting unrestricted natural-language input were used to assess knowledge of clinical biophysics at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Comparison of responses to open-ended sequential questions and multiple-choice questions on the same material found the two formats test different aspects of competence.…

Anbar, Michael

1991-01-01

66

Computerized Adaptive Testing for Effective and Efficient Measurement in Counseling and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is described and compared with conventional tests, and its advantages summarized. Some item response theory concepts used in CAT are summarized and illustrated. The author describes the potential usefulness of CAT in counseling and education and reviews some current issues in the implementation of CAT.|

Weiss, David J.

2004-01-01

67

Direct and Inverse Problems of Item Pool Design for Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The recent literature on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has developed methods for creating CAT item pools from a large master pool. Each CAT pool is designed as a set of nonoverlapping forms reflecting the skill levels of an assumed population of test takers. This article presents a Monte Carlo method to obtain these CAT pools and discusses…

Belov, Dmitry I.; Armstrong, Ronald D.

2009-01-01

68

Detection of Person Misfit in Computerized Adaptive Tests with Polytomous Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compared the nominal and empirical null distributions of the standardized log-likelihood statistic for polytomous items for paper-and-pencil (P&P) and computerized adaptive tests (CATs). Results show that the empirical distribution of the statistic differed from the assumed standard normal distribution for both P&P tests and CATs. Also proposed a…

van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith M. L. A.; Meijer, Rob R.

2002-01-01

69

Practical Issues in Large-Scale High-Stakes Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT), while well-grounded in psychometric theory, has had few large-scale applications for high-stakes, secure tests in the past. This is now changing as the cost of computing has declined rapidly. As is always true where theory is translated into practice, many practical issues arise. This paper discusses a number…

Mills, Craig N.; Stocking, Martha L.

70

Testing Accommodations for University Students with AD/HD: Computerized vs. Paper-Pencil/Regular vs. Extended Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prompted by a previous study investigating the effects of pacing on the academic testing performance of college students with AD/HD, we further explored our preliminary findings, which suggested that a computerized testing environment enhanced the testing performance of college students with AD/HD. We compared the effects of a computerized vs.…

Lee, Kathryn S.; Osborne, Randall E.; Carpenter, David N.

2010-01-01

71

Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using this project will expose you to concepts of color, color wheels, color combinations, and techniques of using color. Use the following links, follow the directions to define color terms, create color schemes and explore the use of color in creating designs. Color Scheme Generator 2 This site identifiesbasic terms related to color, using acolor wheeland making color schemes. Color Theory This site explains terminology of color. Color Theory Tutorial This site gives excellent examples and information about ...

Dent, Mrs.

2010-03-23

72

A Genre-Based Perspective for the Development of Communicative Computerized Adaptive Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses the communicative potentials of Computerized Adaptive Testing. The study is based on a model that offers a set of independent communicative concepts to describe the Genre of an interactive application. This model will be the starting point to analyze the stages of the interaction cycle that are typically inherent to every…

Lopez-Cuadrado, Javier; Armendariz, Ana J.; Latapy, Marion; Lopisteguy, Philippe

2008-01-01

73

A Genre-Based Perspective for the Development of Communicative Computerized Adaptive Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the communicative potentials of Computerized Adaptive Testing. The study is based on a model that offers a set of independent communicative concepts to describe the Genre of an interactive application. This model will be the starting point to analyze the stages of the interaction cycle that are typically inherent to every…

Lopez-Cuadrado, Javier; Armendariz, Ana J.; Latapy, Marion; Lopisteguy, Philippe

2008-01-01

74

Performance of Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing: Further Explorations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effectiveness of the Sympson and Hetter conditional procedure (SHC), a modification of the Sympson and Hetter (1985) algorithm, in controlling the exposure rates of items in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) environment. The properties of the procedure were compared with those of the Davey and Parshall (1995) and the…

Chang, Shun-Wen; Ansley, Timothy N.; Lin, Sieh-Hwa

75

A Comparison of the Partial Credit and Graded Response Models in Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Computerized adaptive testing procedures (CATPs) based on the graded response method (GRM) of F. Samejima (1969) and the partial credit model (PCM) of G. Masters (1982) were developed and compared. Both programs used maximum likelihood estimation of ability, and item selection was conducted on the basis of information. Two simulated data sets,…

De Ayala, R. J.; And Others

76

Computerized Classification Testing under the One-Parameter Logistic Response Model with Ability-Based Guessing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The one-parameter logistic model with ability-based guessing (1PL-AG) has been recently developed to account for effect of ability on guessing behavior in multiple-choice items. In this study, the authors developed algorithms for computerized classification testing under the 1PL-AG and conducted a series of simulations to evaluate their…

Wang, Wen-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Yun

2011-01-01

77

SimulCAT: Windows Software for Simulating Computerized Adaptive Test Administration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most, if not all, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs use simulation techniques to develop and evaluate CAT program administration and operations, but such simulation tools are rarely available to the public. Up to now, several software tools have been available to conduct CAT simulations for research purposes; however, these existing…

Han, Kyung T.

2012-01-01

78

Computerized Adaptive Testing Using a Class of High-Order Item Response Theory Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the human sciences, a common assumption is that latent traits have a hierarchical structure. Higher order item response theory models have been developed to account for this hierarchy. In this study, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) algorithms based on these kinds of models were implemented, and their performance under a variety of…

Huang, Hung-Yu; Chen, Po-Hsi; Wang, Wen-Chung

2012-01-01

79

Firestar-"D": Computerized Adaptive Testing Simulation Program for Dichotomous Item Response Theory Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) enables efficient and flexible measurement of latent constructs. The majority of educational and cognitive measurement constructs are based on dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models. An integral part of developing various components of a CAT system is conducting simulations using both known and empirical…

Choi, Seung W.; Podrabsky, Tracy; McKinney, Natalie

2012-01-01

80

The Design and Evaluation of a Computerized Adaptive Test on Mobile Devices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has expanded rapidly over recent years mainly due to the advances in communication and information technology. Availability of advanced mobile technologies provides several benefits to e-learning by creating an additional channel of access with mobile devices such as PDAs and mobile phones. This…

Triantafillou, Evangelos; Georgiadou, Elissavet; Economides, Anastasios A.

2008-01-01

81

A Comparative Study of Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compared the properties of five methods of item exposure control in the context of estimating examinees' abilities in a computerized adaptive testing situation. Findings show advantages to the Stocking and Lewis conditional multinomial procedure (M. Stocking and C. Lewis, 1995) and, to a lesser degree, the Davy and Parshall method (T. Davey and…

Chang, Shun-Wen; Ansley, Timothy N.

2003-01-01

82

Item Response Theory and Computerized Adaptive Testing Conference Proceedings (Wayzata, Minnesota, July 27-30, 1982).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains the Proceedings of the 1982 Item Response Theory and Computerized Adaptive Testing Conference. The papers and their discussions are organized into eight sessions: (1) "Developments in Latent Trait Theory," with papers by Fumiko Samejima and Michael V. Levine; (2) "Parameter Estimation," with papers by Frederic M. Lord and…

Weiss, David J., Ed.

83

Optimal Stratification of Item Pools in a-Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method based on 0-1 linear programming (LP) is presented to stratify an item pool optimally for use in "alpha"-stratified adaptive testing. Because the 0-1 LP model belongs to the subclass of models with a network-flow structure, efficient solutions are possible. The method is applied to a previous item pool from the computerized adaptive…

van der Linden, Wim J.

84

The status of computerized cognitive testing in aging: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Early detection of cognitive decline in the elderly has become of heightened importance in parallel with the recent advances in therapeutics. Computerized assessment may be uniquely suited to early detection of changes in cognition in the elderly. We present here a systematic review of the status of computer-based cognitive testing focusing on detection of cognitive decline in the aging population. Methods All studies purporting to assess or detect age-related changes in cognition or early dementia/mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by means of computerized testing were included. Each test battery was rated on availability of normative data, level of evidence for test validity and reliability, comprehensiveness, and usability. All published studies relevant to a particular computerized test were read by a minimum of two reviewers, who completed rating forms containing the above-mentioned criteria. Results Of the 18 test batteries identified from the initial search, eleven were appropriate to cognitive testing in the elderly and were subjected to systematic review. Of those 11, five were either developed specifically for application with the elderly or have been used extensively with that population. Even within the computerized testing genre, great variability existed in manner of administration, ranging from fully examiner administered to fully self-administered. All tests had at least minimal reliability and validity data, commonly reported in peer-reviewed articles. However, level of rigor of validity testing varied widely. Conclusion All test batteries exhibited some of the strengths of computerized cognitive testing: standardization of administration and stimulus presentation, accurate measures of response latencies, automated comparison in real-time with an individual’s prior performance as well as with age-related norms, and efficiencies of staffing and cost. Some, such as the MCIS, adapted complicated scoring algorithms to enhance the information gathered from already existing tests. Others, such as CogState, used unique interfaces and subtests. We found that while basic indices of psychometric properties were typically addressed, sufficient variability exists that currently available computerized test batteries must be judged on a case by case basis.

Wild, Katherine; Howieson, Diane; Webbe, Frank; Seelye, Adriana; Kaye, Jeffrey

2008-01-01

85

Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will be used to teach the importance of color. Watch the following video about color Primary Colors Click on the link Exploration of Color. When you get into the website select the different colors to see what secondary colors are made from the primary colors. Review the following siteColor Theory and then design and paint a color wheel. ...

Jolene

2008-09-29

86

Equivalence of computerized and paper-and-pencil cognitive ability tests: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the medium of test administration—paper and pencil versus computerized—were examined for timed power and speeded tests of cognitive abilities for populations of young adults and adults. Meta-analytic techniques were used to estimate the cross-mode correlation after correct- ing for measurement error. A total of 159 correlations was meta-analyzed: 123 from timed power tests and 36 from speeded

Alan D. Mead; Fritz Drasgow

1993-01-01

87

From Simulation to Application: Examinees React to Computerized Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A small-scale study was conducted to compare test-taking strategies, problem-solving strategies, and general impressions about the test across computer and paper-and-pencil administration modes. Thirty-six examinees (high school students) participated in the study. Each examinee took a test in one of the content areas of English, Mathematics,…

Pommerich, Mary; Burden, Timothy

88

Test-Retest Reliability of Computerized Concussion Assessment Programs  

PubMed Central

Context: Computer-based neurocognitive assessment programs commonly are used to assist in concussion diagnosis and management. These tests have been adopted readily by many clinicians based on existing test-retest reliability data provided by test developers. Objective: To examine the test-retest reliability of 3 commercially available computer-based neurocognitive assessments using clinically relevant time frames. Design: Repeated-measures design. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: 118 healthy student volunteers. Main Outcome Measure(s): The participants completed the ImPACT, Concussion Sentinel, and Headminder Concussion Resolution Index tests on 3 days: baseline, day 45, and day 50. Each participant also completed the Green Memory and Concentration Test to evaluate effort. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for all output scores generated by each computer program as an estimate of test-retest reliability. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient estimates from baseline to day 45 assessments ranged from .15 to .39 on the ImPACT, .23 to .65 on the Concussion Sentinel, and .15 to .66 on the Concussion Resolution Index. The intraclass correlation coefficient estimates from the day 45 to day 50 assessments ranged from .39 to .61 on the ImPACT, .39 to .66 on the Concussion Sentinel, and .03 to .66 on the Concussion Resolution Index. All participants demonstrated high levels of effort on all days of testing, according to Memory and Concentration Test interpretive guidelines. Conclusions: Three contemporary computer-based concussion assessment programs evidenced low to moderate test-retest reliability coefficients. Our findings do not appear to be due to suboptimal effort or other factors related to poor test performance, because persons identified by individual programs as having poor baseline data were excluded from the analyses. The neurocognitive evaluation should continue to be part of a multifaceted concussion assessment program, with priority given to those scores showing the highest reliability.

Broglio, Steven P; Ferrara, Michael S; Macciocchi, Stephen N; Baumgartner, Ted A; Elliott, Ronald

2007-01-01

89

Development and Application of Detection Indices for Measuring Guessing Behaviors and Test-Taking Effort in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the amount of time that different ability-level examinees spend on questions they answer correctly or incorrectly across different pretest item blocks presented on a fixed-length, time-restricted computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Results indicate that different ability-level examinees require different amounts of time to…

Chang, Shu-Ren; Plake, Barbara S.; Kramer, Gene A.; Lien, Shu-Mei

2011-01-01

90

Computerized data acquisition system for production, injection and interference tests  

SciTech Connect

A computer-based system for collecting, processing, and analyzing pressure transient data has been developed. Primary components include downhole pressure sensors, linedrivers, a micro-computer, data storage disk, scanner, frequency counter, digital voltmeter, power supply, graphics plotter, and printer. In-field data processing and analysis greatly aid in handling the large volume of data that are collected during pressure transients tests, particularly the multiwell interference tests that are so important for characterizing and assessing geothermal reservoirs. In-field data processing provides the field engineer, on a real-time basis, with the information needed to make decisions regarding test parameters and duration. The system has been used on numerous occasions and has proved itself to be reliable under the harsh operating conditions that are usually encountered in the field. This paper describes the advantages of using this type of system for collecting data, the components and configuration of the system, and the software programs used to collect and process the data. Finally, two field applications are presented.

Benson, S.M.

1986-06-01

91

Item Response Theory and Computerized Adaptive Testing: Implications for Outcomes Measurement in Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate computerized adaptive testing (CAT) measures of rehabilitation outcomes.\\u000aStudy Design: Physical functioning questions were calibrated via item response theory (IRT) and administered with CAT software.\\u000aSubjects: 485 adults interviewed during postacute care rehabilitation (simulation study) and 26 adults who completed CAT and personal interviews (CAT pilot study).\\u000aMain Outcome Measures: Patient acceptance and respondent burden, reliability, and

Ware John E. Jr; Barbara Gandek; Samuel J. Sinclair; Jakob B. Bjorner

2005-01-01

92

Flight Test of an Ocean Color Measuring System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The WISP IV instrument has been successfully installed and flight tested in a light aircraft along with auxiliary instruments. Data acquired to date by the WISP and water color spectrometer (WCS) have substantiated the scientific merit and operational pot...

J. S. Bailey

1969-01-01

93

Color red in web-based knowledge testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer- and web-based testing procedures are increasingly popular for the assessment of cognitive abilities and knowledge. This paper identified color red as a critical context factor that may influence the results. Two studies showed that color red may harm the performance in web-based tests of general knowledge. In Study 1 (N=131) a red (vs. green) progress bar impeded the performance

Timo Gnambs; Bernad Batinic

2010-01-01

94

Evaluation of an updated HRR color vision test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HRR pseudoisochromatic plate (pip) test was originally designed as a screening and diagnostic test for color vision deficiencies. The original HRR test is now long out of print. We evaluate here the new 4th edition of the HRR test, produced in 2002 by Richmond Products. The 2002 edition was compared to the original 1955 edition for a group of

JAMES E. BAILEY; MAUREEN NEITZ; DIANE M. TAIT; JAY NEITZ

2004-01-01

95

Performance testing of CIEDE2000 color-difference formula using CRT colors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A psychological experiment was carried out with the method of constant stimuli using CRT-generated color samples. The experimental results at the five CIE color centers of Gray, Red, Yellow, Green, and Blue were satisfactorily described by chromaticity ellipses as equal color-difference contours in the CIELAB space. The CIEDE2000 formula, together with other two advanced color-difference formulae, CMC and CIE94, and the basic CIELAB equation, were tested using the visual data obtained from the present experiment. The comparisons between the color differences, (Delta) E, predicted by individual formulae and the corresponding visual scales, (Delta) V, were carried out in terms of PF/3 measure. With their original forms, i.e., kLequalskCequalskHequals1, or with their optimized kL values, the CIEDE2000 outperformed others for the combined dataset under the viewing condition in this study. Furthermore. The visual data at Blue center were well predicted by CIEDE2000 with an obviously better accuracy than other color-difference formulae. This confirms that the rotation item involved in the CIEDE2000 equation effectively improves the uniformity and predicting performance for the color differences in the blue region.

Xu, Haisong; Xiang, Zhen; Yaguchi, Hirohisa

2002-09-01

96

A Computerized Test Battery Sensitive to Mild and Severe Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective Computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT) appears to be suited to measure relatively mild degrees of neurocognitive impairment in circumstances where speed, efficiency, and low cost are important. Computerized tests are used in the evaluation and management of patients who have had mild brain injuries; the objective is to determine if computerized testing is equally reliable and valid in the evaluation of patients who have had more severe brain injuries. Design A cross-sectional, naturalistic study of brain injury patients compared with normal controls. Setting An outpatient neuropsychiatry clinic. Participants 141 patients, aged 18–65 years, who had sustained traumatic brain injuries (TBIs): 13 patients with postconcussion syndrome; 15 who had recovered from mild brain injuries; 85 patients who had had severe brain injuries, but who had recovered, and were living independently; and 28 severe brain injury patients who were unable to live without assistance; compared with 145 normal controls. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures The CNS Vital Signs (CNS VS) battery is a PC-based system that includes tests of verbal and visual memory, psychomotor speed, complex attention, reaction time, and cognitive flexibility. Results Performance on the CNS VS battery was related to severity of brain injury and degree of recovery. Tests of psychomotor speed and cognitive flexibility were the most relevant to TBI status. Patients who had recovered from mild brain injuries scored almost as well as normal controls. The Neurocognition Index (NCI), a summary score based on performance on all the tests in the battery, was 100 for normal controls and 98 for recovered mild brain injury patients. Postconcussive patients scored 82 on the MCI, and severe brain injury patients scored 66 on the NCI if they were living independently and 47 if they were not. Conclusions Computerized tests like CNS VS allow clinicians the advantage of precise neurocognitive measurement in the service of diagnosis and appropriate treatment. CNTs are never going to replace the flexibility or comprehensiveness of conventional neuropsychological testing, but they have a role to play in circumstances where a full test battery is not feasible, such as screening and serial assessment.

Gualtieri, C. Thomas; Johnson, Lynda G.

2008-01-01

97

Development and Pilot Testing of Computerized Order Entry Algorithms for Geriatric Problems in Nursing Homes  

PubMed Central

Objectives Computerized order entry algorithms can improve the quality of care; but are rarely used in nursing homes (NHs). We conducted a pilot study to: (1) develop order entry algorithms for 5 common NH problems, and (2) test their acceptance, use, and preliminary impact on quality indicators and resource utilization. Design Pre-post, quasi-experimental study. Setting: 2 Veterans Affairs NHs. Participants Randomly selected residents (n=265) with one or more target conditions, and 42 nursing home providers. Intervention Expert panels developed computerized order entry algorithms based on clinical practice guidelines. Each was displayed on a single screen and included an array of diagnostic and treatment options, and means to communicate with the interdisciplinary team. Medical records were abstracted for the 6 months preceding and following deployment. Results Despite positive provider attitudes toward the computerized order entry algorithms, their use was infrequent and varied by condition: Falls (73%), Fever (9%), Pneumonia (8%), UTI (7%), and Osteoporosis (3%). In subjects with falls, we observed trends for improvements in quality measures for the 6/9 measures, including measuring orthostatic blood pressure (17.5% to 30%, p=0.29), reducing neuroleptics (53.8% to 75%, p=0.27), reducing sedative-hypnotics (16.7% to 50.0%, p=0.50), prescription of calcium (22.5% to 32.5%, p=0.45), vitamin D (20.0 to 35.0%, p=0.21), and external hip protectors (25.0 to 47.5%, p=0.06). Little improvement was observed in the other conditions. There was no change in resource utilization. Conclusion Computerized order entry algorithms were used infrequently, except for falls. Further study may determine whether their use leads to improved care.

Colon-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Schmader, Kenneth E.; Twersky, Jack; Kuchibhatla, Maragantha; Kellum, Sally; Weinberger, Morris

2009-01-01

98

DEVELOPMENT AND PILOT TESTING OF A COMPUTERIZED ATLAS OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD SMEARS AS A JOB AID FOR PRACTICING CLINICAL LABORATORY SCIENTISTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT DEVELOPMENT AND PILOT TESTING OF A COMPUTERIZED ATLAS OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD SMEARS AS A JOB AID FOR PRACTICING CLINICAL LABORATORY SCIENTISTS By Michelle L. Montgomery The purpose of this project was to design and create a computerized atlas of peripheral blood smears which could be used as a job aid for practicing clinical laboratory scientists (CLS). Current computerized,hematology,atlases are

Michelle L. Montgomery

2003-01-01

99

Validity of a computerized version of the symbol digit modalities test in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is a particularly sensitive measure of cognitive dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). While computerized versions have been developed for use in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), none has been validated in MS patients. The aim of this study was to validate a new computerized version of the SDMT for use in MS patients. We developed a novel computerized version of the SDMT (c-SDMT) which was completed by 119 MS patients and 38 healthy controls. Our version consisted of eight timed trials of nine symbols. Both groups also underwent cognitive testing with the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRB-N) which included the 90-s paper SDMT (p-SDMT) scored according to the number of correct responses per each 15-s interval. The sensitivity and specificity of the c-SDMT and p-SDMT to detect overall cognitive impairment on the BRB-N was determined. MS patients performed significantly worse than controls on both the c-SDMT (t = -6.1, p < 0.001) and p-SDMT (t = 5.7, p < 0.001). More MS patients were impaired on the c-SDMT than the p-SDMT (37% vs. 29%). The sensitivity and specificity of the SDMT was as follows: 71% and 84%, respectively, for the c-SDMT, and 67% and 95%, respectively, for the p-SDMT. Both versions detected a significant group × time effect over the course of the individual trials, although the pattern of responses differed between them. Good test-retest reliability for the c-SDMT was shown (ICC = 0.94). The results support the validity of this version of the c-SDMT as a sensitive measure of cognitive dysfunction in MS. The methodology is also fMRI compatible. PMID:20924594

Akbar, Nadine; Honarmand, Kimia; Kou, Nancy; Feinstein, Anthony

2010-10-06

100

The Lagerlunda collision and the introduction of color vision testing.  

PubMed

In histories of vision testing, the origins of occupational screening for color blindness are often traced to a fatal railroad accident that occurred in Sweden on the night of 14-15 November 1875. The scene of the accident was the estate of Baron Lagerfelt in Östergötland, but the critical events were played out at Linköping (the normal passing place for the northbound and southbound expresses) and at Bankeberg (a small station to which the passing place was reassigned at a few minutes' notice). First to arrive at Bankeberg, the northbound express slowed almost to a halt, but then inexplicably accelerated forwards towards the Lagerlunda estate, despite a sequence of signals from the stationmaster, Uno Björkelund, and a lineman, Oskar Johansson. Soon after the accident, the ophthalmologist Frithiof Holmgren suggested that the engineer of the northbound express, Andersson, or his oiler, Larsson, had been color blind. Neither survived to be tested. Using the records of the subsequent trial and other archival materials, we have re-examined the role of color blindness in the Lagerlunda incident and conclude that the accident cannot be attributed to color blindness alone. Yet the accident undoubtedly had a central role in the introduction of color vision testing by European and North American railroads. To persuade the railroad management to introduce universal screening of employees for color blindness, Holmgren used a dramatic coup de theatre and some unashamed subterfuge. PMID:22301271

Mollon, J D; Cavonius, L R

2012-01-31

101

Colors, Colors?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to the famous "Stroop Effect," learners explore how words influence what we see and how the brain handles "mixed messages." Learners read colored words and are asked to say the color of the word, not what the word says. Learners use a data table to keep track of where they have trouble reading the colors. They analyze this data by answering questions and drawing conclusions. Learners can also take this test using the online version.

Songstad, Susan

2009-01-01

102

Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing: Adaptation of the A-Stratified Strategy in Item Selection with Content Balancing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Variable-length computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can provide examinees with tailored test lengths. With the fixed standard error of measurement ("SEM") termination rule, variable-length CAT can achieve predetermined measurement precision by using relatively shorter tests compared to fixed-length CAT. To explore the application of…

Huo, Yan

2009-01-01

103

The Computerized Laboratory Notebook concept for genetic toxicology experimentation and testing.  

PubMed

We describe a microcomputer system utilizing the Computerized Laboratory Notebook (CLN) concept developed in our laboratory for the purpose of automating the Battery of Leukocyte Tests (BLT). The BLT was designed to evaluate blood specimens for toxic, immunotoxic, and genotoxic effects after in vivo exposure to putative mutagens. A system was developed with the advantages of low cost, limited spatial requirements, ease of use for personnel inexperienced with computers, and applicability to specific testing yet flexibility for experimentation. This system eliminates cumbersome record keeping and repetitive analysis inherent in genetic toxicology bioassays. Statistical analysis of the vast quantity of data produced by the BLT would not be feasible without a central database. Our central database is maintained by an integrated package which we have adapted to develop the CLN. The clonal assay of lymphocyte mutagenesis (CALM) section of the CLN is demonstrated. PC-Slaves expand the microcomputer to multiple workstations so that our computerized notebook can be used next to a hood while other work is done in an office and instrument room simultaneously. Communication with peripheral instruments is an indispensable part of many laboratory operations, and we present a representative program, written to acquire and analyze CALM data, for communicating with both a liquid scintillation counter and an ELISA plate reader. In conclusion we discuss how our computer system could easily be adapted to the needs of other laboratories. PMID:2922007

Strauss, G H; Stanford, W L; Berkowitz, S J

1989-03-01

104

Incorporating Content Constraints into a Multi-Stage Adaptive Testlet Design. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most large-scale testing programs facing computerized adaptive testing (CAT) must face the challenge of maintaining extensive content requirements, but content constraints in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can compromise the precision and efficiency that could be achieved by a pure maximum information adaptive testing algorithm. This…

Reese, Lynda M.; Schnipke, Deborah L.; Luebke, Stephen W.

105

WindoWorks: A flexible program for computerized testing of accelerator control system electronic circuit boards  

SciTech Connect

Since most accelerator control system circuit boards reside in a commercial bus architecture, such as CAMAC or VMEbus, a computerized test station is needed for exercising the boards. This test station is needed for the development of newly designed prototypes, for commissioning newly manufactured boards, for diagnosing boards which have failed in service, and for long term testing of boards with intermittent failure problems. WindoWorks was created to address these needs. It is a flexible program which runs on a PC compatible computer and uses a PC to bus crate interface. WindoWorks was designed to give the user a flexible way to test circuit boards. Each test is incapsulated into a window. By bringing up several different windows the user can run several different tests simultaneously. The windows are sizable, and moveable. They have data entry boxes so that the test can be customized to the users preference. The windows can be used in conjunction with each other in order to create supertests. There are several windows which are generic. They can be used to test basic functions on any VME (or CAMAC) board. There are other windows which have been created to test specific boards. New windows for testing specific boards can be easily created by a Pascal programmer using the WindoWorks framework.

Utterback, J.

1993-09-01

106

Color-Word Stroop test performance across the adult life span  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Color-Word Stroop test (CWST), the basic task is to name the ink color of rows of XXXs, and performance in this condition is compared with performance in naming the ink-color of color words under conditions where word meanings and ink colors mismatch or are incongruent (e. g., the word red printed in green ink). The present study investigated

B. Uttl; P. Graf

1997-01-01

107

Assessment of cognitive function before and after surgery for posterior cranial fossa lesions using computerized and conventional tests.  

PubMed

Cognitive function has not been well studied after neurosurgery for posterior fossa lesions despite its potential importance in determining surgical indications and approaches. The present study evaluated changes in cognitive functions after posterior fossa surgery to detect any differences between the middle cranial fossa and lateral suboccipital approaches in 50 patients with posterior fossa lesions such as tumors and vascular diseases. Twenty-five patients underwent surgery via the middle fossa and 25 via the lateral suboccipital approaches. Computerized test battery (CogState) and conventional neuropsychological tests (serial seven-word learning test and mini-mental state examination) were examined before, 1 month after, and 3 months after surgery. All scores of the neuropsychological tests remained within normal limits after surgery. However, the scores of one computerized test battery and serial seven-word learning tests decreased significantly 1 month after surgery and recovered within 3 months, indicating temporary deterioration of short-term memory in the middle fossa group. The computerized tests detected significantly larger numbers of patients with worsened results than the conventional tests. The middle fossa approach and operation time showed correlations with the postoperative neuropsychological declines. The computerized tests could be performed easily and were beneficial for detecting subtle changes of the cognitive function after surgery. Cognitive function, especially short-term memory, may decline temporarily with the middle fossa approach and long operation time. PMID:20587966

Ichimura, Shinya; Ohira, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Masahito; Kano, Tadashige; Akiyama, Takekazu; Orii, Maaya; Fukunaga, Atsushi; Kawase, Takeshi

2010-01-01

108

A computerized test system for thermal-mechanical fatigue crack growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computerized testing system to measure fatigue crack growth under thermal-mechanical fatigue conditions is described. Built around a servohydraulic machine, the system is capable of a push-pull test under stress-controlled or strain-controlled conditions in the temperature range of 25 to 1050 C. Temperature and mechanical strain are independently controlled by the closed-loop system to simulate the complex inservice strain-temperature relationship. A d-c electrical potential method is used to measure crack growth rates. The correction procedure of the potential signal to take into account powerline and RF-induced noises and thermal changes is described. It is shown that the potential drop technique can be used for physical mechanism studies and for modelling crack tip processes.

Marchand, N.; Pelloux, R. M.

1986-11-01

109

The Mere Exposure Effect Is Sensitive to Color Information: Evidence for Color Effects in a Perceptual Implicit Memory Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Priming effects in perceptual tests of implicit memory are assumed to be perceptually specific. Surprisingly, changing object colors from study to test did not diminish priming in most previous studies. However, these studies used implicit tests that are based on object identification, which mainly depends on the analysis of the object shape and therefore operates color-independently. The present study shows

Almut Hupbach; André Melzer; Oliver Hardt

2006-01-01

110

Using Computerized Provider Order Entry to Enforce Documentation of Tests with Pending Results at Hospital Discharge  

PubMed Central

Background Small numbers of tests with pending results are documented in hospital discharge summaries leading to breakdown in communication and medical errors due to inadequate followup. Objective Evaluate effect of using a computerized provider order entry (CPOE) system to enforce documentation of tests with pending results into hospital discharge summaries. Methods We assessed the percent of all tests with pending results and those with actionable results that were documented before (n = 182 discharges) and after (n = 203 discharges) implementing the CPOE-enforcement tool. We also surveyed providers (n = 52) about the enforcement functionality. Results Documentation of all tests with pending results improved from 12% (87/701 tests) before to 22% (178/812 tests) (p = 0.02) after implementation. Documentation of tests with eventual actionable results increased from 0% (0/24) to 50% (14/28)(p<0.001). Survey respondents felt the intervention improved quality of summaries, provider communication, and was not time-consuming. Conclusions A CPOE tool enforcing documentation of tests with pending results into discharge summaries significantly increased documentation rates, especially of actionable tests. However, gaps in documentation still exist.

Cadwallader, J.; Asirwa, C.; Li, X.; Kesterson, J.; Tierney, W.M.; Were, M.C.

2012-01-01

111

An Empirical Evaluation of the Slip Correction in the Four Parameter Logistic Models With Computerized Adaptive Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a selected response test, aberrant responses such as careless errors and lucky guesses might cause error in ability estimation because these responses do not actually reflect the knowledge that examinees possess. In a computerized adaptive test (CAT), these aberrant responses could further cause serious estimation error due to dynamic item administration. To enhance the robust performance of CAT against

Yung-Chin Yen; Rong-Guey Ho; Wen-Wei Laio; Li-Ju Chen; Ching-Chin Kuo

2012-01-01

112

An Empirical Evaluation of the Slip Correction in the Four Parameter Logistic Models with Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a selected response test, aberrant responses such as careless errors and lucky guesses might cause error in ability estimation because these responses do not actually reflect the knowledge that examinees possess. In a computerized adaptive test (CAT), these aberrant responses could further cause serious estimation error due to dynamic item…

Yen, Yung-Chin; Ho, Rong-Guey; Laio, Wen-Wei; Chen, Li-Ju; Kuo, Ching-Chin

2012-01-01

113

Sensitivity and Specificity of a Computerized Test of Attention in the Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is difficult to diagnose due to the subjectivity of its symptoms and lack of specific assessment measures. Computerized tests of attention have recently been used as objective measures that may assist in the diagnosis of the disorder. The present study evaluated consistency between the Conners Parent Rating Scale and the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA), which

Amy M. Schatz; Angela O. Ballantyne; Doris A. Trauner

2001-01-01

114

An Empirical Evaluation of the Slip Correction in the Four Parameter Logistic Models with Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a selected response test, aberrant responses such as careless errors and lucky guesses might cause error in ability estimation because these responses do not actually reflect the knowledge that examinees possess. In a computerized adaptive test (CAT), these aberrant responses could further cause serious estimation error due to dynamic item…

Yen, Yung-Chin; Ho, Rong-Guey; Laio, Wen-Wei; Chen, Li-Ju; Kuo, Ching-Chin

2012-01-01

115

Construct Validity and Measurement Invariance of Computerized Adaptive Testing: Application to Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purposes of this study are twofold. First, to investigate the construct or factorial structure of a set of Reading and Mathematics computerized adaptive tests (CAT), "Measures of Academic Progress" (MAP), given in different states at different grades and academic terms. The second purpose is to investigate the invariance of test factorial…

Wang, Shudong; McCall, Marty; Jiao, Hong; Harris, Gregg

2012-01-01

116

Proceedings of the First Conference on Computerized Adaptive Testing (Washington, D.C., June 12-13, 1975).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principal objectives of this conference were to exchange information, discuss theoretical and empirical developments, and to coordinate research efforts. The papers and their authors are: "The Graded Response Model of Latent Trait Theory and Tailored Testing" by Fumiko Samejima; (Incomplete Orders and Computerized Testing" by Norman Cliff;…

Clark, Cynthia L., Ed.

117

Representing Response-Time Information in Item Banks. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The availability of item response times made possible by computerized testing represents an entirely new type of information about test items. This study explores the issue of how to represent response-time information in item banks. Empirical response-time distribution functions can be fit with statistical distribution functions with known…

Schnipke, Deborah L.; Scrams, David J.

118

[A computerized endurance test: efficacy of pelvic floor rehabilitation treatment in patients with stress incontinence].  

PubMed

In the present study the authors wanted to transfer rigorous methods of study, already in use in other sectors (sports, medicine, isokinetic work, etc.) of the validity of interventions made and their effectiveness, into an "emerging" field, that of perineal rehabilitation. 15 female patients, aged between 35 and 45, affected by stress incontinence underwent a baseline clinico-instrumental evaluation of the perineal floor including a computerized test of endurance. The patients then embarked upon a standardized rehabilitative perineal training lasting a month and at the end underwent an identical evaluation as that performed at the outset. Statistical analysis of the results obtained showed an objective improvement in the parameters considered (endovaginal pressure and its variations during a series of intermittent static contractions) quantitatively supporting clinical evidence. PMID:7570256

Guarnaschelli, C; Di Patrizi, S; Felicetti, G; Achilli, M P

1995-03-01

119

Test-retest reliability of four computerized neurocognitive assessment tools in an active duty military population.  

PubMed

Computerized neurocognitive assessment tools (NCATs) are increasingly used for baseline and post-concussion assessments. To date, NCATs have not demonstrated strong test-retest reliabilities. Most studies have used non-military populations and different methodologies, complicating the determination of the utility of NCATs in military populations. The test-retest reliability of four NCATs (Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics 4 [ANAM4], CNS-Vital Signs, CogState, and Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test [ImPACT]) was investigated in a healthy active duty military sample. Four hundred and nineteen Service Members were randomly assigned to take one NCAT and 215 returned after approximately 30 days for retest. Participants deemed to have inadequate effort during one or both testing sessions, according to the NCATs scoring algorithms, were removed from analyses. Each NCAT had at least one reliability score (intraclass correlation) in the "adequate" range (.70-.79), only ImPACT had one score considered "high" (.80-.89), and no scores met "very high" criteria (.90-.99). However, overall test-retest reliabilities in four NCATs in a military sample are consistent with reliabilities reported in the literature and are lower than desired for clinical decision-making. PMID:23819991

Cole, Wesley R; Arrieux, Jacques P; Schwab, Karen; Ivins, Brian J; Qashu, Felicia M; Lewis, Steven C

2013-07-02

120

Examination of the Construct Validity of Impact™ Computerized Test, Traditional, and Experimental Neuropsychological Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although computerized neuropsychological screening is becoming a standard for sports concussion identification and management, convergent validity studies are limited. Such studies are important for several reasons: reference to established measures is needed to establish validity; examination of the computerized battery relative to a more traditional comprehensive battery will help understand the strengths and limitations of the computer battery; and such

A. Maerlender; L. Flashman; A. Kessler; S. Kumbhani; R. Greenwald; T. Tosteson; T. McAllister

2010-01-01

121

Improving Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing by Balancing Attribute Coverage: The Modified Maximum Global Discrimination Index Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a new item selection method, namely, the modified maximum global discrimination index (MMGDI) method, for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT). The new method captures two aspects of the appeal of an item: (a) the amount of contribution it can make toward adequate coverage of every attribute and (b) the…

Cheng, Ying

2010-01-01

122

Computerized Adaptive Testing Using the Partial Credit Model: Effects of Item Pool Characteristics and Different Stopping Rules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Effects of the following variables on performance of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) procedures for the partial credit model (PCM) were studied: (1) stopping rule for terminating CAT; (2) item pool size; and (3) distribution of item difficulties. Implications of findings for CAT systems based on the PCM are discussed. (SLD)|

Dodd, Barbara G.; And Others

1993-01-01

123

Sensitivity and specificity of a computerized test of attention in the diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.  

PubMed

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is difficult to diagnose due to the subjectivity of its symptoms and lack of specific assessment measures. Computerized tests of attention have recently been used as objective measures that may assist in the diagnosis of the disorder. The present study evaluated consistency between the Conners Parent Rating Scale and the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA), which is a computerized test of attention designed to identify symptoms associated with ADHD, in children clinically diagnosed with ADHD (n = 28) and controls (n = 20). Our results showed that both the Conners and the TOVA indicated significant problem areas suggestive of an attention deficit in approximately 85% of children who were clinically diagnosed with ADHD. However, the TOVA also found attentional problems in approximately 30% of control children, whereas none of the controls scored abnormally on the Conners. As computerized measures are administered more frequently, there may be a risk of overdiagnosis and treatment of "ADHD" in normal children. A combined approach using questionnaires, clinical evaluation, and computerized tests of attention in the assessment of possible ADHD may provide the most accurate means of diagnosis. PMID:11785580

Schatz, A M; Ballantyne, A O; Trauner, D A

2001-12-01

124

Effect of Person Cluster on Accuracy of Ability Estimation of Computerized Adaptive Testing in K-12 Education Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The ability estimation procedure is one of the most important components in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) system. Currently, all CATs that provide K-12 student scores are based on the item response theory (IRT) model(s); while such application directly violates the assumption of independent sample of a person in IRT models because ability…

Wang, Shudong; Jiao, Hong; He, Wei

2011-01-01

125

The Effect of Fitting a Unidimensional IRT Model to Multidimensional Data in Content-Balanced Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the effect of fitting a unidimensional IRT model to multidimensional data in content-balanced computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Unconstrained CAT with the maximum information item selection method is chosen as the baseline, and the performances of three content balancing procedures, the constrained CAT (CCAT), the…

Song, Tian

2010-01-01

126

On the Reliability and Validity of a Numerical Reasoning Speed Dimension Derived from Response Times Collected in Computerized Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data from 181 college students were used to assess whether math reasoning item response times in computerized testing can provide valid and reliable measures of a speed dimension. The alternate forms reliability of the speed dimension was .85. A two-dimensional structural equation model suggests that the speed dimension is related to the accuracy…

Davison, Mark L.; Semmes, Robert; Huang, Lan; Close, Catherine N.

2012-01-01

127

Preliminary validity of "integneuro": a new computerized battery of neurocognitive tests.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the preliminary validity of a newly developed battery of computerized cognitive measures, IntegNeuro. This standardized and semi-automated computerized battery assesses sensori-motor function, attention, new learning and memory, language fluency, executive function, and estimated intelligence. A total of 50 healthy individuals (aged 22-80 years) were included in the study. Correlational analyses revealed highly significant associations between the two cognitive batteries. These results support the use of IntegNeuro as a computerized cognitive system. Additional studies are needed to examine the clinical utility of the battery. PMID:16223701

Paul, Robert H; Lawrence, Jeffrey; Williams, Leanne M; Richard, C Clark; Cooper, Nicholas; Gordon, Evian

2005-11-01

128

Development and Preliminary Testing of a Computerized Adaptive Assessment of Chronic Pain  

PubMed Central

The aim of this article is to report the development and preliminary testing of a prototype computerized adaptive test of chronic pain (CHRONIC PAIN-CAT) conducted in two stages: 1) evaluation of various item selection and stopping rules through real data simulated administrations of CHRONIC PAIN-CAT; 2) a feasibility study of the actual prototype CHRONIC PAIN-CAT assessment system conducted in a pilot sample. Item calibrations developed from a US general population sample (N=782) were used to program a pain severity and impact item bank (k=45) and real data simulations were conducted to determine a CAT stopping rule. The CHRONIC-PAIN CAT was programmed on a tablet PC using QualityMetric's Dynamic Health Assessment (DYHNA®) software and administered to a clinical sample of pain sufferers (n=100). The CAT was completed in significantly less time than the static (full item bank) assessment (p<.001). On average, 5.6 items were dynamically administered by CAT to achieve a precise score. Scores estimated from the two assessments were highly correlated (r=.89) and both assessments discriminated across pain severity levels (p<.001, RV=.95). Patients’ evaluations of the CHRONIC PAIN-CAT were favourable. Perspective This report demonstrates that the CHRONIC PAIN-CAT is feasible for administration in a clinic. The application has the potential to improve pain assessment and help clinicians manage chronic pain.

Anatchkova, Milena D.; Saris-Baglama, Renee N.; Kosinski, Mark; Bjorner, Jakob

2009-01-01

129

Replenishing a computerized adaptive test of patient-reported daily activity functioning  

PubMed Central

Purpose Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) item banks may need to be updated, but before new items can be added, they must be linked to the previous CAT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 41 pretest items prior to including them into an operational CAT. Methods We recruited 6,882 patients with spine, lower extremity, upper extremity, and nonorthopedic impairments who received outpatient rehabilitation in one of 147 clinics across 13 states of the USA. Forty-one new Daily Activity (DA) items were administered along with the Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care Daily Activity CAT (DA-CAT-1) in five separate waves. We compared the scoring consistency with the full item bank, test information function (TIF), person standard errors (SEs), and content range of the DA-CAT-1 to the new CAT (DA-CAT-2) with the pretest items by real data simulations. Results We retained 29 of the 41 pretest items. Scores from the DA-CAT-2 were more consistent (ICC = 0.90 versus 0.96) than DA-CAT-1 when compared with the full item bank. TIF and person SEs were improved for persons with higher levels of DA functioning, and ceiling effects were reduced from 16.1% to 6.1%. Conclusions Item response theory and online calibration methods were valuable in improving the DA-CAT.

Haley, Stephen M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Jette, Alan M.; Tao, Wei; Moed, Richard; Meyers, Doug; Ludlow, Larry H.

2012-01-01

130

Comparison of methods for controlling maximum exposure rates in computerized adaptive testing.  

PubMed

This paper has two objectives: (a) to provide a clear description of three methods for controlling the maximum exposure rate in computerized adaptive testing -the Symson-Hetter method, the restricted method, and the item-eligibility method- showing how all three can be interpreted as methods for constructing the variable sub-bank of items from which each examinee receives the items in his or her test; (b) to indicate the theoretical and empirical limitations of each method and to compare their performance. With the three methods, we obtained basically indistinguishable results in overlap rate and RMSE (differences in the third decimal place). The restricted method is the best method for controlling exposure rate, followed by the item-eligibility method. The worst method is the Sympson-Hetter method. The restricted method presents problems of sequential overlap rate. Our advice is to use the item-eligibility method, as it saves time and satisfies the goals of restricting maximum exposure. PMID:19403088

Barrada, Juan Ramón; Abad, Francisco José; Veldkamp, Bernard P

2009-05-01

131

Comparing countdown- and IRT-based approaches to computerized adaptive personality testing.  

PubMed

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is an emerging technology in the personality assessment literature given the greater efficiency it affords compared with traditional methods. However, few studies have directly compared the efficiency and validity of 2 competing methods for personality CAT: (a) methods based on item response theory (IRT-CAT) versus (b) methods based on the countdown method (CM-CAT). To that end, we conducted real-data simulations with previously collected responses (N = 8,690) to the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP). Three CAT algorithms (IRT-CAT, IRT-CAT with 5-item minimum, CM-CAT) were evaluated for item savings, classification accuracy, and convergent/discriminant validity. All CATs yielded lower classification accuracy and validity than traditional testing but required 18%-86% fewer items. Ultimately, the IRT-CAT, with minimum 5-item requirement, struck the most ideal balance of highest item savings, and generally fewer costs to validity and accuracy. These results confirm findings regarding item savings trends from previous CAT studies. In addition, this study provides a model for how the validity and precision of CATs may be compared across personality assessments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23647045

Rudick, Monica M; Yam, Wern How; Simms, Leonard J

2013-05-06

132

A comparison of paper-and-pencil and computerized forms of Line Orientation and Enhanced Cued Recall Tests.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess whether a computerized battery of neuropsychological tests could produce similar results as the conventional forms. Comparisons on 77 volunteer undergraduates were carried out with two neuropsychological tests: Line Orientation Test and Enhanced Cued Recall Test. Firstly, students were assigned randomly across the test medium (paper-and-pencil versus computerized). Secondly, the groups were given the same test in the other medium after a 30-day interval between tests. Results showed that the Enhanced Cued Recall Test-Computer-based did not correlate with the Enhanced Cued Recall Test-Paper-and-pencil results. Line Orientation Test-Computer-based scores, on the other hand, did correlate significantly with the Line Orientation Test-Paper-and-pencil version. In both tests, scores were higher on paper-and-pencil tests compared to computer-based tests. Total score difference between modalities was statistically significant for both Enhanced Cued Recall Tests and for the Line Orientation Test. In both computer-based tests, it took less time for participants to complete the tests. PMID:22662393

A?kar, Petek; Altun, Arif; Cangöz, Banu; Cevik, Vildan; Kaya, Galip; Türksoy, Hasan

2012-04-01

133

The Language Research Center's Computerized Test System for environmental enrichment and psychological assessment.  

PubMed

In the spring of 1987, we undertook to provide environmental enrichment to nonhuman primate subjects in ways that would complement and even contribute to the bio-behaviorial science that justified the monkeys' captivity. Of course, the psychological well-being of captive primates--and indeed all research species-- has been an area of intense research activity since the 1985 amendment of the Animal Welfare Act. This mandate for researchers to ensure the psychological, as well as physical, fitness of experimental animals catalyzed the humane and scientific interests of the research community. The contemporary literature is replete with proposed means both of assaying and of providing enrichment and well-being. Notwithstanding, consensus on either assessment or intervention has yet to be reached. The paradigm we employed was modelled after successful efforts with chimpanzees. An automated test system was constructed in which subjects responded to computer tasks by manipulating a joystick. The tasks, interactive game-like versions of many of the classic testing paradigms of cognitive and comparative psychology, permitted the controlled presentation of stimuli and demands without the required presence of a human experimenter. Despite significant barriers to the success, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and a variety of other primate species (including, of course, humans) have mastered the skills necessary for testing in this paradigm. Previous experiments have illustrated the utility of the test system for addressing questions of learning, memory, attention, perception, and motivation. Additional data have been reported to support the contention that the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) serves its other raison d'etre--providing environmental enrichment and assessing psychological well-being. This paper is designed to augment previous descriptions of the technology and the paradigm for scientists and caretakers interested in environmental enrichment and performance assessment with primates. PMID:11538192

Washburn, D A; Rumbaugh, D M; Richardson, W K

1992-11-01

134

Using Computerized Adaptive Testing to Reduce the Burden of Mental Health Assessment  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigated the combination of item response theory and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for psychiatric measurement as a means of reducing the burden of research and clinical assessments. Methods Data were from 800 participants in outpatient treatment for a mood or anxiety disorder; they completed 616 items of the 626-item Mood and Anxiety Spectrum Scales (MASS) at two times. The first administration was used to design and evaluate a CAT version of the MASS by using post hoc simulation. The second confirmed the functioning of CAT in live testing. Results Tests of competing models based on item response theory supported the scale’s bifactor structure, consisting of a primary dimension and four group factors (mood, panic-agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive, and social phobia). Both simulated and live CAT showed a 95% average reduction (585 items) in items administered (24 and 30 items, respectively) compared with administration of the full MASS. The correlation between scores on the full MASS and the CAT version was .93. For the mood disorder subscale, differences in scores between two groups of depressed patients—one with bipolar disorder and one without—on the full scale and on the CAT showed effect sizes of .63 (p<.003) and 1.19 (p<.001) standard deviation units, respectively, indicating better discriminant validity for CAT. Conclusions Instead of using small fixed-length tests, clinicians can create item banks with a large item pool, and a small set of the items most relevant for a given individual can be administered with no loss of information, yielding a dramatic reduction in administration time and patient and clinician burden.

Gibbons, Robert D.; Weiss, David J.; Kupfer, David J.; Frank, Ellen; Fagiolini, Andrea; Grochocinski, Victoria J.; Bhaumik, Dulal K.; Stover, Angela; Bock, R. Darrell; Immekus, Jason C.

2010-01-01

135

Po?íta?ový kognitivní test - implementace ?eského jazyka Computerized cognitive test - implementation of Czech language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The assessment of cognitive functions and theirs monitoring through disease progression and therapy are important in clinical practice. Common neuropsychological tests are traditionally administered using paper-pencil and by trained psychologist. Recently, several, computer based cognitive tests were developed. No appropriate computer based cognitive tests for elderly, mainly computer-naive subjects, has been implemented in the Czech Republic and was translated

Vered Aharonson; Amos D. Korczyn; Michaela Mazancová

136

Computerized Adaptive Testing for Follow-up after Discharge from Inpatient Rehabilitation: II. Participation Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective To measure participation outcomes with a computerized adaptive test (CAT) and compare CAT and traditional fixed-length surveys in terms of score agreement, respondent burden, discriminant validity, and responsiveness. Design Longitudinal, prospective cohort study of patients interviewed approximately two weeks after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation and three months later. Setting Follow-up interviews conducted in patients’ home setting. Participants 94 adults with diagnoses of neurological, orthopedic or medically complex conditions. Main Outcome Measures Participation domains of Mobility, Domestic Life, and Community, Social and Civic Life, measured using a CAT version of the Participation Measure for Post-acute Care (PM-PAC-CAT) and a 53-item fixed-length survey (PM-PAC-53). Results PM-PAC-CAT showed substantial agreement with PM-PAC-53 scores (ICC3,1= 0.71–0.81). On average, the PM-PAC-CAT could be completed in 48% of the time and with only 45% of the items as compared to PM-PAC-53. Both formats discriminated across functional severity groups. PM-PAC-CAT and PM-PAC-53 were comparable in responsiveness to patient-reported change over a 3-month interval. Conclusions Accurate estimates of participation status and responsiveness to change for group-level analyses and can be obtained from CAT administrations, with a considerable reduction in respondent burden.

Haley, Stephen M.; Siebens, Hilary; Black-Schaffer, Randie M.; Tao, Wei; Coster, Wendy J.; Ni, Pengsheng; Jette, Alan M.

2009-01-01

137

The use of computerized provider order entry to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of coagulation testing.  

PubMed

Effective pathology services require timely communication of patient-related information between the laboratory and clinicians. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of a computerized provider order entry (CPOE) system on the frequency with which clinicians notify the Hematology Laboratory of details on heparin or warfarin treatments when ordering activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) or the prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR). Although information about the total number of patients on warfarin or heparin was unavailable, it was possible to ascertain that the percentage of abnormal results for each year ranged from 39% in 2005 to 45%, 40%, and 38% in the years 2006 to 2008. The proportion of order requests that reported whether patients were on warfarin or heparin increased from 3% of the aPTT tests (253 of 8307) and 1.9% of the PT and INR requests (161 of 8433) in August through September 2005 (before the CPOE was implemented) to 3.9% (393 of 9990; P < .001) and 2.6% (282 of 10814; P ?=? .009), respectively, in August through September 2008 (after CPOE implementation). During that period (2005-2008), the median turnaround time for the laboratory decreased from 28 to 21 minutes for the PT and INR test results (P < .001) and from 34 to 23 minutes for the aPTT test results (P < .001). The results show that CPOE and decision-support systems can enhance laboratory efficiency and improve its contribution to effective patient care. PMID:21466368

Georgiou, Andrew; Lang, Stephen; Rosenfeld, David; Westbrook, Johanna I

2011-04-01

138

Age related effects in children taking the computerized assessment of response bias and word memory test.  

PubMed

The assessment of effort is a fundamental component of test performance analysis, since effort determines whether a psychological evaluation is valid. The assessment of effort in children has proven problematic. This may be related to the variable and inconsistent nature of children's developing self-regulatory systems, and the fact that measures commonly used to assess effort were standardized on adults. If one uses effort measures designed for adults to assess children, then one must presume that the maintenance of effort in children is comparable to the same behavior in adults. However, because children's executive functioning, including their abilities to self-regulate, attend, concentrate, and to engage in various cognitive activities improve with time (Barkley, 1997, pp. 209-234), our hypothesis is that young children's effort regulation is dissimilar to that of adults, and the presumption of similarity is implausible. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age is a significant influence upon young children's performances on the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias (CARB) and Word Memory Test (WMT). Statistical analysis suggests that younger children (those under 10 years of age) tended to produce poorer performance on these instruments. Younger children's scores differed significantly from children ages 10 and older. Children 11 years and older produced CARB and WMT results similar to adult participants, suggesting a viability for adult normative comparisons with children in this age range. The current investigation concluded that children's maintenance of effort appears to be significantly related to age and reading ability level. Consequently, the use of current adult-based norms with the CARB and WMT, without regard for a child's developmental status and other contextual factors such as the child's ability to read, appears ill-advised especially with children under 11 years of age. PMID:12815513

Courtney, John C; Dinkins, Juliet P; Allen, Lyle M; Kuroski, Katherine

2003-06-01

139

Sensitivity and Specificity of Subacute Computerized Neurocognitive Testing and Symptom Evaluation in Predicting Outcomes After Sports-Related Concussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Concussions affect an estimated 136 000 high school athletes yearly. Computerized neurocognitive testing has been shown to be appropriately sensitive and specific in diagnosing concussions, but no studies have assessed its utility to predict length of recovery. Determining prognosis during subacute recovery after sports concussion will help clinicians more confidently address return-to-play and academic decisions.Purpose: To quantify the prognostic

Brian C. Lau; Michael W. Collins; Mark R. Lovell

2011-01-01

140

Prevalence of Invalid Computerized Baseline Neurocognitive Test Results in High School and Collegiate Athletes  

PubMed Central

Context: Limited data are available regarding the prevalence and nature of invalid computerized baseline neurocognitive test data. Objective: To identify the prevalence of invalid baselines on the desktop and online versions of ImPACT and to document the utility of correcting for left-right (L-R) confusion on the desktop version of ImPACT. Design: Cross-sectional study of independent samples of high school (HS) and collegiate athletes who completed the desktop or online versions of ImPACT. Participants or Other Participants: A total of 3769 HS (desktop ?=? 1617, online ?=? 2152) and 2130 collegiate (desktop ?=? 742, online ?=? 1388) athletes completed preseason baseline assessments. Main Outcome Measure(s): Prevalence of 5 ImPACT validity indicators, with correction for L-R confusion (reversing left and right mouse-click responses) on the desktop version, by test version and group. Chi-square analyses were conducted for sex and attentional or learning disorders. Results: At least 1 invalid indicator was present on 11.9% (desktop) versus 6.3% (online) of the HS baselines and 10.2% (desktop) versus 4.1% (online) of collegiate baselines; correcting for L-R confusion (desktop) decreased this overall prevalence to 8.4% (HS) and 7.5% (collegiate). Online Impulse Control scores alone yielded 0.4% (HS) and 0.9% (collegiate) invalid baselines, compared with 9.0% (HS) and 5.4% (collegiate) on the desktop version; correcting for L-R confusion (desktop) decreased the prevalence of invalid Impulse Control scores to 5.4% (HS) and 2.6% (collegiate). Male athletes and HS athletes with attention deficit or learning disorders who took the online version were more likely to have at least 1 invalid indicator. Utility of additional invalidity indicators is reported. Conclusions: The online ImPACT version appeared to yield fewer invalid baseline results than did the desktop version. Identification of L-R confusion reduces the prevalence of invalid baselines (desktop only) and the potency of Impulse Control as a validity indicator. We advise test administrators to be vigilant in identifying invalid baseline results as part of routine concussion management and prevention programs.

Schatz, Philip; Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Solomon, Gary S.; Ott, Summer D.; Karpf, Robin

2012-01-01

141

7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...specifications by using the Munsell Color Standards for Frozen French Fried Potatoes, Third Edition, 1972, 64-1. 5 Select...minutes at 375 °F. 5 Munsell Color Standards for Frozen French Fried Potatoes, Third Edition, 1972, 64-1, may be...

2013-01-01

142

The ABCs of computerized naming: equivalency, reliability, and predictive validity of a computerized rapid automatized naming (RAN) task.  

PubMed

Population-based studies indicate dual routes to disabled reading in adolescence and adulthood: slowed acquisition of single word reading and ADHD (particularly inattention) in early childhood. Impairments in rapid serial naming may be a factor common to both problems. The gold-standard measure of this ability, the Rapid Automatized Naming Task (RAN; [Denckla MB, Rudel R. Rapid automatized naming of pictured objects, colors, letters and numbers by normal children. Cortex 1974;10:186-202]), has traditionally been administered in a paper-pencil format. Recently however, researchers [Neuhaus GF, Carlson CD, Jeng WM, Post Y, Swank PR. The reliability and validity of rapid automatized scoring software ratings for the determination of pause and articulation component durations. Educ Psychol Meas 2001;61:490-504] have begun to use computerized versions of the RAN. Here a slightly modified computerized version of the RAN was created and the equivalency between the computerized RAN and the conventional version was investigated using a university student sample. Naming times on the conventional and computerized RAN were highly correlated, overall, and for each of the four RAN stimulus types (letters, digit, colors, objects). Conventional and computerized RAN times predicted reading rate and reading comprehension scores equally well and both showed very high test-retest reliability. With our university student sample, findings indicate equivalency between the two testing mediums in all areas examined. PMID:16412518

Howe, Ashley E; Arnell, Karen M; Klein, Raymond M; Joanisse, Marc F; Tannock, Rosemary

2006-01-10

143

Immediate Computerized Feedback in the Evaluation of Undergraduate Public Speaking: Development of the Computerized Competent Speaker Evaluation System and Testing of Its Viability and Efficacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study determined the viability and effectiveness of the Computerized Competent Speaker Evaluation System. A total of 659 comments made by undergraduate students about the paper version of the Competent Speaker Speech Evaluation Form were subjected to two Q sorts. The 635 comments that emerged were incorporated into the evaluation system during…

Witter, Stephen D.; And Others

144

Test and evaluation of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the definition of a Material Balance Area (MBA) as a well-defined geographical area involving an Integral operation, the building housing the BFS-1 and BFS-1 critical facilities is considered to consist of one MBA. The BFS materials are in the form of small disks clad in stainless steel and each disk with nuclear material has its own serial number. Fissile material disks in the BFS MBA can be located at three key monitoring points: BFS-1 facility, BFS-2 facility and main storage of BFS fissile materials (storage 1). When used in the BFS-1 or BFS-2 critical facilities, the fissile material disks are loaded in tubes (fuel rods) forming critical assembly cores. The following specific features of the BFS MBA should be taken into account for the purpose of computerized accounting of nuclear material: (1) very large number of nuclear material items (about 70,000 fissile material items); and (2) periodically very intensive shuffling of nuclear material items. Requirements for the computerized system are determined by basic objectives of nuclear material accounting: (1) providing accurate information on the identity and location of all items in the BFS material balance area; (2) providing accurate information on location and identity of tamper-indicating devices; (3) tracking nuclear material inventories; (4) issuing periodic reports; (5) assisting with the detection of material gains or losses; (6) providing a history of nuclear material transactions; (7) preventing unauthorized access to the system and data falsification. In August 1995, the prototype computerized accounting system was installed on the BFS facility for trial operation. Information on two nuclear material types was entered into the data base: weapon-grade plutonium metal and 36% enriched uranium dioxide. The total number of the weapon-grade plutonium disks is 12,690 and the total number of the uranium dioxide disks is 1,700.

NONE

1995-12-31

145

Memory-Context Effects of Screen Color in Multiple-Choice and Fill-In Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this experimental study, 44 undergraduates completed five computer-based instructional lessons and either two multiplechoice tests or two fill-in-the-blank tests. Color-coded borders were displayed during the lesson, adjacent to the screen text and illustrations. In the experimental condition, corresponding border colors were shown at posttest.…

Prestera, Gustavo E.; Clariana, Roy; Peck, Andrew

2005-01-01

146

The Luscher Color Test: An Investigation of Validity and Underlying Assumptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment investigated several underlying assumptions and one aspect of the validity of the Luscher Color Test, a projective test developed in Europe and relatively unknown in the United States. It was predicted that Ss would report increases in “negative” feelings to the color red, while blue would have the opposite effect, and yellow would produce an increase in “positive”

Cheryl Anne French; A. Barney Alexander

1972-01-01

147

Utility testing of an apple skin color MdMYB1 marker in two progenies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A reported allele-specific dCAP PCR marker associated with apple fruit red skin color was tested in 18 elite breeding parents and two apple cross populations. Among all tested cultivars except one, a consistent relationship was observed between red fruit color and the presence of allele. In both pop...

148

A Comparison of Item Selection Procedures Using Different Ability Estimation Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on the Generalized Partial Credit Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) provides a highly efficient alternative to the paper-and-pencil test. By selecting items that match examinees' ability levels, CAT not only can shorten test length and administration time but it can also increase measurement precision and reduce measurement error. In CAT, maximum information (MI) is the most…

Ho, Tsung-Han

2010-01-01

149

Equivalence of the Color Trails Test and Trail Making Test in nonnative English-speakers.  

PubMed

The Color Trails Test (CTT) has been described as a culture-fair test of visual attention, graphomotor sequencing, and effortful executive processing abilities relative to the Trail Making Test (TMT). In this study, the equivalence of the TMT and the CTT among a group of 64 bilingual Turkish university students was examined. No difference in performance on the CTT-1 and TMT Part A was found, suggesting functionally equivalent performance across both tasks. In contrast, the statistically significant differences in performance on CTT-2 and TMT Part B, as well as the interference indices for both tests, were interpreted as providing evidence for task nonequivalence of the CTT-2 and TMT Part B. Results have implications for both psychometric test development and clinical cultural neuropsychology. PMID:14590218

Dugbartey, A T; Townes, B D; Mahurin, R K

2000-07-01

150

Test of color gauge theories in two-photon interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lowest-order diagrams for the process e\\/sup +\\/e⁻ ..-->.. e\\/sup +\\/e⁻..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. e\\/sup +\\/e⁻+ two jets +X are calculated explicitly in the broken color gauge theory. The experimental data are consistent with the theoretical calculations with the gluon mass m\\/sub g\\/ = 0.2--0.3 GeV.

H. C. Kyung; K. H. Seung; K. K. Jae

1983-01-01

151

Development of a Computerized Adaptive Test to Assess Health-related Quality of Life in Adults with Asthma  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this research was to calibrate an item bank for a computerized adaptive test (CAT) of asthma impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), test CAT versions of varying lengths, conduct preliminary validity testing, and evaluate item bank readability. Methods Asthma Impact Survey (AIS) bank items that passed focus group, cognitive testing, and clinical and psychometric reviews were administered to adults with varied levels of asthma control. Adults self-reporting asthma (N=1106) completed an Internet survey including 88 AIS items, the Asthma Control Test (ACT), and other HRQOL outcome measures. Data were analyzed using classical and modern psychometric methods, real-data CAT simulations, and known groups validity testing. Results A bi-factor model with a general factor (asthma impact) and several group factors (cognitive function, fatigue, mental health, physical function, role function, sexual function, self-consciousness/stigma, sleep, and social function) was tested. Loadings on the general factor were above 0.5 and were substantially larger than group factor loadings, and fit statistics were acceptable. Item functioning for most items and fit to the model was acceptable. CAT simulations demonstrated several options for administration and stopping rules. AIS distinguished between respondents with differing levels of asthma control. Conclusions The new 50-item AIS item bank demonstrated favorable psychometric characteristics, preliminary evidence of validity, and accessibility at moderate reading levels. Developing item banks for CAT can improve the precise, efficient, and comprehensive monitoring of asthma outcomes, and may facilitate patient-centered care.

Turner-Bowker, DM; DeRosa, MA; Saris-Baglama, RN; Bjorner, JB

2012-01-01

152

Computerized content analysis of some adolescent writings of Napoleon Bonaparte: a test of the validity of the method.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to test the validity of a computer software program previously demonstrated to be capable of making DSM-IV neuropsychiatric diagnoses from the content analysis of speech or verbal texts. In this report, the computer program was applied to three personal writings of Napoleon Bonaparte when he was 12 to 16 years of age. The accuracy of the neuropsychiatric evaluations derived from the computerized content analysis of these writings of Napoleon was independently corroborated by two biographers who have described pertinent details concerning his life situations, moods, and other emotional reactions during this adolescent period of his life. The relevance of this type of computer technology to psychohistorical research and clinical psychiatry is suggested. PMID:12193839

Gottschalk, Louis A; DeFrancisco, Don; Bechtel, Robert J

2002-08-01

153

Artifact Reduction in Tomographic Images for Nondestructive Testing of Square Billets Using Ultrasonic Computerized Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reduce the intensity of artifacts in visualized images for detecting defects in square billets by ultrasonic computerized tomography, we propose a method, which utilizes the crosspower-spectrum phase (CSP) function between a measurement signal and a reference signal, to measure the time-of-flight (TOF) difference. The artifacts arise owing to measurement errors of the TOF difference, which are caused by the effects of propagation characteristics and side lobes in correlation waveforms. The effects of propagation characteristics may be reduced using the reference signal, which contains the same characteristics as those of the measurement signal. The side lobes in correlation waveforms may also be decreased using the CSP method. The results obtained by experiment suggest that the intensity of artifacts was reduced because the proposed method reduced the side lobe level by about -14 dB and the number of measurement errors. The visualized images showed that the defects whose diameter was more than 2.0 mm were detected using the input signal whose wavelength was in the range from 2 to 6 mm.

Mitsui, Hideto; Mizutani, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Norose, Yoko

2011-11-01

154

Color- and picture-word Stroop tests: performance changes in old age.  

PubMed

The Stroop test comes in different variations, but all of them index performance on a basic task, like color or picture naming, when it is carried out by itself versus when it is performed in the presence of conflicting or incongruent stimuli. The present study examined the hypothesis that Stroop interference--the cost of performing one task in the presence of another--is a general as opposed to a test-specific index of cognitive flexibility. A second goal was to examine changes in Stroop test performance in old age. A group of 129 healthy older adults (> or = 65 years of age) were assessed on the color- and picture-word Stroop test, as well as on a battery of neuropsychological tests. Subjects' performance on each card of both Stroop tests, and various derived (differences and ratios) scores, were used to prepare age-group norms. The use of the norms is illustrated with findings from previous studies. Regression analyses showed age-changes in several aspects of Stroop test performance. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses, and causal modeling showed an age effect on Stroop interference only on the picture-word test but not on the color-word test. Exploratory factor analysis of the Stroop data and the neuropsychological test data revealed different factor loadings for the color- and picture-word test. The combined findings suggest that the color- and picture-word Stroop test measure different cognitive functions, at least in old age. PMID:7650102

Graf, P; Uttl, B; Tuokko, H

1995-05-01

155

Computerized cognitive testing battery identifies mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia even in the presence of depressive symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive and depressive symptoms co-occur, complicating detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia. In this study, discriminant validity of a novel computerized cognitive battery for MCI detection was evaluated after covariation for depressive symptom severity. In addition to the computerized battery, participants at two sites received the 30-item self-administered Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS; n = 72); those at

Glen M. Doniger; Tzvi Dwolatzky; David M. Zucker; Howard Chertkow; Howard Crystal; Avraham Schweiger; Ely S. Simon

2006-01-01

156

The Use of Statistical Process Control-Charts for Person-Fit Analysis on Computerized Adaptive Testing. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study a cumulative-sum (CUSUM) procedure from the theory of Statistical Process Control was modified and applied in the context of person-fit analysis in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) environment. Six person-fit statistics were proposed using the CUSUM procedure, and three of them could be used to investigate the CAT in online…

Meijer, Rob R.; van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith M. L. A.

157

An Evaluation of Computerized Tests as Predictors of Job Performance: II. Differential Validity for Global and Job Element Criteria. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents data concerning the validity of a set of experimental computerized and paper-and-pencil tests for measures of on-job performance on global and job elements. It reports on the usefulness of 30 experimental and operational variables for predicting marks on 42 job elements and on a global criterion for Electrician's Mate,…

Cory, Charles H.

158

Can computerized clinical decision support systems improve practitioners' diagnostic test ordering behavior? A decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Underuse and overuse of diagnostic tests have important implications for health outcomes and costs. Decision support technology purports to optimize the use of diagnostic tests in clinical practice. The objective of this review was to assess whether computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs) are effective at improving ordering of tests for diagnosis, monitoring of disease, or monitoring of treatment. The outcome of interest was effect on the diagnostic test-ordering behavior of practitioners. Methods We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid's EBM Reviews database, Inspec, and reference lists for eligible articles published up to January 2010. We included randomized controlled trials comparing the use of CCDSSs to usual practice or non-CCDSS controls in clinical care settings. Trials were eligible if at least one component of the CCDSS gave suggestions for ordering or performing a diagnostic procedure. We considered studies 'positive' if they showed a statistically significant improvement in at least 50% of test ordering outcomes. Results Thirty-five studies were identified, with significantly higher methodological quality in those published after the year 2000 (p = 0.002). Thirty-three trials reported evaluable data on diagnostic test ordering, and 55% (18/33) of CCDSSs improved testing behavior overall, including 83% (5/6) for diagnosis, 63% (5/8) for treatment monitoring, 35% (6/17) for disease monitoring, and 100% (3/3) for other purposes. Four of the systems explicitly attempted to reduce test ordering rates and all succeeded. Factors of particular interest to decision makers include costs, user satisfaction, and impact on workflow but were rarely investigated or reported. Conclusions Some CCDSSs can modify practitioner test-ordering behavior. To better inform development and implementation efforts, studies should describe in more detail potentially important factors such as system design, user interface, local context, implementation strategy, and evaluate impact on user satisfaction and workflow, costs, and unintended consequences.

2011-01-01

159

Maintaining an Absolute Test Hue in the Presence of Different Background Colors and Luminance Ratios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measures are made of changes in test wavelength required to compensate for a contrast effect introduced by a baxkground color. The test hue remains constant when the contrast effect is modified by a shift of the test wavelength, usually toward the directi...

M. Akita C. H. Graham

1965-01-01

160

Cue-Free Computerized Interactive Tests--Computer Emulation of Oral Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This discussion of the use of microcomputer software in a medical school class for the purposes of emulating oral examinations begins by stating the three major goals of testing in medical school. The limitations of multiple choice tests and oral examinations are then discussed, and the use and suitability of computers to administer and to avoid…

Anbar, Michael

161

Differential Item Functioning of GRE Mathematics Items across Computerized and Paper-and-Pencil Testing Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study seeks to determine whether item features are related to observed differences in item difficulty (DIF) between computer- and paper-based test delivery media. Examinees responded to 60 quantitative items similar to those found on the GRE general test in either a computer-based or paper-based medium. Thirty-eight percent of the items were…

Gu, Lixiong; Drake, Samuel; Wolfe, Edward W.

2006-01-01

162

Reducing the Impact of Inappropriate Items on Reviewable Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a test, the testing score would be closer to examinee's actual ability when careless mistakes were corrected. In CAT, however, changing the answer of one item in CAT might cause the following items no longer appropriate for estimating the examinee's ability. These inappropriate items in a reviewable CAT might in turn introduce bias in ability…

Yen, Yung-Chin; Ho, Rong-Guey; Liao, Wen-Wei; Chen, Li-Ju

2012-01-01

163

Age-dependent discrepancies between computerized and paper cognitive testing in patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Computer-based cognitive testing is gaining in popularity because of desirable features such as ease of use, standardized administration and online data acquisition. Information technology and computer familiarity are clearly influenced by age in the general population, but the impact of this situation on cognitive testing of patients with schizophrenia has received little attention. In the present paper, participants underwent cognitive testing with computer and paper versions of the same tests. Patients underperformed controls by 1.36 DS (paper tests) and 2.27 DS (computer tests) after controlling for education. Results were highly correlated but patients with schizophrenia were disproportionately impaired on computer tests compared with their paper counterparts. Moreover, for subtests implying active keyboard input from the participant, the difference between paper and computer scores correlated with age in patients, a pattern that was not found in controls. These results have methodological implications because of the implied risk of measuring (lack of) computer proficiency in addition to bona fide cognitive deficits. They confirm, moreover, that patients with schizophrenia are victims of the "digital divide", which adds to the potential benefits of approaches like computer assisted cognitive remediation in this population. PMID:18661086

Grignon, Sylvain; Grégoire, Claire-Anne; Durand, Myriam; Mury, Marie; Elie, Dominique; Chianetta, Jean Marc

2008-07-25

164

Dynamics of heart rate parameters in students with various personal anxiety levels during computerized testing.  

PubMed

Students with low level of initial (pre-test) personal anxiety demonstrated a high level of modulating effects on the heart rate in all basic frequency ranges (VLF, LF, and HF) resulting in a greater total power of heart rate variability spectrum compared to students with high personal anxiety. The peculiarities of dynamics of heart rate variability were revealed during a real learning task, which correlated with personal anxiety level. In comparison with highly anxious students, the low-anxious group demonstrated more pronounced drop in the power of all ranges of the heart rate variability spectrum during testing followed by restoration of these power indices to initial levels after completion of the test. In contrast, the drop of the total power of the heart rate variability spectrum and in the power of its individual components persisted in students with high anxiety level even after the end of the testing. PMID:23113242

Dzhebrailova, T D; Sulejmanova, R G

2012-09-01

165

POSSIBLE BALL LIGHTNING COLOR PHOTOGRAPH FROM SANKT GALLENKIRCH, VORARLBERG, AUSTRIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A resident of Sankt Gallenkirch, Montafon, Vorarlberg, Werner Burger, reported a color diaslide of ball lightning taken in 1978. A field investigation by the author and four expert witness reports (astronomy, pyrotechnics, lightning protection, computerized photo valuation) ruled out a meteor, fireworks and ordinary lightning. The case is open to further hypothesis testing. Following press publicity, 17 more ball lightning

A. G. KEUL

1992-01-01

166

Randomized control trial to test a computerized psychosocial cancer assessment and referral program: methods and research design.  

PubMed

The National Cancer Coalition Network, National Cancer Institute, and American College of Surgeons all emphasize the need for oncology providers to identify, address, and monitor psychosocial needs of their patients. The Mental Health Assessment and Dynamic Referral for Oncology (MHADRO) is a patient-driven, computerized, psychosocial assessment that identifies, addresses, and monitors physical, psychological, and social issues faced by oncology patients. This paper presents the methodology of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that tested the impact of the MHADRO on patient outcomes at 2, 6, and 12 months. Patient outcomes including overall psychological distress, depression, anxiety, functional disability, and use of psychosocial resources will be presented in future publications after all follow-up data is gathered. Eight hundred and thirty six cancer patients with heterogeneous diagnoses, across three comprehensive cancer centers in different parts of the United States, were randomized to the MHADRO (intervention) or an assessment-only control group. Patients in the intervention group were provided detailed, personalized reports and, when needed, referrals to mental health services; their oncology provider received detailed reports designed to foster clinical decision making. Those patients who demonstrated high levels of psychosocial problems were given the option to authorize that a copy of their report be sent electronically to a "best match" mental health professional. Demographic and patient cancer-related data as well as comparisons between patients who were enrolled and those who declined enrollment are presented. Challenges encountered during the RCT and strategies used to address them are discussed. PMID:23395772

O'Hea, Erin L; Cutillo, Alexandra; Dietzen, Laura; Harralson, Tina; Grissom, Grant; Person, Sharina; Boudreaux, Edwin D

2013-02-07

167

Item Selection in Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing--Gaining Information from Different Angles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the past thirty years, obtaining diagnostic information from examinees' item responses has become an increasingly important feature of educational and psychological testing. The objective can be achieved by sequentially selecting multidimensional items to fit the class of latent traits being assessed, and therefore Multidimensional…

Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua

2011-01-01

168

A CEFR-Based Computerized Adaptive Testing System for Chinese Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the era of globalization, the trend towards learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) has become increasingly popular worldwide. The increasing demand in learning CFL has raised the profile of the Chinese proficiency test (CPT). This study will analyze in depth the inadequacy of current CPT's utilizing the common European framework of…

Wang, Hsuan-Po; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Tsai, Ya-Hsun; Liao, Chen-Huei

2012-01-01

169

Prenatal Aneuploidies Computerized Screening (SCA TEST): a pilot study on 1000 women  

PubMed Central

Summary The SCA-TEST, Prenatal Aneuploidies Screening, is an innovating program with very articulated and differentiated calculation potentials. It is a software which allows executing a sequence-like rational screening involving the ultrasound study of the first and second trimester. The program enables to execute a complete and different- levels combined screening, through very sophisticated mathematic analysis methods. In particular, it enables to make: a first trimester screening combining it with nuchal translucency, and biochemical parameters of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A; a second trimester screening by the evaluation of up to 6 biometric parameters (biparietal diameter, cranial circumferentia, femur, humerus, pyelectasis and plica nucalis), and up to 7 associated morphologic parameters (hyperechogenic bowel, cardiac foci, interventricular defect, pericardial effusion, tricuspid valve regurgitation, right/left heart disproportion, and structural abnormalities). The purpose of the study was to present the performance of the SCA TEST in the second trimester of pregnancy through the evaluation of a prospective study performed in the period between April 2007 and December 2007 on 1000 women who underwent the SCA TEST followed by amniocentesis. Studying all the cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular markers, SCA TEST made it possible to identify 62.5% fetuses affected by Trisomy 21 with a specificity of 94.6%, and a 5.4% of false positive. Considering only women older than 35 years the detection rate reaches 80% with a 7.8% of false positive. The statistical analysis confirmed that the second trimester screening gives essential information regarding the aneuploidia risks in particular in high risk women, and in those who did not perform first trimester screening.

Sacco, Alessandro; Coco, Claudio; Mangiafico, Lucia; Cignini, Pietro; Tiezzi, Alessandra; Giorlandino, Claudio

2007-01-01

170

Detection efficiency for loophole-free Bell tests with entangled states affected by colored noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loophole-free Bell tests for quantum nonlocality and long-distance secure communication require photodetection efficiencies beyond a threshold ?crit that depends on the Bell inequality and the noise affecting the entangled state received by the distant parties. Most calculations of ?crit assume that the noise is random and can be modeled as white noise. However, most sources suffer from colored noise. Indeed, since entangled states are usually created as a superposition of two possible deexcitation paths, a partial distinguishability between the two processes leads to the appearance of colored noise in the generated state. Recently, there was a proposal for a loophole-free Bell test [A. Cabello and F. Sciarrino, Phys. Rev. X 2, 021010 (2012)], where a specific colored noise appears as a consequence of the precertification of the photon's presence through single-photon spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Here we obtain ?crit, the optimal quantum states, and the local settings for a loophole-free Bell test as a function of the amount of colored noise. We consider three bipartite Bell inequalities with n dichotomic settings: Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (n=2), I3322 (n=3), and A5 (n=4), both for the case of symmetric efficiencies, corresponding to photon-photon Bell tests, and for the totally asymmetric case, corresponding to atom-photon Bell tests. Remarkably, in all these cases, ?crit is robust against the colored noise. The present analysis can find application in any test of Bell inequalities in which the dominant noise is of the colored type.

Cañas, Gustavo; Barra, Johanna F.; Gómez, Esteban S.; Lima, Gustavo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Cabello, Adán

2013-01-01

171

The Truth about Students of Color and Standardized Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Each year, when standardized test scores are published for California students, the same message tends to surface: In general, the scores of blacks and Latinos trail those of other groups, especially whites. This pattern emerges so often that it usually doesn't surprise educators or researchers. In the author's search to better understand the…

Thompson, Gail L.

2007-01-01

172

EPRI automated telephotometer: Field test, color-measuring capability and data analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype instrument tha can routinely monitor daytime atmospheric visibility and visibility impairment, including visual discoloration of scenic targets with emphasis on pristine areas was field tested. The system was programmed to monitor nine visibility targets on a daily routine basis. No malfunctions occurred, and a large data base of brightness measurements was recorded. Initial measurements of scene color were also made. A multispectral (color) capability was developed after the test. Current analysis and interpretation procedures follow the methods of tristimulus colorimetry. Data analysis software for the photopic system was developed. The system can now routinely monitor such classical measures of visibility as horizon contrast, visual range, and prevailing visibility, and can also quantify other indices of atmospheroic clarity such as terrain detail and structure. The assembled prototype instrument was characterized and documented, and is available in photopic or color mode.

Evans, W. E.; Viezee, W.

1982-05-01

173

EPRI automated telephotometer: field test, color-measuring capability, and data analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the work described was to continue the development of the prototype EPRI automated telephotometer to yield an instrument that can routinely monitor daytime atmospheric visibility and visibility impairment, including visual discoloration of scenic targets with emphasis on pristine areas. During Fall 1980, the prototype system was operated by SRI at Sunshine, Arizona, to test and validate its overall performance under field conditions. The system was programmed to monitor nine visibility targets on a daily routine basis. No malfunctions occurred, and a large data base of brightness measurements was recorded. Initial measurements of scene color were also made. A multispectral (color) capability was developed after the field test. The color camera has a motor-driven 15.9-cm-diameter filter wheel that can accommodate four replaceable filters. The Reticon linear sensor array and associated interface electronics are nearly identical to those used for the photopic system. Upgraded operating software acquires and organizes the color measurements. A complete set of vertical color-scans at a given azimuth is acquired in one second with either four narrow-band or three broad-band filters. A large matrix of spectral data can be recorded for automated analysis of the psychological aspects of the viewed color scene. Current analysis and interpretation procedures follow the methods of tristimulus colorimetry. Data analysis software for the photopic system was developed. The system can now routinely monitor such classical measures of visibility as horizon contrast, visual range, and prevailing visibility, and can also quantify other indices of atmospheroic clarity such as terrain detail and structure. The assembled prototype instrument has been charactrized and documented, and is available in photopic or color mode.

Evans, W.E.; Viezee, W.

1982-05-01

174

A test for preference of association in a color polymorphic poeciliid fish: laboratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological and evolutionary forces maintaining genetic polymorphism within populations is of continuing interest to evolutionary biologists. Male pygmy swordtails,Xiphophorus pygmaeus, are polymorphic at a Y-linked locus controlling body color. Fish with the + and cp alleles have blue bodies; those with the con allele have bright gold bodies. Male and female fish were tested in the laboratory to determine

Charles F. Baer; Marc Dantzker; Michael J. Ryan

1995-01-01

175

Effect of an enzyme preparation on wheat flour and dough color, mixing, and test baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bleaching flours with natural rather than chemical extracts is attractive because it reduces risks upon exposure and appeals to natural food consumers. This paper reports effects of a commercial proprietary blend of ‘natural’ bleaching enzymes on wheat flour and dough color, mixing behavior and test bake performance. Enzyme preparation did not improve whiteness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of flour system,

B. P. Lamsal; J. M. Faubion

2009-01-01

176

Effects of Noninformational Color on the Reading Test Performance of Students with and without Attentional Deficits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students with attentional deficits are better able to maintain attention to tasks if novelty is added, especially during later trials. In this study, we assessed generality to a standardized reading test when noninformational color was added to one of two altemate forms, counterbalanced for order of condition and form. Participants were 25 third- to fifth-grade students with and without attentional

Janice A. Grskovic; James Javorsky; Arlene M. Hall

2000-01-01

177

Using three-color chromosome painting to test chromosome aberration models  

SciTech Connect

Ionizing radiation induces DNA doublestrand breaks (DSB), which interact pairwise to produce chromosome aberrations. There have long been two main competing theories of such pairwise DSB-DSB interactions. The classical' theory asserts that an unreparied DSB makes two ends that separate within the cell nucleus, with each end subsequently able to join any similar (nonelomeric) end. The exchange' theory asserts that a DBS the chromatin does not separate completely; rather the DSB ends remain associated until repair, or an illegitimate recombination involving another DBS, occurs. The DSB-DSB interaction mechanism was tested by using three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization to paint chromosomes and observe three-color triplets': three broken and misrejoined chromosomes having cyclically permuted colors. We observe 18 three-color triplets' in 2000 cells after 2.25 Gy of [gamma]-irradiation. On the exchange model in its standard form such three-color triplets cannot occur, so this model is inconsistent with the observations. On the classical model, formalized as a discrete time Markov chain embedded at the transitions of a continuous time Markov chain, the frequency of occurrence of three-color triplets can be computed by Monte Carlo simulations The number of three-color triplets predicted mathematically by the classical model was found to be slightly larger that an the observed number. Thus our data, together with our computer simulations, exclude the standard form of the exchange model but are compatible with the classical model. The results are also compatible with other, more complicated models. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Lucas, J.N. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Sachs, R.K. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

1993-02-15

178

Color Appearance in Peripheral Vision: Effects of Test Stimuli and Surround Luminance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To determine the appropriate experimental conditions for measuring the color zone map covering the visual field, the color appearances of red, yellow, green, and blue lights of a CRT display presented across the horizontal meridian of the visual field were measured. The test stimulus settings were equal luminance and equal brightness at the fovea, with dark, gray, or white surround conditions. The perceived strength of the red, yellow, green, and blue hue components in the test stimuli decreased from the fovea to the periphery under all conditions. The luminance level of the test stimuli and the surround conditions did not significantly affect the results. All four of the unique-hue component curves as a function of the eccentricity normalized at the fovea were within the range of the data obtained in previous studies in which monochromatic lights were used as the test stimuli. These curves may thus not depend on whether the test stimulus is monochromatic or complex light. The recommended experimental conditions for measuring the color zone map are equal-luminance test stimuli (no need for brightness-matching testing) with a gray surround (more applicable to actual visual environments that a dark or white surround).

Sakurai, Masato; Koseki, Takayuki; Hayashi, Hirofumi; Ayama, Miyoshi

179

HIV Testing Preferences Among Young Men of Color Who Have Sex With Men  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed awareness of and preferences for rapid HIV testing among young, urban men of color who have sex with men and are engaged in high-risk behaviors for HIV. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in New York City among 177 young men who have sex with men (MSM). Results. Among the 85% of the participants who had previously undergone HIV testing, 43% reported rapid testing at their most recent test. In terms of future tests, 64% would seek rapid testing, as compared with 36% who preferred traditional testing. Those who preferred rapid testing were significantly more likely to have attended at least some college, to have discussed HIV testing with a sexual partner, to be aware of rapid testing, and to have had a previous HIV test. Conclusions. In general, young MSM of color seem aware of rapid testing. However, our results indicate the need to carefully consider the unique needs of those who are particularly disenfranchised or engaged in high-risk behaviors and who may need concerted efforts around HIV counseling and testing. Likewise, our findings point to a need for more effective education and social marketing strategies.

Dini, Sheila; Nye, Andrea; Dye, Bonnie; Neu, Natalie; Hyden, Christel

2010-01-01

180

A rapid and simple color test for detection of salicylate in whole hemolyzed blood.  

PubMed

Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is still one of the most commonly used therapeutic agents. Salicylic acid, the major metabolite of ASA, can be detected easily in urine using simple chemical spot tests such as ferric chloride or Trinder's reagent. In forensic cases, urine is often not available and the rapid detection of salicylate in whole hemolyzed blood can be difficult. This report describes the rapid and simple detection of salicylate using ferric chloride and a methanolic extract of whole blood. The color test is rapid and can detect salicylate at mid-therapeutic concentrations of 5 mg/dL. As little as 300 microL of whole blood is required and no equipment is needed. The color test can also be used with serum or plasma. PMID:2203944

Asselin, W M; Caughlin, J D

181

Color Categories and Color Appearance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

2012-01-01

182

Examination of the Construct Validity of ImPACT(TM) Computerized Test, Traditional, and Experimental Neuropsychological Measures  

PubMed Central

Although computerized neuropsychological screening is becoming a standard for sports concussion identification and management, convergent validity studies are limited. Such studies are important for several reasons: reference to established measures is needed to establish validity; examination of the computerized battery relative to a more traditional comprehensive battery will help understand the strengths and limitations of the computer battery; and such an examination will help inform the output of the computerized battery. We compared scores on the ImPACT™ battery to a comprehensive battery of traditional neuropsychological measures and several experimental measures used in the assessment of sports-related concussion in fifty-four healthy male athletes. Convergent validity was demonstrated for four of the five ImPACT™ domain scores. Two cognitive domains often compromised as a result of mild TBI were not directly identified by the ImPACT™ battery: sustained attention and auditory working memory. Affective symptoms correlated with performance on measures of attention and working memory. In this healthy sample, the correlations between the domains covered by ImPACT™ and the neuropsychological battery supports ImPACT™ as a useful screening tool for assessing many of the cognitive factors related to mTBI. However, the data suggest other sources of data need to be considered when identifying and managing concussions.

Maerlender, A.; Flashman, L.; Kessler, A.; Kumbhani, S.; Greenwald, R.; Tosteson, T.; McAllister, T.

2011-01-01

183

Test-retest of computerized health status questionnaires frequently used in the monitoring of knee osteoarthritis: a randomized crossover trial  

PubMed Central

Background To compare data based on touch screen to data based on traditional paper versions of questionnaires frequently used to examine patient reported outcomes in knee osteoarthritis patients and to examine the impact of patient characteristics on this comparison Methods Participants were recruited from an ongoing trial (http://ClinicalTrials.Gov Identifier: NCT00655941). 20 female participants, mean age 67 (SD 7), completed KOOS, VAS pain, function and patient global, SF-36, Physical Activity Scale, painDETECT, and the ADL Taxonomy. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two subgroups, completing either the paper or touch screen version first. Mean, mean differences (95% CI), median, median differences and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for all questionnaires. Results ICCs between data based on computerized and paper versions ranged from 0.86 to 0.99. Analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between versions of the ADL Taxonomy, but not for the remaining questionnaires. Age, computer experience or education-level had no significant impact on the results. The computerized questionnaires were reported to be easier to use. Conclusion The computerized questionnaires gave comparable results to answers given on paper. Patient characteristics did not influence results and implementation was feasible.

2011-01-01

184

Illuminant cues in surface color perception: tests of three candidate cues.  

PubMed

Many recent computational models of surface color perception presuppose information about illumination in scenes. The models differ primarily in the physical process each makes use of as a cue to the illuminant. We evaluated whether the human visual system makes use of any of three of the following candidate illuminant cues: (1) specular highlight, (2) full surface specularity [Lee, H. C. (1986). Method for computing the scene-illuminant chromaticity from specular highlights. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 3(10), 1694-1699; D'Zmura, M., & Lennie, P. (1986). Mechanisms of color constancy. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 3(10), 1662-1672], and (3) uniform background. Observers viewed simulated scenes binocularly in a computer-controlled Wheatstone stereoscope. All simulated scenes contained a uniform background plane perpendicular to the observer's line of sight and a small number of specular, colored spheres resting on the uniform background. Scenes were rendered under either standard illuminant D65 or standard illuminant A. Observers adjusted the color of a small, simulated test patch to appear achromatic. In a series of experiments we perturbed the illuminant color signaled by each candidate cue and looked for an influence of the changed cue on achromatic settings. We found that the specular highlight cue had a significant influence, but that the influence was asymmetric: greater when the base illuminant, CIE standard Illuminant A, was perturbed in the direction of Illuminant D65 than vice versa. Neither the full surface specularity cue nor the background cue had any observable influence. The lack of influence of the background cue is likely due to the placement of the test patch in front of the background rather than, as is typical, embedded in the background. PMID:11520505

Yang, J N; Maloney, L T

2001-09-01

185

Stroop interference: Aging effects assessed with the stroop color-word test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large, cross-sectional aging investigation of performance on the Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT) was carried out. Subjects were 247 volunteers, ages 20–80 in seven age levels. Although all subjects thought themselves to be normal and healthy, a post hoc division could be made on the basis of biological life events (BLE). BLE are mild biological or environmental factors, such as

Peter J. Houx; Jellemer Jolles; Fred W. Vreeling

1993-01-01

186

The Color Tag Design and Color Model Study in Mirosot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives a new color pattern based on contrasting the advantages and disadvantages of several kinds of color tag schemes. It adopts HSI color space and improves the transition from RGB color model to HSI color model by analyzing the particular characteristic of RGB color model, YUV color model and HSI color model. The test results and the site

Ma Gang; Liu Tian-shi; Han Jia-xin; Wang Xiao-xiao

2010-01-01

187

Allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen: evaluation of cross-reactivities by a combination of photopatch testing and computerized conformational analysis.  

PubMed

Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and photo-ACD are cell-mediated delayed hypersensitivity reactions of the skin caused by a wide range of substances. Topical ketoprofen (KP), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), can induce ACD and photo-ACD. Patients with ACD and/or photo-ACD to KP frequently show concomitant sensitization to other substances. The aim of this study was to identify the substances most frequently associated with sensitization to KP, and to evaluate, by means of computerized conformational analysis, whether this association could be due to cross-allergy. 15 subjects with ACD and photo-ACD to KP were tested with the SIDAPA (Società Italiana di Dermatologia Allergologica Professionale ed Ambientale) patch test standard series, including fragrance mix and its components (eugenol, isoeugenol, oak moss, geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, amylcinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamaldehyde) and with the SIDAPA photopatch test series. Allergic reactions to cinnamyl alcohol were noted in all patients, whereas some patients also showed positive reactions to fenticlor, octocrylene and benzophenone-10. Computerized conformational analysis demonstrated that the structure of cinnamyl alcohol is similar to that of KP, whereas the structures of benzophenone-10, octocrylene and fenticlor are completely different. These results suggest that in patients with contact allergy to KP, concomitant positive reactions to cinnamyl alcohol are due to cross-sensitization, whereas simultaneous allergic reactions to fenticlor, octocrylene and benzophenone-10 should be regarded as co-sensitizations. PMID:18991702

Foti, C; Bonamonte, D; Conserva, A; Stingeni, L; Lisi, P; Lionetti, N; Rigano, L; Angelini, G

2008-01-01

188

3. SOUTH TEST STAND WITH X15 IN PLACE. A color ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. SOUTH TEST STAND WITH X-15 IN PLACE. A color photograph taken from a lift boom or from atop a truck, looking northwest to NASA hangars in the far distance. Also shows the shop building at left, and two observation bunkers with hatches open; one at right (Bldg. 1933) and the other in front of Liquid Oxygen tank truck at left (Bldg. 1934). - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

189

[Limitations of the traditional manometric test and advantages of computerized manometry in the study of esophageal motility].  

PubMed

The analysis of esophageal motility tracings is laborious, time consuming and subject to reader variability. The motility traces of five patients were analyzed separately by five experienced readers, in order to assess the inter and intra observer variability. Later on, the manual analysis of the motility traces of five healthy volunteers and four patients was compared to the automatic analysis performed by a computerized system. The inter- and intra-observer variability (expressed as coefficient of variation) was high in the manual analysis, especially for the abdominal length of the lower sphincter and the duration of the esophageal body contractions (coefficient of variation ranging from 18 to 43%). On the contrary, automatic readings proved almost identical to the means obtained by manual analysis (Pearson factor 0.988 for amplitude and 0.89 for the duration of contractions). Moreover, the computerized automatic analysis gave a significant time gain in respect to manual readings and eliminated the inter and intra-observer variability. PMID:1873325

Zaninotto, G; Costantini, M; Polo, R; Rossi, M; Finco, C; Cecolin, G; Sebartoli, G; Ancona, E

190

Additional usage possibilities for the computerized Hess screen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study was to work out a method how to use the computerized Hess screen in proximal vergence measurements. Proximal vergence or vergence due to knowledge of nearness is one of four independent components making up the total vergence response. Proximal vergence is expressed as a ratio - proximal convergence/test distance (PC/T). The computerized Hess screen is usually used to detect and to measure an ocular misalignment in patients with paralytic strabismus in different directions of gaze. The computerized Hess screen can be used to assess PC/T ratio in different directions of gaze, providing the open-loop disparity vergence and accommodation systems and assuming that tonic vergence is stable. The fusional system loop is opned using red/green filter goggles, objects with different size and color, a completely darkened room, and vertical dissociation (using a prism). The accommodation system loop is opened using pinhole. The test was performed on 16 neurologically and binocularly normal subjects (14 women, 2 men; average 24 y., 20-38 y.) Average PC/T ratio in a primary position for the whole group was 2.8pd/D with a standard deviation +/-0.8 pd/D, which correlates with results in literature obtained by other methods.

Svede, Aiga; Dzenis, Janis

2003-08-01

191

The Influence of Color on Emotions in the Holtzman Inkblot Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the influence of chromatic and achromatic color on emotions in the Holtzman Inkblot Technique (HIT) was tested empirically. Samples of normals (n = 30), patients with neurotic disorders (n = 30), borderline patients (n = 30), and both acute (n = 25) and chronic schizophrenics (n = 25) were studied with the HIT. A computerized investigation of

Falk Leichsenring

2004-01-01

192

Color categories and color appearance  

PubMed Central

We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses.

Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

2011-01-01

193

Comparison of the Commercial Color LCD and the Medical Monochrome LCD Using Randomized Object Test Patterns  

PubMed Central

Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP) commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT) was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p?=?0.265) and OT (p?=?0.07). The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration.

Wu, Jay; Wu, Tung H.; Han, Rou P.; Chang, Shu J.; Shih, Cheng T.; Sun, Jing Y.; Hsu, Shih M.

2012-01-01

194

Measurement of Color Constancy by Color Memory Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degree of color constancy was measured when color memory was involved in color comparison judgment. We used the Optical Society of America (OSA) Uniform Color Scales as stimulus color samples, and chose 20 color samples as test stimuli. Four illuminants of 1700, 3000, 6500, and 30, 000 K were tested. The observer, completely adapted to a test illuminant, saw a

Keiji Uchikawa; Ichiro Kuriki; Yuzuru Tone

1998-01-01

195

Computerized interferometric surface measurements [Invited].  

PubMed

The addition of electronics, computers, and software to interferometry has enabled enormous improvements in optical metrology. This paper discusses four areas in which computerized interferometric measurement improvements have been made in the measurement of surface shape and surface roughness: (a) The use of computer-generated holograms for the testing of aspheric optics, (b) phase-shifting interferometry for getting interferometric data into a computer so the data can be analyzed, (c) computerized interference microscopes, including multiple-wavelength and coherence scanning, for the precision measurement of surface microstructure, and (d) vibration-insensitive dynamic interferometers for enabling precise measurements in noncontrolled environments. PMID:23292370

Wyant, James C

2013-01-01

196

Demographically adjusted norms for Catalan older adults on the Stroop Color and Word Test.  

PubMed

The Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT) is a short test that is widely used in neuropsychological assessment to evaluate the executive aspects of attention control, information processing speed, selective attention, cognitive flexibility, and executive function in terms of the ability to inhibit a usual response in favor of an unusual response. The aim of this study was to create normative data from the SCWT adjusted for age, sex, and educational level for its clinical use in a population of 55 years of age and above. The SCWT was administered to a population-based sample of 2,151 participants aged 55 or older, and the effect of sex, age, and educational level was determined in the SCWT by means of linear regression models. Normative tables were created following the traditional method based on the stratification by relevant variables and on regression models. PMID:23380811

Llinàs-Reglà, Jordi; Vilalta-Franch, Joan; López-Pousa, Secundino; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Garre-Olmo, Josep

2013-02-03

197

Computerized training management system  

DOEpatents

A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) is disclosed for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base{trademark}, an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches. 18 figs.

Rice, H.B.; McNair, R.C.; White, K.; Maugeri, T.

1998-08-04

198

Carotenoids, Immunocompetence, and the Information Content of Sexual Colors: An Experimental Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many male birds use carotenoid pigments to acquire brilliant colors that advertise their health and condition to prospec- tive mates. The direct means by which the most colorful males achieve superior health has been debated, however. One hypothesis, based on studies of carotenoids as antioxidants in humans and other animals, is that carotenoids directly boost the immune system of colorful

2003-01-01

199

Technical validation of a computerized condylographic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  BACKGROUND: The condylograph is a device that claims to record condylar translation and rotation. Before the evaluation of\\u000a its diagnostic significance, the condylograph must be tested for the technical validity. This bench study tested the technical\\u000a validity (reliability and reproducibility) of the CADIAX 5.12 computerized condylograph system. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The computerized\\u000a condylograph was fitted to an adjustable articulator (SAM

B. Mantout; A. Giraudeau; C. Perez; J.-P. Ré; J.-D. Orthlieb

2008-01-01

200

Color Test Reagents/Kits for Preliminary Identification of Drugs of Abuse. NIJ Standard-0604.01. Law Enforcement and Corrections Standards and Testing Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this standard is to establish minimum requirements for color test reagent/kits to detect drugs of abuse and methods of testing the reagents to determine compliance with those requirements. This standard applies to field-testing kits that co...

2000-01-01

201

Comparing color-word and picture-word Stroop-like effects: A test of the Glaser and Glaser (1989) model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glaser and Glaser (1989) assume that the processing of colors and pictures is highly similar in that, compared to words, both kinds of stimulis have privileged access to semantic information. This assumption was tested in the present research. In Experiment 1, the season corresponding to the color or to the word of color-word Stroop stimuli had to be named (e.g.,

Jan De Houwer; Wim Fias; Géry d'Ydewalle

1994-01-01

202

Color discrimination testing reveals early printshop solvent neurotoxicity better than a neuropsychological test battery.  

PubMed

Twenty standardized neuropsychological tests were compared to the Lanthony D-15 desaturated panel test of chromotopsia to determine which measures would most effectively discriminate solvent-exposed print workers from controls. All the workers of the printing services of Université du Québec a Montréal (N = 29) were assessed excepted one who refused to participate. Twenty-nine workers (employed on a full time basis) matched for occupation, age, sex, education, vocabulary, and written arithmetic (p >.13) with the print workers served as controls. Air samples revealed exposure to ethanol, perchloroethylene, methyl chloride, xylene, toluene, and stoddard solvent in the print shop. None of the 20 neuropsychological measures yielded a statistically significant decrement in the print workers. On the other hand, the Lanthony D-15 test revealed a significant group difference (p <.01) and a highly significant interaction between job category within the print shop and dyschromatopsia (p <.001) - the graphists, photocopiers, and printers/binders manifesting increasing severity of impairment as a function of increasing magnitude, and/or type, of dose. The results were interpreted to mean that in a cohort of printers with low seniority (10.42 years) such as this one, neuro-opthalmotoxic effects can be observed earlier than putative neuropsychotoxic effects with the tools at hand. PMID:14589549

Braun, C M; Daigneault, S; Gilbert, B

1989-01-01

203

A novel useful tool of computerized touch panel-type screening test for evaluating cognitive function of chronic ischemic stroke patients.  

PubMed

Cognitive and affective impairments are important non-motor features of ischemic stroke (IS) related to white-matter hyperintensity, including periventricular hyperintensity (PVH). To confirm the usefulness of a novel computerized touch panel-type screening test, we investigated cognitive and affective functioning among 142 IS patients and 105 age-and gender-matched normal control subjects. Assessment using the mini-mental state examination, Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, and frontal assessment battery revealed reduced cognitive function in IS patients, with the most severe reduction exhibited by cardiogenic embolism patients, followed by lacunar infarction patients, and atherothrombotic infarction patients. Our novel touch panel screening test revealed a similar pattern of results. In addition, PVH grading, classified using Fazekas' magnetic resonance imaging method, was also correlated with cognitive decline and touch panel screening test performance. In contrast, affective function, assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, vitality index, and apathy scale, was not significantly decreased in IS, and did not correlate with touch panel screening test results or PVH, although the number of microbleeds was correlated with apathy scale results. The present findings revealed that IS and PVH grading were significantly correlated with decline in general cognitive status (mini-mental state examination and Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised) and frontal lobe function (frontal assessment battery). Performance on all touch panel screening tests was correlated with IS and PVH grading, but was largely independent of depression or apathy. Touch panel screening tests were easily understood and performed by almost all patients with mild cognitive and motor dysfunction, due to visually clear images and simple methods not involving detailed manual-handling tasks such as writing. Touch panel screening tests may provide a useful tool for the early screening of cognitive function. PMID:23290436

Deguchi, Kentaro; Kono, Syoichiro; Deguchi, Shoko; Morimoto, Nobutoshi; Kurata, Tomoko; Ikeda, Yoshio; Abe, Koji

2013-01-02

204

A normative study of the color trails test in the Greek population.  

PubMed

The Color Trails Test (CTT) is a neuropsychological test that measures perceptual tracking and sustained and divided attention. Recently, its use has been increased in neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, brain injury, and subclinical infarction. The aim of the present study was to provide normative data for the CTT in the Greek population. A total of 321 native Greek speakers with various professional backgrounds took part in the study. Exclusion criteria involved the existence of neurological and psychiatric diseases, history of alcohol and/or drug dependence, traumatic brain injury, and a Mini-Mental State Examination score below 27. Our results showed that age and education are important factors to consider for the interpretation of scores in all CTT variables. Older participants took more time and exhibited more errors, more near-misses, and more prompts compared with younger participants. Also, more-educated participants took less time, made fewer errors, had fewer near-misses, and rewired fewer prompts compared with less educated participants. CTT is a promising tool for the measurement of attention in the Greek population. Further research is needed to use this test in Greek patients with various neurological diseases. PMID:23373684

Konstantopoulos, Kostas; Issidorides, Marietta; Spengos, Konstantinos

2012-10-23

205

Could strange stars be in the color-flavor-locked phase: Tested by their thermal evolutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal evolution of strange stars in both normal and color-flavor-locked (CFL) phases are investigated together with the evolutions of the stellar rotation and the r-mode instability. The heating effects due to the deconfinement transition of the stellar crust and the dissipation of the r-modes are considered. As a result, the cooling of the stars in the normal phase is found to be not very different from the standard one. In contrast, for the stars in the CFL phase, a big bump during the first hundred years and a steep decay (˜7% in ten years) at the ages of ˜104-6yrs are predicted in their thermal evolution curves. These unique features provide an effective observational test for determining whether or not the CFL phase is reached in strange stars. This thermal test method is independent of and complementary to the rotational test method, which is a direct consequence of the r-mode instability [see J. Madsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 10 (2000)].

Cheng, Quan; Yu, Yun-Wei; Zheng, Xiao-Ping

2013-03-01

206

An experimental test of female choice relative to male structural coloration in eastern bluebirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experimental studies have shown that female birds use ornamental melanin and carotenoid plumage coloration as criteria\\u000a in mate choice. Whether females choose mates based on natural variation in structural coloration, however, has not been well\\u000a established. Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) display brilliant ultraviolet (UV)-blue plumage coloration on their head, back, wings, and tail, which is positively correlated\\u000a with

Mark Liu; Lynn Siefferman; Geoffrey E. Hill

2007-01-01

207

An fMRI Version of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100Hue Test Reveals Multiple Color-selective Areas in Human Ventral Occipitotemporal Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of patients with cerebral achromatopsia have suggested that ventral occipitotemporal cortex is important for color perception. We created a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) version of a clinical test commonly used to assess achromatopsia, the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test. The test required normal sub- jects to use color information in the visual stimulus to perform a color sequencing task. A

Michael S. Beauchamp; James V. Haxby; Jonathan E. Jennings; Edgar A. DeYoe

1999-01-01

208

Innovations in Computerized Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Chapters in this book present the challenges and dilemmas faced by researchers as they created new computerized assessments, focusing on issues addressed in developing, scoring, and administering the assessments. Chapters are: (1) "Beyond Bells and Whistles; An Introduction to Computerized Assessment" (Julie B. Olson-Buchanan and Fritz Drasgow);…

Drasgow, Fritz, Ed.; Olson-Buchanan, Julie B., Ed.

209

Computerized Business Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains materials developed for and about the computerized business technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with a computerized business technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or one of two 2-year programs…

Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

210

Computerization in the OR.  

PubMed

This article highlights the process of establishing a computerized scheduling and materials management system in a surgical department. The following facets of the computerization process are discussed: options staff members should consider when choosing a computer system, the importance of scheduling and inventory control, cost savings, how computer systems work when using electronic data interchange and bar coding, and case studies. PMID:9513701

Bird, L J

1997-08-01

211

Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)|

Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

1983-01-01

212

Relationship between shyness in children and constricted cognitive control as measured by the Stroop Color-Word Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

103 4th and 5th graders, rated as either shy or nonshy by their teachers, were administered the Stroop Color-Word Test. Results support the hypothesis that shy Ss would have slower reading rates, which indicates high interference proneness (constricted control), whereas nonshy Ss would have more rapid reading rate, which indicates low interference proneness (flexible control). To determine if the procedures

Robert P. Ludwig; Philip J. Lazarus

1983-01-01

213

A meta-analysis of the sensitivity and specificity of the Stroop Color and Word Test with children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which the Stroop Color–Word Test demonstrates sensitivity and specificity for the identification of executive function deficits in children and adolescents. Meta-analytic methods were used to identify executive function deficits associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other developmental disorders. Weighted effect sizes were calculated for all studies found

Susan Homack; Cynthia A Riccio

2004-01-01

214

Effect of Color Coding and Test Type (Visual/Verbal) on Students Identified as Possessing Different Field Dependence Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that coding (black and white, and color) and testing mode (visual/verbal) has on the achievement of students categorized as field independent (FID)/field dependent (FD) learners. One hundred eighty-three students enrolled in basic college level educational psychology courses were classified as…

Dwyer, Francis M.; Moore, David M.

215

An assessment of testing methods of color fastness to light, water and perspiration, and related methods with some reactive dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing methods for the color fastness to light and perspiration, including JIS L 0888 and their improved ones, were applied to cotton dyeings using 14 reactive dyes, seven monochlorotriazinyl, three vinylsulfonyl, and four hetero-bifunctional dyes, to examine whether or not these methods could assess the potential properties of dyes. The fading behavior of these dyes on dry and wet fabrics

Yasuyo Okada; Akimi Sugane; Fumiko Fukuoka; Zenzo Morita

1998-01-01

216

Urease Color Test Medium U-9 for the Detection and Identification of T Mycoplasmas in Clinical Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A urease color test fluid medium (U-9) for the detection and identification of T (T-strain) mycoplasmas in clinical material is described which is sensitive and specific for this group of mycoplasmas. The medium was prepared from commercially available co...

M. C. Shepard C. D. Lunceford

1970-01-01

217

Color Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will be used to teach the importance of color. Watch the following video about color Primary Colors Click on the link Exploration of Color. When you get into the website select the different colors to see what secondary colors are made from the primary colors. Review the following siteColor Theory and then design and paint a color wheel. ...

Sturgell, Mr.

2009-12-02

218

A Computerized Alert Screening for Severe Sepsis in Emergency Department Patients Increases Lactate Testing but does not Improve Inpatient Mortality  

PubMed Central

Objective This study tested the hypothesis that lactate testing in ED sepsis patients could be increased using a computer alert that automatically recognizes systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria and recommends lactate testing in cases of sepsis defined as ?2 SIRS criteria plus physician suspicion of infection. Secondary outcomes included the effect of the alert on lactate testing among admitted sepsis patients, the proportion of admitted patients with lactate ?4.0 mmol/L identified and the in-patient mortality difference before and after alert implementation. Methods After a 6 month pre-alert phase, a computer alert was implemented that computed and displayed abnormal vital signs and white blood cell counts for all patients with >2 SIRS criteria and recommended testing lactate if an infection was suspected. Data for admitted patients was collected electronically on consecutive patients meeting sepsis criteria for 6 months before and 6 months after implementation of the alert. Results There were a total of 5,796 subjects enrolled. Among all septic patients, lactate testing increased from 5.2% in the pre-alert phase to 12.7% in the alert phase, a 7.5% (95% CI 6.0 to 9.0%) absolute increase in lactate testing, p<0.001. Among the 1,798 admitted patients with sepsis, lactate testing increased from 15.3% to 34.2%, an 18.9% (95% CI 15.0 to 22.8%) absolute increase, p<0.001. Among admitted patients with sepsis, there was a 1.9% (95% CI 0.03 to 3.8%, p = 0.05) increase in absolute number of patients with elevated lactate levels identified and a 0.5% (95% CI -1.6 to 2.6%, p=0.64) decrease in mortality. Conclusion The proportion of ED patients who had lactate tested and the number of admitted patients identified with a lactate level ?4.0 mmol/L improved significantly after the implementation of a computer alert identifying sepsis patients with >2 SIRS criteria while mortality among admitted sepsis patients remained unchanged.

Berger, T.; Birnbaum, A.; Bijur, P.; Kuperman, G.; Gennis, P.

2010-01-01

219

A study of the feasibility of Internet administration of a computerized health survey: The headache impact test (HIT™)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Headache impact test (HIT™) is a precise, practical tool that quantifies the impact of headache on respondents' lives. It is the first widely-available dynamic health assessment (DynHA™). Applications of this brief, precise survey include population based screening for disabling headaches, tracking of individual patient scores over time, disease management programs and others. We use data from Internet HIT assessments

M. S. Bayliss; J. E. Dewey; I. Dunlap; A. S. Batenhorst; R. Cady; M. L. Diamond; F. Sheftell

2003-01-01

220

Evaluation of two colored latex kits, the Wellcolex Colour Salmonella Test and the Wellcolex Colour Shigella Test, for serological grouping of Salmonella and Shigella species.  

PubMed Central

Two colored latex kits (the Wellcolex Colour Salmonella Test [WCT-Salmonella] and the Wellcolex Colour Shigella Test [WCT-Shigella]; Division Diagnostics, Laboratories Wellcome S.A., Paris, France), which allow identification of the most frequently encountered Salmonella serogroups and Shigella species, respectively, were evaluated. WCT-Salmonella and WCT-Shigella yielded sensitivities of 98.4 and 98%, respectively, and a specificity of 100% when they were tested on pure cultures received at a reference laboratory.

Bouvet, P J; Jeanjean, S

1992-01-01

221

Computerized infrared spectroradiometry - A computerized systems approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized IR spectroradiometer system, SR-5000, is described. The SR-5000 is composed of an optical head, the same as that used in the SR-1000 model, and a new PV\\/TX computer system. Besides the capability to acquire and process the spectroradiometer's signals, the PC\\/XT system can store and calibrate curves in the memory, control and display the radiometer parameters, and calibrate

Z. Kopolovich; E. Sapir; R. A. Buckwald; D. Cabib; L. S. Balfour

1985-01-01

222

Research and Teaching: Does the Color-Coding of Examination Versions Affect College Science Students' Test Performance? Countering Claims of Bias  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To circumvent the problem of academic dishonesty through the mass administration of multiple-choice exams in college classrooms, a study was conducted from 2003 to 2005, in which multiple versions of the same examination were color coded during testing in a large-enrollment classroom. Instructors reported that this color-coded exam system appeared to work remarkably well. However, some students strongly asserted that they only performed well on the blue tests, or that certain examination colors negatively affected their test performance. As a result, this study attempts to determine, through the investigation of the test scores earned by students on the different colored examination versions, whether there was any significant effect of examination paper color on student test performance.

Wandersee, James; Elias, Janet S.; Clary, Renee

2007-09-01

223

A neuropsychological assessment, using computerized battery tests (CANTAB), in children with benign rolandic epilepsy before AED therapy  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE) is a form of partial idiopathic epilepsy according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) syndromes classification (1989). Recent studies have identified cases of BRE that do not meet the initial definition of ‘benign’; these included reports of cases with specific cognitive deficits. It is still a matter of debate, whether these deficits are due to epilepsy per se, to treatment or other associated factors. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate if BRE children have cognitive deficits at the onset of their seizures, prior to their participation in any anti-epileptic drug therapy (AED). Methods and Results: We performed a neuropsychological assessment of 18 BRE children compared with a corresponding age-matched control group. We used the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Subjects were at their first neurological evaluation, before any AED therapy. We assessed: visual memory, induction and executive functions. In our group, the BRE children performed comparably with the control children for the induction and executive functions. Substantial differences were identified for the visual memory subtests: PRM percent correct (t = -2.58, p = 0.01) and SRM percent correct (t = -2.73, p = 0.01). Age of seizure onset had a negative impact on the visual memory subtest performances (PRM mean correct latency). We found significant correlations between the different CANTAB subtests results and characteristics of the centrotemporal spikes (CTS). Discussion: Our results are consistent with the findings of other similar studies. This form of epilepsy is associated with subtle neuropsychological deficits, present at seizure onset. Neuropsychological deficits identified, suggest a more diffuse brain involvement in the epileptiform process. Abbreviations: AED – AntiEpileptic Drug; BECTS - benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes; BRE – Benign Rolandic Epilepsy; CANTAB - the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery; CTS – centrotemporal spikes; DMS – Delayed Matching Sample; EEG – electroencephalogram; ILAE – International league Against Epilepsy; MOT – Motor screening Test; PAL - Paired Associates Learning; PRM - Pattern Recognition Memory; SPSS - Statistical Package for the Social Sciences; SRM - Spatial Recognition Memory; SSP - Spatial Span, SWM - Spatial Working Memory

Vintan, MA; Palade, S; Cristea, A; Benga, I; Muresanu, DF

2012-01-01

224

The achromatic 'philosophical zombie', a syndrome of cerebral achromatopsia with color anopsognosia.  

PubMed

We describe a patient with persistent cerebral achromatopsia occurring after bilateral occipital strokes. Blinded color recognition was assessed with a computerized experimental paradigm and the patient reported the degree of confidence in the response exactness on a visual percent scale. Color recognition was accurate and above chance (Fisher's exact test, p < 0.002). The degree of confidence in the answers showed a significant correlation with recognition scores (Spearman rank order correlation, p < 0.0001). These findings constitute the exceptional condition of what we called color anopsognosia (not knowing of seeing colors) and recall the theoretic figure of the 'philosophical zombie'. However, the cognitive mechanisms of the dissociation between a subjective colorless vision and good performance for color naming still remain poorly understood. PMID:23687498

Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

2013-04-19

225

Computerized tool mark comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computerized toolmark comparison system is based on a cross correlation between a striation mark left by a tool on a lock and a test mark made by a suspect or the data base. The cross correlation is applied in the frequency domain for time saving. The area to be correlated is defined by the toolmark expert. A profile line is calculated and displayed based on the defined area. The two compared images may appear relatively shifted to one another, or only part of the toolmark that appears in the other. The same length of profiles is chosen from the two samples for entering to the updated correlation process. All possible correlations are checked by cutting and shifting through all cobinations. The database contains the defined images and the profiles calculated from them. The system consists of a 486 PC with a frame grabber and a video camera attached to a microscope. Results show that if the striation marks are clear and are wider than a minimum pixel limit, the correlation result higher than 0.6 is a possible match and has to be checked by the expert for a final decision. Future plans are to implement a 2D correlation. This method will enable us to deal with combinations of striations which are found frequently in real case work.

Feigin, Gavriel; Aperman, Arie; Springer, Eliot; Jungmann, Noam

1995-09-01

226

Beyond interference control impairment in ADHD: evidence from increased intraindividual variability in the color-stroop test.  

PubMed

The present study investigates intraindividual variability (IIV) in the Color-Stroop test and in a simple reaction time (SRT) task. Performance level and variability in reaction times (RTs)-quantified with different measures such as individual standard deviation (ISD) and coefficient of variation (ICV), as well as ex-Gaussian parameters (mu, sigma, tau)-were analyzed in 24 children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 24 typically developing children (TDC). Children with ADHD and TDC presented equivalent Color-Stroop interference effects when mean RTs were considered, and the two groups did not differ in the SRT task. Interestingly, compared to TDC, children with ADHD were more variable in their responses, showing increased ISD and ICV in the Color-Stroop interference condition and in the SRT task. Moreover, children with ADHD exhibited higher tau values-that is, more frequent abnormally long RTs-in the Color-Stroop interference condition than did the TDC, but comparable tau values in the SRT, suggesting more variable responses. These results speak in favor of a general deficit in more basic and central processes that only secondarily may affect the efficiency of inhibitory processes in children with ADHD. Overall the present findings confirm the role of IIV as a cornerstone in the ADHD cognitive profile and support the search for fine-grained analysis of performance fluctuations. PMID:22738031

Borella, Erika; de Ribaupierre, Anik; Cornoldi, Cesare; Chicherio, Christian

2012-06-27

227

A versatile transition metal salt reaction for a wide range of common biochemical reagents: an instantaneous and quantifiable color test.  

PubMed

A rapid and sensitive spot test amenable to visual or spectrophotometric quantitation has been developed for a wide variety of biochemical reagents by utilizing the transition metal salt cupric chloride and its large number of related colored compounds. This assay is potentially a widely applicable multipurpose test for rapidly detecting the presence of unknown substances. Combination of the test sample with the working reagent results in the immediate formation of a distinctive colored product that may be precipitable. Some compounds require the further addition of sodium hydroxide in order to generate the distinctively colored product. Distinctive reactions occur with the following reagents, and their limit of visual detection is indicated in parentheses: ammonium bicarbonate (12.5 mM), ammonium acetate (25 mM), ammonium hydroxide (0.1%), ammonium sulfate (2%), ammonium persulfate (0.02 mM), L-(+)-cysteine (0.07 mM), dithiothreitol (DTT) (1.25 mM), EDTA (0.6 mM), ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether) N,N'-tetraacetic acid (5 mM), D-glucose (6 mM), glycerol (0.3%), imidazol (12.5 mM), DL-methionine (100 mM), mercaptoethanol (0.05%), sodium azide (19 mM, 0.1%), sodium dithionite (0.25%), sodium metabisulfite (25 mM), sodium nitrite (6.2 mM), sodium periodate (3.1 mM), sodium sulfite (12.5 mM), sodium thiosulfite (12.5 mM), sucrose (6 mM), and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (0.05%). A distinctive exothermic reaction occurs with hydrogen peroxide, but without color change. Compounds reacting insignificantly include 50 mM Tris buffer, urea, N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide, sodium dodecyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, sodium fluoride, trichloroacetic acid, phenol, mannose, K2HPO4, guanidine HCl, chloramine-T, magnesium chloride, and boric acid, where the solids were tested at approximately 10 mg/ml. Spectrophotometric standard curves were developed for DTT and sodium azide utilizing the clear supernatants resulting from these reactions. Combinations of at least four reagents could be discriminated, as demonstrated with mixtures of glucose, sodium azide, EDTA, and DTT. In addition ammonium sulfate could be detected to a limit of 4% in the presence of protein, DTT, and EDTA in a 50 mM Tris buffer. Spot tests were developed which utilized reagent-impregnated filter paper and gave distinctive colored products on addition of 5 microliter of test sample. PMID:3728975

Fleming, N; Nixon, R A

1986-05-01

228

Computerized infrared spectroradiometry - A computerized systems approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computerized IR spectroradiometer system, SR-5000, is described. The SR-5000 is composed of an optical head, the same as that used in the SR-1000 model, and a new PV/TX computer system. Besides the capability to acquire and process the spectroradiometer's signals, the PC/XT system can store and calibrate curves in the memory, control and display the radiometer parameters, and calibrate and display the calibrated spectra in Watt/sq cm per sr and other units. In addition, the new computer system offers the capabilities of automatic control of position and temperature of samples to be measured and modularity of subsystems and software packages.

Kopolovich, Z.; Sapir, E.; Buckwald, R. A.; Cabib, D.; Balfour, L. S.

1985-01-01

229

Applications of Computerized Adaptive Testing. Proceedings of a Symposium presented at the Annual Convention of the Military Testing Association (18th, October 1976). Research Report 77-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This symposium consists of five papers and presents some recent developments in adaptive testing which have applications to several military testing problems. The overview, by James R. McBride, defines adaptive testing and discusses some of its item selection and scoring strategies. Item response theory, or item characteristic curve theory, is…

Weiss, David J., Ed.

230

On Using the Color-Magnitude Diagram Morphology of M67 to Test Solar Abundances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The open cluster M67 has solar metallicity and an age of about 4 Gyr. The turnoff (TO) mass is close to the minimum mass for which solar metallicity stars develop a convective core during main sequence evolution as a result of the development of hydrogen burning through the CNO cycle. The morphology of the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of M67 around

Z. Magic; A. Serenelli; A. Weiss; B. Chaboyer

2010-01-01

231

DEVELOPMENT OF AN EARLY GENERATION TEST FOR PREDICTING COLOR LOSS OF BLACK BEANS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed coat color of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is determined by the presence and amounts of flavonol glycosides, anthocyanins and condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins). To date, most work on P. vulgaris focused on the antinutritional effects of the seed coat polyphenolics but nothing had been ...

232

A Test for Female Attraction to Male Orange Coloration in Poecilia picta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examining the distribution of female preference and attractive male secondary sexual characters in closely related species can help evaluate the various models for the evolution of female preference. We examined whether orange coloration in males was attractive to females of Poecilia picta, a species in the same subgenus as the guppy, P. reticulata. Females did not respond differently to males

Felix Breden; Melanie Bertrand

1999-01-01

233

The Use of Nitrate Color Paper to Test Nitrate Status of ‘Kyoho’ Grapevines in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of high amounts of nitrogen from the soil and rapid translocation of N to shoots and berries in ‘Kyoho’ grapevines (Vitis labruscana)can result in vigorous growth and potentially in reduced floral bud differentiation as well as poor berry set. In order to make the nitrate color paper (NCP), the mixed reagents of 14 g sulfanilic acid, 2 g

Wol-Soo Kim; Soon-Ju Chung; Kil-Yong Kim; Ted DeJong

2003-01-01

234

Feather Coloration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make observations, formulate a hypothesis and draw conclusions based on a simple experiment about feather coloration. For this test, learners will compare a peacock feather and a pheasant feather. Background information contains explanation of pigment feathers and structural feathers. This lesson plan includes questions to ask learners and online resources.

Houston, Children'S M.

2013-05-15

235

Research and Teaching: Does the Color-Coding of Examination Versions Affect College Science Students' Test Performance? Countering Claims of Bias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To circumvent the problem of academic dishonesty through the mass administration of multiple-choice exams in college classrooms, a study was conducted from 2003 to 2005, in which multiple versions of the same examination were color coded during testing in a large-enrollment classroom. Instructors reported that this color-coded exam system appeared…

Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James; Elias, Janet Schexnayder

2007-01-01

236

Using Fluorescence XANES Measurement to Correct the Content of Hexavalent Chromium in Chromate Conversion Coatings Determined by Diphenyl Carbazide Color Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive will take effect on July 1 of this year. From that date, the use of chromate conversion coatings containing hexavalent chromium will not be permitted. By comparing the concentration of Cr6+ determined by the diphenyl carbazide color test and by fluorescence XANES (X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) measurement, we can correct for the Cr6+ content of the color test. This will enable the use of the diphenyl carbazide color test to check product shipments in compliance with the RoHS directive.

Nishino, Junichi; Sekikawa, Toshikazu; Otani, Haruka; Ofuchi, Hironori; Taniguchi, Yosuke; Honma, Tetsuo; Bando, Akio

2007-01-01

237

Feasibility tests for treating shampoo and hair colorant wastewaters using anaerobic processes.  

PubMed

Wastes from the personal care product (PCP) industry are often high in biodegradable carbon, which makes them amenable to aerobic biological treatment, although process costs are usually high due to aeration inefficiencies, high electricity demand and production of large amounts of sludge. As such, anaerobic treatment technologies are being considered to lower net energy costs by reducing air use and increasing methane production. To assess the amenability of PCP wastes to anaerobic treatment, methane yields and rates were quantified in different anaerobic reactors treating typical PCP wastes, including wastes from shampoo and hair colorant products. Overall, shampoo wastes were more amenable to methanogenesis with almost double the methane yields compared with colour wastes. To assess relevant microbial guilds, qPCR was performed on reactor biomass samples. Methanosaetaceae abundances were always significantly higher than Methanosarcinaceae and Methanomicrobiales abundances (P < 0.05), and did not differ significantly between waste types. Although colour wastes were less amenable to anaerobic treatment than shampoo wastes, differences cannot be explained by relative microbial abundances and probably result from the presence of inhibiting compounds in hair colorants (e.g., oxidants) at higher levels. Results showed that anaerobic technologies have great potential for treating PCP wastes, but additional work is needed to establish the basis of elevated methane yields and inhibition, especially when colorant wastes are present. PMID:22233909

Ahammad, Shaikh Z; Yakubu, A; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

2012-01-01

238

Computerized training management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) is disclosed for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program

H. B. Rice; R. C. McNair; K. White; T. Maugeri

1998-01-01

239

Computerized training management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS

Harold B. Rice; Robert C. McNair; Kenneth White; Terry Maugeri

1998-01-01

240

Computerized Drug Information Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To compare computerized services in chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical medicine of pharmaceutical interest, equivalent profiles were run on magnetic tape files of CA-Condensates," CBAC," Excerpta Medica," MEDLARS" and Ringdoc." The results are tabulated for overlap of services, relative speed of citing references, and unique…

And Others; Smith, Daniel R.

1972-01-01

241

Computerized Drug Information Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To compare computerized services in chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical medicine of pharmaceutical interest, equivalent profiles were run on magnetic tape files of CA-Condensates," CBAC," Excerpta Medica," MEDLARS" and Ringdoc." The results are tabulated for overlap of services, relative speed of citing references, and unique…

And Others; Smith, Daniel R.

1972-01-01

242

Adaptive Computerized Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an artificially intelligent multimedia computerized instruction system capable of developing a conceptual image of what a student is learning while the student is learning it. It focuses on principles of learning and adaptive behavioral control systems theory upon which the system is designed and demonstrates multiple user modes.…

Ray, Roger D.; And Others

1995-01-01

243

Preliminary steps to computerization.  

PubMed

Selecting a computer system for a dental office is a complicated process and the author recommends that this be preceded by a careful practice analysis. Examples of the practicality of computerization are typified in several examples and many common pre-purchase suggestions and guidelines are provided. The need for staff involvement and adequate product review prior to purchase is discussed. PMID:9517341

Nowakowski, A R

1994-01-01

244

Colorants and colorant modifiers  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a substrate having therein or thereon a composition containing, at least one molecular includant. In one embodiment, the molecular includant comprises a cyclodextrin. The present invention also relates to the substrate further comprising at least one ultraviolet radiation transorber and also to the substrate further comprising a colorant. Additionally, the present invention relates to a method of making the substrate in which a composition comprising a molecular includant is incorporated into or onto the substrate. In one embodiment of this invention, the substrate has thereon or therein a colored composition comprising a colorant and a molecular includant. In another embodiment, the colorant is a mutable colorant which, upon irradiation in the present of an ultraviolet radiation transorber, can be mutated.

MacDonald; John Gavin (Decatur, GA); Nohr; Ronald Sinclair (Alpharetta, GA)

2002-01-29

245

Comparing color-word and picture-word Stroop-like effects: a test of the Glaser and Glaser (1989) model.  

PubMed

Glaser and Glaser (1989) assume that the processing of colors and pictures is highly similar in that, compared to words, both kinds of stimulis have privileged access to semantic information. This assumption was tested in the present research. In Experiment 1, the season corresponding to the color or to the word of color-word Stroop stimuli had to be named (e.g., green for spring). In Experiment 2, subjects had to name the season corresponding to the picture or the word of a picture-word stimulus (e.g., flower for spring). According to Glaser and Glaser (1989), privileged semantic processing of colors and pictures should be evidenced by a larger interfering power of color and picture distractors than of word distractors. However, the asymmetric pattern of interference was observed only with picture-word stimuli (Experiment 2), but not with color-word stimuli (Experiment 1), suggesting that, unlike pictures, colors do not have privileged access to semantic information. It was also found that word distractors interfered with the semantic processing of pictures, a result that is incompatible with the dominance rule postulated by Glaser and Glaser (1989). From these results, an adapted version of the Glaser and Glaser model is proposed: colors are assumed to have privileged access to a separate color-processing system and the pattern of interference depends upon the relative activation strength of the response alternatives activated by the target and the distractor. PMID:8090863

De Houwer, J; Fias, W; d'Ydewalle, G

1994-01-01

246

Color vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among basic vision research, which aim to reveal higher levels of the human visual function, I review recent advances in color vision, focusing on color memory and categorical color perception research. It is known that color varies continuously in color space. At the same time, however, we recognize colors as categories: such as, red, green, yellow, and blue although there

Keiji Uchikawa

1999-01-01

247

Shifting human color memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons who witnessed an automobile accident involving a green car were exposed to information that the car was blue. On a\\u000a subsequent color recognition test, most subjects shifted their color selection in the direction of the misleading information\\u000a and away from the actual perceived color. Shifting was greater for subjects who did not initially commit themselves to a color\\u000a selection.

Elizabeth F. Loftus

1977-01-01

248

Computerized stock screening rules for portfolio selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have uncovered several systematic patterns that increase the probability that individual investors can select stock portfolios with excess returns. This study tests the feasibility of using a commercially available computerized stock screening program for investors to take advantage of these patterns. The screening program searches the three major exchanges and selects stocks on both fundamental and technical indicators:

Steven C. Gold; Paul Lebowitz

1999-01-01

249

Automatic conjunctival provocation test combining Hough circle transform and self-calibrated color measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer-aided diagnosis is developed for assessment of allergic rhinitis/rhinoconjunctivitis measuring the relative redness of sclera under application of allergen solution. Images of the patient's eye are taken using a commercial digital camera. The iris is robustly localized using a gradient-based Hough circle transform. From the center of the pupil, the region of interest within the sclera is extracted using geometric anatomy-based apriori information. The red color pixels are extracted thresholding in the hue, saturation and value color space. Then, redness is measured by taking mean of saturation projected into zero hue. Evaluation is performed with 98 images taken from 14 subjects, 8 responders and 6 non-responders, which were classified according to an experienced otorhinolaryngologist. Provocation is performed with 100, 1,000 and 10,000 AU/ml allergic solution and normalized to control images without provocation. The evaluation yields relative redness of 1.01, 1.05, 1.30 and 0.95, 1.00, 0.96 for responders and non-responders, respectively. Variations in redness measurements were analyzed according to alteration of parameters of the image processing chain proving stability and robustness of our approach. The results indicate that the method improves visual inspection and may be suitable as reliable surrogate endpoint in controlled clinical trials.

Bista, Suman Raj; Sárándi, István.; Dogan, Serkan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Mösges, Ralph; Deserno, Thomas M.

2013-02-01

250

Computerized Psychiatric Diagnostic Interview  

PubMed Central

A computerized psychiatric diagnostic interview was developed and administered to 121 adult acute psychiatric inpatients. Data on the 100 completers was evaluated for sensitivity and specificity of the computer diagnostic evaluation relative to the hospital discharge diagnosis and revealed sensitivity greater than 70% for major depression, alcohol/substance abuse, adjustment disorder, bipolar/mania, dependent personaltiy disorder, and histrionic personality disorder. Specificity was greater than 70% for schizophrania, alcohol/substance abuse, and borderline personality disorder. Meen interview time was 51 minutes. Eighty-two percent of patients evaluated the computerized interview as interesting and 78% rated it as thorough. The mouse input, large screen letters, and user-friendliness of the Macintosh computer make this ideal for patient-computer interaction.

Zetin, Mark; Warren, Stacey; Lanssens, Ed; Tominaga, Doris

1987-01-01

251

Computerized forensic facial reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic investigations frequently utilize facial reconstructions\\/approximations to stimulate recognition and identification.\\u000a Over the past 25 years, many computer-based systems have been developed, and with the recent rapid advances in medical imaging\\u000a and computer technology, the current systems claim high levels of efficiency, objectivity, and flexibility. The history of\\u000a computerized facial approximation\\/reconstruction is presented, along with a discussion of the advantages

Caroline Wilkinson

2005-01-01

252

Color Thieves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This story poses a challenge to its readers to solve the mystery of light, color, and how we see color. It also asks the question, "What is color?" After investigating the phenomena of color and color filters, students should realize that light is made up

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2009-04-01

253

The effect of background color on asymmetries in color search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many previous studies have shown that background color affects the discriminability and appearance of color stimuli. However, research on visual search has not typically considered the role that the background may play. Rosenholtz (2001a) has suggested that color search asymmetries result from the relationship between the stimuli and the back- ground. Here we test the hypothesis that background color should

Ruth Rosenholtz; Allen L. Nagy; Nicole R. Bell

2004-01-01

254

Application of Computerized Tomography for Nondestructive Evaluation of Weldments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research project has been to investigate the feasibility of applying the Computerized Tomographic (CT) processes to the nondestructive testing and evaluation of weldments. The present study investigates the degree of spatial resolution...

I. L. Morgan S. Gautam

1983-01-01

255

An Application of Computerized Instructional Television in Biology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computerized instructional television was used to teach undergraduate students about 100,000 or more extant fungi through an interactive, self testing, teaching program. Students did not find this sophisticated hardware an adequate substitute for the lect...

B. Kendrick

1978-01-01

256

Evaluation of the Campbell test and the influence of age, sex, breed, and coat color on puppy behavioral responses  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the Campbell test and discover if there is a link between a puppy’s scores and factors such as age, breed, sex, sex-breed interaction, size, Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) groups, and coat color. The Campbell test was performed on 342 puppies (191 males and 151 females) of different breeds. The results show that the criteria used by Campbell to classify puppies are incomplete, and that it is more appropriate to use numerical values for each type of answer. In general, the mean value obtained, regardless of sex and breed, corresponded to the Campbell’s submissive stable category. The mean value was higher in male dogs than in females.

Perez-Guisado, Joaquin; Munoz-Serrano, Andres; Lopez-Rodriguez, Rocio

2008-01-01

257

Color realism and color science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at

Alex Byrne; David R. Hilbert

2003-01-01

258

Empirical tests of the role of disruptive coloration in reducing detectability  

PubMed Central

Disruptive patterning is a potentially universal camouflage technique that is thought to enhance concealment by rendering the detection of body shapes more difficult. In a recent series of field experiments, artificial moths with markings that extended to the edges of their ‘wings’ survived at higher rates than moths with the same edge patterns inwardly displaced. While this result seemingly indicates a benefit to obscuring edges, it is possible that the higher density markings of the inwardly displaced patterns concomitantly reduced their extent of background matching. Likewise, it has been suggested that the mealworm baits placed on the artificial moths could have created differential contrasts with different moth patterns. To address these concerns, we conducted controlled trials in which human subjects searched for computer-generated moth images presented against images of oak trees. Moths with edge-extended disruptive markings survived at higher rates, and took longer to find, than all other moth types, whether presented sequentially or simultaneously. However, moths with no edge markings and reduced interior pattern density survived better than their high-density counterparts, indicating that background matching may have played a so-far unrecognized role in the earlier experiments. Our disruptively patterned non-background-matching moths also had the lowest overall survivorship, indicating that disruptive coloration alone may not provide significant protection from predators. Collectively, our results provide independent support for the survival value of disruptive markings and demonstrate that there are common features in human and avian perception of camouflage.

Fraser, Stewart; Callahan, Alison; Klassen, Dana; Sherratt, Thomas N

2007-01-01

259

Variations in the photoperiodic cloacal response of Japanese quail: association with testes weight and feather color  

SciTech Connect

The size of the cloacal gland was found to be a reliable indicator of testicular activity of Japanese quail. Six experiments were performed to examine the effects of alternating long and short photoperiod on the size of the cloacal gland of male Japanese quail. Three types of photoperiodic cloacal responses were distinguished. Type I birds became refractory to short photoperiods after they had experienced 5 weeks or more of short days. They maintained large cloacal glands under subsequent condition of alternating long and short photoperiod. Type II birds were intermediate types I and III birds did not become refractory to short photoperiods after experiencing 5 weeks or more of short days. The cloacal glands responded to conditions of alternating long and short photoperiods with increases or decreases in size. Feather color on the throat was found to correspond to the type of cloacal response. Type I birds had brick-red throat feathers. Type II birds had white feathers intermingled with brick-red feathers. Type III had white throat feathers. The percentages of types I, II, and III observed in the experimental population was 67, 18, and 15%, respectively. Type III birds were used to study the effects of blinding on the cloacal response to short photoperiod. Five out of eight blinded type III birds did not lose the responsiveness to short photoperiod. These results are consistent with the view that extraocular photoreceptors participate in the photoperiodic gonadal response of Japanese quail.

Oishi, T.; Konishi, T.

1983-04-01

260

The Legibility of Colored Web Page Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impact of color combinations on the legibility of a Web page text presented on a CRT display. Four hundred and sixty-eight participants tested the legibility of fifty-six color combinations. The impacts of color combination, luminance contrast, color difference, and polarity on the legibility were studied. According to the analysis of variance test, color combinations significantly affected

M. Gradisar; I. Humar; T. Turk

2007-01-01

261

241-AZ-101 Waste Tank Color Video Camera System Shop Acceptance Test Report  

SciTech Connect

This report includes shop acceptance test results. The test was performed prior to installation at tank AZ-101. Both the camera system and camera purge system were originally sought and procured as a part of initial waste retrieval project W-151.

WERRY, S.M.

2000-03-23

262

The Stroop Color-Word Test: Influence of Age, Sex, and Education; and Normative Data for a Large Sample Across the Adult Age Range  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to 1,856 cognitively screened, healthy Dutch-speaking participants aged 24 to 81 years. The effects of age, gender, and education on Stroop test performance were investigated to adequately stratify the normative data. The results showed that especially the speed-dependent Stroop scores (time to complete…

Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

2006-01-01

263

Color Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is inquiry in that students do not know how colors are combined. They likely think that the primary colors are red, yellow, and blue. In fact, there are two sets of primary colors: red, green, and blue for additive colors of light, and cyan,

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

264

Color Categories Are Not Arbitrary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent, well-controlled studies in cross-language color naming and cross-language tests of color memory and learning have made important contributions to our understanding of which aspects of cross-language color naming and nonverbal response to colors may and may not be attributed to pan-human properties of color appearance. Valuable as these results are, some studies have led to more relativistic conclusions than

Paul Kay

2005-01-01

265

Computerized systems for heat treating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of computer technology to make furnace operation more efficient and cost effective foreshadows a more productive era for the heat treating industry. This paper discusses the growing need for computerization in heat treating; a primer on computers; a look at a typical microprocessor based control system; and a description of how one forge shop has computerized the control

T. K. Thomas; R. I. Gruber

1981-01-01

266

Hands-On Science: Is It an Acid or a Base? These Colorful Tests Tell All!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two hands-on science activities for K-6 students teach them how to determine if something is an acid or a base. The activities require acid/base indicator juice, testing strips, and a base solution. A recipe for making them in the classroom using red cabbage and baking soda is provided. (SM)|

VanCleave, Janice

1998-01-01

267

Computerized EEG analyses of autistic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroencephalographic measures of the neurophysiological dysfunction underlying autism have been nonspecific and incomplete. Studies using electroencephalogric methods have been fraught with subject sampling bias, a lack of standardized techniques and measures, and a lack of appropriate control groups. Low-functioning autistic children with age-matched normals, age-matched mentally handicapped, and mentally age-matched normal toddlers were tested using a computerized electroencephalographic technique. The

David S. Cantor; Robert W. Thatcher; Michael Hrybyk; Herbert Kaye

1986-01-01

268

Replicating Colors: Using tints, shades and primary colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will mix paints and create a formula to match a muted color. The formula will be tested. Students will discuss their observations and develop new questions about color mixing to pursue.

269

Computerized audio processor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Computerized Audio Processor (CAP) is a computer synthesized electronic filter that removes interference from received or recorded speech signals. The CAP automatically detects and attenuates impulse sounds and tones (e.g., ignition noise, switching transients, whistles, chirps, hum, buzzes, FSK telegraphy, etc). It also attenuates wideband random noise. All operations of the CAP are fully automatic. Input signals are processed in real time, with a maximum lag of 340 msec. The CAP implements three proven signal processing techniques. One of these (IMP) virtually eliminates most loud impulse noises. A second technique (DSS) automatically detects tones and attenuates them by up to 46 dB. The third technique (INTEL) provides up to 18 dB attenuation of wideband random noise.

Weiss, M. R.; Aschkenasy, E.

1983-05-01

270

Computerizing natural history collections.  

PubMed

Computers are ubiquitous in the life sciences and are associated with many of the practical and conceptual changes that characterize biology's twentieth-century transformation. Yet comparatively little has been written about how scientists use computers. Despite this relative lack of scholarly attention, the claim that computers revolutionized the life sciences by making the impossible possible is widespread, and relatively unchallenged. How did the introduction of computers into research programs shape scientific practice? The Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ) at the University of California, Berkeley provides a tractable way into this under-examined question because it is possible to follow the computerization of data in the context of long-term research programs. PMID:23664113

Sunderland, Mary E

2013-05-07

271

Demographically Corrected Norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version  

PubMed Central

Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised), and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African-Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African-Americans than Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African-Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings.

Norman, Marc A.; Moore, David J.; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K.

2011-01-01

272

Demographically corrected norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version.  

PubMed

Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised) and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n?=?143) and African Americans (n?=?103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African Americans than for Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and were unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings. PMID:21547817

Norman, Marc A; Moore, David J; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K

2011-06-24

273

Color realism and color science.  

PubMed

The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in the mind." The article has two other purposes: First, to introduce an interdisciplinary audience to some distinctively philosophical tools that are useful in tackling the problem of color realism and, second, to clarify the various positions and central arguments in the debate. The first part explains the problem of color realism and makes some useful distinctions. These distinctions are then used to expose various confusions that often prevent people from seeing that the issues are genuine and difficult, and that the problem of color realism ought to be of interest to anyone working in the field of color science. The second part explains the various leading answers to the problem of color realism, and (briefly) argues that all views other than our own have serious difficulties or are unmotivated. The third part explains and motivates our own view, that colors are types of reflectances and defends it against objections made in the recent literature that are often taken as fatal. PMID:14598439

Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

2003-02-01

274

The functional effects of color perception and color imagery.  

PubMed

Functional imaging research and studies of brain-damaged patients suggest the mechanisms of color perception and color imagery have some degree of overlap. Previous research into color imagery has focused on compound images consisting of both color and form, e.g., whole objects. Little is known regarding the characteristics of pure color imagery-color without form structure. Binocular rivalry has proven to be a successful method for assessing mental imagery indirectly, quantitatively, and reliably. Here, we utilized this technique to access pure color imagery. Experiment 1 consisted of three conditions, in which participants were instructed to either imagine pure colors according to a letter cue, imagine pure colors in the presence of background luminance, or passively view weak perceptual color patches. Subsequently, a brief rivalry display was presented. Results indicated that perceptual dominance during rivalry was significantly biased by the participants' prior color imagery and perception. However, for imagery, the addition of background luminance attenuated this priming effect. In Experiment 2, we tested whether color imagery was location-specific in retinotopic space. Color imagery was only found to prime subsequent rivalry when the imagery and rivalry stimuli occurred at the same retinotopic location. These results demonstrate that imagery of pure colors without form structure can influence subsequent color perception and can be localized in retinotopic space. These results are consistent with previous studies examining mental imagery of compound visual stimuli and demonstrate the potential of investigations into mental imagery of individual visual features. PMID:23922446

Chang, Shuai; Lewis, David E; Pearson, Joel

2013-08-06

275

Limitations of surface-color and apparent-color constancy.  

PubMed

Color-constancy mechanisms have been studied and discussed in a number of investigations. However, there has been little attempt to reveal how color constancy deteriorates as the conditions for it become less than optimal. We carried out a series of asymmetric color-matching experiments, using two criteria: surface-color match and apparent-color match. With brief adaptation the degree of color constancy increased as chromatic cues were added in the surround. In the condition of black surround, the test stimuli appeared self-luminous, and chromaticities of the chosen matching stimuli were the same as the physical chromaticities of the test stimulus, indicating a total deficiency of color constancy. With 15 min of preadaptation to the illuminant, the surface-color matches showed almost perfect color constancy under illuminant change. In both adaptation conditions, the chromatic-shift of matches from what would be expected for perfect color constancy increased gradually between 1,700- and 30,000-K illuminant, as chromaticity of the illuminant departed from 6,500-K illuminant. Under 1,000-K illuminant the surface-color appearance became totally achromatic, and color constancy was completely lost. Our results show that, even with brief adaptation to the illuminant, the contribution of the surrounding stimulus is large enough to achieve a fair degree of color constancy, but complete adaptation to the illuminant helps to achieve almost perfect color constancy. PMID:8755788

Kuriki, I; Uchikawa, K

1996-08-01

276

Computerized optometric records and the law.  

PubMed

Today, most computerized optometric records contain the financial and business data for a practice. As technology advances in both optometric instrumentation and computerization, data for the optometric examination is also becoming part of the computerized recordkeeping system. This paper discusses legal aspects of computerized optometric examination records with respect to content, patient confidentiality, authentication for litigation defense, and proper handling by staff. PMID:2915110

Dister, R E; Harris, M G

1989-01-01

277

Computerized performance monitoring systems: use and abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory study of computerized performance monitoring and control systems reveals both positive and negative effects. Responses of 50 clerical workers from 2 organizations with computerized monitoring were compared to 94 individuals from 3 organizations in similar jobs without computerized monitoring. The results indicate that computerized monitoring is associated with perceived increases in office productivity, more accurate and complete assessment

R. H. Irving; Christopher A. Higgins; Frank R. Safayeni

1986-01-01

278

Seeing Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

Texley, Juliana

2005-01-01

279

Seeing Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

Texley, Juliana

2005-01-01

280

Perfect Colorings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A problem that arises when the segmentation of a file in a network is considered without redundancy is studied. This problem translates to a graph coloring problem: k colorability. Several basic results for perfectly k colorable graphs are proved. It is s...

E. M. Bakker J. Vanleeuwen R. B. Tan

1990-01-01

281

Effective Coloration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are concerned here with recursive function theory analogs of certain problems in chromatic graph theory. The motivating question for our work is: Does there exist a recursive (countably infinite) planar graph with no recursive 4-coloring? We obtain the following results: There is a 3-colorable, recursive planar graph which, for all $k$, has no recursive $k$-coloring; every decidable graph of

Dwight R. Bean

1976-01-01

282

Computerized international geothermal information systems  

SciTech Connect

The computerized international geothermal energy information system is reviewed. The review covers establishment of the Italy - United States linked data centers by the NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society, through a bilateral agreement, and up to the present time. The result of the information exchange project is given as the bibliographic and numerical data available from the data centers. Recommendations for the exchange of computerized geothermal information at the international level are discussed.

Phillips, S.L.; Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.

1980-03-01

283

Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (4)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report is af ollow-up to SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8, SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7866 78660J-1-8 and SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 8292 829206-1-8. Colors are used to communicate information in various situations, not just for design and apparel. However, visual information given only by color may be perceived differently by individuals with different color vision types. Human color vision is non-uniform and the variation in most cases is genetically linked to L-cones and M-cones. Therefore, color appearance is not the same for all color vision types. Color Universal Design is an easy-to-understand system that was created to convey color-coded information accurately to most people, taking color vision types into consideration. In the present research, we studied trichromat (C-type), prolan (P-type), and deutan (D-type) forms of color vision. We here report the result of two experiments. The first was the validation of the confusion colors using the color chart on CIELAB uniform color space. We made an experimental color chart (total of color cells is 622, the color difference between color cells is 2.5) for fhis experiment, and subjects have P-type or D-type color vision. From the data we were able to determine "the limits with high probability of confusion" and "the limits with possible confusion" around various basing points. The direction of the former matched with the theoretical confusion locus, but the range did not extend across the entire a* range. The latter formed a belt-like zone above and below the theoretical confusion locus. This way we re-analyzed a part of the theoretical confusion locus suggested by Pitt-Judd. The second was an experiment in color classification of the subjects with C-type, P-type, or D-type color vision. The color caps of fhe 100 Hue Test were classified into seven categories for each color vision type. The common and different points of color sensation were compared for each color vision type, and we were able to find a group of color caps fhat people with C-, P-, and D-types could all recognize as distinguishable color categories. The result could be used as the basis of a color scheme for future Color Universal Design.

Ikeda, Tomohiro; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Kojima, Natsuki; Tanaka, Hisaya; Ito, Kei

2013-02-01

284

On color induction with reference to color recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determined the limens of sensitivity for the commonly denominated primary colors when mixed with black, and the limens of sensitivity for each of the same colors after adaptation to blue, yellow, green and red. The apparatus consisted of a 4 spindle color-mixer, an induction chamber, a modified Kuhlmann time apparatus and a seconds pendulum. 35 Ss were tested to determine

Mary Almack; G. F. Arps

1916-01-01

285

Coloring Single Stroop Elements: Reducing Automaticity or Slowing Color Processing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automaticity theory and the effect of coloring a single element were tested with all or only 1 element colored in Stroop tasks. The 312 participants in 5 experiments indicated stimulus presentation color by key press. Experiments 1 and 2 replicated those of D. Besner, J. A. Stoltz, and C. Boutilier (1997) with some changes, and revealed similar results: less Stroop

John S. Monahan

2001-01-01

286

Color Quiz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Please take this Quiz. It is not that hard. Remember If you understand color, you will be able to use color in your artwork more effectively. For your Quiz please answer the 18 questions below. Here are some sites you have already seen that will help you answer the questions. Color Theory Color Vocabulary Wikipedia color theory You may write your answers down on a piece of paper or you can type the answers up. Make sure name, period, and date are on assignment ...

Freeman, Ms.

2006-02-14

287

Color Quiz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Please take this Quiz. It is not that hard. Remember If you understand color, you will be able to use color in your artwork more effectively. For your Quiz please answer the 18 questions below. Here are some sites you have already seen that will help you answer the questions. Color Theory Color Vocabulary Wikipedia color theory You may write your answers down on a piece of paper or you can type the answers up. Make sure name, period, and date are on assignment ...

Jolene

2008-09-29

288

The use of computerized transaxial tomography in the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis.  

PubMed

Computerized transaxial tomography is a useful test for the recognition of tuberous sclerosis when this diagnosis has not been firmly established by clinical methods. In addition, computerized transaxial tomography may demonstrate the location of obstruction in patients with tuberous sclerosis who have developed signs of increased intracranial presure. These generalizations are supported by evidence from four patients investigated by this test. PMID:1099348

Gomez, M R; Mellinger, J F; Reese, D F

1975-09-01

289

Color Terms and Color Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

Davidoff, Jules

2006-01-01

290

Color terms and color concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O’Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction are taken up in the current commentary, especially with

Jules Davidoff

2006-01-01

291

Validation of a test setup for a low-cost color classification device using remission\\/reflection sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-cost sensor platform (MORES Sensor) was combined with a microcontroller to build up an embedded solution which e.g. allows for a small hand-held Color Estimation System for blind people. The color sensor used here measures the intensity response of a surface caused by radiation with a specific wavelength in the range of visible light. This radiation is realized by

Robert Hauser; Christian V. Madritsch; Dieter Römhildb; Dietmar Starke; Issa Ibraheem; Volker Mannheim

292

Failure of color constancy for high luminance of a test patch that appears unnatural as an object in a space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of the recognized visual space of illumination (RVSI) is that the color appearance of objects in a space is determined\\u000a in relation to its recognition axis RX whose direction is determined by the brain action to adapt to the illumination in the\\u000a space. Thus the color constancy holds. RX is applicable to objects in the space but not

Pontawee Pungrassamee; Mitsuo Ikeda; Aran Hansuebsai

2007-01-01

293

Test-retest reliability of standard and emotional stroop tasks: an investigation of color-word and picture-word versions.  

PubMed

Previous studies have examined the reliability of scores derived from various Stroop tasks. However, few studies have compared reliability of more recently developed Stroop variants such as emotional Stroop tasks to standard versions of the Stroop. The current study developed four different single-stimulus Stroop tasks and compared test-retest reliabilities. The four Stroop tasks included two standard Stroop tasks (color-word and picture-word) as well as two emotional Stroop tasks (color-word and picture-word). The four Stroop tasks were administered on two occasions, separated by 1 week, to 28 undergraduate students. Test-retest reliability coefficients were high for standard and emotional Stroop tasks when reliability was measured using response latencies alone. However, test-retest coefficients were unacceptably low when reliability estimates were calculated using difference scores. The findings have important implications for clinical and experimental use of standard and emotional Stroop tasks. PMID:16123253

Strauss, Gregory P; Allen, Daniel N; Jorgensen, Melinda L; Cramer, Stacey L

2005-09-01

294

Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

2009-01-01

295

Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

2009-01-01

296

Modeling human color categorization: color discrimination and color memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The experiments conducted prove the difference between color categorization by the cognitive processes color discrimination and

E. L. van den Broek; E. M. van Rikxoort; M. J. H. Puts; L. G. Vuurpijl; T. Heskes; P. Lucas; W. Wiegerinck

2003-01-01

297

Color term knowledge does not affect categorical perception of color in toddlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Categorical perception of color is shown when colors from the same category are discriminated less easily than equivalently spaced colors that cross a category boundary. The current experiments tested various models of categorical perception. Experiment 1 tested for categorical responding in 2- to 4-year-olds, the age range for the onset establishment of color term knowledge. Experiment 2 tested for categorical

Anna Franklin; Ally Clifford; Emma Williamson; Ian Davies

2005-01-01

298

Computerized Methods in the Assessment and Prediction of Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized administration of neuropsychological tests can be an objective, sensitive and efficient way to screen for and monitor cognitive changes in the elderly. However, current computer software still suffers from limitations in both the administration of those tests and the interpretation of their results, which might severely hamper their usability. In this paper qualitative aspects of current methods and their

Amos D. Korczyn; Vered Aharonson

2007-01-01

299

High-School Chemistry Students' Performance and Gender Differences in a Computerized Molecular Modeling Learning Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized molecular modeling (CMM) contributes to the development of visualization skills via vivid animation of three dimensional representations. Its power to illustrate and explore phenomena in chemistry teaching stems from the convenience and simplicity of building molecules of any size and color in a number of presentation styles. A new CMM-based learning environment for teaching and learning chemistry in Israeli

Nitza Barnea; Yehudit J. Dori

1999-01-01

300

Test strips for lead(II) based on a unique color change of PVC-film containing O-donor macrocycles and an anionic dye.  

PubMed

Glassy test strips partially coated with PVC-film including O-donor macrocyclic receptors (L), tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester (TBPE(-)), and a plasticizer sensed Pb(2+) in aqueous solutions by a unique color change. Yellow films successively changed color to green, dark-blue and purple with increases of the Pb(2+) concentration. In contrast with the ordinary "optode", a characteristic absorption band at 525 nm was newly appeared independently of the protonation and deprotonation of HTBPE (yellow to blue). The unique color change occurred only when asymmetric receptors with respect to the basal plane were coupled with Pb(2+). This optical-structural correlation is likely to be induced by the H aggregate of two sets of TBPE(-) in the 1:2 ion-pair, [Pb-L](2+).(TBPE(-))(2). The color change, based on metachromasy, was exclusive for Pb(2+) among common metal cations (Ca(2+), Al(3+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Hg(2+)) and anions (Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), PO(4)(3-), S(2)O(3)(2-)). PMID:17297224

Takahashi, Yukiko; Hayashita, Takashi; Suzuki, Toshishige M

2007-02-01

301

Test-retest reliability of the computerized DSM-IV version of the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and content of the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) for the assessment of DSM-IV\\u000a symptoms, syndromes, and diagnoses is described along with findings from a test-retest reliability study. A sample of 60 community\\u000a respondents were interviewed twice independently by trained interviewers with an average time interval of 38 days between\\u000a investigations. Test-retest reliability was good for almost all

H.-U. Wittchen; G. Lachner; U. Wunderlich; H. Pfister

1998-01-01

302

Test-Retest Reliability of Standard and Emotional Stroop TasksAn Investigation of Color-Word and Picture-Word Versions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have examined the reliability of scores derived from various Stroop tasks. However, few studies have compared reliability of more recently developed Stroop variants such as emotional Stroop tasks to standard versions of the Stroop. The current study developed four different single-stimulus Stroop tasks and compared test-retest reliabilities. The four Stroop tasks included two standard Stroop tasks (color-word and

Gregory P. Strauss; Daniel N. Allen; Melinda L. Jorgensen; Stacey L. Cramer

2005-01-01

303

Computerized physician order entry in critical care.  

PubMed

Computerized physician order entry means prescribing of medication and ordering laboratory tests or radiology examinations in an electronic way instead of using paper forms. In itself, it offers advantages such as legible orders, faster order completion, inventory management and automatic billing. If combined with clinical decision support, the real benefits of CPOE become apparent in the first place by prevention of medication errors and adverse drug events. On the contrary, if CPOE configuration is not done carefully, adverse drug events can be facilitated. Therefore, and for reasons of end-user acceptance, implementation is challenging. CPOE has the potential for significant economic saving. However, the initial implementation cost is high. PMID:19449614

Colpaert, Kirsten; Decruyenaere, Johan

2009-03-01

304

Development of a Computerized In-Basket Exercise for the Classroom: A Sales Management Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article follows the development of a sales management in-basket exercise for use in the classroom. The authors have computerized the exercise and added features to allow for additional and more quantitative input from the students. The exercise has evolved and been tested in numerous classroom situations. The computerized in-basket exercise…

Pearson, Michael M.; Barnes, John W.; Onken, Marina H.

2006-01-01

305

The effect of sport on computerized electrocardiogram measurements in college athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Broad criteria for abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) findings, requiring additional testing, have been recommended for preparticipation exams (PPE) of athletes. As these criteria have not considered the sport in which athletes participate, we examined the effect of sports on the computerized ECG measurements obtained in college athletes.Methods: During the Stanford 2007 PPE, computerized 12-lead ECGs (Schiller AG) were obtained in

Maaike GJ Gademan; Abhimanyu Uberoi; Vy-Van Le; Sandra Mandic; Eddy R van Oort; Jonathan Myers; Victor F Froelicher

2012-01-01

306

Color Lines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching about color and value scales emphasizes a systematic approach to the effects of color and may reinforce assumptions rooted in racism. Describes how an 8th grade art class challenged the symbolism of black as evil and white as good. By showing that this is a culturally constructed meaning, art teachers model that such meaning can also be…

Gude, Olivia

2001-01-01

307

Computerized Monitoring and Management of Nontidal Wetlands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The decision to develop a computerized system is based on several considerations demanding a computerized approach; principally the expectation that increasing amounts of diverse data will need to be incorporated into management decision and the necessity...

K. P. Lade

1988-01-01

308

PAQ database: Flemish Physical Activity Computerized Questionnaire  

Cancer.gov

Flemish Physical Activity Computerized Questionnaire In: Matton L, Wijndaele K, Duvigneaud N, Duquet W, Philippaerts R, Thomis M, Lefevre J. Reliability and validity of the Flemish Physical Activity Computerized Questionnaire in adults. Res Q Exerc Sport

309

Reduced Stroop Interference for Opponent Colors May Be Due to Input Factors: Evidence from Individual Differences and a Neural Network Simulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sensory or input factors can influence the strength of interference in the classic Stroop color-word task. Specifically, in a single-trial computerized version of the Stroop task, when color-word pairs were incongruent, opponent color pairs (e.g., the word BLUE in yellow) showed reduced Stroop interference compared with nonopponent color pairs…

Laeng, Bruno; Torstein, Lag; Brennen, Tim

2005-01-01

310

Color management.  

PubMed

In summary, color psychology is one of the most important, but most often neglected, forces in enhancing the image and profitability of the hospital gift shop. While many hospital gift shops may be updated and beautified with the purchase of costly equipment and the hiring of expensive design consultants, the effective use of color may be all that is necessary to change the shop atmosphere. In addition, color is extremely inexpensive and flexible; it can be changed easily, in lieu of moving heavy displays and fixtures, rewiring, or remodeling. Finally, color is powerful. In an age of intense competition and rapidly expanding technology, color is one design tool that can make a difference. PMID:10284566

Caudill, D W

1987-11-01

311

Predation Cost of Conspicuous Male Coloration in Collared Lizards (Crotaphytus collaris): An Experimental Test Using Clay-Covered Model Lizards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal color patterns are a compromise between sexual selection pres- sures that increase advantages accrued from conspicuousness, and nat- ural selection pressures that decrease those advantages through reduced survivorship. Predation pressure, as a mode of natural selection, often is invoked as a counter-selective force to sexual selection, yet few studies have demonstrated empirically that more conspicuous individuals experience higher rates

Jerry F. Husak; Stanley F. Fox; Richard C. Sauceda

2006-01-01

312

Testing the reliability of skin color as an indicator of quality for early season ‘Brooks’ ( Prunus avium L.) cherry  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1997–1999 seasons, we investigated the relationship between ‘Brooks’ cherry skin color at harvest (full light red, 50% bright red, full bright red and full dark red) and consumer acceptance using fruit grown in different geographic locations in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Soluble solids concentration (SSC) increased, but titratable acidity (TA) levels did not decrease as cherries matured

Carlos H. Crisosto; Gayle M. Crisosto; Mark A. Ritenour

2002-01-01

313

An experimental test of the contributions and condition dependence of microstructure and carotenoids in yellow plumage coloration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of structural and pigmentary components is responsible for many of the colour displays of animals. Despite the ubiquity of this type of coloration, neither the relative contribution of structures and pigments to variation in such colour displays nor the relative effects of extrinsic factors on the structural and pigment-based components of such colour has been determined. Understanding the

Matthew D. Shawkey; Geoffrey E. Hill; Kevin J. McGraw; Wendy R. Hood; Kristal Huggins

2006-01-01

314

Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

Meurant, Robert C.

315

Arkansas' Curriculum Guide. Competency Based Computerized Accounting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide contains the essential parts of a total curriculum for a one-year secondary-level course in computerized accounting. Addressed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the complete accounting cycle, computer operations for accounting, computerized accounting and general ledgers, computerized accounts payable,…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. Div. of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

316

DOE transporation programs - computerized techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major thrusts of the transportation programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been the development of a number of computerized transportation programs and data bases. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting these efforts through the Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories and the Tranportation Operations and Traffic Management (TOTM) organization at DOE Headquarters.

D. S. Joy; P. E. Johnson; C. S. Fore; B. E. Peterson

1983-01-01

317

Computerizing Information Services in Iraq.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Review of background and justification of computerization project initiated to automate information work covers design concepts; implementation; and major characteristics of databases (local versions of BIOSIS and INSPEC, union catalog of monographs from Library of Congress/MARC records, union catalog of serials from International Serials Data…

Jacso, Peter; Razzaq, Faik Abdul S.

1986-01-01

318

Computerized Aids for the Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The report examines a variety of computerized aids and devices for individuals with visual, communication, or other disabilities, as well as ways computers may be used in the education and employment of handicapped individuals. Considered in the section on visual and hearing aids are talking meters, braille terminals, devices for reading standard…

Flaningam, Donalee

319

Computerized Legal Research. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A project was undertaken to develop a curriculum for a course in computerized legal education that could be used at Highline Community College in Midway, Washington. As part of the curriculum development effort, project staff reviewed relevant literature, visited colleagues at the University of Washington and the University of Puget Sound Law…

Campbell, Michael

320

Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an…

Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

2010-01-01

321

Color blindness and a color human visual system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physiologically motivated human color visual system model which represents visual information with one brightness component (A) and two chromatic components (C1 and C2) is used to create stimuli for testing the color perception of deuteranomalous trichromats. Two experiments are performed. Using simple ramp patterns, the first experiment finds that three deuteranomalous trichromat test subjects can distinguish variations only in

Curtis E. Martin; John G. Keller; Steven K. Rogers; Matthew Kabrisky

2000-01-01

322

Color Sudoku  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The popular sudoku puzzles use numbers, but the game could played with any set of 9 different objects! In this activity (on pages 56-75 of PDF), learners use objects of different colors (marbles, paper squares, candies) to solve sudoku puzzles. Learners use logic to determine where all the colored objects go, given the different colors already present on the puzzles. The activity includes suggestions for how to approach the game, 10 puzzles of varying size and difficulty, and links to websites with many more puzzles.

Omsi

2008-01-01

323

Color Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, developed by the Exploratories Project at Brown University, provides a series of applets to help users understand the various concepts in Color Theory. In the combined Color Mixing applet, undergraduate and high school students can discover how lights, paints, and filters interact. Users can learn about the properties of incoming light, frequency, and reflectance. The site also provides activities for metamers, Triple Cell Response, and much more. Anyone seeking help with color concepts will benefit from this educational, interactive Web site.

324

Changing Colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this challenge, learners have to figure out in what order to combine five solutions to change the color from clear, to yellow, to blue, and back to clear. The five chemicals are potassium iodide, sodium thiosulfate, sodium hypochlorite (Clorox bleach), soluble starch (Niagara spray starch), and water. The color changes indicate chemical reactions, and the lesson includes some background information about the reactions that create different colors. Suggestions are given for guiding learners through systematic approaches to making the different combinations and observing the results, and for explaining to different age groups what happens when the solutions are combined.

Sciencenter

2012-06-26

325

Computerized image analysis of iron-stained macrophages.  

PubMed

Analysis of iron levels in single cells is critical to understand the consequences of impaired regulation of iron homeostasis. Here we establish a method to analyze intracellular iron deposits by computerized image analysis of Prussian blue-stained alveolar macrophages as a test system. We efficiently detected small differences in macrophage steady-state iron levels in Hfe (-/-) mice as well as inflammation-induced iron sequestration upon lipopolysaccharide instillation. In conclusion, computerized image analysis of single cells is a robust and reproducible tool suitable for iron measurements in small sample sets with limited cell yield. PMID:23592271

Benesova, Karolina; Schaefer, Sebastian M; Mall, Marcus A; Muckenthaler, Martina U

2013-04-17

326

Computerized Assessment of Response Bias in Forensic Neuropsychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Computerized Assessment of Response Bias (CARB) is a forced-choice digit recognition test designed to detect suboptimal performance during a psychological or neuropsychological evaluation. First developed in 1992, CARB has incorporated a number of refinements such as early termination for excellent early performance and analysis of response times and patterns. Patients with moderate or severe brain injury, or neurological disease,

Lyle M. Allen III; Grant L. Iverson; Paul Green

2003-01-01

327

NCLEX-RN performance: Predicting success on the computerized examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the adoption of the Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) format of the National Certification Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN), no studies have been reported in the literature on predictors of successful performance by baccalaureate nursing graduates on the licensure examination. In this study, a discriminant analysis was used to identify which of 21 variables can be significant predictors of

Pamela Butler Beeman; Julie Keith Waterhouse

2001-01-01

328

An Application of Computerized Instructional Television in Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Computerized instructional television was used to teach undergraduate students about 100,000 or more extant fungi through an interactive, self testing, teaching program. Students did not find this sophisticated hardware an adequate substitute for the lecture experience and ultimately gave their professor a strong vote of confidence. (Author/JEG)|

Kendrick, Bryce

329

Computerized Cognitive Training for Severely Emotionally Disturbed Children with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of Captain's Log (a computerized cognitive-training system) on the behaviors and performance capabilities of 4 severely emotionally disturbed children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), ages 7 to 11. Behavioral scales, spectral electroencephalograms, and intelligence and performance tests were assessed pre-and posttreatment. A behavioral point system and monitoring of progress on computer

Suzanne E. Slate; Tracy L. Meyer; William J. Burns; Doil D. Montgomery

1998-01-01

330

An Application of Computerized Instructional Television in Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized instructional television was used to teach undergraduate students about 100,000 or more extant fungi through an interactive, self testing, teaching program. Students did not find this sophisticated hardware an adequate substitute for the lecture experience and ultimately gave their professor a strong vote of confidence. (Author/JEG)

Kendrick, Bryce

331

Feasibility study for a computerized emergency preparedness simulation facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report details the feasibility of a computerized Emergency Preparedness Simulation Facility (EPSF) for use by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The proposed facility would be designed to provide the NRC and other federal, state, and local government agencies with a capability to formulate, test, and evaluate the Emergency Preparedness Plans (EPP) which local and state agencies have\\/will establish for

L. H. Gerhardstein; J. O. Schroeder; W. F. Sandusky

1979-01-01

332

Functional computational model for optimal color coding  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a computational model for color coding that provides a functional explanation of how humans perceive colors in a homogeneous color space. Beginning with known properties of human cone photoreceptors, the model estimates the locations of the reflectance spectra of Munsell color chips in perceptual color space as represented in the CIE L*a*b* color system. The fit between the two structures is within the limits of expected measurement error. Estimates of the structure of perceptual color space for color anomalous dichromats missing one of the normal cone photoreceptors correspond closely to results from the Farnsworth–Munsell color test. An unanticipated outcome of the model provides a functional explanation of why additive lights are always red, green, and blue and provide maximum gamut for color monitors and color television even though they do not correspond to human cone absorption spectra.

Romney, A. Kimball; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

2009-01-01

333

SPL Color  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Color Keyword Names in the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 Specification recommended by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) on ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/formssubmissionrequirements

334

Color harmonization for images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color harmonization is an artistic technique to adjust a set of colors in order to enhance their visual harmony so that they are aesthetically pleasing in terms of human visual perception. We present a new color harmonization method that treats the harmonization as a function optimization. For a given image, we derive a cost function based on the observation that pixels in a small window that have similar unharmonic hues should be harmonized with similar harmonic hues. By minimizing the cost function, we get a harmonized image in which the spatial coherence is preserved. A new matching function is proposed to select the best matching harmonic schemes, and a new component-based preharmonization strategy is proposed to preserve the hue distribution of the harmonized images. Our approach overcomes several shortcomings of the existing color harmonization methods. We test our algorithm with a variety of images to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

Tang, Zhen; Miao, Zhenjiang; Wan, Yanli; Wang, Zhifei

2011-04-01

335

How colorful are fruits? Limited color diversity in fleshy fruits on local and global scales.  

PubMed

The colors of fleshy fruits are considered to be a signal to seed-dispersing animals, but their diversity remains poorly understood. Using an avian color space to derive a sensory morphospace for fruit color, we tested four hypotheses of fruit color diversity: fruit colors occupy a limited area of the color space; they are less diverse than flower colors; fruit colors within localities are similar to each other; and fruit color diversity reflects phylogeny. The global fruit color diversity of 948 primarily bird-dispersed plant species and the color diversity of localities were compared with null models of random, unconstrained evolution of fruit color. Fruit color diversity was further compared with the diversity of 1300 flower colors. Tests of phylogenetic effects on fruit color were used to assess the degree of correspondence with phylogeny. Global and local fruit color diversity was limited compared with null models and fruits have achieved only half the color diversity of flowers. Interestingly, we found little indication of phylogenetic conservatism. Constraints resulting from the chemical properties of pigments probably limit global fruit and flower color diversity. Different types of selection on fruits and flowers may further explain the smaller color diversity of fruits. PMID:23374020

Stournaras, Kalliope E; Lo, Eugenia; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Cazetta, Eliana; Dehling, D Matthias; Schleuning, Matthias; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Donoghue, Michael J; Prum, Richard O; Schaefer, H Martin

2013-02-04

336

Colored Coalescent Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a colored coalescent process which recovers random colored genealogical trees. Here a colored genealogical tree has its vertices colored black or white. Moving backward along the colored genealogical tree, the color of vertices may change only when two vertice coalesce. The rule that governs the change of color involves a parameter $x$. When $x=1\\/2$, the colored coalescent process

Jianjun Tian; Xiao-Song Lin

2004-01-01

337

Research Paper: Communication Outcomes of Critical Imaging Results in a Computerized Notification System  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveCommunication of abnormal test results in the outpatient setting is prone to error. Using information technology can improve communication and improve patient safety. We standardized processes and procedures in a computerized test result notification system and examined their effectiveness to reduce errors in communication of abnormal imaging results.DesignWe prospectively analyzed outcomes of computerized notification of abnormal test results (alerts) that

Hardeep Singh; Harvinder S. Arora; Meena S. Vij; Raghuram Rao; Myrna M. Khan; Laura A. Petersen

2007-01-01

338

Computerizing the medical staff office.  

PubMed

To assist its medical staff in making appointments and reappointments to the medical staff, delineating clinical privileges, and maintaining quality assurance information, as well as to streamline clerical duties in the medical staff office, El Camino Hospital (a 460-bed acute care facility in Mountain View, California) developed a comprehensive, computerized medical staff quality assurance database (MESQUAD). This article describes MESQUAD as a program developed by one hospital to meet its unique needs. PMID:3095762

Lu, S L; Lozier, B; Pettingill, R R; Small, M

1986-09-01

339

Colorful Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Funded by Industry Canada's SchoolNet initiative with the cooperation of the Canadian Mathematical Society, Colorful Mathematics takes a game-oriented approach to teaching K-12 mathematics. The project has developed five coloring games that teach children about problem solving, and pattern identification, which "are all at the very heart of mathematics." The coloring approach makes difficult graph concepts "that are still the subject of active research by mathematicians, computer scientists and industry researchers" more accessible to children. The software program, which is available for free from this website, is set up to check for mistakes and challenge students to improve on their results. A Teacher's Corner section gives an overview of the games, "some sample questions for discussion with the curious student," and an overview of terminology used in the software program. The website is also available in French.

340

Innovative Item Types for Computerized Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial applications of a new technology often retain many of the characteristics of the older products or processes that they are displacing. Early automobiles were horse-drawn carriages simply fitted with motors. Television programming remains firmly rooted in the formats pioneered by radio. And air travel initially featured the elegance and service that passengers had come to expect on board trains

Cynthia G. Parshall; Tim Davey; Peter J. Pashley

341

Testing the color charge and mass dependence of parton energy loss with heavy-to-light ratios at BNL RHIC and CERN LHC  

SciTech Connect

The ratio of nuclear modification factors of high-p{sub T} heavy-flavored mesons to light-flavored hadrons ('heavy-to-light ratio') in nucleus-nucleus collisions tests the partonic mechanism expected to underlie jet quenching. Heavy-to-light ratios are mainly sensitive to the mass and color-charge dependences of medium-induced parton energy loss. Here, we assess the potential for identifying these two effects in D and B meson production at RHIC and at the LHC. To this end, we supplement the perturbative QCD factorized formalism for leading hadron production with radiative parton energy loss. For D meson spectra at high but experimentally accessible transverse momentum (10 < or approx. p{sub T} < or approx. 20 GeV) in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC, we find that charm quarks behave essentially like light quarks. However, since light-flavored hadron yields are dominated by gluon parents, the heavy-to-light ratio of D mesons is a sensitive probe of the color-charge dependence of parton energy loss. In contrast, due to the larger b quark mass, the medium modification of B mesons in the same kinematical regime provides a sensitive test of the mass dependence of parton energy loss. At RHIC energies, the strategies for identifying and disentangling the color charge and mass dependence of parton energy loss are more involved because of the smaller kinematical range accessible. We argue that at RHIC, the kinematical regime best suited for such an analysis of D mesons is 7 < or approx. p{sub T} < or approx. 12 GeV, whereas the study of lower transverse momenta is further complicated due to the known dominant contribution of additional, particle species dependent, nonperturbative effects.

Armesto, Nestor [Department of Physics, CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Departamento de Fisica de Particulas and Instituto Galego de Altas Enerxias, Facultade de Fisica, Campus Sur, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Dainese, Andrea [Universita degli Studi di Padova and INFN, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim [Department of Physics, CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

2005-03-01

342

Experiments in Sensor Sharpening for Color Constancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensor sharpening has been proposed as a method for improving color constancy algorithms but it has not been tested in the context of real color constancy algorithms. In this paper we test sensor sharpening as a method for improving color constancy algorithms in the case of three different cameras, the human cone sensitivity estimates, and the XYZ response curves. We

Kobus Barnard; Brian Funt

1998-01-01

343

The relation between children’s conceptual functioning with color and color term acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young children experience considerable difficulty in learning their first few color terms. One explanation for this difficulty is that initially they lack a conceptual representation of color sufficiently abstract to support word meaning. This hypothesis, that prior to learning color terms children do not represent color as an abstraction, was tested in two experiments using samples of 25- to 39-month-olds

Kurt Kowalski; Herbert Zimiles

2006-01-01

344

Application of a Computerized Vibroacoustic Data Bank for Random Vibration Criteria Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computerized data bank system was developed for utilization of large amounts of vibration and acoustic data to formulate component random vibration design and test criteria. This system consists of a computer, graphics tablets, and a dry silver hard cop...

R. C. Ferebee

1982-01-01

345

A multistage neural network for color constancy and color induction.  

PubMed

A biologically-based multistage neural network is presented which produces color constant responses to a variety of color stimuli. The network takes advantage of several mechanisms in the human visual system, including retinal adaptation, spectral opponency, and spectrally-specific long-range inhibition. This last stage is a novel mechanism based on cells which have been described in cortical area V4. All stages include nonlinear response functions. The model emulates human performance in several psychophysical paradigms designed to test color constancy and color induction. We measured the amount of constancy achieved with both natural and artificial simulated illuminants, using homogeneous grey backgrounds and more complex backgrounds, such as Mondrians. On average, the model performs as well or better than the average human color constancy performance under similar conditions. The network simulation also displays color induction and assimilation behavior consistent with human perceptual data. PMID:18263385

Courtney, S M; Finkel, L H; Buchsbaum, G

1995-01-01

346

Asymmetric color matching: how color appearance depends on the illuminant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of matching experiments designed to study the color appearance of objects rendered under different simulated illuminants on a CRT monitor. Subjects set asymmetric color matches between a standard object and a test object that were rendered under illuminants with different spectral power distributions. For any illuminant change, we found that the mapping between the cone coordinates

David H. Brainard; Brian A. Wandell

1992-01-01

347

Children's Book Color Preferences as Related to Their Favorite Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because young children disregard writing on the spine of a book, researchers chose to run a test on color preferences in books. In a library situation young children see most books from a spine-out angle; thus when allowed to select a book by themselves, the first characteristics noticed are size and color. This study is based on the hypothesis…

Locke, Jill L.

348

7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade...

2013-01-01

349

Color Sense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

2009-01-01

350

Color Sense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

2009-01-01

351

Colorful television  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What are the challenges and rewards for American men and women of color who chose to become scientists? The Public Broadcasting Service intends to show us through an upcoming 6-hour documentary series entitled “Breakthrough: The Changing Face of Science in America.”

Carlowicz, Michael

352

Colorful Accounting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As instructors of accounting, we should take an abstract topic (at least to most students) and connect it to content known by students to help increase the effectiveness of our instruction. In a recent semester, ordinary items such as colors, a basketball, and baseball were used to relate the subject of accounting. The accounting topics of…

Warrick, C. Shane

2006-01-01

353

Evaluating the uniformity of color spaces and performance of color difference formulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using small color difference data sets (Macadam ellipses dataset and RIT-DuPont suprathreshold color difference ellipses dataset), and large color difference data sets (Munsell Renovation Data and OSA Uniform Color Scales dataset), the uniformity of several color spaces and performance of color difference formulae based on these color spaces are evaluated. The color spaces used are CIELAB, DIN99d, IPT, and CIECAM02-UCS. It is found that the uniformity of lightness is better than saturation and hue. Overall, for all these color spaces, the uniformity in the blue area is inferior to the other area. The uniformity of CIECAM02-UCS is superior to the other color spaces for the whole color-difference range from small to large. The uniformity of CIELAB and IPT for the large color difference data sets is better than it for the small color difference data sets, but the DIN99d is opposite. Two common performance factors (PF/3 and STRESS) and the statistical F-test are calculated to test the performance of color difference formula. The results show that the performance of color difference formulae based on these four color spaces is consistent with the uniformity of these color spaces.

Lian, Yusheng; Liao, Ningfang; Wang, Jiajia; Tan, Boneng; Liu, Zilong

2010-11-01

354

Examining Colors, Color Perception, and Sight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students of all ages are fascinated by color and how we perceive it. For the main activity in this chapter, your class explores colors and visual perception by mixing colors in several ways. Students learn more about colors, light, vision, and color compo

Eichinger, John

2009-05-15

355

Learning Color Names for Real-World Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color names are required in real-world applications such as image retrieval and image annotation. Traditionally, they are learned from a collection of labelled color chips. These color chips are labelled with color names within a well- defined experimental setup by human test subjects. However naming colors in real-world images differs significantly from this experimental setting. In this paper, we investigate

Joost van de Weijer; Cordelia Schmid; Jakob J. Verbeek; Diane Larlus

2009-01-01

356

Learning Color Names from Real-World Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within a computer vision context color naming is the action of assigning linguistic color labels to image pixels. In general, research on color naming applies the following paradigm: a collection of color chips is labelled with color names within a well-defined experimental setup by multiple test subjects. The collected data set is subsequently used to label RGB values in real-world

Joost Van De Weijer; Cordelia Schmid; Jakob J. Verbeek

2007-01-01

357

Validation and workflow optimization of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing using INFORM HER2 dual-color in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status is useful for predicting response to trastuzumab. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 gene amplification is accurate but limited because of cost, the need for fluorescence microscopy, the limited assessment of histology, and the fading of its signal over time. Dual-color in situ hybridization (Dual ISH) is fully automated, is viewable by bright-field microscopy, has a stable signal, and has separate colors for HER2 and chromosome 17 signals. HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC), FISH, and Dual ISH were performed on 101 breast cancer cases. Sixteen of 17 cases with 3+ HER2 by IHC showed gene amplification by FISH, and 15 showed amplification by Dual ISH. Three of the 2+ IHC cases were either amplified or equivocal by Dual ISH. None of the IHC-negative cases were amplified by either FISH or Dual ISH. Dual ISH agreed with FISH in 93% of cases. Among the 6 discrepancies, 4 were for an equivocal result for 1 test compared with either a positive or a negative result for the other test. The average differences in readings between Dual ISH and FISH in the discrepant cases were only 0.02, with a range of -1.37 to 1.85. Turnaround time for FISH as a send-out test from test ordering to reporting averaged 8.27 workdays, whereas the turnaround time for Dual ISH performed in-house averaged 4.94 workdays (P < .0000001). Our results indicated that automated Dual ISH is a useful method for evaluating HER2 status in a clinical setting. PMID:24075600

Lim, Sung-Jig; Cantillep, Alegria; Carpenter, Philip M

2013-09-25

358

The Ability of Color-Vision Defective and Color-Normal Early Elementary and Junior High Students to Utilize Color. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The investigation was undertaken to obtain data on the number of kindergarten, second, and seventh grade Ss classified as having color vision defects by the American Optical-Hardy, Rand, Rittler Test (AO-HRR) and two tests by S. Ishihara. Also studied was the ability of color vision defective and color normal Ss to utilize color as measured by the…

Cook, Ann C. N.; Hannaford, Alonzo E.

359

Interference and facilitation for color naming with separate bilateral presentations of the word and color  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested a new procedure for generation of interference to color-naming in which separate word and color stimuli are presented to the right and left of fixation. Ss were 12 right-handed 17-22 yr old males. The procedure was found to be effective; incongruent names delayed color-naming, and congruent combinations of words and colors produced a facilitation of color-naming relative to a

Frederick N. Dyer

1973-01-01

360

DOE transporation programs - computerized techniques  

SciTech Connect

One of the major thrusts of the transportation programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been the development of a number of computerized transportation programs and data bases. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting these efforts through the Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories and the Tranportation Operations and Traffic Management (TOTM) organization at DOE Headquarters. Initially this project was centered upon research activities. However, since these tools provide traffic managers and key personnel involved in preshipment planning with a unique resource for ensuring that the movement of radioactive materials can be properly accomplished, additional interest and support is coming from the operational side of DOE. The major accomplishments include the development of two routing models (one for rail shipments and the other for highway shipments), an emergency response assistance program, and two data bases containing pertinent legislative and regulatory information. This paper discusses the mose recent advances in, and additions to, these computerized techniques and provides examples of how they are used.

Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Fore, C.S.; Peterson, B.E.

1983-01-01

361

Color Television and Colorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high lights of the history of color measurement and of color photography are reviewed. Following this introduction, the principles of modern 3-color colorimetry are developed from a hypothetical experiment in color matching. The conventional theory of \\

W. T. Wintringham

1951-01-01

362

Females Pay Attention to Female Secondary Sexual Color: An Experimental Study in Macaca mulatta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have long considered the color of female sexual skin to play a role in attracting or inciting competition among\\u000a males, or both; however, females may also use color in intrasexual communication. To assess this possibility, we examined\\u000a whether variation in same-sex sexual skin color is salient to female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We exposed adult females to computerized images

Melissa S. Gerald; Corri Waitt; Anthony C. Little; Edmundo Kraiselburd

2007-01-01

363

Ethics and the computerization of pharmacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid computerization of pharmacy has raised a number of potential new ethical dilemmas. Will the relationships between patient and pharmacist and between physician and pharmacist be altered by computerization? Will the use of computers to fill prescriptions affect confidentiality? Will the existence of these databases encourage unauthorized access of patient records? Will the monitoring of drug therapy by pharmacies

Robert L. McCarthy; Judith A. Perrolle

1990-01-01

364

Advanced Composition and the Computerized Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses four kinds of computerized access tools: online catalogs; computerized reference; online database searching; and compact disks and read only memory (CD-ROM). Examines how these technologies are changing research. Suggests how research instruction in advanced writing courses can be refocused to include the new technologies. (RS)

Hult, Christine

1989-01-01

365

Cassel Psych Center Computerized Biofeedback Clinic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes Cassel Psych Center, a computerized biofeedback clinic, where the "well" patient is a major concern, and where biofeedback instruments are used with computers to form a Computerized-Biofeedback Clinical Support System. The Center's activities are designed to parallel the services of the pathologist in a medical setting. (PAS)|

Cassel, Russell N.

1982-01-01

366

The Computerization of East Asian Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes two methods for the computerization of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean (CJK) input and output--Research Libraries Group's Sinoterm and OCLC's Asiagraphics. East Asian vernacular computerization efforts, system development, character sets, terminal design and keyboards, and member library use of CJK records are highlighted. Six references…

Cooper, Douglas W.

1984-01-01

367

A First Life with Computerized Business Simulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author discusses the theoretical lens, origins, and environment of his work on computerized business simulations. Key ideas that inform his work include the two dimensions (control and interaction) of computerized simulation, the two ways of representing a natural process (phenotypical and genotypical) in a simulation, which he defines as a…

Thavikulwat, Precha

2011-01-01

368

Color space conversion for linear color grading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color grading is an important process for various industries such as food processing, fruit and vegetable grading, etc. Quality and price are often determined by the color of product. For example, darker red color for apples means higher price. In color machine vision applications, image is acquired with a color CCD camera that outputs color information in three channels, red, gree, and blue. When grading color, these three primary colors must be processed to determine the color level for separation. A very popular color space conversion technique for color image processing is RGB-to-HSI, where HSI represents hue, saturation, and intensity, respectively. However, the conversion result is still 3D information that makes determining color grades very difficult. A new color space conversion technique that can be implemented for high-speed real-time processing for color grading is introduced in this paper. Depending on the application, different color space conversion equations must be used. The result of this technique is a simple one-dimensional array that represents different color levels. This linear array makes linear color grading adjustment possible.

Lee, Dah Jye

2000-10-01

369

Comparison of a Computerized Version to a Paper/Pencil Version of the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery (MAB).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examined the comparability of the Armstrong Laboratory's computerized version and the original paper-and-pencil version of an intelligence test. The Multidimensional Aptitude Battery (MAB) is a multiscale test of intelligence that is widely use...

P. D. Retzlaff R. E. King J. D. Callister

1995-01-01

370

The effects of color on brightness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observation of human subjects shows that the spectral returns of equiluminant colored surrounds govern the apparent brightness of achromatic test targets. The influence of color on brightness provides further evidence that perceptions of luminance are generated according to the empirical frequency of the possible sources of visual stimuli, and suggests a novel way of understanding color contrast and constancy.

R. Beau Lotto; Dale Purves

1999-01-01

371

Color appearance in stereoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

2011-02-01

372

System for computerized TV iris diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iridodiagnostics, using the information, encoded in human iris, gives an integrated picture of human health, mirroring even preclinic states, genetic peculiarities and predispositions. To decode this information, TV image processing is used for automatic measurement of several diagnostic features, such as pupil ellipticity, pupil flattening, indenteness of the autonomous ring, its minima and maxima parameters, etc. An instrument setup is described for acquiring and processing TV image of an iris. In one of the variants, color image is produced with a black-and-white TV camera due to sequential R-, G-, and B-frames resulting from alternating color pulse illumination. For the sake of classification, sequential methodology was modified, performing multiple tests over the same data and permitting an adaptation in the process of learning.

Molebny, Vasyl V.; Kolomatsky, Yuri; Chumak, Serhi; Vasko, Mykola; Myrhorodska, Tetyana

1993-09-01

373

Testing factorization in color-suppressed b-flavor decays with the B>etac+K(K*) modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discrepancy recently observed between B-->J\\/psi+K(K*) data and commonly used hadronic form factor models might be due to a breakdown of the factorization assumption. By showing that the B-->etac+K(K*) rates can be calculated without using any particular form factor model, we propose a test of the factorization hypothesis. This test is free of possible uncertainties caused by W-exchange graph contributions.

M. Gourdin; Y. Y. Keum; X. Y. Pham

1995-01-01

374

Infants’ recognition of objects using canonical color  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored infants’ ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object placed side by side: a

Atsushi Kimura; Yuji Wada; Jiale Yang; Yumiko Otsuka; Ippeita Dan; Tomohiro Masuda; So Kanazawa; Masami K. Yamaguchi

2010-01-01

375

Computerized atlas for functional stereotaxis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our original brain mapping techniques have been expanded so that MR and CT images can be displayed in a three-dimensionally simulated localization environment. Various combinations of MR images as well as CT images (or combinations of both and angiography) can be selectively displayed and viewed in three-dimensional stereotactic space. Data from the Talairach anatomical library, the architectonics of the atlases of Van Buren and Borke, Schaltenbrand and Bailey, Schaltenbrand and Wahren, and Brodmann's cortico-architectonics have been used to develop a detailed anatomical atlas library and brain mapping system based on brain reference structures common to each of these databases. The data in this mapping and imaging environment can be interrogated to create computerized anatomical displays showing any given functional anatomical region in two-dimensional displays or three-dimensional relief. This composite mapping system allows the interrogation and cross referencing of data from virtually any other brain mapping or localization system.

Hardy, Tyrone L.; Brynildson, L. R.

1993-09-01

376

An automated Computerized Severity Index.  

PubMed Central

The Computerized Severity Index (CSI) is a commercially available scoring system for hospital inpatients. Trained abstractors review the patient's paper medical record and enter the diagnoses and relevant physiological attributes. The HELP (Health Evaluation through Logical Processing) System at LDS Hospital stores patient data in discrete codes. This paper describes the development of an automatic interface between the standalone, personal-computer-based severity system and the mainframe-based hospital information system. The interface scores patient severity without the need for manual chart review. Severity scores from the automated and manual methods were identical for 70% of 222 general medical patients scored retrospectively. An evaluation of the causes for differing scores between the two methods is presented.

Gibson, R. F.; Haug, P. J.

1994-01-01

377

Color Burst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will help students gain experience in asking questions and conducting inquiry by exploring the separation of colors in water and other solvents; and to communicate and share findings of student investigations. The lesson uses a technique called paper chromatography, which is demonstrated using water, ink, and a coffee filter. Scientists use chromatography frequently to separate and identify the component parts of a mixture. This lesson will help young students gain experience in conducting simple investigations of their own while working in small groups.

378

Development of a computerized atlas of neonatal surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital imaging is an evolving technology with significant potential for enhancing medical education and practice. Current teaching methodologies still rely on the time-honored traditions of group lectures, small group discussions, and clinical preceptorships. Educational content and value are variable. Utilization of electronic media is in its infancy but offers significant potential for enhancing if not replacing current teaching methodologies. This report details our experience with the creation of an interactive atlas on neonatal surgical conditions. The photographic atlas has been one of the classic tools of practice, reference, and especially of education in surgery. The major limitations on current atlases all stem from the fact that they are produced in book form. The limiting factors in the inclusion of large numbers of images in these volumes include the desire to limit the physical size of the book and the costs associated with high quality color reproduction of print images. The structure of the atlases usually makes them reference tools, rather than teaching tools. We have digitized a large number of clinical images dealing with the diagnosis and surgical management of all of the most common neonatal surgical conditions. The flexibility of the computer presentation environment allows the images to be organized in a number of different ways. In addition to a standard captioned atlas, the user may choose to review case histories of several of the more common conditions in neonates, complete with presenting conditions, imaging studies, surgery and pathology. Use of the computer offers the ability to choose multiple views of the images, including comparison views and transparent overlays that point out important anatomical and histopathological structures, and the ability to perform user self-tests. This atlas thus takes advantage of several aspects of data management unique to computerized digital imaging, particularly the ability to combine all aspects of medical imaging related to a single case for easy retrieval. This facet unique to digital imaging makes it the obvious choice for new methods of teaching such complex subjects as the clinical management of neonatal surgical conditions. We anticipate that many more subjects in the surgical, pathologic, and radiologic realms will eventually be presented in a similar manner.

Gill, Brijesh S.; Hardin, William D.

1995-05-01

379

Color Theory for Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will introduce students to color theory with a focus on the use of color in digital design. Students will discover the color wheel, and color harmonies. Color is a very powerful tool in design. It can, enhance a message, give an object visual weight and emphasis, and add richness and depth to a design. We can use color to signify data, to draw attention to a particular object, or to set a mood. Color ...

Jensen, Mr.

2009-10-04

380

Computerized maintenance boosts reliability, trims costs  

SciTech Connect

A natural gas-fired combined-cycle power plant has operated successfully for the past three years at the 3800-acre Pitchess Honor Rancho jail complex in Saugus, Calif. One of the reasons for the plant's success has been its computerized maintenance system. This paper reports that utilization of the computerized plant maintenance system program, in conjunction with several data base programs, has increased the plant's reliability and trimmed costs. As we learned at Pitchess, a computerized maintenance program provides two key advantages over the traditional breakdown maintenance approach: minimal equipment breakdown, and a reduction in operations and maintenance man-hours.

Hammer, K. (County of Los Angeles, CA (US)); Egleston, P.C.; Steinert, M.P.; Goldstein, M. (Charles T. Main Inc. (US))

1992-01-01

381

Color Color Relations and NGC 6791  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Johnson-Cousins UBVRIJHK color sequences in old, metal rich open cluster NGC 6791 are assembled and analyzed. Multiple color-color sequences favor a reddening that is on the mild end of recent estimates, around E(B-V) = 0.12 mag when compared to metal-sensitive color-color calibration sequences. Distance and age estimates show much larger scatter and depend strongly on isochrone author. This cluster is a Space Interferometry Mission target, and this work is a spinoff of SIM preparatory science. The color-color calibration work is interesting in itself and shows several as yet unexploited methods for estimating the reddening, especially of sequences of KM dwarfs. Attachment of color-temperature relations yields an almost completely empirical color calibration suitable for attachment to isochrone sets at all metallicities.

Worthey, Guy

2010-01-01

382

Recommendations for Implementation of Computerization in ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Implementation of computerization for data handling between automated devices or for ... Training manuals, user manuals, and records of personnel ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

383

Computerized Agricultural Crop Flood Damage Assessment System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CACFDAS utilizes initial crop distributions, computerized crop budget data, substitution of alternative crops, damage duration data, and daily historic hydrologic data to compute flood or inundation damage estimates to crop. The program utilizes histo...

R. L. Burke

1983-01-01

384

Computerized Algorithms for Evaluating Prehospital Care.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development and an application of a methodology for evaluating the performance of emergency medical services prehospital personnel in the assessment and treatment of medical emergencies. The evaluation is computerized and permits...

H. Wolfe L. Shuman

1983-01-01

385

Psychological Stress Due to Computerized Office Technology,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some of the sources of psychological stress in offices after the introduction of computerized office technology were discussed. Topics included: modification of existing work environments; visual environment for video display terminals (VDTs); illuminatio...

M. J. Smith

1983-01-01

386

Validation of a Computerized Cognitive Assessment System for Persons with Stroke: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the validity of a newly developed computerized cognitive assessment system (CCAS) that is equipped with rich multimedia to generate simulated testing situations and considers both test item difficulty and the test taker's ability. It is also hypothesized that better predictive validity of the CCAS in self-care of persons…

Yip, Chi Kwong; Man, David W. K.

2009-01-01

387

Validity of a novel computerized cognitive battery for mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The NeuroTrax Mindstreams computerized cognitive assessment system was designed for widespread clinical and research use in detecting mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the capability of Mindstreams tests to discriminate elderly with MCI from those who are cognitively healthy has yet to be evaluated. Moreover, the comparability between these tests and traditional neuropsychological tests in detecting MCI has not been

Tzvi Dwolatzky; Victor Whitehead; Glen M Doniger; Ely S Simon; Avraham Schweiger; Dena Jaffe; Howard Chertkow

2003-01-01

388

Computerized course deficiency tracking system  

SciTech Connect

The first major milestone in nuclear personnel training was to achieve accreditation. Now the task at hand is to keep training programs current. The Callaway Plant training department has established a methodology for updating and revising lessons and course materials. This process is initiated by the receipt of a wide variety of documents that could impact course content. An initial review of each document is conducted to screen unapplicable items and to target courses that may possibly be affected by applicable documents. This documentation is collected in individual course deficiency files. Prior to teaching the course, the documents within a course deficiency file are reviewed by an assigned instructor. If the instructor determines that incorporation of the subject matter addressed in a document is necessary, the course lesson plans are revised. Results have been favorable to the course deficiency process. This system has been used for 2 yr and was received well by the training department staff. The instructors have immediate access to the resources needed to keep course materials up to date. Plant personnel have responded favorably also. The computerized course deficiency tracking system permits the training department to respond to suggestions (plant personnel feedback) in a timely manner.

Rook, T.R.; Evans, M.S.

1987-01-01

389

Color Perception Optical Illusions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from eChalk contains optical illusions offering proof that our color perception is strongly influenced by surrounding colors. The site also includes educational games related to optical illusions and color.

2011-06-24

390

Effect of gender on computerized electrocardiogram measurements in college athletes.  

PubMed

Background Broad criteria for classifying an electrocardiogram (ECG) as abnormal and requiring additional testing prior to participating in competitive athletics have been recommended for the preparticipation examination (PPE) of athletes. Because these criteria have not considered gender differences, we examined the effect of gender on the computerized ECG measurements obtained on Stanford student athletes. Currently available computer programs require a basis for "normal" in athletes of both genders to provide reliable interpretation. Methods During the 2007 PPE, computerized ECGs were recorded and analyzed on 658 athletes (54% male; mean age, 19 +/- 1 years) representing 22 sports. Electrocardiogram measurements included intervals and durations in all 12 leads to calculate 12-lead voltage sums, QRS amplitude and QRS area, spatial vector length (SVL), and the sum of the R wave in V5 and S wave in V2 (RSsum). Results By computer analysis, male athletes had significantly greater QRS duration, PR interval, Q-wave duration, J-point amplitude, and T-wave amplitude, and shorter QTc interval compared with female athletes (all P < 0.05). All ECG indicators of left ventricular electrical activity were significantly greater in males. Although gender was consistently associated with indices of atrial and ventricular electrical activity in multivariable analysis, ECG measurements correlated poorly with body dimensions. Conclusion Significant gender differences exist in ECG measurements of college athletes that are not explained by differences in body size. Our tables of "normal" computerized gender-specific measurements can facilitate the development of automated ECG interpretation for screening young athletes. PMID:20631475

Mandic, Sandra; Fonda, Holly; Dewey, Frederick; Le, Vy-van; Stein, Ricardo; Wheeler, Matt; Ashley, Euan A; Myers, Jonathan; Froelicher, Victor F

2010-06-01

391

Computerized assessment of dental student writing skills.  

PubMed

This study tested the feasibility of using computer-based tools for the assessment of written materials produced by dental students. Written assignments produced by three consecutive incoming dental school classes (240 students) were assessed, and the performance among and between classes was analyzed. Computerized assessment of documents produced by students in the context of their regular coursework proved to be an efficient and effective mechanism for assessing performance. Student performance, assessed as a byproduct of this research, was disappointing. The performance of all classes fell below the eleventh grade level, with some students producing written material at a level of sophistication generally expected from middle school children. Existing technology shows promise as a vehicle for enhancing the assessment of dental students' written communication skills. The ease of use and minimal training necessary to apply this technology can help mitigate the time-intensive nature of writing assessment. If this assessment information is then used to enhance instruction--a process inherently available through software such as WebCT--the distance between assessment and instruction may be more readily bridged through an increase in the use of technology. PMID:15689614

Holtzman, Joseph M; Elliot, Norbert; Biber, Cheryl L; Sanders, R Michael

2005-02-01

392

Color matching from memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term color memory of two groups of university students, 20 with prior color coursework, and 20 with no color-related training, was evaluated in four hue categories: yellow, yellow-red, green, and purple. Munsell dimensions of hue, value, and chroma were used to select four target colors and nine distractor colors for each of the targets. Four of the distractor colors differed

Helen H. EPPS; Naz KAYA

393

Color preferences change after experience with liked/disliked colored objects.  

PubMed

How are color preferences formed, and can they be changed by affective experiences with correspondingly colored objects? We examined these questions by testing whether affectively polarized experiences with images of colored objects would cause changes in color preferences. Such changes are implied by the ecological valence theory (EVT), which posits that color preferences are determined by people's average affective responses to correspondingly colored objects (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 8877-8882, 2010). Seeing images of strongly liked (and disliked) red and green objects, therefore, should lead to increased (and decreased) preferences for correspondingly colored red and green color patches. Experiment 1 showed that this crossover interaction did occur, but only if participants were required to evaluate their preferences for the colored objects when they saw them. Experiment 2 showed that these overall changes decreased substantially over a 24-h delay, but the degree to which the effect lasted for individuals covaried with the magnitude of the effects immediately after object exposure. Experiment 3 demonstrated a similar, but weaker, effect of affectively biased changes in color preferences when participants did not see, but only imagined, the colored objects. The overall pattern of results indicated that color preferences are not fixed, but rather are shaped by affective experiences with colored objects. Possible explanations for the observed changes in color preferences were considered in terms of associative learning through evaluative conditioning and/or priming of prior knowledge in memory. PMID:23616112

Strauss, Eli D; Schloss, Karen B; Palmer, Stephen E

2013-04-25

394

Color based properties query for CBIR: HSV global color histogram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These days there are millions of digital images stored in image database. People will take a lot of time to find the right image for their query. Similarly, using keyword image retrieval may produce wrong result due to incorrect annotation. An image retrieval system is one of the tools that can be used for searching and retrieving images from a large database of digital images. In general, images features (color, texture, shape) are extracted to represent the images. This project focuses on color image features by applying global color histogram matching technique for HSV color space. The CBIR system is tested through query image of about 100 images from database. The retrieval obtained was good. From the result of precision and recall, we suggest some importing to consider for the future research.

Md Nor, Danial; Ogier, Jean-Marc; Manani, Faizal; Zarar Mohamed Jenu, Muhammad

2011-10-01

395

The Colors of the Alphabet: Naturally-Biased Associations Between Shape and Color  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many letters of the alphabet are consistently mapped to specific colors in English-speaking adults, both in the general population and in individuals with grapheme-color synaesthesia who perceive letters in color. Here, across six experiments, we tested the ubiquity of the color\\/letter associations with typically developing toddlers, literate children, and adults. We found that pre-literate children associate O with white and

Ferrinne Spector; Daphne Maurer

2011-01-01

396

Individually tuned color enhancements for weather satellite imagery interpretation by color-impaired users  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments have been carried out with color workstation technology to permit color-blind persons to maximize their ability to interpret imagery. Software has been developed allowing individuals to tune and store their own imagery interpretation color scales. Test subjects comprising one color-impaired group and one control group with normal sight were requested to tune their own scales for interpreting three weather satellite images. Some of the results of these studies are presented.

Kester, James E.

1990-11-01

397

Experiences with HIV testing, entry, and engagement in care by HIV-infected women of color, and the need for autonomy, competency, and relatedness.  

PubMed

Self-determination theory examines the needs of people adopting new behaviors but has not been applied to the adoption of HIV healthcare behaviors. The current study applied self-determination theory to descriptions of healthcare behaviors adopted by ethnic minority women after an HIV diagnosis. Women of color were asked to describe their experiences with HIV testing, entry, and engagement-in-care in qualitative interviews and focus groups. Participants were mostly African-American (88%), over 40 years old (70%), had been diagnosed for more than 6 years (87%) and had disclosed their HIV infection to more than 3 people (73%). Women described unmet self-determination needs at different time points along the HIV Continuum of Care. Women experienced a significant loss of autonomy at the time of HIV diagnosis. Meeting competency and relatedness needs assisted women in entry and engagement-in-care. However, re-establishing autonomy was a key element for long-term engagement-in-care. Interventions that satisfy these needs at the optimal time point in care could improve diagnosis, entry-to-care, and retention-in-care for women living with HIV. PMID:23829331

Quinlivan, E Byrd; Messer, Lynne C; Adimora, Adaora A; Roytburd, Katya; Bowditch, Natasha; Parnell, Heather; Seay, Julia; Bell, Lynda; Pierce, Jonah K

2013-07-01

398

Wetting in Color  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. However, expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. In this thesis I present in detail the development of Wetting in Color Technology, focusing primarily on its application as an inexpensive and highly selective colorimetric indicator for organic liquids. The technology exploits chemically-encoded inverse-opal photonic crystals to control the infiltration of fluids to liquid-specific spatial patterns, projecting minute differences in liquids' wettability to macroscopically distinct, easy-to-visualize structural color patterns. It is shown experimentally and corroborated with theoretical modeling using percolation theory that the high selectivity of wetting, upon-which the sensitivity of the indicator relies, is caused by the highly symmetric structure of our large-area, defect-free SiO2 inverse-opals. The regular structure also produces a bright iridescent color, which disappears when infiltrated with liquid - naturally coupling the optical and fluidic responses. Surface modification protocols are developed, requiring only silanization and selective oxidation, to facilitate the deterministic design of an indicator that differentiates a broad range of liquids. The resulting tunable, built-in horizontal and vertical chemistry gradients allow the wettability threshold to be tailored to specific liquids across a continuous range, and make the readout rely only on countable color differences. As wetting is a generic fluidic phenomenon, Wetting in Color technology could be suitable for applications in authentication or identification of unknown liquids across a broad range of industries. However, the generic nature of the response also ensures chemical non-specificity. It is shown that combinatorial measurements from an array of indicators add a degree of chemical specificity to the platform, which can be further improved by monitoring the drying of the inverse-opal films. While colorimetry is the central focus of this thesis, applications of this platform in encryption, fluidics and nanofabrication are also briefly explored.

Burgess, Ian Bruce

399

Coincident disruptive coloration.  

PubMed

Even if an animal matches its surroundings perfectly in colour and texture, any mismatch between the spatial phase of its pattern and that of the background, or shadow created by its three-dimensional relief, is potentially revealing. Nevertheless, for camouflage to be fully broken, the shape must be recognizable. Disruptive coloration acts against object recognition by the use of high-contrast internal colour boundaries to break up shape and form. As well as the general outline, characteristic features such as eyes and limbs must also be concealed; this can be achieved by having the colour patterns on different, but adjacent, body parts aligned to match each other (i.e. in phase). Such 'coincident disruptive coloration' ensures that there is no phase disjunction where body parts meet, and causes different sections of the body to blend perceptually. We tested this theory using field experiments with predation by wild birds on artificial moth-like targets, whose wings and (edible pastry) bodies had colour patterns that were variously coincident or not. We also carried out an experiment with humans searching for analogous targets on a computer screen. Both experiments show that coincident disruptive coloration is an effective mechanism for concealing an otherwise revealing body form. PMID:18990668

Cuthill, Innes C; Székely, Aron

2009-02-27

400

Coincident disruptive coloration  

PubMed Central

Even if an animal matches its surroundings perfectly in colour and texture, any mismatch between the spatial phase of its pattern and that of the background, or shadow created by its three-dimensional relief, is potentially revealing. Nevertheless, for camouflage to be fully broken, the shape must be recognizable. Disruptive coloration acts against object recognition by the use of high-contrast internal colour boundaries to break up shape and form. As well as the general outline, characteristic features such as eyes and limbs must also be concealed; this can be achieved by having the colour patterns on different, but adjacent, body parts aligned to match each other (i.e. in phase). Such ‘coincident disruptive coloration’ ensures that there is no phase disjunction where body parts meet, and causes different sections of the body to blend perceptually. We tested this theory using field experiments with predation by wild birds on artificial moth-like targets, whose wings and (edible pastry) bodies had colour patterns that were variously coincident or not. We also carried out an experiment with humans searching for analogous targets on a computer screen. Both experiments show that coincident disruptive coloration is an effective mechanism for concealing an otherwise revealing body form.

Cuthill, Innes C.; Szekely, Aron

2008-01-01

401

Color of Salts (Flame Test)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a laboratory exercise designed to allow students to further investigate the light spectrum. This lab is used to have students view the light spectrum first hand as opposed to using lecture alone.

Ramsey Miller, Menahga High School, Menahga, MN, based on an original activity from the Prentice Hall Chemistry (2005), Flame Tests, p.142.

402

Standard RGB Color Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the specifications and usage of standard RGB color spaces promoted today by standard bodies and\\/or the imaging industry. As in the past, most of the new standard RGB color spaces were developed for specific imaging workflow and applications. They are used as interchange spaces to communicate color and\\/or as working spaces in imaging applications. Standard color spaces

Sabine Süsstrunk; Robert Buckley; Steve Swen

1999-01-01

403

Color: A Functionalist Proposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I propose and defend an account of color that I call color functionalism. I argue that functionalism is a non-traditional species of primary quality theory, and that it accommodates our intuitions about color and the facts of color science better than more widely discussed alternatives.

Jonathan Cohen

2003-01-01

404

Organizing color in dentistry.  

PubMed

Although esthetic dentistry techniques have grown more sophisticated, the fabrication and control of color in dentistry can be improved. An organized and precise system is necessary to combine artistic and scientific approaches. For this, a color order system, based on Munsell's notations and spectrophotometric research on the color space of natural teeth, would provide restorations of excellent color. PMID:2447140

Miller, L

1987-12-01

405

JAVACOLOR: an instructional model for teaching the physics of color  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we applied the Gagne instructional model to the design and development of a JAVA web page by teaching and learning of the basic physics of the color address to undergraduates optics courses. The color simulations were development interactive and friendly for running at different operative systems. The pages were structured in two parts: (1) Theory: Color, Physics of color, Digital Color; (2) Practice, Simulation of additive mixture, color models, color matching and separation mechanism. The page includes links to specialized sites. The instructional design was validated using experts criteria and tested with learners of third years optics course at the Universidad De Carabobo.

Villamarin, A.; Alvarez, O.; Orozco, E.; Munoz, R.

2004-10-01

406

Inverting color transforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider experimental methods for creating regular grids for applications such as color management where the grids must be estimated from non-grid samples. To estimate the regular grid, we propose applying a generalization of linear interpolation, called linear interpolation with maximum entropy (LIME). Evaluating different estimation methods for this problem is difficult and does not correspond to the standard statistical learning paradigm of using iid training and test sets in order to compare algorithms. In this paper we consider the experimental issues and propose considering the end goal of the regular grid in evaluating an estimated grid's value. Preliminary experimental results compare LIME, traditional linear interpolation, linear regression and ridge regression.

Gupta, Maya R.

2004-05-01

407

Computerized provider order entry in the clinical laboratory  

PubMed Central

Clinicians have traditionally ordered laboratory tests using paper-based orders and requisitions. However, paper orders are becoming increasingly incompatible with the complexities, challenges, and resource constraints of our modern healthcare systems and are being replaced by electronic order entry systems. Electronic systems that allow direct provider input of diagnostic testing or medication orders into a computer system are known as Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems. Adoption of laboratory CPOE systems may offer institutions many benefits, including reduced test turnaround time, improved test utilization, and better adherence to practice guidelines. In this review, we outline the functionality of various CPOE implementations, review the reported benefits, and discuss strategies for using CPOE to improve the test ordering process. Further, we discuss barriers to the implementation of CPOE systems that have prevented their more widespread adoption.

Baron, Jason M.; Dighe, Anand S.

2011-01-01

408

Computerized clinical database development in oncology.  

PubMed

In the era of evidence based medicine documentation of clinical data is extremely important. The field of Health informatics is a discipline at the intersection of information science, computer science and health science. Current health informatics field is mainly catering to the general needs of hospital setups. Development of disease / organ/ specialty based computerized clinical data base is still in its infancy and there is a need for clinicians to actively involve in this field to generate authentic and analyzable clinical data. In this article we present our experience of computerized oncology clinical data base development. PMID:21811362

Deo, Svs

2011-01-01

409

Computerization of the safeguards analysis decision process  

SciTech Connect

Safeguards regulations are evolving to meet new demands for timeliness and sensitivity in detecting the loss or unauthorized use of sensitive nuclear materials. The opportunities to meet new rules, particularly in bulk processing plants, involve developing techniques which use modern, computerized process control and information systems. Using these computerized systems in the safeguards analysis involves all the challenges of the man-machine interface experienced in the typical process control application and adds new dimensions to accuracy requirements, data analysis, and alarm resolution in the regulatory environment. 4 refs., 1 fig.

Ehinger, M.H.

1990-01-01

410

Color metric for production quality control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time color quality control metric for planar surfaces has been developed. This is a differencing method that compares the color histogram of a test object with that of a standard obtained off-line. To reduce computational effort, three 1D histograms are formed by projecting the reference color histogram on to its principal axes. A metric value for each of the

Anthony J. McCollum; Andrew K. Forrest

1999-01-01

411

Relative Role of Flower Color and Scent on Pollinator Attraction: Experimental Tests using F1 and F2 Hybrids of Daylily and Nightlily  

PubMed Central

The daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) and nightlily (H. citrina) are typical examples of a butterfly-pollination system and a hawkmoth-pollination system, respectively. H. fulva has diurnal, reddish or orange-colored flowers and is mainly pollinated by diurnal swallowtail butterflies. H. citrina has nocturnal, yellowish flowers with a sweet fragrance and is pollinated by nocturnal hawkmoths. We evaluated the relative roles of flower color and scent on the evolutionary shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina. We conducted a series of experiments that mimic situations in which mutants differing in either flower color, floral scent or both appeared in a diurnally flowering population. An experimental array of 6×6 potted plants, mixed with 24 plants of H. fulva and 12 plants of either F1 or F2 hybrids, were placed in the field, and visitations of swallowtail butterflies and nocturnal hawkmoths were recorded with camcorders. Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers. Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission. Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent.

Hirota, Shun K.; Nitta, Kozue; Kim, Yuni; Kato, Aya; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Yasumoto, Akiko A.; Yahara, Tetsukazu

2012-01-01

412

Computerized microscopic image analysis of follicular lymphoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Follicular Lymphoma (FL) is a cancer arising from the lymphatic system. Originating from follicle center B cells, FL is mainly comprised of centrocytes (usually middle-to-small sized cells) and centroblasts (relatively large malignant cells). According to the World Health Organization's recommendations, there are three histological grades of FL characterized by the number of centroblasts per high-power field (hpf) of area 0.159 mm2. In current practice, these cells are manually counted from ten representative fields of follicles after visual examination of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides by pathologists. Several studies clearly demonstrate the poor reproducibility of this grading system with very low inter-reader agreement. In this study, we are developing a computerized system to assist pathologists with this process. A hybrid approach that combines information from several slides with different stains has been developed. Thus, follicles are first detected from digitized microscopy images with immunohistochemistry (IHC) stains, (i.e., CD10 and CD20). The average sensitivity and specificity of the follicle detection tested on 30 images at 2×, 4× and 8× magnifications are 85.5+/-9.8% and 92.5+/-4.0%, respectively. Since the centroblasts detection is carried out in the H&E-stained slides, the follicles in the IHC-stained images are mapped to H&E-stained counterparts. To evaluate the centroblast differentiation capabilities of the system, 11 hpf images have been marked by an experienced pathologist who identified 41 centroblast cells and 53 non-centroblast cells. A non-supervised clustering process differentiates the centroblast cells from noncentroblast cells, resulting in 92.68% sensitivity and 90.57% specificity.

Sertel, Olcay; Kong, Jun; Lozanski, Gerard; Catalyurek, Umit; Saltz, Joel H.; Gurcan, Metin N.

2008-04-01

413

Color Repeatability of Spot Color Printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology that quantifies variation as well as deviation of spot color printing is developed. Two types of color variations, i.e., spatial (side-to-side) and temporal (begin-to-end), are described. The use of the cumulative relative frequency (CRF) of ?E, from colorimetric data collected across the width of the signature, was used to describe spatial variation or uniformity of spot color printing.

Robert Chung

414

Strategy Generator in Computerized Accident Management Support System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Halden Project has initiated a research program on Computerized Accident Management Support (CAMS). The aim is to utilize the capabilities of computerized tools to support the staff of a nuclear power plant during the various accident stages. The syst...

M. Sirola

1994-01-01

415

Memory for color reactivates color processing region  

Microsoft Academic Search

and gray abstract shapes. During retrieval, old and new shapes,were,presented,in gray and participants responded ‘old-colored’, ‘old-gray’, or ‘new’. Within color perception regions, color memory related activity was observed in the left fusiform gyrus, adjacent to the collateral sulcus. A retinotopic mapping,analysis,indicated,this activity occurred,within color processing,region,V8. The present,feature specific evidence,provides,compelling support,for a constructive,view of memory.,NeuroReport 00:000–000 ,,2009 Wolters Kluwer Health |

Scott D. Slotnick

416

Effects of ball size, ball color, and preferred color on catching by young children.  

PubMed

45 males and 45 females between 7 and 8 years of age were acquired to catch rubber playground balls which varied in both size and color. Prior to the administration of the criterion catch test, subjects indicated their choice for a preferred color ball. Analysis indicated that the 6-in. balls (diameter) were caught significantly better than were 10-in. balls. Although the main effect of ball color was nonsignificant, the children caught balls of preferred color significantly better than those of non-preferred colors. Males scored significantly higher than the females on the catching task. PMID:7443379

Isaacs, L D

1980-10-01

417

A color compensation vision system for color-blind people  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a color compensation vision system for color-blind people. About 8% of males and less than 1% of females have faulty color perception from birth. The degree to which a person may possess abnormal color vision ranges from slight difficulty in recognizing shades of color to total loss of color vision. Most types of defective color

T. Ohkubo; K. Kobayashi

2008-01-01

418

Personality psychology using heart responses to color stimulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lüscher Color Psychology Test measures a person's psychophysical state, his ability to withstand stress, perform, and communicate. This test is based on color selection in four levels of preference. In this paper, we try to use heart response and particularly time domain features of heart rate variability to find the colors preferences without asking the subjects directly. For this

Sadaf Moharreri; Nader Jafarnia Dabanloo; Saman Parvaneh; Ali M Nasrabadi; G H Attarodi

2011-01-01

419

Aesthetics of color combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The previous literature on the aesthetics of color combinations has produced confusing and conflicting claims. For example, some researchers suggest that color harmony increases with increasing hue similarity whereas others say it increases with hue contrast. We argue that this confusion is best resolved by considering three distinct judgments about color pairs: (a) preference for the pair as a whole, (b) perceived harmony of the two colors, and (c) preference for the figural color when viewed against the background color. Empirical support for this distinction shows that pair preference and harmony ratings both increase as hue similarity increases, but preference correlates more strongly with component color preferences and lightness contrast than does harmony. Although ratings of both pair preference and harmony decrease as hue contrast increases, ratings of figural color preference increase as hue contrast with the background increases. Our results refine and clarify well-known and often contradictory claims of artistic color theory.

Schloss, Karen B.; Palmer, Stephen E.

2010-02-01

420

Resolution for color photography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it is well known that luminance resolution is most important, the ability to accurately render colored details, color textures, and colored fabrics cannot be overlooked. This includes the ability to accurately render single-pixel color details as well as avoiding color aliasing. All consumer digital cameras on the market today record in color and the scenes people are photographing are usually color. Yet almost all resolution measurements made on color cameras are done using a black and white target. In this paper we present several methods for measuring and quantifying color resolution. The first method, detailed in a previous publication, uses a slanted-edge target of two colored surfaces in place of the standard black and white edge pattern. The second method employs the standard black and white targets recommended in the ISO standard, but records these onto the camera through colored filters thus giving modulation between black and one particular color component; red, green, and blue color separation filters are used in this study. The third method, conducted at Stiftung Warentest, an independent consumer organization of Germany, uses a whitelight interferometer to generate fringe pattern targets of varying color and spatial frequency.

Hubel, Paul M.; Bautsch, Markus

2006-02-01

421

Endoleak after aortic stent graft repair: Diagnosis by color duplex ultrasound scan versus computed tomography scan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of a color duplex ultrasound scan (CDU) to a computerized axial tomography scan (CT) in the diagnosis of endoleaks after stent graft repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Methods: The Endovascular Aneurysm Clinical Trial Core Laboratory records were reviewed from 117 concurrent CDU and CT studies that were performed in

Dean T. Sato; Charles D. Hoff; Roger T. Gregory; Kevin D. Robinson; Kathy A. Carter; Brian R. Herts; Holly B. Vilsack; Robert G. Gayle; F. Noel Parent III; Richard J. DeMasi; George H. Meier

1998-01-01

422

Children's Book Color Preferences as Related to Their Favorite Color.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because young children disregard writing on the spine of a book, researchers chose to run a test on color preferences in books. In a library situation young children see most books from a spine-out angle; thus when allowed to select a book by themselves, ...

J. L. Locke

1971-01-01

423

Color-Function Categories that Prime Infants to Use Color Information in an Object Individuation Task  

PubMed Central

There is evidence for developmental hierarchies in the type of information to which infants attend when reasoning about objects. Investigators have questioned the origin of these hierarchies and how infants come to identify new sources of information when reasoning about objects. The goal of the present experiments was to shed light on this debate by identifying conditions under which infants’ sensitivity to color information, which is slow to emerge, could be enhanced in an object individuation task. The outcome of Experiment 1 confirmed and extended previous reports that 9.5-month-olds can be primed, through exposure to events in which the color of an object predicts its function, to attend to color differences in a subsequent individuation task. The outcomes of Experiments 2 to 4 revealed age-related changes in the nature of the representations that support color priming. This is exemplified by three main findings. First, the representations that are formed during the color-function events are relatively specific. That is, infants are primed to use the color difference seen in the color-function events to individuate objects in the test events, but not other color differences. Second, 9.5-month-olds can be led to form more abstract event representations, and then generalize to other colors in the test events if they are shown multiple pairs of colors in the color-function events. Third, slightly younger 9-month-olds also can be led to form more inclusive categories with multiple color pairs, but only when they are allowed to directly compare the exemplars in each color pair during the present events. These results shed light on the development of categorization abilities, cognitive mechanisms that support color-function priming, and the kinds of experiences that can increase infants’ sensitivity to color information.

Wilcox, Teresa; Woods, Rebecca; Chapa, Catherine

2008-01-01

424

Bold Colors in a Cryptic Lineage: Do Eastern Indigo Snakes Exhibit Color Dimorphism?  

PubMed Central

Many species exhibit variation in the color of their scales, feathers, or fur. Various forms of natural selection, such as mimicry, crypsis, and species recognition, as well as sexual selection, can influence the evolution of color. Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi), a federally threatened species, have coloration on the sides of the head and the chin that can vary from black to red or cream. Despite significant conservations efforts for this species, little is known about its biology in the field. Past researchers have proposed that the color variation on the head and chin is associated with the sex of the individual. Alternatively, color might vary among individuals because it is controlled by genes that are under natural selection or neutral evolution. We tested these alternative hypotheses by examining whether coloration of the sublabial, submaxillary, and ventral scales of this species differed by sex or among clutches. We used color spectrometry to characterize important aspects of color in two ways: by examining overall color differences across the entire color spectrum and by comparing differences within the ultraviolet, yellow, and red colorbands. We found that Eastern Indigo Snakes do not exhibit sexual dichromatism, but their coloration does vary among clutches; therefore, the pattern of sexual selection leading to sexual dichromatism observed in many squamates does not appear to play a role in the evolution and maintenance of color variation in Eastern Indigo Snakes. We suggest that future studies should focus on determining whether color variation in these snakes is determined by maternal effects or genetic components and if color is influenced by natural selection or neutral evolutionary processes. Studying species that exhibit bright colors within lineages that are not known for such coloration will contribute greatly to our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological factors that drive these differences.

Deitloff, Jennifer; Johnson, Valerie M.; Guyer, Craig

2013-01-01

425

7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28.412...CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.412 Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light...

2013-01-01

426

Computerized management support for swine breeding farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. INTRODUCTION<\\/strong>The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and definition of farm management and management information systems (MIS), (2) individual farm analysis, and (3) sow replacement optimization. As part of the study, a

R. B. M. Huirne

1990-01-01

427

Computerized System for Translating a Torch Head.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computerized system is described for translating a torch head tip at a constant travel speed along a contoured workpiece. It includes: a driven skate characterized by an elongated bed; a pair of independently pivotal trucks connected to the bed for supp...

W. A. Wall R. E. Ives M. M. Bruce P. P. Pryor L. H. Gard

1977-01-01

428

[Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].  

PubMed

In France, most blood products are delivered by the Établissement français du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding recipients, blood products, blood supply for the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed at being a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks. PMID:21411356

Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

2011-03-15

429

Real-time multichannel computerized electrogastrograph  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a real-time multichannel computerized electrogastrograph (EGG) to measure and analyze electrical signals from the human abdominal surface. A soft-contact matrix composed of 25 cutaneous electrodes is embedded evenly in a latex mat. The mat can be firmly attached to the abdominal surface by drawing a vacuum between the matrix and the stomach.

Mingying Zhou; Hui Zhang; Robert Shaw; Frank S. Barnes

1997-01-01

430

MU's Early Space-Planning Computerization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of the University of Missouri-Columbia's Space Planning and Management office (SPAM) and the computerization of the school's space-planning archives. Discusses SPAM's software selection for standardization as well as its manual development, placing the school's buildings and floor plans on the Web, and its space-modeling…

Shader, Scott; Vaughn, Anthony

1998-01-01

431

Does computerized cognitive rehabilitation work? A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence for the effectiveness of computer-based cognitive rehabilitation in adults with non-degenerative, acquired brain damage is reviewed. Data on the usefulness of computers in recreation, as prostheses, as teaching machines or in other related areas of rehabilitation are not reviewed. There is no evidence that computerized memory training or visuoperceptual rehabilitation produces significant changes in cognitive function. Some highly

Ian Robertson

1990-01-01

432

Nursing Research Using Computerized Data Bases  

PubMed Central

Because of the implementation of large computerized information systems, the analyses of patient care data important to clinical nursing research is possible. Simultaneously, the heralding of computer technology in clinical practice areas has necessitated new research ideas to be pursued. This paper will describe a taxonomy of research data available on hospital information systems that may be used for clinical nursing research.

McCormick, Kathleen A.

1981-01-01

433

Computerized Financial Reporting Based on GAAP.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the statewide computerized system developed in Minnesota following the 1976 enactment of the Uniform Financial Accounting and Reporting Standards (UFARS) law. UFARS includes provisions for an advisory council responsible for recommending accounting and reporting procedures, and seven data processing centers to serve all 560 Minnesota…

Tikkanen, Stan; Liljeberg, Burt

1983-01-01

434

Computerized Observation System (COS) for Field Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Computerized Observation System (COS) is a software program which an observer can use with a portable microcomputer to document preservice and inservice teacher performance. Specific observable behavior such as appropriate questions and responses shown to increase student achievement are recorded as Low Inference Observation Measures. Time on…

Reed, Thomas M.; And Others

435

Ethics and the Computerization of Pharmacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current and potential impact of computerization on pharmacy practice is discussed, focusing on ethical dilemmas in the pharmacist-patient relationship, confidentiality of records, and the role of artificial intelligence in decision making about drug therapy. Case studies for use by teachers of pharmaceutical ethics are provided. (Author/MSE)|

McCarthy, Robert L.; Perrolle, Judith A.

1991-01-01

436

Computerized Reporting in a Public School Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Clinicians in a public school clinical speech program designed and adopted a system of computerized reporting which generates required due process paperwork, provides student reports and copies of Individualized Educational Programs, and stores data for administrative and research purposes. Preliminary data indicate both time and financial…

Krueger, Beverly

1985-01-01

437

Radiation coloration resistant glass  

DOEpatents

A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

1986-11-04

438

The nature of infant color categorization: Evidence from eye movements on a target detection task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants respond categorically to color. However, the nature of infants’ categorical responding to color is unclear. The current study investigated two issues. First, is infants’ categorical responding more absolute than adults’ categorical responding? That is, can infants discriminate two stimuli from the same color category? Second, is color categorization in infants truly perceptual? Color categorization was tested by recording adults’

Anna Franklin; Michael Pilling; Ian Davies

2005-01-01

439

Effects of Color as an Executional Cue in Advertising: They're in the Shade  

Microsoft Academic Search

In designing print ads, one of the decisions the advertiser must make is which color(s) to use as executional cues in the ad. Typically, color decisions are based on intuition and anecdotal evidence. To provide guidelines for these decisions, this research proposes and tests a conceptual framework linking the hue, chroma, and value of the color(s) in an ad to

Gerald J. Gorn; Amitava Chattopadhyay; Tracey Yi; Darren W. Dahl

1997-01-01

440

Focus on Color Photography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Photographs and text describe techniques by which color negative film can be developed and printed. An equipment list, by which black and white printing facilities can be converted to make color prints, is provided. (CP)

Galindez, Peter

1978-01-01

441

Color vision: retinal blues.  

PubMed

Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency. PMID:22917511

Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon

2012-08-21

442

Colored Stochastic Petri Nets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Colored stochastic Petri nets are presented as an extension of the stochastic Petri nets model in which the tokens, the transitions, and the corresponding probability measurement are colored. The development leads to a simplification of the basic model an...

A. Zenie

1986-01-01

443

Light, Color, and Mirrors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an exercise in which students can use flashlights, mirrors, and colored paper to discover scientific principles regarding optics. Addresses the concepts of angles of incidence and reflection, colored vs. white light, and mirror images. (WRM)

Tiburzi, Brian; Tamborino, Laurie; Parker, Gordon A.

2000-01-01

444

Skin color enhancement based on favorite skin color in HSV color space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin color enhancement based on favorite skin color is proposed to make skin color displayed on large screen flat panel TVs agree with human favorite skin color. A robust skin detection method in different intensity is obtained after analyzing the distribution of skin color in HSV color space. The favorite skin color region is found via a psychological experiment too.

Xiao-Ning Zhang; Jue Jiang; Zhi-Hu Liang; Chun-Liang Liu

2010-01-01

445

Infantile autism and computerized tomography brain-scan findings: Specific versus nonspecific abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that specific computerized tomography brain-scan findings are associated with infantile autism was tested in 45 cases and 19 controls The autistic group was subdivided into serious and less-serious languageimpaired subgroups. The analysis of Euclidean Distances, a type of cluster analysis, showed that neuroradiological parameters of cases and controls, including ventricular sizes, were on the whole significantly different, but

Umberto Balottin; Maurizio Bejor; Ambrogio Cecchini; Adelaide Martelli; Stefano Palazzi; Giovanni Lanzi

1989-01-01

446

Computerized continuity-defect evaluation in magnetographic flaw detection. Part 2. Defect evaluation algorithms  

SciTech Connect

Some aspects are considered for computerizing the evaluation of extended continuity defects for specimens with flat surfaces in magnetographic flaw detection. Previous data are used on recording fields for various defects for use in algorithms for separating defects into internal and external ones, as well as for evaluating defect characteristics. The algorithms have been tested by simulation based on a surface dipole model.

Mikhailov, S.P.; Shcherbinin, V.E.

1994-12-01

447

Unexpected Increased Mortality After Implementation of a Commercially Sold Computerized Physician Order Entry System  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective. In response to the landmark 1999 report by the Institute of Medicine and safety initi- atives promoted by the Leapfrog Group, our institution implemented a commercially sold computerized physi- cian order entry (CPOE) system in an effort to reduce medical errors and mortality. We sought to test the hy- pothesis that CPOE implementation results in reduced mortality among

Yong Y. Han; Joseph A. Carcillo; Shekhar T. Venkataraman; Robert S. b. Clark; R. Scott Watson; Mph Trung C. Nguyen; Hulya Bayir; Richard A. Orr

448

Computerized Progressive Attentional Training (CPAT) Program: Effective Direct Intervention for Children with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the efficacy of a pioneering intervention program grounded in a contemporary theoretical framework of attention and designed to directly improve the various attentional functions of children with ADHD. The computerized progressive attentional training (CPAT) program is composed of four sets of structured tasks that uniquely activate sustained attention, selective attention, orienting of attention, and executive attention. Performance was

Lilach Shalev; Yehoshua Tsal; Carmel Mevorach

2007-01-01

449

Computerized Aid Improves Safety Decision Process for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user.…

Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B.; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

2010-01-01

450

An observational trial of a computerized drug delivery system on two patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized drug delivery system has been designed and tested for automatic regulation of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of human patients by infusion of a vasodilator (sodium nitroprusside). Its control algorithm belongs to a type of long-range predictive control with a combination of finite-horizon and an infinite horizon optimization terms. The controller operates in an adaptive mode by using

K. Ezra Kwok; Sirish L. Shah; Barry A. Finegan; Gary K. Kwong

1997-01-01

451

Computerized ultrasonic inspection system for ceramic pre-combustion chambers of automotive diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized ultrasonic inspection system was developed to inspect small flaws in ceramic pre-combustion chambers of diesel engines for evaluation of their quality. The system comprises a digitalized multi-channel ultrasonic flaw detector, an immersion test scanner, and a multiple transducers and performs the acquisition of inspection data. The scanner is equipped with two sets of scanner arms and a turntable

K. Asai; A. Takeuchi; N. Ueda; J. Kawamoto

1985-01-01

452

Reducing depressive intrusions via a computerized cognitive bias modification of appraisals task: Developing a cognitive vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feature of depression is the distressing experience of intrusive, negative memories. The maladaptive appraisals of such intrusions have been associated with symptom persistence. This study aimed to experimentally manipulate appraisals about depressive intrusions via a novel computerized cognitive bias modification (CBM) of appraisals paradigm, and to test the impact on depressive intrusion frequency for a standardized event (a depressive

Tamara J. Lang; Michelle L. Moulds; Emily A. Holmes

2009-01-01

453

SHAWNEE LIME/LIMESTONE SCRUBBING COMPUTERIZED DESIGN/COST-ESTIMATE MODEL USERS MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual gives a general description of the Shawnee lime/limestone scrubbing computerized design/cost-estimate model and detailed procedures for using it. It describes all inputs and outputs, along with available options. The model, based on Shawnee Test Facility scrubbing data...

454

Texture affects color emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have recorded color emotions in subjects viewing uniform color (UC) samples. We conduct an experiment to measure and model how these color emotions change when texture is added to the color samples. Using a computer monitor, our subjects arrange samples along four scales: warm–cool, masculine–feminine, hard–soft, and heavy–light. Three sample types of increasing visual complexity are used: UC,

M. P. Lucassen; T. Gevers; A. Gijsenij

2011-01-01

455

Trichromatic opponent color classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimuli varying in intensity and chromaticity, presented on numerous backgrounds, were classified into red\\/green, blue\\/yellow and white\\/black opponent color categories. These measurements revealed the shapes of the boundaries that separate opponent colors in three-dimensional color space. Opponent color classification boundaries were generally not planar, but their shapes could be summarized by a piecewise linear model in which increment and decrement

E. J. Chichilnisky; Brian A. Wandell

1999-01-01

456

CTMS. Computerized Training Management System  

SciTech Connect

CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base, and SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked to its respective test items, In addition, tasks performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS included key word and reference document searches.

McNair, R.C.; Rice, H.B.; White, T.; Maugeri, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

1994-10-03

457

Reimagining the Color Wheel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

Snyder, Jennifer

2011-01-01

458

Color and Psychological  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color is a ubiquitous perceptual experience, yet little scientific information about the influence of color on affect, cognition, and behavior is available. Accord- ingly, we have developed a general model of color and psychologicalfunctioning,whichwepresentinthisarticle. We also describe a hypothesis derived from this model re- garding the influence of red in achievement contexts. In addition, we report a series of experiments

Andrew J. Elliot; Markus A. Maier

459

Color and Psychological Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color is a ubiquitous perceptual experience, yet little scientific information about the influence of color on affect, cognition, and behavior is available. Accordingly, we have developed a general model of color and psychological functioning, which we present in this article. We also describe a hypothesis derived from this model regarding the influence of red in achievement contexts. In addition, we

Andrew J. Elliot; Markus A. Maier

2007-01-01

460

Color: Implications in dentistry  

PubMed Central

The success of restorative dentistry is determined on the basis of functional and esthetic results. To achieve esthetics, four basic determinants are required in sequence; viz., position, contour, texture and color. The knowledge of the concept of color is essential for achieving good esthetics. This review compiles the various aspects of color, its measurements and shade matching in dentistry.

Sikri, Vimal K

2010-01-01

461

A Semester of Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every Thursday evening, ten high school students meet at the Riverdale Art Project, a New York City-based art program that the author co-founded ten years ago. Students are participating in a semester-long color workshop where they learn about color theory in a structured and engaging way. Focusing on five essential characteristics of color…

Rabinovitch, Andrea

2006-01-01

462

Four Color Theorem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Suppose we have a map in which no single territory is made up of disconnected regions. How many colors are needed to color the territories of this map, if all the territories that share a border segment must be of different colors?

463

The nature of colors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color is a visible aspect of objects and lights, and as such is an objective characteristic of our phenomenal world. Correspondingly also objects and lights are objective, although their subjectivity cannot be disregarded since they belong to our phenomenal world. The distinction between perception and sensation deals with colors seen either in complex displays or in isolation. Reality of colors

Osvaldo da Pos

2002-01-01

464

Digital color imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys current technology and research in the area of digital color imaging. In order to establish the background and lay down terminology, fundamental concepts of color perception and measurement are first presented us- ing vector-space notation and terminology. Present-day color recording and reproduction systems are reviewed along with the common mathematical models used for representing these devices. Algorithms

Gaurav Sharma; H. Joel Trussell

1997-01-01

465

Color in Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why do minerals have color? When is that color diagnostic, and when is it likely to fool you? Why is color important, and what can it tell us about the chemistry of minerals? This exercise will try to answer some of these questions, and to introduce students to the fascinating world of mineral spectroscopy, where chemistry meets mineralogy.

Dyar, Darby

466

Is the color trails culture free?  

PubMed

Increasingly clinical neuropsychology has been addressing the effects of culture on neuropsychological functioning. However, that focus has been on comparing performance on standardized tests across two or more groups, often Hispanic. In this study, Arabic children were tested in Morocco using a "culture-free test," Children's Color Trails. Children of different ages and living in rural and urban centers were tested. The results suggest that the Color Trails Test scores from Arab children differed from U.S. norms available. Furthermore, the location of testing and the age of the child were of significance. The role of culture-specific tests was considered. PMID:24002171

Fasfous, Ahmed F; Puente, Antonio E; Pérez-Marfil, María Nieves; Cruz-Quintana, Francisco; Peralta-Ramirez, Isabel; Pérez-García, Miguel

2013-09-02

467

Theorems on list-coloring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graph coloring is a well-known and wellstudied area of graph theory with many applications. In this paper, we will consider two generalizations of graph coloring. In particular, list-coloring and sum-list-coloring.

Vedavathi, N.; Gurram, Dharmaiah

2013-03-01

468

Comparison of narrow-band reflectance spectroscopy and tristimulus colorimetry for measurements of skin and hair color in persons of different biological ancestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used two modern computerized handheld reflectome- ters, the Photovolt ColorWalk colorimeter (a tristimulus colorimeter; Photovolt, UMM Electronics, Indianapolis, IN) and the DermaSpectrometer (a specialized narrow-band reflectometer; Cortex Technology, Hadsund, Denmark), to compare two methods for the objective determination of skin and hair color. These in- struments both determine color by measuring the intensity of reflected light of particular

Mark D. Shriver; Esteban J. Parra

2000-01-01

469

Adaptive synchronization and pinning control of colored networks.  

PubMed

A colored network model, corresponding to a colored graph in mathematics, is used for describing the complexity of some inter-connected physical systems. A colored network is consisted of colored nodes and edges. Colored nodes may have identical or nonidentical local dynamics. Colored edges between any pair of nodes denote not only the outer coupling topology but also the inner interactions. In this paper, first, synchronization of edge-colored networks is studied from adaptive control and pinning control approaches. Then, synchronization of general colored networks is considered. To achieve synchronization of a colored network to an arbitrarily given orbit, open-loop control, pinning control and adaptive coupling strength methods are proposed and tested, with some synchronization criteria derived. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate theoretical results. PMID:23278072

Wu, Zhaoyan; Xu, Xin-Jian; Chen, Guanrong; Fu, Xinchu

2012-12-01

470

Adaptive synchronization and pinning control of colored networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A colored network model, corresponding to a colored graph in mathematics, is used for describing the complexity of some inter-connected physical systems. A colored network is consisted of colored nodes and edges. Colored nodes may have identical or nonidentical local dynamics. Colored edges between any pair of nodes denote not only the outer coupling topology but also the inner interactions. In this paper, first, synchronization of edge-colored networks is studied from adaptive control and pinning control approaches. Then, synchronization of general colored networks is considered. To achieve synchronization of a colored network to an arbitrarily given orbit, open-loop control, pinning control and adaptive coupling strength methods are proposed and tested, with some synchronization criteria derived. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate theoretical results.

Wu, Zhaoyan; Xu, Xin-Jian; Chen, Guanrong; Fu, Xinchu

2012-12-01

471

General Atomics Sciences: Chromatics - The Science of Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is a comprehensive module for grades 8-12 on the origin of colors in materials, including liquids, solids, and gases. "Color in gases" includes experiments that explore the color of fireworks, the origin of smog, the cause of rainbows, and why the sky is blue. The "Color in liquids" section includes investigations into why plants are green, the color change of acid/base indicators, why objects change color when they rust, and how glowsticks and fireflies produce colored light. The section dealing with "Color in solids" examines how colors are produced by the interference of light using an audio CD, how UV light can be detected using fluorescence, and how light emitting diodes work. This resource is aligned with national science education standards and has been refined through classroom testing. This item is part of a larger collection of inquiry-based modules. SEE RELATED ITEMS on this page for a link to these materials.

Woolf, Lawrence

2009-05-25

472

Lighting spectra for the maximum colorfulness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of modern solid-state sources enabled almost any spectrum for lighting and a wide range of possibilities in color rendering. The quality of the lighting has been typically evaluated by the color rendering index which measures how much the colors of objects illuminated by the light under test look similar to those produced when the objects are illuminated by the daylight or a conventional incandescent light. On the other hand, how colorful or vivid the colors under the illumination are perceived is also an important quality to evaluate lighting. We investigated, computationally, the spectral profiles of the illumination that maximizes the theoretical limit of the perceivable object colors. A large number of metamers with various degree of smoothness were generated using the Schmitt's elements method at chromaticity points on and around the Planckian locus ranging from 2,222 K to 20,000 K. The general color rendering index (CRI) and MacAdam volumes in CIELAB color space were calculated for each metamer. The metamers maximizing the CRI had smoother spectra than the metamers maximizing the MacAdam volume. These results show that maximum colorfulness in nature can only be obtained with spectrally non-smooth illumination.

Masuda, Osamu; Linhares, João M. M.; Felgueiras, Paulo E. R.; Nascimento, Sérgio M. C.

2011-05-01

473

Automatic information extraction for computerized clinical guideline.  

PubMed

Clinical Guidelines (CG) are recommendations on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific diseases and conditions. CG should be used by both physicians and patients to make the informed decision. However, the CGs are not well used due to their complexity and because they are frequently updated. The computerized CGs are proposed to make use of the computer to do the decision making. However, it needs a lot of human effort to transform the narrative CG into computerized CG. In this paper, we proposed a method to use the NLP techniques to extract the fine-grained information from the text based CG automatically. Such information could be easily converted to the computer interpretable models. PMID:23920797

Zhu, Huijia; Ni, Yuan; Cai, Peng; Cao, Feng

2013-01-01

474

[Computerized report of anesthesia in real time].  

PubMed

The computerized report of anesthesia (C.R.A.) is an equivalent of the document filled out by the anesthesiologist, linked to a multicriteria research program giving the opportunity to study connections between different performances of anesthesia. To obtain these results, the authors are introducing a microcomputerized system in real time, including a microcomputer (capacity 64 kO), a visual display monitor (80 column format), two floppy disks controllers and a printer. Through a "menu", there is an access to the following functions: identity, patient story, drug prescriptions, anesthetics used, chronology of administration, monitoring of parameters, incidents/accidents, multicriteria research, editing of the C.R.A. The operational realisation shows that this computerized system offers storage capacity and allows a retrospective analysis of anesthesia. As it is inexpensive and easy to use, it may become a very important device in every-day practice. PMID:3995393

Pourriat, J L; Rathat, C; Larmignat, P; Huet, B

1985-03-01

475

Etendue conserved color mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colored variable lighting is being used in more and more locations to enhance the "beauty" and "atmosphere" of interiors and exteriors. Lamps based on different colored LED are an obvious choice for such systems. The light from the differently colored LEDS needs to be mixed together very well because otherwise objects in the beam could create colored shadows. The difficulty is that we often want a lighting system where the light is collimated, where we can set the color of the beam, and where the lamp is as small as possible with an as small as possible exit diameter. This means that ideally we would like to mix colors etendue preserving. In this paper we discuss a new method of color mixing with dichroic color filters, which aims to achieve this. It is based on a special arrangement of the color filters, whereby the filters act as collimators. We have build prototypes and have done raytracing simulations. These show that we can indeed mix light of different wavelengths and make relatively small, color-variable, collimated, high brightness, light-sources. The advantages are an increase in brightness, a reduction/elimination of the colored shadows, and a small volume. This new method can, e.g., be used in spotlights, mini-beamers and logo projectors.

van Gorkom, R. P.; van As, M. A.; Verbeek, G. M.; Hoelen, C. G. A.; Alferink, R. G.; Mutsaers, C. A.; Cooijmans, H.

2007-09-01

476

Color display for dichromats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed colormaps to replace a widely used 216 colors palette in order to allow a designer with normal color vision to simulate the colors seen by dichromats. As dichromats lack one class of cone photo pigment, they confuse colors that differ only in the excitation of the missing class of photo pigment. The method is based on the LMS colorimetric system, which specifies colors in terms of the relative excitations of the cones. We have constructed a rule to reduce any set of confused colors to a single three- component specification. We have introduced a modification, assuming that the video display primaries and nominal white are representative of recent standards for Cathode Ray Tube monitors and that its video-transfer function is a power function with an exponent of 2.2. For everyday practice, replacing a normal palette by a reduced palette provides an immediate warning of possible losses of readability of a display by color-deficients.

Vienot, Francoise; Brettel, Hans

2000-12-01

477

Color Use in Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, you will learn a little bit about color theory and how it can effect the colors that you choose for a design. This activity covers the Arizona State CTE Standard for demonstrating drawing and visualization skills required for graphic communications (Standard #13). Read each section below carefully and follow the links provided to find more information on the topics discussed. When you are finished with the lesson, complete the assignment at the bottom of the screen. Introduction There are certain colors that look good together in designs and there is a reason for it. Colors that look good together are based on their relationship to each other on a color wheel. In the following lesson, you are going explore the color wheel and the color relationships ...

Pope

2008-10-07

478

Computerized roentgenographic determination of total lung capacity.  

PubMed

A computerized technique for measuring total lung capacity from radiographic chest films based on methods originally suggested by Barnhard and associates has been developed. Total lung capacity is automatically determined by tracing the margins of the lungs in both posteroanterior and lateral radiographs with a commercially available hypersonic coordinate digitizer. The results compare favorably with those obtained using a body plethysmograph. This simple, automatic procedure requires minimal training, is rapid, and can be easily implemented. PMID:1247238

Barret, W A; Clayton, P D; Lambson, G R

1976-02-01

479

Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well. The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes and fluid losses before the changes in flow would normally be apparent.

McCann, D.; White, D. (Sedco Forex, Paris (FR))

1992-02-24

480

Computerized brain atlas in functional neurosurgery.  

PubMed

Computerized brain atlas is a new application area in the practical use of stereotactic neurosurgery. Our approach provides a solution for the straightforward definition of a coordinate system (CA-CP), localization of the selected target point, trepanation points and trajectory transformation of the stereotactic electrode or canula for functional neurosurgery. These problems were solved by comparison of CT, MR and the Schaltenbrand-Wahren atlas. Our original software package integrates all modalities into one system. PMID:9711740

Sramka, M; Ruzicky, E; Novotny, M

1997-01-01

481

Computerized photo-plethysmography of the finger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microcomputer system for studying photo-plethysmography of the finger (PPF) was designed and applied to 50 non-premedicated\\u000a healthy boys (one to ten years old) undergoing general anaesthesia (halothane in 70% N2O, with mechanical ventilation) for outpatient inguinal hernia repair. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy\\u000a of computerized estimations of the photo-plethysmographic (arterial waves) amplitude and to

Victor Faria Blanc; Margaret Haig; Michel Troli; Benoit Sauvé

1993-01-01

482

Errors associated with outpatient computerized prescribing systems  

PubMed Central

Objective To report the frequency, types, and causes of errors associated with outpatient computer-generated prescriptions, and to develop a framework to classify these errors to determine which strategies have greatest potential for preventing them. Materials and methods This is a retrospective cohort study of 3850 computer-generated prescriptions received by a commercial outpatient pharmacy chain across three states over 4?weeks in 2008. A clinician panel reviewed the prescriptions using a previously described method to identify and classify medication errors. Primary outcomes were the incidence of medication errors; potential adverse drug events, defined as errors with potential for harm; and rate of prescribing errors by error type and by prescribing system. Results Of 3850 prescriptions, 452 (11.7%) contained 466 total errors, of which 163 (35.0%) were considered potential adverse drug events. Error rates varied by computerized prescribing system, from 5.1% to 37.5%. The most common error was omitted information (60.7% of all errors). Discussion About one in 10 computer-generated prescriptions included at least one error, of which a third had potential for harm. This is consistent with the literature on manual handwritten prescription error rates. The number, type, and severity of errors varied by computerized prescribing system, suggesting that some systems may be better at preventing errors than others. Conclusions Implementing a computerized prescribing system without comprehensive functionality and processes in place to ensure meaningful system use does not decrease medication errors. The authors offer targeted recommendations on improving computerized prescribing systems to prevent errors.

Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Salzberg, Claudia; Keohane, Carol A; Zigmont, Katherine; Devita, Jim; Gandhi, Tejal K; Dalal, Anuj K; Bates, David W; Poon, Eric G

2011-01-01

483

Single color and single flavor color superconductivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey the nonlocked color-flavor-spin channels for quark-quark (color superconducting) condensates in QCD, using a Nambu Jona-Lasinio model. We also study isotropic quark-antiquark (mesonic) condensates. We make mean-field estimates of the strength and sign of the self-interaction of each condensate, using four-fermion interaction vertices based on known QCD interactions. For the attractive quark pairing channels, we solve the mean-field gap

Mark G. Alford; Jeffrey A. Bowers; Jack M. Cheyne; Greig A. Cowan

2003-01-01

484

Computerized materials protection, control, and accountability  

SciTech Connect

The proliferation of nuclear weapons, along with the technical knowledge and materials needed to make these weapons, is an enduring problem of international urgency. Current international nuclear nonproliferation efforts are aimed at deterring, detecting, and responding to proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. These safeguards efforts are being implemented by applying preeminent science and technology to the management and control of nuclear materials. By strengthening systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A), one can reduce the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation. Two major programs of international cooperation are now underway to achieve this goal. The first is between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Institutes of the Russian Federation (Laboratory-to-Laboratory Program), and the second is between the US Government and Governments of the former Soviet Republics (Government-to-Government Program). As part of these programs, the DOE is working with facilities to assist them in implementing computerized MPC and A systems. This work is a collaboration between computer scientists and safeguards experts in both the US and the new Republics. The US is making available technology and expertise to enable Russian experts to build on computerized MPC and A software developed in the US. This paper describes the joint efforts of these international teams to develop sophisticated computerized MPC and A systems using modern computer hardware and software technology. These systems are being customized to meet the site-specific needs of each facility.

Whiteson, R.; Seitz, S.; Landry, R.P.; Hadden, M.L.; Painter, J.A.

1997-05-01

485