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1

Computerized Color Vision Test Based Upon Postreceptoral Channel Sensitivities  

PubMed Central

An automated, computerized color vision test was designed to diagnose congenital red-green color vision defects. The observer viewed a yellow appearing CRT screen. The principle was to measure increment thresholds for three different chromaticities, the background yellow, a red, and a green chromaticity. Spatial and temporal parameters were chosen to favor parvocellular pathway mediation of thresholds. Thresholds for the three test stimuli were estimated by 4AFC, randomly interleaved staircases. Four 1.5°, 4.2 cd/m2 square pedestals were arranged as a 2 x 2 matrix around the center of the display with 15’ separations. A trial incremented all four squares by 1.0 cd/m2 for 133 msec. One randomly chosen square included an extra increment of a test chromaticity. The observer identified the different appearing square using the cursor. Administration time was ~5 minutes. Normal trichromats showed clear Sloan notch as defined by log (?Y/?R), whereas red-green color defectives generally showed little or no Sloan notch, indicating that their thresholds were mediated by their luminance system, not by the chromatic system. Data from 107 normal trichromats showed a mean Sloan notch of 0.654 (SD = 0.123). Among 16 color vision defectives tested (2 protanopes, 1 protanomal, 6 deuteranopes, 7 deuteranomals), the Sloan notch was between ?0.062 and 0.353 for deutans and was < ?0.10 for protans. A sufficient number of color defective observers have not yet been tested to determine whether the test can reliably discriminate between protans and deutans. Nevertheless, the current data show that the test can work as a quick diagnostic procedure (functional trichromatism or dichromatism) of red-green color vision defect.

E, Miyahara; J, Pokorny; VC, Smith; E, Szewczyk; J, McCartin; K, Caldwell; A, Klerer

2006-01-01

2

Development of computerized color vision testing as a replacement for Martin Lantern  

PubMed Central

Background Development and standardization of computerized color vision testing as a replacement for Martin Lantern test. Non-randomized comparative trial. Methods All candidates of SSB, Allahabad, reporting for SMB underwent color vision testing at the eye dept by computerized eye test and currently available tests. Results All candidates were subjected to Ishihara chart testing and those found to be CP III were subjected to the confirmatory test on Martin Lantern and the Software. Candidates requiring CP I standards for eligibility were tested on the same on Martin Lantern and on the new software method. On comparison between the Standard Martin Lantern and the Software, the results were consistent and comparable with 82 patients testing CP I on the Martin Lantern and 81 on the software. Of the CP III patients, 253 tested positive on the Standard lantern test as compared to 251 on the software and of the CP IV group, 147 tested positive on the Standard lantern and 149 by the software method. Conclusion It was found that the software replicated the existing Martin Lantern accurately and consistently. The Martin Lantern Software can be used as a replacement for existing old Lanterns which are not in production since the early 20th century.

Kapoor, Gaurav; Vats, D.P.; Parihar, J.K.S.

2012-01-01

3

Participants' Reactions to Computerized Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated participants' reactions to computerized testing and assessed the practicability of this testing method in the classroom. A sample of 315 secondary-level students took a computerized and a printed version of a standardized aptitude test battery and a survey assessing their reactions to the computerized testing. Overall…

Moe, Kim C.; Johnson, Marilyn F.

4

Student Perceptions of Computerized Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The challenge to test small groups by means of microcomputers demands appropriate software design and sound test design. To comply with this demand, students' beliefs or perceptions on the advantages and disadvantages of a computerized test were tapped. Overall, self-reported advantages outnumbered disadvantages to a significant degree. This was…

Pino-Silva, Juan

2008-01-01

5

Computerized Testing of Contrast Sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The purpose of this technical note was to describe a new very simple computerized contrast sensitivity test, its normal values, and to inspect the relationship between contrast sensitivity and visual acuity in a sample of observers of various ages. Methods: In the new contrast sensitivity test (FreeCST, distributed free of charge), the task of the subject was to indicate

RISTO NÄSÄNEN; JUHA PÄÄLLYSAHO

2007-01-01

6

Color identification testing device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.

Brawner, E. L.; Martin, R.; Pate, W.

1970-01-01

7

Computerized test development software a comparative review.  

PubMed

Nurse educators, searching for the best use of technology to facilitate the development and administration of tests, are confronted with a wide variety of computerized test development programs from which to choose. This article provides a comparative review of seven commercially available computerized test development programs: A+ Test Manager and Test Taker, AUTOGENT, CATSoftware System, LXR*TEST, MicroCAT, Question Designer for Windows, and Test Construction Set. Criteria for evaluating these programs including ease of use, psychometric properties, security, and system requirements are discussed. Issues associated with the implementation of computerized test development and computerized test administration are considered. It is imperative that nurse educators understand their goals for computerized test development and administration in the context of their own setting before purchasing a program. PMID:8904365

Kirkpatrick, J M; Billings, D M; Carlton, K H; Cummings, R B; Hanson, A C; Malone, J; Miller, A; Robinson, L; Zwirn, E E

1996-01-01

8

Computerized Adaptive Testing under Nonparametric IRT Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonparametric item response models have been developed as alternatives to the relatively inflexible parametric item response models. An open question is whether it is possible and practical to administer computerized adaptive testing with nonparametric models. This paper explores the possibility of computerized adaptive testing when using…

Xu, Xueli; Douglas, Jeff

2006-01-01

9

Graphical Models and Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers computerized adaptive testing from the perspective of graphical modeling (GM). GM provides methods for making inferences about multifaceted skills and knowledge and for extracting data from complex performances. Provides examples from language-proficiency assessment. (SLD)

Almond, Russell G.; Mislevy, Robert J.

1999-01-01

10

Solving Infeasibility Problems in Computerized Test Assembly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses problems of diagnosing and repairing infeasible linear-programming models in computerized test assembly. Demonstrates that it is possible to localize the causes of infeasibility, although this is not always easy. (SLD)

Timminga, Ellen

1998-01-01

11

Student perceptions about computerized testing in introductory managerial accounting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the implementation of computerized testing in an introductory managerial accounting course. Students were surveyed about their perceptions of computerized testing after taking two major computerized exams. Results show that students perceived both negative and positive aspects about computerized testing, and overall perceptions tended to be more negative than positive. Clear differences in student perceptions existed when

Barbara Apostolou; Michael A. Blue; Ronald J. Daigle

2009-01-01

12

Refinement of the Computerized Adaptive Screening Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Computerized Adaptive Screening Test (CAST) is used for predicting performance on the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT). The goal of this project is to expand the existing item pool, balance usage of the test items, improve score reporting, and a...

J. J. McHenry J. R. McBride L. L. Wise P. L. Szenas W. J. Chia

1990-01-01

13

Computerized Adaptive Testing in Instructional Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) in the classroom. Highlights include item response theory; sequential probability ratio test (SPRT); combining SPRT with expert system reasoning, resulting in EXSPRT; and a study of college students that examined the efficiency and accuracy of the various CAT methods discussed. (Contains 16…

Welch, R. Edwin; Frick, Theodore W.

1993-01-01

14

KIDTALK: A Computerized Language Screening Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the effectiveness of a nonbiased computerized language screening test, the Kidtalk Interactive Diagnostic Test of Aptitude for Language Knowledge (KIDTALK), in differentiating children on basis of diagnostic category but not ethnic/linguistic background. Found a significant difference between scores of the language learning disabled and…

Jacobs, Ellen L.

1998-01-01

15

The NASA/LRC Computerized Test System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new testing package, including apparatus and tasks for the behavioral study of a number of species in a variety of experiments is presented. The package is described with respect to the kinds of comparative psychological investigations for which it is best suited. The preliminary data generated within this new testing paradigm demonstrate that the NASA/LRC Computerized Test System provides a flexible yet powerful environment for the investigation of behavioral and psychological processes.

Richardson, W. Kirk; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Sue; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

1990-01-01

16

A Computerized Adaptive Edition of the Differential Aptitude Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of the development of a computerized version of the Differential Aptitude Tests (DAT) is presented. It describes the previously existing printed version of the DAT, design of the computerized adaptive edition, calibration of the test items for use in the computerized version, and two field studies that compared the Adaptive and…

McBride, James R.

17

Testing Children for Color Blindness  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Testing Children for Color Blindness Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye ... study shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian ...

18

Computerized adaptive personality testing: a review and illustration with the MMPI-2 Computerized Adaptive Version.  

PubMed

Computerized adaptive testing in personality assessment can improve efficiency by significantly reducing the number of items administered to answer an assessment question. Two approaches have been explored for adaptive testing in computerized personality assessment: item response theory and the countdown method. In this article, the authors review the literature on each and report the results of an investigation designed to explore the utility, in terms of item and time savings, and validity, in terms of correlations with external criterion measures, of an expanded countdown method-based research version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the MMPI-2 Computerized Adaptive Version (MMPI-2-CA). Participants were 433 undergraduate college students (170 men and 263 women). Results indicated considerable item savings and corresponding time savings for the adaptive testing modalities compared with a conventional computerized MMPI-2 administration. Furthermore, computerized adaptive administration yielded comparable results to computerized conventional administration of the MMPI-2 in terms of both test scores and their validity. Future directions for computerized adaptive personality testing are discussed. PMID:17371120

Forbey, Johnathan D; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

2007-03-01

19

Historical overview of computerized behavioral testing of humans in neurotoxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1970s, when they became more accessible, computers have been used increasingly for behavior measurement over a wide range of purposes, including the detection of neurotoxic effects. Over these relatively few years, the number of computerized tests in use in neurotoxicology has grown from one or two to around 16 major batteries. The development of computerized tests in

Ann M. Williamson

1996-01-01

20

Computerized Adaptive Testing for Reading Placement and Diagnostic Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study to pilot-test a new reading assessment instrument designed to function in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) environment. Indicates that the measure showed fair internal consistency and correlated well with other tests. Discusses advantages and disadvantages of CAT systems and describes the HyperCAT testing program. (23…

Shermis, Mark D.; And Others

1996-01-01

21

Modern Sequential Analysis and Its Applications to Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a brief review of recent advances in sequential analysis involving sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests, we discuss their use in psychometric testing and extend the asymptotic optimality theory of these sequential tests to the case of sequentially generated experiments, of particular interest in computerized adaptive testing. We…

Bartroff, Jay; Finkelman, Matthew; Lai, Tze Leung

2008-01-01

22

An Empirical Investigation of the Stratified Adaptive Computerized Testing Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study empirically investigated the validity and utility of the stratified adaptive computerized testing model (stradaptive) developed by Weiss (1973). The model presents a tailored testing strategy based upon Binet IQ measurement theory and Lord's (1972) modern test theory. Nationally normed School and College Ability Test Verbal analogy items (SCAT-V) were used to construct an item pool. Item difficulty and

Brian K. Waters

1977-01-01

23

Computerized Adaptive Testing with Equated Number-Correct Scoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a constrained computerized adaptive testing (CAT) algorithm that can be used to equate CAT number-correct scores to a reference test. Used an item bank from the Law School Admission Test to compare results of the algorithm with those for equipercentile observed-score equating. Discusses advantages of the approach. (SLD)

van der Linden, Wim J.

2001-01-01

24

Online Calibration via Variable Length Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Item calibration is an essential issue in modern item response theory based psychological or educational testing. Due to the popularity of computerized adaptive testing, methods to efficiently calibrate new items have become more important than that in the time when paper and pencil test administration is the norm. There are many calibration…

Chang, Yuan-chin Ivan; Lu, Hung-Yi

2010-01-01

25

Duplicated laboratory tests: evaluation of a computerized alert intervention abstract.  

PubMed

Redundant testing contributes to reductions in healthcare system efficiency. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine if the use of a computerized alert would reduce the number and cost of duplicated Acute Hepatitis Profile (AHP) laboratory tests and (2) assess what patient, test, and system factors were associated with duplication. This study used a quasi-experimental pre- and post-test design to determine the proportion of duplication of the AHP test before and after implementation of a computerized alert intervention. The AHP test was duplicated if the test was requested again within 15 days of the initial test being performed and the result present in the medical record. The intervention consisted of a computerized alert (pop-up window) that indicated to the clinician that the test had recently been ordered. A total of 674 AHP tests were performed in the pre-intervention period and 692 in the postintervention group. In the pre-intervention period, 53 (7.9%) were duplicated and in postintervention, 18 (2.6%) were duplicated (p < .001). The implementation of the alert was shown to significantly reduce associated costs of duplicated AHP tests (p ? .001). Implementation of computerized alerts may be useful in reducing duplicate laboratory tests and improving healthcare system efficiency. PMID:22963261

Bridges, Sharon A; Papa, Linda; Norris, Anne E; Chase, Susan K

2014-05-01

26

Computerized Adaptive Testing with the Generalized Graded Unfolding Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the use of the generalized graded unfolding model (GGUM) in computerized adaptive testing, using simulation and attempting to minimize the number of items required to produce equiprecise estimates of person locations. Results suggest that adaptive testing with the GGUM is a good method for achieving estimates with an approximately uniform…

Roberts, James S.; Lin, Yan; Laughlin, James E.

2001-01-01

27

Computerized Adaptive Testing with Equated Number-Correct Scoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A constrained computerized adaptive testing (CAT) algorithm is presented that can be used to equate CAT number-correct (NC) scores to a reference test. As a result, the CAT NC scores also are equated across administrations. The constraints are derived from van der Linden & Luecht’s (1998) set of conditions on item response functions that guarantees identical observed NC score distributions

Wim J. van der Linden

2001-01-01

28

Deriving Stopping Rules for Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multidimensional computerized adaptive testing (MCAT) is able to provide a vector of ability estimates for each examinee, which could be used to provide a more informative profile of an examinee's performance. The current literature on MCAT focuses on the fixed-length tests, which can generate less accurate results for those examinees whose…

Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Boughton, Keith A.

2013-01-01

29

Procedures for Selecting Items for Computerized Adaptive Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several classical approaches and alternative approaches to item selection for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) are reviewed and compared. The study also describes procedures for constrained CAT that may be added to classical item selection approaches to allow them to be used for applied testing. (TJH)

Kingsbury, G. Gage; Zara, Anthony R.

1989-01-01

30

When Cognitive Diagnosis Meets Computerized Adaptive Testing: CD-CAT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a mode of testing which enables more efficient and accurate recovery of one or more latent traits. Traditionally, CAT is built upon Item Response Theory (IRT) models that assume unidimensionality. However, the problem of how to build CAT upon latent class models (LCM) has not been investigated until recently,…

Cheng, Ying

2009-01-01

31

Assessing the Efficiency of Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the efficiency of item selection in a computerized adaptive test (CAT), where efficiency was defined in terms of the accumulated test information at an examinee's true ability level. A simulation methodology compared the efficiency of 2 item selection procedures with 5 ability estimation procedures for CATs of 5, 10, 15,…

Weissman, Alexander

32

Computerized Classification Testing under the Generalized Graded Unfolding Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The generalized graded unfolding model (GGUM) has been recently developed to describe item responses to Likert items (agree-disagree) in attitude measurement. In this study, the authors (a) developed two item selection methods in computerized classification testing under the GGUM, the current estimate/ability confidence interval method and the cut…

Wang, Wen-Chung; Liu, Chen-Wei

2011-01-01

33

Item Selection Criteria with Practical Constraints for Computerized Classification Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares four item selection criteria for a two-category computerized classification testing: (1) Fisher information (FI), (2) Kullback-Leibler information (KLI), (3) weighted log-odds ratio (WLOR), and (4) mutual information (MI), with respect to the efficiency and accuracy of classification decision using the sequential probability…

Lin, Chuan-Ju

2011-01-01

34

Multiple Maximum Exposure Rates in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized adaptive testing is subject to security problems, as the item bank content remains operative over long periods and administration time is flexible for examinees. Spreading the content of a part of the item bank could lead to an overestimation of the examinees' trait level. The most common way of reducing this risk is to impose a maximum exposure rate

Juan Ramón Barrada; Bernard P. Veldkamp; Julio Olea

2009-01-01

35

Sequential Computerized Mastery Tests--Three Simulation Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simulation study of a sequential computerized mastery test is carried out with items modeled with the 3 parameter logistic item response theory model. The examinees' responses are either identically distributed, not identically distributed, or not identically distributed together with estimation errors in the item characteristics. The…

Wiberg, Marie

2006-01-01

36

Multiple Maximum Exposure Rates in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized adaptive testing is subject to security problems, as the item bank content remains operative over long periods and administration time is flexible for examinees. Spreading the content of a part of the item bank could lead to an overestimation of the examinees' trait level. The most common way of reducing this risk is to impose a…

Ramon Barrada, Juan; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Olea, Julio

2009-01-01

37

Auditory Performance Characteristics of the Computerized Revised Token Test (CRTT)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To assess the Computerized Revised Token Test (CRTT) performance of individuals with normal hearing under several intensity conditions and under several spectral and temporal perturbation conditions. Method: Sixty normal-hearing listeners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. Group 1 provided performance-intensity information about…

Eberwein, Cynthia A.; Pratt, Sheila R.; McNeil, Malcolm R.; Fossett, Tepanta R. D.; Szuminsky, Neil J.; Doyle, Patrick J.

2007-01-01

38

Flawed Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multiple choice test item is identified as flawed if it has no single best answer. In spite of extensive quality control procedures, the administration of flawed items to test-takers is inevitable. Common strategies for dealing with flawed items in conventional testing, grounded in the principle of fairness to test-takers, are reexamined in the…

Potenza, Maria T.; Stocking, Martha L.

39

The Effects of Test Difficulty Manipulation in Computerized Adaptive Testing and Self-Adapted Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared easy and difficult versions of self-adapted tests (SAT) and computerized adapted tests. No significant differences were found among the tests for estimated ability or posttest state anxiety in studies with 187 Spanish high school students, although other significant differences were found. Discusses implications for interpreting test

Ponsoda, Vicente; Olea, Julio; Rodriguez, Maria Soledad; Revuelta, Javier

1999-01-01

40

Development of a Computerized Visual Search Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual attention and visual search are the features of visual perception, essential for attending and scanning one's environment while engaging in daily occupations. This study describes the development of a novel web-based test of visual search. The development information including the format of the test will be described. The test was designed…

Reid, Denise; Babani, Harsha; Jon, Eugenia

2009-01-01

41

An Enhanced Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An a-stratified design (H. Chang and Z. Ying, 1997) is a new concept proposed to address the issues of item security and pool utilization in testing. It has been demonstrated to be effective in lowering the test overlap rate and improving the use of the entire pool when content constraints are not main concerns. However, it cannot really solve the…

Leung, Chi K.; Chang, Hua H.; Hau, Kit T.

42

COMPARABILITY OF CONVENTIONAL AND COMPUTERIZED TESTS OF READING IN A SECOND LANGUAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerization of L2 reading tests has been of interest among language assessment researchers for the past 15 years, but few empirical studies have evaluated the equivalence of the construct being measured in computerized and conventional L2 reading tests and the generalizability of computerized reading test results to other reading conditions. In order to address various issues surrounding the effect of

Yasuyo Sawaki

2001-01-01

43

Computerized Neurocognitive Test Performance in Schizophrenia: A Lifespan Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Computerized neurocognitive batteries based on advanced behavioral neuroscience methods are increasingly used in large-scale clinical and genomic studies. Favorable construct validity in younger schizophrenia patients has been reported, but not in older patients. New variables afforded by computerized assessments were used to clarify age-associated cognitive impairment across the lifespan. Methods 624 patients with schizophrenia and 624 healthy comparison (HC) subjects aged 16–75 completed a 1–2 hour computerized neurocognitive battery (CNB) that assessed abstraction and mental flexibility, attention, working memory, recognition memory (verbal, facial, spatial), language, visuospatial and emotion processing. Linear mixed effects models tested for group differences in accuracy, response time, and efficiency scores. Contrasts were stratified by age. Results 91% of older (45+) and 94% of younger (<45) groups provided “good” data quality. After controlling for parental education and project, there were significant three-way interactions for diagnosis x domain x age group on all three outcome variables. Patients performed worse than HC across all neurocognitive domains, except in the oldest group of 60+ patients. Age-stratified analyses did not show differences between younger (16–45) and older patients (45–60, 60+), except for the attention domain. Older patients’ reduced working memory efficiency was due to worse speed, not accuracy. Older patients were quicker than younger patients in processing emotions. Conclusions Computerized assessments are feasible in large cohorts of schizophrenia patients. There is stable and generalized neurocognitive dysfunction across the lifespan in schizophrenia, albeit with fewer differences in some domains between older patients and HC after age 60. Speed-accuracy tradeoff strategies suggest deceleration of some frontal networks and improvements in speed of emotional processing.

Irani, Farzin; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Richard, Jan; Calkins, Monica E.; Moberg, Paul J.; Bilker, Waren; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

2011-01-01

44

The Influence of Examinee Test-Taking Motivation in Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of test motivation on estimated ability, test anxiety, and attitudes toward computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Korean college students (n=208) were given the Math Aptitude Test, Math Self-Concept Scale, Math Test Anxiety Scale, Computer Competence Instrument, Computer Anxiety Scale, and…

Kim, JinGyu; McLean, James E.

45

A Procedure for Controlling General Test Overlap in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, exposure control procedures that are designed to control test overlap in computerized adaptive tests (CATs) are based on the assumption of item sharing between pairs of examinees. However, in practice, examinees may obtain test information from more than one previous test taker. This larger scope of information sharing needs to be…

Chen, Shu-Ying

2010-01-01

46

A Multiple Objective Test Assembly Approach for Exposure Control Problems in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overexposure and underexposure of items in the bank are serious problems in operational computerized adaptive testing (CAT) systems. These exposure problems might result in item compromise, or point at a waste of investments. The exposure control problem can be viewed as a test assembly problem with multiple objectives. Information in the test has…

Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Verschoor, Angela J.; Eggen, Theo J. H. M.

2010-01-01

47

Novel quantitative test method of laser range finder for range measurement: computerized instrument test method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum rang finding ability of laser range finder (LRF) is greatly influenced by various factors under field conditions, and these factors are changing constantly. In this paper, the advantages and shortcomings of traditional test method 'dissipated light power ratio method' through field object target are analyzed. A computerized instrument is developed, this instrument has no influence with field environment and characteristics of targets, it is simple, effective, accurate and quantitative to test comprehensive ability of range measurement which LRF system itself has. This paper introduces optimal formulas by use of computerized instrument to estimate the measuring rang of LRF, studied the theory of equations of measuring range by laser, and made a breakthrough of test method at program control of time-delay simulating space range and transmission and receiving of LRF under field conditions. This computerized test instrument has highly practical application and theoretical guiding meaning in demarcating checking and accepting of product produced by factories.

Chen, Zhibin

1996-10-01

48

A Novel Computerized Visual Acuity Test for Children  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the efficacy of a computerized visual acuity test, the SNU visual acuity test for children. Methods Fifty-six children, ranging from 1 to 5 years of age, were included. In a dark room, children gazed at and followed a circular dot with 50% contrast moving at a fixed velocity of 10 pixels/sec on a computer monitor. Eye movement was captured using a charge coupled device camera and was expressed as coordinates on a graph. Movements of the eye and dot were superimposed on a graph and analyzed. Minimum visualized dot diameters were compared to the Teller visual acuity. Results Ten eyes (8.9%) of six children failed to perform the Teller visual acuity test, and two eyes (1.8%) of one patient failed to perform the SNU visual acuity test. The observed Teller visual acuity and SNU visual acuity were significantly correlated (p < 0.001). Visual angle degrees converted from the Teller visual acuity and SNU visual acuity were also significantly correlated (p < 0.001). Conclusion The SNU visual acuity using moving targets correlated well with Teller visual acuity and was more applicable than the Teller acuity test. Therefore, the SNU visual acuity test has potential clinical applications for children.

Shin, Young Joo; Lee, In Bum; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Jin Hak

2013-01-01

49

Revisiting a Cognitive Framework for Test Design: Applications for a Computerized Perceptual Speed Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights the need for a systematic, content aware, and theoretically-based approach to test design. The cognitive components approach is endorsed, and is applied to the development of a computerized perceptual speed test. Psychometric literature is reviewed and shows that: every major multi-factor theory includes a clerical/perceptual…

Alderton, David L.

50

Comparison of the standard and computerized versions of the Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices Test.  

PubMed

Computerized psychological assessment is potentially a viable alternative to the traditional method of examiner based assessment. 15 children, 4 females and 11 males, ranging in age from 7 to 14 yr., were administered a computerized version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices test. The necessary software for computerizing this test was developed and programmed for use with an Apple II Plus microcomputer. Scores obtained from the computerized and traditional versions of the Raven's test were compared on total mean score, correlation with the WISC-R, Raven's subscale intercorrelations, and Raven's total mean score composition. In general, results indicate that the two versions of the Raven's Matrices do not statistically significantly differ on the dimensions tested in the present study. The relatively small number of subjects and the lack of rigorous experimental control limit generalization of the results. Continued research into the use of computerized psychological assessment is warranted. PMID:7063353

Rock, D L; Nolen, P A

1982-02-01

51

Development of a Computerized Adaptive Test for Depression  

PubMed Central

Context Unlike other areas of medicine, psychiatry is almost entirely dependent on patient report to assess the presence and severity of disease; therefore, it is particularly crucial that we find both more accurate and efficient means of obtaining that report. Objective To develop a computerized adaptive test (CAT) for depression, called the Computerized Adaptive Test–Depression Inventory (CAT-DI), that decreases patient and clinician burden and increases measurement precision. Design Case-control study. Setting A psychiatric clinic and community mental health center. Participants A total of 1614 individuals with and without minor and major depression were recruited for study. Main Outcome Measures The focus of this study was the development of the CAT-DI. The 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Patient Health Questionnaire 9, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were used to study the convergent validity of the new measure, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to obtain diagnostic classifications of minor and major depressive disorder. Results A mean of 12 items per study participant was required to achieve a 0.3 SE in the depression severity estimate and maintain a correlation of r=0.95 with the total 389-item test score. Using empirically derived thresholds based on a mixture of normal distributions, we found a sensitivity of 0.92 and a specificity of 0.88 for the classification of major depressive disorder in a sample consisting of depressed patients and healthy controls. Correlations on the order of r=0.8 were found with the other clinician and self-rating scale scores. The CAT-DI provided excellent discrimination throughout the entire depressive severity continuum (minor and major depression), whereas the traditional scales did so primarily at the extremes (eg, major depression). Conclusions Traditional measurement fixes the number of items administered and allows measurement uncertainty to vary. In contrast, a CAT fixes measurement uncertainty and allows the number of items to vary. The result is a significant reduction in the number of items needed to measure depression and increased precision of measurement.

Gibbons, Robert D.; Weiss, David J.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Frank, Ellen; Moore, Tara; Kim, Jong Bae; Kupfer, David J.

2012-01-01

52

Design and evaluation of a computerized test for hand motor skills.  

PubMed

Summary.-The purposes of this study are to design and develop a computerized test to measure junior high school students' motor skills, specifically their abilities in hand-eye motor coordination and hand motor skills, using the Wii Remote. The hand motor skills computerized test, which is based on the operational examinations in the General Aptitude Test Battery, examines hand and finger dexterity (i.e., motion, rotation, fabrication, and disassembly tests). 55 students participated in the experiment to assess the reliability and validity of the computerized test, which were supported. Information literacy and experience in the use of Wii devices did not affect the reliability. PMID:25068744

Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chiu, Ching-Tsun

2014-06-01

53

Computerized Neurocognitive Testing for the Management of Sport-Related Concussions  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To describe the prevalence of computerized neurocognitive testing for the assessment of high school athletes who sustain concussions, and to describe associations between using computerized neurocognitive tests, timing of return-to-play, and medical provider managing the athlete. Methods: Concussions recorded in the High School Reporting Information Online injury surveillance system during the 2009–2010 academic year were included. Measures of association between use of computerized neurocognitive testing and outcomes were analyzed. A questionnaire was sent to athletic trainers (ATs) querying the use of computerized neurocognitive testing. ?2 analyses were conducted for categorical variables. Logistic regression analyses were used to adjust for potential confounders. Statistical significance was set at P < .05. Results: High School Reporting Information Online recorded 1056 concussions. Athletes who underwent computerized neurocognitive testing were less likely to be returned to play within 10 days of injury (38.5% vs 55.7%, P < .001) and more likely to be returned to play by a physician (60.9% vs 45.6%, P < .001). We had a response rate of 97.3% for the survey. Of respondents, 39.9% used computerized neurocognitive testing; 93.0% of those used ImPACT. Tests were most often interpreted by ATs (78.9%) and/or physicians (78.8%), as opposed to neuropsychologists (16.9%). Conclusions: Approximately 40% of US high schools that employ an AT use computerized neurocognitive tests when managing sport-related concussions. Tests are most often interpreted by ATs and physicians, as opposed to neuropsychologists. Computerized neurocognitive tests are significantly associated with the timing of return-to-play.

d'Hemecourt, Pierre; Collins, Christy L.; Taylor, Alex M.; Comstock, R. Dawn

2012-01-01

54

Interpretation and Application of Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models; and Computerized Testing in the Instructional Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the work in the development and evaluation of multidimensional item response theory models (MIRT) and in the evaluation of the use of computerized testing in the instructional environment. The work on MIRT included the definition of...

M. D. Reckase

1989-01-01

55

Computerized Testing System Software Conversion and Development: Identifying Software and Hardware Portability Issues and Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report identifies hardware and software issues associated with the transition of computerized tests from old hardware and software configurations to currently available hardware and software. Hardware issues addressed include real-time clock performa...

R. Rosse, D. Dodd, J. M. Silva

1993-01-01

56

Preliminary Report on a National Cross-Validation of the Computerized Adaptive Screening Test (CAST).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Army must meet quantity and quality goals in its recruiting. Recent advances in computer technology and psychometric theory have made possible a new type of assessment technique, called computerized adaptive testing (CAT), that can provide accurate es...

D. J. Knapp R. M. Pliske

1986-01-01

57

Adaptation of a-Stratified Method in Variable Length Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Test security has often been a problem in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) because the traditional wisdom of item selection overly exposes high discrimination items. The a-stratified (STR) design advocated by H. Chang and his collaborators, which uses items of less discrimination in earlier stages of testing, has been shown to be very…

Wen, Jian-Bing; Chang, Hua-Hua; Hau, Kit-Tai

58

A Comparison of Procedures for Content-Sensitive Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This simulation investigated two procedures that reduce differences between paper-and-pencil testing and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) by making CAT content sensitive. Results indicate that the price in terms of additional test items of using constrained CAT for content balancing is much smaller than that of using testlets. (SLD)

Kingsbury, G. Gage; Zara, Anthony R.

1991-01-01

59

A New Item Selection Procedure for Mixed Item Type in Computerized Classification Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a new Information-Time index as the basis for item selection in computerized classification testing (CCT) and investigates how this new item selection algorithm can help improve test efficiency for item pools with mixed item types. It also investigates how practical constraints such as item exposure rate control, test

Lau, C. Allen; Wang, Tianyou

60

Comparing single-pool and multiple-pool designs regarding test security in computerized testing.  

PubMed

This article compares the use of single- and multiple-item pools with respect to test security against item sharing among some examinees in computerized testing. A simulation study was conducted to make a comparison among different pool designs using the item selection method of maximum item information with the Sympson-Hetter exposure control and content balance. The results from the simulation study indicate that two-pool designs have a better degree of resistance to item sharing than do the single-pool design in terms of measurement precision in ability estimation. This article further characterizes the conditions under which employing a multiple-pool design is better than using a single, whole pool in terms of minimizing the number of compromised items encountered by examinees under a randomized item selection method. Although no current computerized testing program endorses the randomized item selection method, the results derived in this study can shed some light on item pool designs regarding test security for all item selection algorithms, especially those that try to equalize or balance item exposure rates by employing a randomized item selection method locally, such as the a-stratified-with-b-blocking method. PMID:22218817

Zhang, Jinming; Chang, Hua-Hua; Yi, Qing

2012-09-01

61

Trait Parameter Recovery Using Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing in Reading and Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under a multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) computerized adaptive testing (CAT) testing scenario, a trait estimate (theta) in one dimension will provide clues for subsequently seeking a solution in other dimensions. This feature may enhance the efficiency of MIRT CAT's item selection and its scoring algorithms compared with its…

Li, Yuan H.; Schafer, William D.

2005-01-01

62

PERFORMANCE TESTS FOR THE EVALUATION OF COMPUTERIZED GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY EQUIPMENT AND LABORATORIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of ten general purpose tests are described which are used to evaluate the performance of computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems. All of the tests use the continuous, repetitive measurement of spectra method of data acquisition, and no selected ion moni...

63

Optimal Stratification of Item Pools in a-Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed a method based on 0-1 linear programming to stratify an item pool optimally for use in alpha-stratified adaptive testing. Applied the method to a previous item pool from the computerized adaptive test of the Graduate Record Examinations. Results show the new method performs well in practical situations. (SLD)

Chang, Hua-Hua; van der Linden, Wim J.

2003-01-01

64

Detection of Person Misfit in Computerized Adaptive Tests with Polytomous Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the nominal and empirical null distributions of the standardized log-likelihood statistic for polytomous items for paper-and-pencil (P&P) and computerized adaptive tests (CATs). Results show that the empirical distribution of the statistic differed from the assumed standard normal distribution for both P&P tests and CATs. Also proposed a…

van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith M. L. A.; Meijer, Rob R.

2002-01-01

65

New Algorithms for Item Selection and Exposure Control with Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although computerized adaptive tests acquire their efficiency by successively selecting items that provide optimal measurement at each examinee's estimated level of ability, operational testing programs will typically consider additional factors in item selection. In practice, items are generally selected with regard to at least three, often…

Davey, Tim; Parshall, Cynthia G.

66

Comparing and Combining Dichotomous and Polytomous Items with SPRT Procedure in Computerized Classification Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to: (1) extend the sequential probability ratio testing (SPRT) procedure to polytomous item response theory (IRT) models in computerized classification testing (CCT); (2) compare polytomous items with dichotomous items using the SPRT procedure for their accuracy and efficiency; (3) study a direct approach in…

Lau, C. Allen; Wang, Tianyou

67

Relationship Between Corresponding Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) and Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) Subtests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between selected subtests from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) and corresponding subtests administered as computerized adaptive tests (CAT) were investigated using Marine recruits as subjects. Three adaptive sub tests were shown to correlate as well with ASVAB as did a second administration of ASVAB, even though the CAT subtests contained only half the number of items.

Kathleen E. Moreno; C. Douglas Wetzel; James R. McBride; David J. Weiss

1984-01-01

68

The Application of the Monte Carlo Approach to Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing With Content Constraints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Monte Carlo approach which has previously been implemented in traditional computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is applied here to cognitive diagnostic CAT to test the ability of this approach to address multiple content constraints. The performance of the Monte Carlo approach is compared with the performance of the modified maximum global…

Mao, Xiuzhen; Xin, Tao

2013-01-01

69

Practical Issues in Large-Scale High-Stakes Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT), while well-grounded in psychometric theory, has had few large-scale applications for high-stakes, secure tests in the past. This is now changing as the cost of computing has declined rapidly. As is always true where theory is translated into practice, many practical issues arise. This paper discusses a number…

Mills, Craig N.; Stocking, Martha L.

70

A Model for Optimal Constrained Adaptive Testing. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model for constrained computerized adaptive testing is proposed in which the information on the test at the ability estimate is maximized subject to a large variety of possible constraints on the contents of the test. At each item-selection step, a full test is first assembled to have maximum information at the current ability estimate fixing…

van der Linden, Wim J.; Reese, Lynda M.

71

Testing Accommodations for University Students with AD/HD: Computerized vs. Paper-Pencil/Regular vs. Extended Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prompted by a previous study investigating the effects of pacing on the academic testing performance of college students with AD/HD, we further explored our preliminary findings, which suggested that a computerized testing environment enhanced the testing performance of college students with AD/HD. We compared the effects of a computerized vs.…

Lee, Kathryn S.; Osborne, Randall E.; Carpenter, David N.

2010-01-01

72

The Relationship Between Computer Experience and Computerized Cognitive Test Performance Among Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective. This study compared the relationship between computer experience and performance on computerized cognitive tests and a traditional paper-and-pencil cognitive test in a sample of older adults (N = 634). Method. Participants completed computer experience and computer attitudes questionnaires, three computerized cognitive tests (Useful Field of View (UFOV) Test, Road Sign Test, and Stroop task) and a paper-and-pencil cognitive measure (Trail Making Test). Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine differences in cognitive performance across the four measures between those with and without computer experience after adjusting for confounding variables. Results. Although computer experience had a significant main effect across all cognitive measures, the effect sizes were similar. After controlling for computer attitudes, the relationship between computer experience and UFOV was fully attenuated. Discussion. Findings suggest that computer experience is not uniquely related to performance on computerized cognitive measures compared with paper-and-pencil measures. Because the relationship between computer experience and UFOV was fully attenuated by computer attitudes, this may imply that motivational factors are more influential to UFOV performance than computer experience. Our findings support the hypothesis that computer use is related to cognitive performance, and this relationship is not stronger for computerized cognitive measures. Implications and directions for future research are provided.

2013-01-01

73

Development of the CAT-ANX: A Computerized Adaptive Test for Anxiety  

PubMed Central

Objective The authors developed a computerized adaptive test for anxiety that decreases patient and clinician burden and increases measurement precision. Method A total of 1,614 individuals with and without generalized anxiety disorder from a psychiatric clinic and community mental health center were recruited. The focus of the present study was the development of the Computerized Adaptive Testing–Anxiety Inventory (CAT-ANX). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to obtain diagnostic classifications of generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder. Results An average of 12 items per subject was required to achieve a 0.3 standard error in the anxiety severity estimate and maintain a correlation of 0.94 with the total 431-item test score. CAT-ANX scores were strongly related to the probability of a generalized anxiety disorder diagnosis. Using both the Computerized Adaptive Testing–-Depression Inventory and the CAT-ANX, comorbid major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder can be accurately predicted. Conclusions Traditional measurement fixes the number of items but allows measurement uncertainty to vary. Computerized adaptive testing fixes measurement uncertainty and allows the number and content of items to vary, leading to a dramatic decrease in the number of items required for a fixed level of measurement uncertainty. Potential applications for inexpensive, efficient, and accurate screening of anxiety in primary care settings, clinical trials, psychiatric epidemiology, molecular genetics, children, and other cultures are discussed.

Gibbons, Robert D.; Weiss, David J.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Frank, Ellen; Moore, Tara; Kim, Jong Bae; Kupfer, David J.

2014-01-01

74

Some Considerations for Eliminating Biases in Ability Estimation in Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Item response theory (IRT) has been adapted as the theoretical foundation of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for several decades. In applying IRT to CAT, there are certain considerations that are essential, and yet tend to be neglected. These essential issues are addressed in this paper, and then several ways of eliminating noise and bias in…

Samejima, Fumiko

75

Computerized Adaptive Testing with the Partial Credit Model: Estimation Procedures, Population Distributions, and Item Pool Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of this research is to examine the impact of estimation methods, actual latent trait distributions, and item pool characteristics on the performance of a simulated computerized adaptive testing (CAT) system. In this study, three estimation procedures are compared for accuracy of estimation: maximum likelihood estimation (MLE),…

Gorin, Joanna; Dodd, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Steven; Shieh, Yann

2005-01-01

76

A Comparison of the Partial Credit and Graded Response Models in Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized adaptive testing procedures (CATPs) based on the graded response method (GRM) of F. Samejima (1969) and the partial credit model (PCM) of G. Masters (1982) were developed and compared. Both programs used maximum likelihood estimation of ability, and item selection was conducted on the basis of information. Two simulated data sets, one…

De Ayala, R. J.; And Others

77

Three Response Types for Broadening the Conception of Mathematical Problem Solving in Computerized Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three open-ended response types that could broaden the conception of mathematical problem solving used in computerized admissions tests: (1) mathematical expression (ME); (2) generating examples (GE); and (3) and graphical modeling (GM). Illustrates how combining ME, GE, and GM can form extended constructed response problems. (SLD)

Bennett, Randy Elliot; Morley, Mary; Quardt, Dennis

2000-01-01

78

Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information index but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection index or in…

Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan

2011-01-01

79

A Method for the Comparison of Item Selection Rules in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a typical study comparing the relative efficiency of two item selection rules in computerized adaptive testing, the common result is that they simultaneously differ in accuracy and security, making it difficult to reach a conclusion on which is the more appropriate rule. This study proposes a strategy to conduct a global comparison of two or…

Barrada, Juan Ramon; Olea, Julio; Ponsoda, Vicente; Abad, Francisco Jose

2010-01-01

80

Computerized Classification Testing under the One-Parameter Logistic Response Model with Ability-Based Guessing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The one-parameter logistic model with ability-based guessing (1PL-AG) has been recently developed to account for effect of ability on guessing behavior in multiple-choice items. In this study, the authors developed algorithms for computerized classification testing under the 1PL-AG and conducted a series of simulations to evaluate their…

Wang, Wen-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Yun

2011-01-01

81

Item Pool Design for an Operational Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For computerized adaptive tests (CATs) to work well, they must have an item pool with sufficient numbers of good quality items. Many researchers have pointed out that, in developing item pools for CATs, not only is the item pool size important but also the distribution of item parameters and practical considerations such as content distribution…

He, Wei; Reckase, Mark D.

2014-01-01

82

Relationship between Corresponding Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) and Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) Subtests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between selected subtests from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) and corresponding subtests administered as computerized adaptive tests (CAT) was investigated using a sample of Marine recruits. Results showed that the CAT subtest scores correlated as well with initial ASVAB scores as did ASVAB retest scores,…

Moreno, Kathleen E.; And Others

83

A Comparison of Item Selection Rules at the Early Stages of Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared five item selection rules with respect to the efficiency and precision of trait (theta) estimation at the early stages of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The Fisher interval information, Fisher information with a posterior distribution, Kullback-Leibler information, and Kullback-Leibler information with a posterior distribution…

Chen, Shu-Ying; Ankenmann, Robert D.; Chang, Hua-Hua

2000-01-01

84

A Genre-Based Perspective for the Development of Communicative Computerized Adaptive Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the communicative potentials of Computerized Adaptive Testing. The study is based on a model that offers a set of independent communicative concepts to describe the Genre of an interactive application. This model will be the starting point to analyze the stages of the interaction cycle that are typically inherent to every…

Lopez-Cuadrado, Javier; Armendariz, Ana J.; Latapy, Marion; Lopisteguy, Philippe

2008-01-01

85

The Effects of Adding Dynamic Assessment Components to a Computerized Preschool Language Screening Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation of the computerized preschool language screening test (KIDTALK) with 41 low socioeconomic status preschoolers resulted in recommendations for further enhancement of this tool by incorporating dynamic assessment components and for continued investigation of its validity with culturally and linguistically diverse preschoolers. (Contains…

Jacobs, Ellen L.

2001-01-01

86

A Feedback Control Strategy for Enhancing Item Selection Efficiency in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computerized adaptive test (CAT) may be modeled as a closed-loop system, where item selection is influenced by trait level ([theta]) estimation and vice versa. When discrepancies exist between an examinee's estimated and true [theta] levels, nonoptimal item selection is a likely result. Nevertheless, examinee response behavior consistent with…

Weissman, Alexander

2006-01-01

87

Optimal Stratification of Item Pools in a-Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method based on 0-1 linear programming (LP) is presented to stratify an item pool optimally for use in "alpha"-stratified adaptive testing. Because the 0-1 LP model belongs to the subclass of models with a network-flow structure, efficient solutions are possible. The method is applied to a previous item pool from the computerized adaptive…

van der Linden, Wim J.

88

Validity of Computerized Testing in Toxic Encephalopathy, Final Performance Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The computer-assisted Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES) test battery was developed for the purpose of detecting brain dysfunction resulting from exposure to neurotoxicants. The NES tests are derived from standard neuropsychological tests that have b...

1999-01-01

89

Phoenix Test Sample Site in Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This color image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken.

Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

90

Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using this project will expose you to concepts of color, color wheels, color combinations, and techniques of using color. Use the following links, follow the directions to define color terms, create color schemes and explore the use of color in creating designs. Color Scheme Generator 2 This site identifiesbasic terms related to color, using acolor wheeland making color schemes. Color Theory This site explains terminology of color. Color Theory Tutorial This site gives excellent examples and information about ...

Dent, Mrs.

2010-03-23

91

Relative Utility of Computerized Versus Paper-and-Pencil Tests for Predicting Job Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article, the second of two, presents predic tive validity data for on-job performance for a set of computerized Graphic and Interactive Processing (GRIP) tests in conjunction with data for both ex perimental paper-and-pencil and operational tests. Validity coefficients for job element and global cri teria are reported for four different jobs. Experi mental variables substantially enhanced the predic tive

Charles H. Cory

1977-01-01

92

Symposium on computerized behavioral testing of humans in neurotoxicology research: Overview of the proceedings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Symposium on Computerized Behavioral Testing of Humans in Neurotoxicology Research, held in Portland, OR (USA), on June 21–23,1995, is the subject of the 23 articles in this issue of Neurotoxicology and Teratology. It is the first open forum to focus exclusively on computer-implemented behavioral test methods for neurotoxicology. Both the Symposium and this proceedings have been organized around the

W. Kent Anger; David A. Otto; Richard Letz

1996-01-01

93

Test-Retest Reliability of Computerized Concussion Assessment Programs  

PubMed Central

Context: Computer-based neurocognitive assessment programs commonly are used to assist in concussion diagnosis and management. These tests have been adopted readily by many clinicians based on existing test-retest reliability data provided by test developers. Objective: To examine the test-retest reliability of 3 commercially available computer-based neurocognitive assessments using clinically relevant time frames. Design: Repeated-measures design. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: 118 healthy student volunteers. Main Outcome Measure(s): The participants completed the ImPACT, Concussion Sentinel, and Headminder Concussion Resolution Index tests on 3 days: baseline, day 45, and day 50. Each participant also completed the Green Memory and Concentration Test to evaluate effort. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for all output scores generated by each computer program as an estimate of test-retest reliability. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient estimates from baseline to day 45 assessments ranged from .15 to .39 on the ImPACT, .23 to .65 on the Concussion Sentinel, and .15 to .66 on the Concussion Resolution Index. The intraclass correlation coefficient estimates from the day 45 to day 50 assessments ranged from .39 to .61 on the ImPACT, .39 to .66 on the Concussion Sentinel, and .03 to .66 on the Concussion Resolution Index. All participants demonstrated high levels of effort on all days of testing, according to Memory and Concentration Test interpretive guidelines. Conclusions: Three contemporary computer-based concussion assessment programs evidenced low to moderate test-retest reliability coefficients. Our findings do not appear to be due to suboptimal effort or other factors related to poor test performance, because persons identified by individual programs as having poor baseline data were excluded from the analyses. The neurocognitive evaluation should continue to be part of a multifaceted concussion assessment program, with priority given to those scores showing the highest reliability.

Broglio, Steven P; Ferrara, Michael S; Macciocchi, Stephen N; Baumgartner, Ted A; Elliott, Ronald

2007-01-01

94

Proceedings of the 1977 Computerized Adaptive Testing Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 27 papers in this collection (26 of which were presented at the conference) are organized according to the eight topical sessions: (1) Improving Ability Measurement Using Different Item Formats, (2) Alternative Models for Adaptive Testing, (3) Psychological and Subgroup Effects, (4) Performance Testing by Interactive Simulation, (5)…

Weiss, David J., Ed.

95

Implementation and Measurement Efficiency of Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multidimensional adaptive testing (MAT) procedures are proposed for the measurement of several latent traits by a single examination. Bayesian latent trait estimation and adaptive item selection are derived. Simulations were conducted to compare the measurement efficiency of MAT with those of unidimensional adaptive testing and random…

Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi

2004-01-01

96

Testing primates with joystick-based automated apparatus - Lessons from the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonhuman primates provide useful models for studying a variety of medical, biological, and behavioral topics. Four years of joystick-based automated testing of monkeys using the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) are examined to derive hints and principles for comparable testing with other species - including humans. The results of multiple parametric studies are reviewed, and reliability data are presented to reveal the surprises and pitfalls associated with video-task testing of performance.

Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

1992-01-01

97

Development and Application of Detection Indices for Measuring Guessing Behaviors and Test-Taking Effort in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the amount of time that different ability-level examinees spend on questions they answer correctly or incorrectly across different pretest item blocks presented on a fixed-length, time-restricted computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Results indicate that different ability-level examinees require different amounts of time to…

Chang, Shu-Ren; Plake, Barbara S.; Kramer, Gene A.; Lien, Shu-Mei

2011-01-01

98

Computerized Adaptive Testing with Multiple-Form Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multiple-form structure (MFS) is an ordered collection or network of testlets (i.e., sets of items). An examinee's progression through the network of testlets is dictated by the correctness of an examinee's answers, thereby adapting the test to his or her trait level. The collection of paths through the network yields the set of all possible…

Armstrong, Ronald D.; Jones, Douglas H.; Koppel, Nicole B.; Pashley, Peter J.

2004-01-01

99

Computerization of the Structured-Objective Rorschach Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SORTSCOR performs raw scoring of the Structured-Objective Rorschach Test (SORT) and REPORT subsequently writes a narrative report in easily readable, nonclinical language. Complete documentation is available, at cost, from the author at Quinnipiac College, Hamden, Conn. 06518. (Author/CB)

Ingenohl, Ingo

1973-01-01

100

A Sharing Item Response Theory Model for Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new sharing item response theory (SIRT) model is presented that explicitly models the effects of sharing item content between informants and test takers. This model is used to construct adaptive item selection and scoring rules that provide increased precision and reduced score gains in instances where sharing occurs. The adaptive item selection…

Segall, Daniel O.

2004-01-01

101

Testing CIELAB-based color-difference formulae using large color differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three advanced CIELAB-based color-difference formulae, CMC, CIE94, and CIEDE2000, together with the basic CIELAB equation,\\u000a were tested using large color-difference visual data (maximum average size was 12 CIELAB ?E units) produced in this study.\\u000a The color-difference comparison experiment was carried out at CIE Gray and Blue centers by a panel of 6 normal color-vision\\u000a observers using CRT-generated stimuli based on

Haisong Xu; Hirohisa Yaguchi; Satoshi Shioiri

2001-01-01

102

Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) - Video-formatted tasks for comparative primate research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automation of a computerized test system for comparative primate research is shown to improve the results of learning in standard paradigms. A mediational paradigm is used to determine the degree to which criterion in the learning-set testing reflects stimulus-response associative or mediational learning. Rhesus monkeys are shown to exhibit positive transfer as the criterion levels are shifted upwards, and the effectiveness of the computerized testing system is confirmed.

Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.; Hopkins, William D.; Richardson, W. K.

1991-01-01

103

Development of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for the EORTC QLQ-C30 physical functioning dimension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Computerized adaptive test (CAT) methods, based on item response theory (IRT), enable a patient-reported outcome instrument\\u000a to be adapted to the individual patient while maintaining direct comparability of scores. The EORTC Quality of Life Group\\u000a is developing a CAT version of the widely used EORTC QLQ-C30. We present the development and psychometric validation of the\\u000a item pool for the first

Morten Aa. Petersen; Mogens Groenvold; Neil K. Aaronson; Wei-Chu Chie; Thierry Conroy; Anna Costantini; Peter Fayers; Jorunn Helbostad; Bernhard Holzner; Stein Kaasa; Susanne Singer; Galina Velikova; Teresa Young

2011-01-01

104

Development of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for the EORTC QLQ-C30 physical functioning dimension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Computerized adaptive test (CAT) methods, based on item response theory (IRT), enable a patient-reported outcome instrument to be adapted to the individual patient while maintaining direct comparability of scores. The EORTC Quality of Life Group is developing a CAT version of the widely used EORTC QLQ-C30. We present the development and psychometric validation of the item pool for the

M. A. Petersen; M. Groenvold; N. K. Aaronson; W. C. Chie; T. Conroy; A. Constantini; P. Fayers; J. Helbostad; B. Holzner; S. Kaasa; S. Singer; G. Velikova; T. Young

2010-01-01

105

Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing of the EORTC QLQ-C30: Basic Developments and Evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Self-report questionnaires are widely used to measure health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Ideally, such questionnaires\\u000a should be adapted to the individual patient and at the same time scores should be directly comparable across patients. This\\u000a may be achieved using computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Usually, CAT is carried out for a single domain at a time. However,\\u000a many HRQOL domains

Morten Aa. Petersen; Mogens Groenvold; Neil Aaronson; Peter Fayers; Mirjam Sprangers; Jakob B. Bjorner

2006-01-01

106

Development and Pilot Testing of Computerized Order Entry Algorithms for Geriatric Problems in Nursing Homes  

PubMed Central

Objectives Computerized order entry algorithms can improve the quality of care; but are rarely used in nursing homes (NHs). We conducted a pilot study to: (1) develop order entry algorithms for 5 common NH problems, and (2) test their acceptance, use, and preliminary impact on quality indicators and resource utilization. Design Pre-post, quasi-experimental study. Setting: 2 Veterans Affairs NHs. Participants Randomly selected residents (n=265) with one or more target conditions, and 42 nursing home providers. Intervention Expert panels developed computerized order entry algorithms based on clinical practice guidelines. Each was displayed on a single screen and included an array of diagnostic and treatment options, and means to communicate with the interdisciplinary team. Medical records were abstracted for the 6 months preceding and following deployment. Results Despite positive provider attitudes toward the computerized order entry algorithms, their use was infrequent and varied by condition: Falls (73%), Fever (9%), Pneumonia (8%), UTI (7%), and Osteoporosis (3%). In subjects with falls, we observed trends for improvements in quality measures for the 6/9 measures, including measuring orthostatic blood pressure (17.5% to 30%, p=0.29), reducing neuroleptics (53.8% to 75%, p=0.27), reducing sedative-hypnotics (16.7% to 50.0%, p=0.50), prescription of calcium (22.5% to 32.5%, p=0.45), vitamin D (20.0 to 35.0%, p=0.21), and external hip protectors (25.0 to 47.5%, p=0.06). Little improvement was observed in the other conditions. There was no change in resource utilization. Conclusion Computerized order entry algorithms were used infrequently, except for falls. Further study may determine whether their use leads to improved care.

Colon-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Schmader, Kenneth E.; Twersky, Jack; Kuchibhatla, Maragantha; Kellum, Sally; Weinberger, Morris

2009-01-01

107

Further development of forensic eye color predictive tests.  

PubMed

In forensic analysis predictive tests for external visible characteristics (or EVCs), including inference of iris color, represent a potentially useful tool to guide criminal investigations. Two recent studies, both focused on forensic testing, have analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes underlying common eye color variation (Mengel-From et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 4:323 and Walsh et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 5:170). Each study arrived at different recommendations for eye color predictive tests aiming to type the most closely associated SNPs, although both confirmed rs12913832 in HERC2 as the key predictor, widely recognized as the most strongly associated marker with blue and brown iris colors. Differences between these two studies in identification of other eye color predictors may partly arise from varying approaches to assigning phenotypes, notably those not unequivocally blue or dark brown and therefore occupying an intermediate iris color continuum. We have developed two single base extension assays typing 37 SNPs in pigmentation-associated genes to study SNP-genotype based prediction of eye, skin, and hair color variation. These assays were used to test the performance of different sets of eye color predictors in 416 subjects from six populations of north and south Europe. The presence of a complex and continuous range of intermediate phenotypes distinct from blue and brown eye colors was confirmed by establishing eye color populations compared to genetic clusters defined using Structure software. Our study explored the effect of an expanded SNP combination beyond six markers has on the ability to predict eye color in a forensic test without extending the SNP assay excessively - thus maintaining a balance between the test's predictive value and an ability to reliably type challenging DNA with a multiplex of manageable size. Our evaluation used AUC analysis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves) and naïve Bayesian likelihood-based classification approaches. To provide flexibility in SNP-based eye color predictive tests in forensic applications we modified an online Bayesian classifier, originally developed for genetic ancestry analysis, to provide a straightforward system to assign eye color likelihoods from a SNP profile combining additional informative markers from the predictors analyzed by our study plus those of Walsh and Mengel-From. Two advantages of the online classifier is the ability to submit incomplete SNP profiles, a common occurrence when typing challenging DNA, and the ability to handle physically linked SNPs showing independent effect, by allowing the user to input frequencies from SNP pairs or larger combinations. This system was used to include the submission of frequency data for the SNP pair rs12913832 and rs1129038: indicated by our study to be the two SNPs most closely associated to eye color. PMID:22709892

Ruiz, Y; Phillips, C; Gomez-Tato, A; Alvarez-Dios, J; Casares de Cal, M; Cruz, R; Maroñas, O; Söchtig, J; Fondevila, M; Rodriguez-Cid, M J; Carracedo, A; Lareu, M V

2013-01-01

108

A pseudoisochromatic test of color vision for human infants.  

PubMed

Despite the development of experimental methods capable of measuring early human color vision, we still lack a procedure comparable to those used to diagnose the well-identified congenital and acquired color vision anomalies in older children, adults, and clinical patients. In this study, we modified a pseudoisochromatic test to make it more suitable for young infants. Using a forced choice preferential looking procedure, 216 3-to-23-mo-old babies were tested with pseudoisochromatic targets that fell on either a red/green or a blue/yellow dichromatic confusion axis. For comparison, 220 color-normal adults and 22 color-deficient adults were also tested. Results showed that all babies and adults passed the blue/yellow target but many of the younger infants failed the red/green target, likely due to the interaction of the lingering immaturities within the visual system and the small CIE vector distance within the red/green plate. However, older (17-23 mo) infants, color- normal adults and color-defective adults all performed according to expectation. Interestingly, performance on the red/green plate was better among female infants, well exceeding the expected rate of genetic dimorphism between genders. Overall, with some further modification, the test serves as a promising tool for the detection of early color vision anomalies in early human life. PMID:24768799

Mercer, Michele E; Drodge, Suzanne C; Courage, Mary L; Adams, Russell J

2014-07-01

109

Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing: Improving the a-Stratified Design with the Sympson-Hetter Algorithm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Item exposure control, test-overlap minimization, and the efficient use of item pool are some of the important issues in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) designs. The overexposure of some items and high test-overlap rate may cause both item and test security problems. Previously these problems associated with the maximum information (Max-I)…

Leung, Chi-Keung; Chang, Hua-Hua; Hau, Kit-Tai

2002-01-01

110

Effects of a Computerized Program on Use of the Test-Taking Strategy by Secondary Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with disabilities must meet many testing demands, given the current emphasis on accountability and state competency testing. The purpose of this project was to develop and field test a computerized program to teach the Test-Taking Strategy (Hughes, Schumaker, Deshler, & Mercer, 1988) to secondary-level students with disabilities. The…

Lancaster, Paula E.; Schumaker, Jean B.; Lancaster, Sean J. C.; Deshler, Donald D.

2009-01-01

111

Predictive Validity of the Aviation Lights Test for Testing Pilots With Color Vision Deficiencies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The color filters of the Farnsworth Lantern (FALANT) were changed to meet the Federal Aviation Administration s signal color specifications, thereby creating a job-sample color vision test called the Aviation Lights Test (ALT) that is used for secondary s...

N. J. Milburn H. W. Mertens

2004-01-01

112

Performance testing of CIEDE2000 color-difference formula using CRT colors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A psychological experiment was carried out with the method of constant stimuli using CRT-generated color samples. The experimental results at the five CIE color centers of Gray, Red, Yellow, Green, and Blue were satisfactorily described by chromaticity ellipses as equal color-difference contours in the CIELAB space. The CIEDE2000 formula, together with other two advanced color-difference formulae, CMC and CIE94, and the basic CIELAB equation, were tested using the visual data obtained from the present experiment. The comparisons between the color differences, (Delta) E, predicted by individual formulae and the corresponding visual scales, (Delta) V, were carried out in terms of PF/3 measure. With their original forms, i.e., kLequalskCequalskHequals1, or with their optimized kL values, the CIEDE2000 outperformed others for the combined dataset under the viewing condition in this study. Furthermore. The visual data at Blue center were well predicted by CIEDE2000 with an obviously better accuracy than other color-difference formulae. This confirms that the rotation item involved in the CIEDE2000 equation effectively improves the uniformity and predicting performance for the color differences in the blue region.

Xu, Haisong; Xiang, Zhen; Yaguchi, Hirohisa

2002-09-01

113

Evaluation of a new computerized psychometric test battery: Effects of zolpidem and caffeine  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the effects of centrally active drugs using a new indigenously developed automated psychometric test system and compare the results with that obtained using pencil- and paper-based techniques. Materials and Methods: The tests were standardized in 24 healthy participants. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by performing the tests by a single experimenter on two occasions (interday reproducibility). To evaluate the sensitivity of the tests, the effects of zolpidem (5 mg) and caffeine (500 mg) versus placebo were studied in 24 healthy participants in a randomized, double-blind three-way crossover design. Results: Psychometric tests were performed at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 h after administration of study medication. The effects of zolpidem and caffeine on the psychomotor performance were most pronounced 1 h after administration. At this time, a significant impairment of performance in the simple reaction test (SRT), choice discrimination test (CDT), digit symbol substitution test (DSST), digit vigilance test (DVT), and card sorting test (CST) was observed with zolpidem. In contrast, caffeine showed a significant improvement in performance in CDT and DVT only. Conclusion: The results suggest that the tests of the computerized system are more sensitive and reliable then the pencil and paper tests in detecting the effects of central acting agents and are suitable for use in clinical areas to conduct studies with patients.

Pilli, Raveendranadh; Naidu, MUR; Pingali, Usharani; Shobha, JC

2013-01-01

114

Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing: Adaptation of the A-Stratified Strategy in Item Selection with Content Balancing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Variable-length computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can provide examinees with tailored test lengths. With the fixed standard error of measurement ("SEM") termination rule, variable-length CAT can achieve predetermined measurement precision by using relatively shorter tests compared to fixed-length CAT. To explore the application of…

Huo, Yan

2009-01-01

115

The Effects of Practice on Speed of Information Processing Using the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Test (Adjusting-PSAT) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of practice on the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Task (Adjusting-PSAT) (Tombaugh, 1999) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP) (Tombaugh & Rees, 2000). The Adjusting-PSAT is a computerized modification of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) (Gronwall, 1977) that makes the interval between digits contingent on the correctness of the response.

B. J. Baird; Thomas N. Tombaugh; M. Francis

2007-01-01

116

Colors, Colors?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to the famous "Stroop Effect," learners explore how words influence what we see and how the brain handles "mixed messages." Learners read colored words and are asked to say the color of the word, not what the word says. Learners use a data table to keep track of where they have trouble reading the colors. They analyze this data by answering questions and drawing conclusions. Learners can also take this test using the online version.

Songstad, Susan

2009-01-01

117

A computerized test system for thermal-mechanical fatigue crack growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computerized testing system to measure fatigue crack growth under thermal-mechanical fatigue conditions is described. Built around a servohydraulic machine, the system is capable of a push-pull test under stress-controlled or strain-controlled conditions in the temperature range of 25 to 1050 C. Temperature and mechanical strain are independently controlled by the closed-loop system to simulate the complex inservice strain-temperature relationship. A d-c electrical potential method is used to measure crack growth rates. The correction procedure of the potential signal to take into account powerline and RF-induced noises and thermal changes is described. It is shown that the potential drop technique can be used for physical mechanism studies and for modelling crack tip processes.

Marchand, N.; Pelloux, R. M.

1986-01-01

118

Orbital Docking System Centerline Color Television Camera System Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of tests was run to verify that the design of the centerline color television camera (CTVC) system is adequate optically for the STS-71 Space Shuttle Orbiter docking mission with the Mir space station. In each test, a mockup of the Mir consisting...

P. T. Mongan

1993-01-01

119

Proceedings of the First Conference on Computerized Adaptive Testing (Washington, D.C., June 12-13, 1975).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principal objectives of this conference were to exchange information, discuss theoretical and empirical developments, and to coordinate research efforts. The papers and their authors are: "The Graded Response Model of Latent Trait Theory and Tailored Testing" by Fumiko Samejima; (Incomplete Orders and Computerized Testing" by Norman Cliff;…

Clark, Cynthia L., Ed.

120

Can Examinees Use a Review Option To Obtain Positively Biased Ability Estimates on a Computerized Adaptive Test?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the effectiveness of H. Wainer's (1993) strategy for obtaining positively biased ability estimates when examinees can review and change answers on computerized adaptive tests. Results, based on simulation and testing data from 87 college students, show that the Wainer strategy sometimes yields inflated ability estimates and sometimes…

Vispoel, Walter P.; Rocklin, Thomas R.; Wang, Tianyou; Bleiler, Timothy

1999-01-01

121

Sensitivity and Specificity of a Computerized Test of Attention in the Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is difficult to diagnose due to the subjectivity of its symptoms and lack of specific assessment measures. Computerized tests of attention have recently been used as objective measures that may assist in the diagnosis of the disorder. The present study evaluated consistency between the Conners Parent Rating Scale and the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA), which

Amy M. Schatz; Angela O. Ballantyne; Doris A. Trauner

2001-01-01

122

Modified cobalt thiocyanate presumptive color test for ketamine hydrochloride.  

PubMed

A new presumptive color test for ketamine hydrochloride is reported. The test is a modification of the cobalt thiocyanate test currently used for cocaine and involves basifying samples rather than acidifying them. The two-step procedure for liquids and three-step procedure for powdered samples are straightforward, definitive, and utilize reagents commonly used in forensic drug analysis. The test works on ketamine hydrochloride in both powder and liquid form and has a sensitivity of c. 1.25 mg. Performing the test with numerous other controlled substances and related chemicals demonstrates the test to be highly selective. PMID:17209915

Morris, Jeremiah A

2007-01-01

123

Computerized Adaptive Testing: A Primer (Second Edition). Howard Wainer (Ed.) (with Neil Dorans, Donald Eignor, Ronald Flaugher, Bert Green, Robert Mislevy, Lynne Steinberg, and David Thissen). [book review].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second edition of "Computerized Adaptive Testing" contains new materials related to: (1) chapter 2, system design; (2) chapter 4, item response theory, item calibration, and proficiency estimation; and (3) chapter 10, caveats, pitfalls, and unexpected consequences. The book raises critical computerized adaptive testing research and application…

Reise, Steven P.

2001-01-01

124

"Computerized Adaptive Testing: Theory and Practice." Wim J. van der Linden and Cees A. W. Glas, Eds. [book review].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains a series of research articles about computerized adaptive testing (CAT) written for advanced psychometricians. The book is divided into sections on: (1) item selection and examinee scoring in CAT; (2) examples of CAT applications; (3) item banks; (4) determining model fit; and (5) using testlets in CAT. (SLD)

Reise, Steven P.

2001-01-01

125

The Effect of Population Distribution and Method of Theta Estimation on Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) Using the Rating Scale Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simulation study explored the effect of population distribution on maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and expected a posteriori (EAP) estimation in computerized adaptive testing based on the rating scale model of D. Andrich (1978). The choice between EAP and MLE for particular situations is discussed. (SLD)

Chen, Ssu-Kuang; And Others

1997-01-01

126

On the Reliability and Validity of a Numerical Reasoning Speed Dimension Derived from Response Times Collected in Computerized Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 181 college students were used to assess whether math reasoning item response times in computerized testing can provide valid and reliable measures of a speed dimension. The alternate forms reliability of the speed dimension was .85. A two-dimensional structural equation model suggests that the speed dimension is related to the accuracy…

Davison, Mark L.; Semmes, Robert; Huang, Lan; Close, Catherine N.

2012-01-01

127

Examination of the Construct Validity of Impact™ Computerized Test, Traditional, and Experimental Neuropsychological Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although computerized neuropsychological screening is becoming a standard for sports concussion identification and management, convergent validity studies are limited. Such studies are important for several reasons: reference to established measures is needed to establish validity; examination of the computerized battery relative to a more traditional comprehensive battery will help understand the strengths and limitations of the computer battery; and such

A. Maerlender; L. Flashman; A. Kessler; S. Kumbhani; R. Greenwald; T. Tosteson; T. McAllister

2010-01-01

128

The Mere Exposure Effect Is Sensitive to Color Information: Evidence for Color Effects in a Perceptual Implicit Memory Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Priming effects in perceptual tests of implicit memory are assumed to be perceptually specific. Surprisingly, changing object colors from study to test did not diminish priming in most previous studies. However, these studies used implicit tests that are based on object identification, which mainly depends on the analysis of the object shape and therefore operates color-independently. The present study shows

Almut Hupbach; André Melzer; Oliver Hardt

2006-01-01

129

COLORS!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students will learn about primary, secondary, and complementary colors. After exploring a few sites and participating in a few deep questions as a class, they will create an optical illusion using complimentary colors. Younger students who are learning this unit will need to do this activity with a parent or as a class with a teacher or aide. INTRODUCTION: Questions to discuss with the students: 1. What colors do you see in this room? 2. What are some jobs that use colors? An Artist? Decorator? ...

Sarah

2009-09-28

130

A comparison of paper-and-pencil and computerized forms of Line Orientation and Enhanced Cued Recall Tests.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess whether a computerized battery of neuropsychological tests could produce similar results as the conventional forms. Comparisons on 77 volunteer undergraduates were carried out with two neuropsychological tests: Line Orientation Test and Enhanced Cued Recall Test. Firstly, students were assigned randomly across the test medium (paper-and-pencil versus computerized). Secondly, the groups were given the same test in the other medium after a 30-day interval between tests. Results showed that the Enhanced Cued Recall Test-Computer-based did not correlate with the Enhanced Cued Recall Test-Paper-and-pencil results. Line Orientation Test-Computer-based scores, on the other hand, did correlate significantly with the Line Orientation Test-Paper-and-pencil version. In both tests, scores were higher on paper-and-pencil tests compared to computer-based tests. Total score difference between modalities was statistically significant for both Enhanced Cued Recall Tests and for the Line Orientation Test. In both computer-based tests, it took less time for participants to complete the tests. PMID:22662393

A?kar, Petek; Altun, Arif; Cangöz, Banu; Cevik, Vildan; Kaya, Galip; Türksoy, Hasan

2012-04-01

131

The Language Research Center's Computerized Test System for environmental enrichment and psychological assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the spring of 1987, we undertook to provide environmental enrichment to nonhuman primate subjects in ways that would complement and even contribute to the bio-behaviorial science that justified the monkeys' captivity. Of course, the psychological well-being of captive primates--and indeed all research species-- has been an area of intense research activity since the 1985 amendment of the Animal Welfare Act. This mandate for researchers to ensure the psychological, as well as physical, fitness of experimental animals catalyzed the humane and scientific interests of the research community. The contemporary literature is replete with proposed means both of assaying and of providing enrichment and well-being. Notwithstanding, consensus on either assessment or intervention has yet to be reached. The paradigm we employed was modelled after successful efforts with chimpanzees. An automated test system was constructed in which subjects responded to computer tasks by manipulating a joystick. The tasks, interactive game-like versions of many of the classic testing paradigms of cognitive and comparative psychology, permitted the controlled presentation of stimuli and demands without the required presence of a human experimenter. Despite significant barriers to the success, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and a variety of other primate species (including, of course, humans) have mastered the skills necessary for testing in this paradigm. Previous experiments have illustrated the utility of the test system for addressing questions of learning, memory, attention, perception, and motivation. Additional data have been reported to support the contention that the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) serves its other raison d'etre--providing environmental enrichment and assessing psychological well-being. This paper is designed to augment previous descriptions of the technology and the paradigm for scientists and caretakers interested in environmental enrichment and performance assessment with primates.

Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.

1992-01-01

132

The adolescent health review: test of a computerized screening tool in school-based clinics.  

PubMed

This study tested the viability of a stand-alone screening process in school-based health centers, and gauged its acceptance by patients and providers. The study also examined the prevalence of a variety of health risks disclosed in response to a new screening instrument and the relationship between these health risks and the stated purpose for the clinic visit. Seven school-based clinics located in six high schools and one alternative school in an urban school district participated in the study; 692 patients (83% female, 67% minority) completed the Adolescent Health Review (AHR), a multidimensional screening instrument that addressed 14 risk domains. The AHR was computerized for administration, scoring, and report generation. Females reported risk in significantly more domains than males (4.2 vs. 3.2; t = 4.5, p < .0001), including higher risk in family interaction problems, a history of physical or sexual abuse, emotional distress, suicidal behavior, marijuana use, and sexual activity. Significantly more males than females reported violent behavior. Risk rates were high regardless of stated purpose for the clinic visit. According to clinic staff, use of the AHR increased routine screening and the process was well accepted by patients and providers. Providers benefited from the opportunity to discuss risks with patients by using the printed reports to facilitate conversation and develop health care plans. PMID:12621719

Harrison, Patricia A; Beebe, Timothy J; Park, Eunkyung; Rancone, Jeanne

2003-01-01

133

Color-Object Interference: Further Tests of an Executive Control Account  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children are slower in naming the color of a meaningful picture than in naming the color of an abstract form (Stroop-like color-object interference). The current experiments tested an executive control account of this phenomenon. First, color-object interference was observed in 6- and 8-year-olds but not in 12- and 16-year-olds (Experiment…

La Heij, Wido; Boelens, Harrie

2011-01-01

134

A Web-Based Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) to Assess Patient Perception in Hospitalization  

PubMed Central

Background Many hospitals have adopted mobile nursing carts that can be easily rolled up to a patient’s bedside to access charts and help nurses perform their rounds. However, few papers have reported data regarding the use of wireless computers on wheels (COW) at patients’ bedsides to collect questionnaire-based information of their perception of hospitalization on discharge from the hospital. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative efficiency of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and the precision of CAT-based measures of perceptions of hospitalized patients, as compared with those of nonadaptive testing (NAT). An Excel module of our CAT multicategory assessment is provided as an example. Method A total of 200 patients who were discharged from the hospital responded to the CAT-based 18-item inpatient perception questionnaire on COW. The numbers of question administrated were recorded and the responses were calibrated using the Rasch model. They were compared with those from NAT to show the advantage of CAT over NAT. Results Patient measures derived from CAT and NAT were highly correlated (r = 0.98) and their measurement precisions were not statistically different (P = .14). CAT required fewer questions than NAT (an efficiency gain of 42%), suggesting a reduced burden for patients. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of gender and other demographic characteristics. Conclusions CAT-based administration of surveys of patient perception substantially reduced patient burden without compromising the precision of measuring patients’ perceptions of hospitalization. The Excel module of animation-CAT on the wireless COW that we developed is recommended for use in hospitals.

Chien, Tsair-Wei; Wang, Wen-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Yun; Lai, Wen-Pin

2011-01-01

135

Applying Computerized Adaptive Testing to the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised: Rasch Analysis of Workplace Bullying  

PubMed Central

Background Workplace bullying is a prevalent problem in contemporary work places that has adverse effects on both the victims of bullying and organizations. With the rapid development of computer technology in recent years, there is an urgent need to prove whether item response theory–based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can be applied to measure exposure to workplace bullying. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative efficiency and measurement precision of a CAT-based test for hospital nurses compared to traditional nonadaptive testing (NAT). Under the preliminary conditions of a single domain derived from the scale, a CAT module bullying scale model with polytomously scored items is provided as an example for evaluation purposes. Methods A total of 300 nurses were recruited and responded to the 22-item Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R). All NAT (or CAT-selected) items were calibrated with the Rasch rating scale model and all respondents were randomly selected for a comparison of the advantages of CAT and NAT in efficiency and precision by paired t tests and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Results The NAQ-R is a unidimensional construct that can be applied to measure exposure to workplace bullying through CAT-based administration. Nursing measures derived from both tests (CAT and NAT) were highly correlated (r=.97) and their measurement precisions were not statistically different (P=.49) as expected. CAT required fewer items than NAT (an efficiency gain of 32%), suggesting a reduced burden for respondents. There were significant differences in work tenure between the 2 groups (bullied and nonbullied) at a cutoff point of 6 years at 1 worksite. An AUROC of 0.75 (95% CI 0.68-0.79) with logits greater than –4.2 (or >30 in summation) was defined as being highly likely bullied in a workplace. Conclusions With CAT-based administration of the NAQ-R for nurses, their burden was substantially reduced without compromising measurement precision.

Ma, Shu-Ching; Li, Yu-Chi; Yui, Mei-Shu

2014-01-01

136

Prevalence of Invalid Computerized Baseline Neurocognitive Test Results in High School and Collegiate Athletes  

PubMed Central

Context: Limited data are available regarding the prevalence and nature of invalid computerized baseline neurocognitive test data. Objective: To identify the prevalence of invalid baselines on the desktop and online versions of ImPACT and to document the utility of correcting for left-right (L-R) confusion on the desktop version of ImPACT. Design: Cross-sectional study of independent samples of high school (HS) and collegiate athletes who completed the desktop or online versions of ImPACT. Participants or Other Participants: A total of 3769 HS (desktop ?=? 1617, online ?=? 2152) and 2130 collegiate (desktop ?=? 742, online ?=? 1388) athletes completed preseason baseline assessments. Main Outcome Measure(s): Prevalence of 5 ImPACT validity indicators, with correction for L-R confusion (reversing left and right mouse-click responses) on the desktop version, by test version and group. Chi-square analyses were conducted for sex and attentional or learning disorders. Results: At least 1 invalid indicator was present on 11.9% (desktop) versus 6.3% (online) of the HS baselines and 10.2% (desktop) versus 4.1% (online) of collegiate baselines; correcting for L-R confusion (desktop) decreased this overall prevalence to 8.4% (HS) and 7.5% (collegiate). Online Impulse Control scores alone yielded 0.4% (HS) and 0.9% (collegiate) invalid baselines, compared with 9.0% (HS) and 5.4% (collegiate) on the desktop version; correcting for L-R confusion (desktop) decreased the prevalence of invalid Impulse Control scores to 5.4% (HS) and 2.6% (collegiate). Male athletes and HS athletes with attention deficit or learning disorders who took the online version were more likely to have at least 1 invalid indicator. Utility of additional invalidity indicators is reported. Conclusions: The online ImPACT version appeared to yield fewer invalid baseline results than did the desktop version. Identification of L-R confusion reduces the prevalence of invalid baselines (desktop only) and the potency of Impulse Control as a validity indicator. We advise test administrators to be vigilant in identifying invalid baseline results as part of routine concussion management and prevention programs.

Schatz, Philip; Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Solomon, Gary S.; Ott, Summer D.; Karpf, Robin

2012-01-01

137

A Comparison of Computerized and Paper-Based Language Tests with Adults with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigated whether computers are a useful tool in the assessment of people with aphasia (PWA). Computerized and traditionally administered versions of tasks were compared to determine whether (a) the scores were equivalent, (b) the administration was comparable, (c) variables such as age affected performance, and (d) the…

Newton, Caroline; Acres, Kadia; Bruce, Carolyn

2013-01-01

138

Projected color slides as a method for mass screening test for color vision deficiency (a preliminary study).  

PubMed

This article compared the efficiency of the mass screening test with projected color slides in detecting color-blindness with the authentic classic method of Ishihara. The study was conducted in a randomly selected lecture room with 104 students aged between 19-25 years (median 21). Using Ishihara projected slides, performed mass screening test. Re-testing was done individually with printed Ishihara plates. Six male and one female with color-blindness were detected. The frequency of color-blindness was 13.6% among males, with a total incidence of 6.7%. The results of two testing methods were compared statistically. Sensitivities and specificities of both tests were 100%. Using projected slides of Ishihara plates instead of the authentic method is an effective and timesaving method for detecting color-blindness. This method can be suggested as a mass-screening test and might be beneficial in detecting color-blindness in large populations such as students, soldiers, and so on. PMID:16040354

Gündogan, Nimet Unay; Durmazlar, Nezih; Gümü?, Koray; Ozdemir, Pinar Geyik; Altinta?, Ay?e Gül; Durur, Irmak; Acaroglu, Gölge

2005-08-01

139

Recommendations for color vision testing and criteria for its implementation at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

A color-vision test battery that will classify personnel according to the severity of their color vision abnormality is recommended for use at Sandia National Laboratories. These tests will result in improved job placement of color-vision-deficient personnel and thereby reduce the possibility of job discrimination without adversely affecting safety, health, or logistics. Preliminary etiological and pathophysiological aspects are discussed briefly.

Young, L.L. III; Mossman, P.B.

1982-07-01

140

Study of Factors Involved in Tongue Color Diagnosis by Kampo Medical Practitioners Using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test and Tongue Color Images  

PubMed Central

In traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo medicine), tongue color is important in discerning a patient's constitution and medical conditions. However, tongue color diagnosis is susceptible to the subjective factors of the observer. To investigate factors involved in tongue color diagnosis, both color discrimination and tongue color diagnosis were researched in 68 Kampo medical practitioners. Color discrimination was studied by the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test, and tongue color diagnosis was studied by 84 tongue images. We found that overall color discrimination worsened with aging. However, the color discrimination related to tongue color regions was maintained in subjects with 10 or more years of Kampo experience. On the other hand, tongue color diagnosis significantly differed between subjects with <10 years of experience and ?10 years of experience. Practitioners with ?10 years of experience could maintain a consistent diagnosis of tongue color regardless of their age.

Oji, Takeshi; Namiki, Takao; Ueda, Keigo; Takeda, Kanako; Nakamura, Michimi; Hirasaki, Yoshiro

2014-01-01

141

Documentation of CTRS--Computerized Test-Result Reporting System. The Illinois Series on Educational Application of Computers, No. 22e.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Computerized Test-Result Reporting System (CTRS), which consists of three programs written in the BASIC language, was developed to analyze obective tests, test items, test results, and to provide the teacher-user with interpreted data about the performance of tests, Lest items, and students. This paper documents the three programs from the…

Muiznieks, Viktors J.; Cox, John

142

Immediate Computerized Feedback in the Evaluation of Undergraduate Public Speaking: Development of the Computerized Competent Speaker Evaluation System and Testing of Its Viability and Efficacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study determined the viability and effectiveness of the Computerized Competent Speaker Evaluation System. A total of 659 comments made by undergraduate students about the paper version of the Competent Speaker Speech Evaluation Form were subjected to two Q sorts. The 635 comments that emerged were incorporated into the evaluation system during…

Witter, Stephen D.; And Others

143

Orbital docking system centerline color television camera system test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of tests was run to verify that the design of the centerline color television camera (CTVC) system is adequate optically for the STS-71 Space Shuttle Orbiter docking mission with the Mir space station. In each test, a mockup of the Mir consisting of hatch, docking mechanism, and docking target was positioned above the Johnson Space Center's full fuselage trainer, which simulated the Orbiter with a mockup of the external airlock and docking adapter. Test subjects viewed the docking target through the CTVC under 30 different lighting conditions and evaluated target resolution, field of view, light levels, light placement, and methods of target alignment. Test results indicate that the proposed design will provide adequate visibility through the centerline camera for a successful docking, even with a reasonable number of light failures. It is recommended that the flight deck crew have individual switching capability for docking lights to provide maximum shadow management and that centerline lights be retained to deal with light failures and user preferences. Procedures for light management should be developed and target alignment aids should be selected during simulated docking runs.

Mongan, Philip T.

1993-01-01

144

An Evaluative Study of Color-Vision Tests for Kindergarten and First Grade Pupils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the increasing use of color in instructional materials at the level of the primary grades, the Health Service Department of the Denver Public Schools became interested in investigating the color vision of 5- and 6-year-olds. A project was established to create color-vision testing methods and to use those methods to ascertain incidence…

Lampe, John M.

145

Qualitative color test for rapid identification of the clay mineral groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

A color test based on the adsorption and oxidation of p-amino phenol on clay mineral surfaces has been developed for routine identification of the principal clay mineral groups, the montmorillonoid, illite or hydrous mica, and kaolin families. The new test has been found to compare favorably with other staining and color tests currently in use. The test procedure involves the

W. W. Hambleton; C. G. Dodd

1953-01-01

146

Automated testing of cognitive performance in monkeys: Use of a battery of computerized test systems by a troop of semi-free-ranging baboons ( Papio papio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fagot and Paleressompoulle (2009) published an automated learning device for monkeys (ALDM) to test the cognitive functions\\u000a of nonhuman primates within their social groups, but the efficiency of the ALDM procedure with large groups remains unknown.\\u000a In the present study, 10 ALDM systems were provided ad lib to a troop of 26 semi-free-ranging baboons that were initially\\u000a naive with computerized

Joël Fagot; Elodie Bonté

2010-01-01

147

Retrieving Object Color: The Influence of Color Congruity and Test Format  

PubMed Central

Incongruous relative to congruous episodes engender better memory, but it is unclear whether recollection or familiarity is responsible. Hence, objects were encoded in either natural (yellow banana) or unnatural (blue banana) outline colors. ERPs were recorded while memory was assessed by item (IT) and source (ST) tasks. During IT, unnatural- relative to natural-color objects produced better memory and more positive parietal activity (500-600 ms) indicative of recollection. Surprisingly, the converse occurred in ST. Because the encoding task required a natural/unnatural decision, an unnatural-color object would have required activation of its natural counterpart to make an informed decision. Thus, source confusion during ST relative to IT would have led to a recollection disadvantage for unnatural-color objects.

Cycowicz, Yael M.; Nessler, Doreen; Horton, Cort; Friedman, David

2009-01-01

148

Using color-color diagrams to test models for the 'blue bump'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Color-color diagrams are used to study the set of accretion disk plus power-law models and to determine whether they can adequately fit the optical/UV continua of a sample of 34 quasars, and the soft X-ray excesses measured for seven of the sample objects by Masnou et al. (1991). The loci of pure disk models for cos theta is greater than 0 are virtually superimposed on each other regardless of cos theta, demonstrating that a given observed spectrum cannot be described by a unique combination of S and cos theta. The distributions of model and data colors are found to overlap, showing that the disk plus power-law models do fit the distribution of data colors. For six of the seven objects, the soft X-ray excesses may be fit with an accretion disk plus power-law model without requiring the assumption of super-Eddington accretion; this shows the utility of employing Kerr disks.

Kuhn, O.; Mcdowell, J. C.; Elvis, M.; Wilkes, B. J.

1992-01-01

149

Memory-Context Effects of Screen Color in Multiple-Choice and Fill-In Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this experimental study, 44 undergraduates completed five computer-based instructional lessons and either two multiplechoice tests or two fill-in-the-blank tests. Color-coded borders were displayed during the lesson, adjacent to the screen text and illustrations. In the experimental condition, corresponding border colors were shown at posttest.…

Prestera, Gustavo E.; Clariana, Roy; Peck, Andrew

2005-01-01

150

Testing CIELAB-based color-difference formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CMC, BFD, and CIE94 color-difference for- mulas have been compared throughout their weighting functions to the CIELAB componentsDL*, DC*, DH*, and from their performance with respect to several wide data- sets from old and recent literature. Predicting the magni- tude of perceived color differences, a statistically significant improvement upon CIELAB should be recognized for these three formulas, in particular

Manuel Melgosa

2000-01-01

151

Experimental Tests for Heritable Morphological Color Plasticity in Non-Native Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) Populations  

PubMed Central

The success of invasive species is frequently attributed to phenotypic plasticity, which facilitates persistence in novel environments. Here we report on experimental tests to determine whether the intensity of cryptic coloration patterns in a global invader (brown trout, Salmo trutta) was primarily the result of plasticity or heritable variation. Juvenile F1 offspring were created through experimental crosses of wild-caught parents and reared for 30 days in the laboratory in a split-brood design on either light or dark-colored gravel substrate. Skin and fin coloration quantified with digital photography and image analysis indicated strong plastic effects in response to substrate color; individuals reared on dark substrate had both darker melanin-based skin color and carotenoid-based fin colors than other members of their population reared on light substrate. Slopes of skin and fin color reaction norms were parallel between environments, which is not consistent with heritable population-level plasticity to substrate color. Similarly, we observed weak differences in population-level color within an environment, again suggesting little genetic control on the intensity of skin and fin colors. Taken as whole, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that phenotypic plasticity may have facilitated the success of brown trout invasions and suggests that plasticity is the most likely explanation for the variation in color intensity observed among these populations in nature.

Westley, Peter A. H.; Stanley, Ryan; Fleming, Ian A.

2013-01-01

152

A new computer-based Farnsworth Munsell 100-hue test for evaluation of color vision.  

PubMed

To evaluate a computer-based Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) 100-hue test and compare it with a manual FM 100-hue test in normal and congenital color-deficient individuals. Fifty color defective subjects and 200 normal subjects with a best-corrected visual acuity ?6/12 were compared using a standard manual FM 100-hue test and a computer-based FM 100-hue test under standard operating conditions as recommended by the manufacturer after initial trial testing. Parameters evaluated were total error scores (TES), type of defect and testing time. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between the test scores. Cohen's kappa was used to assess agreement of color defect classification between the two tests. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the optimal cut-off score for the computer-based FM 100-hue test. The mean time was 16 ± 1.5 (range 6-20) min for the manual FM 100-hue test and 7.4 ± 1.4 (range 5-13) min for the computer-based FM 100-hue test, thus reducing testing time to <50 % (p < 0.05). For grading color discrimination, Pearson's correlation coefficient for TES between the two tests was 0.91 (p < 0.001). For color defect classification, Cohen's agreement coefficient was 0.98 (p < 0.01). The computer-based FM 100-hue is an effective and rapid method for detecting, classifying and grading color vision anomalies. PMID:24097078

Ghose, Supriyo; Parmar, Twinkle; Dada, Tanuj; Vanathi, Murugesan; Sharma, Sourabh

2014-08-01

153

The Effect of Including Pretest Items in an Operational Computerized Adaptive Test: Do Different Ability Examinees Spend Different Amounts of Time on Embedded Pretest Items?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of pretest items on response time in an operational, fixed-length, time-limited computerized adaptive test (CAT). These pretest items are embedded within the CAT, but unlike the operational items, are not tailored to the examinee's ability level. If examinees with higher ability levels need less…

Ferdous, Abdullah A.; Plake, Barbara S.; Chang, Shu-Ren

2007-01-01

154

A Comparison of Content-Balancing Procedures for Estimating Multiple Clinical Domains in Computerized Adaptive Testing: Relative Precision, Validity, and Detection of Persons with Misfitting Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This simulation study sought to compare four different computerized adaptive testing (CAT) content-balancing procedures designed for use in a multidimensional assessment with respect to measurement precision, symptom severity classification, validity of clinical diagnostic recommendations, and sensitivity to atypical responding. The four…

Riley, Barth B.; Dennis, Michael L.; Conrad, Kendon J.

2010-01-01

155

Using Response-Time Constraints in Item Selection To Control for Differential Speededness in Computerized Adaptive Testing. Research Report 98-06.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An item-selection algorithm to neutralize the differential effects of time limits on scores on computerized adaptive tests is proposed. The method is based on a statistical model for the response-time distributions of the examinees on items in the pool that is updated each time a new item has been administered. Predictions from the model are used…

van der Linden, Wim J.; Scrams, David J.; Schnipke, Deborah L.

156

Clinical use of BOBCAT: testing reliability and validity of computerized pure-tone audiometry with noise-exposed workers, children and the aged.  

PubMed

An investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of implementing computerized audiometry in various clinical groups, using the Battery of Basic Computerized Audiometry Tests (BOBCAT). Reliability, validity and speed of execution were assessed as a function of hearing loss in a group of noise-exposed workers. Children and the aged were also included to represent potentially 'more-difficult-to-test' patients due to fluctuating attention, motivation and/or response behavior. Children were aged 7.5-12 years; seniors, 65-80 years. Reliability was assessed by calculating reliability coefficients between air conduction pure-tone thresholds (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 kHz) obtained under two test modalities namely, computerized audiometry and conventional testing performed by a small panel of trained examiners. Both procedures followed ANSI S3.21 1978 standards. Content validity was measured using measures of central tendency and correlations. Coefficients of reliability remained equally high across frequencies regardless of degree of hearing loss and group. As well, group means and correlations between conventional and computerized audiometry indicated that the two methods measured pure-tone hearing sensitivity with the same degree of accuracy; that is, within +/- 0.5 dB. Finally, speed of execution was found to be slower using BOBCAT, in particular with noise-exposed workers. This finding was interpreted as evidence that trained examiners have used shortcuts when they expect consistent and/or unbiased response behavior. PMID:8447762

Picard, M; Ilecki, H J; Baxter, J D

1993-01-01

157

An Evaluation of Computerized Tests as Predictors of Job Performance: II. Differential Validity for Global and Job Element Criteria. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents data concerning the validity of a set of experimental computerized and paper-and-pencil tests for measures of on-job performance on global and job elements. It reports on the usefulness of 30 experimental and operational variables for predicting marks on 42 job elements and on a global criterion for Electrician's Mate,…

Cory, Charles H.

158

Development of a Computerized Adaptive Testing for Diagnosing the Cognitive Process of Grade 7 Students in Learning Algebra, Using Multidimensional Item Response Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research is to develop a multidimensional computerized adaptive test for diagnosing the cognitive process of grade 7 students in learning algebra by applying multidimensional item response theory. The research is divided into 4 steps: 1) the development of item bank of algebra, 2) the development of the multidimensional…

Senarat, Somprasong; Tayraukham, Sombat; Piyapimonsit, Chatsiri; Tongkhambanjong, Sakesan

2013-01-01

159

Can computerized clinical decision support systems improve practitioners' diagnostic test ordering behavior? A decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Underuse and overuse of diagnostic tests have important implications for health outcomes and costs. Decision support technology purports to optimize the use of diagnostic tests in clinical practice. The objective of this review was to assess whether computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs) are effective at improving ordering of tests for diagnosis, monitoring of disease, or monitoring of treatment. The outcome of interest was effect on the diagnostic test-ordering behavior of practitioners. Methods We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid's EBM Reviews database, Inspec, and reference lists for eligible articles published up to January 2010. We included randomized controlled trials comparing the use of CCDSSs to usual practice or non-CCDSS controls in clinical care settings. Trials were eligible if at least one component of the CCDSS gave suggestions for ordering or performing a diagnostic procedure. We considered studies 'positive' if they showed a statistically significant improvement in at least 50% of test ordering outcomes. Results Thirty-five studies were identified, with significantly higher methodological quality in those published after the year 2000 (p = 0.002). Thirty-three trials reported evaluable data on diagnostic test ordering, and 55% (18/33) of CCDSSs improved testing behavior overall, including 83% (5/6) for diagnosis, 63% (5/8) for treatment monitoring, 35% (6/17) for disease monitoring, and 100% (3/3) for other purposes. Four of the systems explicitly attempted to reduce test ordering rates and all succeeded. Factors of particular interest to decision makers include costs, user satisfaction, and impact on workflow but were rarely investigated or reported. Conclusions Some CCDSSs can modify practitioner test-ordering behavior. To better inform development and implementation efforts, studies should describe in more detail potentially important factors such as system design, user interface, local context, implementation strategy, and evaluate impact on user satisfaction and workflow, costs, and unintended consequences.

2011-01-01

160

Examining Differences in Examinee Performance in Paper and Pencil and Computerized Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study evaluated the comparability of two versions of a certification test: a paper-and-pencil test (PPT) and computer-based test (CBT). An effect size measure known as Cohen's d and differential item functioning (DIF) analyses were used as measures of comparability at the test and item levels, respectively. Results indicated that the effect…

Puhan, Gautam; Boughton, Keith; Kim, Sooyeon

2007-01-01

161

8. X15 ENGINE TESTING. A color print showing the engine ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. X-15 ENGINE TESTING. A color print showing the engine during test firing. View from the rear of the test stand looking northwest. - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rocket Engine & Complete X-15 Vehicle Test Stands, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

162

Computerized reminders for five preventive screening tests: generation of patient-specific letters incorporating physician preferences.  

PubMed Central

Compliance with preventive screening tests is inadequate in the United States. We describe a computer based system for generating reminder letters to patients who may have missed their indicated screening tests because they do not visit a provider regularly or missed their tests despite the fact that they do visit a provider. We started with national recommendations and generated a local consensus for test indications. We then used this set of indications and our electronic record to determine test deficiencies in our pilot pool of 3073 patients. The computer generated customized reminder letters targeting several tests. Physicians chose any patients who should not receive letters. The response rate for fecal occult blood (FOB) testing was 33% compared with an 18% historical compliance rate within the same community. FOB reminders generated improved test compliance. Test execution must be considered when commencing a program of screening test reminders.

Murphy, D. J.; Gross, R.; Buchanan, J.

2000-01-01

163

The Applicability of Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Cognitive Ability Measurement in Organizational Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive ability tests are widely used in organizations around the world because they have high predictive validity in selection contexts. Although these tests typically measure several subdomains, testing is usually carried out for a single subdomain at a time. This can be ineffective when the subdomains assessed are highly correlated. This…

Makransky, Guido; Glas, Cees A. W.

2013-01-01

164

Differential Item Functioning of GRE Mathematics Items across Computerized and Paper-and-Pencil Testing Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study seeks to determine whether item features are related to observed differences in item difficulty (DIF) between computer- and paper-based test delivery media. Examinees responded to 60 quantitative items similar to those found on the GRE general test in either a computer-based or paper-based medium. Thirty-eight percent of the items were…

Gu, Lixiong; Drake, Samuel; Wolfe, Edward W.

2006-01-01

165

Integrating a Computerized Testing System and Electronic Lecture Notes in First-year Mathematics Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The integration of test-banks for computer-based testing, textbooks, and electronic lecture notes in first-year mathematics courses has changed the way mathematics is taught at Bennett College (Greensboro, North Carolina). Classes meet in two electronic classrooms each with 27 computers on a local area network and a projection system. An…

Treadway, Ray

166

Computerized Adaptive Testing with the Zinnes and Griggs Pairwise Preference Ideal Point Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article delves into a relatively unexplored area of measurement by focusing on adaptive testing with unidimensional pairwise preference items. The use of such tests is becoming more common in applied non-cognitive assessment because research suggests that this format may help to reduce certain types of rater error and response sets commonly…

Stark, Stephen; Chernyshenko, Oleksandr S.

2011-01-01

167

Comparability of Conventional and Computerized Tests of Reading in a Second Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses issues surrounding the effect of mode of presentation on second language (L2) reading test performance, reviewing the literature in cognitive ability testing in educational and psychological measurement and the non-assessment literature in ergonomics, education, psychology, and first language reading research. Generalization of the…

Sawaki, Yasuyo

2001-01-01

168

Computerized In Vitro Test for Chemical Toxicity Based on Tetrahymena Swimming Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and a method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity have been evaluated as an alternative to the rabbit eye initancy test (Draize). The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The method, called the motility assay (MA), is tested for 30 s to determine the chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy.

Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

1994-01-01

169

Development and use of a computerized test, MATH-CPT, to assess attention.  

PubMed

The present research describes the development of a new measure of attention, the Mathematics Continuous Performance Test (MATH-CPT), which uses a sequence of simple mathematical questions projected onto a computer screen as visual stimuli. A new approach to testing was developed: it has more complicated stimuli and has an open reaction time allowing participants to react according to individual pace. The development of reliability and validity of the MATH-CPT is described. Discriminant function analysis of 240 normal control participants compared with 63 individuals with ADHD showed correct classification of 91.6% of participants in both groups. The MATH-CPT diagnosed a sample of participants with ADHD better than another CPT-type test, the Test of Variables of Attention. This is an initial step in developing a new measure of attention and to assist with the diagnosis of adolescents and young adults with ADHD. PMID:22582676

Lufi, Dubi; Fichman, Nadav

2012-02-01

170

Test of the accuracy of the computerized glow curve deconvolution algorithm for the analysis of thermoluminescence glow curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy of the thermoluminescence (TL) kinetics parameters obtained using the computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) algorithm was tested. The differential equation governing the electron traffic in the one trap-one recombination (OTOR) level model was solved with almost no approximation using the Fehlberg-Runge-Kutta method. A set of simulated glow peaks was generated for a wide range of kinetics parameter values. These glow peaks were then fitted using the general-order kinetics equation. Comparisons between the kinetics parameter values of the simulated glow peaks and those obtained by the CGCD method were made. The results show that the accuracy of the different kinetics parameters obtained by the CGCD method is not the same and that it varies according to the value of the kinetics order (b). The overlapping of two glow peaks with very close maximum peak positions (Tms) results in a glow peak with unexpected values for the kinetics parameters. A set of different cases of overlapping glow peaks is also discussed.

Sadek, A. M.

2013-06-01

171

Randomized Control Trial to Test a Computerized Psychosocial Cancer Assessment and Referral Program: Methods and Research Design  

PubMed Central

The National Cancer Coalition Network, National Cancer Institute, and American College of Surgeons all emphasize the need for oncology providers to identify, address, and monitor psychosocial needs of their patients. The Mental Health Assessment and Dynamic Referral for Oncology (MHADRO) is a patient-driven, computerized, psychosocial assessment that identifies, addresses, and monitors physical, psychological, and social issues faced by oncology patients. This paper presents the methodology of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that tested the impact of the MHADRO on patient outcomes at 2, 6, and 12 months. Patient outcomes including overall psychological distress, depression, anxiety, functional disability, and use of psychosocial resources will be presented in future publications after all follow–up data is gathered. Eight hundred and thirty six cancer patients with heterogeneous diagnoses, across three comprehensive cancer centers in different parts of the United States, were randomized to the MHADRO (intervention) or an assessment-only control group. Patients in the intervention group were provided detailed, personalized reports and, when needed, referrals to mental health services; their oncology provider received detailed reports designed to foster clinical decision making. Those patients who demonstrated high levels of psychosocial problems were given the option to authorize that a copy of their report be sent electronically to a “best match” mental health professional. Demographic and patient cancer-related data as well as comparisons between patients who were enrolled and those who declined enrollment are presented. Challenges encountered during the RCT and strategies used to address them are discussed.

O'Hea, Erin L.; Cutillo, Alexandra; Dietzen, Laura; Harralson, Tina; Grissom, Grant; Person, Sharina; Boudreaux, Edwin D.

2013-01-01

172

The effects of practice on speed of information processing using the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Test (Adjusting-PSAT) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP).  

PubMed

Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of practice on the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Task (Adjusting-PSAT) (Tombaugh, 1999) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP) (Tombaugh & Rees, 2000). The Adjusting-PSAT is a computerized modification of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) (Gronwall, 1977) that makes the interval between digits contingent on the correctness of the response. This titration procedure permits a threshold value to be derived that represents the shortest presentation interval in which a person can process the digits to produce the correct sum. The CTIP consists of three reaction time tests that are progressively more difficult. Results showed that robust practice effects occurred with the Adjusting-PSAT, with the greatest increase in performance occurring on the first retest trial. Practice effects were equally prominent regardless of whether the first retest trial occurred 20A min, 1 week, or 3 months after the first administration. These gains were maintained for periods up to 6 months and were independent of modality of presentation (visual or auditory) and type of number list (easy or hard). In contrast to the findings with the Adjusting-PSAT, only minimal practice effects were observed with the CTIP. The major clinical implication of the study is that the high reliability coefficients for the CTIP, the lack of anxiety associated with its administration, and its insensitivity to variables such as numerical and verbal ability make the CTIP ideally suited for the serial evaluation of cognitive status. These characteristics also make the CTIP a viable alternative to the Adjusting-PSAT or PASAT for measuring speed of information processing. If the Adjusting-PSAT is administered repeatedly in clinical evaluations, a "dual baseline" or "run in" procedure should be used, with the second administration serving as the baseline measurement. PMID:17523883

Baird, B J; Tombaugh, Thomas N; Francis, M

2007-01-01

173

Computerized in vitro test for chemical toxicity based on tetrahymena swimming patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity was evaluated. The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The device, called the Motility Assay Apparatus (MAA) is tested for 30 second determination of chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy, in addition to agreeing for all chemicals with previous manual evaluations of single cell motility.

Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

1994-01-01

174

Response Times for Correct and Incorrect Item Responses on Computerized Adaptive Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the time different ability level examinees spend taking a CAT on demanding items to these examinees. It was also found that high able examinees spend more time on the pretest items, which are not tailored to the examinees' ability level, than do lower ability examinees. Higher able examinees showed persistence with test

Chang, Shu-Ren; Plake, Barbara S.; Ferdous, Abdullah A.

2005-01-01

175

Empirical vs. Expected IRT-Based Reliability Estimation in Computerized Multistage Testing (MST)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two IRT-based procedures to estimate test reliability for a certification exam that used both adaptive (via a MST model) and non-adaptive design were considered in this study. Both procedures rely on calibrated item parameters to estimate error variance. In terms of score variance, one procedure (Method 1) uses the empirical ability distribution…

Zhang, Yanwei; Breithaupt, Krista; Tessema, Aster; Chuah, David

2006-01-01

176

Precision of Warm's Weighted Likelihood Estimates for a Polytomous Model in Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated the relative accuracy of the weighted likelihood estimate (WLE) of T. Warm (1989) compared to the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE), expected a posteriori estimate, and maximum a posteriori estimate. Results of the Monte Carlo study, which show the relative advantages of each approach, suggest that the test termination rule has more…

Wang, Shudong; Wang, Tianyou

2001-01-01

177

Color Vision Tests for Aviation: Comparison of the Anomaloscope and Three Lantern Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

SQUIRE TJ, RODRIGUEZ-CARMONA M, EVANS ADB, BARBUR JL. Color vision tests for aviation: comparison of the anomaloscope and three lantern types. Aviat Space Environ Med 2005; 76:421-9. Introduction: A comparison of the results obtained with the Nagel anomaloscope and the Holmes-Wright Type A, Spectrolux, and Beyne aviation color vision lanterns was undertaken. The Joint Aviation Re- quirements (JAR) specify pass\\/fail

Theresa J. Squire; Marisa Rodriguez-Carmona; Anthony D. B. Evans; John L. Barbur

2005-01-01

178

Acute effects of irradiation on cognition: changes in attention on a computerized continuous performance test during radiotherapy in pediatric patients with localized primary brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess sustained attention, impulsivity, and reaction time during radiotherapy (RT) for pediatric patients with localized primary brain tumors.Methods and Materials: Thirty-nine patients (median age 12.3 years, range 5.9–22.9) with primary brain tumors were evaluated prospectively using the computerized Conners’ continuous performance test (CPT) before and during conformal RT (CRT). The data were modeled to assess the longitudinal changes

Thomas E Merchant; Erin N Kiehna; Mark A Miles; Junhong Zhu; Xiaoping Xiong; Raymond K Mulhern

2002-01-01

179

The Effect of Test and Examinee Characteristics on the Occurrence of Aberrant Response Patterns in a Computerized Adaptive Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advantages that computer adaptive testing offers over linear tests have been well documented. The Computer Adaptive Test (CAT) design is more efficient than the Linear test design as fewer items are needed to estimate an examinee's proficiency to a desired level of precision. In the ideal situation, a CAT will result in examinees answering…

Rizavi, Saba; Hariharan, Swaminathan

2001-01-01

180

Antinociceptive effects of color polarized light in animal with formalin test.  

PubMed

Our recent results show the efficacy of pain suppression by exposure of antinociceptive acupuncture points (APs) to white polarized (P) light. But it is known that white light contains electromagnetic waves of different length (colors) and, possibly, not all of them produce a similar effect. There are no comparative data about analgesic affects of the different colors of P light now. The purpose of this study was to clear up a question if analgesic effects of low-intensive P light depend on the color of light/wavelength. Formalin-induced pain behavior (licking of the painful area) was tested in control mice and mice exposed to one of the color of P light (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet) on the painful area or AP E-36. Exposure of the painful area or AP E-36 to color P light evoked a statistically significant decrease of the licking time in mice to 31.5-64.1% and 36.1-54.4% respectively. The red light was the most effective for pain behavior depression, analgesia averaged 64.1% and 54.4% accordingly. The analgesic effects of red light in compare to three "cold" colors (blue, green, and violet) and white light was more pronounced in case of its application on the painful area than on AP E-36. In conclusion, the intensity of analgesic effects of P lights strongly depends on its color (wavelength). PMID:19526860

Tamarova, Z A; Limansky, YuP; Gulyar, S A

2009-01-01

181

EPRI automated telephotometer: field test, color-measuring capability, and data analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the work described was to continue the development of the prototype EPRI automated telephotometer to yield an instrument that can routinely monitor daytime atmospheric visibility and visibility impairment, including visual discoloration of scenic targets with emphasis on pristine areas. During Fall 1980, the prototype system was operated by SRI at Sunshine, Arizona, to test and validate its overall performance under field conditions. The system was programmed to monitor nine visibility targets on a daily routine basis. No malfunctions occurred, and a large data base of brightness measurements was recorded. Initial measurements of scene color were also made. A multispectral (color) capability was developed after the field test. The color camera has a motor-driven 15.9-cm-diameter filter wheel that can accommodate four replaceable filters. The Reticon linear sensor array and associated interface electronics are nearly identical to those used for the photopic system. Upgraded operating software acquires and organizes the color measurements. A complete set of vertical color-scans at a given azimuth is acquired in one second with either four narrow-band or three broad-band filters. A large matrix of spectral data can be recorded for automated analysis of the psychological aspects of the viewed color scene. Current analysis and interpretation procedures follow the methods of tristimulus colorimetry. Data analysis software for the photopic system was developed. The system can now routinely monitor such classical measures of visibility as horizon contrast, visual range, and prevailing visibility, and can also quantify other indices of atmospheroic clarity such as terrain detail and structure. The assembled prototype instrument has been charactrized and documented, and is available in photopic or color mode.

Evans, W.E.; Viezee, W.

1982-05-01

182

Computerized tomography calibrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of interchangeable pieces comprising a computerized tomography calibrator, and a method of use thereof, permits focusing of a computerized tomographic (CT) system. The interchangeable pieces include a plurality of nestable, generally planar mother rings, adapted for the receipt of planar inserts of predetermined sizes, and of predetermined material densities. The inserts further define openings therein for receipt of plural sub-inserts. All pieces are of known sizes and densities, permitting the assembling of different configurations of materials of known sizes and combinations of densities, for calibration (i.e., focusing) of a computerized tomographic system through variation of operating variables thereof. Rather than serving as a phanton, which is intended to be representative of a particular workpiece to be tested, the set of interchangeable pieces permits simple and easy standardized calibration of a CT system. The calibrator and its related method of use further includes use of air or of particular fluids for filling various openings, as part of a selected configuration of the set of pieces.

Engel, Herbert P. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

183

The Stroop Color-Word Test: Genetic and Environmental Influences; Reading, Mental Ability, and Personality Correlates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates prior findings of reading, mental ability, and personality correlates of Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT) scores. In spite of significant correlations between the SCWT scores and selected measures of mental ability, genetic influence on SCWT scores was relatively unaffected when the influences of correlated ability measures were removed.…

Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.; Segal, Nancy L.; Keyes, Margaret; Samuels, Jay

2003-01-01

184

Test-retest of computerized health status questionnaires frequently used in the monitoring of knee osteoarthritis: a randomized crossover trial  

PubMed Central

Background To compare data based on touch screen to data based on traditional paper versions of questionnaires frequently used to examine patient reported outcomes in knee osteoarthritis patients and to examine the impact of patient characteristics on this comparison Methods Participants were recruited from an ongoing trial (http://ClinicalTrials.Gov Identifier: NCT00655941). 20 female participants, mean age 67 (SD 7), completed KOOS, VAS pain, function and patient global, SF-36, Physical Activity Scale, painDETECT, and the ADL Taxonomy. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two subgroups, completing either the paper or touch screen version first. Mean, mean differences (95% CI), median, median differences and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for all questionnaires. Results ICCs between data based on computerized and paper versions ranged from 0.86 to 0.99. Analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between versions of the ADL Taxonomy, but not for the remaining questionnaires. Age, computer experience or education-level had no significant impact on the results. The computerized questionnaires were reported to be easier to use. Conclusion The computerized questionnaires gave comparable results to answers given on paper. Patient characteristics did not influence results and implementation was feasible.

2011-01-01

185

Examination of the Construct Validity of ImPACT(TM) Computerized Test, Traditional, and Experimental Neuropsychological Measures  

PubMed Central

Although computerized neuropsychological screening is becoming a standard for sports concussion identification and management, convergent validity studies are limited. Such studies are important for several reasons: reference to established measures is needed to establish validity; examination of the computerized battery relative to a more traditional comprehensive battery will help understand the strengths and limitations of the computer battery; and such an examination will help inform the output of the computerized battery. We compared scores on the ImPACT™ battery to a comprehensive battery of traditional neuropsychological measures and several experimental measures used in the assessment of sports-related concussion in fifty-four healthy male athletes. Convergent validity was demonstrated for four of the five ImPACT™ domain scores. Two cognitive domains often compromised as a result of mild TBI were not directly identified by the ImPACT™ battery: sustained attention and auditory working memory. Affective symptoms correlated with performance on measures of attention and working memory. In this healthy sample, the correlations between the domains covered by ImPACT™ and the neuropsychological battery supports ImPACT™ as a useful screening tool for assessing many of the cognitive factors related to mTBI. However, the data suggest other sources of data need to be considered when identifying and managing concussions.

Maerlender, A.; Flashman, L.; Kessler, A.; Kumbhani, S.; Greenwald, R.; Tosteson, T.; McAllister, T.

2011-01-01

186

Using three-color chromosome painting to test chromosome aberration models  

SciTech Connect

Ionizing radiation induces DNA doublestrand breaks (DSB), which interact pairwise to produce chromosome aberrations. There have long been two main competing theories of such pairwise DSB-DSB interactions. The classical' theory asserts that an unreparied DSB makes two ends that separate within the cell nucleus, with each end subsequently able to join any similar (nonelomeric) end. The exchange' theory asserts that a DBS the chromatin does not separate completely; rather the DSB ends remain associated until repair, or an illegitimate recombination involving another DBS, occurs. The DSB-DSB interaction mechanism was tested by using three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization to paint chromosomes and observe three-color triplets': three broken and misrejoined chromosomes having cyclically permuted colors. We observe 18 three-color triplets' in 2000 cells after 2.25 Gy of [gamma]-irradiation. On the exchange model in its standard form such three-color triplets cannot occur, so this model is inconsistent with the observations. On the classical model, formalized as a discrete time Markov chain embedded at the transitions of a continuous time Markov chain, the frequency of occurrence of three-color triplets can be computed by Monte Carlo simulations The number of three-color triplets predicted mathematically by the classical model was found to be slightly larger that an the observed number. Thus our data, together with our computer simulations, exclude the standard form of the exchange model but are compatible with the classical model. The results are also compatible with other, more complicated models. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Lucas, J.N. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Sachs, R.K. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

1993-02-15

187

Comparative diagnostic value of a new computerized vectorcardiographic method (cardiogoniometry) and other noninvasive tests in medically treated patients with chest pain  

SciTech Connect

The diagnostic value of cardiogoniometry (CGM), a new computerized vectorcardiographic method, for the identification of coronary artery disease was compared with other noninvasive tests in 48 medically treated patients with chest pain. Coronary angiography revealed one-vessel disease in 18, two- or three-vessel disease in 21, and normal coronary arteries in 9 patients. Cardiogoniometry was less sensitive (63%) than thallium-/sup 201/ (201T1) scanning (82%), but slightly more sensitive than the exercise ECG (50%) or a recently proposed parameter of exercise performance (50%). On the other hand, specificity was comparable among these tests (exercise ECG 78%, thallium-201 scanning 72%, CGM 67%, new parameter of exercise performance 66%). Moreover, the false negative rate of noninvasive testing was reduced from 8 to 3% when CGM was added to thallium-201 scanning and exercise ECG. Our findings indicate that in view of the easier feasibility with computerized technology, the future role of vectorcardiographic methods such as CGM in the noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease should be redefined.

Meier, A.; Hoeflin, F.H.; Herrmann, H.J.; Wolf, C.; Gurtner, H.P.; Roesler, H.

1987-05-01

188

A Randomized Experiment to Compare Conventional, Computerized, and Computerized Adaptive Administration of Ordinal Polytomous Attitude Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 520 high school students were randomly assigned to a paper-and-pencil test (PPT), a computerized standard test (CST), or a computerized adaptive test (CAT) version of the Dutch School Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ), consisting of ordinal polytomous items. The CST administered items in the same order as the PPT. The CAT administered all…

Hol, A. Michiel; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

2005-01-01

189

Decisive Test of Color Coherence in Proton-Nucleus Collisions at the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton-nucleus collisions (p+A) at LHC energies provide a rigorous test of color glass condensate (CGC), a model proposed to describe the high energy limit of quantum chromodynamics. In the CGC the average multiplicity of charged particles at midrapidity in p+A collisions depends logarithmically on the number of participants, Npart. In contrast, the wounded nucleon model of independent nucleon-nucleon scatterings, verified at RHIC energies, predicts that multiplicity in p+A depends linearly on Npart. We argue that the dependence of mean multiplicity on Npart in p+A collisions at LHC energies can single out a model of particle production, thus offering a stringent test of the CGC and the wounded nucleon model. Based on this observation we propose a novel experimental test of color coherence in p+A collisions.

Bzdak, Adam; Skokov, Vladimir

2013-11-01

190

[Limitations of the traditional manometric test and advantages of computerized manometry in the study of esophageal motility].  

PubMed

The analysis of esophageal motility tracings is laborious, time consuming and subject to reader variability. The motility traces of five patients were analyzed separately by five experienced readers, in order to assess the inter and intra observer variability. Later on, the manual analysis of the motility traces of five healthy volunteers and four patients was compared to the automatic analysis performed by a computerized system. The inter- and intra-observer variability (expressed as coefficient of variation) was high in the manual analysis, especially for the abdominal length of the lower sphincter and the duration of the esophageal body contractions (coefficient of variation ranging from 18 to 43%). On the contrary, automatic readings proved almost identical to the means obtained by manual analysis (Pearson factor 0.988 for amplitude and 0.89 for the duration of contractions). Moreover, the computerized automatic analysis gave a significant time gain in respect to manual readings and eliminated the inter and intra-observer variability. PMID:1873325

Zaninotto, G; Costantini, M; Polo, R; Rossi, M; Finco, C; Cecolin, G; Sebartoli, G; Ancona, E

1991-01-01

191

Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

1981-01-01

192

Improvement on Colorization Accuracy by Partitioning Algorithm in CIELAB Color Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Colorization is a computerized process that adds color to monochrome images. Since different colors may carry the same luminance\\u000a in spite of differences in hue and\\/or saturation, the colorization is an ill-posed problem. In the previous studies, one of\\u000a the authors has proposed a colorization algorithm by sawing seed colors and propagating them in RGB color space. However,\\u000a there is

Tomohisa Takahama; Takahiko Horiuchi; Hiroaki Kotera

2004-01-01

193

3. SOUTH TEST STAND WITH X15 IN PLACE. A color ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. SOUTH TEST STAND WITH X-15 IN PLACE. A color photograph taken from a lift boom or from atop a truck, looking northwest to NASA hangars in the far distance. Also shows the shop building at left, and two observation bunkers with hatches open; one at right (Bldg. 1933) and the other in front of Liquid Oxygen tank truck at left (Bldg. 1934). - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

194

Computerized training management system  

DOEpatents

A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base.RTM., an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches.

Rice, Harold B. (Franklin Furnace, OH); McNair, Robert C. (East Setauket, NY); White, Kenneth (Shirley, NY); Maugeri, Terry (Wading River, NY)

1998-08-04

195

Computerized training management system  

DOEpatents

A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) is disclosed for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base{trademark}, an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches. 18 figs.

Rice, H.B.; McNair, R.C.; White, K.; Maugeri, T.

1998-08-04

196

Color categories and color appearance  

PubMed Central

We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses.

Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

2011-01-01

197

Comparison of the commercial color LCD and the medical monochrome LCD using randomized object test patterns.  

PubMed

Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP) commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT) was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p?=?0.265) and OT (p?=?0.07). The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration. PMID:22701534

Wu, Jay; Wu, Tung H; Han, Rou P; Chang, Shu J; Shih, Cheng T; Sun, Jing Y; Hsu, Shih M

2012-01-01

198

Comparison of the Commercial Color LCD and the Medical Monochrome LCD Using Randomized Object Test Patterns  

PubMed Central

Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP) commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT) was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p?=?0.265) and OT (p?=?0.07). The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration.

Wu, Jay; Wu, Tung H.; Han, Rou P.; Chang, Shu J.; Shih, Cheng T.; Sun, Jing Y.; Hsu, Shih M.

2012-01-01

199

Real time computerization of two-dimensional echocardiography.  

PubMed

A computerized system was developed for real time acquisition, enhanced processing, analysis, and display of cross-sectional images of the left ventricle derived by two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE). The new methodology couples a standard medical imaging computer system to the video output of any current 2DE unit, uses a 128 x 128 or 64 x 64 matrix window and stores the real time 30 frames/sec digitized images on a magnetic disk. Computerized beat-to-beat and frame-by-frame processing employs space-time smoothing the automatic detection of endocardial interfaces by standard threshold and second derivative techniques. Multiple views are displayed in real time with 256 levels of gray and color. The methodology was used to analyze and graphically display frame-by-frame changes throughout the cardiac cycle. In addition, regional wall motion and thickness were analyzed in 12 sectors of individual cross-sections using a standardized angular subdivision originating at the center of area and indexed by an external reference point. An algorithm was developed to correct cross-sectional interference definition from the commonly used trailing-to-leading edge to the more valid leading-to-leading outline technique. Computerized analysis of spatial and temporal variations of cardiac contraction were demonstrated in several clinical and experimental applications, including bicycle exercise testing, investigation of acute myocardial infarction, and assessment of interventions. Initial evaluation indicates that the new real time computerized digital acquisition and data analysis represents a major advances toward quantitation of left ventricular function using 2DE. PMID:7234656

Garcia, E; Gueret, P; Bennett, M; Corday, E; Zwehl, W; Meerbaum, S; Corday, S; Swan, H J; Berman, D

1981-06-01

200

Increasing profitability through computerization.  

PubMed

The author explores the pragmatic or financial justification for computerizing a dental practice and discusses a computerized approach to precollection and collection for the dental office. The article also deals with the use of computerized correspondence to augment the recall policy of the office and to help generate new patient referrals and discusses the pros and cons of utilizing a dental computer service bureau in implementing these policies. PMID:3422197

Sokol, D J

1988-01-01

201

Color Constant Color Indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objects can be recognized on the basis of their color alone by color indexing, a technique developed by Swain-Ballard (1991) which involves matching color-space histograms. Color indexing fails, however, when the incident illumination varies either spatially or spectrally. Although this limitation might be overcome by preprocessing with a color constancy algorithm, we instead propose histogramming color ratios. Since the ratios

Brian V. Funt; Graham D. Finlayson

1995-01-01

202

Computerization in the OR.  

PubMed

This article highlights the process of establishing a computerized scheduling and materials management system in a surgical department. The following facets of the computerization process are discussed: options staff members should consider when choosing a computer system, the importance of scheduling and inventory control, cost savings, how computer systems work when using electronic data interchange and bar coding, and case studies. PMID:9513701

Bird, L J

1997-08-01

203

A Comparative Evaluation of Score Results from Computerized and Paper & Pencil Mathematics Testing in a Large Scale State Assessment Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study reports results from a quasi-controlled empirical investigation addressing the impact on student test scores when using fixed form computer based testing (CBT) versus paper and pencil (P&P) testing as the delivery mode to assess student mathematics achievement in a state's large scale assessment program. Grade 7 students served…

Poggio, John; Glasnapp, Douglas R.; Yang, Xiangdong; Poggio, Andrew J.

2005-01-01

204

Computerization of clinical laboratory procedure manuals.  

PubMed

Current code requires federally licensed clinical laboratories to have standard operating procedure manuals describing all tests performed. A computerized system for generating, revising, and excerpting manuals, which produces hard copy and microfiche, has been developed and appears to meet the regulatory criteria. The salient aspects of pertinent federal regulations, the features of the computerized system, the format of the manual, the users' experience therewith are described. PMID:707557

Pryor, L R; Rea, S D

1978-09-01

205

Estimation of Item Dimensional Measurement Direction Using Conditional Covariance Patterns. Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several nonparametric dimensionality assessment tools have demonstrated the usefulness of item pair conditional covariances as building blocks for investigating multidimensional test structure. Recently, J. Zhang and W. Stout (1999) have related the structural properties of conditional covariances in a generalized compensatory framework to a test

Bolt, Daniel; Roussos, Louis; Stout, William

206

Color Test Reagents/Kits for Preliminary Identification of Drugs of Abuse. NIJ Standard-0604.01. Law Enforcement and Corrections Standards and Testing Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this standard is to establish minimum requirements for color test reagent/kits to detect drugs of abuse and methods of testing the reagents to determine compliance with those requirements. This standard applies to field-testing kits that co...

2000-01-01

207

Development of a Parent-Report Cognitive Function Item Bank Using Item Response Theory and Exploration of its Clinical Utility in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

PubMed Central

Objective?The purpose of this study is to report the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of a parent-report perceived cognitive function (pedsPCF) item bank.?Methods?From the U.S. general population, 1,409 parents of children aged 7–17 years completed 45 pedsPCF items. Their psychometric properties were evaluated using Item Response Theory (IRT) approaches. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and discriminant function analysis were used to predict clinical problems on child behavior checklist (CBCL) scales. A computerized adaptive testing (CAT) simulation was used to evaluate clinical utility.?Results?The final 43-item pedsPCF item bank demonstrates no item bias, has acceptable IRT parameters, and provides good prediction of related clinical problems. CAT simulation resulted in correlations of 0.98 between CAT and the full-length pedsPCF.?Conclusions?The pedsPCF has sound psychometric properties, U.S. general population norms, and a brief-yet-precise CAT version is available. Future work will evaluate pedsPCF in other clinical populations in which cognitive function is important.

Butt, Zeeshan; Zelko, Frank; Cella, David; Krull, Kevin R.; Kieran, Mark W.; Goldman, Stewart

2011-01-01

208

A Computerized Alert Screening for Severe Sepsis in Emergency Department Patients Increases Lactate Testing but does not Improve Inpatient Mortality  

PubMed Central

Objective This study tested the hypothesis that lactate testing in ED sepsis patients could be increased using a computer alert that automatically recognizes systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria and recommends lactate testing in cases of sepsis defined as ?2 SIRS criteria plus physician suspicion of infection. Secondary outcomes included the effect of the alert on lactate testing among admitted sepsis patients, the proportion of admitted patients with lactate ?4.0 mmol/L identified and the in-patient mortality difference before and after alert implementation. Methods After a 6 month pre-alert phase, a computer alert was implemented that computed and displayed abnormal vital signs and white blood cell counts for all patients with >2 SIRS criteria and recommended testing lactate if an infection was suspected. Data for admitted patients was collected electronically on consecutive patients meeting sepsis criteria for 6 months before and 6 months after implementation of the alert. Results There were a total of 5,796 subjects enrolled. Among all septic patients, lactate testing increased from 5.2% in the pre-alert phase to 12.7% in the alert phase, a 7.5% (95% CI 6.0 to 9.0%) absolute increase in lactate testing, p<0.001. Among the 1,798 admitted patients with sepsis, lactate testing increased from 15.3% to 34.2%, an 18.9% (95% CI 15.0 to 22.8%) absolute increase, p<0.001. Among admitted patients with sepsis, there was a 1.9% (95% CI 0.03 to 3.8%, p = 0.05) increase in absolute number of patients with elevated lactate levels identified and a 0.5% (95% CI -1.6 to 2.6%, p=0.64) decrease in mortality. Conclusion The proportion of ED patients who had lactate tested and the number of admitted patients identified with a lactate level ?4.0 mmol/L improved significantly after the implementation of a computer alert identifying sepsis patients with >2 SIRS criteria while mortality among admitted sepsis patients remained unchanged.

Berger, T.; Birnbaum, A.; Bijur, P.; Kuperman, G.; Gennis, P.

2010-01-01

209

Egg coloration in ring-billed gulls ( Larus delawarensis ): a test of the sexual signaling hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many avian eggs appear to be cryptically colored, many species also lay vibrant blue green eggs. This seemingly conspicuous\\u000a coloration has puzzled biologists since Wallace, as natural selection should favor reduced egg visibility to minimize predation\\u000a pressure. The sexual signaling hypothesis posits that blue green egg coloration serves as a signal of female quality and that\\u000a males exert post-mating

Daniel Hanley; Stéphanie M. Doucet

2009-01-01

210

SPITZER IRS SPECTRA OF LUMINOUS 8 {mu}m SOURCES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: TESTING COLOR-BASED CLASSIFICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

We present archival Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of 19 luminous 8 {mu}m selected sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The object classes derived from these spectra and from an additional 24 spectra in the literature are compared with classifications based on Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)/MSX (J, H, K, and 8 {mu}m) colors in order to test the 'JHK8' (Kastner et al.) classification scheme. The IRS spectra confirm the classifications of 22 of the 31 sources that can be classified under the JHK8 system. The spectroscopic classification of 12 objects that were unclassifiable in the JHK8 scheme allow us to characterize regions of the color-color diagrams that previously lacked spectroscopic verification, enabling refinements to the JHK8 classification system. The results of these new classifications are consistent with previous results concerning the identification of the most infrared-luminous objects in the LMC. In particular, while the IRS spectra reveal several new examples of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with O-rich envelopes, such objects are still far outnumbered by carbon stars (C-rich AGB stars). We show that Spitzer IRAC/MIPS color-color diagrams provide improved discrimination between red supergiants and oxygen-rich and carbon-rich AGB stars relative to those based on 2MASS/MSX colors. These diagrams will enable the most luminous IR sources in Local Group galaxies to be classified with high confidence based on their Spitzer colors. Such characterizations of stellar populations will continue to be possible during Spitzer's warm mission through the use of IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] and 2MASS colors.

Buchanan, Catherine L. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Kastner, Joel H. [Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Hrivnak, Bruce J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383 (United States); Sahai, Raghvendra [NASA/JPL, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)], E-mail: clb@unimelb.edu.au

2009-12-15

211

Spitzer IRS Spectra of Luminous 8 ?m Sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud: Testing Color-based Classifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present archival Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of 19 luminous 8 ?m selected sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The object classes derived from these spectra and from an additional 24 spectra in the literature are compared with classifications based on Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)/MSX (J, H, K, and 8 ?m) colors in order to test the "JHK8" (Kastner et al.) classification scheme. The IRS spectra confirm the classifications of 22 of the 31 sources that can be classified under the JHK8 system. The spectroscopic classification of 12 objects that were unclassifiable in the JHK8 scheme allow us to characterize regions of the color-color diagrams that previously lacked spectroscopic verification, enabling refinements to the JHK8 classification system. The results of these new classifications are consistent with previous results concerning the identification of the most infrared-luminous objects in the LMC. In particular, while the IRS spectra reveal several new examples of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with O-rich envelopes, such objects are still far outnumbered by carbon stars (C-rich AGB stars). We show that Spitzer IRAC/MIPS color-color diagrams provide improved discrimination between red supergiants and oxygen-rich and carbon-rich AGB stars relative to those based on 2MASS/MSX colors. These diagrams will enable the most luminous IR sources in Local Group galaxies to be classified with high confidence based on their Spitzer colors. Such characterizations of stellar populations will continue to be possible during Spitzer's warm mission through the use of IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] and 2MASS colors.

Buchanan, Catherine L.; Kastner, Joel H.; Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Sahai, Raghvendra

2009-12-01

212

Computerized accounting methods. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of the research performed under the Task Order on computerized accounting methods in a period from 03 August to 31 December 1994. Computerized nuclear material accounting methods are analyzed and evaluated. Selected methods are implemented in a hardware-software complex developed as a prototype of the local network-based CONMIT system. This complex has been put into trial operation for test and evaluation of the selected methods at two selected ``Kurchatov Institute`` Russian Research Center (``KI`` RRC) nuclear facilities. Trial operation is carried out since the beginning of Initial Physical Inventory Taking in these facilities that was performed in November 1994. Operation of CONMIT prototype system was demonstrated in the middle of December 1994. Results of evaluation of CONMIT prototype system features and functioning under real operating conditions are considered. Conclusions are formulated on the ways of further development of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. The most important conclusion is a need to strengthen computer and information security features supported by the operating environment. Security provisions as well as other LANL Client/Server System approaches being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory are recommended for selection of software and hardware components to be integrated into production version of CONMIT system for KI RRC.

NONE

1994-12-31

213

Color Sensor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A color sensor for generating color information defining colors of an image includes an input section, a color processing section, a color comparison section, a color boundary processing section and a memory processing section. The input section includes ...

R. L. Woodall

2001-01-01

214

The effects of list difficulty and modality of presentation on a computerized version of the Paced Serial Addition Test (PSAT).  

PubMed

The Paced Serial Addition Test (PSAT) presents a series of digits at different speeds with the requirement that the two most recent numbers be added together. Although the PSAT is a relatively difficult test, its level of difficulty may be decreased by changing the number list to make the answers simpler and by presenting the digits visually rather than aurally. In view of this, the present experiment varied both task difficulty (easy vs. hard) and mode of presentation (visual vs. auditory). Task difficulty was manipulated by using two different lists composed of single digits whose answers ranged between 2 and 10 (easy) or 2 and 18 (hard). All stimuli were presented by computer which permitted measurement of response latencies, as well as correctness of responding. The results showed that mode of presentation, but not task difficulty, produced highly significant effects. Additional evidence showed that the ability to compute answers to simple addition problems must be considered as a modulator variable. However, an individual's basic arithmetic ability is not as critical as the modality in which a stimulus is presented. The lower performance associated with the auditory version (i.e., PASAT) was interpreted as an interference effect caused by both the stimulus and the response occurring in a single auditory information processing channel. This interpretation suggests that the PASAT's well documented sensitivity to traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be due, at least in part, to an increased susceptibility to interference effects rather than attributable solely to a decreased rate of information processing. PMID:15202545

Tombaugh, T N; Rees, L; Baird, B; Kost, J

2004-04-01

215

Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

1983-01-01

216

A neuropsychological assessment, using computerized battery tests (CANTAB), in children with benign rolandic epilepsy before AED therapy  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE) is a form of partial idiopathic epilepsy according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) syndromes classification (1989). Recent studies have identified cases of BRE that do not meet the initial definition of ‘benign’; these included reports of cases with specific cognitive deficits. It is still a matter of debate, whether these deficits are due to epilepsy per se, to treatment or other associated factors. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate if BRE children have cognitive deficits at the onset of their seizures, prior to their participation in any anti-epileptic drug therapy (AED). Methods and Results: We performed a neuropsychological assessment of 18 BRE children compared with a corresponding age-matched control group. We used the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Subjects were at their first neurological evaluation, before any AED therapy. We assessed: visual memory, induction and executive functions. In our group, the BRE children performed comparably with the control children for the induction and executive functions. Substantial differences were identified for the visual memory subtests: PRM percent correct (t = -2.58, p = 0.01) and SRM percent correct (t = -2.73, p = 0.01). Age of seizure onset had a negative impact on the visual memory subtest performances (PRM mean correct latency). We found significant correlations between the different CANTAB subtests results and characteristics of the centrotemporal spikes (CTS). Discussion: Our results are consistent with the findings of other similar studies. This form of epilepsy is associated with subtle neuropsychological deficits, present at seizure onset. Neuropsychological deficits identified, suggest a more diffuse brain involvement in the epileptiform process. Abbreviations: AED – AntiEpileptic Drug; BECTS - benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes; BRE – Benign Rolandic Epilepsy; CANTAB - the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery; CTS – centrotemporal spikes; DMS – Delayed Matching Sample; EEG – electroencephalogram; ILAE – International league Against Epilepsy; MOT – Motor screening Test; PAL - Paired Associates Learning; PRM - Pattern Recognition Memory; SPSS - Statistical Package for the Social Sciences; SRM - Spatial Recognition Memory; SSP - Spatial Span, SWM - Spatial Working Memory

Vintan, MA; Palade, S; Cristea, A; Benga, I; Muresanu, DF

2012-01-01

217

Stroop Color-Word Test: A Screening Measure of Selective Attention to Differentiate LD From Non LD Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used the Stroop Color-Word Test to measure selective attention in learning disabled (N=45) and nonLD (N=50) children. Results indicated that LD children have a significant weakness in the process of selective attention compared to the nonLD children. Findings suggested that the Stroop is an effective screening measure. (JAC)

Lazarus, Philip J.; And Others

1984-01-01

218

Proportional Slowing or Disinhibition in ADHD? A Brinley Plot Meta?analysis of Stroop Color and Word Test Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meta?analysis in the form of Brinley plots was conducted on the mean reaction times of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Control groups of children and adolescents on the Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT). ADHD reaction times were regressed on Control group reaction times for 17 data sets (accessed from 13 published studies). These analyses yielded linear functions

Barbara Pocklington; Murray Maybery

2006-01-01

219

The ocean color experiment (OCE) on the second orbital flight test of the Space Shuttle (OSTA-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ocean Color Experiment was one of the six remote-sensing experiments which for the first time were launched and successfully operated on board of the second flight of the Space Shuttle during November 1981. The experiment consists of a multispectral image scanner dedicated to the measurement of water color and its interpretation in terms of major water constituents and circulation patterns. The objectives of the experiment, the test site selection, and associated activities are described. The actual mission and results of an initial data analysis is discussed.

Van Der Piepen, H.; Amann, V.; Helbig, H.; Kim, H. H.; Hart, W. D.; Fiuza, A. F. G.; Viollier, M.; Doerffer, R.

1983-01-01

220

76 FR 23824 - Guidance for Industry: “Computer Crossmatch” (Computerized Analysis of the Compatibility Between...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2007D-0223)] Guidance for Industry: ``Computer Crossmatch'' (Computerized Analysis...entitled ``Guidance for Industry: `Computer Crossmatch' (Computerized Analysis...perform compatibility testing using a computer crossmatch system to perform...

2011-04-28

221

Testing the Ginzburg-Landau approximation for three-flavor crystalline color superconductivity  

SciTech Connect

It is an open challenge to analyze the crystalline color superconducting phases that may arise in cold dense, but not asymptotically dense, three-flavor quark matter. At present the only approximation within which it seems possible to compare the free energies of the myriad possible crystal structures is the Ginzburg-Landau approximation. Here, we test this approximation on a particularly simple 'crystal' structure in which there are only two condensates {approx}{delta}exp(iq{sub 2}{center_dot}r) and {approx}{delta}exp(iq{sub 3}{center_dot}r) whose position-space dependence is that of two plane waves with wave vectors q{sub 2} and q{sub 3} at arbitrary angles. For this case, we are able to solve the mean-field gap equation without making a Ginzburg-Landau approximation. We find that the Ginzburg-Landau approximation works in the {delta}{yields}0 limit as expected, find that it correctly predicts that {delta} decreases with increasing angle between q{sub 2} and q{sub 3} meaning that the phase with q{sub 2} parallel q{sub 3} has the lowest free energy, and find that the Ginzburg-Landau approximation is conservative in the sense that it underestimates {delta} at all values of the angle between q{sub 2} and q{sub 3}.

Mannarelli, Massimo; Sharma, Rishi [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Rajagopal, Krishna [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Nuclear Science Division, MS 70R319, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2006-06-01

222

Testing the Ginzburg-Landau approximation for three-flavor crystalline color superconductivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is an open challenge to analyze the crystalline color superconducting phases that may arise in cold dense, but not asymptotically dense, three-flavor quark matter. At present the only approximation within which it seems possible to compare the free energies of the myriad possible crystal structures is the Ginzburg-Landau approximation. Here, we test this approximation on a particularly simple “crystal” structure in which there are only two condensates ?us?˜?exp?(iq2·r) and ?ud?˜?exp?(iq3·r) whose position-space dependence is that of two plane waves with wave vectors q2 and q3 at arbitrary angles. For this case, we are able to solve the mean-field gap equation without making a Ginzburg-Landau approximation. We find that the Ginzburg-Landau approximation works in the ??0 limit as expected, find that it correctly predicts that ? decreases with increasing angle between q2 and q3 meaning that the phase with q2?q3 has the lowest free energy, and find that the Ginzburg-Landau approximation is conservative in the sense that it underestimates ? at all values of the angle between q2 and q3.

Mannarelli, Massimo; Rajagopal, Krishna; Sharma, Rishi

2006-06-01

223

The achromatic 'philosophical zombie', a syndrome of cerebral achromatopsia with color anopsognosia.  

PubMed

We describe a patient with persistent cerebral achromatopsia occurring after bilateral occipital strokes. Blinded color recognition was assessed with a computerized experimental paradigm and the patient reported the degree of confidence in the response exactness on a visual percent scale. Color recognition was accurate and above chance (Fisher's exact test, p < 0.002). The degree of confidence in the answers showed a significant correlation with recognition scores (Spearman rank order correlation, p < 0.0001). These findings constitute the exceptional condition of what we called color anopsognosia (not knowing of seeing colors) and recall the theoretic figure of the 'philosophical zombie'. However, the cognitive mechanisms of the dissociation between a subjective colorless vision and good performance for color naming still remain poorly understood. PMID:23687498

Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

2013-01-01

224

The recognition of color test fields on the basis of the interpretation of photographs acquired with the filters of the MKF-6 camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment on the recognition of color test fields performed during the Salyut-6 mission is described. Results are presented on the recognition of objects with different reflection coefficients measured with filters of the MKF-6 multispectral camera. It is found that an analysis of spectral images obtained with these filters can recognize almost all of the 32 color test fields in question.

Kaczynski, R.; Sanecki, J.

1981-08-01

225

Applications of Computerized Adaptive Testing. Proceedings of a Symposium presented at the Annual Convention of the Military Testing Association (18th, October 1976). Research Report 77-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This symposium consists of five papers and presents some recent developments in adaptive testing which have applications to several military testing problems. The overview, by James R. McBride, defines adaptive testing and discusses some of its item selection and scoring strategies. Item response theory, or item characteristic curve theory, is…

Weiss, David J., Ed.

226

Computerizing on a Shoestring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the computerization of the Gibault High School Library in Waterloo, Illinois, discussing the development of microcomputer programs to expand services in the area of library skills instruction and search strategy methods. Hardware, software, finances, personnel, and planning considerations are noted. (EJS)

Boehmer, M. Clare

1982-01-01

227

Computerized Fleet Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The computerization of school bus maintenance records by the Niskayuna (New York) Central School District enabled the district's transportation department to engage in management practices resulting in significant savings. The district obtains computer analyses of the work performed on all vehicles, including time spent, parts, labor, costs,…

Cataldo, John J.

228

Accounting computerized teaching research  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of computer technology and the widespread use of computers, human society has entered a computer and network based, new information times. In particular, after China Joins the World Trade Organization (WTO), the world economics' integration is further accelerated, computerized accounting has played an important role in various enterprises. Selecting compound talents who not only understands accounting

Mao Jiuzhi; Zhao Rui; Zhou Xiaona

2010-01-01

229

Computerizing the Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of a computerized high school library which uses CD-ROM optical storage systems. Describes hardware and software, setting up the system, preparing the online catalog, teaching information retrieval skills, and project evaluation. Notes prices of CD-ROM disks and equipment purchased. 4 references. (SV)

Chan, Jeanie; Whelan, Errol

1988-01-01

230

Beyond interference control impairment in ADHD: evidence from increased intraindividual variability in the color-stroop test.  

PubMed

The present study investigates intraindividual variability (IIV) in the Color-Stroop test and in a simple reaction time (SRT) task. Performance level and variability in reaction times (RTs)-quantified with different measures such as individual standard deviation (ISD) and coefficient of variation (ICV), as well as ex-Gaussian parameters (mu, sigma, tau)-were analyzed in 24 children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 24 typically developing children (TDC). Children with ADHD and TDC presented equivalent Color-Stroop interference effects when mean RTs were considered, and the two groups did not differ in the SRT task. Interestingly, compared to TDC, children with ADHD were more variable in their responses, showing increased ISD and ICV in the Color-Stroop interference condition and in the SRT task. Moreover, children with ADHD exhibited higher tau values-that is, more frequent abnormally long RTs-in the Color-Stroop interference condition than did the TDC, but comparable tau values in the SRT, suggesting more variable responses. These results speak in favor of a general deficit in more basic and central processes that only secondarily may affect the efficiency of inhibitory processes in children with ADHD. Overall the present findings confirm the role of IIV as a cornerstone in the ADHD cognitive profile and support the search for fine-grained analysis of performance fluctuations. PMID:22738031

Borella, Erika; de Ribaupierre, Anik; Cornoldi, Cesare; Chicherio, Christian

2013-09-01

231

Database Design--Computerizing Your Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses sources from which information used in in-house databases can be obtained and enumerates points to consider in database building phase (test database design ideas against external database if available, make arrangements for data entry, exercise quality control). Fourteen contractors or sources of computerized information…

Eddison, Betty

1986-01-01

232

NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. II. A TEST ON THE NONLINEARITY SCENARIO FOR COLOR BIMODALITY USING THE u-BAND COLORS: THE CASE OF M87 (NGC 4486)  

SciTech Connect

The optical color distributions of globular clusters (GCs) in most large elliptical galaxies are bimodal. Based on the assumed linear relationship between GC colors and their metallicities, the bimodality has been taken as evidence of two GC subsystems with different metallicities in each galaxy and has led to a number of theories in the context of galaxy formation. More recent observations and modeling of GCs, however, suggests that the color-metallicity relations (CMRs) are inflected, and thus colors likely trace metallicities in a nonlinear manner. The nonlinearity could produce bimodal color distributions from a broad underlying metallicity spread, even if it is unimodal. Despite the far-reaching implications, whether CMRs are nonlinear and whether the nonlinearity indeed causes the color bimodality are still open questions. Given that the spectroscopic refinement of CMRs is still very challenging, we here propose a new photometric technique to probe the possible nonlinear nature of CMRs. In essence, a color distribution of GCs is a 'projected' distribution of their metallicities. Since the form of CMRs hinges on which color is used, the shape of color distributions varies depending significantly on the colors. Among other optical colors, the u-band related colors (e.g., u - g and u - z) are theoretically predicted to exhibit significantly less inflected CMRs than other preferred CMRs (e.g., for g - z). As a case study, we performed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFPC2 archival u-band photometry for the M87 (NGC 4486) GC system with confirmed color bimodality. We show that the u-band color distributions are significantly different from that of g - z and consistent with our model predictions. With more u-band measurements, this method will support or rule out the nonlinear CMR scenario for the origin of GC color bimodality with high confidence. The HST/WFC3 observations in F336W for nearby large elliptical galaxies are highly anticipated in this regard.

Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Hak-Sub; Cho, Jaeil; Chung, Chul [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Sangmo T. [Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Blakeslee, John P., E-mail: sjyoon@galaxy.yonsei.ac.kr [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

2011-12-20

233

A Quick Test for the Highly Colored Ions of the Aluminum-Nickel Group.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a technique for eliminating errors in the analysis of the nickel subgroup of the aluminum-nickel group cations. Describes the process of color and chemical changes that occur in this group as a result of ligand and coordination number changes. Discusses opportunities for student observations. (TW)

Grenda, Stanley C.

1986-01-01

234

Tests of Chemical Enrichment Scenarios in Ellipticals Using Continuum Colors and Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine spectroscopic metallicity values with integrated narrowband continuum colors to explore the internal metallicity distribution in early-type galaxies. The different techniques for determining metallicity (indices versus colors) allow for an estimate of the contribution from metal-poor stars in a predominantly metal-rich population, which, in turn, places constraints on the shape and width of a galaxy's metallicity distribution function. The color-spectroscopic data are compared with the closed box, infall, and inhomogeneous chemical evolution models. The G-dwarf problem, a deficiency in metal-poor stars as compared with closed-box models, is evident in the data set and indicates that this deficiency is common to all early-type galaxies. However, even simple infall models predict galaxy colors that are too blue compared with the observations. A simple analytical model is proposed that matches the elliptical data and recent Hubble Space Telescope observations of M31 and NGC 5128 by reducing the number of metal-poor stars in a systematic fashion. Without physical justification, the shape of these models is similar to predictions of inhomogeneous enrichment scenarios.

Schombert, James; Rakos, Karl

2009-01-01

235

Computerized Psychiatric Diagnostic Interview  

PubMed Central

A computerized psychiatric diagnostic interview was developed and administered to 121 adult acute psychiatric inpatients. Data on the 100 completers was evaluated for sensitivity and specificity of the computer diagnostic evaluation relative to the hospital discharge diagnosis and revealed sensitivity greater than 70% for major depression, alcohol/substance abuse, adjustment disorder, bipolar/mania, dependent personaltiy disorder, and histrionic personality disorder. Specificity was greater than 70% for schizophrania, alcohol/substance abuse, and borderline personality disorder. Meen interview time was 51 minutes. Eighty-two percent of patients evaluated the computerized interview as interesting and 78% rated it as thorough. The mouse input, large screen letters, and user-friendliness of the Macintosh computer make this ideal for patient-computer interaction.

Zetin, Mark; Warren, Stacey; Lanssens, Ed; Tominaga, Doris

1987-01-01

236

Computerizing Audit Studies  

PubMed Central

This paper briefly discusses the history, benefits, and shortcomings of traditional audit field experiments to study market discrimination. Specifically it identifies template bias and experimenter bias as major concerns in the traditional audit method, and demonstrates through an empirical example that computerization of a resume or correspondence audit can efficiently increase sample size and greatly mitigate these concerns. Finally, it presents a useful meta-tool that future researchers can use to create their own resume audits.

Lahey, Joanna N.; Beasley, Ryan A.

2014-01-01

237

Feasibility tests for treating shampoo and hair colorant wastewaters using anaerobic processes.  

PubMed

Wastes from the personal care product (PCP) industry are often high in biodegradable carbon, which makes them amenable to aerobic biological treatment, although process costs are usually high due to aeration inefficiencies, high electricity demand and production of large amounts of sludge. As such, anaerobic treatment technologies are being considered to lower net energy costs by reducing air use and increasing methane production. To assess the amenability of PCP wastes to anaerobic treatment, methane yields and rates were quantified in different anaerobic reactors treating typical PCP wastes, including wastes from shampoo and hair colorant products. Overall, shampoo wastes were more amenable to methanogenesis with almost double the methane yields compared with colour wastes. To assess relevant microbial guilds, qPCR was performed on reactor biomass samples. Methanosaetaceae abundances were always significantly higher than Methanosarcinaceae and Methanomicrobiales abundances (P < 0.05), and did not differ significantly between waste types. Although colour wastes were less amenable to anaerobic treatment than shampoo wastes, differences cannot be explained by relative microbial abundances and probably result from the presence of inhibiting compounds in hair colorants (e.g., oxidants) at higher levels. Results showed that anaerobic technologies have great potential for treating PCP wastes, but additional work is needed to establish the basis of elevated methane yields and inhibition, especially when colorant wastes are present. PMID:22233909

Ahammad, Shaikh Z; Yakubu, A; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

2012-01-01

238

Operator's Manual for Computerized Gas Metering System (Flammable Gas).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The computerized metering system for flammable gas prevents an explosive mixture from occurring when testing a vessel. Because the original metering system for inert gas lacked this safety precaution, additional hardware and software features were made to...

D. Bell K. Blaedel M. Brooks J. Cervelli G. Koide

1984-01-01

239

Color evaluation of computer-generated color rainbow holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A color evaluation approach for computer-generated color rainbow holography (CGCRH) is presented. Firstly, the relationship between color quantities of a computer display and a color computer-generated holography (CCGH) colorimetric system is discussed based on color matching theory. An isochromatic transfer relationship of color quantity and amplitude of object light field is proposed. Secondly, the color reproduction mechanism and factors leading to the color difference between the color object and the holographic image that is reconstructed by CGCRH are analyzed in detail. A quantitative color calculation method for the holographic image reconstructed by CGCRH is given. Finally, general color samples are selected as numerical calculation test targets and the color differences between holographic images and test targets are calculated based on our proposed method.

Shi, Yile; Wang, Hui; Wu, Qiong

2013-02-01

240

Color vision deficiencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Congenital and acquired color vision defects are described in the context of physiological data. Light sources, photometry, color systems and test methods are described. A list of medicines is also presented. The practical social consequences of color vision deficiencies are discussed.

Vannorren, D.

1982-04-01

241

Color Me Safe Coloring Book  

MedlinePLUS

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Color Me Safe Color Me Safe is a coloring book designed for ... the pictures and reading about the Safe Family. Color Me Safe can help parents talk with their ...

242

Nonlinear Color-Metallicity Relations of Globular Clusters. IV. Testing the Nonlinearity Scenario for Color Bimodality via HST/WFC3 u-band Photometry of M84 (NGC 4374)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color distributions of globular clusters (GCs) in most massive galaxies are bimodal. Assuming linear color-to-metallicity conversions, bimodality is viewed as the presence of merely two GC subsystems with distinct metallicities, which serves as a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Recent studies, however, revealed that the color-metallicity relations (CMRs) often used to derive GC metallicities (e.g., CMRs of g - z, V - I, and C - T 1) are in fact inflected. Such inflection can create bimodal color distributions if the underlying GC metallicity spread is simply broad as expected from the hierarchical merging paradigm of galaxy formation. In order to test the nonlinear-CMR scenario for GC color bimodality, the u-band photometry is proposed because the u-related CMRs (e.g., CMRs of u - g and u - z) are theoretically predicted to be least inflected and most distinctive among commonly used optical CMRs. Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3 F336W (u-band) photometry of the GC system in M84, a giant elliptical in the Virgo galaxy cluster. Combining the u data with the existing HST ACS/WFC g and z data, we find that the u - z and u - g color distributions are different from the g - z distribution in a very systematic manner and remarkably consistent with our model predictions based on the nonlinear-CMR hypothesis. The results lend further confidence to the validity of the nonlinear-CMR scenario as an explanation for GC color bimodality. There are some GC systems showing bimodal spectroscopic metallicity, and in such systems the inflected CMRs often create stronger bimodality in the color domain.

Yoon, Suk-Jin; Sohn, Sangmo T.; Kim, Hak-Sub; Chung, Chul; Cho, Jaeil; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Blakeslee, John P.

2013-05-01

243

NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. IV. TESTING THE NONLINEARITY SCENARIO FOR COLOR BIMODALITY VIA HST/WFC3 u-BAND PHOTOMETRY OF M84 (NGC 4374)  

SciTech Connect

Color distributions of globular clusters (GCs) in most massive galaxies are bimodal. Assuming linear color-to-metallicity conversions, bimodality is viewed as the presence of merely two GC subsystems with distinct metallicities, which serves as a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Recent studies, however, revealed that the color-metallicity relations (CMRs) often used to derive GC metallicities (e.g., CMRs of g - z, V - I, and C - T{sub 1}) are in fact inflected. Such inflection can create bimodal color distributions if the underlying GC metallicity spread is simply broad as expected from the hierarchical merging paradigm of galaxy formation. In order to test the nonlinear-CMR scenario for GC color bimodality, the u-band photometry is proposed because the u-related CMRs (e.g., CMRs of u - g and u - z) are theoretically predicted to be least inflected and most distinctive among commonly used optical CMRs. Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3 F336W (u-band) photometry of the GC system in M84, a giant elliptical in the Virgo galaxy cluster. Combining the u data with the existing HST ACS/WFC g and z data, we find that the u - z and u - g color distributions are different from the g - z distribution in a very systematic manner and remarkably consistent with our model predictions based on the nonlinear-CMR hypothesis. The results lend further confidence to the validity of the nonlinear-CMR scenario as an explanation for GC color bimodality. There are some GC systems showing bimodal spectroscopic metallicity, and in such systems the inflected CMRs often create stronger bimodality in the color domain.

Yoon, Suk-Jin; Kim, Hak-Sub; Chung, Chul; Cho, Jaeil; Lee, Sang-Yoon [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Sangmo T. [Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Blakeslee, John P., E-mail: sjyoon@galaxy.yonsei.ac.kr [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

2013-05-10

244

Color adjustment techniques to improve utility of stereo flicker chronoscopy and chronometry assessment of serial optic disk photographs in glaucoma patients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to develop a computerized stereo- flicker chronoscopy and chronometry system to improve the technique of neuroretinal optic disc rim assessment. Digitized stereo photographs of 22 eyes of glaucoma patients were analyzed subjectively by computerized flickering of serial images, and objectively by measuring the width of the neuroretinal rim at 18 positions around the optic disc. A major source of error was identified as color changes in the images over time. Color adjustment algorithms were developed and the assessments and measurements were repeated. For chronometry after color adjustment there was improvement to most of the tests on the data: agreement (50% to 73%), specificity (45% to 84%), positive agreement (50% to 71%) and negative agreement (50% to 73%). Sensitivity remained constant at about 55%.

Eikelboom, Robert H.; Yogesan, Kanagasingam; Barry, Christopher J.; Jitskaia, Ludmila; House, Phillip H.; Morgan, William H.

1999-05-01

245

Computerized procedures system  

DOEpatents

An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

Lipner, Melvin H. (Monroeville, PA); Mundy, Roger A. (North Huntingdon, PA); Franusich, Michael D. (Upper St. Clair, PA)

2010-10-12

246

Development of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner for NIMBUS 7. Volume 2: Test and performance data, revision A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner protoflight tests are examined in detail while some of the test results are evaluated with respect to expected performance. Performance characteristics examined include spectral response, signal to noise ratio as a function of radiance input, radiance response, the modulation transfer function, and the field of view and coregistration. The results of orbital sequence tests are also included. The in orbit performance or return of radiometric data in the six spectral bands is evaluated along with the data processing sequence necessary to derive the final data products. Examples of the raw data are given and the housekeeping or diagnostic data which provides information on the day to day health or status of the instrument are discussed.

1979-01-01

247

Colored Shadows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this optics activity, learners discover that not all shadows are black. Learners explore human color perception by using colored lights to make additive color mixtures. With three colored lights, learners can make shadows of seven different colors. They can also explore how to make shadows of individual colors, including black. Use this activity demonstrate how receptors in the retina of the eye work to see color.

Exploratorium, The

2011-10-31

248

Should You Computerize Your Office?  

PubMed Central

The author reviews his experience of computerizing a medical office with five family physicians in private practice in rural western Quebec. The benefits and problems are presented. It is argued that it is unrealistic to try to be precise in predicting the consequences of computerization.

Hogg, William E.

1989-01-01

249

The social dimensions of computerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

While industrialized countries have been rapidly computerizing, the ultimate forms of computerization and their social consequences are still somewhat open-ended. The general directions of equipment developments have been relatively clear - toward computer-based systems which run on faster, smaller, and cheaper hardware; toward equipment architectures which distribute computing (and work); and software which is generally more flexible and more likely

Rob Kling

1986-01-01

250

The gap in the color-magnitude diagram of NGC 2420: A test of convective overshoot and cluster age  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical isochrones have been constructed using the OPAL opacities specifically to study the color-magnitude diagram of the open star cluster NGC 2420. This cluster provides a rare test of core convection in intermediate-mass stars. At the same time, its age is of interest because of its low metallicity and relatively high Galactic latitude for an open cluster. The excellent color-magnitude diagram constructed by Anthony-Twarog et al. (1990) allows a detailed fit of the isochrones to the photometric data. We discuss the importance of convective overshoot at the convective core edge in determining the morphology of the gap located near the main-sequence turnoff. We find that given the assumptions made in the models, a modest amount of overshoot (0.23 H(sub p)) is required for the best fit. Good agreement is achieved with all features of the turnoff gap for a cluster age of 2.4 +/- 0.2 Gyr. We note that a photometrically complete luminosity function near the main-sequence turnoff and subgiant branch would also provide an important test of the overshoot models.

Demarque, Pierre; Sarajedini, Ata; Guo, X.-J.

1994-01-01

251

The gap in the color-magnitude diagram of NGC 2420: A test of convective overshoot and cluster age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical isochrones have been constructed using the OPAL opacities specifically to study the color-magnitude diagram of the open star cluster NGC 2420. This cluster provides a rare test of core convection in intermediate-mass stars. At the same time, its age is of interest because of its low metallicity and relatively high Galactic latitude for an open cluster. The excellent color-magnitude diagram constructed by Anthony-Twarog et al. (1990) allows a detailed fit of the isochrones to the photometric data. We discuss the importance of convective overshoot at the convective core edge in determining the morphology of the gap located near the main-sequence turnoff. We find that given the assumptions made in the models, a modest amount of overshoot (0.23 Hp) is required for the best fit. Good agreement is achieved with all features of the turnoff gap for a cluster age of 2.4 +/- 0.2 Gyr. We note that a photometrically complete luminosity function near the main-sequence turnoff and subgiant branch would also provide an important test of the overshoot models.

Demarque, Pierre; Sarajedini, Ata; Guo, X.-J.

1994-05-01

252

An Example Crossover Experiment for Testing New Vicarious Calibration Techniques for Satellite Ocean Color Radiometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vicarious calibration of ocean color satellites involves the use of accurate surface measurements of water-leaving radiance to update and improve the system calibration of ocean color satellite sensors. An experiment was performed to compare a free-fall technique with the established MOBY measurement. We found in the laboratory that the radiance and irradiance instruments compared well within their estimated uncertainties for various spectral sources. The spectrally averaged differences between the NIST values for the sources and the instruments were less than 2.5% for the radiance sensors and less than 1.5% for the irradiance sensors. In the field, the sensors measuring the above-surface downwelling irradiance performed nearly as well as they had in the laboratory, with an average difference of less than 2%. While the water-leaving radiance, L(sub w) calculated from each instrument agreed in almost all cases within the combined instrument uncertainties (approximately 7%), there was a relative bias between the two instrument classes/techniques that varied spectrally. The spectrally averaged (400 nm to 600 nm) difference between the two instrument classes/techniques was 3.1 %. However the spectral variation resulted in the free fall instruments being 0.2% lower at 450 nm and 5.9% higher at 550 nm. Based on the analysis of one matchup, the bias in the L(sub w), was similar to that observed for L(sub u)(1 m) with both systems, indicating the difference did not come from propagating L(sub u)(1 m) to L(sub w).

Voss, Kenneth J.; McLean, Scott; Lewis, Marlon; Johnson, Carol; Flora, Stephanie; Feinholz, Michael; Yarbrough, Mark; Trees, Charles; Twardowski, Mike; Clark, Dennis

2010-01-01

253

Color Thieves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This story poses a challenge to its readers to solve the mystery of light, color, and how we see color. It also asks the question, "What is color?" After investigating the phenomena of color and color filters, students should realize that light is made up

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2009-04-01

254

Iterative Evaluation in a Mobile Counseling and Testing Program to Reach People of Color at Risk for HIV--New Strategies Improve Program Acceptability, Effectiveness, and Evaluation Capabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article highlights findings from an evaluation that explored the impact of mobile versus clinic-based testing, rapid versus central-lab based testing, incentives for testing, and the use of a computer counseling program to guide counseling and automate evaluation in a mobile program reaching people of color at risk for HIV. The program's…

Spielberg, Freya; Kurth, Ann; Reidy, William; McKnight, Teka; Dikobe, Wame; Wilson, Charles

2011-01-01

255

Methodological issues for building item banks and computerized adaptive scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews important methodological considerations for developing item banks and computerized adaptive scales (commonly\\u000a called computerized adaptive tests in the educational measurement literature, yielding the acronym CAT), including issues\\u000a of the reference population, dimensionality, dichotomous versus polytomous response scales, differential item functioning\\u000a (DIF) and conditional scoring, mode effects, the impact of local dependence, and innovative approaches to assessment using

David Thissen; Bryce B. Reeve; Jakob Bue Bjorner; Chih-Hung Chang

2007-01-01

256

Primary Colors of Pigment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this laboratory activity, students create secondary colors by mixing primary colors. Food coloring, test tubes, and a test tube stand are used. The activity is composed of a student handout with directions and a data sheet. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA Why Files: The Case of the Mysterious Red Light. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

257

Computerized Physician Order Entry  

PubMed Central

Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) has been promoted as an important component of patient safety, quality improvement, and modernization of medical practice. In practice, however, CPOE affects health care delivery in complex ways, with benefits as well as risks. Every implementation of CPOE is associated with both generally recognized and unique local factors that can facilitate or confound its rollout, and neurohospitalists will often be at the forefront of such rollouts. In this article, we review the literature on CPOE, beginning with definitions and proceeding to comparisons to the standard of care. We then proceed to discuss clinical decision support systems, negative aspects of CPOE, and cultural context of CPOE implementation. Before concluding, we follow the experiences of a Chief Medical Information Officer and neurohospitalist who rolled out a CPOE system at his own health care organization and managed the resulting workflow changes and setbacks.

Khanna, Raman; Yen, Tony

2014-01-01

258

Map Coloring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is there any math in coloring maps. Believe it or not there is alot of math involoved in coloring a map. The cool people at MEGA MATH have created activities for you to experiment with map coloring and see just how fun it is. Mega Math Workbook open the activity called The Most Colorful Math of All Some other fun activities can be found at Coloring Penrose Tiles Colorful mathematics Jeff Week&s Geometry Software Games ...

Hadley, Mrs.

2005-06-18

259

Color scales for image data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desirable properties of color scales are examined, and a linearized optimal color scale (LOCS) is introduced. The merits of color scales for medical image data were studied, and it was found that, in tests, although observers performed somewhat better with the newly developed LOCS than with the previously advocated heated-object color scale, they performed significantly better with a linearized gray

Haim Levkowitz; Gabor T. Herman

1992-01-01

260

Simultaneous color constancy.  

PubMed

Observers matched patches (simulated Munsell papers) in two simultaneously presented computer-controlled displays, a standard array presented under 6500-K illumination and a test array under 4000 or 10,000 K. Adaptation to the test illuminants was limited. The adjusted patch was surrounded by a single color (annulus display) or by many colors (Mondrian display). Observers either matched hue and saturation or made surface-color (paper) matches in which the subject was asked to make the test patch look as if it were cut from the same piece of paper as the standard patch. For two of the three subjects, the paper matches were approximately color constant. The hue-saturation matches showed little color constancy. Moreover, the illumination difference between the two displays was always visible. Our data show that simultaneous mechanisms alone (e.g., simultaneous color contrast) alter hues and saturations too little to produce hue constancy. PMID:3772637

Arend, L; Reeves, A

1986-10-01

261

241-AZ-101 Waste Tank Color Video Camera System Shop Acceptance Test Report  

SciTech Connect

This report includes shop acceptance test results. The test was performed prior to installation at tank AZ-101. Both the camera system and camera purge system were originally sought and procured as a part of initial waste retrieval project W-151.

WERRY, S.M.

2000-03-23

262

Updating Developmental Toxicity Testing Guidelines for the Safety Assessment of Direct Food Additives and Color Additives Used in Food: Results of a Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1982, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued guidelines for testing the effects of direct food additives and color additives on developing embryos and for longer monitoring during several generations. In 1984, an FDA task force began a review of testing procedures for reproductive and developmental toxicity. The Developmental Toxicity Committee was formed specifically to evaluate the current guidelines

Thomas F. X. Collins; Thomas N. Black; Stuart L. Graham; Benjamin A. Jackson; John J. Welsh

1991-01-01

263

Clinical Applications of Computerized Thermography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computerized or digital, thermography is a rapidly growing diagnostic imaging modality. It has superseded contact thermography and analog imaging thermography which do not allow effective quantization. Medical applications of digital thermography can be c...

M. Anbar

1988-01-01

264

Color Mixing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online activity where learners can virtually mix different colors of light or paint (you can switch between them) and see how the colors combine. It demonstrates how millions of colors are created on computer monitors and TVs, and in art and printing. Learners can try to match a given target color ("Mix to Match"), or simply play around with mixtures ("Mix for Fun"). Background information explains how light is additive (more colors tends towards white), whereas paint absorbs color and is subtractive (more colors tends towards black). There's also information about how the human eye works.

Industry, Oregon M.

2002-01-01

265

Hands-On Science: Is It an Acid or a Base? These Colorful Tests Tell All!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two hands-on science activities for K-6 students teach them how to determine if something is an acid or a base. The activities require acid/base indicator juice, testing strips, and a base solution. A recipe for making them in the classroom using red cabbage and baking soda is provided. (SM)

VanCleave, Janice

1998-01-01

266

[Computerization in a community health service provider].  

PubMed

As the second largest health service provider organization in Israel, we have been progressively computerized. The process was begun in 1988, focusing on improving administrative and financial processes. Today there is a single centralized database for 6,000 users. The system monitors member eligibility, accounting procedures and clinical processes, including diagnoses, laboratory tests, imaging procedures and drug-prescribing. The potential of the computer for physician support is now being realized through integration of clinical guidelines and reminder systems into the computerized clinical record. In addition, the centralized database is used for quality improvement, facilitating cost-effective drug-prescribing and efficient use of technology. The establishment of a computerized working environment for 2,000 physicians and 4,000 other healthcare workers serving 1.3 million patients is a unique model for the development of community health services. Data regarding demographics, disease patterns, drug-prescribing, use of new technology and costs are now readily available to all, from senior management to the individual physician in independent practice. The computer revolution has also presented a new set of problems such patient-record confidentiality and the effect of the computer on the physician-patient encounter. PMID:12415968

Porter, B

1999-10-01

267

A significant component of ageing (DNA damage) is reflected in fading breeding colors: an experimental test using innate antioxidant mimetics in painted dragon lizards.  

PubMed

A decade ahead of their time, von Schantz et al. united sexual selection and free radical biology by identifying causal links between deep-rooted physiological processes that dictate resistance to toxic waste from oxidative metabolism (reactive oxygen species, ROS), and phenotypic traits, such as ornaments. Ten years later, these ideas have still only been tested with indirect estimates of free radical levels (oxidative stress) subsequent to the action of innate and dietary antioxidants. Here, we measure net superoxide (a selection pressure for antioxidant production) and experimentally manipulate superoxide antioxidation using a synthetic mimetic of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Eukarion 134 (EUK). We then measure the toxic effect of superoxide in terms of DNA erosion and concomitant loss of male breeding coloration in the lizard, Ctenophorus pictus. Control males suffered more DNA damage than EUK males. Spectroradiometry showed that male coloration is lost in relation to superoxide and covaries with DNA erosion; in control males, these variables explained loss of color, whereas in EUK males, the fading of coloration was unaffected by superoxide and unrelated to DNA damage. Thus, EUK's powerful antioxidation removes the erosion effect of superoxide on coloration and experimentally verifies the prediction that colors reflect innate capacity for antioxidation. PMID:22834746

Olsson, Mats; Tobler, Michael; Healey, Mo; Perrin, Cecile; Wilson, Mark

2012-08-01

268

Test of primary channel independence of LCD and wavelength piecewise LCD color model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment with EIZO CG 19, DELL 19, IBM 19 and HP 19 LCD was designed and carried out to test the interaction between RGB channels, and then to test the spectral additive property of LCDs. The results show that the interaction between channels is very weak and spectral additivity is held well. This result indicates that the manufacture technology of LCDs is improved greatly. But the computation results of tristimuli addition are not very accurate. A new calculation method based on spectral additivity, in which gamma is fitted by a cubic polynomial in each piece of wavelength, is proposed and discussed. The proposed method is proved simple and very few samples need to measure while the computation precision is very high.

Liu, Haoxue; Liu, Yu; Huang, Min; Xu, Yangfang; Wu, Bing

2012-01-01

269

Demographically Corrected Norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version  

PubMed Central

Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised), and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African-Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African-Americans than Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African-Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings.

Norman, Marc A.; Moore, David J.; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K.

2011-01-01

270

Evaluating aquatic toxicity by visual inspection of thallus color in the green macroalga Ulva: testing a novel bioassay.  

PubMed

A novel bioassaythat uses visual inspection of reproduction of the aquatic green macroalga Ulva has been developed for testing toxic chemicals. The method employs a technique to quantify percentage reproduction based on thallus color change during the progression of reproduction. The validity of visual inspection as a reliable method was supported by a high test score (80.4) from a test of the ability of 97 first year university students with no biology background to evaluate reproduction by visual observation after 30 min training. The sensitivity of the method was assessed using a reference toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS; EC50 = 7.1 mg x L(-1)), heavy metals Cu (0.063 mg x L(-1)), Cd (0.217 mg x L(-1, Pb (0.840 mg x L(-1)), Zn (0.966 mg x L(-1)), formalin (1.458 mg x L(-1)), diesel fuel (3.7 mL x L(-1)), and is shown to be similar or better than more established aquatic toxicity bioassays. Toxicity data obtained by the Ulva bioassay for elutriates of sludge collected from nine different locations were directly compared with the commercially available Microtox test. Ulva reproduction was significantly inhibited in all elutriates with the greatest and least toxic effects, estimated by toxicity units (TU) observed in elutriates from industrial waste (13.1 TU) and a filtration bed (4.8 TU), whereas values ranging from 1 to 4.5 TU were obtained from the Microtox test, confirming that the Ulva bioassay is more sensitive. Correlation analyses for EC50 data versus the concentrations of toxicants in the sludge indicated a significant relationship between toxicity and four heavy meals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) for the Ulva bioassay but no such correlation was detected by the Microtox test. The new bioassay method is simple to use, easy to interpret, economical, and eco-relevant so would be a valuable addition to aquatic toxicity testing protocols for a wide range of toxicants. Moreover, since Ulva has a wide geographical distribution and species have similar reproductive processes, the test method has worldwide application. PMID:17547194

Han, Young-Seok; Brown, Murray T; Park, Gyoung Soo; Han, Taejun

2007-05-15

271

An Integrated Computerized Instructional System for Classroom and Lab.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bennett College (North Carolina) has developed the use of an Integrated Computerized Instructional Support System (ICISS) featuring the use of large networked test-banks, a sophisticated test management system, application software, and multimedia. These materials are used both for interactive learning experiences in the classroom and for…

Treadway, Ray

272

Seeing Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

Texley, Juliana

2005-01-01

273

Using Response-Time Constraints in Item Selection To Control for Differential Speededness in Computerized Adaptive Testing. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes an item selection algorithm that can be used to neutralize the effect of time limits in computer adaptive testing. The method is based on a statistical model for the response-time distributions of the test takers on the items in the pool that is updated each time a new item has been administered. Predictions from the model are…

van der Linden, Wim J.; Scrams, David J.; Schnipke, Deborah L.

274

The Stroop Color-Word TestInfluence of Age, Sex, and Education; and Normative Data for a Large Sample Across the Adult Age Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to 1,856 cognitively screened, healthy Dutchspeaking participants aged 24 to 81 years. The effects of age, gender, and education on Stroop test performance were investigated to adequately stratify the normative data. The results showed that especially the speed-dependent Stroop scores (time to complete a subtest), rather than the accuracy measures (the errors made per

Wim Van der Elst; Martin P. J. Van Boxtel; Gerard J. P. Van Breukelen; Jelle Jolles

2006-01-01

275

On color induction with reference to color recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determined the limens of sensitivity for the commonly denominated primary colors when mixed with black, and the limens of sensitivity for each of the same colors after adaptation to blue, yellow, green and red. The apparatus consisted of a 4 spindle color-mixer, an induction chamber, a modified Kuhlmann time apparatus and a seconds pendulum. 35 Ss were tested to determine

Mary Almack; G. F. Arps

1916-01-01

276

Coloring Single Stroop Elements: Reducing Automaticity or Slowing Color Processing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automaticity theory and the effect of coloring a single element were tested with all or only 1 element colored in Stroop tasks. The 312 participants in 5 experiments indicated stimulus presentation color by key press. Experiments 1 and 2 replicated those of D. Besner, J. A. Stoltz, and C. Boutilier (1997) with some changes, and revealed similar results: less Stroop

John S. Monahan

2001-01-01

277

Protecting Privacy in Computerized Medical Information.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the technology enabling the computerization and networking of medical information, identifies privacy issues arising from computerization, examines the law dealing with privacy in medical information, and examines models and rules to p...

1993-01-01

278

Color Terms and Color Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

Davidoff, Jules

2006-01-01

279

Color terms and color concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O’Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction are taken up in the current commentary, especially with

Jules Davidoff

2006-01-01

280

Color vision test  

MedlinePLUS

... difficulty telling the difference between red/purple and green/purple Protanopia -- difficulty telling the difference between blue/green and red/green Tritanopia -- difficulty telling the difference ...

281

Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular

Robert C. Meurant

2009-01-01

282

Color quality scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The color rendering index (CRI) has been shown to have deficiencies when applied to white light-emitting-diode-based sources. Furthermore, evidence suggests that the restricted scope of the CRI unnecessarily penalizes some light sources with desirable color qualities. To solve the problems of the CRI and include other dimensions of color quality, the color quality scale (CQS) has been developed. Although the CQS uses many of elements of the CRI, there are a number of fundamental differences. Like the CRI, the CQS is a test-samples method that compares the appearance of a set of reflective samples when illuminated by the test lamp to their appearance under a reference illuminant. The CQS uses a larger set of reflective samples, all of high chroma, and combines the color differences of the samples with a root mean square. Additionally, the CQS does not penalize light sources for causing increases in the chroma of object colors but does penalize sources with smaller rendered color gamut areas. The scale of the CQS is converted to span 0-100, and the uniform object color space and chromatic adaptation transform used in the calculations are updated. Supplementary scales have also been developed for expert users.

Davis, Wendy; Ohno, Yoshi

2010-03-01

283

Color Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

284

Computerized Proof Techniques for Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete…

Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

2012-01-01

285

DOE transporation programs - computerized techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major thrusts of the transportation programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been the development of a number of computerized transportation programs and data bases. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting these efforts through the Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories and the Tranportation Operations and Traffic Management (TOTM) organization at DOE Headquarters.

D. S. Joy; P. E. Johnson; C. S. Fore; B. E. Peterson

1983-01-01

286

DOE Transportation Programs - Computerized Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the major thrusts of the transportation programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been the development of a number of computerized transportation programs and data bases. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting these efforts throu...

D. S. Joy P. E. Johnson C. S. Fore B. E. Peterson

1983-01-01

287

Ionospheric imaging using computerized tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized tomography (CT) techniques can be used to produce a two-dimensional image of the electron density in the ionosphere. The CT problem requires that the measured data be the line integral through the medium of the unknown parameter; transionospheric satellite beacon total electron content data recorded simultaneously at multiple ground stations fulfill this requirement. In this paper the CT problem

Jeffrey R. Austen; Steven J. Franke; C. H. Liu

1988-01-01

288

A Computerized Phonetics Instructor: BABEL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a computerized phonetics program called BABEL, which is an expert system able to animate graphically and reproduce acoustically a text in any language that uses the Latin alphabet. The program is designed to assist language learners and instructors in the nuances of phonemes. (22 references) (GLR)

Vila, Joaquin; Pearson, Lon

1990-01-01

289

Total Library Computerization for Windows.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a general review of features of version 2.1 of Total Library Computerization (TLC) for Windows from On Point, Inc. Includes information about pricing, hardware and operating systems, modules/functions available, user interface, security, on-line catalog functions, circulation, cataloging, and documentation and online help. A table…

Combs, Joseph, Jr.

1999-01-01

290

Influence of color word availability on the Stroop color-naming effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments tested whether the Stroop color-naming effect is a consequence of word recognition's being automatic or\\u000a of the color word's capturing visual attention. In Experiment 1, a color bar was presented at fixation as the color carrier,\\u000a with color and neutral words presented in locations above or below the color bar; Experiment 2 was similar, except that the\\u000a color

Hyosun Kim; Yang Seok Cho; Motonori Yamaguchi; Robert W. Proctor

2008-01-01

291

Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students\\u000a to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the\\u000a Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems\\u000a with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular

Robert C. Meurant

292

Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

Meurant, Robert C.

293

The Development, Pilot Test, Assessment, and Evaluation of a Computerized Online Internet Community System at Programs for Higher Education, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study to design, develop, pilot test, evaluate, and assess an online Internet community system during the months May-July, 1997 at Nova Southeastern University-Programs for Higher Education (NSU PHE). The system was used as a prototype for developing and studying techniques for building virtual communities. Project research…

Watkins, Diana Sell

294

Color naming reflects optimal partitions of color space  

PubMed Central

The nature of color categories in the world's languages is contested. One major view holds that color categories are organized around universal focal colors, whereas an opposing view holds instead that categories are defined at their boundaries by linguistic convention. Both of these standardly opposed views are challenged by existing data. Here, we argue for a third view based on a proposal by Jameson and D'Andrade [Jameson KA, D'Andrade RG (1997) in Color Categories in Thought and Language, eds Hardin CL, Maffi L (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, U.K.), pp 295–319]: that color naming across languages reflects optimal or near-optimal divisions of an irregularly shaped perceptual color space. We formalize this idea, test it against color-naming data from a broad range of languages and show that it accounts for universal tendencies in color naming while also accommodating some observed cross-language variation.

Regier, Terry; Kay, Paul; Khetarpal, Naveen

2007-01-01

295

Color term knowledge does not affect categorical perception of color in toddlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Categorical perception of color is shown when colors from the same category are discriminated less easily than equivalently spaced colors that cross a category boundary. The current experiments tested various models of categorical perception. Experiment 1 tested for categorical responding in 2- to 4-year-olds, the age range for the onset establishment of color term knowledge. Experiment 2 tested for categorical

Anna Franklin; Ally Clifford; Emma Williamson; Ian Davies

2005-01-01

296

An Application of Computerized Instructional Television in Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized instructional television was used to teach undergraduate students about 100,000 or more extant fungi through an interactive, self testing, teaching program. Students did not find this sophisticated hardware an adequate substitute for the lecture experience and ultimately gave their professor a strong vote of confidence. (Author/JEG)

Kendrick, Bryce

297

Patterns of Implementing a District Computerized Instructional Management System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-part research and evaluation study was conducted to examine an elementary (K-8) school district's implementation of a computerized instructional management system, the "Computer-Managed Instruction/3000" (CMI), as a means of facilitating the assessment and updating of student mastery of 78 district-defined curricular objectives. The testing

Crist-Whitzel, Janet L.; And Others

298

Evaluation of computerized nursing care plan: Instrument development  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasingly popular use of information technology in patient care, the need for reliable instrumentation to evaluate information systems has become critical. This article describes the psychometric testing of a scale developed to evaluate a computerized nursing care plan (CNCP) system. A review of the literature generated a 44-item questionnaire, which was then administered to a convenience sample of

Ting-Ting Lee

2004-01-01

299

Removal of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Color from Dyeing Wastewater by Pre-Ozonation and Subsequent Biological Treatment Using Test-Scale Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pre-ozonation and subsequent biological treatment process on the decrease in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and color were investigated in a test-scale plant of 5 m\\/d capacity using actual raw wastewater (RW) from a dye works. Ozone dosage rate and contacting time were around 70 mg\\/L on average and 30 min, respectively. The DOC concentration was gradually decreased

Nobuyuki Takahashi; Tomoya Kumagai; Masami Shimizu; Takahisa Suzuki; Toshi Ohtsuki

2007-01-01

300

Computerized Innovation Management Game.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A management game is often used in testing corporate strategies with the aid of a (micro) computer. These games are also frequently applied as a tool for training of e.g. (prospective) managers. There are many varieties of management games. In general, th...

O. S. Tirtarahardja J. Eekels P. A. Slats J. Hulshoff H. Diepstraten

1984-01-01

301

Measuring Global Physical Health in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Illustration of a Multidimensional Bi-factor Model and Computerized Adaptive Testing  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to apply a bi-factor model for the determination of test dimensionality and a multidimensional CAT using computer simulations of real data for the assessment of a new global physical health measure for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Parent respondents of 306 children with cerebral palsy were recruited from four pediatric rehabilitation hospitals and outpatient clinics. We compared confirmatory factor analysis results across four models: (1) one-factor unidimensional; (2) two-factor multidimensional (MIRT); (3) bi-factor MIRT with fixed slopes; and (4) bi-factor MIRT with varied slopes. We tested whether the general and content (fatigue and pain) person score estimates could discriminate across severity and types of CP, and whether score estimates from a simulated CAT were similar to estimates based on the total item bank, and whether they correlated as expected with external measures. Results Confirmatory factor analysis suggested separate pain and fatigue sub-factors; all 37 items were retained in the analyses. From the bi-factor MIRT model with fixed slopes, the full item bank scores discriminated across levels of severity and types of CP, and compared favorably to external instruments. CAT scores based on 10- and 15-item versions accurately captured the global physical health scores. Conclusions The bi-factor MIRT CAT application, especially the 10- and 15-item version, yielded accurate global physical health scores that discriminated across known severity groups and types of CP, and correlated as expected with concurrent measures. The CATs have potential for collecting complex data on the physical health of children with CP in an efficient manner.

Haley, Stephen M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Dumas, Helene M.; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Montpetit, Kathleen; Bilodeau, Nathalie; Gorton, George E.; Watson, Kyle; Tucker, Carole A

2009-01-01

302

Color Metric.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet was designed to convey metric information in pictoral form. The use of pictures in the coloring book enables the more mature person to grasp the metric message instantly, whereas the younger person, while coloring the picture, will be exposed to the metric information long enough to make the proper associations. Sheets of the booklet…

Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

303

Color Lines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching about color and value scales emphasizes a systematic approach to the effects of color and may reinforce assumptions rooted in racism. Describes how an 8th grade art class challenged the symbolism of black as evil and white as good. By showing that this is a culturally constructed meaning, art teachers model that such meaning can also be…

Gude, Olivia

2001-01-01

304

Clinical applications of computerized thermography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computerized or digital, thermography is a rapidly growing diagnostic imaging modality. It has superseded contact thermography and analog imaging thermography which do not allow effective quantization. Medical applications of digital thermography can be classified in two groups: static and dynamic imaging. They can also be classified into macro thermography (resolution greater than 1 mm) and micro thermography (resolution less than 100 microns). Both modalities allow a thermal resolution of 0.1 C. The diagnostic power of images produced by any of these modalities can be augmented by the use of digital image enhancement and image recognition procedures. Computerized thermography has been applied in neurology, cardiovascular and plastic surgery, rehabilitation and sports medicine, psychiatry, dermatology and ophthalmology. Examples of these applications are shown and their scope and limitations are discussed.

Anbar, Michael

1988-01-01

305

Coefficient Color Constancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of color constancy is to take the color responses (for example camera rgb triplets) of surfaces viewed under nn unknown illuminant and map them to illuminant independent descriptors. In existing theories this mapping is either a general linear 3 times 3 matrix or a simple diagonal matrix of scaling coefficients. The general theories have the advantage that the illuminant can be accurately discounted but have the disadvantage that nine parameters must be recovered. Conversely while the coefficient theories have only three unknowns, a diagonal matrix may only partially discount the illuminant. My starting point in this thesis is to generalize the coefficient approach; the goal is to retain its inherent simplicity while at the same time increasing its expressive power. Under the generalized coefficient scheme, I propose that a visual system transforms responses to a new sensor basis before applying the scaling coefficients. I present methods for choosing the best coefficient basis for a variety of statistical models of color responses. These models are rich enough that the generalized coefficient approach suffices for almost all possible sensor sets. To achieve color constancy the correct coefficients must be recovered. Existing algorithms can do so only when strong constraints are satisfied. For example it is often assumed that there is a white reflectance in every scene. In the second part of any thesis, I develop a new coefficient algorithm, which I call color in perspective, based on very weak (and very reasonable) assumptions about the world. I assume only that the range of color responses induced by different reflectances varies with a change in illumination and that illumination itself can vary only within certain bounds. I tested the algorithm on real images taken with a color video camera--extremely good constancy is delivered. Indeed the degree of constancy compares favorably with the best which is theoretically possible. The methods developed in this thesis can be applied to a variety of other areas: including color graphics, color reproduction and color appearance models.

Finlayson, Graham David

1995-01-01

306

Testing the reliability of skin color as an indicator of quality for early season ‘Brooks’ ( Prunus avium L.) cherry  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1997–1999 seasons, we investigated the relationship between ‘Brooks’ cherry skin color at harvest (full light red, 50% bright red, full bright red and full dark red) and consumer acceptance using fruit grown in different geographic locations in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Soluble solids concentration (SSC) increased, but titratable acidity (TA) levels did not decrease as cherries matured

Carlos H. Crisosto; Gayle M. Crisosto; Mark A. Ritenour

2002-01-01

307

Accountability in a computerized society  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay warns of eroding accountability in computerized societies. It argues that assumptions about computing and features\\u000a of situations in which computers are produced create barriers to accountability. Drawing on philosophical analyses of moral\\u000a blame and responsibility, four barriers are identified: 1) the problem of many hands, 2) the problem of bugs, 3) blaming the\\u000a computer, and 4) software ownership

Helen Nissenbaum

1996-01-01

308

The Psychological Implications of Being Color Blind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes his experience with color-defective vision, and suggests that children be given a color-vision test at vision screening time in school to detect color-defective vision in children and thus minimize frustrating color-learning experiences. (MC)

Snyder, C. R.

1973-01-01

309

Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

2010-01-01

310

10 CFR Appendix R to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Average Lamp Efficacy (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Index (CRI), and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps ...Index (CRI), and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps ...Rendering Index and Correlated Color Temperature 4.4.1The CRI...

2010-01-01

311

Changing Colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this challenge, learners have to figure out in what order to combine five solutions to change the color from clear, to yellow, to blue, and back to clear. The five chemicals are potassium iodide, sodium thiosulfate, sodium hypochlorite (Clorox bleach), soluble starch (Niagara spray starch), and water. The color changes indicate chemical reactions, and the lesson includes some background information about the reactions that create different colors. Suggestions are given for guiding learners through systematic approaches to making the different combinations and observing the results, and for explaining to different age groups what happens when the solutions are combined.

Sciencenter

2012-06-26

312

Color Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, developed by the Exploratories Project at Brown University, provides a series of applets to help users understand the various concepts in Color Theory. In the combined Color Mixing applet, undergraduate and high school students can discover how lights, paints, and filters interact. Users can learn about the properties of incoming light, frequency, and reflectance. The site also provides activities for metamers, Triple Cell Response, and much more. Anyone seeking help with color concepts will benefit from this educational, interactive Web site.

313

Application of a Computerized Vibroacoustic Data Bank for Random Vibration Criteria Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computerized data bank system was developed for utilization of large amounts of vibration and acoustic data to formulate component random vibration design and test criteria. This system consists of a computer, graphics tablets, and a dry silver hard cop...

R. C. Ferebee

1982-01-01

314

Color Facsimile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to continue the color facsimile work started under a previous task, including the evaluation of the use of default Huffman tables, optimized (Custom) Huffman tables, default quantization tables, and scaled quantization tabl...

S. Perschau

1995-01-01

315

Colorful Electrophoresis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners follow step-by-step instructions to build a gel electrophoresis chamber using inexpensive materials from local hardware and electronic stores. Then, learners follow instructions to simulate DNA electrophoresis using food colors from the kitchen pantry.

Utah, University O.

2012-01-01

316

Thyroid Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... the thyroid, a computerized tomography (CT) scan, or nuclear medicine tests, to diagnose and find the cause ... is having the scan for other health problems. Nuclear medicine tests. Nuclear medicine tests of the thyroid ...

317

Finding Colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners combine acids and bases in a universal indicator to create five different colors. Using vinegar, washing soda, and Bogen universal indicator, the goal is to find combinations that create red, orange, yellow, green, and blue solutions. Background information explains a little about how acids and bases interact to affect the pH of a solution, and how the indicator changes color based on the pH. Safety notes are included.

Sciencenter

2011-08-20

318

Colored Shadows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity demonstrates the additive properties of light. Different-colored lights are shown on the same spot on a screen so that the reflecting light is white. Colored shadows, however, can be made by holding an object between the light sources and the screen. The site provides an explanation for how this occurs along with extension activities and information about the eyeâs retina. Materials needed and assembly instructions are also included. This activity is part of Exploratorium's Science Snacks series.

2006-07-22

319

Training synesthetic letter-color associations by reading in color.  

PubMed

Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing, hearing and thinking about letters, words and numbers. We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. In this protocol, participants are given specially prepared books to read in which four high-frequency letters are paired with four high-frequency colors. Participants receive unique sets of letter-color pairs based on their pre-existing preferences for colored letters. A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. In addition to objective testing, a reading experience questionnaire is administered that is designed to probe for differences in subjective experience. A subset of questions may predict how well an individual learned the associations from reading in color. Importantly, we are not claiming that this method will cause each individual to develop grapheme-color synesthesia, only that it is possible for certain individuals to form letter-color associations by reading in color and these associations are similar in some aspects to those seen in developmental grapheme-color synesthetes. The method is quite flexible and can be used to investigate different aspects and outcomes of training synesthetic associations, including learning-induced changes in brain function and structure. PMID:24638033

Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Rouw, Romke

2014-01-01

320

Computerized Adaptive Testing in the Bundeswehr.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within the psychological service of the Bundeswehr about 250.000 selection and placement procedures were conducted per year (draftees, volunteers). In a technical concept of quality control in personnel psychology the minimum standards were defined for th...

E. G. Storm

1999-01-01

321

Color logic of apparent motion.  

PubMed

Two shapes of either the same or different color will seem to be in smooth apparent motion with like-colored mates, at proper conditions of flash timing and spacing. An experiment is reported in which the condition was tested for unlike-colored pairs, for example red-green alternated with green-red. The question of interest was how the visual system would resolve the disparity of color. An 'intelligent' solution would rotate the shapes in three dimensions. Like-colored and unlike-colored parts were found to move and transform similarly, however, the resolution being dependent more upon timing than upon color. The motion of intelligence as it might be applied to vision is discussed in light of these results. PMID:6514510

Kolers, P A; Green, M

1984-01-01

322

Comparison of the Richmond HRR 4th edition and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test for quantitative assessment of tritan color deficiencies.  

PubMed

Drugs and environmental factors can induce tritan deficiencies. The Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) 100 Hue Test has become the gold standard in measuring these acquired defects. However, the test is time consuming, and color discrimination is confounded by concentration and patience. Here, we describe a test that compares six tritan plates from the HRR Pseudoisochromatic Plates 4th edition to 16 FM 100 Hue tritan caps. CIE Standard Illuminant C was reduced over five light intensities to simulate the effects of acquired losses in the S-cone pathway. Both tests showed quantitative differences in error rates with all light levels; thus they could serve equally well for assessing acquired deficiencies. However, compared to the FM 100, the HRR took subjects about 20-40 s per trial, making it more practical. PMID:24695168

Foote, Katharina G; Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

2014-04-01

323

DOE transporation programs - computerized techniques  

SciTech Connect

One of the major thrusts of the transportation programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been the development of a number of computerized transportation programs and data bases. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting these efforts through the Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories and the Tranportation Operations and Traffic Management (TOTM) organization at DOE Headquarters. Initially this project was centered upon research activities. However, since these tools provide traffic managers and key personnel involved in preshipment planning with a unique resource for ensuring that the movement of radioactive materials can be properly accomplished, additional interest and support is coming from the operational side of DOE. The major accomplishments include the development of two routing models (one for rail shipments and the other for highway shipments), an emergency response assistance program, and two data bases containing pertinent legislative and regulatory information. This paper discusses the mose recent advances in, and additions to, these computerized techniques and provides examples of how they are used.

Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Fore, C.S.; Peterson, B.E.

1983-01-01

324

Colorful Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You're probably really upset that all you have so far is a simple little ray model of light. When do we get to the good stuff, you say? How about now? As a bonus, you get to look at lots of pretty colors. This chapter addresses how light can be modeled as a series of waves. These waves consist of changing electric and magnetic fields that can travel through empty space, as well as through other mediums. Different frequencies of light waves correspond to different colors of light. White light is composed of all the colors of visible light. Visible light is just a small portion of the entire spectrum of electromagnetic waves.

Robertson, William C.

2003-01-01

325

A First Life with Computerized Business Simulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses the theoretical lens, origins, and environment of his work on computerized business simulations. Key ideas that inform his work include the two dimensions (control and interaction) of computerized simulation, the two ways of representing a natural process (phenotypical and genotypical) in a simulation, which he defines as a…

Thavikulwat, Precha

2011-01-01

326

Protecting Privacy in Computerized Medical Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report analyzes the implications of computerized medical information and the challenges it brings to individual privacy. The report examines the nature of the privacy interest in health care information and the current state of the law protecting that information; the nature of proposals to computerize health care information and the…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

327

A Computerized Screening Instrument of Language Learnability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents further analyses of a pilot study that examined the effectiveness of a computerized language screening instrument for 60 multicultural children (ages 7-8). Results suggest that because of its computerization and language learnability features, this innovative instrument may be an effective alternative to current screening…

Jacobs, Ellen L.; Coufal, Kathy L.

2001-01-01

328

The Evaluation of SISMAKOM (Computerized SDI Project).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 88 users of SISMAKOM, a computerized selective dissemination of information (SDI) and document delivery service provided by the Universiti Sains Malaysia and four other Malaysian universities, was conducted in August 1982 in order to collect data about SISMAKOM and to assess the value of a computerized SDI service in a developing…

University of Science, Penang (Malaysia).

329

Sequential color video to parallel color video converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The engineering design, development, breadboard fabrication, test, and delivery of a breadboard field sequential color video to parallel color video converter is described. The converter was designed for use onboard a manned space vehicle to eliminate a flickering TV display picture and to reduce the weight and bulk of previous ground conversion systems.

1975-01-01

330

Color Strength and Colorfastness of Flax Fabrics Dyed with Natural Colorants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flax fabrics were dyed with natural colorants extracted from animal and plant sources. The colorants used were cochineal, red sandalwood, madder root, and osage orange. The influence of the order of mordanting on color strength of dyed fabrics was analyzed. Colorfastness tests for washing, crocking, and perspiration were performed. Results obtained were correlated with color strength analysis. Scientific analysis and

Ajoy K. Sarkar; Corinne M. Seal

2003-01-01

331

The relation between children’s conceptual functioning with color and color term acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young children experience considerable difficulty in learning their first few color terms. One explanation for this difficulty is that initially they lack a conceptual representation of color sufficiently abstract to support word meaning. This hypothesis, that prior to learning color terms children do not represent color as an abstraction, was tested in two experiments using samples of 25- to 39-month-olds

Kurt Kowalski; Herbert Zimiles

2006-01-01

332

Colors of Centaurs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minor planets on outer planet-crossing orbits, called Centaur objects, are important members of the solar system in that they dynamically link Kuiper belt objects to Jupiter-family comets. In addition, perhaps 6% of near-Earth objects have histories as Centaur objects. The total mass of Centaurs (10-4&) Earth masses) is significant, about one-tenth of the mass of the asteroid belt. Centaur objects exhibit a physical property not seen among any other objects in the solar system; their B-R colors divide into two distinct populations: a gray and a red population. Application of the dip test to B-R colors in the literature indicates there is a 99.5% probability that Centaurs exhibit a bimodal color distribution. Although there are hints that gray and red Centaurs exhibit different orbital elements, application of the Wilcoxon rank sum test finds no statistically significant difference between the orbital elements of the two color groups. On theother hand, gray and red Centaurs exhibit a statistically significant difference in albedo, with the gray Centaurs having a lower median albedo than the red Centaurs. Further observational and dynamical work is necessary to determine whether the two color populations are the result of (1) evolutionary processes such as radiation-reddening, collisions, and sublimation or (2) a primordial, temperature-induced, composition gradient.

Tegler, S. C.; Bauer, J. M.; Romanishin, W.; Peixinho, N.

333

Developing tailored instruments: item banking and computerized adaptive assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Item banks and Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) have the potential to greatly improve the assessment of health outcomes.\\u000a This review describes the unique features of item banks and CAT and discusses how to develop item banks. In CAT, a computer\\u000a selects the items from an item bank that are most relevant for and informative about the particular respondent; thus optimizing

Jakob Bue Bjorner; Chih-Hung Chang; David Thissen; Bryce B. Reeve

2007-01-01

334

Follow-up computerized study of Clozaril therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary harmful side effect of Clozaril, an antipsychotic agent, is agranulocytosis. An established computerized database was modified and improved to monitor Clozaril patients in New York State Psychiatric Centers. Six centers with a total of 241 patients were monitored from 6\\/1\\/1991 to 9\\/30\\/1992. White blood cell test results were recorded for each patient. Thirteen patients were found to exhibit

M. T. Ortiz; K. E. Kozma

1993-01-01

335

Spas color camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The procedures to be followed in assessing the performance of the MOS color camera are defined. Aspects considered include: horizontal and vertical resolution; value of the video signal; gray scale rendition; environmental (vibration and temperature) tests; signal to noise ratios; and white balance correction.

Toffales, C.

1983-01-01

336

Evaluating the uniformity of color spaces and performance of color difference formulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using small color difference data sets (Macadam ellipses dataset and RIT-DuPont suprathreshold color difference ellipses dataset), and large color difference data sets (Munsell Renovation Data and OSA Uniform Color Scales dataset), the uniformity of several color spaces and performance of color difference formulae based on these color spaces are evaluated. The color spaces used are CIELAB, DIN99d, IPT, and CIECAM02-UCS. It is found that the uniformity of lightness is better than saturation and hue. Overall, for all these color spaces, the uniformity in the blue area is inferior to the other area. The uniformity of CIECAM02-UCS is superior to the other color spaces for the whole color-difference range from small to large. The uniformity of CIELAB and IPT for the large color difference data sets is better than it for the small color difference data sets, but the DIN99d is opposite. Two common performance factors (PF/3 and STRESS) and the statistical F-test are calculated to test the performance of color difference formula. The results show that the performance of color difference formulae based on these four color spaces is consistent with the uniformity of these color spaces.

Lian, Yusheng; Liao, Ningfang; Wang, Jiajia; Tan, Boneng; Liu, Zilong

2010-11-01

337

Learning Color Names for Real-World Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color names are required in real-world applications such as image retrieval and image annotation. Traditionally, they are learned from a collection of labelled color chips. These color chips are labelled with color names within a well- defined experimental setup by human test subjects. However naming colors in real-world images differs significantly from this experimental setting. In this paper, we investigate

Joost van de Weijer; Cordelia Schmid; Jakob J. Verbeek; Diane Larlus

2009-01-01

338

System for computerized TV iris diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iridodiagnostics, using the information, encoded in human iris, gives an integrated picture of human health, mirroring even preclinic states, genetic peculiarities and predispositions. To decode this information, TV image processing is used for automatic measurement of several diagnostic features, such as pupil ellipticity, pupil flattening, indenteness of the autonomous ring, its minima and maxima parameters, etc. An instrument setup is described for acquiring and processing TV image of an iris. In one of the variants, color image is produced with a black-and-white TV camera due to sequential R-, G-, and B-frames resulting from alternating color pulse illumination. For the sake of classification, sequential methodology was modified, performing multiple tests over the same data and permitting an adaptation in the process of learning.

Molebny, Vasyl V.; Kolomatsky, Yuri; Chumak, Serhi; Vasko, Mykola; Myrhorodska, Tetyana

1993-09-01

339

Development of a computerized atlas of neonatal surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital imaging is an evolving technology with significant potential for enhancing medical education and practice. Current teaching methodologies still rely on the time-honored traditions of group lectures, small group discussions, and clinical preceptorships. Educational content and value are variable. Utilization of electronic media is in its infancy but offers significant potential for enhancing if not replacing current teaching methodologies. This report details our experience with the creation of an interactive atlas on neonatal surgical conditions. The photographic atlas has been one of the classic tools of practice, reference, and especially of education in surgery. The major limitations on current atlases all stem from the fact that they are produced in book form. The limiting factors in the inclusion of large numbers of images in these volumes include the desire to limit the physical size of the book and the costs associated with high quality color reproduction of print images. The structure of the atlases usually makes them reference tools, rather than teaching tools. We have digitized a large number of clinical images dealing with the diagnosis and surgical management of all of the most common neonatal surgical conditions. The flexibility of the computer presentation environment allows the images to be organized in a number of different ways. In addition to a standard captioned atlas, the user may choose to review case histories of several of the more common conditions in neonates, complete with presenting conditions, imaging studies, surgery and pathology. Use of the computer offers the ability to choose multiple views of the images, including comparison views and transparent overlays that point out important anatomical and histopathological structures, and the ability to perform user self-tests. This atlas thus takes advantage of several aspects of data management unique to computerized digital imaging, particularly the ability to combine all aspects of medical imaging related to a single case for easy retrieval. This facet unique to digital imaging makes it the obvious choice for new methods of teaching such complex subjects as the clinical management of neonatal surgical conditions. We anticipate that many more subjects in the surgical, pathologic, and radiologic realms will eventually be presented in a similar manner.

Gill, Brijesh S.; Hardin, William D., Jr.

1995-05-01

340

The Ability of Color-Vision Defective and Color-Normal Early Elementary and Junior High Students to Utilize Color. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The investigation was undertaken to obtain data on the number of kindergarten, second, and seventh grade Ss classified as having color vision defects by the American Optical-Hardy, Rand, Rittler Test (AO-HRR) and two tests by S. Ishihara. Also studied was the ability of color vision defective and color normal Ss to utilize color as measured by the…

Cook, Ann C. N.; Hannaford, Alonzo E.

341

Differentiation of Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate and Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate Stones Using Quantitative Morphological Information from Micro-Computerized and Clinical Computerized Tomography  

PubMed Central

Purpose We differentiated calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate kidney stones using micro and clinical computerized tomography images. Materials and Methods A total of 22 calcium oxalate monohydrate and 15 calcium oxalate dihydrate human kidney stones were scanned using a commercial micro-computerized tomography scanner with a pixel size of 7 to 23 ?m. Under an institutional review board approved protocol, image data on 10 calcium oxalate monohydrate and 9 calcium oxalate dihydrate stones greater than 5 mm were retrieved from a total of 80 patients who underwent clinical dual energy computerized tomography for clinical indications and had stones available for infrared spectroscopic compositional analysis. Micro and clinical computerized tomography images were processed using in-house software, which quantified stone surface morphology with curvature based calculations. A shape index was generated as a quantitative shape metric to differentiate calcium oxalate monohydrate from calcium oxalate dihydrate stones. Statistical tests were used to test the performance of the shape index. Results On micro-computerized tomography images the shape index of calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate stones significantly differed (ROC curve AUC 0.92, p <0.0001). At the optimal cutoff sensitivity was 0.93 and specificity was 0.91. On clinical computerized tomography images a significant morphological difference was also detected (p = 0.007). AUC, sensitivity and specificity were 0.90, 1 and 0.73, respectively. Conclusions On micro and clinical computerized tomography images a morphological difference was detectable in calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate stones larger than 5 mm. The shape index is a highly promising method that can distinguish calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate stones with reasonable accuracy.

Duan, Xinhui; Qu, Mingliang; Wang, Jia; Trevathan, James; Vrtiska, Terri; Williams, James C.; Krambeck, Amy; Lieske, John; McCollough, Cynthia

2014-01-01

342

Interference and facilitation for color naming with separate bilateral presentations of the word and color  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested a new procedure for generation of interference to color-naming in which separate word and color stimuli are presented to the right and left of fixation. Ss were 12 right-handed 17-22 yr old males. The procedure was found to be effective; incongruent names delayed color-naming, and congruent combinations of words and colors produced a facilitation of color-naming relative to a

Frederick N. Dyer

1973-01-01

343

Color Television and Colorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high lights of the history of color measurement and of color photography are reviewed. Following this introduction, the principles of modern 3-color colorimetry are developed from a hypothetical experiment in color matching. The conventional theory of \\

W. T. Wintringham

1951-01-01

344

Computerized Algorithms for Evaluating Prehospital Care.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development and an application of a methodology for evaluating the performance of emergency medical services prehospital personnel in the assessment and treatment of medical emergencies. The evaluation is computerized and permits...

H. Wolfe L. Shuman

1983-01-01

345

Computerized Interpretation of Dynamic Breast MRI.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the past three years we have investigated computerized methods for analyses and interpretation of breast MR images. We investigated an automatic method for correcting intensity inhomogenieity artifacts in breast MR images. We developed a fuzzy c-means ...

W. Chen

2006-01-01

346

Computerized Management Information Systems and Organizational Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The computerized management of information systems and organizational structures is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) critical factors favoring centralization and decentralization of organizations, (2) classification of organizations by relative ...

M. R. Sertel Z. S. Zannetos

1970-01-01

347

Planning Guidelines for Computerized Transaxial Tomography (CT).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Guidelines to assist local communities in review and decisionmaking related to computerized tomography (CT) 'head' and 'whole body' scanner needs and placement are presented. Although medical benefits for head scanning are well established, the proper rol...

1976-01-01

348

Computerized Application of Standards Newport News Shipbuilding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Computerized Application of Standards Project successfully proved that MOST developed standards could be applied by an existing computer- aided design system to eliminate manual application of standards. The Computer Center, Industrial Engineering, an...

1985-01-01

349

Computerized method of reporting operating quality costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to explain the computerized method of reporting operating quality costs at the Neutron Devices Department (NDD), St. Petersburg, Florida. Quality Control Management recognized the need to report operating quality costs more m...

C. W. Norwood C. A. Scott G. T. Walker

1968-01-01

350

Computerized tomography using video recorded fluoroscopic images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computerized tomographic imaging system is examined which employs video-recorded fluoroscopic images as input data. By hooking the video recorder to a digital computer through a suitable interface, such a system permits very rapid construction of tomograms.

Kak, A. C.; Jakowatz, C. V., Jr.; Baily, N. A.; Keller, R. A.

1975-01-01

351

Computerized semen analysis with sperm tail detection.  

PubMed

We evaluated a recently developed computerized semen analyser that detects spermatozoa not only by the criteria of size, contrast and movement but also by the morphological characteristics of the sperm tail. Comparison of the sperm concentration in 33 semen samples measured by conventional and by computerized semen analysis, as well as by flow cytometry, showed acceptable agreement between all three methods, although the mean differences and standard deviations were less for conventional than for computerized analysis when compared to flow cytometry as a reference method. Motility estimates were lower by the computer system for values between 1 and 40%. Higher motilities showed no systematic error. In conclusion, the improved algorithms for sperm detection yield more reliable data for sperm concentration and motility than previous systems of computerized semen analysis. PMID:2254406

Neuwinger, J; Behre, H M; Nieschlag, E

1990-08-01

352

HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures in nuclear power plant control rooms. It is beyond the scope of this paper to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper provides a review of HRA as applied to traditional paper-based procedures, followed by a discussion of what specific factors should additionally be considered in HRAs for computerized procedures. Performance shaping factors and failure modes unique to computerized procedures are highlighted. Since there is no definitive guide to HRA for paper-based procedures, this paper also serves to clarify the existing guidance on paper-based procedures before delving into the unique aspects of computerized procedures.

Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Katya Le Blanc

2011-09-01

353

The Computerized Anatomical Man (Cam) Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computerized anatomical man (CAM) model, representing the most detailed and anatomically correct geometrical model of the human body yet prepared, has been developed for use in analyzing radiation dose distribution in man. This model of a 50-percentile ...

M. P. Billings W. R. Yucker

1973-01-01

354

Color appearance in stereoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

2011-02-01

355

From detecting to recognizing color codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present efficient ways of detecting color codes in field images and recognizing the colors to read their codes. The color-code tag used in this paper consists of the code area which contains concentric, multiple circular rings on the white background. To generate the test images, we used two cameras of different brands, that is, a Canon

Jaehwan Park; Woosung Kim; Hyeon-Joong Yoo; Youngbum Jang

2006-01-01

356

Optimum Watermark Detection in Color Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work concentrates on the problem of watermarking embedding and optimum detection in color images through the use of spread spectrum techniques, both in spa ce (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum or DSSS) and frequency (Frequency Hopping). It is applied to RGB and opponent color component representations. Perceptive information is considered in both color systems. Some tests are performed in order

Elisa Sayrol; Josep Vidal; Silvia Cabanillas; Sonia Santamaria

1999-01-01

357

The effects of color on brightness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observation of human subjects shows that the spectral returns of equiluminant colored surrounds govern the apparent brightness of achromatic test targets. The influence of color on brightness provides further evidence that perceptions of luminance are generated according to the empirical frequency of the possible sources of visual stimuli, and suggests a novel way of understanding color contrast and constancy.

R. Beau Lotto; Dale Purves

1999-01-01

358

High-School Chemistry Students' Performance and Gender Differences in a Computerized Molecular Modeling Learning Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computerized molecular modeling (CMM) contributes to the development of visualization skills via vivid animation of three dimensional representations. Its power to illustrate and explore phenomena in chemistry teaching stems from the convenience and simplicity of building molecules of any size and color in a number of presentation styles. A new CMM-based learning environment for teaching and learning chemistry in Israeli high schools has been designed and implemented. Three tenth grade experimental classes used this discovery CMM approach, while two other classes, who studied the same topic in the customary approach, served as a control group. We investigated the effects of using molecular modeling on students' spatial ability, understanding of new concepts related to geometric and symbolic representations and students' perception of the model concept. Each variable was examined for gender differences. Students of the experimental group performed better than control group students in all three performance aspects. Experimental group students scored higher than the control group students in the achievement test on structure and bonding. Students' spatial ability improved in both groups, but students from the experimental group scored higher. For the average students in the two groups the improvement in all three spatial ability sub-tests —paper folding, card rotation, and cube comparison—was significantly higher for the experimental group. Experimental group students gained better insight into the model concept than the control group and could explain more phenomena with the aid of a variety of models. Hence, CMM helps in particular to improve the examined cognitive aspects of the average student population. In most of the achievement and spatial ability tests no significant differences between the genders were found, but in some aspects of model perception and verbal argumentation differences still exist. Experimental group females improved their model perception more than the control group females in understanding ways to create models and in the role of models as mental structures and prediction tools. Teachers' and students' feedback on the CMM learning environment was found to be positive, as it helped them understand concepts in molecular geometry and bonding. The results of this study suggest that teaching/learning of topics in chemistry that are related to three dimensional structures can be improved by using a discovery approach in a computerized learning environment.

Barnea, Nitza; Dori, Yehudit J.

1999-12-01

359

Color-Range Bodies in Color Photography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Described is a method for constructing the color body of the color-photographic process. Constructed are color bodies for six processes on multilayer film and for a hydrotypic process using zonal matrix film. The basis for constructing the color body of t...

D. K. Balabukha M. M. Mirfazieva

1970-01-01

360

A method for peat inventory based on LANDSAT data and computerized mapping. [Ontario  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wetlands were preliminarily delineated on a geometrically-corrected color composite map printed from digital LANDSAT data using a computerized color plotting system. A digital classification was performed to identify the location and extent of wetland types (e.g., open bog, types of treed fen and black spruce-alder swamp). A map is printed from the results of this classification using the computerized color plotter. This color-coded map, produced at several different scales, provides a basis for pre-selecting field sampling sites. Helicopter-aided spot sampling based on the LANDSAT-derived map was conducted over the entire 1700 sq km area of North Ontario. Traditional transect sampling was carried out over a portion of the area, so that the two methods could be compared. Spot sampling based on the LANDSAT-derived map was found to produce results virtually identical to those produced by the transect sampling technique, in approximately one-fifteenth of the time and with a proportionate reduction in cost.

Pala, S.

1982-01-01

361

Computerized grading of anatomy laboratory practical examinations.  

PubMed

At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the items were anatomical structures that could be tagged on a given lab practical examination. Each lab exam featured an anatomy laboratory component and a computer laboratory component. For the anatomy lab component, students moved from one question station to another at timed intervals and identified tagged anatomical structures. As students identified a tagged structure, they referred to a copy of the list (provided with their answer sheet) and wrote the number corresponding to the structure on their answer sheet. Immediately after the anatomy lab component, students were escorted to a computer instruction laboratory where they typed their answer numbers into a secured testing component of a learning management system that recorded their answers for automatic grading. After a brief review of examination scores and item analysis by faculty, exam scores were reported to students electronically. Adding this brief computer component to each lab exam greatly reduced faculty grading time, reduced grading errors and provided faster performance feedback for students without changing overall student performance. PMID:19177415

Krippendorf, Beth B; Bolender, David L; Kolesari, Gary L

2008-01-01

362

A Computerized Blood Inventory System in the Service of the Community, the Blood Donor and the Patient-Recipient.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field testing in a hospital blood bank (HBB) demonstrated the feasibility of a computerized Blood Inventory and Information System (BLIIS) - developed during the first year - for input, storage and retrieval of data between individual HBB's and a central ...

R. L. Hirsch J. B. Schorr

1970-01-01

363

Comparison of the Usability of Three Versions of a Computerized Medical Diagnostic Assistance Program for Abdominal Pain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three versions of a computerized medical diagnostic assistance program for abdominal pain were tested for ease of use, ease of learning, user satisfaction, and time to complete the Pain Site screen. A higher satisfaction rating was associated with visual ...

B. L. Ryack D. M. Stetson E. F. Chouinard

1991-01-01

364

Computerized feature systems for identifying suspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In suspect identification, witnesses examine photos of known offenders in mugshot albums. The probability of correct identification deteriorates rapidly, however, as the number of mugshots examined increases. Feature approaches, where mugshots are displayed in order of similarity to witness descriptions of suspects, increase identification success by reducing this number. In our computerized feature system, both police raters and witnesses describe facial features of suspects on rating scales such as nose size: small 1 2 3 4 5 large. Feature users consistently identify more target suspects correctly than do album users. Previous experimental tests have failed, however, to examine the effects of feature system performance of the use of live targets as suspects rather than photos, the use of realistic crime scenarios, the number of police raters/mugshot, and differences among raters in their effect on system perfomance. In three experiments, we investigated those four issues. The first experiment used photos as target suspects but with multiple distractors, the second tested live suspects, while the third tested live suspects in a realistic crime scenario. The database contained the official mugshots of 1,000 offenders. Across the three experiments, a second and sometimes a third rater/mugshot significantly reduced the number of photos examined. More raters/mugshot did not affect performance further. Raters differed significantly in their effect on system perfomance. Significantly, our feature system performed well both with target suspects seen live and with live suspects in realistic crime scenarios (performance was comparable to that in previous experiments for photos of target suspects). These results strongly support our contention that feature systems are superior to album systems.

Lee, Eric; Whalen, Thom; McCarthy, Andrew; Sakalauskas, John; Wotton, Cynthia

1995-09-01

365

Color Theory for Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will introduce students to color theory with a focus on the use of color in digital design. Students will discover the color wheel, and color harmonies. Color is a very powerful tool in design. It can, enhance a message, give an object visual weight and emphasis, and add richness and depth to a design. We can use color to signify data, to draw attention to a particular object, or to set a mood. Color ...

Jensen, Mr.

2009-10-04

366

Disruptive Coloration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most animals are patterned. While some markings may serve as an advertisement, many appear to function in concealment. Because of the principal way in which they seem to function, such markings are often termed disruptive coloration . Although there are a number of characteristics that may influence the effectiveness of markings in disruption; this study will only focus on two aspects: (1) the effectiveness of the position of markings in blurring or enhancing outline, and (2) the degree to which strongly contrasting markings may interfere with or aid recognition. In regard to the former, it must be kept in mind that the profile changes with change in viewing angle. Thus the pattern seen in relation to the profile most commonly presented to predator (or prey) is of most interest to us here.

Ipsen, David; Gillfillan, Gretchen L.; Judy Diamond (Revised New Edition); Judy Scotchmoor (Revised New Edition); Stebbins, Robert

2009-04-01

367

COLORS Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

COLORS Magazine was willed into existence in 1991 by photographer Oliviero Toscani and art director Tibor Kalman. Its goal was simple: "to show the world to the world.â The publication looks at social issues around the world through thoughtful prose and meaningful visuals. Visitors can click on the Stories tab to click through a visual field of photos that lead to such stories as military service in South Korea and cuts to public spending in the United Kingdom. The Notebooks area brings together commentaries from all over the world as part of a collaboration with Reporters sans Frontieres. The Projects area contains links to special issues and projects, such as the News Machine that "churns your tweets through different media filters.â Interested users can learn about obtaining a print subscription or explore the corresponding blog.

368

Color contrast processing in human striate cortex  

PubMed Central

Color constancy refers to the unchanging nature of the perceived color of an object despite considerable variation in the wavelength composition of the light illuminating it. The color contrasts between objects and their backgrounds play a crucial role in color constancy. We tested a patient whose right striate cortex had been removed and demonstrated that he made no use of color contrast in judging color appearance but instead made judgments based simply on wavelength comparison. This was shown by presenting pairs of colored stimuli against a background color that gradually changed across space. When presented with such displays, both normal observers and those with cerebral achromatopsia (cortical color blindness) judge the color appearance of such stimuli on the basis of the chromatic contrast the stimuli make against their background rather than on the physical wavelengths of the light emitted from them. However, our patient made no such use of color contrast but, instead, made color discriminations simply on the basis of wavelength composition. This is consistent with recent findings from monkey electrophysiology that identify cells in early cortical visual areas that signal local contrast and so contribute to the likely mechanism for achieving color constancy.

Kentridge, R. W.; Heywood, C. A.; Weiskrantz, L.

2007-01-01

369

Using color management in color document processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color Management Systems have been used for several years in Desktop Publishing (DTP) environments. While this development hasn't matured yet, we are already experiencing the next generation of the color imaging revolution-Device Independent Color for the small office/home office (SOHO) environment. Though there are still open technical issues with device independent color matching, they are not the focal point of this paper. This paper discusses two new and crucial aspects in using color management in color document processing: the management of color objects and their associated color rendering methods; a proposal for a precedence order and handshaking protocol among the various software components involved in color document processing. As color peripherals become affordable to the SOHO market, color management also becomes a prerequisite for common document authoring applications such as word processors. The first color management solutions were oriented towards DTP environments whose requirements were largely different. For example, DTP documents are image-centric, as opposed to SOHO documents that are text and charts centric. To achieve optimal reproduction on low-cost SOHO peripherals, it is critical that different color rendering methods are used for the different document object types. The first challenge in using color management of color document processing is the association of rendering methods with object types. As a result of an evolutionary process, color matching solutions are now available as application software, as driver embedded software and as operating system extensions. Consequently, document processing faces a new challenge, the correct selection of the color matching solution while avoiding duplicate color corrections.

Nehab, Smadar

1995-04-01

370

Quaternion color texture segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quaternion representation of color is shown here to be effective in the context of segmenting color images into regions of similar color texture. The advantage of using quaternion arithmetic is that a color can be represented and analyzed as a single entity. A low-dimensional basis for the color textures found in a given image is derived via quaternion principal

Lilong Shi; Brian Funt

2007-01-01

371

Similarity of Color Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe two new color indexing techniques. The first one is a more robust version of thecommonly used color histogram indexing. In the index we store the cumulative color histograms.The L 1 -, L 2 -, or L1 -distance between two cumulative color histograms can be used to define asimilarity measure of these two color distributions. We show that while

Markus A. Stricker; Markus Orengo

1995-01-01

372

Colors and Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do you name things by color and shape? Lets learn about shapes and colors! 1. Watch this Color Video 2. Play this Color Game 3. Complete this Color Page 4. Watch this Shape Video 5. Watch this Shape Video2 6. Play this Shape Game 7. ...

Ms.campbell

2012-04-04

373

Towards building computerized image analysis framework for nucleus discrimination in microscopy images of diffuse glioma.  

PubMed

As an effort to build an automated and objective system for pathologic image analysis, we present, in this paper, a computerized image processing method for identifying nuclei, a basic biological unit of diagnostic utility, in microscopy images of glioma tissue samples. The complete analysis includes multiple processing steps, involving mode detection with color and spatial information for pixel clustering, background normalization leveraging morphological operations, boundary refinement with deformable models, and clumped nuclei separation using watershed. In aggregate, our validation dataset includes 220 nuclei from 11 distinct tissue regions selected at random by an experienced neuropathologist. Computerized nuclei detection results are in good concordance with human markups by both visual appraisement and quantitative measures. We compare the performance of the proposed analysis algorithm with that of CellProfiler, a classical analysis software for cell image process, and present the superiority of our method to CellProfiler. PMID:22255853

Kong, Jun; Cooper, Lee; Kurc, Tahsin; Brat, Daniel; Saltz, Joel

2011-01-01

374

Computerized provider order entry in the clinical laboratory  

PubMed Central

Clinicians have traditionally ordered laboratory tests using paper-based orders and requisitions. However, paper orders are becoming increasingly incompatible with the complexities, challenges, and resource constraints of our modern healthcare systems and are being replaced by electronic order entry systems. Electronic systems that allow direct provider input of diagnostic testing or medication orders into a computer system are known as Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems. Adoption of laboratory CPOE systems may offer institutions many benefits, including reduced test turnaround time, improved test utilization, and better adherence to practice guidelines. In this review, we outline the functionality of various CPOE implementations, review the reported benefits, and discuss strategies for using CPOE to improve the test ordering process. Further, we discuss barriers to the implementation of CPOE systems that have prevented their more widespread adoption.

Baron, Jason M.; Dighe, Anand S.

2011-01-01

375

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

Abnormal tooth color is any color other than the white to yellowish-white of normal teeth. ... things can cause tooth discoloration. The change in color may affect the entire tooth, or just appear ...

376

Skin color - patchy  

MedlinePLUS

Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. Mottling or mottled skin refers to blood vessel changes in ... in the skin cells that gives skin its color Growth of bacteria or other organisms on the ...

377

Computerization of the safeguards analysis decision process  

SciTech Connect

Safeguards regulations are evolving to meet new demands for timeliness and sensitivity in detecting the loss or unauthorized use of sensitive nuclear materials. The opportunities to meet new rules, particularly in bulk processing plants, involve developing techniques which use modern, computerized process control and information systems. Using these computerized systems in the safeguards analysis involves all the challenges of the man-machine interface experienced in the typical process control application and adds new dimensions to accuracy requirements, data analysis, and alarm resolution in the regulatory environment. 4 refs., 1 fig.

Ehinger, M.H.

1990-01-01

378

Assessment of readiness to change and relationship to AUDIT score in a trauma population utilizing computerized alcohol screening and brief intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Trauma patient readiness to change score and its relationship to the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) score were assessed in addition to the feasibility of Computerized Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention (CASI). Methods: A bilingual computerized tablet for trauma patients was utilized and the data was analyzed using Stata. Results: Twenty-five percent of 1,145 trauma patients drank more

Shahram Lotfipour; Victor Cisneros; Bharath Chakravarthy; Cristobal Barrios; Craig L. Anderson; John Christian Fox; Samer Roumani; Wirachin Hoonpongsimanont; Federico E. Vaca

2012-01-01

379

Colored Shadows Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into mixing colors with light. Groups of learners will set up colored lights in a darkened room and record the color of shadows cast by each color. They will continue to collect data as they experiment with combinations of multiple colored lights and produce a data table to organize their findings. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Light and Color.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

380

21 CFR 884.2800 - Computerized Labor Monitoring System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...System. (a) Identification . A computerized labor monitoring system is a system intended to continuously measure cervical dilation and fetal head descent and provide a display that indicates the progress of labor. The computerized labor monitoring...

2010-04-01

381

The Colors of the Alphabet: Naturally-Biased Associations Between Shape and Color  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many letters of the alphabet are consistently mapped to specific colors in English-speaking adults, both in the general population and in individuals with grapheme-color synaesthesia who perceive letters in color. Here, across six experiments, we tested the ubiquity of the color\\/letter associations with typically developing toddlers, literate children, and adults. We found that pre-literate children associate O with white and

Ferrinne Spector; Daphne Maurer

2011-01-01

382

Thyroid Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... the thyroid, a computerized tomography (CT) scan, or nuclear medicine tests, to diagnose and find the cause ... is having the scan for other health problems. Nuclear medicine tests. Nuclear medicine tests of the thyroid ...

383

Wetting in Color  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. However, expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. In this thesis I present in detail the development of Wetting in Color Technology, focusing primarily on its application as an inexpensive and highly selective colorimetric indicator for organic liquids. The technology exploits chemically-encoded inverse-opal photonic crystals to control the infiltration of fluids to liquid-specific spatial patterns, projecting minute differences in liquids' wettability to macroscopically distinct, easy-to-visualize structural color patterns. It is shown experimentally and corroborated with theoretical modeling using percolation theory that the high selectivity of wetting, upon-which the sensitivity of the indicator relies, is caused by the highly symmetric structure of our large-area, defect-free SiO2 inverse-opals. The regular structure also produces a bright iridescent color, which disappears when infiltrated with liquid - naturally coupling the optical and fluidic responses. Surface modification protocols are developed, requiring only silanization and selective oxidation, to facilitate the deterministic design of an indicator that differentiates a broad range of liquids. The resulting tunable, built-in horizontal and vertical chemistry gradients allow the wettability threshold to be tailored to specific liquids across a continuous range, and make the readout rely only on countable color differences. As wetting is a generic fluidic phenomenon, Wetting in Color technology could be suitable for applications in authentication or identification of unknown liquids across a broad range of industries. However, the generic nature of the response also ensures chemical non-specificity. It is shown that combinatorial measurements from an array of indicators add a degree of chemical specificity to the platform, which can be further improved by monitoring the drying of the inverse-opal films. While colorimetry is the central focus of this thesis, applications of this platform in encryption, fluidics and nanofabrication are also briefly explored.

Burgess, Ian Bruce

384

Computerized Interpretation of Dynamic Breast MRI.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the most important obstacles of clinical application of breast MRI is the lack of standardization in terms of interpretation guidelines. The purpose of the proposed research is to develop computerized methods to take full advantage of the wealth in...

W. Chen M. L. Giger

2005-01-01

385

Computerized Inspection Of Gear-Tooth Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method of manufacturing gears with precisely shaped teeth involves computerized inspection of gear-tooth surfaces followed by adjustments of machine-tool settings to minimize deviations between real and theoretical versions of surfaces. Thus, iterated cycles of cutting gear teeth, inspection, and adjustments help increase and/or maintain precision of subsequently manufactured gears.

Handschuh, R. F.; Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, Y.; Kuan, C.

1994-01-01

386

Computerized management information systems and organizational structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computerized management of information systems and organizational structures is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) critical factors favoring centralization and decentralization of organizations, (2) classification of organizations by relative structure, (3) attempts to measure change in organization structure, and (4) impact of information technology developments on organizational structure changes.

Zannetos, Z. S.; Sertel, M. R.

1970-01-01

387

Computerized management support for swine breeding farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. INTRODUCTION<\\/strong>The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and definition of farm management and management information systems (MIS), (2) individual farm analysis, and (3) sow replacement optimization. As part of the study, a

R. B. M. Huirne

1990-01-01

388

Computerized Financial Reporting Based on GAAP.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the statewide computerized system developed in Minnesota following the 1976 enactment of the Uniform Financial Accounting and Reporting Standards (UFARS) law. UFARS includes provisions for an advisory council responsible for recommending accounting and reporting procedures, and seven data processing centers to serve all 560 Minnesota…

Tikkanen, Stan; Liljeberg, Burt

1983-01-01

389

Computerized Grading of Anatomy Laboratory Practical Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the…

Krippendorf, Beth B.; Bolender, David L.; Kolesari, Gary L.

2008-01-01

390

Computerized Approach for Matrix-Form FMEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a computerized technique for preparing a matrix-form of failure modes and effects analysis which has previously been completed using manual methods. The basic input to the computer is a definition of each element of the system, applicable failure modes, and the resultant effect of each failure mode. From this input, the computer develops the matrix, locates the

John M. Legg

1978-01-01

391

Nursing Research Using Computerized Data Bases  

PubMed Central

Because of the implementation of large computerized information systems, the analyses of patient care data important to clinical nursing research is possible. Simultaneously, the heralding of computer technology in clinical practice areas has necessitated new research ideas to be pursued. This paper will describe a taxonomy of research data available on hospital information systems that may be used for clinical nursing research.

McCormick, Kathleen A.

1981-01-01

392

Teaching Psychological Defenses: An Interactive Computerized Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an interactive computerized teaching program with which students learn to analyze behaviors as examples of psychological defense. Students' satisfaction with the program and their subsequent performance in identifying defense mechanisms indicated that the program was successful in developing analytical skills. (Author/JDH)

Bibace, Roger; And Others

1987-01-01

393

Computerized Emergency Resource Management (Open Captioned).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program presents a brief overview of the National Computerized MSDS Library System, a database system that allows easy access to material safety data sheets 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The program is designed specifically for medical center ma...

1994-01-01

394

Classifying mammographic lesions using computerized image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classification of 3 common breast lesions, fibroadenomas, cysts, and cancers, was achieved using computerized image analysis of tumor shape in conjunction with patient age. The process involved the digitization of 69 mammographic images using a video camera and a commercial frame grabber on a PC-based computer system. An interactive segmentation procedure identified the tumor boundary using a thresholding technique

Judy Kilday; Francesco Palmieri; Martin D. Fox

1993-01-01

395

A computerized accountability program is operating - DYMCAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear materials control and accountability program in the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been placed on a computerized system identified as DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). The primary goal of the DYMCAS is to assist in detecting the diversion of special nuclear material (SNM). Secondly, the system is expected to assure quality inventory reconciliations both

S. W. Combs; W. T. Mee

1983-01-01

396

Computerized accountability program is operating - DYMCAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear materials control and accountability program in the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been placed on a computerized system identified as DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). The primary gola of the DYMCAS is to assist in detecting the diversion of special nuclear material (SNM). Secondly, the system is expected to assure quality inventory reconciliations both

S. W. Combs; W. T. Mee

1983-01-01

397

Computerized Interpretation of Dynamic Breast MRI.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the most important obstacles of clinical application of breast MRI is the lack of standardization in terms of interpretation guidelines. The purpose of the proposed research is to develop computerized methods to take full advantage of the wealth in...

W. Chen

2004-01-01

398

Computerized Collective Training for Teams. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to empirically demonstrate and evaluate a brassboard for computerized collective training for teams (COLT2). The underlying tasks were to (1) conduct a state of the art assessment of instructional strategies appropriate for COLT2, (2) derive a conceptual framework for COLT2 instructional strategies, (3)…

Thurmond, Paul; Kribs, H. Dewey

399

Calibrator Blocks For Computerized Tomography (CT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sets of calibrator blocks developed for use with industrial computerized tomography (CT) systems. Set of blocks (or number of stacked sets of blocks) placed on object table of CT system and scanned in usual way. Blocks include holes of known size, shape, and location. Appearance of holes in output image of CT system used to verify operation of system.

Engel, H. Peter

1990-01-01

400

Computerized system for measuring cerebral metabolism  

SciTech Connect

A computerized stereotactic measurement system for evaluating rat brain metabolism was developed to utilize the large amount of data generated by quantitative autoradiography. Conventional methods of measurement only analyze a small percent of these data because these methods are limited by instrument design and the subjectiveness of the investigator. However, a computerized system allows digital images to be analyzed by placing data at their appropriate three-dimensional stereotactic coordinates. The system automatically registers experimental data to a standard three-dimensional image using alignment, scaling, and matching operations. Metabolic activity in different neuronal structures is then measured by generating digital masks and superimposing them on to experimental data. Several experimental data sets were evaluated and it was noticed that the structures measured by the computerized system, had in general, lower metabolic activity than manual measurements had indicated. This was expected because the computerized system measured the structure over its volume while the manual readings were taken from the most active metabolic area of a particular structure.

McGlone, J.S.; Hibbard, L.S.; Hawkins, R.A.; Kasturi, R.

1987-09-01

401

Computerized Workstation for Tsunami Hazard Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present general structure and functionality of the proposed Computerized Workstation for Tsunami Hazard Monitoring (CWTHM). The tool allows interactive monitoring of hazard, tsunami risk assessment, and mitigation - at all stages, from the period of strong tsunamigenic earthquake preparation to inundation of the defended coastal areas. CWTHM is a software-hardware complex with a set of software applications, optimized to

Mikhail Lavrentiev-Jr; Andrey Marchuk; Alexey Romanenko; Konstantin Simonov; Vasiliy Titov

2010-01-01

402

Axial transverse computerized tomography in 73 glioblastomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Among 2,600 patients, examined by computerized tomography, 404 had brain tumours, which were gliomas in 150 cases. There were 73 glioblastomas. Examination was performed according to Ambrose's method using an intravenous injection of 1 ml 60% contrast medium per kg body weight. Thus 98% of all gliomas could be demonstrated. Glioblastomas are shown in three different forms: an annular

H. Steinhoff; Th. Grumme; E. Kazner; S. Lange; W. Lanksch; W. Meese; R. Wüllenweber

1978-01-01

403

Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well. The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes

D. McCann; D. White

1992-01-01

404

Computerized Offender Assessment: Validation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The validity of a computer-based test interpretation (CBTI) system for mental health screening in correctional settings was evaluated. First, 100 adult male felons were administered a brief mental status interview and a series of psychological tests, including the MMPI, the revised Beta IQ Examination, and the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. Psychiatric diagnoses and CBTI ratings of victimization, violence, suicide, and substance

Ron P. Jemelka; Geoffrey A. Wiegand; Edward A. Walker; Eric W. Trupin

1992-01-01

405

Color of Salts (Flame Test)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a laboratory exercise designed to allow students to further investigate the light spectrum. This lab is used to have students view the light spectrum first hand as opposed to using lecture alone.

Ramsey Miller, Menahga High School, Menahga, MN, based on an original activity from the Prentice Hall Chemistry (2005), Flame Tests, p.142.

406

Computerized Condition-specific Templates For Improving Care of Geriatric Syndromes in a Primary Care Setting  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION As the U.S. population ages, primary care clinicians (PCCs) will encounter more patients with geriatric syndromes, such as urinary incontinence (UI) and falls. Yet, current evidence suggests that care of these conditions does not meet expected standards and that PCCs would benefit from tools to improve care of these conditions. Little is known about the role of computerized condition-specific templates for improving care of geriatric syndromes. AIM We sought to develop and assess the usefulness of condition-specific computerized templates in a primary care setting. SETTING A large academic Veterans Affairs medical center. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION We developed and tested the usefulness of 2 condition-specific computerized templates (UI and falls) that could be added on to an existing electronic health record system. PROGRAM EVALUATION Semistructured interviews were used to identify barriers to use of computerized templates. Usefulness and usability were assessed through a randomized-controlled trial involving standardized patients. DISCUSSION Use of condition-specific templates resulted in improved history and physical exam assessment for both UI and falls (P < .05). Our computerized, condition-specific templates are a promising method for improving care of geriatric conditions in a primary care setting, but require improvement in usability before widespread implementation.

Fung, Constance H

2006-01-01

407

Vision Screening by Color Photography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Screening test developed for detecting a range of vision defects in eye, including common precursors to amblyopia. Test noninvasive, safe, and administered easily in field by operator with no medical training. Only minimal momentary cooperation of subject required: Thus, test shows promise for use with very young children. Test produces color-slide images of retinas of eyes under specially-controlled lighting conditions. Trained observer screens five children per minute.

Jayroe, R.; Richardson, J. R.; Kerr, J.; Hay, S.; Mcbride, R.

1985-01-01

408

Technology and Language Testing. A Collection of Papers from the Annual Colloquium on Language Testing Research (7th, Princeton, New Jersey, April 6-9, 1985).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays on measurement theory and language testing includes: "Computerized Adaptive Testing: Implications for Language Test Developers" (Peter Tung); "The Promise and Threat of Computerized Adaptive Assessment of Reading Comprehension" (Michael Canale); "Computerized Rasch Analysis of Item Bias in ESL Tests" (Harold S. Madsen,…

Stansfield, Charles W., Ed.

409

Computerized quantitative evaluation of mammographic accreditation phantom images  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The objective was to develop and investigate an automated scoring scheme of the American College of Radiology (ACR) mammographic accreditation phantom (RMI 156, Middleton, WI) images. Methods: The developed method consisted of background subtraction, determination of region of interest, classification of fiber and mass objects by Mahalanobis distance, detection of specks by template matching, and rule-based scoring. Fifty-one phantom images were collected from 51 facilities for this study (one facility provided one image). A medical physicist and two radiologic technologists also scored the images. The human and computerized scores were compared. Results: In terms of meeting the ACR's criteria, the accuracies of the developed method for computerized evaluation of fiber, mass, and speck were 90%, 80%, and 98%, respectively. Contingency table analysis revealed significant association between observer and computer scores for microcalcifications (p<5%) but not for masses and fibers. Conclusions: The developed method may achieve a stable assessment of visibility for test objects in mammographic accreditation phantom image in whether the phantom image meets the ACR's criteria in the evaluation test, although there is room left for improvement in the approach for fiber and mass objects.

Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih; Shinohara, Norimitsu [Department of Radiological Technology, School of Health Sciences, Niigata University, 2-746 Asahimachidori, Chuouku, Niigata 951-8518 (Japan); Department of Radiological Technology, Gifu Univesity of Medical Science, 1-795 Hiraga-aza-nagamine, Seki, Gifu 501-3892 (Japan)

2010-12-15

410

Assessing the effectiveness of a computerized blood order "consultation" system.  

PubMed

To optimize blood ordering and accurately assess transfusion practice, in 1987, an "on line" computerized, knowledge-based, blood order critiquing system was integrated into the HELP Hospital Information System (HIS) at LDS Hospital. Evaluations of the computerized ordering system demonstrated its benefits and limitations on transfusion practice. Based on this experience, a second generation blood ordering system using a consultation mode was developed. A pilot test of this blood order consultant system, using historical data in the HELP system's database, was performed. This pilot test demonstrated that the consultation system provided accurate recommendations for red blood cell (RBC) and platelet orders. Comparing the appropriateness of blood orders with the recommendations made by the director of the blood bank, the orders recommended by the computer "consultant" agreed 95.5% of the time. The computer consultation system also recommended fewer RBC units for transfusion. Preliminary results obtained using the consultant approach suggest that we may be able to simplify blood ordering practice and also reduce the number of units of blood products ordered. Based on these findings we are now preparing to compare the "critiquing" and "consultation" approaches using a clinical trial. PMID:1807617

Lepage, E F; Gardner, R M; Laub, R M; Jacobson, J T

1991-01-01

411

Organizing color in dentistry.  

PubMed

Although esthetic dentistry techniques have grown more sophisticated, the fabrication and control of color in dentistry can be improved. An organized and precise system is necessary to combine artistic and scientific approaches. For this, a color order system, based on Munsell's notations and spectrophotometric research on the color space of natural teeth, would provide restorations of excellent color. PMID:2447140

Miller, L

1987-12-01

412

Approximate Hypergraph Coloring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coloring of a hypergraph is a mapping of vertices to colors such that no hyperedge is monochromatic. We are interested in the problem of coloring 2-colorable hypergraphs. For the special case of graphs (hypergraphs of dimension 2) this can easily be done in linear time. The problem for general hypergraphs is much more dicult since a result of Lov

Pierre Kelsen; Sanjeev Mahajan; Ramesh Hariharan

1996-01-01

413

Color quantization of images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors develop algorithms for the design of hierarchical tree structured color palettes incorporating performance criteria which reflect subjective evaluations of image quality. Tree structured color palettes greatly reduce the computational requirements of the palette design and pixel mapping tasks, while allowing colors to be properly allocated to densely populated areas of the color space. The algorithms produce higher-quality displayed

Michael T. Orchard; Charles A. Bouman

1991-01-01

414

Color Transfer between Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Often this means removing a dominant and undesirable color cast, such as the yellow in photos taken under incandescent illumination. This article describes a method for a more general form of color correction that borrows one image's color characteristics from anoth-er. Figure 1 shows an example of this process, where we applied the colors of a sunset photograph to a

Erik Reinhard; Michael Ashikhmin; Bruce Gooch; Peter Shirley

2001-01-01

415

Standard RGB Color Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the specifications and usage of standard RGB color spaces promoted today by standard bodies and\\/or the imaging industry. As in the past, most of the new standard RGB color spaces were developed for specific imaging workflow and applications. They are used as interchange spaces to communicate color and\\/or as working spaces in imaging applications. Standard color spaces

Sabine Süsstrunk; Robert Buckley; Steve Swen

1999-01-01

416

Color Me Understood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the "color system" as a way of grouping children into different personality types based on a certain color: orange, blue, green, and gold. Lists stress producers for specific color people. Asserts that, through making groups of different colors, children begin to see the various specialties others can bring to the group and learn to…

Harris, Judy J.

2000-01-01

417

Balanced edge colorings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains two principal results. The first proves that any graph G can be given a balanced proper edge coloring by k colors for any k???(G). Here balanced means that the number of vertices incident with any set of d colors is essentially fixed for each d, that is, for two different d-sets of colors the number of vertices

Paul N. Balister; Alexandr V. Kostochka; Hao Li; Richard H. Schelp

2004-01-01

418

Adaptive Skin Color Classificator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin color is an important feature of faces. Various ap- plications benefit from robust skin color detection. Skin color may look quite different, depending on camera set- tings, illumination, shadows, people's tans, ethnic groups. That variation is a challenging aspect of skin color classi- fication. In this paper, we present an approach that uses a high level vision module to

Matthias Wimmer; Bernd Radig; Informatik IX

2005-01-01

419

Urine - abnormal color  

MedlinePLUS

The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

420

Color measurement and discrimination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present investigation is concerned with new results which show that for test lights with slow temporal modulations, and thus little effect on the luminance system, the vector-difference hypothesis represents an adequate characterization of discrimination data. It is pointed out that for certain experimental conditions color measurements can be successfully extended to include a difference measure which predicts the discriminability of pairs of lights. When discrimination depends principally on opponent-channel responses, discrimination thresholds can be predicted from the detection contour alone. Attention is given to discriminations with a 6-Hz Gabor function, the categorization of stimulus regions, and the nature of the visual mechanisms.

Wandell, B. A.

1985-01-01

421

Unexpected Increased Mortality After Implementation of a Commercially Sold Computerized Physician Order Entry System  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective. In response to the landmark 1999 report by the Institute of Medicine and safety initi- atives promoted by the Leapfrog Group, our institution implemented a commercially sold computerized physi- cian order entry (CPOE) system in an effort to reduce medical errors and mortality. We sought to test the hy- pothesis that CPOE implementation results in reduced mortality among

Yong Y. Han; Joseph A. Carcillo; Shekhar T. Venkataraman; Robert S. b. Clark; R. Scott Watson; Mph Trung C. Nguyen; Hulya Bayir; Richard A. Orr

422

Cognitive Styles, Computerized Treatments on Mathematics Achievement and Reaction to Treatments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes aptitude treatment interaction study that used the cognitive styles field dependence and independence matched with computerized algorithmic and discovery treatments to determine mathematics achievement on a criterion-referenced test. Posttest mathematics scores and student responses to the computer are analyzed, and mastery learning is…

Canino, Casilda; Cicchelli, Terry

1988-01-01

423

Evaluating the Validity of Computerized Content Analysis Programs for Identification of Emotional Expression in Cancer Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological interventions provide linguistic data that are particularly useful for testing mechanisms of action and improving intervention methodologies. For this study, emotional expression in an Internet-based intervention for women with breast cancer (n = 63) was analyzed via rater coding and 2 computerized coding methods (Linguistic Inquiry…

Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Owen, Jason E.

2009-01-01

424

Implementation of a District Computerized Instructional Management System: Barriers and Facilitators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-part research and evaluation study was conducted to examine an elementary (K-8) school district's implementation of a computerized instructional management system, the "Computer-Managed Instruction/3000" (CMI), as a means of facilitating the assessment and updating of student mastery of 78 district-defined curricular objectives. The testing

Terry, Patricia D.; And Others

425

High-Pressure Computerized Gas-Metering Manual for System I at Building 343.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The computerized gas metering system is a high-pressure (up to 16,000 psi) gas flow test facility which can: control a metering valve to maintain a prescribed pressure profile; acquire data from various transducers, e.g., strain, pressure, temperature, et...

G. Koide C. Radewan K. Blaedel J. Cervelli

1982-01-01

426

SHAWNEE LIME/LIMESTONE SCRUBBING COMPUTERIZED DESIGN/COST-ESTIMATE MODEL USERS MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual gives a general description of the Shawnee lime/limestone scrubbing computerized design/cost-estimate model and detailed procedures for using it. It describes all inputs and outputs, along with available options. The model, based on Shawnee Test Facility scrubbing data...

427

Color constancy: phenomenal or projective?  

PubMed

Naive observers viewed a sequence of colored Mondrian patterns, simulated on a color monitor. Each pattern was presented twice in succession, first under one daylight illuminant with a correlated color temperature of either 16,000 or 4000 K and then under the other, to test for color constancy. The observers compared the central square of the pattern across illuminants, either rating it for sameness of material appearance or sameness of hue and saturation or judging an objective property-that is, whether its change of color originated from a change in material or only from a change in illumination. Average color constancy indices were high for material appearance ratings and binary judgments of origin and low for hue-saturation ratings. Individuals' performance varied, but judgments of material and of hue and saturation remained demarcated. Observers seem able to separate phenomenal percepts from their ontological projections of mental appearance onto physical phenomena; thus, even when a chromatic change alters perceived hue and saturation, observers can reliably infer the cause, the constancy of the underlying surface spectral reflectance. PMID:18372745

Reeves, Adam J; Amano, Kinjiro; Foster, David H

2008-02-01

428

Color Constancy: Phenomenal or Projective?  

PubMed Central

Naive observers viewed a sequence of colored Mondrian patterns, simulated on a color monitor. Each pattern was presented twice in succession, first under one daylight illuminant with a correlated color temperature of either 16,000 or 4,000 K and then under the other, to test for color-constancy. The observers compared the central square of the pattern across illuminants, either rating it for sameness of material-appearance or sameness of hue and saturation or judging an objective property—that is, whether its change of color originated from a change in material or only from a change in illumination. Average color constancy indices were high for material-appearance ratings and binary judgments of origin and low for hue–saturation ratings. Individuals' performance varied, but judgments of material and of hue and saturation remained demarcated. Observers seem able to separate phenomenal percepts from their ontological projections of mental appearance onto physical phenomena; thus, even when a chromatic change alters perceived hue and saturation, observers can reliably infer the cause, the constancy of the underlying surface spectral reflectance.

REEVES, ADAM J.; AMANO, KINJIRO; FOSTER, DAVID H.

2008-01-01

429

Color Constancy of Red-Green Dichromats and Anomalous Trichromats  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Color-vision deficiency is associated with abnormalities in color matching and color discrimination, but its impact on the ability of people to judge the constancy of surface colors under different lights (color constancy) is less clear. This work had two aims: first, to quantify the degree of color constancy in subjects with congenital red-green color deficiency; second, to test whether the degree of color constancy in anomalous trichromats can be predicted from their Rayleigh anomaloscope matches. Methods. Color constancy of red-green color-deficient subjects was tested in a task requiring the discrimination of illuminant changes from surface-reflectance changes. Mondrian-like colored patterns, generated on the screen of a computer monitor, were used as stimuli to avoid the spatial cues provided by natural objects and scenes. Spectral reflectances were taken from the Munsell Book of Color and from natural scenes. Illuminants were taken from the daylight locus. Results. Protanopes and deuteranopes performed more poorly than normal trichromats with Munsell spectral reflectances but were less impaired with natural spectral reflectances. Protanomalous and deuteranomalous trichromats performed as well as, or almost as well as, normal trichromats, independent of the type of reflectance. Individual differences were not correlated with Rayleigh anomaloscope matches. Conclusions. Despite the evidence of clinical color-vision tests, red-green color-deficient persons are less disadvantaged than might be expected in their judgments of surface colors under different lights.

Foster, David H.; Amano, Kinjiro; Nascimento, Sergio M. C.

2010-01-01

430

Color constancy in a scene with bright colors that do not have a fully natural surface appearance.  

PubMed

Theoretical and experimental approaches have proposed that color constancy involves a correction related to some average of stimulation over the scene, and some of the studies showed that the average gives greater weight to surrounding bright colors. However, in a natural scene, high-luminance elements do not necessarily carry information about the scene illuminant when the luminance is too high for it to appear as a natural object color. The question is how a surrounding color's appearance mode influences its contribution to the degree of color constancy. Here the stimuli were simple geometric patterns, and the luminance of surrounding colors was tested over the range beyond the luminosity threshold. Observers performed perceptual achromatic setting on the test patch in order to measure the degree of color constancy and evaluated the surrounding bright colors' appearance mode. Broadly, our results support the assumption that the visual system counts only the colors in the object-color appearance for color constancy. However, detailed analysis indicated that surrounding colors without a fully natural object-color appearance had some sort of influence on color constancy. Consideration of this contribution of unnatural object color might be important for precise modeling of human color constancy. PMID:24695177

Fukuda, Kazuho; Uchikawa, Keiji

2014-04-01

431

Memory for color reactivates color processing region  

Microsoft Academic Search

and gray abstract shapes. During retrieval, old and new shapes,were,presented,in gray and participants responded ‘old-colored’, ‘old-gray’, or ‘new’. Within color perception regions, color memory related activity was observed in the left fusiform gyrus, adjacent to the collateral sulcus. A retinotopic mapping,analysis,indicated,this activity occurred,within color processing,region,V8. The present,feature specific evidence,provides,compelling support,for a constructive,view of memory.,NeuroReport 00:000–000 ,,2009 Wolters Kluwer Health |

Scott D. Slotnick

432

Computerized acoustic assessment of treatment efficacy of nebulized epinephrine and albuterol in RSV bronchiolitis  

PubMed Central

Aim We evaluated the use of computerized quantification of wheezing and crackles compared to a clinical score in assessing the effect of inhaled albuterol or inhaled epinephrine in infants with RSV bronchiolitis. Methods Computerized lung sounds analysis with quantification of wheezing and crackles and a clinical score were used during a double blind, randomized, controlled nebulized treatment pilot study. Infants were randomized to receive a single dose of 1 mgr nebulized l-epinephrine or 2.5 mgr nebulized albuterol. Computerized quantification of wheezing and crackles (PulmoTrack®) and a clinical score were performed prior to, 10 minutes post and 30 minutes post treatment. Results were analyzed with Student's t-test for independent samples, Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon test. Results 15 children received albuterol, 12 received epinephrine. The groups were identical at baseline. Satisfactory lung sounds recording and analysis was achieved in all subjects. There was no significant change in objective quantification of wheezes and crackles or in the total clinical scores either within the groups or between the groups. There was also no difference in oxygen saturation and respiratory distress. Conclusion Computerized lung sound analysis is feasible in young infants with RSV bronchiolitis and provides a non-invasive, quantitative measure of wheezing and crackles in these infants. Trial registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00361452

Beck, Raphael; Elias, Nael; Shoval, Shay; Tov, Naveh; Talmon, Gil; Godfrey, Simon; Bentur, Lea

2007-01-01

433

What color is it?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color management allows the deterministic handling of color data from input to output. This, of course, assumes that the first digital representation of our data is the "correct" color. It assumes that we did not make any errors in the input definitions, did not use wrong color input profiles, captured the user's intent, or fell prey to a host of other potential problems. After we have made those assumptions, we now can deterministically transfer the color from one place to another. Note that there is a big difference between "reproducing" one color at a different location and "deterministically transferring one set of color data to another location". The deterministic transfer is limited to the small set of physical metrics we decided to call "color". All other components of color are ignored.

Eschbach, Reiner; Sharma, Gaurav; Unal, Gozde B.

2004-12-01

434

Feasibility of computerized scheduled gradual reduction for adolescent smoking cessation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this project was to modify a smoking cessation program that uses computerized scheduled gradual reduction for use with adolescent smokers and to test the feasibility of this cessation approach in group support and minimal contact modalities. Utilizing a lesson plan approach with high school marketing students in five high schools and student survey feedback, the LifeSign program was modified to be an acceptable smoking cessation program for adolescent smokers. In the first study, 17 adolescent smokers used the modified program with seven associated weekly group support sessions. At the end of treatment, 29% had quit smoking, and over half of those who continued to smoke reduced their smoking rate by 50%. In the second study, the LifeSign for Teens program was evaluated with 18 adolescent smokers in a minimal contact format. At the end of treatment, 17% had quit smoking, and mean smoking rate reductions of 43% were found among those who continued smoking. At 1-year follow-up, all subjects who had quit at posttreatment reported continuous abstinence. The results of these two small trials suggest that a computerized scheduled gradual reduction approach may be an accepted and potentially efficacious approach for smoking cessation among adolescent smokers. PMID:11863279

Riley, William; Jerome, Albert; Behar, Albert; Zack, Sharon

2002-01-01

435

Objective triceps muscle strength measurement using computerized adaptation.  

PubMed

In our centre the non-availability computerized exercise machines limits the objective monitoring of strength rehabilitation. We undertook this research programme to objectively measure triceps muscle strength by interfacing NORSK-Gym machine with accelerometer and positional transducers to a computer. This data was tabulated and processed using Microsoft Excel. The positional transducer was first calibrated and it showed an excellent Pearson Correlation Coefficients against a standard metric reading (r = 0.9999). Peak Force was used as a test parameter for isotonic triceps muscle strength measurements. The criterion-referenced validity was established as the peak forces measured using the accelerometer and positional transducer demonstrated identical Peak Forces (r = 0.94). Analysis of our mean Peak Force measurements using non-biological force as well as the intra-individual reproducibility demonstrated excellent Pearson Correlation Coefficients (r) = 0.982-0.998 and 0.929-0.972 respectively. This computerized adaptation of the NORSK-Gym machine produced an objective, valid and reproducible triceps muscle strength measurement. PMID:15941154

Amalourde, A; Vinayaga, P; Naveed, N; Choon, S K; Zaleha, O

2004-12-01

436

Computerized scatter correction in diagnostic radiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of diagnostic radiology continues to generate interesting lines of physics research even though it is over a century since X-rays were first used for medical imaging. One of these concerns scatter processes which are well known to be a major influence on the quality of X-ray images. The components, effects, reduction and measurement of scatter and the potential of computerized scatter correction schemes are reviewed in this paper. The effect of scatter on indices of image quality is considered using analytical models and published experimental results. Scatter measurement based on the widely applied opaque disc technique and a novel aperture technique are discussed in detail. In addition, computerized scatter correction based on convolution filtering schemes and interpolated local sampling schemes are critically reviewed. The treatment focuses on fluoroscopy- fluorography, although extensive reference is also made to other radiographic imaging techniques.

Maher, K. P.; Malone, J. F.

1997-02-01

437

Evaluating the impact of computerized clinical documentation.  

PubMed

A computerized system for care planning and documentation of patient care was initiated at a western teaching hospital, using the framework of Nursing Interventions Classification and Nursing Outcomes Classification standardized languages. The software integrates care planning and documentation, and includes both order entry as well as a charting application. Prior to initiating the project, a study was conducted to evaluate staff attitude toward computerization, time needed for documentation, and comprehensiveness of charting entries. Data from staff surveys, observations, and chart audits conducted pre- and post-computer project implementation demonstrated that the staff attitudes toward computers were less positive, the time required for charting was unchanged, and there were improvements in how completely the nurses documented charting elements. PMID:15900170

Smith, Kathy; Smith, Vivienne; Krugman, Mary; Oman, Kathleen

2005-01-01

438

Personality psychology using heart responses to color stimulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lüscher Color Psychology Test measures a person's psychophysical state, his ability to withstand stress, perform, and communicate. This test is based on color selection in four levels of preference. In this paper, we try to use heart response and particularly time domain features of heart rate variability to find the colors preferences without asking the subjects directly. For this

Sadaf Moharreri; Nader Jafarnia Dabanloo; Saman Parvaneh; Ali M Nasrabadi; G H Attarodi

2011-01-01

439

Children's Book Color Preferences as Related to Their Favorite Color.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because young children disregard writing on the spine of a book, researchers chose to run a test on color preferences in books. In a library situation young children see most books from a spine-out angle; thus when allowed to select a book by themselves, ...

J. L. Locke

1971-01-01

440

Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well. The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes and fluid losses before the changes in flow would normally be apparent.

McCann, D.; White, D. (Sedco Forex, Paris (FR))

1992-02-24

441

Computerized tomography in evaluation of hepatic neoplasms  

SciTech Connect

The authors reviewed their experience with computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen in 212 patients with histologically documented liver neoplasms seen during a 30-month period. The CT findings in cavernous hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia were specific, and permitted accurate diagnosis of this lesion before biopsy. The CT appearance of all other lesions was variable. CT is useful in providing an accurate evaluation of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic extent of the neoplasm.

Luna, R.F.; Resende, C.; Tishler, J.M.A.; Aldrete, J.S.; Shin, M.S.; Rubin, E.; Rahn, N.H.

1984-08-01

442

Computerized materials protection, control, and accountability  

SciTech Connect

The proliferation of nuclear weapons, along with the technical knowledge and materials needed to make these weapons, is an enduring problem of international urgency. Current international nuclear nonproliferation efforts are aimed at deterring, detecting, and responding to proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. These safeguards efforts are being implemented by applying preeminent science and technology to the management and control of nuclear materials. By strengthening systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A), one can reduce the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation. Two major programs of international cooperation are now underway to achieve this goal. The first is between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Institutes of the Russian Federation (Laboratory-to-Laboratory Program), and the second is between the US Government and Governments of the former Soviet Republics (Government-to-Government Program). As part of these programs, the DOE is working with facilities to assist them in implementing computerized MPC and A systems. This work is a collaboration between computer scientists and safeguards experts in both the US and the new Republics. The US is making available technology and expertise to enable Russian experts to build on computerized MPC and A software developed in the US. This paper describes the joint efforts of these international teams to develop sophisticated computerized MPC and A systems using modern computer hardware and software technology. These systems are being customized to meet the site-specific needs of each facility.

Whiteson, R.; Seitz, S.; Landry, R.P.; Hadden, M.L.; Painter, J.A.

1997-05-01

443

Radiation coloration resistant glass  

DOEpatents

A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

Tomozawa, Minoru (Troy, NY); Watson, E. Bruce (Troy, NY); Acocella, John (Troy, NY)

1986-01-01

444

Eglin Range Safety Color Graphics Display Unit Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The implementation of color graphics display units and interactive input devices for Range Safety monitoring of weapons tests is discussed. Evaluations of color monitors and input devices produced by five manufacturers are presented. Large screen display ...

1982-01-01

445

7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413...CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.413 Middling Light Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted...

2014-01-01

446

Bold colors in a cryptic lineage: do Eastern Indigo Snakes exhibit color dimorphism?  

PubMed

Many species exhibit variation in the color of their scales, feathers, or fur. Various forms of natural selection, such as mimicry, crypsis, and species recognition, as well as sexual selection, can influence the evolution of color. Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi), a federally threatened species, have coloration on the sides of the head and the chin that can vary from black to red or cream. Despite significant conservations efforts for this species, little is known about its biology in the field. Past researchers have proposed that the color variation on the head and chin is associated with the sex of the individual. Alternatively, color might vary among individuals because it is controlled by genes that are under natural selection or neutral evolution. We tested these alternative hypotheses by examining whether coloration of the sublabial, submaxillary, and ventral scales of this species differed by sex or among clutches. We used color spectrometry to characterize important aspects of color in two ways: by examining overall color differences across the entire color spectrum and by comparing differences within the ultraviolet, yellow, and red colorbands. We found that Eastern Indigo Snakes do not exhibit sexual dichromatism, but their coloration does vary among clutches; therefore, the pattern of sexual selection leading to sexual dichromatism observed in many squamates does not appear to play a role in the evolution and maintenance of color variation in Eastern Indigo Snakes. We suggest that future studies should focus on determining whether color variation in these snakes is determined by maternal effects or genetic components and if color is influenced by natural selection or neutral evolutionary processes. Studying species that exhibit bright colors within lineages that are not known for such coloration will contribute greatly to our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological factors that drive these differences. PMID:23691245

Deitloff, Jennifer; Johnson, Valerie M; Guyer, Craig

2013-01-01

447

Bold Colors in a Cryptic Lineage: Do Eastern Indigo Snakes Exhibit Color Dimorphism?  

PubMed Central

Many species exhibit variation in the color of their scales, feathers, or fur. Various forms of natural selection, such as mimicry, crypsis, and species recognition, as well as sexual selection, can influence the evolution of color. Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi), a federally threatened species, have coloration on the sides of the head and the chin that can vary from black to red or cream. Despite significant conservations efforts for this species, little is known about its biology in the field. Past researchers have proposed that the color variation on the head and chin is associated with the sex of the individual. Alternatively, color might vary among individuals because it is controlled by genes that are under natural selection or neutral evolution. We tested these alternative hypotheses by examining whether coloration of the sublabial, submaxillary, and ventral scales of this species differed by sex or among clutches. We used color spectrometry to characterize important aspects of color in two ways: by examining overall color differences across the entire color spectrum and by comparing differences within the ultraviolet, yellow, and red colorbands. We found that Eastern Indigo Snakes do not exhibit sexual dichromatism, but their coloration does vary among clutches; therefore, the pattern of sexual selection leading to sexual dichromatism observed in many squamates does not appear to play a role in the evolution and maintenance of color variation in Eastern Indigo Snakes. We suggest that future studies should focus on determining whether color variation in these snakes is determined by maternal effects or genetic components and if color is influenced by natural selection or neutral evolutionary processes. Studying species that exhibit bright colors within lineages that are not known for such coloration will contribute greatly to our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological factors that drive these differences.

Deitloff, Jennifer; Johnson, Valerie M.; Guyer, Craig

2013-01-01

448

Congenital color blindness in young Turkish men.  

PubMed

We investigated a healthy population of men from different regions of Turkey for the presence of congenital red-green color blindness. Using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates, 941 healthy men from the Turkish army were tested for congenital red-green color blindness. The prevalence of red-green color blindness was 7.33 +/- 0.98% (5.10% protans and 2.23% deutans). These ratios were higher than other reported samples from Mediterranean Europe. Higher percentages of color blindness were found in regions with a lower education level and more consanguineous marriages. PMID:16019694

Citirik, Mehmet; Acaroglu, Golge; Batman, Cosar; Zilelioglu, Orhan

2005-04-01

449

Color and Streptomycetes1  

PubMed Central

A report summarizing the results of an international workshop on determination of color of streptomycetes is presented. The results suggest that the color systems which seem most practically appealing and effective to specialists on actinomycetes are those embracing a limited number of color names and groups. The broad groupings allow placement of isolates into reasonably well-defined categories based on color of aerial mycelium. Attempts to expand such systems (more color groups) lead to difficulties. It is common knowledge that many, if not all, of the individual groups would in these broad systems contain strains that differ in many other respects, e.g., spore-wall ornamentation, color of vegetative (substratal) mycelium, morphology of chains of spores, and numerous physiological criteria. Also, cultures of intermediate color can be found, which makes placement difficult. As it now stands, color as a criterion for characterization of streptomycetes and streptoverticillia is in questionable status. Although much useful color information can be obtained by an individual, the application of this information to that in the literature or its use in communication with other individuals leaves much to be desired. More objective methods of color determination are needed. At present, the most effective method that could be used internationally is the color-wheel system of Tresner and Backus. Furthermore, the significance of color in speciation of these organisms is an open question. Obviously, more critical work on the color problem is needed.

Pridham, Thomas G.

1965-01-01

450

Capacity of Color Histogram Indexing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Color histogram matching has been shown to be a promising way of quickly indexing into a large image database. Yet, few experiments have been done to test the method on truly large databases, and even if they were performed, they would give little guidanc...

M. A. Stricker M. J. Swain

1993-01-01

451

Color Research for Visual Displays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A multiple displays-multiple task system has been developed for testing the efficacy of color as a coding variable in visual displays. The rationale for this particular system is provided and the hardware and software subsystems are briefly described. The...

R. E. Christ A. L. Stevens D. J. Stevens

1974-01-01

452

Toward full-color LEP displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

12 New device performance data are reported for red, green, blue and white polymer light emitting diodes (PLED). The devices all show CIE color co-ordinates approaching the PAL standards. In this report we also discuss the efficiency and lifetime data for these test devices and show that these systems could be used as components in full\\/multi color high information content

Steven J. O'Connor; C. R. Towns; Rick O'Dell; Jeremy H. Burroughes

2001-01-01

453

Tongue Color Analysis for Medical Application  

PubMed Central

An in-depth systematic tongue color analysis system for medical applications is proposed. Using the tongue color gamut, tongue foreground pixels are first extracted and assigned to one of 12 colors representing this gamut. The ratio of each color for the entire image is calculated and forms a tongue color feature vector. Experimenting on a large dataset consisting of 143 Healthy and 902 Disease (13 groups of more than 10 samples and one miscellaneous group), a given tongue sample can be classified into one of these two classes with an average accuracy of 91.99%. Further testing showed that Disease samples can be split into three clusters, and within each cluster most if not all the illnesses are distinguished from one another. In total 11 illnesses have a classification rate greater than 70%. This demonstrates a relationship between the state of the human body and its tongue color.

Wang, Xingzheng; You, Jane

2013-01-01

454

Color correction pipeline optimization for digital cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processing pipeline of a digital camera converts the RAW image acquired by the sensor to a representation of the original scene that should be as faithful as possible. There are mainly two modules responsible for the color-rendering accuracy of a digital camera: the former is the illuminant estimation and correction module, and the latter is the color matrix transformation aimed to adapt the color response of the sensor to a standard color space. These two modules together form what may be called the color correction pipeline. We design and test new color correction pipelines that exploit different illuminant estimation and correction algorithms that are tuned and automatically selected on the basis of the image content. Since the illuminant estimation is an ill-posed problem, illuminant correction is not error-free. An adaptive color matrix transformation module is optimized, taking into account the behavior of the first module in order to alleviate the amplification of color errors. The proposed pipelines are tested on a publicly available dataset of RAW images. Experimental results show that exploiting the cross-talks between the modules of the pipeline can lead to a higher color-rendition accuracy.

Bianco, Simone; Bruna, Arcangelo R.; Naccari, Filippo; Schettini, Raimondo

2013-04-01

455

The nature of infant color categorization: Evidence from eye movements on a target detection task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants respond categorically to color. However, the nature of infants’ categorical responding to color is unclear. The current study investigated two issues. First, is infants’ categorical responding more absolute than adults’ categorical responding? That is, can infants discriminate two stimuli from the same color category? Second, is color categorization in infants truly perceptual? Color categorization was tested by recording adults’

Anna Franklin; Michael Pilling; Ian Davies

2005-01-01

456

Color for Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emphasizes the importance of color in preventing accidents in the mineral industries. The correct color coding and labeling of fuel, gas and chemical pipes, and cylinders to prevent misuse of contents is pointed out.

1994-01-01

457

Developments in Color Micrographics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes recent progress in color micrographics, which has centered about the corporate development of new microfilms whose capacities for reproducing and sustaining color image far exceed those of their predecessors. (Author/EJS)

Hourdajian, Ara

1983-01-01

458

Colored Contact Lens Dangers  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Colored Contact Lens Dangers Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Colored Contact Lenses Without a Prescription It started as an ...

459

Dynamics of Color Contrast Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Many forms of color adaptation have been found to reflect both short- and long-term adjustments. We explored the buildup and decay of adaptation to chromatic contrast (temporal modulations of color) for which the dynamics are unknown. A matching task was used to track the perceived contrast of chromatic pulses of varying physical contrast during and after adapting for one hour to a high contrast modulation repeated over 5 successive days. The adaptation was characterized by rapid response changes that remained stable in both time course and form across sessions. There was no consistent evidence for long-term plasticity over the timescales we tested.

Tregillus, Katherine; Webster, Michael A.

2014-01-01

460

Skin color enhancement based on favorite skin color in HSV color space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin color enhancement based on favorite skin color is proposed to make skin color displayed on large screen flat panel TVs agree with human favorite skin color. A robust skin detection method in different intensity is obtained after analyzing the distribution of skin color in HSV color space. The favorite skin color region is found via a psychological experiment too.

Xiao-Ning Zhang; Jue Jiang; Zhi-Hu Liang; Chun-Liang Liu

2010-01-01

461

Color ordering in QCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive color decompositions of arbitrary tree and one-loop QCD amplitudes into color-ordered objects called primitive amplitudes. Furthermore, we derive general fermion flip and reversion identities spanning the null space among the primitive amplitudes and use them to prove that all color-ordered tree amplitudes of massless QCD can be written as linear combinations of color-ordered tree amplitudes of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory.

Schuster, Theodor

2014-05-01

462

Quantum Dots and Colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the physical concept of the colors of rainbows as light energy in the form of waves with distinct wavelengths, but in a different manner than traditional kaleidoscopes. Looking at different quantum dot solutions, they make observations and measurements, and graph their data. They come to understand how nanoparticles interact with absorbing photons to produce colors. They learn the dependence of particle size and color wavelength and learn about real-world applications for using these colorful liquids.

University Of Houston

463

Color rendition engine.  

PubMed

A source of white light with continuously tuned color rendition properties, such as color fidelity, as well as color saturating and color dulling ability has been developed. The source, which is composed of red (R), amber (A), green (G), and blue (B) light-emitting diodes, has a spectral power distribution varied as a weighted sum of "white" RGB and AGB blends. At the RGB and AGB end-points, the source has a highest color saturating and color dulling ability, respectively, as follows from the statistical analysis of the color-shift vectors for 1269 Munsell samples. The variation of the weight parameter allows for continuously traversing all possible metameric RAGB blends, including that with the highest color fidelity. The source was used in a psychophysical experiment on the estimation of the color appearance of familiar objects, such as vegetables, fruits, and soft-drink cans of common brands, at correlated color temperatures of 3000 K, 4500 K, and 6500 K. By continuously tuning the weight parameter, each of 100 subjects selected RAGB blends that, to their opinion, matched lighting characterized as "most saturating," "most dulling," "most natural," and "preferential". The end-point RGB and AGB blends have been almost unambiguously attributed to "most saturating" and "most dulling" lighting, respectively. RAGB blends that render a highest number of colors with high fidelity have, on average, been attributed to "most natural" lighting. The "preferential" color quality of lighting has, on average, been matched to RAGB blends that provide color rendition with fidelity somewhat reduced in favor of a higher saturation. Our results infer that tunable "color rendition engines" can validate color rendition metrics and provide lighting meeting specific needs and preferences to color quality. PMID:22418343

Zukauskas, Art?ras; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Vitta, Pranciškus; Tuzikas, Ar?nas; Petrulis, Andrius; Shur, Michael

2012-02-27

464

Coloring Local Feature Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although color is commonly experienced as an indispensable quality in describing the world around us, state-of-the art local feature-based representations are mostly based on shape description, and ignore color information. The description of color\\u000a is hampered by the large amount of variations which causes the measured color values to vary significantly. In this paper\\u000a we aim to extend the description

Joost Van De Weijer; Cordelia Schmid

2006-01-01

465

Comparison of narrow-band reflectance spectroscopy and tristimulus colorimetry for measurements of skin and hair color in persons of different biological ancestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used two modern computerized handheld reflectome- ters, the Photovolt ColorWalk colorimeter (a tristimulus colorimeter; Photovolt, UMM Electronics, Indianapolis, IN) and the DermaSpectrometer (a specialized narrow-band reflectometer; Cortex Technology, Hadsund, Denmark), to compare two methods for the objective determination of skin and hair color. These in- struments both determine color by measuring the intensity of reflected light of particular

Mark D. Shriver; Esteban J. Parra

2000-01-01

466

Biology of Skin Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

Corcos, Alain

1983-01-01

467

Ocean Color Climate Records  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual ocean color missions have finite lifetimes, so it is critical to produce a consistent time series across ocean color missions if we are to address fundamental questions of Earth science importance, especially how the ocean biogeochemical system is changing. Developing Ocean Color Climate Records (OCCR's), which meet the definitions of the National Research Council has been a challenge. Consistent

W. Gregg

2007-01-01

468

Competitive image colorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method for image colorization based on manually added scribbles. We determine color propagation paths in the image by minimizing the geodesic distance from the scribbles using Dijkstra algorithm. After that, chrominance blending is performed to colorize the image. Our contribution lies in proposing the competitive approach for selecting an appropriate type of the path cost.

Michal Kawulok; Bogdan Smolka

2010-01-01

469

Requirements for color technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements for color technology in the general office are reviewed. The two most salient factors driving the requirements for color are the information explosion and the virtually negligible growth in white collar productivity in the recent past. Accordingly, the business requirement upon color technology is that it be utilized in an effective and efficient manner to increase office productivity.

Ronald B. Campbell

1993-01-01

470

Color based skin classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin detection is used in applications ranging from face detection, tracking body parts and hand gesture analysis, to retrieval and blocking objectionable content. In this paper, we investigate and evaluate (1) the effect of color space transformation on skin detection performance and finding the appropriate color space for skin detection, (2) the role of the illuminance component of a color

Rehanullah Khan; Allan Hanbury; Julian Stöttinger; Abdul Bais

471

Color and Psychological Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color is a ubiquitous perceptual experience, yet little scientific information about the influence of color on affect, cognition, and behavior is available. Accordingly, we have developed a general model of color and psychological functioning, which we present in this article. We also describe a hypothesis derived from this model regarding the influence of red in achievement contexts. In addition, we

Andrew J. Elliot; Markus A. Maier

2007-01-01

472

Color and Psychological  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color is a ubiquitous perceptual experience, yet little scientific information about the influence of color on affect, cognition, and behavior is available. Accord- ingly, we have developed a general model of color and psychologicalfunctioning,whichwepresentinthisarticle. We also describe a hypothesis derived from this model re- garding the influence of red in achievement contexts. In addition, we report a series of experiments

Andrew J. Elliot; Markus A. Maier

473

Spinning Your (Color) Wheels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this optics activity, learners use everyday materials to make a color wheel. When learners spin the wheel like a top, they will be surprised to see all the colors mixing together to appear white. Use this activity to introduce learners to color and the visible spectrum.

America, Optical S.

2008-01-01

474

Four Color Theorem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Suppose we have a map in which no single territory is made up of disconnected regions. How many colors are needed to color the territories of this map, if all the territories that share a border segment must be of different colors?

475

Reimagining the Color Wheel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

Snyder, Jennifer

2011-01-01

476

Computerized adaptive control weld skate with CCTV weld guidance project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes progress of the automatic computerized weld skate development portion of the Computerized Weld Skate with Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) Arc Guidance Project. The main goal of the project is to develop an automatic welding skate demonstration model equipped with CCTV weld guidance. The three main goals of the overall project are to: (1) develop a demonstration model computerized weld skate system, (2) develop a demonstration model automatic CCTV guidance system, and (3) integrate the two systems into a demonstration model of computerized weld skate with CCTV weld guidance for welding contoured parts.

Wall, W. A.

1976-01-01

477

Occupational color vision standards: new prospects.  

PubMed

Occupational color vision standards in transport have been implemented for 100 years. A review of these standards has taken place early this century prompted by antidiscrimination laws in the workplace and several transport accidents. The Australian and Canadian Railways have developed new lanterns to address their occupational medical requirements. The Civil Aviation Authority in the UK has adopted the Color Assessment and Diagnosis (CAD) test as the standard for assessing color vision for professional flight crews. The methodology employed using the CAD test ensures that color deficient pilot applicants able to complete the most safety-critical task with the same accuracy as normal trichromats can be accepted for pilot training. This methodology can be extended for setting new color vision standards in other work environments. PMID:24695202

Birch, Jennifer; Rodríguez-Carmona, Marisa

2014-04-01

478

Brilliance, contrast, colorfulness, and the perceived volume of device color gamut  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of digital video and cinema media technologies, much more is possible in achieving brighter and more vibrant colors, colors that transcend our experience. The challenge is in the realization of these possibilities in an industry rooted in 1950s technology where color gamut is represented with little or no insight into the way an observer perceives color as a complex mixture of the observer's intentions, desires, and interests. By today's standards, five perceptual attributes---brightness, lightness, colorfulness, chroma, and hue---are believed to be required for a complete specification. As a compelling case for such a representation, a display system is demonstrated that is capable of displaying color beyond the realm of object color, perceptually even beyond the spectrum locus of pure color. All this begs the question: Just what is meant by perceptual gamut? To this end, the attributes of perceptual gamut are identified through psychometric testing and the color appearance models CIELAB and CIECAM02. Then, by way of demonstration, these attributes were manipulated to test their application in wide gamut displays. In concert with these perceptual attributes and their manipulation, Ralph M. Evans' concept of brilliance as an attribute of perception that extends beyond the realm of everyday experience, and the theoretical studies of brilliance by Y. Nayatani, a method was developed for producing brighter, more colorful colors and deeper, darker colors with the aim of preserving object color perception---flesh tones in particular. The method was successfully demonstrated and tested in real images using psychophysical methods in the very real, practical application of expanding the gamut of sRGB into an emulation of the wide gamut, xvYCC encoding.

Heckaman, Rodney L.

479

Characterization of flow in fractured tuff using computerized tomography  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this effort was to demonstrate TerraTek`s capability to use X-ray computerized tomography (CT) to observe fluid flow down a fracture and rock matrix imbibition in a sample of Bandelier tuff. To accomplish the objective, a tuff sample 152.4 mm long and 50.8 mm in diameter was prepared. A portion of the sample was artificially fractured and coupled to a section of matrix material so that the fracture was not exposed. Water was flowed through the sample at five flow rates and CT scanning performed at set intervals during the flow. Cross sectional images and longitudinal reconstructions were built and saturation profiles calculated for the sample at each time interval at each flow rate. The results showed that for the test conditions, the fracture was not a primary pathway of fluid flow down the sample. Fluid flow was governed by the high imbibition capability of the rock matrix material.

Felice, C.W.; Sharer, J.C. [Terra Tek, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1991-09-01

480

[Clinical trial of BOBCAT: 1st report on the reliability and validity of computerized pure-tone audiometry].  

PubMed

Computerized diagnostic audiometry is quickly emerging as a viable productivity tool in the audiology clinic. To date, there has been little reported on its reliability and validity with the hearing-impaired. The 'Battery of Basic Computerized Audiometric Tests' (BOBCAT) is a computer program which puts a wide variety of clinical hearing tests under computer control. The purpose of the present study was to ascertain the reliability and validity of BOBCAT in the measurement of hearing sensitivity. A field study was conducted in a group of 92 workers exposed to noise to measure air- and bone-conduction thresholds. Coefficients of reliability of 0.85 and higher were obtained between air and bone thresholds for both methods of testing; that is, manual and computer-controlled audiometry. The same measurement between manual and computerized air-conduction pure-tone thresholds gave values ranging from 0.93 to 0.98. A principal-components analysis documented content validity of computerized audiometry. These results are interpreted as clear evidence of both reliability and validity of the BOBCAT procedure, with one exception: 6.7% of all observations are showing air-conduction computerized thresholds of -10 dB at one or more frequencies, with no confirmation by manual audiometry. This is attributed to insufficient randomization of intervals between stimuli, a problem which should be taken care of by new versions of the software. PMID:3056359

Picard, M; Ilecki, H J; Baxter, J D

1988-01-01

481

Resistor Color-Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Resistor manufactures implement the standard EIA color-code using three, four and five color bands to identify nominal resistor values. It is imperative that engineers and technicians know how to interpret the color markings on resistors in order to perform analysis and repairs on electronic products." On this page, visitors will find a key to the code for three, four, and five band resistors and exercises to check for understanding. A Resistor Color-Code chart can also be downloaded and printed from this site, as well as a Resistor Color-Code Converter.

2011-07-19

482

Molecular Expressions: Color Separation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an interactive Java simulation for introductory physics students on the topic of color. It explores how individual subtractive primary