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Sample records for computerized color test

  1. Assessment of Selective Attention with CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afsaneh, Zarghi; Alireza, Zali; Mehdi, Tehranidost; Farzad, Ashrafi; Reza, Zarindast Mohammad; Mehdi, Moazzezi; Mojtaba, Khodadadi Seyed

    2012-01-01

    The SCWT (Stroop Color-Word Test) is a quick and frequently used measure for assessing selective attention and cognitive flexibility. This study determines age, sex and education level influence on attention and cognitive flexibility by CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among healthy Iranian children and adults. There were 78 healthy…

  2. Computerized Test Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosser, Jon; And Others

    The application of a well-known and fairly simple information retrieval technology to the process of testing undergraduate college students is described. The Computerized Test Library allows the student and/or the professor to extract questions of varying difficulty covering whatever topic the student is studying; if the student performs at the…

  3. Computerized Placement Tests: Background Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    This document is a compilation of background readings for the user of Computerized Placement Tests (CPTs) developed by the College Board for student placement purposes. CPTs are computerized adaptive tests that test the individual abilities and backgrounds of examinees. CPTs are part of the ACCUPLACER student information management system. The…

  4. Student Perceptions of Computerized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino-Silva, Juan

    2008-01-01

    The challenge to test small groups by means of microcomputers demands appropriate software design and sound test design. To comply with this demand, students' beliefs or perceptions on the advantages and disadvantages of a computerized test were tapped. Overall, self-reported advantages outnumbered disadvantages to a significant degree. This was…

  5. Computerized Classification Testing with the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    If classification in a limited number of categories is the purpose of testing, computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with algorithms based on sequential statistical testing perform better than estimation-based CATs (e.g., Eggen & Straetmans, 2000). In these computerized classification tests (CCTs), the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) (Wald,…

  6. Applying Computerized Adaptive Testing in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, James B.

    1990-01-01

    Presents two studies applying computerized adaptive testing (CAT) in schools. Compared paper-administered, computer-administered, and CAT modes for administering school achievement and assessment tests. Then compared computerized adaptive aptitude test results with individually administered Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Found…

  7. Computerized Diagnostic Testing: Problems and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, David L.

    The use of computers to build diagnostic inferences is explored in two contexts. In computerized monitoring of liquid oxygen systems for the space shuttle, diagnoses are exact because they can be derived within a world which is closed. In computerized classroom testing of reading comprehension, programs deliver a constrained form of adaptive…

  8. Graphical Models and Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Russell G.; Mislevy, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Considers computerized adaptive testing from the perspective of graphical modeling (GM). GM provides methods for making inferences about multifaceted skills and knowledge and for extracting data from complex performances. Provides examples from language-proficiency assessment. (SLD)

  9. A Computerized Implementation of a Flexilevel Test and Its Comparison with a Bayesian Computerized Adaptive Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeAyala, R. J.; Koch, William R.

    A computerized flexilevel test was implemented and its ability estimates were compared with those of a Bayesian estimation based computerized adaptive test (CAT) as well as with known true ability estimates. Results showed that when the flexilevel test was terminated according to Lord's criterion, its ability estimates were highly and…

  10. The Computerized Adaptive Testing System Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, James R.; Sympson, J. B.

    The Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) project is a joint Armed Services coordinated effort to develop and evaluate a system for automated, adaptive administration of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB). The CAT is a system for administering personnel tests that differs from conventional test administration in two major…

  11. An Introduction to the Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Jian-quan; Miao, Dan-min; Zhu, Xia; Gong, Jing-jing

    2007-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has unsurpassable advantages over traditional testing. It has become the mainstream in large scale examinations in modern society. This paper gives a brief introduction to CAT including differences between traditional testing and CAT, the principles of CAT, psychometric theory and computer algorithms of CAT, the…

  12. Graphical Models and Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Almond, Russell G.

    This paper synthesizes ideas from the fields of graphical modeling and education testing, particularly item response theory (IRT) applied to computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Graphical modeling can offer IRT a language for describing multifaceted skills and knowledge, and disentangling evidence from complex performances. IRT-CAT can offer…

  13. Computerized Numerical Control Test Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide contains 285 test items for use in teaching a course in computerized numerical control. All test items were reviewed, revised, and validated by incumbent workers and subject matter instructors. Items are provided for assessing student achievement in such aspects of programming and planning, setting up, and operating machines with…

  14. Some Reliability Estimates for Computerized Adaptive Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicewander, W. Alan; Thomasson, Gary L.

    1999-01-01

    Derives three reliability estimates for the Bayes modal estimate (BME) and the maximum-likelihood estimate (MLE) of theta in computerized adaptive tests (CATs). Computes the three reliability estimates and the true reliabilities of both BME and MLE for seven simulated CATs. Results show the true reliabilities for BME and MLE to be nearly identical…

  15. Item Selection in Computerized Classification Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Several alternatives for item selection algorithms based on item response theory in computerized classification testing (CCT) have been suggested, with no conclusive evidence on the substantial superiority of a single method. It is argued that the lack of sizable effect is because some of the methods actually assess items very similarly through…

  16. Principles for Creating a Computerized Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyllonen, Patrick C.

    1991-01-01

    The experience of developing a set of comprehensive aptitude batteries for computer administration for the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory's Learning Abilities Measurement Program resulted in the formulation of nine principles for creation of a computerized test battery. These principles are discussed in the context of research on…

  17. The NASA/LRC Computerized Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, W. Kirk; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Sue; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1990-01-01

    A new testing package, including apparatus and tasks for the behavioral study of a number of species in a variety of experiments is presented. The package is described with respect to the kinds of comparative psychological investigations for which it is best suited. The preliminary data generated within this new testing paradigm demonstrate that the NASA/LRC Computerized Test System provides a flexible yet powerful environment for the investigation of behavioral and psychological processes.

  18. Color identification testing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brawner, E. L.; Martin, R.; Pate, W.

    1970-01-01

    Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.

  19. Computerized Adaptive Testing. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Tests, Measurement, and Evaluation, Princeton, NJ.

    This brief overview notes that an adaptive test differs from standardized achievement tests in that it does not consist of a certain set of items that are administered to a group of examinees. Instead, the test is individualized for each examinee. The items administered to the examinee are selected from a large pool of items on the basis of the…

  20. Computerized Adaptive Personality Testing: A Review and Illustration With the MMPI-2 Computerized Adaptive Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbey, Johnathan D.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    2007-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing in personality assessment can improve efficiency by significantly reducing the number of items administered to answer an assessment question. Two approaches have been explored for adaptive testing in computerized personality assessment: item response theory and the countdown method. In this article, the authors…

  1. Computerized Adaptive Testing with Equated Number-Correct Scoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a constrained computerized adaptive testing (CAT) algorithm that can be used to equate CAT number-correct scores to a reference test. Used an item bank from the Law School Admission Test to compare results of the algorithm with those for equipercentile observed-score equating. Discusses advantages of the approach. (SLD)

  2. Balancing Flexible Constraints and Measurement Precision in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Eric L.; Galindo, Jennifer L.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2012-01-01

    Managing test specifications--both multiple nonstatistical constraints and flexibly defined constraints--has become an important part of designing item selection procedures for computerized adaptive tests (CATs) in achievement testing. This study compared the effectiveness of three procedures: constrained CAT, flexible modified constrained CAT,…

  3. When Cognitive Diagnosis Meets Computerized Adaptive Testing: CD-CAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a mode of testing which enables more efficient and accurate recovery of one or more latent traits. Traditionally, CAT is built upon Item Response Theory (IRT) models that assume unidimensionality. However, the problem of how to build CAT upon latent class models (LCM) has not been investigated until recently,…

  4. Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Indonesia Junior High School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Bor-Chen; Daud, Muslem; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a curriculum-based multidimensional computerized adaptive test that was developed for Indonesia junior high school Biology. In adherence to the Indonesian curriculum of different Biology dimensions, 300 items was constructed, and then tested to 2238 students. A multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model was…

  5. Deriving Stopping Rules for Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Boughton, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Multidimensional computerized adaptive testing (MCAT) is able to provide a vector of ability estimates for each examinee, which could be used to provide a more informative profile of an examinee's performance. The current literature on MCAT focuses on the fixed-length tests, which can generate less accurate results for those examinees whose…

  6. Assessing the Efficiency of Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    This study investigated the efficiency of item selection in a computerized adaptive test (CAT), where efficiency was defined in terms of the accumulated test information at an examinee's true ability level. A simulation methodology compared the efficiency of 2 item selection procedures with 5 ability estimation procedures for CATs of 5, 10, 15,…

  7. "catR": An R Package for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is an active current research field in psychometrics and educational measurement. However, there is very little software available to handle such adaptive tasks. The R package "catR" was developed to perform adaptive testing with as much flexibility as possible, in an attempt to provide a developmental and…

  8. Computerized Adaptive Testing: From Inquiry to Operation [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    This book documents the research, development, and implementation efforts that allowed the U.S. Department of Defense to initiate the Computerized Adaptive Testing Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery Program for enlistment testing. Traces the history of this program over 30 years. (SLD)

  9. Content Balancing in Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Chi-Keung; Chang, Hua-Hua; Hau, Kit-Tai

    Item selection methods in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can yield extremely skewed item exposure distribution in which items with high "a" values may be over-exposed while those with low "a" values may never be selected. H. Chang and Z. Ying (1999) proposed the a-stratified design (ASTR) that attempts to equalize item exposure distribution…

  10. COMPUTERIZED LABORATORY NOTEBOOK CONCEPT FOR GENETIC TOXICOLOGY EXPERIMENTATION AND TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe a microcomputer system utilizing the Computerized Laboratory Notebook (CLN) concept developed in our laboratory for the purpose of automating the Battery of Leukocyte Tests (BLT). The BLT was designed to evaluate blood specimens for toxic, immunotoxic, and genotoxic e...

  11. Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on Bayesian Theory

    E-print Network

    Desmarais, Michel C.

    MIRT. Index Terms ­ Assessment, e-Learning, Bayesian theory, computerized adaptive testing (CAT), multidimensional, item response theory (IRT). INTRODUCTION Compared with traditional classroom instruction, e-learning and efficient assessment of a learner's proficiency has always been a high priority for intelligent e-Learning

  12. Computerized Classification Testing under the Generalized Graded Unfolding Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Liu, Chen-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The generalized graded unfolding model (GGUM) has been recently developed to describe item responses to Likert items (agree-disagree) in attitude measurement. In this study, the authors (a) developed two item selection methods in computerized classification testing under the GGUM, the current estimate/ability confidence interval method and the cut…

  13. Application of the Bifactor Model to Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong Gi

    2011-01-01

    Most computerized adaptive tests (CAT) have been studied under the framework of unidimensional item response theory. However, many psychological variables are multidimensional and might benefit from using a multidimensional approach to CAT. In addition, a number of psychological variables (e.g., quality of life, depression) can be conceptualized…

  14. Multiple Maximum Exposure Rates in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramon Barrada, Juan; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Olea, Julio

    2009-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing is subject to security problems, as the item bank content remains operative over long periods and administration time is flexible for examinees. Spreading the content of a part of the item bank could lead to an overestimation of the examinees' trait level. The most common way of reducing this risk is to impose a…

  15. A Framework for the Development of Computerized Adaptive Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.; Weiss, David J.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has been conducted over the past 40 years on technical aspects of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), such as item selection algorithms, item exposure controls, and termination criteria. However, there is little literature providing practical guidance on the development of a CAT. This paper seeks to collate some…

  16. A New Stopping Rule for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Seung W.; Grady, Matthew W.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to introduce a new stopping rule for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The predicted standard error reduction (PSER) stopping rule uses the predictive posterior variance to determine the reduction in standard error that would result from the administration of additional items. The performance of the PSER was…

  17. Development of a Computerized Visual Search Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Denise; Babani, Harsha; Jon, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Visual attention and visual search are the features of visual perception, essential for attending and scanning one's environment while engaging in daily occupations. This study describes the development of a novel web-based test of visual search. The development information including the format of the test will be described. The test was designed…

  18. Computerized Adaptive Testing with Item Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2003-01-01

    Developed a multilevel item response (IRT) model that allows for differences between the distributions of item parameters of families of item clones. Results from simulation studies based on an item pool from the Law School Admission Test illustrate the accuracy of the item pool calibration and adaptive testing procedures based on the model. (SLD)

  19. Are Our Kids Ready for Computerized Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullen, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    As standardized assessments tied to the Common Core standards approach for K-12 students, U.S. teachers correctly feel that how we test students will change. Will students be ready for tests of proficiency done on computers? Gullen debriefed with 500 students in various grades who had just taken pilot assessment items connected to the coming…

  20. Assessment of Minimal HE (with emphasis on computerized psychometric tests)

    PubMed Central

    Kappus, Matthew R; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is associated with a high risk of development of overt hepatic encephalopathy, impaired quality of life and driving accidents. The detection of MHE requires specialized testing since it cannot by definition, be diagnosed on standard clinical examination. Psychometric (paper-pencil or computerized or a combination) and neuro-physiological techniques are often used to test for MHE. Paper-pencil psychometric batteries like the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) have been validated in several countries but do not have US normative values. Computerized tests such as the inhibitory control test (ICT), cognitive drug research system and Scan test have proven useful to diagnose MHE and predict outcomes. The specificity and sensitivity of these tests are similar to the recommended gold standards. Neuro-physiological tests such as the EEG and its interpretations, evoked potentials and Critical Flicker Frequency (CFF) also provide useful information. The diagnosis of MHE is an important issue for clinicians and patients alike and the testing strategies depend on the normative data available, patient comfort and local expertise. PMID:22321464

  1. Computerized Neurocognitive Test Performance in Schizophrenia: A Lifespan Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Farzin; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Richard, Jan; Calkins, Monica E.; Moberg, Paul J.; Bilker, Waren; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Computerized neurocognitive batteries based on advanced behavioral neuroscience methods are increasingly used in large-scale clinical and genomic studies. Favorable construct validity in younger schizophrenia patients has been reported, but not in older patients. New variables afforded by computerized assessments were used to clarify age-associated cognitive impairment across the lifespan. Methods 624 patients with schizophrenia and 624 healthy comparison (HC) subjects aged 16–75 completed a 1–2 hour computerized neurocognitive battery (CNB) that assessed abstraction and mental flexibility, attention, working memory, recognition memory (verbal, facial, spatial), language, visuospatial and emotion processing. Linear mixed effects models tested for group differences in accuracy, response time, and efficiency scores. Contrasts were stratified by age. Results 91% of older (45+) and 94% of younger (<45) groups provided “good” data quality. After controlling for parental education and project, there were significant three-way interactions for diagnosis x domain x age group on all three outcome variables. Patients performed worse than HC across all neurocognitive domains, except in the oldest group of 60+ patients. Age-stratified analyses did not show differences between younger (16–45) and older patients (45–60, 60+), except for the attention domain. Older patients’ reduced working memory efficiency was due to worse speed, not accuracy. Older patients were quicker than younger patients in processing emotions. Conclusions Computerized assessments are feasible in large cohorts of schizophrenia patients. There is stable and generalized neurocognitive dysfunction across the lifespan in schizophrenia, albeit with fewer differences in some domains between older patients and HC after age 60. Speed-accuracy tradeoff strategies suggest deceleration of some frontal networks and improvements in speed of emotional processing. PMID:22183011

  2. A Procedure for Controlling General Test Overlap in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shu-Ying

    2010-01-01

    To date, exposure control procedures that are designed to control test overlap in computerized adaptive tests (CATs) are based on the assumption of item sharing between pairs of examinees. However, in practice, examinees may obtain test information from more than one previous test taker. This larger scope of information sharing needs to be…

  3. Exploring the Relationship between Item Exposure Rate and Test Overlap Rate in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shu-Ying; Ankenmann, Robert D.; Spray, Judith A.

    This paper presents a derivation of an average between-test overlap index as a function of the item exposure index, for fixed-length computerized adaptive tests (CAT). This relationship is used to investigate the simultaneous control of item exposure at both the item and test levels. Implications for practice as well as future research are also…

  4. Development and Simulation Testing of a Computerized Adaptive Version of the Philadelphia Naming Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hula, William D.; Kellough, Stacey; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a computerized adaptive test (CAT) version of the Philadelphia Naming Test (PNT; Roach, Schwartz, Martin, Grewal, & Brecher, 1996), to reduce test length while maximizing measurement precision. This article is a direct extension of a companion article (Fergadiotis, Kellough, & Hula, 2015),…

  5. Development and Evaluation of a Confidence-Weighting Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Yung-Chin; Ho, Rong-Guey; Chen, Li-Ju; Chou, Kun-Yi; Chen, Yan-Lin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the efficiency, precision, and validity of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) could be improved by assessing confidence differences in knowledge that examinees possessed. We proposed a novel polytomous CAT model called the confidence-weighting computerized adaptive testing (CWCAT), which combined a…

  6. a-Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing in the Presence of Calibration Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying; Patton, Jeffrey M.; Shao, Can

    2015-01-01

    a-Stratified computerized adaptive testing with b-blocking (AST), as an alternative to the widely used maximum Fisher information (MFI) item selection method, can effectively balance item pool usage while providing accurate latent trait estimates in computerized adaptive testing (CAT). However, previous comparisons of these methods have treated…

  7. Revisiting a Cognitive Framework for Test Design: Applications for a Computerized Perceptual Speed Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderton, David L.

    This paper highlights the need for a systematic, content aware, and theoretically-based approach to test design. The cognitive components approach is endorsed, and is applied to the development of a computerized perceptual speed test. Psychometric literature is reviewed and shows that: every major multi-factor theory includes a clerical/perceptual…

  8. Computerized Cognitive Testing in the Management of Youth Sports-Related Concussion.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Anthony P; Broshek, Donna K

    2016-01-01

    Computerized neurocognitive testing has become a growing practice across medical populations, but particularly within sports medicine and the management of sports-related concussion. Although traditional neuropsychological measures are solely administered and interpreted by neuropsychologists, computerized cognitive tests are marketed to and utilized by a wide range of professionals involved in the management of sports-related concussions, many of whom lack specialized psychometric training. Although the benefits of computerized testing allow for many youth athletes to be evaluated quickly, professionals implementing their use should be aware of the potential pitfalls and the high potential for misuse. After briefly reviewing the recommended guidelines set forth by the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology, we review the benefits/limitations of computerized testing in the management of sports-related concussion and the basic psychometric properties of some of the more widely used computerized measures. Lastly, we discuss the practical application of these devices. PMID:25477270

  9. Computerized Adaptive Testing for Polytomous Motivation Items: Administration Mode Effects and a Comparison with Short Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hol, A. Michiel; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

    2007-01-01

    In a randomized experiment (n = 515), a computerized and a computerized adaptive test (CAT) are compared. The item pool consists of 24 polytomous motivation items. Although items are carefully selected, calibration data show that Samejima's graded response model did not fit the data optimally. A simulation study is done to assess possible…

  10. Mutual Information Item Selection Method in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing with Short Test Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) purports to combine the strengths of both CAT and cognitive diagnosis. Cognitive diagnosis models aim at classifying examinees into the correct mastery profile group so as to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of each examinee whereas CAT algorithms choose items to determine those…

  11. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment in Aging: Testing Efficacy and Clinical Ecology of Different Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Catricalà, Eleonora; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Digital technologies have opened new opportunities for psychological testing, allowing new computerized testing tools to be developed and/or paper and pencil testing tools to be translated to new computerized devices. The question that rises is whether these implementations may introduce some technology-specific effects to be considered in neuropsychological evaluations. Two core aspects have been investigated in this work: the efficacy of tests and the clinical ecology of their administration (the ability to measure real-world test performance), specifically (1) the testing efficacy of a computerized test when response to stimuli is measured using a touch-screen compared to a conventional mouse-control response device; (2) the testing efficacy of a computerized test with respect to different input modalities (visual versus verbal); and (3) the ecology of two computerized assessment modalities (touch-screen and mouse-control), including preference measurements of participants. Our results suggest that (1) touch-screen devices are suitable for administering experimental tasks requiring precise timings for detection, (2) intrinsic nature of neuropsychological tests should always be respected in terms of stimuli presentation when translated to new digitalized environment, and (3) touch-screen devices result in ecological instruments being proposed for the computerized administration of neuropsychological tests with a high level of preference from elderly people. PMID:25147578

  12. Computerized Neurocognitive Testing for the Management of Sport-Related Concussions

    PubMed Central

    d’Hemecourt, Pierre; Collins, Christy L.; Taylor, Alex M.; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the prevalence of computerized neurocognitive testing for the assessment of high school athletes who sustain concussions, and to describe associations between using computerized neurocognitive tests, timing of return-to-play, and medical provider managing the athlete. Methods: Concussions recorded in the High School Reporting Information Online injury surveillance system during the 2009–2010 academic year were included. Measures of association between use of computerized neurocognitive testing and outcomes were analyzed. A questionnaire was sent to athletic trainers (ATs) querying the use of computerized neurocognitive testing. ?2 analyses were conducted for categorical variables. Logistic regression analyses were used to adjust for potential confounders. Statistical significance was set at P < .05. Results: High School Reporting Information Online recorded 1056 concussions. Athletes who underwent computerized neurocognitive testing were less likely to be returned to play within 10 days of injury (38.5% vs 55.7%, P < .001) and more likely to be returned to play by a physician (60.9% vs 45.6%, P < .001). We had a response rate of 97.3% for the survey. Of respondents, 39.9% used computerized neurocognitive testing; 93.0% of those used ImPACT. Tests were most often interpreted by ATs (78.9%) and/or physicians (78.8%), as opposed to neuropsychologists (16.9%). Conclusions: Approximately 40% of US high schools that employ an AT use computerized neurocognitive tests when managing sport-related concussions. Tests are most often interpreted by ATs and physicians, as opposed to neuropsychologists. Computerized neurocognitive tests are significantly associated with the timing of return-to-play. PMID:22129538

  13. Item Pocket Method to Allow Response Review and Change in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.

    2013-01-01

    Most computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs do not allow test takers to review and change their responses because it could seriously deteriorate the efficiency of measurement and make tests vulnerable to manipulative test-taking strategies. Several modified testing methods have been developed that provide restricted review options while…

  14. An Efficiency Balanced Information Criterion for Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.

    2012-01-01

    Successful administration of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs in educational settings requires that test security and item exposure control issues be taken seriously. Developing an item selection algorithm that strikes the right balance between test precision and level of item pool utilization is the key to successful implementation…

  15. The Influence of Item Calibration Error on Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jeffrey M.; Cheng, Ying; Yuan, Ke-Hai; Diao, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Variable-length computerized adaptive testing (VL-CAT) allows both items and test length to be "tailored" to examinees, thereby achieving the measurement goal (e.g., scoring precision or classification) with as few items as possible. Several popular test termination rules depend on the standard error of the ability estimate, which in turn depends…

  16. Testing Accommodations for University Students with AD/HD: Computerized vs. Paper-Pencil/Regular vs. Extended Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kathryn S.; Osborne, Randall E.; Carpenter, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Prompted by a previous study investigating the effects of pacing on the academic testing performance of college students with AD/HD, we further explored our preliminary findings, which suggested that a computerized testing environment enhanced the testing performance of college students with AD/HD. We compared the effects of a computerized vs.…

  17. Comparing Assessments of Students' Knowledge by Computerized Open-Ended and Multiple-Choice Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anbar, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Interactive computerized tests accepting unrestricted natural-language input were used to assess knowledge of clinical biophysics at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Comparison of responses to open-ended sequential questions and multiple-choice questions on the same material found the two formats test different aspects of competence.…

  18. The Application of the Monte Carlo Approach to Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing With Content Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Xiuzhen; Xin, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The Monte Carlo approach which has previously been implemented in traditional computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is applied here to cognitive diagnostic CAT to test the ability of this approach to address multiple content constraints. The performance of the Monte Carlo approach is compared with the performance of the modified maximum global…

  19. Computerized Testing in the German Federal Armed Forces (FAF): Empirical Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildgrube, Wolfgang

    In April of 1982, the German Federal Armed Forces initiated the first empirical pilot project in the area of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The configuration of hardware, psychological section, and physiological section is discussed, as well as two current problems (data transfer from the TEST 2000 microcomputer to a large sized computer for…

  20. Considering the Use of General and Modified Assessment Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    This article used several data sets from a large-scale state testing program to examine the feasibility of combining general and modified assessment items in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for different groups of students. Results suggested that several of the assumptions made when employing this type of mixed-item CAT may not be met for…

  1. Direct and Inverse Problems of Item Pool Design for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belov, Dmitry I.; Armstrong, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    The recent literature on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has developed methods for creating CAT item pools from a large master pool. Each CAT pool is designed as a set of nonoverlapping forms reflecting the skill levels of an assumed population of test takers. This article presents a Monte Carlo method to obtain these CAT pools and discusses…

  2. Computerized Adaptive Testing for Effective and Efficient Measurement in Counseling and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is described and compared with conventional tests, and its advantages summarized. Some item response theory concepts used in CAT are summarized and illustrated. The author describes the potential usefulness of CAT in counseling and education and reviews some current issues in the implementation of CAT.

  3. Application of Computerized Adaptive Testing to Entrance Examination for Graduate Studies in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Okan; Kan, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a sophisticated and efficient way of delivering examinations. In CAT, items for each examinee are selected from an item bank based on the examinee's responses to the items. In this way, the difficulty level of the test is adjusted based on the examinee's ability level. Instead of…

  4. Position Paper on the Potential Use of Computerized Testing Procedures for the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reckase, Mark D.

    The current technology of computerized testing is discussed, and a few comments are made on how such technology might be used for assessing school-related skills as part of the National Assessment of Educational progress (NAEP). The critical feature of computerized assessment procedures is that the test items are presented in interactive fashion,…

  5. Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Scholastic Aptitude Test Program Used for Grade 9 Students under Different Reviewing Test Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khunkrai, Naruemon; Sawangboon, Tatsirin; Ketchatturat, Jatuphum

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the accurate prediction of comparing test information and evaluation result by multidimensional computerized adaptive scholastic aptitude test program used for grade 9 students under different reviewing test conditions. Grade 9 students of the Secondary Educational Service Area Office in the North-east of…

  6. The status of computerized cognitive testing in aging: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Katherine; Howieson, Diane; Webbe, Frank; Seelye, Adriana; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Background Early detection of cognitive decline in the elderly has become of heightened importance in parallel with the recent advances in therapeutics. Computerized assessment may be uniquely suited to early detection of changes in cognition in the elderly. We present here a systematic review of the status of computer-based cognitive testing focusing on detection of cognitive decline in the aging population. Methods All studies purporting to assess or detect age-related changes in cognition or early dementia/mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by means of computerized testing were included. Each test battery was rated on availability of normative data, level of evidence for test validity and reliability, comprehensiveness, and usability. All published studies relevant to a particular computerized test were read by a minimum of two reviewers, who completed rating forms containing the above-mentioned criteria. Results Of the 18 test batteries identified from the initial search, eleven were appropriate to cognitive testing in the elderly and were subjected to systematic review. Of those 11, five were either developed specifically for application with the elderly or have been used extensively with that population. Even within the computerized testing genre, great variability existed in manner of administration, ranging from fully examiner administered to fully self-administered. All tests had at least minimal reliability and validity data, commonly reported in peer-reviewed articles. However, level of rigor of validity testing varied widely. Conclusion All test batteries exhibited some of the strengths of computerized cognitive testing: standardization of administration and stimulus presentation, accurate measures of response latencies, automated comparison in real-time with an individual’s prior performance as well as with age-related norms, and efficiencies of staffing and cost. Some, such as the MCIS, adapted complicated scoring algorithms to enhance the information gathered from already existing tests. Others, such as CogState, used unique interfaces and subtests. We found that while basic indices of psychometric properties were typically addressed, sufficient variability exists that currently available computerized test batteries must be judged on a case by case basis. PMID:19012868

  7. Evaluation of Selection Procedures for Computerized Adaptive Testing with Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rijn, P. W.; Eggen, T. J. H. M.; Hemker, B. T.; Sanders, P. F.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, a procedure that has been used to select dichotomous items in computerized adaptive testing was applied to polytomous items. This procedure was designed to select the item with maximum weighted information. In a simulation study, the item information function was integrated over a fixed interval of ability values and the item…

  8. A Genre-Based Perspective for the Development of Communicative Computerized Adaptive Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Cuadrado, Javier; Armendariz, Ana J.; Latapy, Marion; Lopisteguy, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the communicative potentials of Computerized Adaptive Testing. The study is based on a model that offers a set of independent communicative concepts to describe the Genre of an interactive application. This model will be the starting point to analyze the stages of the interaction cycle that are typically inherent to every…

  9. Solving Complex Constraints in a-Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Chi-Keung; Chang, Hua-Hua; Hau, Kit-Tai

    Information based item selection methods in computerized adaptive tests (CATs) tend to choose the item that provides maximum information at an examinee's estimated trait level. As a result, these methods can yield extremely skewed item exposure distributions in which items with high "a" values may be overexposed, while those with low "a" values…

  10. Incorporation of Content Balancing Requirements in Stratification Designs for Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Chi-Keung; Chang, Hua-Hua; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2003-01-01

    Studied three stratification designs for computerized adaptive testing in conjunction with three well-developed content balancing methods. Simulation study results show substantial differences in item overlap rate and pool utilization among different methods. Recommends an optimal combination of stratification design and content balancing method.…

  11. Performance of Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing: Further Explorations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shun-Wen; Ansley, Timothy N.; Lin, Sieh-Hwa

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Sympson and Hetter conditional procedure (SHC), a modification of the Sympson and Hetter (1985) algorithm, in controlling the exposure rates of items in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) environment. The properties of the procedure were compared with those of the Davey and Parshall (1995) and the…

  12. A Method for the Comparison of Item Selection Rules in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrada, Juan Ramon; Olea, Julio; Ponsoda, Vicente; Abad, Francisco Jose

    2010-01-01

    In a typical study comparing the relative efficiency of two item selection rules in computerized adaptive testing, the common result is that they simultaneously differ in accuracy and security, making it difficult to reach a conclusion on which is the more appropriate rule. This study proposes a strategy to conduct a global comparison of two or…

  13. Computerized Adaptive Testing Using a Class of High-Order Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Chen, Po-Hsi; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2012-01-01

    In the human sciences, a common assumption is that latent traits have a hierarchical structure. Higher order item response theory models have been developed to account for this hierarchy. In this study, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) algorithms based on these kinds of models were implemented, and their performance under a variety of…

  14. Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information index but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection index or in…

  15. A Stochastic Method for Balancing Item Exposure Rates in Computerized Classification Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Alan; Li, Zhushan

    2012-01-01

    Computerized classification tests (CCTs) classify examinees into categories such as pass/fail, master/nonmaster, and so on. This article proposes the use of stochastic methods from sequential analysis to address item overexposure, a practical concern in operational CCTs. Item overexposure is traditionally dealt with in CCTs by the Sympson-Hetter…

  16. Computerized Classification Testing under the One-Parameter Logistic Response Model with Ability-Based Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Yun

    2011-01-01

    The one-parameter logistic model with ability-based guessing (1PL-AG) has been recently developed to account for effect of ability on guessing behavior in multiple-choice items. In this study, the authors developed algorithms for computerized classification testing under the 1PL-AG and conducted a series of simulations to evaluate their…

  17. A Semiparametric Model for Jointly Analyzing Response Times and Accuracy in Computerized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Fan, Zhewen; Chang, Hua-Hua; Douglas, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    The item response times (RTs) collected from computerized testing represent an underutilized type of information about items and examinees. In addition to knowing the examinees' responses to each item, we can investigate the amount of time examinees spend on each item. Current models for RTs mainly focus on parametric models, which have the…

  18. Application of Direct Optimization for Item Calibration in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krass, Iosif A.

    In the process of item calibration for a computerized adaptive test (CAT), many well-established calibrating packages show weakness in the estimation of item parameters. This paper introduces an on-line calibration algorithm based on the convexity of likelihood functions. This package consists of: (1) an algorithm that estimates examinee ability…

  19. A Feedback Control Strategy for Enhancing Item Selection Efficiency in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    A computerized adaptive test (CAT) may be modeled as a closed-loop system, where item selection is influenced by trait level ([theta]) estimation and vice versa. When discrepancies exist between an examinee's estimated and true [theta] levels, nonoptimal item selection is a likely result. Nevertheless, examinee response behavior consistent with…

  20. The Design and Evaluation of a Computerized Adaptive Test on Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triantafillou, Evangelos; Georgiadou, Elissavet; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has expanded rapidly over recent years mainly due to the advances in communication and information technology. Availability of advanced mobile technologies provides several benefits to e-learning by creating an additional channel of access with mobile devices such as PDAs and mobile phones. This paper…

  1. Item Pool Design for an Operational Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wei; Reckase, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    For computerized adaptive tests (CATs) to work well, they must have an item pool with sufficient numbers of good quality items. Many researchers have pointed out that, in developing item pools for CATs, not only is the item pool size important but also the distribution of item parameters and practical considerations such as content distribution…

  2. Firestar-"D": Computerized Adaptive Testing Simulation Program for Dichotomous Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Seung W.; Podrabsky, Tracy; McKinney, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) enables efficient and flexible measurement of latent constructs. The majority of educational and cognitive measurement constructs are based on dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models. An integral part of developing various components of a CAT system is conducting simulations using both known and empirical…

  3. Best Design for Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing with the Bifactor Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong Gi; Weiss, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Most computerized adaptive tests (CATs) have been studied using the framework of unidimensional item response theory. However, many psychological variables are multidimensional and might benefit from using a multidimensional approach to CATs. This study investigated the accuracy, fidelity, and efficiency of a fully multidimensional CAT algorithm…

  4. SimulCAT: Windows Software for Simulating Computerized Adaptive Test Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.

    2012-01-01

    Most, if not all, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs use simulation techniques to develop and evaluate CAT program administration and operations, but such simulation tools are rarely available to the public. Up to now, several software tools have been available to conduct CAT simulations for research purposes; however, these existing…

  5. Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on Cognitive Diagnosis Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chia-Ling; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Shu-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Interest in developing computerized adaptive testing (CAT) under cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) has increased recently. CAT algorithms that use a fixed-length termination rule frequently lead to different degrees of measurement precision for different examinees. Fixed precision, in which the examinees receive the same degree of measurement…

  6. Cultivating Chemistry Students in the computerized testing center in the Marriott Library generate data indicating which chemistry subjects students find most challenging

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    Cultivating Chemistry Students in the computerized testing center in the Marriott Library generate data indicating which chemistry subjects students find most challenging Professor Charles Atwood makes of computerized test results showed which concepts University of Georgia chemistry students struggled

  7. Seed viability detection using computerized false-color radiographic image enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vozzo, J. A.; Marko, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Seed radiographs are divided into density zones which are related to seed germination. The seeds which germinate have densities relating to false-color red. In turn, a seed sorter may be designed which rejects those seeds not having sufficient red to activate a gate along a moving belt containing the seed source. This results in separating only seeds with the preselected densities representing biological viability lending to germination. These selected seeds demand a higher market value. Actual false-coloring isn't required for a computer to distinguish the significant gray-zone range. This range can be predetermined and screened without the necessity of red imaging. Applying false-color enhancement is a means of emphasizing differences in densities of gray within any subject from photographic, radiographic, or video imaging. Within the 0-255 range of gray levels, colors can be assigned to any single level or group of gray levels. Densitometric values then become easily recognized colors which relate to the image density. Choosing a color to identify any given density allows separation by morphology or composition (form or function). Additionally, relative areas of each color are readily available for determining distribution of that density by comparison with other densities within the image.

  8. Using Out-of-Level Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Hua; Lin, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-level testing refers to the practice of assessing a student with a test that is intended for students at a higher or lower grade level. Although the appropriateness of out-of-level testing for accountability purposes has been questioned by educators and policymakers, incorporating out-of-level items in formative assessments for accurate…

  9. Testing and validation of computerized decision support systems.

    PubMed Central

    Sailors, R. M.; East, T. D.; Wallace, C. J.; Carlson, D. A.; Franklin, M. A.; Heermann, L. K.; Kinder, A. T.; Bradshaw, R. L.; Randolph, A. G.; Morris, A. H.

    1996-01-01

    Systematic, through testing of decision support systems (DSSs) prior to release to general users is a critical aspect of high quality software design. Omission of this step may lead to the dangerous, and potentially fatal, condition of relying on a system with outputs of uncertain quality. Thorough testing requires a great deal of effort and is a difficult job because tools necessary to facilitate testing are not well developed. Testing is a job ill-suited to humans because it requires tireless attention to a large number of details. For these reasons, the majority of DSSs available are probably not well tested prior to release. We have successfully implemented a software design and testing plan which has helped us meet our goal of continuously improving the quality of our DSS software prior to release. While requiring large amounts of effort, we feel that the process of documenting and standardizing our testing methods are important steps toward meeting recognized national and international quality standards. Our testing methodology includes both functional and structural testing and requires input from all levels of development. Our system does not focus solely on meeting design requirements but also addresses the robustness of the system and the completeness of testing. PMID:8947663

  10. Testing primates with joystick-based automated apparatus - Lessons from the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Nonhuman primates provide useful models for studying a variety of medical, biological, and behavioral topics. Four years of joystick-based automated testing of monkeys using the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) are examined to derive hints and principles for comparable testing with other species - including humans. The results of multiple parametric studies are reviewed, and reliability data are presented to reveal the surprises and pitfalls associated with video-task testing of performance.

  11. Computerized Testing in a Hospital Setting: Psychometric and Psychological Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Leif; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This Swedish study sought to evaluate a touch-screen computer-based (CB) test administration system in a hospital setting in comparison with paper-and-pencil administrative routine. Patients were given psychometric tests (involving depression, mood, and intelligence measurement) in both formats. Patient pleasantness, activation, and calmness were…

  12. Development and Application of Detection Indices for Measuring Guessing Behaviors and Test-Taking Effort in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shu-Ren; Plake, Barbara S.; Kramer, Gene A.; Lien, Shu-Mei

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the amount of time that different ability-level examinees spend on questions they answer correctly or incorrectly across different pretest item blocks presented on a fixed-length, time-restricted computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Results indicate that different ability-level examinees require different amounts of time to…

  13. Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) - Video-formatted tasks for comparative primate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.; Hopkins, William D.; Richardson, W. K.

    1991-01-01

    Automation of a computerized test system for comparative primate research is shown to improve the results of learning in standard paradigms. A mediational paradigm is used to determine the degree to which criterion in the learning-set testing reflects stimulus-response associative or mediational learning. Rhesus monkeys are shown to exhibit positive transfer as the criterion levels are shifted upwards, and the effectiveness of the computerized testing system is confirmed.

  14. Computerized adaptive testing: the capitalization on chance problem.

    PubMed

    Olea, Julio; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Abad, Francisco J; Ponsoda, Vicente; Cuevas, Lara

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes several simulation studies that examine the effects of capitalization on chance in the selection of items and the ability estimation in CAT, employing the 3-parameter logistic model. In order to generate different estimation errors for the item parameters, the calibration sample size was manipulated (N = 500, 1000 and 2000 subjects) as was the ratio of item bank size to test length (banks of 197 and 788 items, test lengths of 20 and 40 items), both in a CAT and in a random test. Results show that capitalization on chance is particularly serious in CAT, as revealed by the large positive bias found in the small sample calibration conditions. For broad ranges of theta, the overestimation of the precision (asymptotic Se) reaches levels of 40%, something that does not occur with the RMSE (theta). The problem is greater as the item bank size to test length ratio increases. Potential solutions were tested in a second study, where two exposure control methods were incorporated into the item selection algorithm. Some alternative solutions are discussed. PMID:22379731

  15. Computerization of the Structured-Objective Rorschach Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingenohl, Ingo

    1973-01-01

    SORTSCOR performs raw scoring of the Structured-Objective Rorschach Test (SORT) and REPORT subsequently writes a narrative report in easily readable, nonclinical language. Complete documentation is available, at cost, from the author at Quinnipiac College, Hamden, Conn. 06518. (Author/CB)

  16. Investigating Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Nagihan Boztunc; Dogan, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of item exposure control methods on measurement precision and on test security under various item selection methods and item pool characteristics. In this study, the Randomesque (with item group sizes of 5 and 10), Sympson-Hetter, and Fade-Away methods were used as item exposure control methods. Moreover,…

  17. COMPARISON OF ATHLETES WITH AND WITHOUT BURNOUT USING THE STROOP COLOR AND WORD TEST.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kwangmin; Kim, Jingu; Ali, Asif; Choi, Sungmook; Kim, Hyunji; Radlo, Steven J

    2015-10-01

    The present study compared brain activity of adolescents with or without burnout during their responses to a computerized version of the Stroop Color and Word Test. The Sport Adaptation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was administered to 460 Korean high school student athletes. Electroencephalographic data were recorded from frontal, central, parietal, and occipital brain regions while these participants were performing the Stroop Color and Word Test. A 2 (group) × 2 (condition) × 15 (electrodes) three-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that the athletes without burnout exhibited significantly higher accuracy than their counterparts with burnout on the Stroop Color and Word Test. The athletes without burnout also showed higher amplitudes for theta, alpha, and beta power in the frontal areas than the athletes with burnout. PMID:26334486

  18. Validity and internal consistency reliability of a computerized test to assess prone extension in children ages four to six years.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Kai; Wu, Huey-Min; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Li, Cheng-Hsaun

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a computerized test of prone extension to measure performance of prone extension in children 4 to 6 years of age. The participants were selected from kindergartens, comprising 132 boys and 107 girls with a mean age of 5 yr. 2 mo. (SD = 6 mo.). Sensitivity and specificity of the computerized test of prone extension were assessed by comparison with the judgments of an expert, an occupational therapist with more than 20 yr. of pediatric experience, as the criterion standard. The computerized test of prone extension identified children with poor outcomes with a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.88, and an accuracy of 0.87. The internal reliability index was 0.81. The computerized test of prone extension could be of value in detecting problems of antigravity posture in prone extension and permitting early intervention to correct it. PMID:21058600

  19. The importance of proper administration and interpretation of neuropsychological baseline and postconcussion computerized testing.

    PubMed

    Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Schatz, Philip; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Media coverage, litigation, and new legislation have resulted in a heightened awareness of the prevalence of sports concussion in both adult and youth athletes. Baseline and postconcussion testing is now commonly used for the assessment and management of sports-related concussion in schools and in youth sports leagues. With increased use of computerized neurocognitive sports concussion testing, there is a need for standards for proper administration and interpretation. To date, there has been a lack of standardized procedures by which assessments are administered. More specifically, individuals who are not properly trained often interpret test results, and their methods of interpretation vary considerably. The purpose of this article is to outline factors affecting the validity of test results, to provide examples of misuse and misinterpretation of test results, and to communicate the need to administer testing in the most effective and useful manner. An increase in the quality of test administration and application may serve to decrease the prevalence of invalid test results and increase the accuracy and utility of baseline test results if an athlete sustains a concussion. Standards for test use should model the American Psychological Association and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, as well as the recent findings of the joint position paper on computerized neuropsychological assessment devices. PMID:24236894

  20. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418... color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract specifications by using the Munsell Color...°F or 21/2 minutes at 375°F. 5 Munsell Color Standards for Frozen French Fried Potatoes,...

  1. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418... color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract specifications by using the Munsell Color...°F or 21/2 minutes at 375°F. 5 Munsell Color Standards for Frozen French Fried Potatoes,...

  2. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418... color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract specifications by using the Munsell Color...°F or 21/2 minutes at 375°F. 5 Munsell Color Standards for Frozen French Fried Potatoes,...

  3. Supervision and Computerized Neurocognitive Baseline Test Performance in High School Athletes: An Initial Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Andrew Warren; Solomon, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Computerized neuropsychological testing batteries have provided a time-efficient and cost-efficient way to assess and manage the neurocognitive aspects of patients with sport-related concussion. These tests are straightforward and mostly self-guided, reducing the degree of clinician involvement required by traditional clinical neuropsychological paper-and-pencil tests. Objective: To determine if self-reported supervision status affected computerized neurocognitive baseline test performance in high school athletes. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Settings: Supervised testing took place in high school computer libraries or sports medicine clinics. Unsupervised testing took place at the participant's home or another location with computer access. Patients or Other Participants: From 2007 to 2012, high school athletes across middle Tennessee (n = 3771) completed computerized neurocognitive baseline testing (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing [ImPACT]). They reported taking the test either supervised by a sports medicine professional or unsupervised. These athletes (n = 2140) were subjected to inclusion and exclusion criteria and then matched based on age, sex, and number of prior concussions. Main Outcome Measure(s): We extracted demographic and performance-based data from each de-identified baseline testing record. Paired t tests were performed between the self-reported supervised and unsupervised groups, comparing the following ImPACT baseline composite scores: verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor (processing) speed, reaction time, impulse control, and total symptom score. For differences that reached P < .05, the Cohen d was calculated to measure the effect size. Lastly, a ?2 analysis was conducted to compare the rate of invalid baseline testing between the groups. All statistical tests were performed at the 95% confidence interval level. Results: Self-reported supervised athletes demonstrated better visual motor (processing) speed (P = .004; 95% confidence interval [0.28, 1.52]; d = 0.12) and faster reaction time (P < .001; 95% confidence interval [?0.026, ?0.014]; d = 0.21) composite scores than self-reported unsupervised athletes. Conclusions: Speed-based tasks were most affected by self-reported supervision status, although the effect sizes were relatively small. These data lend credence to the hypothesis that supervision status may be a factor in the evaluation of ImPACT baseline test scores. PMID:25299577

  4. Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing: Improving the a-Stratified Design with the Sympson-Hetter Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Chi-Keung; Chang, Hua-Hua; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2002-01-01

    Item exposure control, test-overlap minimization, and the efficient use of item pool are some of the important issues in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) designs. The overexposure of some items and high test-overlap rate may cause both item and test security problems. Previously these problems associated with the maximum information (Max-I)…

  5. The Use of the Graded Response Model in Computerized Adaptive Testing of the Attitudes to Science Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foong, Yoke-Yeen; Lam, Tit-Loong

    The graded response model for two-stage testing was applied to an attitudes toward science scale using real-data simulation. The 48-item scale was administered to 920 students at a grade-8 equivalent in Singapore. A two-stage 16-item computerized adaptive test was developed. In two-stage testing an initial, or routing, test is followed by a…

  6. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418... § 51.3418 Optional test for fry color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract specifications by using the Munsell Color Standards for Frozen French Fried Potatoes, Third Edition, 1972,...

  7. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418... § 51.3418 Optional test for fry color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract specifications by using the Munsell Color Standards for Frozen French Fried Potatoes, Third Edition, 1972,...

  8. Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing: Adaptation of the A-Stratified Strategy in Item Selection with Content Balancing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huo, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Variable-length computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can provide examinees with tailored test lengths. With the fixed standard error of measurement ("SEM") termination rule, variable-length CAT can achieve predetermined measurement precision by using relatively shorter tests compared to fixed-length CAT. To explore the application of…

  9. Independent comparison of CogState computerized testing and a standard cognitive battery with neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Michelle M.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Wiste, Heather J.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Machulda, Mary M.; Knopman, Davis S.; Lowe, Val; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Kantarci, Kejal; Rocca, Walter A.; Jack, Clifford R.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Inexpensive, non-invasive tools for assessing Alzheimer-type pathophysiologies are needed. Computerized cognitive assessments are prime candidates. Methods Cognitively normal participants, aged 51-71, with MRI, FDG-PET, amyloid PET, CogState computerized cognitive assessment, and standard neuropsychological tests were included. We first examined the association between the CogState battery and neuroimaging measures. We then compared that association to the one between standard neuropsychological z-scores and neuroimaging. Results Slower reaction times for CogState Identification and One Back, and lower memory and attention z-scores, were associated (P<.05) with FDG-PET hypometabolism. Slower time on the Groton Maze Learning Task and worse One Card Learning accuracy were associated (P<.05) with smaller hippocampal volumes. There were no associations with amyloid PET. Associations of CogState and neuropsychological z-scores with neuroimaging were small and of a similar magnitude. Conclusions CogState subtests were cross-sectionally comparable to standard neuropsychological tests in their relatively weak associations with neurodegeneration imaging markers. PMID:25458308

  10. Spectral Pseudoisochromatic Images; Vision Test for Color-normal Observers

    E-print Network

    Fairchild, Mark D.

    to detect color blindness or other color vision deficiencies. The proposed spectral pseudoisochromaticSpectral Pseudoisochromatic Images; Vision Test for Color-normal Observers Yuta ASANO,1 Mark D. FAIRCHILD1 1 Munsell Color Science Laboratory, Rochester Institute of Technology ABSTRACT Identifying

  11. Nonlinear sequential designs for logistic item response theory models with applications to computerized adaptive tests

    E-print Network

    Chang, Hua-Hua; 10.1214/08-AOS614

    2009-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing is becoming increasingly popular due to advancement of modern computer technology. It differs from the conventional standardized testing in that the selection of test items is tailored to individual examinee's ability level. Arising from this selection strategy is a nonlinear sequential design problem. We study, in this paper, the sequential design problem in the context of the logistic item response theory models. We show that the adaptive design obtained by maximizing the item information leads to a consistent and asymptotically normal ability estimator in the case of the Rasch model. Modifications to the maximum information approach are proposed for the two- and three-parameter logistic models. Similar asymptotic properties are established for the modified designs and the resulting estimator. Examples are also given in the case of the two-parameter logistic model to show that without such modifications, the maximum likelihood estimator of the ability parameter may not be consi...

  12. WindoWorks: A flexible program for computerized testing of accelerator control system electronic circuit boards

    SciTech Connect

    Utterback, J.

    1993-09-01

    Since most accelerator control system circuit boards reside in a commercial bus architecture, such as CAMAC or VMEbus, a computerized test station is needed for exercising the boards. This test station is needed for the development of newly designed prototypes, for commissioning newly manufactured boards, for diagnosing boards which have failed in service, and for long term testing of boards with intermittent failure problems. WindoWorks was created to address these needs. It is a flexible program which runs on a PC compatible computer and uses a PC to bus crate interface. WindoWorks was designed to give the user a flexible way to test circuit boards. Each test is incapsulated into a window. By bringing up several different windows the user can run several different tests simultaneously. The windows are sizable, and moveable. They have data entry boxes so that the test can be customized to the users preference. The windows can be used in conjunction with each other in order to create supertests. There are several windows which are generic. They can be used to test basic functions on any VME (or CAMAC) board. There are other windows which have been created to test specific boards. New windows for testing specific boards can be easily created by a Pascal programmer using the WindoWorks framework.

  13. Development and Validation of the Computerized Family Relations Test for Children

    PubMed Central

    Skocz?, Ilona; Cieciuch, Jan; Oud, Johan H. L.; Welzen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of the Computerized Family Relations Test (CFRT) for children. This test assesses the quality of family relationships with the mother and father from a child’s perspective. The CFRT consists of six scales relating to control (Restrictiveness and Justice), and support (Affection, Vulnerability, Acknowledgment, and Trust) within the family relationships. CFRT is an innovative approach to the Dutch Nijmegen Family Relations Test (NFRT) developed by Oud and Welzen (1989). The administration of the test has been computerized and graphical representations of female and male silhouettes were included to facilitate the child’s parental identification. In total, 404 primary school children, aged 8 to 13 years (M = 11.0; SD = 1.17), took part in this study. The CFRT’s reliability was assessed by McDonald’s omega coefficients, and ranged from 0.71 to 0.86, except for Vulnerability which achieved the lowest reliability 0.57 for mothers’ ratings and 0.56 for fathers’ ratings. The test–retest procedure revealed higher stability for the ratings on father-child relationships of 0.71 compared to mother-child relationships of 0.67. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a six-factor model provided an adequate fit. Measurement invariance across the children’s assessments of the quality of family relationships was achieved. The construct validity of CFRT was assessed by examining differences in the child’s ratings of the relationships with the mother and father, the child’s gender, and associations of CFRT scales with other variables such as depression, anxiety symptoms, and prosocial behavior. PMID:26617538

  14. Comparison between Dichotomous and Polytomous Scoring of Innovative Items in a Large-Scale Computerized Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Hong; Liu, Junhui; Haynie, Kathleen; Woo, Ada; Gorham, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the impact of partial credit scoring of one type of innovative items (multiple-response items) in a computerized adaptive version of a large-scale licensure pretest and operational test settings. The impacts of partial credit scoring on the estimation of the ability parameters and classification decisions in operational test

  15. Construct Validity and Measurement Invariance of Computerized Adaptive Testing: Application to Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shudong; McCall, Marty; Jiao, Hong; Harris, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study are twofold. First, to investigate the construct or factorial structure of a set of Reading and Mathematics computerized adaptive tests (CAT), "Measures of Academic Progress" (MAP), given in different states at different grades and academic terms. The second purpose is to investigate the invariance of test factorial…

  16. An Empirical Evaluation of the Slip Correction in the Four Parameter Logistic Models with Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Yung-Chin; Ho, Rong-Guey; Laio, Wen-Wei; Chen, Li-Ju; Kuo, Ching-Chin

    2012-01-01

    In a selected response test, aberrant responses such as careless errors and lucky guesses might cause error in ability estimation because these responses do not actually reflect the knowledge that examinees possess. In a computerized adaptive test (CAT), these aberrant responses could further cause serious estimation error due to dynamic item…

  17. Representing Response-Time Information in Item Banks. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnipke, Deborah L.; Scrams, David J.

    The availability of item response times made possible by computerized testing represents an entirely new type of information about test items. This study explores the issue of how to represent response-time information in item banks. Empirical response-time distribution functions can be fit with statistical distribution functions with known…

  18. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418 Agriculture ...for Processing 1 § 51.3418 Optional test for fry color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract...

  19. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418 Agriculture ...for Processing 1 § 51.3418 Optional test for fry color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract...

  20. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418 Agriculture ...for Processing 1 § 51.3418 Optional test for fry color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract...

  1. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418 Agriculture ...for Processing 1 § 51.3418 Optional test for fry color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract...

  2. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418 Agriculture ...for Processing 1 § 51.3418 Optional test for fry color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract...

  3. Arousability and eye color: a test of Worthy's hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J; Bautista, J; Hicks, R A

    1994-02-01

    As a test of the hypothesis that eye color is related to reactivity, we measured the relationships between scores on the Arousal Predisposition Scale and two measures of eye color. Our data did not support this hypothesis. PMID:8177652

  4. Cognitive Function In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Rheumatoid Arthritis And Multiple Sclerosis Assessed By Computerized Neuropsychological Tests

    PubMed Central

    Hanly, John G.; Omisade, Antonina; Su, Li; Farewell, Vern; Fisk, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Computerized neuropsychological testing may facilitate screening for cognitive impairment in SLE. We used the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM), to compare patients with SLE, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS) with healthy controls. Methods Patients with SLE (68), RA (33), and MS (20), were compared to 29 healthy controls. Efficiency of cognitive performance on eight ANAM subtests was examined using throughput (Tp), inverse efficiency (IE) and adjusted IE scores. The latter is more sensitive to higher cognitive functions because it adjusts for the impact of simple reaction time on performance. The results were analyzed using O’Brien’s generalized least squares test. Results Control subjects were the most efficient in cognitive performance. MS patients were least efficient overall (Tp and IE scores) and were less efficient than both SLE (p=0.01) and RA (p<0.01) patients, who did not differ. Adjusted IE scores were similar between SLE, RA patients and controls reflecting the impact of simple reaction time on cognitive performance. Thus, 50% of SLE patients, 61% of RA patients and 75% of MS patients were impaired on at least one ANAM subtest. Only 9% of RA patients and 11% of SLE patients were impaired on 4 or more subtests, whereas this was true for 20% of MS patients. Conclusion ANAM is sensitive to cognitive impairment. While such computerized testing may be a valuable screening tool, our results emphasize the lack of specificity of slowed performance as a reliable indicator of impairment of higher cognitive function in SLE patients. PMID:20155829

  5. Conceptualising computerized adaptive testing for measurement of latent variables associated with physical objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, F. R.; Henson, B.

    2015-02-01

    The notion of that more or less of a physical feature affects in different degrees the users' impression with regard to an underlying attribute of a product has frequently been applied in affective engineering. However, those attributes exist only as a premise that cannot directly be measured and, therefore, inferences based on their assessment are error-prone. To establish and improve measurement of latent attributes it is presented in this paper the concept of a stochastic framework using the Rasch model for a wide range of independent variables referred to as an item bank. Based on an item bank, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can be developed. A CAT system can converge into a sequence of items bracketing to convey information at a user's particular endorsement level. It is through item banking and CAT that the financial benefits of using the Rasch model in affective engineering can be realised.

  6. [Item parameter drift in computerized adaptive testing: Study with eCAT].

    PubMed

    Abad, Francisco J; Olea, Julio; Aguado, David; Ponsoda, Vicente; Barrada, Juan R

    2010-05-01

    This study describes the parameter drift analysis conducted on eCAT (a Computerized Adaptive Test to assess the written English level of Spanish speakers). The original calibration of the item bank (N = 3224) was compared to a new calibration obtained from the data provided by most eCAT operative administrations (N = 7254). A Differential Item Functioning (DIF) study was conducted between the original and the new calibrations. The impact that the new parameters have on the trait level estimates was obtained by simulation. Results show that parameter drift is found especially for a and c parameters, an important number of bank items show DIF, and the parameter change has a moderate impact on high-level-English ? estimates. It is then recommended to replace the original estimates by the new set. PMID:20423641

  7. On the Reliability and Validity of a Numerical Reasoning Speed Dimension Derived from Response Times Collected in Computerized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Mark L.; Semmes, Robert; Huang, Lan; Close, Catherine N.

    2012-01-01

    Data from 181 college students were used to assess whether math reasoning item response times in computerized testing can provide valid and reliable measures of a speed dimension. The alternate forms reliability of the speed dimension was .85. A two-dimensional structural equation model suggests that the speed dimension is related to the accuracy…

  8. "Computerized Adaptive Testing: Theory and Practice." Wim J. van der Linden and Cees A. W. Glas, Eds. [book review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reise, Steven P.

    2001-01-01

    This book contains a series of research articles about computerized adaptive testing (CAT) written for advanced psychometricians. The book is divided into sections on: (1) item selection and examinee scoring in CAT; (2) examples of CAT applications; (3) item banks; (4) determining model fit; and (5) using testlets in CAT. (SLD)

  9. Application of an Empirical Bayes Enhancement of Mantel-Haenszel Differential Item Functioning Analysis to a Computerized Adaptive Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Thayer, Dorothy T.

    2002-01-01

    Used a simulation to investigate the applicability to computerized adaptive test data of a differential item functioning (DIF) analysis method. Results show the performance of this empirical Bayes enhancement of the Mantel Haenszel DIF analysis method to be quite promising. (SLD)

  10. Phoenix Test Sample Site in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This color image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken.

    Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. The Effects of Aging, Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury on Computerized Trail-Making Test Performance

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2015-01-01

    The trail making test (TMT) is widely used to assess speed of processing and executive function. However, normative data sets gathered at different sites show significant inconsistencies. Here, we describe a computerized version of the TMT (C-TMT) that increases the precision and replicability of the TMT by permitting a segment-by-segment analysis of performance and separate analyses of dwell-time, move-time, and error time. Experiment 1 examined 165 subjects of various ages and found that completion times on both the C-TMT-A (where subjects connect successively numbered circles) and the C-TMT-B (where subjects connect circles containing alternating letters and numbers) were strongly influenced by age. Experiment 2 examined 50 subjects who underwent three test sessions. The results of the first test session were well fit by the normative data gathered in Experiment 1. Sessions 2 and 3 demonstrated significant learning effects, particularly on the C-TMT-B, and showed good test-retest reliability. Experiment 3 examined performance in subjects instructed to feign symptoms of traumatic brain injury: 44% of subjects produced abnormal completion times on the C-TMT-A, and 18% on the C-TMT-B. Malingering subjects could be distinguished from abnormally slow controls based on (1) disproportionate increases in dwell-time on the C-TMT-A, and (2) greater deficits on the C-TMT-A than on the C-TMT-B. Experiment 4 examined the performance of 28 patients with traumatic brain injury: C-TMT-B completion times were slowed, and TBI patients showed reduced movement velocities on both tests. The C-TMT improves the reliability and sensitivity of the trail making test of processing speed and executive function. PMID:26060999

  12. Varying the valuating function and the presentable bank in computerized adaptive testing.

    PubMed

    Barrada, Juan Ramón; Abad, Francisco José; Olea, Julio

    2011-05-01

    In computerized adaptive testing, the most commonly used valuating function is the Fisher information function. When the goal is to keep item bank security at a maximum, the valuating function that seems most convenient is the matching criterion, valuating the distance between the estimated trait level and the point where the maximum of the information function is located. Recently, it has been proposed not to keep the same valuating function constant for all the items in the test. In this study we expand the idea of combining the matching criterion with the Fisher information function. We also manipulate the number of strata into which the bank is divided. We find that the manipulation of the number of items administered with each function makes it possible to move from the pole of high accuracy and low security to the opposite pole. It is possible to greatly improve item bank security with much fewer losses in accuracy by selecting several items with the matching criterion. In general, it seems more appropriate not to stratify the bank. PMID:21568205

  13. Development of an abbreviated form of the Penn Line Orientation Test using large samples and computerized adaptive test simulation.

    PubMed

    Moore, Tyler M; Scott, J Cobb; Reise, Steven P; Port, Allison M; Jackson, Chad T; Ruparel, Kosha; Savitt, Adam P; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2015-09-01

    Visuospatial processing is a commonly assessed neurocognitive domain with deficits linked to dysfunction in right posterior regions of the brain. With the growth of large-scale clinical research studies, there is an increased need for efficient and scalable assessments of neurocognition, including visuospatial processing. The purpose of the current study was to use a novel method that combines item response theory (IRT) and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) approaches to create an abbreviated form of the computerized Penn Line Orientation Test (PLOT). The 24-item PLOT was administered to 8,498 youths (aged 8-21 years) as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort study and, by Web-based data collection, in an independent sample of 4,593 adults from Great Britain as part of a TV documentary. IRT-based CAT simulations were used to select the best PLOT items for an abbreviated form by performing separate simulations in each group and choosing only items that were selected as useful (i.e., high item discrimination and in the appropriate difficulty range) in at least 1 of the simulations. Fifteen items were chosen for the final, short form of the PLOT, indicating substantial agreement among the models in how they evaluated each item's usefulness. Moreover, this abbreviated version performed comparably to the full version in tests of sensitivity to age and sex effects. This abbreviated version of the PLOT cuts administration time by 50% without detectable loss of information, which points to its feasibility for large-scale clinical and genomic studies. PMID:25822834

  14. The Language Research Center's Computerized Test System for environmental enrichment and psychological assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.

    1992-01-01

    In the spring of 1987, we undertook to provide environmental enrichment to nonhuman primate subjects in ways that would complement and even contribute to the bio-behaviorial science that justified the monkeys' captivity. Of course, the psychological well-being of captive primates--and indeed all research species-- has been an area of intense research activity since the 1985 amendment of the Animal Welfare Act. This mandate for researchers to ensure the psychological, as well as physical, fitness of experimental animals catalyzed the humane and scientific interests of the research community. The contemporary literature is replete with proposed means both of assaying and of providing enrichment and well-being. Notwithstanding, consensus on either assessment or intervention has yet to be reached. The paradigm we employed was modelled after successful efforts with chimpanzees. An automated test system was constructed in which subjects responded to computer tasks by manipulating a joystick. The tasks, interactive game-like versions of many of the classic testing paradigms of cognitive and comparative psychology, permitted the controlled presentation of stimuli and demands without the required presence of a human experimenter. Despite significant barriers to the success, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and a variety of other primate species (including, of course, humans) have mastered the skills necessary for testing in this paradigm. Previous experiments have illustrated the utility of the test system for addressing questions of learning, memory, attention, perception, and motivation. Additional data have been reported to support the contention that the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) serves its other raison d'etre--providing environmental enrichment and assessing psychological well-being. This paper is designed to augment previous descriptions of the technology and the paradigm for scientists and caretakers interested in environmental enrichment and performance assessment with primates.

  15. Computerized Ultrasonic Testing System (CUTS) for in-process thickness determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankel, J.; Doxbeck, M.; Schroeder, S. C.; Abbate, A.

    1994-01-01

    A Computerized Ultrasonic Testing System (CUTS) was developed to measure, in real-time, the rate of deposition and thickness of chromium plated on the inside of thick steel tubes. The measurements are made from the outside of the tubes with the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The resolution of the system is 2.5 micron. (0.0001 in.) and the accuracy is better than 10 micron (0.0004 in.). The thickness is measured using six transducers mounted at different locations on the tube. In addition, two transducers are mounted on two reference standards, thereby allowing the system to be continuously calibrated. The tube temperature varies during the process, thus the input from eight thermocouples, located at the measurement sites, is used to calculate and compensate for the change in return time of the ultrasonic echo due to the temperature dependence of the sound velocity. CUTS is applicable to any commercial process where real-time change of thickness of a sample has to be known, with the advantage of facilitating increased efficiency and of improving process control.

  16. Implementing computerized adaptive tests in routine clinical practice: experience implementing CATs.

    PubMed

    Hart, Dennis L; Deutscher, Daniel; Werneke, Mark W; Holder, Judy; Wang, Ying-Chih

    2010-01-01

    This paper traces the development, testing and use of CATs in outpatient rehabilitation from the perspective of one proprietary international medical rehabilitation database management company, Focus On Therapeutic Outcomes, Inc. (FOTO). Between the FOTO data in the United States and Maccabi Healthcare Services data in Israel, over 1.5 million CATs have been administered. Using findings from published studies and results of internal public relations surveys, we discuss (1) reasons for CAT development, (2) how the CATs were received by clinicians and patients in the United States and Israel, (3) results of psychometric property assessments of CAT estimated measures of functional status in routine clinical practice, (4) clinical interpretation of CAT functional status measures, and (5) future development directions. Results of scientific studies and business history provide confidence that CATs are pertinent and valuable to clinicians, patients and payers, and suggest CATs will be prominent in the development of future integrated computerized electronic medical record systems with electronic outcomes data collection. PMID:20847476

  17. Usability Testing of a Computerized Communication Tool in a Diverse Urban Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Tsimicalis, Argerie; Stone, Patricia W.; Bakken, Suzanne; Yoon, Sunmoo; Sands, Stephen; Porter, Rechelle; Ruland, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Background Developed in Norway, Sisom is an interactive, rigorously tested, computerized, communication tool designed to help children with cancer express their perceived symptoms/problems. Children travel virtually from island to island rating their symptoms/problems. While Sisom has been found to significantly improve communication in patient consultations in Norway, usability testing is warranted with US children prior to further use in research studies. Objective To determine the usability of Sisom in a sample of English and Spanish speaking children in an urban US community. Methods A mixed methods usability study was conducted with a purposive sample of healthy children and children with cancer. Semi-structured interviews were used to assess healthy children’s symptom recognition. Children with cancer completed 8 usability tasks captured with Morae® 3.3 software. Data were downloaded, transcribed, and analyzed descriptively. Results Four healthy children and 8 children with cancer participated. Of the 44 symptoms assessed, healthy children recognized 15 (34%) pictorial symptoms immediately or indicated 13 (30%) pictures were good representations of the symptom. Six children with cancer completed all tasks. All children navigated successfully from one island to the next, ranking their symptom/problem severity, clicking the magnifying glass for help, or asking the researcher for assistance. All children were satisfied with the aesthetics and expressed an interest in using Sisom to communicate their symptoms. Conclusions A few minor suggestions for improvement and adjustment may optimize the use of Sisom for US children. Implications for Practice Sisom may help clinicians overcome challenges assessing children’s complex symptoms/problems in a child-friendly manner. PMID:24457227

  18. Color-discrimination threshold determination using pseudoisochromatic test plates

    PubMed Central

    Jurasevska, Kaiva; Ozolinsh, Maris; Fomins, Sergejs; Gutmane, Ausma; Zutere, Brigita; Pausus, Anete; Karitans, Varis

    2014-01-01

    We produced a set of pseudoisochromatic plates for determining individual color-difference thresholds to assess test performance and test properties, and analyzed the results. We report a high test validity and classification ability for the deficiency type and severity level [comparable to that of the fourth edition of the Hardy–Rand–Rittler (HRR) test]. We discuss changes of the acceptable chromatic shifts from the protan and deutan confusion lines along the CIE xy diagram, and the high correlation of individual color-difference thresholds and the red–green discrimination index. Color vision was tested using an Oculus HMC anomaloscope, a Farnsworth D15, and an HRR test on 273 schoolchildren, and 57 other subjects with previously diagnosed red–green color-vision deficiency. PMID:25505891

  19. Applying Computerized Adaptive Testing to the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised: Rasch Analysis of Workplace Bullying

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shu-Ching; Li, Yu-Chi; Yui, Mei-Shu

    2014-01-01

    Background Workplace bullying is a prevalent problem in contemporary work places that has adverse effects on both the victims of bullying and organizations. With the rapid development of computer technology in recent years, there is an urgent need to prove whether item response theory–based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can be applied to measure exposure to workplace bullying. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative efficiency and measurement precision of a CAT-based test for hospital nurses compared to traditional nonadaptive testing (NAT). Under the preliminary conditions of a single domain derived from the scale, a CAT module bullying scale model with polytomously scored items is provided as an example for evaluation purposes. Methods A total of 300 nurses were recruited and responded to the 22-item Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R). All NAT (or CAT-selected) items were calibrated with the Rasch rating scale model and all respondents were randomly selected for a comparison of the advantages of CAT and NAT in efficiency and precision by paired t tests and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Results The NAQ-R is a unidimensional construct that can be applied to measure exposure to workplace bullying through CAT-based administration. Nursing measures derived from both tests (CAT and NAT) were highly correlated (r=.97) and their measurement precisions were not statistically different (P=.49) as expected. CAT required fewer items than NAT (an efficiency gain of 32%), suggesting a reduced burden for respondents. There were significant differences in work tenure between the 2 groups (bullied and nonbullied) at a cutoff point of 6 years at 1 worksite. An AUROC of 0.75 (95% CI 0.68-0.79) with logits greater than –4.2 (or >30 in summation) was defined as being highly likely bullied in a workplace. Conclusions With CAT-based administration of the NAQ-R for nurses, their burden was substantially reduced without compromising measurement precision. PMID:24534113

  20. Further development of forensic eye color predictive tests.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Y; Phillips, C; Gomez-Tato, A; Alvarez-Dios, J; Casares de Cal, M; Cruz, R; Maroñas, O; Söchtig, J; Fondevila, M; Rodriguez-Cid, M J; Carracedo, A; Lareu, M V

    2013-01-01

    In forensic analysis predictive tests for external visible characteristics (or EVCs), including inference of iris color, represent a potentially useful tool to guide criminal investigations. Two recent studies, both focused on forensic testing, have analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes underlying common eye color variation (Mengel-From et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 4:323 and Walsh et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 5:170). Each study arrived at different recommendations for eye color predictive tests aiming to type the most closely associated SNPs, although both confirmed rs12913832 in HERC2 as the key predictor, widely recognized as the most strongly associated marker with blue and brown iris colors. Differences between these two studies in identification of other eye color predictors may partly arise from varying approaches to assigning phenotypes, notably those not unequivocally blue or dark brown and therefore occupying an intermediate iris color continuum. We have developed two single base extension assays typing 37 SNPs in pigmentation-associated genes to study SNP-genotype based prediction of eye, skin, and hair color variation. These assays were used to test the performance of different sets of eye color predictors in 416 subjects from six populations of north and south Europe. The presence of a complex and continuous range of intermediate phenotypes distinct from blue and brown eye colors was confirmed by establishing eye color populations compared to genetic clusters defined using Structure software. Our study explored the effect of an expanded SNP combination beyond six markers has on the ability to predict eye color in a forensic test without extending the SNP assay excessively - thus maintaining a balance between the test's predictive value and an ability to reliably type challenging DNA with a multiplex of manageable size. Our evaluation used AUC analysis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves) and naïve Bayesian likelihood-based classification approaches. To provide flexibility in SNP-based eye color predictive tests in forensic applications we modified an online Bayesian classifier, originally developed for genetic ancestry analysis, to provide a straightforward system to assign eye color likelihoods from a SNP profile combining additional informative markers from the predictors analyzed by our study plus those of Walsh and Mengel-From. Two advantages of the online classifier is the ability to submit incomplete SNP profiles, a common occurrence when typing challenging DNA, and the ability to handle physically linked SNPs showing independent effect, by allowing the user to input frequencies from SNP pairs or larger combinations. This system was used to include the submission of frequency data for the SNP pair rs12913832 and rs1129038: indicated by our study to be the two SNPs most closely associated to eye color. PMID:22709892

  1. Computerized Waters 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    stream_source_info Computerized Waters.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7109 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Computerized Waters.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 tx H2O | pg.... 9 Computerized Waters Story by Kathy Wythe Computerized Waters Model changes management of Texas surface waters In an office on the second floor of a Texas A&MUniversity building, on a desktop computeroperating with the popular Microsoft Windows...

  2. Documentation of CTRS--Computerized Test-Result Reporting System. The Illinois Series on Educational Application of Computers, No. 22e.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muiznieks, Viktors J.; Cox, John

    The Computerized Test-Result Reporting System (CTRS), which consists of three programs written in the BASIC language, was developed to analyze obective tests, test items, test results, and to provide the teacher-user with interpreted data about the performance of tests, Lest items, and students. This paper documents the three programs from the…

  3. How Is a Computerized Attention Test Used in the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michael

    1986-01-01

    The computerization of attention tasks has allowed clinicians to incorporate objective data into evaluations of attention deficit disorder or hyperactivity. The Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS) is described and case histories are presented which illustrate the contribution of GDS data to evaluation and treatment monitoring. (DB)

  4. The Lagerlunda collision and the introduction of color vision testing.

    PubMed

    Mollon, J D; Cavonius, L R

    2012-01-01

    In histories of vision testing, the origins of occupational screening for color blindness are often traced to a fatal railroad accident that occurred in Sweden on the night of 14-15 November 1875. The scene of the accident was the estate of Baron Lagerfelt in Östergötland, but the critical events were played out at Linköping (the normal passing place for the northbound and southbound expresses) and at Bankeberg (a small station to which the passing place was reassigned at a few minutes' notice). First to arrive at Bankeberg, the northbound express slowed almost to a halt, but then inexplicably accelerated forwards towards the Lagerlunda estate, despite a sequence of signals from the stationmaster, Uno Björkelund, and a lineman, Oskar Johansson. Soon after the accident, the ophthalmologist Frithiof Holmgren suggested that the engineer of the northbound express, Andersson, or his oiler, Larsson, had been color blind. Neither survived to be tested. Using the records of the subsequent trial and other archival materials, we have re-examined the role of color blindness in the Lagerlunda incident and conclude that the accident cannot be attributed to color blindness alone. Yet the accident undoubtedly had a central role in the introduction of color vision testing by European and North American railroads. To persuade the railroad management to introduce universal screening of employees for color blindness, Holmgren used a dramatic coup de theatre and some unashamed subterfuge. PMID:22301271

  5. A Comparison of Item Selection Procedures Using Different Ability Estimation Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Tsung-Han

    2010-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) provides a highly efficient alternative to the paper-and-pencil test. By selecting items that match examinees' ability levels, CAT not only can shorten test length and administration time but it can also increase measurement precision and reduce measurement error. In CAT, maximum information (MI) is the most…

  6. HIV Testing Patterns among Urban YMSM of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Noelle R.; Rajan, Sonali; Gwadz, Marya V.; Aregbesola, Temi

    2014-01-01

    The heightened level of risk for HIV infection among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is driven by multilevel influences. Using cross-sectional data, we examined HIV testing patterns among urban YMSM of color in a high-HIV seroprevalence area (ages 16 to 21 years). Self-reported frequency of testing was high, with 42% of…

  7. Test and evaluation of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    In accordance with the definition of a Material Balance Area (MBA) as a well-defined geographical area involving an Integral operation, the building housing the BFS-1 and BFS-1 critical facilities is considered to consist of one MBA. The BFS materials are in the form of small disks clad in stainless steel and each disk with nuclear material has its own serial number. Fissile material disks in the BFS MBA can be located at three key monitoring points: BFS-1 facility, BFS-2 facility and main storage of BFS fissile materials (storage 1). When used in the BFS-1 or BFS-2 critical facilities, the fissile material disks are loaded in tubes (fuel rods) forming critical assembly cores. The following specific features of the BFS MBA should be taken into account for the purpose of computerized accounting of nuclear material: (1) very large number of nuclear material items (about 70,000 fissile material items); and (2) periodically very intensive shuffling of nuclear material items. Requirements for the computerized system are determined by basic objectives of nuclear material accounting: (1) providing accurate information on the identity and location of all items in the BFS material balance area; (2) providing accurate information on location and identity of tamper-indicating devices; (3) tracking nuclear material inventories; (4) issuing periodic reports; (5) assisting with the detection of material gains or losses; (6) providing a history of nuclear material transactions; (7) preventing unauthorized access to the system and data falsification. In August 1995, the prototype computerized accounting system was installed on the BFS facility for trial operation. Information on two nuclear material types was entered into the data base: weapon-grade plutonium metal and 36% enriched uranium dioxide. The total number of the weapon-grade plutonium disks is 12,690 and the total number of the uranium dioxide disks is 1,700.

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Computerized Revised Token Test: Comparison of Reading and Listening Versions in Persons with and without Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Malcolm R.; Pratt, Sheila R.; Szuminsky, Neil; Sung, Jee Eun; Fossett, Tepanta R. D.; Fassbinder, Wiltrud; Lim, Kyoung Yuel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the reliability and validity of intermodality associations and differences in persons with aphasia (PWA) and healthy controls (HC) on a computerized listening and 3 reading versions of the Revised Token Test (RTT; McNeil & Prescott, 1978). Method: Thirty PWA and 30 HC completed the test versions, including a…

  9. Sharks Are Color-Blind, Retina Study Suggests Ten species tested had no color-sensing cells, while seven had

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    have sparked a debate about whether sharks can see colors. In a new study, scientists looked and bull sharks. Retinas use two main types of light-sensitive cells to allow animals to see: Rod cellsSharks Are Color-Blind, Retina Study Suggests Ten species tested had no color-sensing cells, while

  10. An Evaluation of Computerized Tests as Predictors of Job Performance: II. Differential Validity for Global and Job Element Criteria. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cory, Charles H.

    This report presents data concerning the validity of a set of experimental computerized and paper-and-pencil tests for measures of on-job performance on global and job elements. It reports on the usefulness of 30 experimental and operational variables for predicting marks on 42 job elements and on a global criterion for Electrician's Mate,…

  11. Development of a Computerized Adaptive Testing for Diagnosing the Cognitive Process of Grade 7 Students in Learning Algebra, Using Multidimensional Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senarat, Somprasong; Tayraukham, Sombat; Piyapimonsit, Chatsiri; Tongkhambanjong, Sakesan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multidimensional computerized adaptive test for diagnosing the cognitive process of grade 7 students in learning algebra by applying multidimensional item response theory. The research is divided into 4 steps: 1) the development of item bank of algebra, 2) the development of the multidimensional…

  12. The stochastically curtailed generalized likelihood ratio: A new termination criterion for variable-length computerized classification tests.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Alan R; Fina, Anthony D

    2015-06-01

    Computerized classification tests (CCTs) are used to classify examinees into categories in the context of professional certification testing. The term "variable-length" refers to CCTs that terminate (i.e., cease administering items to the examinee) when a classification can be made with a prespecified level of certainty. The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) is a common criterion for terminating variable-length CCTs, but recent research has proposed more efficient methods. Specifically, the stochastically curtailed SPRT (SCSPRT) and the generalized likelihood ratio criterion (GLR) have been shown to classify examinees with accuracy similar to the SPRT while using fewer items. This article shows that the GLR criterion itself may be stochastically curtailed, resulting in a new termination criterion, the stochastically curtailed GLR (SCGLR). All four criteria-the SPRT, SCSPRT, GLR, and the new SCGLR-were compared using a simulation study. In this study, we examined the criteria in testing conditions that varied several CCT design features, including item bank characteristics, pass/fail threshold, and examinee ability distribution. In each condition, the termination criteria were evaluated according to their accuracy (proportion of examinees classified correctly), efficiency (test length), and loss (a single statistic combing both accuracy and efficiency). The simulation results showed that the SCGLR can yield increased efficiency without sacrificing accuracy, relative to the SPRT, SCSPRT, and GLR in a wide variety of CCT designs. PMID:24907003

  13. HIV testing patterns among urban YMSM of color.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Noelle R; Rajan, Sonali; Gwadz, Marya V; Aregbesola, Temi

    2014-12-01

    The heightened level of risk for HIV infection among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is driven by multilevel influences. Using cross-sectional data, we examined HIV testing patterns among urban YMSM of color in a high-HIV seroprevalence area (ages 16 to 21 years). Self-reported frequency of testing was high, with 42% of youth reporting testing at a greater frequency than recommended guidelines. There were no differences between less frequent and more frequent testers on sexual risk behaviors. Most (80%) youth cited reassurance of HIV-negative status as a reason for testing. Further, over half of the sample reported numerous other reasons for HIV testing, which spanned individual, partner, social, and structural levels of influence. Approximately half of respondents indicated that peers, family members, and counselors influenced their motivation to get tested. Of concern, their first HIV test occurred approximately 2 years after their first sexual experience with another male. These results indicate the need to consider developmental issues as well as comprehensive, multilevel efforts to ensure that YMSM of color test at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended frequency but not less than this or too frequently. PMID:24973260

  14. HIV Testing Patterns Among Urban YMSM of Color

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Noelle R.; Ragan, Sonali; Gwadz, Marya V.; Aregbesola, Temi

    2015-01-01

    The heightened level of risk for HIV infection among African-American and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is driven by multi-level influences. Using cross-sectional data, we examined HIV testing patterns among urban YMSM of color in a high HIV sero-prevalence area (ages 16 to 21 years). Self-reported frequency of testing was high with 42% of youth reporting testing at a greater frequency than recommended guidelines. There were no differences between less frequent and high frequent testers on sexual risk behaviors. Most (80%) youth cited reassurance of HIV-negative status as a reason for testing. Further, over half of the sample reported numerous other reasons for HIV testing, which spanned individual, partner, social, and structural levels of influence. Approximately half of respondents indicated that peers, family members, and counselors influenced their motivation to get tested. Of concern, youths’ first HIV test occurred approximately two years after their first sexual experience with another male. These results indicate the need to consider developmental issues as well as for comprehensive, multi-level efforts to ensure that YMSM of color test at the CDC-recommended frequency, but not less than this or too frequently. PMID:24973260

  15. Contrast/color card procedure: a new test of young infants' color vision.

    PubMed

    Mercer, M E; Courage, M L; Adams, R J

    1991-07-01

    We have developed a new test which can rapidly evaluate basic color vision in individual infants. The test consists of a series of large cards constructed with Munsell Hues. It uses a modified preferential looking procedure (FPL) and, to control brightness cues, incorporates a two-phase systematic variation of luminance. First, we evaluate an infant's ability to discriminate 9.5 by 16 degrees achromatic patches of varying luminance from a 26 by 65 degrees achromatic background of midrange luminance. In the second phase the test patch is chromatic and its luminance, relative to the background, is varied over a range of about 1.0 log cd/m2. The number of relative luminances chosen for each infant depends upon his/her performance in phase 1. Seventy 2- and 3-month-olds were tested with 4 broad-band chromatic patches, a red (dominant lambda = 660 nm), a yellow (dominant lambda = 580 nm), a green (dominant lambda = 520 nm), and a blue (dominant lambda = 475 nm). Results showed that 3-month-olds had little difficulty making any of the chromatic-achromatic discriminations but many 2-month-olds appeared to fail to discriminate the yellow and green from the background at relative luminances close to an adult brightness match. Most importantly, the test shows promise as a relatively simple, time-efficient, and portable tool for the assessment of early color vision. PMID:1923323

  16. VibroColorTest: equipment for nondestructive testing of wood for musical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urgela, Stanislav

    2001-06-01

    Wood for musical instruments is a very valuable material. Subjective testing methods are widely established to evaluate quality of such a material. For this purpose, the evaluation of visual characteristics such as texture and color, and also physical and acoustical characteristics may be applied. To perform the measuring, data evaluation and material quality classification, the method VibroColorTest method is being developed. The equipment consists of two parts: VibroVizer and Colimet.

  17. Assessment of social cognition in non-human primates using a network of computerized automated learning device (ALDM) test systems.

    PubMed

    Fagot, Joël; Marzouki, Yousri; Huguet, Pascal; Gullstrand, Julie; Claidière, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Fagot & Paleressompoulle(1) and Fagot & Bonte(2) have published an automated learning device (ALDM) for the study of cognitive abilities of monkeys maintained in semi-free ranging conditions. Data accumulated during the last five years have consistently demonstrated the efficiency of this protocol to investigate individual/physical cognition in monkeys, and have further shown that this procedure reduces stress level during animal testing(3). This paper demonstrates that networks of ALDM can also be used to investigate different facets of social cognition and in-group expressed behaviors in monkeys, and describes three illustrative protocols developed for that purpose. The first study demonstrates how ethological assessments of social behavior and computerized assessments of cognitive performance could be integrated to investigate the effects of socially exhibited moods on the cognitive performance of individuals. The second study shows that batteries of ALDM running in parallel can provide unique information on the influence of the presence of others on task performance. Finally, the last study shows that networks of ALDM test units can also be used to study issues related to social transmission and cultural evolution. Combined together, these three studies demonstrate clearly that ALDM testing is a highly promising experimental tool for bridging the gap in the animal literature between research on individual cognition and research on social cognition. PMID:25992495

  18. Assessment of Social Cognition in Non-human Primates Using a Network of Computerized Automated Learning Device (ALDM) Test Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fagot, Joël; Marzouki, Yousri; Huguet, Pascal; Gullstrand, Julie; Claidière, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Fagot & Paleressompoulle1 and Fagot & Bonte2 have published an automated learning device (ALDM) for the study of cognitive abilities of monkeys maintained in semi-free ranging conditions. Data accumulated during the last five years have consistently demonstrated the efficiency of this protocol to investigate individual/physical cognition in monkeys, and have further shown that this procedure reduces stress level during animal testing3. This paper demonstrates that networks of ALDM can also be used to investigate different facets of social cognition and in-group expressed behaviors in monkeys, and describes three illustrative protocols developed for that purpose. The first study demonstrates how ethological assessments of social behavior and computerized assessments of cognitive performance could be integrated to investigate the effects of socially exhibited moods on the cognitive performance of individuals. The second study shows that batteries of ALDM running in parallel can provide unique information on the influence of the presence of others on task performance. Finally, the last study shows that networks of ALDM test units can also be used to study issues related to social transmission and cultural evolution. Combined together, these three studies demonstrate clearly that ALDM testing is a highly promising experimental tool for bridging the gap in the animal literature between research on individual cognition and research on social cognition. PMID:25992495

  19. Computerized reminders for five preventive screening tests: generation of patient-specific letters incorporating physician preferences.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, D. J.; Gross, R.; Buchanan, J.

    2000-01-01

    Compliance with preventive screening tests is inadequate in the United States. We describe a computer based system for generating reminder letters to patients who may have missed their indicated screening tests because they do not visit a provider regularly or missed their tests despite the fact that they do visit a provider. We started with national recommendations and generated a local consensus for test indications. We then used this set of indications and our electronic record to determine test deficiencies in our pilot pool of 3073 patients. The computer generated customized reminder letters targeting several tests. Physicians chose any patients who should not receive letters. The response rate for fecal occult blood (FOB) testing was 33% compared with an 18% historical compliance rate within the same community. FOB reminders generated improved test compliance. Test execution must be considered when commencing a program of screening test reminders. PMID:11079954

  20. The Construction and Uses of CATIA, a Computerized Mathematics Testbank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Charles R.; Marosz, Wanda A.

    1977-01-01

    Described is the construction of a computerized test bank to generate and score tests in college algebra, trigonometry, and intermediate algebra; including a discussion of uses, advantages and disadvantages of computerized testing. (JLH)

  1. Student Placement--A Comparison of Traditional and Computerized Branching Test Administrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sarah; Hartz, Mary

    1979-01-01

    Student placement in an initial mathematics course was investigated using either a programed test administered by a computer or a traditional test administered in a conventional manner. The former method was favored. (MP)

  2. Color-Object Interference: Further Tests of an Executive Control Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Heij, Wido; Boelens, Harrie

    2011-01-01

    Young children are slower in naming the color of a meaningful picture than in naming the color of an abstract form (Stroop-like color-object interference). The current experiments tested an executive control account of this phenomenon. First, color-object interference was observed in 6- and 8-year-olds but not in 12- and 16-year-olds (Experiment…

  3. Computerized Testing Software for Assessing Interference Suppression in Children and Adults: The Bivalent Shape Task (BST)

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Shane T.; Esposito, Alena G.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the Bivalent Shape Task (BST), software using the Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL), for testing of cognitive interference and the ability to suppress interference. The test is available via the GNU Public License, Version 3 (GPLv3), is freely modifiable, and has been tested on both children and adults and found to provide a simple and fast non-verbal measure of cognitive interference and suppression that requires no reading.

  4. Computerized Adaptive Testing with the Zinnes and Griggs Pairwise Preference Ideal Point Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Stephen; Chernyshenko, Oleksandr S.

    2011-01-01

    This article delves into a relatively unexplored area of measurement by focusing on adaptive testing with unidimensional pairwise preference items. The use of such tests is becoming more common in applied non-cognitive assessment because research suggests that this format may help to reduce certain types of rater error and response sets commonly…

  5. Integrating a Computerized Testing System and Electronic Lecture Notes in First-year Mathematics Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadway, Ray

    The integration of test-banks for computer-based testing, textbooks, and electronic lecture notes in first-year mathematics courses has changed the way mathematics is taught at Bennett College (Greensboro, North Carolina). Classes meet in two electronic classrooms each with 27 computers on a local area network and a projection system. An…

  6. Comparability of Conventional and Computerized Tests of Reading in a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Yasuyo

    2001-01-01

    Addresses issues surrounding the effect of mode of presentation on second language (L2) reading test performance, reviewing the literature in cognitive ability testing in educational and psychological measurement and the non-assessment literature in ergonomics, education, psychology, and first language reading research. Generalization of the…

  7. Fairness in Computerized Testing: Detecting Item Bias Using CATSIB with Impact Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Man-Wai; Lai, Hollis

    2013-01-01

    In educational assessment, there is an increasing demand for tailoring assessments to individual examinees through computer adaptive tests (CAT). As such, it is particularly important to investigate the fairness of these adaptive testing processes, which require the investigation of differential item function (DIF) to yield information about item…

  8. Reducing the Impact of Inappropriate Items on Reviewable Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Yung-Chin; Ho, Rong-Guey; Liao, Wen-Wei; Chen, Li-Ju

    2012-01-01

    In a test, the testing score would be closer to examinee's actual ability when careless mistakes were corrected. In CAT, however, changing the answer of one item in CAT might cause the following items no longer appropriate for estimating the examinee's ability. These inappropriate items in a reviewable CAT might in turn introduce bias in ability…

  9. Computerized In Vitro Test for Chemical Toxicity Based on Tetrahymena Swimming Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and a method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity have been evaluated as an alternative to the rabbit eye initancy test (Draize). The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The method, called the motility assay (MA), is tested for 30 s to determine the chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy.

  10. Effects of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Stimulant Medication on Concussion Symptom Reporting and Computerized Neurocognitive Test Performance.

    PubMed

    Littleton, Ashley C; Schmidt, Julianne D; Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Gioia, Gerard A; Waicus, Kelly M; Mihalik, Jason P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2015-11-01

    Effects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and stimulant medications on concussion measures are unclear. The objectives of this study were to (i) examine consistency of performance in an unmedicated ADHD group and a control group on concussion measures, (ii) assess performance differences between the two groups, and (iii) assess the effect of stimulant medication on performance in the ADHD group. College-aged participants (22 ADHD and 22 matched controls) were administered a symptom checklist and a computerized neurocognitive test (CNS Vital Signs, CNSVS) 3 times (1 week apart): Sessions 1 and 2 were unmedicated for all participants; Session 3 was medicated for the ADHD group. The reliability of the measures (intraclass correlation coefficients, ICC2,1) was consistent for both groups. When unmedicated, the ADHD group performed worse than controls on psychomotor speed [F(1,40) = 15.19, p < 0.001], and worse than when medicated on reaction time [F(1,39) = 6.34, p = 0.02]. The ADHD group performed better and comparable with controls when medicated. Clinicians should take medication status into account when interpreting scores. PMID:26310392

  11. Computerized in vitro test for chemical toxicity based on tetrahymena swimming patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity was evaluated. The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The device, called the Motility Assay Apparatus (MAA) is tested for 30 second determination of chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy, in addition to agreeing for all chemicals with previous manual evaluations of single cell motility.

  12. Using Mobile and Web-Based Computerized

    E-print Network

    De Bra, Paul

    tool to develop adaptable and adaptive computerized tests that can be executed on such different the results obtained when executing a test on personal computers versus mobile devices. The experiments haveScience (www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae.20242 Keywords: computerized test; assessment; adaptive

  13. Item Selection in Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing--Gaining Information from Different Angles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, obtaining diagnostic information from examinees' item responses has become an increasingly important feature of educational and psychological testing. The objective can be achieved by sequentially selecting multidimensional items to fit the class of latent traits being assessed, and therefore Multidimensional…

  14. Examining the Relationship between Purposeful Heading in Soccer and Computerized Neuropsychological Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Thomas W.; Cousino, Eric S.; Glutting, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between purposeful heading in soccer and neuropsychological test performance. Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics throughput scores were derived on seven subset variables that measure a variety of neurocognitive abilities. Simple Spearman's rank correlations were…

  15. Empirical vs. Expected IRT-Based Reliability Estimation in Computerized Multistage Testing (MST)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yanwei; Breithaupt, Krista; Tessema, Aster; Chuah, David

    2006-01-01

    Two IRT-based procedures to estimate test reliability for a certification exam that used both adaptive (via a MST model) and non-adaptive design were considered in this study. Both procedures rely on calibrated item parameters to estimate error variance. In terms of score variance, one procedure (Method 1) uses the empirical ability distribution…

  16. Multimedia Computer Technology and Performance-Based Language Testing: A Demonstration of the Computerized Oral

    E-print Network

    of listening skills for decades. Computers allowed for the development of computer-adaptive and computer abilities through producing a text. While some have argued that multiple-choice tests of listening comprehension can provide a proxy measure of speaking ability, speaking skills have traditionally been assessed

  17. A CEFR-Based Computerized Adaptive Testing System for Chinese Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hsuan-Po; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Tsai, Ya-Hsun; Liao, Chen-Huei

    2012-01-01

    In the era of globalization, the trend towards learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) has become increasingly popular worldwide. The increasing demand in learning CFL has raised the profile of the Chinese proficiency test (CPT). This study will analyze in depth the inadequacy of current CPT's utilizing the common European framework of…

  18. Development of an Abbreviated Form of the Penn Line Orientation Test Using Large Samples and Computerized Adaptive Test Simulation

    E-print Network

    2015-01-01

    Battery, item response theory, comput- erized adaptive testing,testing; L ? Long; M ? Medium; S ? selected; Rem. ? removed from final PLOT15 battery.testing; L ? Long; M ? Medium; S ? selected; Rem. ? removed from final PLOT15 battery.

  19. Automated testing of cognitive performance in monkeys: use of a battery of computerized test systems by a troop of semi-free-ranging baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Fagot, Joël; Bonté, Elodie

    2010-05-01

    Fagot and Paleressompoulle (2009) published an automated learning device for monkeys (ALDM) to test the cognitive functions of nonhuman primates within their social groups, but the efficiency of the ALDM procedure with large groups remains unknown. In the present study, 10 ALDM systems were provided ad lib to a troop of 26 semi-free-ranging baboons that were initially naive with computerized testing. The test program taught baboons to solve two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) and matching-to-sample (MTS) tasks. A million trials were recorded for the group during a period of 85 days (Experiment 1). Their analysis shows that 75% of the baboons participated at high frequencies and quickly learned the 2AFC and MTS tasks. In Experiment 2, we compared the baboons' behavior when the ADLM systems were either accessible or closed. ALDM reduced frequencies of object-directed behaviors, but had no overt consequence on social conflicts. In Experiment 3, we tested the process of the global or local attributes of visual stimuli in MTS-trained baboons in order to illustrate the efficiency of ALDM for behavioral studies requiring complex experimental designs. Altogether, the results of the present study validate the use of ALDM to efficiently test monkeys in large social groups. ALDM has a strong potential for a variety of scientific disciplines, including for biomedical research. Supplemental materials for this article may be downloaded from http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental. PMID:20479182

  20. Clinical features and survivial of cirrhotic patients with subclinical cognitive alterations detected by the number connection test and computerized psychometric tests.

    PubMed

    Amodio, P; Del Piccolo, F; Marchetti, P; Angeli, P; Iemmolo, R; Caregaro, L; Merkel, C; Gerunda, G; Gatta, A

    1999-06-01

    The prevalence and the clinical implications of subclinical cognitive alterations in cirrhotic patients have not been well defined as yet. Therefore, we performed a study to assess the clinical features and the survival of cirrhotic patients with cognitive alterations detected by the number connection test (NCT) and a set of computerized psychometric tests (Scan, Choice1, and Choice2) measuring the reaction times and the percentage of errors in performing specific tasks. Ninety-four cirrhotic patients (aged 58 +/- 9 years) without overt hepatic encephalopathy and 80 controls (aged 53 +/- 15 years) were consecutively enrolled. The median follow-up in cirrhotic patients was 426 days (lower quartile = 213 days; upper quartile = 718 days). Results of the NCT, Scan test, and Choice2 test were significantly worse in cirrhotic patients, whereas Choice1 did not differ significantly from the controls. In cirrhotic patients, the prevalence of altered psychometric tests was 21% (CI95% = 14%-31%) by NCT, 23% (CI95% =15%-33%) by Scan test, and 20% (CI95% =16%-30%) by Choice2 test. The alterations of NCT, Scan, and Choice2 were found to be related to the severity of liver disease, independently of its etiology. Increased risk of death was found to be associated with altered Scan test (hazard ratio = 2.4; CI95% =1. 1-5.3), or altered Choice2 test (hazard ratio = 2.8; CI95% = 1.2-6. 3). Multivariate regression showed that Scan and Choice2 tests had prognostic value on survival, in addition to Child-Pugh classes in the first year of follow-up. PMID:10347105

  1. Orbital docking system centerline color television camera system test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mongan, Philip T.

    1993-01-01

    A series of tests was run to verify that the design of the centerline color television camera (CTVC) system is adequate optically for the STS-71 Space Shuttle Orbiter docking mission with the Mir space station. In each test, a mockup of the Mir consisting of hatch, docking mechanism, and docking target was positioned above the Johnson Space Center's full fuselage trainer, which simulated the Orbiter with a mockup of the external airlock and docking adapter. Test subjects viewed the docking target through the CTVC under 30 different lighting conditions and evaluated target resolution, field of view, light levels, light placement, and methods of target alignment. Test results indicate that the proposed design will provide adequate visibility through the centerline camera for a successful docking, even with a reasonable number of light failures. It is recommended that the flight deck crew have individual switching capability for docking lights to provide maximum shadow management and that centerline lights be retained to deal with light failures and user preferences. Procedures for light management should be developed and target alignment aids should be selected during simulated docking runs.

  2. Construct validity of the Weigl Color-Form Sorting Test.

    PubMed

    Tamkin, A S; Kunce, J T

    1982-08-01

    This research, conducted on 38 male psychiatric inpatients, replicated previous findings that inability to "shift" conceptual attitude on the Weigl Color-Form Sorting Test is consistent with indices often associated with cortical dysfunction, such as Bender-Gestalt recall, WAIS Similarities subtest scores, and age. Regression analysis yielded a multiple R of .52, with ability to shift predictable from the difference between WAIS Verbal IQ and subjects' age. The relationship between the Weigl and the Hooper approached significance, but that between the Weigl and Trail Making did not. The Weigl might serve as a non-verbal instrument to assess cortical dysfunction where inability to "shift" appears to tap a dysfunction in symbolic reasoning rather than spatial reasoning. PMID:7133894

  3. Computerized tomography calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Herbert P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A set of interchangeable pieces comprising a computerized tomography calibrator, and a method of use thereof, permits focusing of a computerized tomographic (CT) system. The interchangeable pieces include a plurality of nestable, generally planar mother rings, adapted for the receipt of planar inserts of predetermined sizes, and of predetermined material densities. The inserts further define openings therein for receipt of plural sub-inserts. All pieces are of known sizes and densities, permitting the assembling of different configurations of materials of known sizes and combinations of densities, for calibration (i.e., focusing) of a computerized tomographic system through variation of operating variables thereof. Rather than serving as a phanton, which is intended to be representative of a particular workpiece to be tested, the set of interchangeable pieces permits simple and easy standardized calibration of a CT system. The calibrator and its related method of use further includes use of air or of particular fluids for filling various openings, as part of a selected configuration of the set of pieces.

  4. IRAS colors of carbon stars - An optical spectroscopic test

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.; Wainscoat, R.J.; Walker, H.J.; Volk, K.; Schwartz, D.E.; Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Los Altos, CA )

    1989-06-01

    Optical spectra are obtained of 57 photographic counterparts to IRAS sources not previously studied spectroscopically, and expected on the basis of their IRAS colors to be M or C type stars. Confirmed carbon stars are found only in a restricted range of 12-25 index, and constitute a striking vertical sequence in the 12-25-60 micron color-color diagram. This sequence is in accord with evolutionary models for AGB stars that convert M into C stars by dredge-up, and follow loops in the color-color plane. Optically visible and optically invisible carbon stars occupy different color-color locations consistent with their representations of different evolutionary states in the life of relatively low-mass stars. 16 refs.

  5. Psychometric Evaluation of the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test, the Modified Harris Hip Score, and the Hip Outcome Score

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Man; Hon, Shirley D.; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D.; Aoki, Stephen K.; Anderson, Mike B.; Kapron, Ashley L.; Peters, Christopher L.; Pelt, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The applicability and validity of many patient-reported outcome measures in the high-functioning population are not well understood. Purpose: To compare the psychometric properties of the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score activities of daily living subscale (HOS-ADL) and sports (HOS-sports), and the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test (LE CAT). The hypotheses was that all instruments would perform well but that the LE CAT would show superiority psychometrically because a combination of CAT and a large item bank allows for a high degree of measurement precision. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Data were collected from 472 advanced-age, active participants from the Huntsman World Senior Games in 2012. Validity evidences were examined through item fit, dimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, differential item functioning, person raw score to measure correlation, and instrument coverage (ie, ceiling and floor effects), and reliability evidences were examined through Cronbach alpha and person separation index. Results: All instruments demonstrated good item fit, unidimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, and person raw score to measure correlations. The HOS-ADL had high ceiling effects of 36.02%, and the mHHS had ceiling effects of 27.54%. The LE CAT had ceiling effects of 8.47%, and the HOS-sports had no ceiling effects. None of the instruments had any floor effects. The mHHS had a very low Cronbach alpha of 0.41 and an extremely low person separation index of 0.08. Reliabilities for the LE CAT were excellent and for the HOS-ADL and HOS-sports were good. Conclusion: The LE CAT showed better psychometric properties overall than the HOS-ADL, HOS-sports, and mHHS for the senior population. The mHHS demonstrated pronounced ceiling effects and poor reliabilities that should be of concern. The high ceiling effects for the HOS-ADL were also of concern. The LE CAT was superior in all psychometric aspects examined in this study. Future research should investigate the LE CAT for wider use in different populations. PMID:26535291

  6. Willingness to use computerized systems for the diagnosis of dementia: testing a theoretical model in an Israeli sample.

    PubMed

    Werner, Perla; Korczyn, Amos D

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine factors associated with the expressed willingness to use computerized systems (CSs) for dementia diagnosis. The conceptual model proposed that expressed willingness to use a CS would be directly associated with attitudes toward computerized programs, patient-physician relationship, and satisfaction with current health care. In addition, it was hypothesized that technology anxiety and past behavior with CS for dementia diagnosis would affect the expressed willingness to use a CS. Interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 420 Israeli adults (mean age, 64 y). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypothesized relationships. Expressed willingness to use a CS for dementia diagnosis was moderate, although significantly higher when performed by a professional than when performed alone. Overall, the expressed willingness to use a CS for dementia diagnosis was affected by attitudes toward computerized programs, toward patient-physician relationship, and by the level of technology anxiety. Participants with lower socioeconomic status and female participants reported lower levels of intention to use a CS for dementia diagnosis. Findings of the study encourage the development of educational interventions aimed at promoting the use of CS for dementia diagnosis. These programs should target potential users' attitudes, feelings of uneasiness, and anxiety regarding technology. PMID:21666431

  7. Utility testing of an apple skin color MdMYB1 marker in two progenies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A reported allele-specific dCAP PCR marker associated with apple fruit red skin color was tested in 18 elite breeding parents and two apple cross populations. Among all tested cultivars except one, a consistent relationship was observed between red fruit color and the presence of allele. In both pop...

  8. Comparative diagnostic value of a new computerized vectorcardiographic method (cardiogoniometry) and other noninvasive tests in medically treated patients with chest pain

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, A.; Hoeflin, F.H.; Herrmann, H.J.; Wolf, C.; Gurtner, H.P.; Roesler, H.

    1987-05-01

    The diagnostic value of cardiogoniometry (CGM), a new computerized vectorcardiographic method, for the identification of coronary artery disease was compared with other noninvasive tests in 48 medically treated patients with chest pain. Coronary angiography revealed one-vessel disease in 18, two- or three-vessel disease in 21, and normal coronary arteries in 9 patients. Cardiogoniometry was less sensitive (63%) than thallium-/sup 201/ (201T1) scanning (82%), but slightly more sensitive than the exercise ECG (50%) or a recently proposed parameter of exercise performance (50%). On the other hand, specificity was comparable among these tests (exercise ECG 78%, thallium-201 scanning 72%, CGM 67%, new parameter of exercise performance 66%). Moreover, the false negative rate of noninvasive testing was reduced from 8 to 3% when CGM was added to thallium-201 scanning and exercise ECG. Our findings indicate that in view of the easier feasibility with computerized technology, the future role of vectorcardiographic methods such as CGM in the noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease should be redefined.

  9. A new computer-based Farnsworth Munsell 100-hue test for evaluation of color vision.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Supriyo; Parmar, Twinkle; Dada, Tanuj; Vanathi, Murugesan; Sharma, Sourabh

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate a computer-based Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) 100-hue test and compare it with a manual FM 100-hue test in normal and congenital color-deficient individuals. Fifty color defective subjects and 200 normal subjects with a best-corrected visual acuity ? 6/12 were compared using a standard manual FM 100-hue test and a computer-based FM 100-hue test under standard operating conditions as recommended by the manufacturer after initial trial testing. Parameters evaluated were total error scores (TES), type of defect and testing time. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between the test scores. Cohen's kappa was used to assess agreement of color defect classification between the two tests. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the optimal cut-off score for the computer-based FM 100-hue test. The mean time was 16 ± 1.5 (range 6-20) min for the manual FM 100-hue test and 7.4 ± 1.4 (range 5-13) min for the computer-based FM 100-hue test, thus reducing testing time to <50 % (p < 0.05). For grading color discrimination, Pearson's correlation coefficient for TES between the two tests was 0.91 (p < 0.001). For color defect classification, Cohen's agreement coefficient was 0.98 (p < 0.01). The computer-based FM 100-hue is an effective and rapid method for detecting, classifying and grading color vision anomalies. PMID:24097078

  10. 8. X15 ENGINE TESTING. A color print showing the engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. X-15 ENGINE TESTING. A color print showing the engine during test firing. View from the rear of the test stand looking northwest. - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rocket Engine & Complete X-15 Vehicle Test Stands, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. Color vision in horses (Equus caballus): deficiencies identified using a pseudoisochromatic plate test.

    PubMed

    Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F; Waggoner, Terrace L

    2007-02-01

    In the past, equine color vision was tested with stimuli composed either of painted cards or photographic slides or through physiological testing using electroretinogram flicker photometry. Some studies produced similar results, but others did not, demonstrating that there was not yet a definitive answer regarding color vision in horses (Equus caballus). In this study, a pseudoisochromatic plate test--which is highly effective in testing color vision both in small children and in adult humans--was used for the first time on a nonhuman animal. Stimuli consisted of different colored dotted circles set against backgrounds of varying dots. The coloration of the circles corresponded to the visual capabilities of different types of color deficiencies (anomalous trichromacy and dichromacy). Four horses were tested on a 2-choice discrimination task. All horses successfully reached criterion for gray circles and demonstration circles. None of the horses were able to discriminate the protan-deutan plate or the individual protan or deutan plates. However, all were able to discriminate the tritan plate. The results suggest that horses are dichromats with color vision capabilities similar to those of humans with red-green color deficiencies. PMID:17324076

  12. Effectiveness of a Classroom Mindfulness Coloring Activity for Test Anxiety in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carsley, Dana; Heath, Nancy L.; Fajnerova, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based structured versus unstructured coloring on test anxiety, 52 participants (53.8% female; M[subscript age] = 10.92 years, SD = 0.82) were randomly assigned to either a structured mandala (n = 26) or free coloring condition (n = 26), and completed a standardized anxiety measure to assess anxiety…

  13. Vision Research 41 (2001) 25812600 Illuminant cues in surface color perception: tests of three

    E-print Network

    Maloney, Laurence T.

    2001-01-01

    Vision Research 41 (2001) 2581­2600 Illuminant cues in surface color perception: tests of three candidate cues Joong Nam Yang a, *, Laurence T. Maloney a,b a Department of Psychology, New York Uni6ersity 2000; received in revised form 18 May 2001 Abstract Many recent computational models of surface color

  14. Effects of Noninformational Color on the Reading Test Performance of Students with and without Attentional Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Sydney S.; Grskovic, Janice A.; Javorsky, James; Hall, Arlene M.

    2000-01-01

    A study involving 25 students (grades 3-5) with and without attentional deficits assessed generality to a standardized reading test when noninformational color was added to one of two alternate forms. Students with attentional deficits read as accurately as their classmates with color added and read worse in the black-white condition. (Contains…

  15. Computerized training management system

    DOEpatents

    Rice, H.B.; McNair, R.C.; White, K.; Maugeri, T.

    1998-08-04

    A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) is disclosed for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base{trademark}, an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches. 18 figs.

  16. Computerized training management system

    DOEpatents

    Rice, Harold B. (Franklin Furnace, OH); McNair, Robert C. (East Setauket, NY); White, Kenneth (Shirley, NY); Maugeri, Terry (Wading River, NY)

    1998-08-04

    A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base.RTM., an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches.

  17. Assessment of the Hemispheric Lateralization of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia with Stroop-Type Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Mathieu J.; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia, the idiosyncratic, arbitrary association of colors to letters or numbers, develops in childhood once reading is mastered. Because language processing is strongly left-lateralized in most individuals, we hypothesized that grapheme-color synesthesia could be left-lateralized as well. We used synesthetic versions of the Stroop test with colored letters and numbers presented either in the right or the left visual field of thirty-four synesthetes. Interference by synesthetic colors was stronger for stimuli in the right hemifield (first experiment, color naming task). Synesthetes were also faster in the right hemifield when naming the synesthetic color of graphemes (second experiment). Overall, the lateralization effect was 7 ms (the 95% confidence interval was [1.5 12] ms), a delay compatible with an additional callosal transfer for stimuli presented in the left hemifield. Though weak, this effect suggests that the association of synesthetic colors to graphemes may be preferentially processed in the left hemisphere. We speculate that this left-lateralization could be a landmark of synesthetic grapheme-color associations, if not found for color associations learnt by non-synesthete adults. PMID:25793307

  18. Assessment of the hemispheric lateralization of grapheme-color synesthesia with Stroop-type tests.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Mathieu J; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia, the idiosyncratic, arbitrary association of colors to letters or numbers, develops in childhood once reading is mastered. Because language processing is strongly left-lateralized in most individuals, we hypothesized that grapheme-color synesthesia could be left-lateralized as well. We used synesthetic versions of the Stroop test with colored letters and numbers presented either in the right or the left visual field of thirty-four synesthetes. Interference by synesthetic colors was stronger for stimuli in the right hemifield (first experiment, color naming task). Synesthetes were also faster in the right hemifield when naming the synesthetic color of graphemes (second experiment). Overall, the lateralization effect was 7 ms (the 95% confidence interval was [1.5 12] ms), a delay compatible with an additional callosal transfer for stimuli presented in the left hemifield. Though weak, this effect suggests that the association of synesthetic colors to graphemes may be preferentially processed in the left hemisphere. We speculate that this left-lateralization could be a landmark of synesthetic grapheme-color associations, if not found for color associations learnt by non-synesthete adults. PMID:25793307

  19. Testing perceptual models of dichromacy and anomalous trichromacy with a computer-based color-vision test.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Sérgio; Linhares, João; João, Catarina; Santos, Jorge; de Almeida, Vasco

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate existing perceptual models of inherited red-green color deficiencies by assessing the extent to which they predict color discrimination. For dichromacy, the model was the one proposed by Brettel at al. (1997 J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 2647). For anomalous trichromacy, the assumption tested was that equal stimulations of photoreceptors produce the same color perception for normal and anomalous observers. The color test was developed in-house and was inspired by the Universal Colour Discrimination Test (Ripamonti et al., 2013 J Vis 13(9): 1023). The stimuli were displayed on a calibrated CRT monitor (GDM-F520, Sony Corp.) controlled by a video board (ViSaGe Visual Stimulus Generator; Cambridge Research Systems). The stimulus was a square target of variable color on a white background. Both target and background were made of small circles of random diameter and subtended 17 deg and 5 deg, respectively. The luminance of the circles was assigned randomly from the interval 6-16 cd/m2. In the standard condition, the color of the target varied along 20 equally-spaced directions in color space around the color of the background. Ten protanopes, five deuteranopes, five deuteranomalous and two protanomalous observers were tested in this condition. In the simulation condition, background and target had the corresponding colors of the standard condition predicted by the models. Twelve normal observers were tested in this condition. In both conditions discriminations thresholds in each direction were estimated using a straircase procedure. The quality of model was evaluated by comparing the results obtained in the two conditions. For dichromacy, the thresholds for the two conditions were similar, indicating that the model describes well dichromats' perception. For anomalous trichromacy, however, the thresholds in the two conditions were clearly different, suggesting that some additional normalization of the visual system may need to be considered. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26327001

  20. The stability of color discrimination threshold determined using pseudoisochromatic test plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zutere, B.; Jurasevska Luse, K.; Livzane, A.

    2014-09-01

    Congenital red-green color vision deficiency is one of the most common genetic disorders. A previously printed set of pseudoisochromatic plates (KAMS test, 2012) was created for individual discrimination threshold determination in case of mild congenital red-green color vision deficiency using neutral colors (colors confused with gray). The diagnostics of color blind subjects was performed with Richmond HRR (4th edition, 2002) test, Oculus HMC anomaloscope, and further the examination was made using the KAMS test. 4 male subjects aged 20 to 24 years old participated in the study: all of them were diagnosed with deuteranomalia. Due to the design of the plates, the threshold of every subject in each trial was defined as the plate total color difference value ?E at which the stimulus was detected 75% of the time, so the just-noticeable difference (jnd) was calculated in CIE LAB DeltaE (?E) units. Authors performed repeated discrimination threshold measurements (5 times) for all four subjects under controlled illumination conditions. Psychophysical data were taken by sampling an observer's performance on a psychophysical task at a number of different stimulus saturation levels. Results show that a total color difference value ?E threshold exists for each individual tested with the KAMS pseudoisochromatic plates, this threshold value does not change significantly in multiple measurements. Deuteranomal threshold values aquired using greenish plates of KAMS test are significantly higher than thresholds acquired using reddish plates. A strong positive correlation (R=0.94) exists between anomaloscope matching range (MR) and deuteranomal thresholds aquired by the KAMS test and (R=0.81) between error score in the Richmond HRR test and thresholds aquired by the KAMS test.

  1. Innovations in Computerized Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drasgow, Fritz, Ed.; Olson-Buchanan, Julie B., Ed.

    Chapters in this book present the challenges and dilemmas faced by researchers as they created new computerized assessments, focusing on issues addressed in developing, scoring, and administering the assessments. Chapters are: (1) "Beyond Bells and Whistles; An Introduction to Computerized Assessment" (Julie B. Olson-Buchanan and Fritz Drasgow);…

  2. [The color test: psychodiagnostic opportunities for the patients presenting with chronic somatic diseases].

    PubMed

    A?vazian, T A; Za?tsev, V P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the diagnostic potential of the Luscher color test. A total of 1083 patients presenting with chronic somatic diseases were available for the psychodiagnostic examination. It was shown that the color test makes it possible to evaluate clinically significant psychological characteristics as well as dynamics of anxiety and stress-resistance in this group of patients. Specifically, in the cases of chronic somatic diseases, the test can be used as one of the psychodiagnostic methods especially for mass screening and in the situations when the application of the standard questionnaires encounters difficulties (for example, in the patients with disturbed cognitive functions). PMID:25536750

  3. Carotenoid pixels characterization under color space tests and RGB formulas for mesocarp of mango's fruits cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammad, Ahmed Yahya; Kassim, Farid Saad Eid Saad

    2010-01-01

    This study experimented the pulp (mesocarp) of fourteen cultivars were healthy ripe of Mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.) selected after picking from Mango Spp. namely Taimour [Ta], Dabsha [Da], Aromanis [Ar], Zebda [Ze], Fagri Kelan [Fa], Alphonse [Al], Bulbek heart [Bu], Hindi- Sinnara [Hi], Compania [Co], Langra [La], Mestikawi [Me], Ewais [Ew], Montakhab El Kanater [Mo] and Mabroka [Ma] . Under seven color space tests included (RGB: Red, Green and Blue), (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (HSL: Hue, Saturation and Lightness), (CMYK%: Cyan%, Magenta%, Yellow% and Black%), (HSV: Hue, Saturation and Value), (HºSB%: Hueº, Saturation% and Brightness%) and (Lab). (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (HSL: Hue, Saturation and Lightness), (CMYK%: Cyan%, Magenta%, Yellow% and Black%), (HSV: Hue, Saturation and Value), (HºSB%: Hueº, Saturation% and Brightness%) and (Lab). Addition, nine formula of color space tests included (sRGB 0÷1, CMY, CMYK, XYZ, CIE-L*ab, CIE-L*CH, CIE-L*uv, Yxy and Hunter-Lab) and (RGB 0÷FF/hex triplet) and Carotenoid Pixels Scale. Utilizing digital color photographs as tool for obtainment the natural color information for each cultivar then the result expounded with chemical pigment estimations. Our location study in the visual yellow to orange color degrees from the visible color of electromagnetic spectrum in wavelength between (~570 to 620) nm and frequency between (~480 to 530) THz. The results found carotene very strong influence in band Red while chlorophyll (a & b) was very lower subsequently, the values in band Green was depressed. Meanwhile, the general ratios percentage for carotenoid pixels in bands Red, Green and Blue were 50%, 39% and 11% as orderliness opposite the ratios percentage for carotene, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b which were 63%, 22% and 16% approximately. According to that the pigments influence in all color space tests and RGB formulas. Band Yellow% in color test (CMYK%) as signature color for carotene. Bands K% and band C were equal zero in almost cells indicted to a mystical induction for chlorophyll (a & b). The results detection two bands regard as numeric chromatic filter. In RGB formulas the digits of carotenoid pixels under the effects of the various bands followed two characters including (Separation and Isotopic) effects these consider numeric chromatography. Digits of carotenoid pixels physically are disparate the trend and features under each band mostly. The RGB formulas present treatment for the symmetrically values in the columns data of the total pigments percentage and color space tests. Our objective physical study for pigments carotene to present standard evolution for pigment estimations. Addition to study the possibility to obtainment numeric chromatography for separation accuracy of the pigments.

  4. Detection efficiency for loophole-free Bell tests with entangled states affected by colored noise

    E-print Network

    Gustavo Cañas; Johanna F. Barra; Esteban S. Gómez; Gustavo Lima; Fabio Sciarrino; Adan Cabello

    2013-01-17

    Loophole-free Bell tests for quantum nonlocality and long-distance secure communication require photodetection efficiencies beyond a threshold eta_{crit} that depends on the Bell inequality and the noise affecting the entangled state received by the distant parties. Most calculations of eta_{crit} assume that the noise is random and can be modeled as white noise. However, most sources suffer from colored noise. Indeed, since entangled states are usually created as a superposition of two possible deexcitation paths, a partial distinguishability between the two processes leads to the appearance of colored noise in the generated state. Recently, there was a proposal for a loophole-free Bell test [A. Cabello and F. Sciarrino, Phys. Rev. X 2, 021010 (2012)], where a specific colored noise appears as a consequence of the precertification of the photon's presence through single-photon spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Here we obtain eta_{crit}, the optimal quantum states, and the local settings for a loophole-free Bell test as a function of the amount of colored noise. We consider three bipartite Bell inequalities with n dichotomic settings: Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (n=2), I_{3322} (n=3), and A_5 (n=4), both for the case of symmetric efficiencies, corresponding to photon-photon Bell tests, and for the totally asymmetric case, corresponding to atom-photon Bell tests. Remarkably, in all these cases, eta_{crit} is robust against the colored noise. The present analysis can find application in any test of Bell inequalities in which the dominant noise is of the colored type.

  5. Computerized Interactive Harness Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Computerized interactive harness engineering program inexpensive, interactive system for learning and using engineering approach to interconnection systems. Basically data-base system that stores information as files of individual connectors and handles wiring information in circuit groups stored as records.

  6. Aniseikonia Tests: The Role of Viewing Mode, Response Bias, and Size–Color Illusions

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Miguel A.; Peli, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the factors responsible for the poor validity of the most common aniseikonia tests, which involve size comparisons of red–green stimuli presented haploscopically. Methods: Aniseikonia was induced by afocal size lenses placed before one eye. Observers compared the sizes of semicircles presented haploscopically via color filters. The main factor under study was viewing mode (free viewing versus short presentations under central fixation). To eliminate response bias, a three-response format allowed observers to respond if the left, the right, or neither semicircle appeared larger than the other. To control decisional (criterion) bias, measurements were taken with the lens-magnified stimulus placed on the left and on the right. To control for size–color illusions, measurements were made with color filters in both arrangements before the eyes and under binocular vision (without color filters). Results: Free viewing resulted in a systematic underestimation of lens-induced aniseikonia that was absent with short presentations. Significant size–color illusions and decisional biases were found that would be mistaken for aniseikonia unless appropriate action is taken. Conclusions: To improve their validity, aniseikonia tests should use short presentations and include control conditions to prevent contamination from decisional/response biases. If anaglyphs are used, presence of size–color illusions must be checked for. Translational relevance: We identified optimal conditions for administration of aniseikonia tests and appropriate action for differential diagnosis of aniseikonia in the presence of response biases or size–color illusions. Our study has clinical implications for aniseikonia management. PMID:26101722

  7. Estimation of Item Dimensional Measurement Direction Using Conditional Covariance Patterns. Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Daniel; Roussos, Louis; Stout, William

    Several nonparametric dimensionality assessment tools have demonstrated the usefulness of item pair conditional covariances as building blocks for investigating multidimensional test structure. Recently, J. Zhang and W. Stout (1999) have related the structural properties of conditional covariances in a generalized compensatory framework to a test

  8. Effects of freely accessible computerized test systems on the spontaneous behaviors and stress level of Guinea baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Fagot, Joël; Gullstrand, Julie; Kemp, Caralyn; Defilles, Céline; Mekaouche, Mourad

    2014-01-01

    Fagot and Paleressompoulle [Fagot and Paleressompoulle (2009) Behav Res Methods 41: 396-404] described a new automated learning device for monkeys (ALDM) to test the cognitive functions of nonhuman primates within their social groups. However, the impact of the ALDM procedure on animal well-being needs to be investigated. The present study assessed the consequences of ALDM testing on the behavioral repertoire of Guinea baboons (Papio papio) and their stress levels as inferred from measurements of saliva cortisol. Accessibility to ALDM test computers reduced the number of resting periods as well as the number of stereotypies. Lower cortisol levels were also found during ALDM testing. These findings and others demonstrate that ALDM testing has a positive impact on animal well-being and can be considered as a means for behavioral enrichment in captive primates. PMID:24038166

  9. Computerized accounting methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the research performed under the Task Order on computerized accounting methods in a period from 03 August to 31 December 1994. Computerized nuclear material accounting methods are analyzed and evaluated. Selected methods are implemented in a hardware-software complex developed as a prototype of the local network-based CONMIT system. This complex has been put into trial operation for test and evaluation of the selected methods at two selected ``Kurchatov Institute`` Russian Research Center (``KI`` RRC) nuclear facilities. Trial operation is carried out since the beginning of Initial Physical Inventory Taking in these facilities that was performed in November 1994. Operation of CONMIT prototype system was demonstrated in the middle of December 1994. Results of evaluation of CONMIT prototype system features and functioning under real operating conditions are considered. Conclusions are formulated on the ways of further development of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. The most important conclusion is a need to strengthen computer and information security features supported by the operating environment. Security provisions as well as other LANL Client/Server System approaches being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory are recommended for selection of software and hardware components to be integrated into production version of CONMIT system for KI RRC.

  10. Author's personal copy Testing limits on matte surface color perception in

    E-print Network

    Maloney, Laurence T.

    Author's personal copy Testing limits on matte surface color perception in three-dimensional scenes with complex light fields K. Doerschner a,*, H. Boyaci a , L.T. Maloney b,c a Department of Psychology York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, USA c Department of Psychology, New York

  11. Pretest Item Analyses Using Polynomial Logistic Regression: An Approach to Small Sample Calibration Problems Associated with Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsula, Liane N.; Pashley, Peter J.

    Many large-scale testing programs routinely pretest new items alongside operational (or scored) items to determine their empirical characteristics. If these pretest items pass certain statistical criteria, they are placed into an operational item pool; otherwise they are edited and re-pretested or simply discarded. In these situations, reliable…

  12. Modernization of Physical Appearance and Solution Color Tests Using Quantitative Tristimulus Colorimetry: Advantages, Harmonization, and Validation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Pack, Brian W; Montgomery, Laura L; Hetrick, Evan M

    2015-10-01

    Color measurements, including physical appearance, are important yet often misunderstood and underappreciated aspects of a control strategy for drug substances and drug products. From a patient safety perspective, color can be an important control point for detecting contamination, impurities, and degradation products, with human visual acuity often more sensitive for colored impurities than instrumental techniques such as HPLC. Physical appearance tests and solution color tests can also serve an important role in ensuring that appropriate steps are taken such that clinical trials do not become unblinded when the active material is compared with another product or a placebo. Despite the importance of color tests, compendial visual tests are not harmonized across the major pharmacopoeias, which results in ambiguous specifications of little value, difficult communication of true sample color, and significant extra work required for global registration. Some pharmacopoeias have not yet recognized or adopted technical advances in the instrumental measurement of color and appearance, whereas others begin to acknowledge the advantage of instrumental colorimetry, yet leave implementation of the technology ambiguous. This commentary will highlight the above-mentioned inconsistencies, provide an avenue toward harmonization and modernization, and outline a scientifically sound approach for implementing quantitative technologies for improved measurement, communication, and control of color and appearance for both solutions and solids. Importantly, this manuscript, for the first time, outlines a color method validation approach that is consistent with the International Conference on Harmonization's guidance on the topic of method validation. PMID:26173406

  13. Computerized Transportation Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caswell, Peter J.; Hall, Calvin W.

    1987-01-01

    For the past six years, Los Angeles County Office of Education (California) has used a state-of-the-art computerized transportation management system that produces $2 million annual net savings and provides prompt, accurate bus service for students, parents, and teachers. This article details routing and scheduling programs used. Includes seven…

  14. Computerized Drug Information Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Smith, Daniel R.

    1972-01-01

    To compare computerized services in chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical medicine of pharmaceutical interest, equivalent profiles were run on magnetic tape files of CA-Condensates," CBAC," Excerpta Medica," MEDLARS" and Ringdoc." The results are tabulated for overlap of services, relative speed of citing references, and unique…

  15. 3. SOUTH TEST STAND WITH X15 IN PLACE. A color ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH TEST STAND WITH X-15 IN PLACE. A color photograph taken from a lift boom or from atop a truck, looking northwest to NASA hangars in the far distance. Also shows the shop building at left, and two observation bunkers with hatches open; one at right (Bldg. 1933) and the other in front of Liquid Oxygen tank truck at left (Bldg. 1934). - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  17. Computerizing Audit Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Joanna N.; Beasley, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the history, benefits, and shortcomings of traditional audit field experiments to study market discrimination. Specifically it identifies template bias and experimenter bias as major concerns in the traditional audit method, and demonstrates through an empirical example that computerization of a resume or correspondence audit can efficiently increase sample size and greatly mitigate these concerns. Finally, it presents a useful meta-tool that future researchers can use to create their own resume audits. PMID:24904189

  18. Some correlates of the Weigl Color-Form Sorting Test in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Tamkin, A S; Dolenz, J J

    1991-01-01

    The correlates of the Weigl Color-Form Sorting Test in a group of 48 alcoholic inpatients were explored. It was predicted that Weigl performance would be related to conceptual flexibility (Trails B), verbal conceptual ability (Similarities), and symbol substitution (Digit Symbol). It was predicted further that the Weigl would be unrelated to Vocabulary and Trails A. Significant correlation coefficients for the Weigl were obtained with education, Vocabulary, Digit Symbol, and Trails B. However, a stepwise regression analysis disclosed that only Trails B was a significant predictor of Weigl performance. PMID:2026773

  19. Red Color and Risk-Taking Behavior in Online Environments

    PubMed Central

    Gnambs, Timo; Appel, Markus; Oeberst, Aileen

    2015-01-01

    In many situations red is associated with hazard and danger. As a consequence, it was expected that task-irrelevant color cues in online environments would affect risk-taking behaviors. This assumption was tested in two web-based experiments. The first study (N = 383) demonstrated that in risky choice dilemmas respondents preferred the less risky option when the displayed university logo was in red (versus gray); but only when both choice alternatives were at least moderately risky. The second study (N = 144) replicated these results with a behavioral outcome: Respondents showed more cautious behavior in a web-based game when the focal stimuli were colored red (versus blue). Together, these findings demonstrate that variations in the color design of a computerized environment affect risk taking: Red color leads to more conservative choices and behaviors. PMID:26207983

  20. Computerized procedures system

    DOEpatents

    Lipner, Melvin H. (Monroeville, PA); Mundy, Roger A. (North Huntingdon, PA); Franusich, Michael D. (Upper St. Clair, PA)

    2010-10-12

    An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

  1. The Weigl Color-Form Sorting Test as an index of cortical function.

    PubMed

    Tamkin, A S

    1980-07-01

    Evaluated the Weigl Color-Form Sorting test as an index of cortical function and dysfunction by observing the effects of several factors known to influence brain function (age and education) and to accompany dysfunction (Verbal IQ, Bender-Gestalt recall and Similarities). In Experiment 1 the Ss were 46 psychiatric patients, 20 males and 26 females. One-half the Ss could shift on the Weigl and one-half could not. No sex differences were associated with ability to shift. All t tests were significant, which shows that all the study variables either affected or accompanied ability to shift. Experiment 2 used 71 psychiatric patients, 27 males and 44 females. All the findings of Experiment 1 were replicated. PMID:7410579

  2. Effect of Color Coding on Visually and Verbally Oriented Tests with Students of Different Field Dependence Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Francis M.; Moore, David M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study of undergraduate students at Pennsylvania State University that was conducted to assess the impact of instructional color coding on visually and verbally oriented tests and on field dependence independence. Use of the GEFT (Group Embedded Figures Test) is discussed, and differences in cognitive processes are considered. (11…

  3. Computerized Electro-Oculography (CEOG)

    PubMed Central

    Ledley, R.S.; Rotolo, L.S.; Kattah, J.C.; Duffy, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    A new system has been designed to deliver a comprehensive analysis of the visual sensory system and oculomotor responses to different types of visual and vestibular stimulation. The instrument, called a Computerized Electro-Oculograph (CEOG), is an integrated computer-controlled system which performs a series of important diagnostic tests. It can generate and control the stimulus, as well as record patient responses, testing both the visual and oculomotor systems, and also provide a regular pattern applicable to both clinical and research purposes. Visual evoked response and eye movement data is processed by computer for quantitative analysis and “strip chart” data is then displayed on a scrolling T.V. screen. Hard copy of the output is also available. The system can analyze visual evoked responses to both stroboscopic flashing lights and intermittent patterned stimulation. Other programs study the main features of the wave form and details of speed, frequency, and latency, as well as the symmetry of spontaneous, visual, and vestibular evoked eye movements. A major advantage of the system is its rapid, automatic, and quantitative operation with no risk to the current status of the visual and oculomotor pathways as it performs EOG (electro-oculograph), VER (visual evoked response), ERG (electronetinograph), and caloric tests. The complete system is pictured in Figure 1. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6

  4. Ego depletion in color priming research: self-control strength moderates the detrimental effect of red on cognitive test performance.

    PubMed

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris; Furley, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Colors have been found to affect psychological functioning. Empirical evidence suggests that, in test situations, brief perceptions of the color red or even the word "red" printed in black ink prime implicit anxious responses and consequently impair cognitive performance. However, we propose that this red effect depends on people's momentary capacity to exert control over their prepotent responses (i.e., self-control). In three experiments (Ns = 66, 78, and 130), first participants' self-control strength was manipulated. Participants were then primed with the color or word red versus gray prior to completing an arithmetic test or an intelligence test. As expected, self-control strength moderated the red effect. While red had a detrimental effect on performance of participants with depleted self-control strength (ego depletion), it did not affect performance of participants with intact self-control strength. We discuss implications of the present findings within the current debate on the robustness of priming results. PMID:25567999

  5. Validation of a new scoring system for the Weigl Color Form Sorting Test in a memory disorders clinic sample.

    PubMed

    Byrne, L M; Bucks, R S; Cuerden, J M

    1998-04-01

    The Bristol Memory Disorders Clinic uses the Weigl Color Form Sorting Test (CFST) to appraise abstraction and the ability to shift set. The original scoring system for the CFST (Grewal & Haward, 1984), developed on the premise that sorting to form is more difficult than sorting to color, had no score for an individual able to sort to form and subsequently unable to shift to color with a cue. Clinical experience suggested that the performance of some individuals required such a score. A new scoring system was developed and validated in a memory-disorders-clinic sample. The validation showed the new score to be necessary and gave support to the original premise that people with organic brain damage show a preference for sorting to color. PMID:9777483

  6. The achromatic 'philosophical zombie', a syndrome of cerebral achromatopsia with color anopsognosia.

    PubMed

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    We describe a patient with persistent cerebral achromatopsia occurring after bilateral occipital strokes. Blinded color recognition was assessed with a computerized experimental paradigm and the patient reported the degree of confidence in the response exactness on a visual percent scale. Color recognition was accurate and above chance (Fisher's exact test, p < 0.002). The degree of confidence in the answers showed a significant correlation with recognition scores (Spearman rank order correlation, p < 0.0001). These findings constitute the exceptional condition of what we called color anopsognosia (not knowing of seeing colors) and recall the theoretic figure of the 'philosophical zombie'. However, the cognitive mechanisms of the dissociation between a subjective colorless vision and good performance for color naming still remain poorly understood. PMID:23687498

  7. The Achromatic ‘Philosophical Zombie’, a Syndrome of Cerebral Achromatopsia with Color Anopsognosia

    PubMed Central

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    We describe a patient with persistent cerebral achromatopsia occurring after bilateral occipital strokes. Blinded color recognition was assessed with a computerized experimental paradigm and the patient reported the degree of confidence in the response exactness on a visual percent scale. Color recognition was accurate and above chance (Fisher's exact test, p < 0.002). The degree of confidence in the answers showed a significant correlation with recognition scores (Spearman rank order correlation, p < 0.0001). These findings constitute the exceptional condition of what we called color anopsognosia (not knowing of seeing colors) and recall the theoretic figure of the ‘philosophical zombie’. However, the cognitive mechanisms of the dissociation between a subjective colorless vision and good performance for color naming still remain poorly understood. PMID:23687498

  8. Cosmetology. Computerized Learning Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnerty, Kathy, Ed.

    Intended to help reading-limited students meet course objectives, these 11 modules are based on instructional materials in cosmetology that have a higher readability equivalent. Modules cover bacteriology, chemical waving, scalp and hair massage, chemistry, hair shaping, hairstyling, chemical hair relaxing, hair coloring, skin and scalp,…

  9. Computerized international geothermal information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.L.; Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.

    1980-03-01

    The computerized international geothermal energy information system is reviewed. The review covers establishment of the Italy - United States linked data centers by the NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society, through a bilateral agreement, and up to the present time. The result of the information exchange project is given as the bibliographic and numerical data available from the data centers. Recommendations for the exchange of computerized geothermal information at the international level are discussed.

  10. An Empirical Study of the Weigl-Goldstein-Scheerer Color-Form Test According to a Developmental Frame of Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Helen; Lewin, Isaac

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed the Weigl-Goldstein-Scheerer Color-Form Test using a sample of Danish children. Distinguished three dimensions: configuration of sorting, verbalization of the sorting principle, and the flexibility of switching sorting principle. The three dimensions proved themselves to constitute the a-priori-defined gradients. Results indicated a…

  11. Computerized system for clinical diagnosis of melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrario, Mario; Barbieri, Fabio

    1991-07-01

    A computerized system was developed to carry out the clinical diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma. The main objective of the system is to produce a real-time first level diagnosis of skin lesion images acquired by a color TV camera. The algorithms are based on research activities started in 1985 at the National Cancer Institute of Milan. Color slides of skin lesions were used as a training field for studying and tuning the image analysis procedures. A prototype system was then developed to capture and analyze skin lesion images on a real-time basis. More than 200 images were acquired and the first level diagnosis output by the system was compared with the diagnosis of expert clinicians. The obtained results were judged very encouraging by the clinicians, and research is in progress to improve and refine the system. The diagnostic procedure is based on image processing and understanding techniques, automatic lesion contour recognition, feature extraction (feature components derived from lesion shape, color and texture) and computation of a malignancy index. The malignancy index depends on the lesion feature values and a thesaurus collecting the system knowledge; the histologic results of clinically diagnosed malignant lesions are used to upgrade the system knowledge.

  12. Computerized provider order entry systems.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems are designed to replace a hospital's paper-based ordering system. They allow users to electronically write the full range of orders, maintain an online medication administration record, and review changes made to an order by successive personnel. They also offer safety alerts that are triggered when an unsafe order (such as for a duplicate drug therapy) is entered, as well as clinical decision support to guide caregivers to less expensive alternatives or to choices that better fit established hospital protocols. CPOE systems can, when correctly configured, markedly increase efficiency and improve patient safety and patient care. However, facilities need to recognize that currently available CPOE systems require a tremendous amount of time and effort to be spent in customization before their safety and clinical support features can be effectively implemented. What's more, even after they've been customized, the systems may still allow certain unsafe orders to be entered. Thus, CPOE systems are not currently a quick or easy remedy for medical errors. ECRI's Evaluation of CPOE systems--conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP)--discusses these and other related issues. It also examines and compares CPOE systems from three suppliers: Eclipsys Corp., IDX Systems Corp., and Siemens Medical Solutions Health Services Corp. Our testing focuses primarily on the systems' interfacing capabilities, patient safeguards, and ease of use. PMID:11696968

  13. Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

  14. An Integrated Computerized Instructional System for Classroom and Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadway, Ray

    Bennett College (North Carolina) has developed the use of an Integrated Computerized Instructional Support System (ICISS) featuring the use of large networked test-banks, a sophisticated test management system, application software, and multimedia. These materials are used both for interactive learning experiences in the classroom and for…

  15. Steep-Slope Assembly Testing of Clay and Concrete Tile With and Without Cool Pigmented Colors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A

    2005-11-01

    Cool color pigments and sub-tile venting of clay and concrete tile roofs significantly impact the heat flow crossing the roof deck of a steep-slope roof. Field measures for the tile roofs revealed a 70% drop in the peak heat flow crossing the deck as compared to a direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The Tile Roofing Institute (TRI) and its affiliate members are keenly interested in documenting the magnitude of the drop for obtaining solar reflectance credits with state and federal "cool roof" building efficiency standards. Tile roofs are direct-nailed or are attached to a deck with batten or batten and counter-batten construction. S-Misson clay and concrete tile roofs, a medium-profile concrete tile roof, and a flat slate tile roof were installed on fully nstrumented attic test assemblies. Temperature measures of the roof, deck, attic, and ceiling, heat flows, solar reflectance, thermal emittance, and the ambient weather were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and directnailed asphalt shingle roof. ORNL measured the tile's underside temperature and the bulk air temperature and heat flows just underneath the tile for batten and counter-batten tile systems and compared the results to the conventional asphalt shingle.

  16. Heart rate variability changes during stroop color and word test among genders.

    PubMed

    Satish, Priyanka; Muralikrishnan, Krishnan; Balasubramanian, Kabali; Shanmugapriya

    2015-01-01

    Stress is the reaction of the body to a change that requires physical, mental or emotional adjustments. Individual differences in stress reactivity are a potentially important risk factor for gender-specific health problems in men and women. The Autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system is most commonly affected by stress and is assessed by means of short term heart rate variability (HRV).The present study was undertaken to investigate the difference in the cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System response to mental stress between the genders using HRV as tool. We compared the mean RR interval, Blood pressure and indices of HRV during the StroopColor Word Test (SCWT).Twenty five male (Age 19.52±0.714, BMI 22.73±2 kg/m2) and twenty five female subjects (Age 19.80±0.65, BMI 22.39±1.9) performed SCWT for five minutes. Blood Pressure (SBP p<0.01, DBP p<0.042) & Mean HR (p<0.010) values showed statistically significant difference among the genders. HRV indices like LFms2 (p<0.051), HF nu (p<0.029) and LF/HF ratio (p<0.025, p<0.052) show statistically significant difference among the genders. The response by the cardiovascular system to a simple mental stressor exhibits difference among the genders. PMID:26571978

  17. TESTING STELLAR POPULATION SYNTHESIS MODELS WITH SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY COLORS OF M31's GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Kundu, Arunav

    2011-08-10

    Accurate stellar population synthesis models are vital in understanding the properties and formation histories of galaxies. In order to calibrate and test the reliability of these models, they are often compared with observations of star clusters. However, relatively little work has compared these models in the ugriz filters, despite the recent widespread use of this filter set. In this paper, we compare the integrated colors of globular clusters in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with those predicted from commonly used simple stellar population (SSP) models. The colors are based on SDSS observations of M31's clusters and provide the largest population of star clusters with accurate photometry available from the survey. As such, it is a unique sample with which to compare SSP models with SDSS observations. From this work, we identify a significant offset between the SSP models and the clusters' g - r colors, with the models predicting colors which are too red by g - r {approx} 0.1. This finding is consistent with previous observations of luminous red galaxies in the SDSS, which show a similar discrepancy. The identification of this offset in globular clusters suggests that it is very unlikely to be due to a minority population of young stars. The recently updated SSP model of Maraston and Stroembaeck better represents the observed g - r colors. This model is based on the empirical MILES stellar library, rather than theoretical libraries, suggesting an explanation for the g - r discrepancy.

  18. Computerized Assessment System for Academic Satisfaction (ASAS) for First-Year University Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medrano, Leonardo Adrian; Liporace, Mercedes Fernandez; Perez, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Computerized tests have become one of the most widely used and efficient educational assessment methods. Increasing efforts to generate computerized assessment systems to identify students at risk for drop out have been recently noted. An important variable influencing student retention is academic satisfaction. Accordingly, the…

  19. Urological applications of computerized axial tomography: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B H; James, R; Haaga, J; Alfidi, R J

    1978-08-01

    Computerized tomography scanning of the chest and abdomen has been used as a diagnostic technique in more than 4,500 patients since 1974, 190 of whom had histologically proved disorders of the genitourinary system and retroperitoneum. On the basis of this experience computerized tomography scanning has been found to be safe and effective, and offers certain advantages over conventional techniques. The number, extent and content of renal mass lesions can be determined with relatively great accuracy. The presence and extent of metastases into the retroperitoneum, liver and chest can often be shown by computerized tomography scanning when other tests are negative. Placement of needles for aspiration, biopsy, injection of contrast medium or insertion of drainage tubes can be done more accurately under computerized tomography control. Computerized tomography in itself is non-invasive, carries a low radiation exposure comparable to other radiographic procedures and therefore, can be valuable in following the course of patients with various diseases during and after therapy. While scanning will not replace other diagnostic procedures it should lead to a more judicious selection of potentially hazardous tests in selected cases, such as angiography, aspiration and open biopsy. PMID:671635

  20. Diffractive W± production at hadron colliders as a test of color singlet exchange mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingelman, Gunnar; Pasechnik, Roman; Rathsman, Johan; Werder, Dominik

    2013-05-01

    We revisit diffractive and exclusive W±X production at hadron colliders in different models for soft color exchanges. The process pp?p[W±X]p, and in particular a W± charge asymmetry, has been suggested as a way to discriminate diffractive processes as being due to pomeron exchange in Regge phenomenology or QCD-based color reconnection models. Our detailed analysis of the latter models at LHC energies shows, however, that they give similar results as pomeron models for leading protons and central W±X production, including a vanishing W± charge asymmetry. We demonstrate that soft color exchange models provide a continuous transition from diffractive to inelastic processes and thereby include the intrinsic asymmetry of inelastic interactions while being at the same time sensitive to the underlying hadronization models. Such sensitivity also concerns the differential distributions in proton momentum and W± transverse momentum, which opens possibilities to discriminate between different color reconnection models.

  1. Accurate Monte Carlo tests of the stochastic Ginzburg-Landau model with multiplicative colored noise

    SciTech Connect

    Jingdong Bao Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing ); Yizhong Zhuo Academia Sinica, Beijing ); Xizhen Wu )

    1992-03-01

    An accurate and fast Monte Carlo algorithm is proposed for solving the Ginzburg-Landau equation with multiplicative colored noise. The stable cases of solution for choosing time steps and trajectory numbers are discussed.

  2. Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures

    E-print Network

    Li, Jia

    Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures Jia Li. Wang alipr.com #12;Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures How Visible Are Web Images? Keukenhof photos Jia Li, James Z. Wang alipr.com #12;Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures ALIPR: Automatic

  3. Arkansas' Curriculum Guide. Competency Based Computerized Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. Div. of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This guide contains the essential parts of a total curriculum for a one-year secondary-level course in computerized accounting. Addressed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the complete accounting cycle, computer operations for accounting, computerized accounting and general ledgers, computerized accounts payable,…

  4. Computerized Proof Techniques for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete…

  5. Computerizing a High School Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Errol A.; Chan, Jeanie

    1988-01-01

    Describes how the Swift-Current Comprehensive High School (Saskatchewan) library computerized to create an online catalog, provide access to remote databases, and acquire CD-ROM reference systems. Objectives, hardware and software selection and costs, implementation, and evaluation are discussed. Seven references are listed, and a directory of…

  6. Computerized Aids for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaningam, Donalee

    The report examines a variety of computerized aids and devices for individuals with visual, communication, or other disabilities, as well as ways computers may be used in the education and employment of handicapped individuals. Considered in the section on visual and hearing aids are talking meters, braille terminals, devices for reading standard…

  7. Total Library Computerization for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Joseph, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a general review of features of version 2.1 of Total Library Computerization (TLC) for Windows from On Point, Inc. Includes information about pricing, hardware and operating systems, modules/functions available, user interface, security, on-line catalog functions, circulation, cataloging, and documentation and online help. A table…

  8. An Application of Computerized Instructional Television in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Bryce

    Computerized instructional television was used to teach undergraduate students about 100,000 or more extant fungi through an interactive, self testing, teaching program. Students did not find this sophisticated hardware an adequate substitute for the lecture experience and ultimately gave their professor a strong vote of confidence. (Author/JEG)

  9. Using Fluorescence XANES Measurement to Correct the Content of Hexavalent Chromium in Chromate Conversion Coatings Determined by Diphenyl Carbazide Color Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Junichi; Sekikawa, Toshikazu; Otani, Haruka; Ofuchi, Hironori; Taniguchi, Yosuke; Honma, Tetsuo; Bando, Akio

    2007-01-01

    The Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive will take effect on July 1 of this year. From that date, the use of chromate conversion coatings containing hexavalent chromium will not be permitted. By comparing the concentration of Cr6+ determined by the diphenyl carbazide color test and by fluorescence XANES (X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) measurement, we can correct for the Cr6+ content of the color test. This will enable the use of the diphenyl carbazide color test to check product shipments in compliance with the RoHS directive.

  10. A Quick Test for the Highly Colored Ions of the Aluminum-Nickel Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenda, Stanley C.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a technique for eliminating errors in the analysis of the nickel subgroup of the aluminum-nickel group cations. Describes the process of color and chemical changes that occur in this group as a result of ligand and coordination number changes. Discusses opportunities for student observations. (TW)

  11. The researchers tested their array on ten common infectious bacteria. The color

    E-print Network

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    , simple method to identify infectious bacteria by smell using a low-cost array of printed pigments spectroscopy or genetic methods for clinical diagnosis, Suslick's group focused on another distinctive-reactive pigment dots that change color when they sense chemicals in the air. The researchers spread blood samples

  12. "Does Hope Change? Testing a Project-Based Health Intervention among Urban Students of Color"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusevics, Kaija L.; Johnson, Sheri

    2014-01-01

    Hope is positively correlated with educational attainment and health. Interventions based on project-based learning (PBL) may increase youth hope. This study examined how a PBL intervention affected hope among urban students of color. Students in health classes were invited to participate. A PBL health class was implemented in four classrooms. The…

  13. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and "real" colors.

    PubMed

    Anstis, Stuart; Vergeer, Mark; Van Lier, Rob

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The color of the afterimage depends on two adapting colors, those both inside and outside the test. Here, we further explore this phenomenon and show that the color-contour interactions shown for afterimage colors also occur for "real" colors. We argue that similar mechanisms apply for both types of stimulation. PMID:22961219

  14. Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

  15. Color stereoscopic images requiring only one color image

    E-print Network

    Kaminka, Gal A.

    . These experiments tested both color and depth perception using various combinations of color and monochromatic one color image in a stereoscopic pair, with no depth perception degradation and only limited color reduction; bin- ocular vision; stereopsis; color perception; depth perception. Paper 060586R received Jul

  16. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. II. A TEST ON THE NONLINEARITY SCENARIO FOR COLOR BIMODALITY USING THE u-BAND COLORS: THE CASE OF M87 (NGC 4486)

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Hak-Sub; Cho, Jaeil; Chung, Chul; Sohn, Sangmo T.; Blakeslee, John P.

    2011-12-20

    The optical color distributions of globular clusters (GCs) in most large elliptical galaxies are bimodal. Based on the assumed linear relationship between GC colors and their metallicities, the bimodality has been taken as evidence of two GC subsystems with different metallicities in each galaxy and has led to a number of theories in the context of galaxy formation. More recent observations and modeling of GCs, however, suggests that the color-metallicity relations (CMRs) are inflected, and thus colors likely trace metallicities in a nonlinear manner. The nonlinearity could produce bimodal color distributions from a broad underlying metallicity spread, even if it is unimodal. Despite the far-reaching implications, whether CMRs are nonlinear and whether the nonlinearity indeed causes the color bimodality are still open questions. Given that the spectroscopic refinement of CMRs is still very challenging, we here propose a new photometric technique to probe the possible nonlinear nature of CMRs. In essence, a color distribution of GCs is a 'projected' distribution of their metallicities. Since the form of CMRs hinges on which color is used, the shape of color distributions varies depending significantly on the colors. Among other optical colors, the u-band related colors (e.g., u - g and u - z) are theoretically predicted to exhibit significantly less inflected CMRs than other preferred CMRs (e.g., for g - z). As a case study, we performed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFPC2 archival u-band photometry for the M87 (NGC 4486) GC system with confirmed color bimodality. We show that the u-band color distributions are significantly different from that of g - z and consistent with our model predictions. With more u-band measurements, this method will support or rule out the nonlinear CMR scenario for the origin of GC color bimodality with high confidence. The HST/WFC3 observations in F336W for nearby large elliptical galaxies are highly anticipated in this regard.

  17. Clinical applications of computerized thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anbar, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Computerized or digital, thermography is a rapidly growing diagnostic imaging modality. It has superseded contact thermography and analog imaging thermography which do not allow effective quantization. Medical applications of digital thermography can be classified in two groups: static and dynamic imaging. They can also be classified into macro thermography (resolution greater than 1 mm) and micro thermography (resolution less than 100 microns). Both modalities allow a thermal resolution of 0.1 C. The diagnostic power of images produced by any of these modalities can be augmented by the use of digital image enhancement and image recognition procedures. Computerized thermography has been applied in neurology, cardiovascular and plastic surgery, rehabilitation and sports medicine, psychiatry, dermatology and ophthalmology. Examples of these applications are shown and their scope and limitations are discussed.

  18. Color Blindness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Is Color Blindness? Tweet Color blindness occurs when you are unable to see colors in a normal way. Most commonly, color blindness (also known as color deficiency) happens when someone ...

  19. Spitzer IRS Spectra of Luminous 8 micron Sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud: Testing color-based classifications

    E-print Network

    Buchanan, Catherine L; Hrivnak, Bruce J; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2009-01-01

    We present archival Spitzer IRS spectra of 19 luminous 8 micron selected sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The object classes derived from these spectra and from an additional 24 spectra in the literature are compared with classifications based on 2MASS/MSX (J, H, K, and 8 micron) colors in order to test the "JHK8" classification scheme (Kastner et al. 2008). The IRS spectra confirm the classifications of 22 of the 31 sources that can be classified under the JHK8 system. The spectroscopic classification of 12 objects that were unclassifiable in the JHK8 scheme allow us to characterize regions of the color-color diagrams that previously lacked spectroscopic verification, enabling refinements to the JHK8 classification system. The results of these new classifications are consistent with previous results concerning the identification of the most infrared-luminous objects in the LMC. In particular, while the IRS spectra reveal several new examples of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with O-rich enve...

  20. Development of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner for NIMBUS 7. Volume 2: Test and performance data, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner protoflight tests are examined in detail while some of the test results are evaluated with respect to expected performance. Performance characteristics examined include spectral response, signal to noise ratio as a function of radiance input, radiance response, the modulation transfer function, and the field of view and coregistration. The results of orbital sequence tests are also included. The in orbit performance or return of radiometric data in the six spectral bands is evaluated along with the data processing sequence necessary to derive the final data products. Examples of the raw data are given and the housekeeping or diagnostic data which provides information on the day to day health or status of the instrument are discussed.

  1. Measuring Global Physical Health in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Illustration of a Multidimensional Bi-factor Model and Computerized Adaptive Testing

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Stephen M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Dumas, Helene M.; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Montpetit, Kathleen; Bilodeau, Nathalie; Gorton, George E.; Watson, Kyle; Tucker, Carole A

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to apply a bi-factor model for the determination of test dimensionality and a multidimensional CAT using computer simulations of real data for the assessment of a new global physical health measure for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Parent respondents of 306 children with cerebral palsy were recruited from four pediatric rehabilitation hospitals and outpatient clinics. We compared confirmatory factor analysis results across four models: (1) one-factor unidimensional; (2) two-factor multidimensional (MIRT); (3) bi-factor MIRT with fixed slopes; and (4) bi-factor MIRT with varied slopes. We tested whether the general and content (fatigue and pain) person score estimates could discriminate across severity and types of CP, and whether score estimates from a simulated CAT were similar to estimates based on the total item bank, and whether they correlated as expected with external measures. Results Confirmatory factor analysis suggested separate pain and fatigue sub-factors; all 37 items were retained in the analyses. From the bi-factor MIRT model with fixed slopes, the full item bank scores discriminated across levels of severity and types of CP, and compared favorably to external instruments. CAT scores based on 10- and 15-item versions accurately captured the global physical health scores. Conclusions The bi-factor MIRT CAT application, especially the 10- and 15-item version, yielded accurate global physical health scores that discriminated across known severity groups and types of CP, and correlated as expected with concurrent measures. The CATs have potential for collecting complex data on the physical health of children with CP in an efficient manner. PMID:19221892

  2. Iterative Evaluation in a Mobile Counseling and Testing Program to Reach People of Color at Risk for HIV--New Strategies Improve Program Acceptability, Effectiveness, and Evaluation Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberg, Freya; Kurth, Ann; Reidy, William; McKnight, Teka; Dikobe, Wame; Wilson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights findings from an evaluation that explored the impact of mobile versus clinic-based testing, rapid versus central-lab based testing, incentives for testing, and the use of a computer counseling program to guide counseling and automate evaluation in a mobile program reaching people of color at risk for HIV. The program's…

  3. Finite-size scaling tests for SU(3) lattice gauge theory with color sextet fermions

    SciTech Connect

    DeGrand, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    The observed slow running of the gauge coupling in SU(3) lattice gauge theory with two flavors of color sextet fermions naturally suggests it is a theory with one relevant coupling, the fermion mass, and that at zero mass correlation functions decay algebraically. I perform a finite-size scaling study on simulation data at two values of the bare gauge coupling with this assumption and observe a common exponent for the scaling of the correlation length with the fermion mass, y{sub m}{approx}1.5. An analysis of the scaling of valence Dirac eigenvalues at one of these bare couplings produces a similar number.

  4. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. IV. TESTING THE NONLINEARITY SCENARIO FOR COLOR BIMODALITY VIA HST/WFC3 u-BAND PHOTOMETRY OF M84 (NGC 4374)

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Suk-Jin; Kim, Hak-Sub; Chung, Chul; Cho, Jaeil; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Sohn, Sangmo T.; Blakeslee, John P.

    2013-05-10

    Color distributions of globular clusters (GCs) in most massive galaxies are bimodal. Assuming linear color-to-metallicity conversions, bimodality is viewed as the presence of merely two GC subsystems with distinct metallicities, which serves as a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Recent studies, however, revealed that the color-metallicity relations (CMRs) often used to derive GC metallicities (e.g., CMRs of g - z, V - I, and C - T{sub 1}) are in fact inflected. Such inflection can create bimodal color distributions if the underlying GC metallicity spread is simply broad as expected from the hierarchical merging paradigm of galaxy formation. In order to test the nonlinear-CMR scenario for GC color bimodality, the u-band photometry is proposed because the u-related CMRs (e.g., CMRs of u - g and u - z) are theoretically predicted to be least inflected and most distinctive among commonly used optical CMRs. Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3 F336W (u-band) photometry of the GC system in M84, a giant elliptical in the Virgo galaxy cluster. Combining the u data with the existing HST ACS/WFC g and z data, we find that the u - z and u - g color distributions are different from the g - z distribution in a very systematic manner and remarkably consistent with our model predictions based on the nonlinear-CMR hypothesis. The results lend further confidence to the validity of the nonlinear-CMR scenario as an explanation for GC color bimodality. There are some GC systems showing bimodal spectroscopic metallicity, and in such systems the inflected CMRs often create stronger bimodality in the color domain.

  5. A COMPUTERIZED OPERATOR SUPPORT SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Ken Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. A prototype COSS was developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the Human System Simulation Laboratory.

  6. The gap in the color-magnitude diagram of NGC 2420: A test of convective overshoot and cluster age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarque, Pierre; Sarajedini, Ata; Guo, X.-J.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical isochrones have been constructed using the OPAL opacities specifically to study the color-magnitude diagram of the open star cluster NGC 2420. This cluster provides a rare test of core convection in intermediate-mass stars. At the same time, its age is of interest because of its low metallicity and relatively high Galactic latitude for an open cluster. The excellent color-magnitude diagram constructed by Anthony-Twarog et al. (1990) allows a detailed fit of the isochrones to the photometric data. We discuss the importance of convective overshoot at the convective core edge in determining the morphology of the gap located near the main-sequence turnoff. We find that given the assumptions made in the models, a modest amount of overshoot (0.23 H(sub p)) is required for the best fit. Good agreement is achieved with all features of the turnoff gap for a cluster age of 2.4 +/- 0.2 Gyr. We note that a photometrically complete luminosity function near the main-sequence turnoff and subgiant branch would also provide an important test of the overshoot models.

  7. MMPI personality type and cognitive flexibility as determined by the Weigl Color-Form Sorting Test in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kunce, J T; Blount, J B; Tamkin, A S

    1987-11-01

    The relationship of cognitive flexibility with MMPI personality type, age, education, and IQ was investigated for a sample of 41 psychiatric inpatients. Cognitive flexibility was measured by the Weigl Color-Form Sorting Test. An index for measuring divergent thinking behavior was obtained from determining the similarity of their admission MMPI profiles to a MMPI prototype profile for divergent (psychotic) ideation using the formula: Divergent thinking = PA + PT + SC - L - K. Results showed that in this sample, cognitive flexibility was related significantly and inversely to the level of divergent thinking (p = .02), but was unrelated to IQ test scores. Supplemental analyses indicated that the level of divergent thinking may mask the established relationship of cognitive flexibility with age and education. PMID:3693558

  8. Evaluation of the Campbell test and the influence of age, sex, breed, and coat color on puppy behavioral responses.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; López-Rodríguez, Rocío

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Campbell test and discover if there is a link between a puppy's scores and factors such as age, breed, sex, sex-breed interaction, size, Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) groups, and coat color. The Campbell test was performed on 342 puppies (191 males and 151 females) of different breeds. The results show that the criteria used by Campbell to classify puppies are incomplete, and that it is more appropriate to use numerical values for each type of answer. In general, the mean value obtained, regardless of sex and breed, corresponded to the Campbell's submissive stable category. The mean value was higher in male dogs than in females. PMID:18505191

  9. Evaluation of the Campbell test and the influence of age, sex, breed, and coat color on puppy behavioral responses

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; López-Rodríguez, Rocío

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Campbell test and discover if there is a link between a puppy’s scores and factors such as age, breed, sex, sex-breed interaction, size, Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) groups, and coat color. The Campbell test was performed on 342 puppies (191 males and 151 females) of different breeds. The results show that the criteria used by Campbell to classify puppies are incomplete, and that it is more appropriate to use numerical values for each type of answer. In general, the mean value obtained, regardless of sex and breed, corresponded to the Campbell’s submissive stable category. The mean value was higher in male dogs than in females. PMID:18505191

  10. X-ray computerized tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wellington, S.L.; Vinegar, H.J.

    1987-08-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) is a new radiological imaging technique that measures density and atomic composition inside opaque objects. A revolutionary advance in medical radiology since 1972, CT has only recently been applied in petrophysics and reservoir engineering. This paper discusses several petrophysical applications, including three-dimensional (3D) measurement of density and porosity; rock mechanics studies; correlation of core logs with well logs; characterization of mud invasion, fractures, and disturbed core; and quantification of complex mineralogies and sand/shale ratios. Reservoir engineering applications presented include fundamental studies of CO/sub 2/ displacement in cores, focussing on viscous fingering, gravity segregation, miscibility, and mobility control.

  11. The color communication game.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Delwin; Brown, Angela; Brainard, David; Apicella, Coren

    2015-09-01

    We report a new, information theory based analysis of color naming. We compute mutual information (MI, in bits) in a simulated "game" involving a "sender" (S) who names out loud, based on his color idiolect, the colors of samples selected randomly (with replacement) from an array of N samples. A "receiver" (R) attempts to identify S's selections from her duplicate array of color samples, based only on S's color term message and her own color idiolect. MI measures how much S's messages improve R's chances of guessing S's selections correctly. Computing average MI for all pairwise permutations of informants of a language provides an estimate of shared color knowledge within the informants' culture that takes into account the number of color samples tested, the number of color terms in informants' idiolects, and the group consensus in color term deployment. The communication game reveals several interesting properties of worldwide color naming. For example, MI is quite variable among the 110 World Color Survey languages using a given number of high-frequency color terms, because the consensus for those terms is often highly variable. Moreover, 96% of the variance in WCS MI can be accounted for by informants' responses to just 23 of 330 color samples tested in the WCS, suggesting a very efficient stimulus set for other color naming studies. Additionally, many informants of Hadzane, a language spoken by nomadic Tanzanian hunter-gatherers, profess no knowledge of names for many color samples, yet have surprisingly high group MI (relative to many WCS languages), because their limited lexicon is deployed with high consensus. Finally, we show that allowing informants to use two rather than one color name generally offers little improvement in group MI. Thus, information theory provides a powerful quantitative tool for studying human communication about color. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325714

  12. An Example Crossover Experiment for Testing New Vicarious Calibration Techniques for Satellite Ocean Color Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, Kenneth J.; McLean, Scott; Lewis, Marlon; Johnson, Carol; Flora, Stephanie; Feinholz, Michael; Yarbrough, Mark; Trees, Charles; Twardowski, Mike; Clark, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Vicarious calibration of ocean color satellites involves the use of accurate surface measurements of water-leaving radiance to update and improve the system calibration of ocean color satellite sensors. An experiment was performed to compare a free-fall technique with the established MOBY measurement. We found in the laboratory that the radiance and irradiance instruments compared well within their estimated uncertainties for various spectral sources. The spectrally averaged differences between the NIST values for the sources and the instruments were less than 2.5% for the radiance sensors and less than 1.5% for the irradiance sensors. In the field, the sensors measuring the above-surface downwelling irradiance performed nearly as well as they had in the laboratory, with an average difference of less than 2%. While the water-leaving radiance, L(sub w) calculated from each instrument agreed in almost all cases within the combined instrument uncertainties (approximately 7%), there was a relative bias between the two instrument classes/techniques that varied spectrally. The spectrally averaged (400 nm to 600 nm) difference between the two instrument classes/techniques was 3.1 %. However the spectral variation resulted in the free fall instruments being 0.2% lower at 450 nm and 5.9% higher at 550 nm. Based on the analysis of one matchup, the bias in the L(sub w), was similar to that observed for L(sub u)(1 m) with both systems, indicating the difference did not come from propagating L(sub u)(1 m) to L(sub w).

  13. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Influence of Age, Sex, and Education; and Normative Data for a Large Sample Across the Adult Age Range

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

    2006-01-01

    The Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to 1,856 cognitively screened, healthy Dutch-speaking participants aged 24 to 81 years. The effects of age, gender, and education on Stroop test performance were investigated to adequately stratify the normative data. The results showed that especially the speed-dependent Stroop scores (time to complete…

  14. Computerization of the Student Neurophysiology Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Beverly

    1985-01-01

    Describes how a traditional neurophysiology laboratory has been computerized and how students work with digitizing on-line data. Points out advantages of computerization, including the speed, accuracy, and reliability in the acquisition, reduction, and analysis of data. Also describes four generic computer programs tailored to the particular…

  15. 36 CFR 1120.52 - Computerized records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Computerized records. 1120.52 Section 1120.52 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Copies of Records and Fees for Services § 1120.52 Computerized records. (a) Information available...

  16. 241-AZ-101 Waste Tank Color Video Camera System Shop Acceptance Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    WERRY, S.M.

    2000-03-23

    This report includes shop acceptance test results. The test was performed prior to installation at tank AZ-101. Both the camera system and camera purge system were originally sought and procured as a part of initial waste retrieval project W-151.

  17. Computerized Prostate Models Tumor Progression | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Using a type of computer simulation known as cellular automata modeling, a research team led by David Basanta of the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute has created a computerized view of the human prostate gland that faithfully represents the interactions between early tumors and adjacent tissues. More importantly, this model generated hypotheses about tumor growth that were successfully tested in vivo. The investigators describe their model in the journal Cancer Research.

  18. Variations in the photoperiodic cloacal response of Japanese quail: association with testes weight and feather color

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, T.; Konishi, T.

    1983-04-01

    The size of the cloacal gland was found to be a reliable indicator of testicular activity of Japanese quail. Six experiments were performed to examine the effects of alternating long and short photoperiod on the size of the cloacal gland of male Japanese quail. Three types of photoperiodic cloacal responses were distinguished. Type I birds became refractory to short photoperiods after they had experienced 5 weeks or more of short days. They maintained large cloacal glands under subsequent condition of alternating long and short photoperiod. Type II birds were intermediate types I and III birds did not become refractory to short photoperiods after experiencing 5 weeks or more of short days. The cloacal glands responded to conditions of alternating long and short photoperiods with increases or decreases in size. Feather color on the throat was found to correspond to the type of cloacal response. Type I birds had brick-red throat feathers. Type II birds had white feathers intermingled with brick-red feathers. Type III had white throat feathers. The percentages of types I, II, and III observed in the experimental population was 67, 18, and 15%, respectively. Type III birds were used to study the effects of blinding on the cloacal response to short photoperiod. Five out of eight blinded type III birds did not lose the responsiveness to short photoperiod. These results are consistent with the view that extraocular photoreceptors participate in the photoperiodic gonadal response of Japanese quail.

  19. The effectiveness of the Weigl Color-Form Sorting Test in screening for brain dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tamkin, A S; Kunce, J T; Blount, J B; Magharious, W

    1984-11-01

    Investigated the Weigl's diagnostic significance by correlating it with several psychometric and personal variables, including degree of brain dysfunction. Forty-three male, veteran, psychiatric patients were administered the complete WAIS, Hooper, Benton, and Weigl, and their ward psychiatrist estimated presence and degree of brain dysfunction. Although uncorrelated with brain dysfunction, the Weigl did correlate significantly with 13 of the 19 study variables involved in assessment of brain function. Factor-analytic studies showed that the Weigl loaded significantly on the factor associated with neurological function. It was discovered that when a patient who is being screened can perform the conceptual requirements of the Weigl, then additional conceptual-verbal tests (e.g., Similarities) are less useful in discriminating organicity than perceptual tests (e.g., Object Assembly). When a patient cannot shift on the Weigl, then further conceptual tests will be useful. PMID:6511964

  20. Hands-On Science: Is It an Acid or a Base? These Colorful Tests Tell All!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Two hands-on science activities for K-6 students teach them how to determine if something is an acid or a base. The activities require acid/base indicator juice, testing strips, and a base solution. A recipe for making them in the classroom using red cabbage and baking soda is provided. (SM)

  1. Computerization of Mental Health Integration Complexity Scores at Intermountain Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Oniki, Thomas A.; Rodrigues, Drayton; Rahman, Noman; Patur, Saritha; Briot, Pascal; Taylor, David P.; Wilcox, Adam B.; Reiss-Brennan, Brenda; Cannon, Wayne H.

    2014-01-01

    Intermountain Healthcare’s Mental Health Integration (MHI) Care Process Model (CPM) contains formal scoring criteria for assessing a patient’s mental health complexity as “mild,” “medium,” or “high” based on patient data. The complexity score attempts to assist Primary Care Physicians in assessing the mental health needs of their patients and what resources will need to be brought to bear. We describe an effort to computerize the scoring. Informatics and MHI personnel collaboratively and iteratively refined the criteria to make them adequately explicit and reflective of MHI objectives. When tested on retrospective data of 540 patients, the clinician agreed with the computer’s conclusion in 52.8% of the cases (285/540). We considered the analysis sufficiently successful to begin piloting the computerized score in prospective clinical care. So far in the pilot, clinicians have agreed with the computer in 70.6% of the cases (24/34). PMID:25954401

  2. The genetics of skin, hair, and eye color variation and its relevance to forensic pigmentation predictive tests.

    PubMed

    Maroñas, O; Söchtig, J; Ruiz, Y; Phillips, C; Carracedo, Á; Lareu, M V

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the potential application of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based predictive tests for skin, hair, and eye color to forensic analysis in support of police investigations lacking DNA database matches or eyewitness testimony. Brief descriptions of the biology of melanogenesis and the main genes involved are presented in order to understand the basis of common pigmentation variation in humans. We outline the most recently developed forensically sensitive multiplex tests that can be applied to investigative analyses. The review also describes the biology of the SNPs with the closest associations to, and therefore the best predictors for, common variation in eye, hair, and skin pigmentation. Because pigmentation pathways are complex in their patterns, many of the better-studied human albinism traits provide insight into how pigmentation SNPs interact, control, or modify gene expression and show varying degrees of association with the key genes identified to date. These aspects of SNP action are discussed in an overview of each of the functional groups of pigmentation genes. PMID:26227136

  3. Testing a polarimetric cloud imager aboard research vessel Polarstern: comparison of color-based and polarimetric cloud detection algorithms.

    PubMed

    Barta, András; Horváth, Gábor; Horváth, Ákos; Egri, Ádám; Blahó, Miklós; Barta, Pál; Bumke, Karl; Macke, Andreas

    2015-02-10

    Cloud cover estimation is an important part of routine meteorological observations. Cloudiness measurements are used in climate model evaluation, nowcasting solar radiation, parameterizing the fluctuations of sea surface insolation, and building energy transfer models of the atmosphere. Currently, the most widespread ground-based method to measure cloudiness is based on analyzing the unpolarized intensity and color distribution of the sky obtained by digital cameras. As a new approach, we propose that cloud detection can be aided by the additional use of skylight polarization measured by 180° field-of-view imaging polarimetry. In the fall of 2010, we tested such a novel polarimetric cloud detector aboard the research vessel Polarstern during expedition ANT-XXVII/1. One of our goals was to test the durability of the measurement hardware under the extreme conditions of a trans-Atlantic cruise. Here, we describe the instrument and compare the results of several different cloud detection algorithms, some conventional and some newly developed. We also discuss the weaknesses of our design and its possible improvements. The comparison with cloud detection algorithms developed for traditional nonpolarimetric full-sky imagers allowed us to evaluate the added value of polarimetric quantities. We found that (1) neural-network-based algorithms perform the best among the investigated schemes and (2) global information (the mean and variance of intensity), nonoptical information (e.g., sun-view geometry), and polarimetric information (e.g., the degree of polarization) improve the accuracy of cloud detection, albeit slightly. PMID:25968023

  4. Color blindness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have trouble telling the difference between red and green. This is the most common type of color ... color blindness often have problems seeing reds and greens, too. The most severe form of color blindness ...

  5. The Auditing of Computerized Accounting Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skudrna, Vincent J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes an investigation undertaken to indicate the curricular content (knowledge and skills) needed to prepare the accounting student to audit computerized accounting systems. Areas studied included programing languages, data processing, desired course training, and computer audit techniques. (CT)

  6. HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Katya Le Blanc

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures in nuclear power plant control rooms. It is beyond the scope of this paper to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper provides a review of HRA as applied to traditional paper-based procedures, followed by a discussion of what specific factors should additionally be considered in HRAs for computerized procedures. Performance shaping factors and failure modes unique to computerized procedures are highlighted. Since there is no definitive guide to HRA for paper-based procedures, this paper also serves to clarify the existing guidance on paper-based procedures before delving into the unique aspects of computerized procedures.

  7. Computerized tomography using video recorded fluoroscopic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kak, A. C.; Jakowatz, C. V., Jr.; Baily, N. A.; Keller, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A computerized tomographic imaging system is examined which employs video-recorded fluoroscopic images as input data. By hooking the video recorder to a digital computer through a suitable interface, such a system permits very rapid construction of tomograms.

  8. Computerizing a house organ: recharting familiar territory

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Computerization can offer great advantages. But one publication ideally suited to computerization was slow to take advantage of the new technology. The main reason was reluctance to try an unfamiliar way of doing things. Having now switched to computerization, the publication has reaped many benefits. Among them: production time is faster; costs are lower; errors are fewer. Computerization has not been without minor problems. The most obvious is vulnerability to the rarity of a system failure. Others include the technology's potential reinforcement of overediting and of excessive reliance on extremely rapid response. Such problems, however, do not indicate weaknesses in the technology itself; rather, they reflect an incomplete adaption to it and the need for more realistic expectations. An unwarranted reluctance to innovate can slow advances in communication. Technical communicators must be willing to rechart their own familiar territory.

  9. What is color for? Color

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, David

    What is color for? #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Color · Physics ­ Light is E-M radiation of different frequencies. ­ Superposition principle · Perception ­ 3 cones -> 3D color space. (Metamers). ­ Convex subset of 3D linear space. ­ Color matching: can't represent w/ 3 primaries. · Color Spaces ­ CIE

  10. 78 FR 69392 - Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ...Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing. The purpose...developing computerized tests for military enlistment screening. DATES...developing computerized tests for military enlistment screening. Agenda...timelines, test development strategies, and planned research...

  11. Color realism and color science

    E-print Network

    Byrne, Alex

    The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, ...

  12. Language networks associated with computerized semantic indices.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Jones, David T; Knopman, David S

    2015-01-01

    Tests of generative semantic verbal fluency are widely used to study organization and representation of concepts in the human brain. Previous studies demonstrated that clustering and switching behavior during verbal fluency tasks is supported by multiple brain mechanisms associated with semantic memory and executive control. Previous work relied on manual assessments of semantic relatedness between words and grouping of words into semantic clusters. We investigated a computational linguistic approach to measuring the strength of semantic relatedness between words based on latent semantic analysis of word co-occurrences in a subset of a large online encyclopedia. We computed semantic clustering indices and compared them to brain network connectivity measures obtained with task-free fMRI in a sample consisting of healthy participants and those differentially affected by cognitive impairment. We found that semantic clustering indices were associated with brain network connectivity in distinct areas including fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal and fusiform gyrus regions. This study shows that computerized semantic indices complement traditional assessments of verbal fluency to provide a more complete account of the relationship between brain and verbal behavior involved organization and retrieval of lexical information from memory. PMID:25315785

  13. Reduced Stroop Interference for Opponent Colors May Be Due to Input Factors: Evidence from Individual Differences and a Neural Network Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laeng, Bruno; Torstein, Lag; Brennen, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Sensory or input factors can influence the strength of interference in the classic Stroop color-word task. Specifically, in a single-trial computerized version of the Stroop task, when color-word pairs were incongruent, opponent color pairs (e.g., the word BLUE in yellow) showed reduced Stroop interference compared with nonopponent color pairs…

  14. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...

  15. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...

  16. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...

  17. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...

  18. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the...

  19. Different color Same color Similarityrating

    E-print Network

    Thompson-Schill, Sharon

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Different color Same color Similarityrating Object pair A central principle color localizer. Feature diagnosticity affects semantic representations of novel and common object. blobby 3. round 4. Using color as the diagnostic feature, we used a training paradigm to investigate how

  20. Extension of Empirical Color Calibration and Test using Cool and Metal-Rich Stars in NGC 6791

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Deokkeun; Terndrup, Donald M.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Lee, Jae-woo

    2015-08-01

    We extend our effort to calibrate stellar isochrones in the Johnson-Cousins (BVIC) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (JHKs) filter systems based on observations of well-studied open clusters. Using cool main-sequence (MS) stars in Praesepe, we define empirical corrections to the Lejeune et al. color-effective temperature (Teff) relations down to Teff ~ 3600 K, complementing our previous work based on the Hyades and the Pleiades. We apply empirically corrected isochrones to existing optical and near-infrared photometry of cool (Teff ~ 5500 K) and metal-rich ([Fe/H]=+0.37) MS stars in NGC 6791, and find that color-excess and distance estimates from color-magnitude diagrams with different color indices converge on each other at the precisely known metallicity of the cluster. Along with a satisfactory agreement with eclipsing binary data in the cluster, we view the improved internal consistency as a validation of our calibrated isochrones at super-solar metallicities. For very cool stars (Teff < 4800 K), however, we find that BV colors of our models are systematically redder than the cluster photometry by ~0.02 mag. We use color-Teff transformations from the infrared flux method (IRFM) and alternative photometry to examine a potential color-scale error in the input cluster photometry. After excluding BV photometry of these cool MS stars, we derive E(B-V)=0.105±0.014, [M/H]=+0.42±0.07, (m-M)0 = 13.04±0.09, and the age of 9.5±0.3 Gyr for NGC 6791.

  1. Iterative evaluation in a mobile counseling and testing program to reach people of color at risk for HIV--new strategies improve program acceptability, effectiveness, and evaluation capabilities.

    PubMed

    Spielberg, Freya; Kurth, Ann; Reidy, William; McKnight, Teka; Dikobe, Wame; Wilson, Charles

    2011-06-01

    This article highlights findings from an evaluation that explored the impact of mobile versus clinic-based testing, rapid versus central-lab based testing, incentives for testing, and the use of a computer counseling program to guide counseling and automate evaluation in a mobile program reaching people of color at risk for HIV. The program's results show that an increased focus on mobile outreach using rapid testing, incentives and health information technology tools may improve program acceptability, quality, productivity and timeliness of reports. This article describes program design decisions based on continuous quality assessment efforts. It also examines the impact of the Computer Assessment and Risk Reduction Education computer tool on HIV testing rates, staff perception of counseling quality, program productivity, and on the timeliness of evaluation reports. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for programmatic responses to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's HIV testing recommendations. PMID:21689041

  2. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color

  3. A Method for Peat Inventory Based on LANDSAT Data and Computerized Mapping. [Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pala, S.

    1982-01-01

    Wetlands were preliminarily delineated on a geometrically-corrected color composite map printed from digital LANDSAT data using a computerized color plotting system. A digital classification was performed to identify the location and extent of wetland types (e.g., open bog, types of treed fen and black spruce-alder swamp). A map is printed from the results of this classification using the computerized color plotter. This color-coded map, produced at several different scales, provides a basis for pre-selecting field sampling sites. Helicopter-aided spot sampling based on the LANDSAT-derived map was conducted over the entire 1700 sq km area of North Ontario. Traditional transect sampling was carried out over a portion of the area, so that the two methods could be compared. Spot sampling based on the LANDSAT-derived map was found to produce results virtually identical to those produced by the transect sampling technique, in approximately one-fifteenth of the time and with a proportionate reduction in cost.

  4. Computerized ultrasound differentiation of curly birch from silver birch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmi, Ari; Hintikka, Tuomas; Karppinen, Timo; Forsman, Pia; Hæggström, Edward

    2007-01-01

    We report on computerized differentiation of two birch types. Curly birch (CB, Betula pendula var. carelica Sok) commands a higher price than a normal silver birch (SB, Betula pendula Roth). Hence it is crucial to differentiate the two wood types when the trees are young. We studied the possibility to use ultrasound for such differentiation. A propagation velocity of 4MHz longitudinal tone bursts, transmitted through block samples of 20×20mm2 cross section, comprising of both CB and SB woods, was determined. The samples originating from southern Finland were sawed so that the sound propagation direction was longitudinal or radial with respect to the trunk. One sample set comprised of seven different sample thicknesses with a range of 2-12mm. From the time-of-flight measurements of the samples (19±1%weight humidity) the wave propagation velocity under laboratory conditions (50±5%RH, 23±1°C) was determined from a least-squares fit. The results indicate a significant difference (t-test p =0.032 and velocity difference of 24±8%) in longitudinal direction and a highly significant difference (t-test p =0.001 and velocity difference of 22±10%) in the radial direction between the two wood types. A blinded probability of detection test was conducted using 48 samples originating from two different trunks as well as from single trunks' curly and noncurly sections. The results indicate 93% probability of correct type classification using computerized clusterization.

  5. A structure-reactivity relationship driven approach to the identification of a color test protocol for the presumptive indication of synthetic cannabimimetic drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Richard C A

    2014-09-01

    The number of analyses of synthetic cannabimimetic drugs of abuse by forensic laboratories in the United States grew rapidly from 2010 to 2012 and then declined somewhat in 2013. In 2010, according to the National Forensic Laboratory Information System (NFLIS), 3,287 reports by federal, state and local forensic laboratories were identified as containing synthetic cannabinoids. In 2011 and 2012, the numbers increased to 23,693 and 42,503, respectively. 27,119 reports were identified in 2013. Several commonly encountered structural sub-classes of these synthetic designer drugs, namely the naphthoylindoles, benzoylindoles, phenylacetylindoles, and cyclopropoylindoles contain a ketone functional group. The Duquenois-Levine color test for the presumptive identification of classical cannabinoids such as ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol is negative for the synthetic cannabimimetics. The van Urk color test for the presumptive identification of indole containing drugs of abuse is also negative for these compounds. The use of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine as an alternative color test reagent (targeting the keto moiety rather than the indole) for presumptive identification of these classes of drugs was investigated. PMID:25062530

  6. Computerized microscopic image analysis of follicular lymphoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertel, Olcay; Kong, Jun; Lozanski, Gerard; Catalyurek, Umit; Saltz, Joel H.; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2008-03-01

    Follicular Lymphoma (FL) is a cancer arising from the lymphatic system. Originating from follicle center B cells, FL is mainly comprised of centrocytes (usually middle-to-small sized cells) and centroblasts (relatively large malignant cells). According to the World Health Organization's recommendations, there are three histological grades of FL characterized by the number of centroblasts per high-power field (hpf) of area 0.159 mm2. In current practice, these cells are manually counted from ten representative fields of follicles after visual examination of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides by pathologists. Several studies clearly demonstrate the poor reproducibility of this grading system with very low inter-reader agreement. In this study, we are developing a computerized system to assist pathologists with this process. A hybrid approach that combines information from several slides with different stains has been developed. Thus, follicles are first detected from digitized microscopy images with immunohistochemistry (IHC) stains, (i.e., CD10 and CD20). The average sensitivity and specificity of the follicle detection tested on 30 images at 2×, 4× and 8× magnifications are 85.5+/-9.8% and 92.5+/-4.0%, respectively. Since the centroblasts detection is carried out in the H&E-stained slides, the follicles in the IHC-stained images are mapped to H&E-stained counterparts. To evaluate the centroblast differentiation capabilities of the system, 11 hpf images have been marked by an experienced pathologist who identified 41 centroblast cells and 53 non-centroblast cells. A non-supervised clustering process differentiates the centroblast cells from noncentroblast cells, resulting in 92.68% sensitivity and 90.57% specificity.

  7. Color realism and color science.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

    2003-02-01

    The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in the mind." The article has two other purposes: First, to introduce an interdisciplinary audience to some distinctively philosophical tools that are useful in tackling the problem of color realism and, second, to clarify the various positions and central arguments in the debate. The first part explains the problem of color realism and makes some useful distinctions. These distinctions are then used to expose various confusions that often prevent people from seeing that the issues are genuine and difficult, and that the problem of color realism ought to be of interest to anyone working in the field of color science. The second part explains the various leading answers to the problem of color realism, and (briefly) argues that all views other than our own have serious difficulties or are unmotivated. The third part explains and motivates our own view, that colors are types of reflectances and defends it against objections made in the recent literature that are often taken as fatal. PMID:14598439

  8. Color notations

    E-print Network

    Gardner, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    This study presents research regarding the language of colors and of computers. The focus was color: translated through personal imagery, transferred and changed through media, and programmed through the computer. The ...

  9. Evaluation of Ocean Color Scanner (OCS) photographic and digital data: Santa Barbara Channel test site, 29 October 1975 overflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, S. P.; Estes, J. E.; Kronenberg, M. R.; Hajic, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    A summary of Ocean Color Scanner data was examined to evaluate detection and discrimination capabilities of the system for marine resources, oil pollution and man-made sea surface targets of opportunity in the Santa Barbara Channel. Assessment of the utility of OCS for the determination of sediment transport patterns along the coastal zone was a secondary goal. Data products provided 1975 overflight were in digital and analog formats. In evaluating the OCS data, automated and manual procedures were employed. A total of four channels of data in digital format were analyzed, as well as three channels of color combined imagery, and four channels of black and white imagery. In addition, 1:120,000 scale color infrared imagery acquired simultaneously with the OCS data were provided for comparative analysis purposes.

  10. Technology and Language Testing. A Collection of Papers from the Annual Colloquium on Language Testing Research (7th, Princeton, New Jersey, April 6-9, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W., Ed.

    This collection of essays on measurement theory and language testing includes: "Computerized Adaptive Testing: Implications for Language Test Developers" (Peter Tung); "The Promise and Threat of Computerized Adaptive Assessment of Reading Comprehension" (Michael Canale); "Computerized Rasch Analysis of Item Bias in ESL Tests" (Harold S. Madsen,…

  11. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15 Section 501.15 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS AUTHORIZATION TO MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System...

  12. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15 Section 501.15 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS AUTHORIZATION TO MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System...

  13. Seeing Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

  14. Computerized Condition-specific Templates For Improving Care of Geriatric Syndromes in a Primary Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Constance H

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION As the U.S. population ages, primary care clinicians (PCCs) will encounter more patients with geriatric syndromes, such as urinary incontinence (UI) and falls. Yet, current evidence suggests that care of these conditions does not meet expected standards and that PCCs would benefit from tools to improve care of these conditions. Little is known about the role of computerized condition-specific templates for improving care of geriatric syndromes. AIM We sought to develop and assess the usefulness of condition-specific computerized templates in a primary care setting. SETTING A large academic Veterans Affairs medical center. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION We developed and tested the usefulness of 2 condition-specific computerized templates (UI and falls) that could be added on to an existing electronic health record system. PROGRAM EVALUATION Semistructured interviews were used to identify barriers to use of computerized templates. Usefulness and usability were assessed through a randomized-controlled trial involving standardized patients. DISCUSSION Use of condition-specific templates resulted in improved history and physical exam assessment for both UI and falls (P < .05). Our computerized, condition-specific templates are a promising method for improving care of geriatric conditions in a primary care setting, but require improvement in usability before widespread implementation. PMID:16918747

  15. Special Education Curriculum (Computerized IEP Catalog).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland Independent School District, TX.

    This special education curriculum, developed by the Garland (Texas) Independent School District, outlines the basic tools for preparing an Individual Educational Plan (IEP) for each handicapped student. The curricular information is organized and coded to facilitate computerized printing of the IEP. The document begins with a list of 13…

  16. Computerized Collective Training for Teams. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurmond, Paul; Kribs, H. Dewey

    The purpose of this investigation was to empirically demonstrate and evaluate a brassboard for computerized collective training for teams (COLT2). The underlying tasks were to (1) conduct a state of the art assessment of instructional strategies appropriate for COLT2, (2) derive a conceptual framework for COLT2 instructional strategies, (3)…

  17. Computerized management information systems and organizational structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zannetos, Z. S.; Sertel, M. R.

    1970-01-01

    The computerized management of information systems and organizational structures is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) critical factors favoring centralization and decentralization of organizations, (2) classification of organizations by relative structure, (3) attempts to measure change in organization structure, and (4) impact of information technology developments on organizational structure changes.

  18. Implementation of a Computerized Maintenance Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Yong-Hong; Askari, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A primer Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) has been established for NASA Ames pressure component certification program. The CMMS takes full advantage of the latest computer technology and SQL relational database to perform periodic services for vital pressure components. The Ames certification program is briefly described and the aspects of the CMMS implementation are discussed as they are related to the certification objectives.

  19. OMNIDATA and the Computerization of Scientific Data

    E-print Network

    , An Interactive System for Data Retrieval, Statistical and Graphical Analysis and Data-Base Management: A User, and a visionary precursor to what is today called component-based software. Most of the individual modulesOMNIDATA and the Computerization of Scientific Data For much of its history, the National Bureau

  20. Computerized Enrollment Driven Financial Forecasting Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarvella, John R.

    An interactive, computerized model developed for Old Dominion University utilizes university historical data, demographic characteristics, projected selected economic variables and population figures by various age groups and planning districts to forecast enrollment, financial projections, and future fiscal conditions of the institution. The…

  1. Computerized Face Recognition in Renaissance Portrait Art

    E-print Network

    Chowdhury, Amit K. Roy

    1 Computerized Face Recognition in Renaissance Portrait Art Ramya Srinivasan, Conrad Rudolph historians in answering many of their ambiguities concerning identity of the subject in some portraits and in understanding artists' styles. Works of portrait art bear the mark of visual interpretation of the artist

  2. 36 CFR 1120.52 - Computerized records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... additional programming of the computer, thus producing information not previously in being, is not required... from the computer which permits copying the printout, the material will be made available at the per... information from computerized records frequently involves a minimum computer time cost of approximately...

  3. 36 CFR 1120.52 - Computerized records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... additional programming of the computer, thus producing information not previously in being, is not required... from the computer which permits copying the printout, the material will be made available at the per... information from computerized records frequently involves a minimum computer time cost of approximately...

  4. 36 CFR 1120.52 - Computerized records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... additional programming of the computer, thus producing information not previously in being, is not required... from the computer which permits copying the printout, the material will be made available at the per... information from computerized records frequently involves a minimum computer time cost of approximately...

  5. 36 CFR 1120.52 - Computerized records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... additional programming of the computer, thus producing information not previously in being, is not required... from the computer which permits copying the printout, the material will be made available at the per... information from computerized records frequently involves a minimum computer time cost of approximately...

  6. NATIONAL ARCHIVE OF COMPUTERIZED DATA ON AGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Archive of Computerized Data on Aging (NACDA), located within ICPSR, is funded by the National Institute on Aging. NACDA's mission is to advance research on aging by helping researchers to profit from the under-exploited potential of a broad range of datasets. NACDA ...

  7. Color categories are not arbitrary P. Kay Color Categories are Not Arbitrary

    E-print Network

    Kay, Paul

    of Berinmo3 color terms and related psychological tests (hereafter RDD) failed to replicate some importantColor categories are not arbitrary P. Kay 1 Color Categories are Not Arbitrary Paul Kay, U. Challenges to the Universals and Evolution theory of basic color term naming A theory of basic color term

  8. Computerized quantitative evaluation of mammographic accreditation phantom images

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih; Shinohara, Norimitsu

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: The objective was to develop and investigate an automated scoring scheme of the American College of Radiology (ACR) mammographic accreditation phantom (RMI 156, Middleton, WI) images. Methods: The developed method consisted of background subtraction, determination of region of interest, classification of fiber and mass objects by Mahalanobis distance, detection of specks by template matching, and rule-based scoring. Fifty-one phantom images were collected from 51 facilities for this study (one facility provided one image). A medical physicist and two radiologic technologists also scored the images. The human and computerized scores were compared. Results: In terms of meeting the ACR's criteria, the accuracies of the developed method for computerized evaluation of fiber, mass, and speck were 90%, 80%, and 98%, respectively. Contingency table analysis revealed significant association between observer and computer scores for microcalcifications (p<5%) but not for masses and fibers. Conclusions: The developed method may achieve a stable assessment of visibility for test objects in mammographic accreditation phantom image in whether the phantom image meets the ACR's criteria in the evaluation test, although there is room left for improvement in the approach for fiber and mass objects.

  9. Reliability and Validity of the Flemish Physical Activity Computerized Questionnaire in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matton, Lynn; Wijndaele, Katrien; Duvigneaud, Nathalie; Duquet, William; Philippaerts, Renaat; Thomis, Martine; Lefevre, Johan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Flemish Physical Activity Computerized Questionnaire (FPACQ) in employed/unemployed and retired people. The FPACQ was developed to assess detailed information on several dimensions of physical activity and sedentary behavior over a usual week. A…

  10. Improving Emergency Department Triage Classification with Computerized Clinical Decision Support at a Pediatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunisch, Joseph Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Emergency Severity Index (ESI) is an emergency department (ED) triage classification system based on estimated patient-specific resource utilization. Rules for a computerized clinical decision support (CDS) system based on a patient's chief complaint were developed and tested using a stochastic model for predicting ESI scores.…

  11. Further Evidence for a Multifaceted Model of Mental Speed: Factor Structure and Validity of Computerized Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Wilhelm, Oliver; Roberts, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate the structure of mental speed and relations evidenced with fluid intelligence (Gf) found in a number of recent studies. Specifically, a battery of computerized tasks examined whether results with paper-and-pencil assessments held across different test media. Participants (N = 186) completed the battery,…

  12. Computerized Aid Improves Safety Decision Process for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B.; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user.…

  13. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  14. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  15. TESTING GALAXY FORMATION MODELS WITH THE GHOSTS SURVEY: THE COLOR PROFILE OF M81's STELLAR HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; Bailin, Jeremy; Radburn-Smith, David J.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Vlajic, Marija; De Jong, Roelof S.; Streich, David; Holwerda, Benne W.

    2013-04-01

    We study the properties of the stellar populations in M81's outermost part, which hereafter we will call the stellar halo, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys observations of 19 fields from the GHOSTS survey. The observed fields probe the stellar halo out to a projected distance of {approx}50 kpc from the galactic center. Each field was observed in both F606W and F814W filters. The 50% completeness levels of the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) are typically at 2 mag below the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). Fields at distances closer than 15 kpc show evidence of disk-dominated populations whereas fields at larger distances are mostly populated by halo stars. The red giant branch (RGB) of the M81's halo CMDs is well matched with isochrones of {approx}10 Gyr and metallicities [Fe/H] {approx} - 1.2 dex, suggesting that the dominant stellar population of M81's halo has a similar age and metallicity. The halo of M81 is characterized by a color distribution of width {approx}0.4 mag and an approximately constant median value of (F606W - F814W) {approx}1 mag measured using stars within the magnitude range 23.7 {approx}< F814W {approx}< 25.5. When considering only fields located at galactocentric radius R > 15 kpc, we detect no color gradient in the stellar halo of M81. We place a limit of 0.03 {+-} 0.11 mag difference between the median color of RGB M81 halo stars at {approx}15 and at 50 kpc, corresponding to a metallicity difference of 0.08 {+-} 0.35 dex over that radial range for an assumed constant age of 10 Gyr. We compare these results with model predictions for the colors of stellar halos formed purely via accretion of satellite galaxies. When we analyze the cosmologically motivated models in the same way as the HST data, we find that they predict no color gradient for the stellar halos, in good agreement with the observations.

  16. Color Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  17. 10 CFR Appendix R to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Average Lamp Efficacy (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Index (CRI), and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps R Appendix...Index (CRI), and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps 1. Scope...Rendering Index and Correlated Color Temperature 4.4.1The CRI shall be...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix R to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Average Lamp Efficacy (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Index (CRI), and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps R Appendix...Index (CRI), and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps 1. Scope...Rendering Index and Correlated Color Temperature 4.4.1The CRI shall be...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix R to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Average Lamp Efficacy (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Index (CRI), and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps R Appendix...Index (CRI), and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps 1. Scope...Rendering Index and Correlated Color Temperature 4.4.1The CRI shall be...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix R to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Average Lamp Efficacy (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Index (CRI), and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps R Appendix...Index (CRI), and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps 1. Scope...Rendering Index and Correlated Color Temperature 4.4.1 The CRI shall be...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix R to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Average Lamp Efficacy (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Index (CRI), and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps R Appendix...Index (CRI), and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps 1. Scope...Rendering Index and Correlated Color Temperature 4.4.1The CRI shall be...

  2. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory E.L. van den Broek a M 60637 Abstract Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non- intuitive results for the user. We introduce color

  3. Dynamic phenomenology of grapheme-color synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Bridgeman, Bruce; Winter, Dorina; Tseng, Philip

    2010-01-01

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, observers perceive colors that are associated with letters and numbers. We tested the dynamic limits of this phenomenon by exposing two synesthetes to characters that rotate smoothly, that morph into other characters, that disappear abruptly, or that have colors either consistent or inconsistent with the corresponding synesthetic color. Rotating letters changed their synesthetic colors abruptly as letter identification changed or failed. Morphing letters also changed color together with a change in letter identification. Abrupt disappearance of a black character on a white background yielded a negative afterimage, but maintenance of the same synesthetic color. Our synesthetes could maintain both physical and synesthetic color in the same character, without conflict. Neon color spreading in one observer occurred for physical but not synesthetic color. These and other results show close linking of synesthetic color with character identity rather than image properties, in contrast to physical color. PMID:20677704

  4. SWS2 visual pigment evolution as a test of historically contingent patterns of plumage color evolution in warblers.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Natasha I; Morrow, James M; Chang, Belinda S W; Price, Trevor D

    2015-02-01

    Distantly related clades that occupy similar environments may differ due to the lasting imprint of their ancestors-historical contingency. The New World warblers (Parulidae) and Old World warblers (Phylloscopidae) are ecologically similar clades that differ strikingly in plumage coloration. We studied genetic and functional evolution of the short-wavelength-sensitive visual pigments (SWS2 and SWS1) to ask if altered color perception could contribute to the plumage color differences between clades. We show SWS2 is short-wavelength shifted in birds that occupy open environments, such as finches, compared to those in closed environments, including warblers. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate New World warblers were derived from a finch-like form that colonized from the Old World 15-20 Ma. During this process, the SWS2 gene accumulated six substitutions in branches leading to New World warblers, inviting the hypothesis that passage through a finch-like ancestor resulted in SWS2 evolution. In fact, we show spectral tuning remained similar across warblers as well as the finch ancestor. Results reject the hypothesis of historical contingency based on opsin spectral tuning, but point to evolution of other aspects of visual pigment function. Using the approach outlined here, historical contingency becomes a generally testable theory in systems where genotype and phenotype can be connected. PMID:25496318

  5. Evaluation of six computerized drug interaction screening programs.

    PubMed

    Jankel, C A; Martin, B C

    1992-06-01

    Six widely used computerized drug interaction screening programs were evaluated according to criteria developed by a panel of pharmacists. A panel of six pharmacists from various practice settings developed criteria that were used to evaluate six computerized drug interaction screening programs: Medicom Micro Plus, Medical Letter, S-O-A-P, Drug Interactions by Hansten, Drug Therapy Screening Systems (DTSS), and RxTriage. The criteria were that the programs be user friendly and efficient, provide guidance, and be relevant to the user's practice setting. Also, they should detect interactions, quickly alert the user, and guide the user to the appropriate action. The user should be able to set the level of clinical significance, screen only current drugs in a patient profile, and print out summaries. The panel selected nine known drug interactions to test the programs' knowledge bases. Only Medicom Micro Plus and DTSS detected all nine drug interactions; Medical Letter missed three. RxTriage and Drug Interactions received the highest ratings in user friendliness and efficiency, but both missed two interactions. RxTriage was rated most relevant to their practice by hospital and community pharmacists, and Drug Interactions was rated most relevant by faculty practitioners. S-O-A-P received low ratings overall. Of the six drug interaction screening programs evaluated, none was considered by the panel of pharmacists to be ideal. PMID:1529984

  6. Computerized device for critical flicker fusion frequency determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racene, Diana

    2003-08-01

    The critical fusion flicker frequency of the human visual system is the threshold sensitivity for a sine wave-modulated patch of monochromatic flickering light measured as a function of its temporal frequency and average luminance level. The critical flicker fusion frequency changes in different ocular and non-ocular conditions, for example: high-myopia, AMR, glaucoma, schizophrenia, after alcohol intake, fatigue. A computerized test for critical flicker fusion frequency determination was developed. Visual stimuli are two monochromatic LED light sources that are connected to a microcircuit driven by a computer program. The control of the device is realized through the parallel port of the PC. During the test a patient has to choose which one of two light sources is flickering. The critical cliker fusion frequency is determined by a psychophysical procedure, where the stimulus frequency that showed detection probability 75% is considered as threshold.

  7. Polar Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 3 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on January 1, 2003 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Troughs.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79, Longitude 346 East (14 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  9. Automatic information extraction for computerized clinical guideline.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huijia; Ni, Yuan; Cai, Peng; Cao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Clinical Guidelines (CG) are recommendations on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific diseases and conditions. CG should be used by both physicians and patients to make the informed decision. However, the CGs are not well used due to their complexity and because they are frequently updated. The computerized CGs are proposed to make use of the computer to do the decision making. However, it needs a lot of human effort to transform the narrative CG into computerized CG. In this paper, we proposed a method to use the NLP techniques to extract the fine-grained information from the text based CG automatically. Such information could be easily converted to the computer interpretable models. PMID:23920797

  10. Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, D.; White, D. )

    1992-02-24

    This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well. The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes and fluid losses before the changes in flow would normally be apparent.

  11. BIPP induced artefacts on computerized tomography.

    PubMed

    Black, B

    1979-06-01

    A case of BIPP induced artefacts on computerized tomography (CT) is presented. Because of the value of CT as a non-invasive intra-cranial investigation, the use of radio-opaque materials in the site to be investigated is to be avoided. In cases likely to require the use of CT, a substitute for BIPP packs in ear surgery is now required. PMID:466844

  12. Colored Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 7 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 30, 2002 during the Southern Fall season in Atlantis Chaos.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.5, Longitude 183.6 East (176.4 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. A Multisite, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Computerized Cognitive Remediation Therapy for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gomar, Jesús J.; Valls, Elia; Radua, Joaquim; Mareca, Celia; Tristany, Josep; del Olmo, Francisco; Rebolleda-Gil, Carlos; Jañez-Álvarez, María; de Álvaro, Francisco J.; Ovejero, María R.; Llorente, Ana; Teixidó, Cristina; Donaire, Ana M.; García-Laredo, Eduardo; Lazcanoiturburu, Andrea; Granell, Luis; Mozo, Cristina de Pablo; Pérez-Hernández, Mónica; Moreno-Alcázar, Ana; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; McKenna, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) for the neuropsychological deficits seen in schizophrenia is supported by meta-analysis. However, a recent methodologically rigorous trial had negative findings. In this study, 130 chronic schizophrenic patients were randomly assigned to computerized CRT, an active computerized control condition (CC) or treatment as usual (TAU). Primary outcome measures were 2 ecologically valid batteries of executive function and memory, rated under blind conditions; other executive and memory tests and a measure of overall cognitive function were also employed. Carer ratings of executive and memory failures in daily life were obtained before and after treatment. Computerized CRT was found to produce improvement on the training tasks, but this did not transfer to gains on the primary outcome measures and most other neuropsychological tests in comparison to either CC or TAU conditions. Nor did the intervention result in benefits on carer ratings of daily life cognitive failures. According to this study, computerized CRT is not effective in schizophrenia. The use of both active and passive CCs suggests that nature of the control group is not an important factor influencing results. PMID:26006264

  14. Computerized materials protection, control, and accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteson, R.; Seitz, S.; Landry, R.P.; Hadden, M.L.; Painter, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons, along with the technical knowledge and materials needed to make these weapons, is an enduring problem of international urgency. Current international nuclear nonproliferation efforts are aimed at deterring, detecting, and responding to proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. These safeguards efforts are being implemented by applying preeminent science and technology to the management and control of nuclear materials. By strengthening systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A), one can reduce the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation. Two major programs of international cooperation are now underway to achieve this goal. The first is between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Institutes of the Russian Federation (Laboratory-to-Laboratory Program), and the second is between the US Government and Governments of the former Soviet Republics (Government-to-Government Program). As part of these programs, the DOE is working with facilities to assist them in implementing computerized MPC and A systems. This work is a collaboration between computer scientists and safeguards experts in both the US and the new Republics. The US is making available technology and expertise to enable Russian experts to build on computerized MPC and A software developed in the US. This paper describes the joint efforts of these international teams to develop sophisticated computerized MPC and A systems using modern computer hardware and software technology. These systems are being customized to meet the site-specific needs of each facility.

  15. Computerized implant-dentistry: Advances toward automation

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Minkle; Anand, Vishal; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Jain, Nikil; Gupta, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in the field of implantology such as three-dimensional imaging, implant-planning software, computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, computer-guided, and navigated implant surgery have led to the computerization of implant-dentistry. This three-dimensional computer-generated implant-planning and surgery has not only enabled accurate preoperative evaluation of the anatomic limitations but has also facilitated preoperative planning of implant positions along with virtual implant placement and subsequently transferring the virtual treatment plans onto the surgical phase via static (guided) or dynamic (navigated) systems aided by CAD/CAM technology. Computerized-implant-dentistry being highly predictable and minimally invasive in nature has also allowed implant placement in patients with medical comorbidities (e.g. radiation therapy, blood dyscrasias), in patients with complex problems following a significant alteration of the bony anatomy as a result of benign or malignant pathology of the jaws or trauma and in patients with other physical and emotional problems. With significant achievements accomplished in the field of computerized implant-dentistry, attempts are now been made toward complete automation of implant-dentistry. PMID:25810585

  16. A subjective evaluation of high-chroma color with wide color-gamut display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Junko; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2009-01-01

    Displays tends to expand its color gamut, such as multi-primary color display, Adobe RGB and so on. Therefore displays got possible to display high chroma colors. However sometimes, we feel unnatural some for the image which only expanded chroma. Appropriate gamut mapping method to expand color gamut is not proposed very much. We are attempting preferred expanded color reproduction on wide color gamut display utilizing high chroma colors effectively. As a first step, we have conducted an experiment to investigate the psychological effect of color schemes including highly saturated colors. We used the six-primary-color projector that we have developed for the presentation of test colors. The six-primary-color projector's gamut volume in CIELAB space is about 1.8 times larger than the normal RGB projector. We conducted a subjective evaluation experiment using the SD (Semantic Differential) technique to find the quantitative psychological effect of high chroma colors.

  17. Color Transparency

    E-print Network

    Gerald A. Miller

    2012-08-17

    Color transparency is the vanishing of nuclear initial or final state interactions involving specific reactions. The reasons for believing that color transparency might be a natural consequence of QCD are reviewed. The main impetus for this talk is recent experimental progress, and this is reviewed briefly.

  18. Disruptive behavior disorders and indicators of disinhibition in adolescents: The BRIEF-SR, anti-saccade task, and D-KEFS color-word interference test.

    PubMed

    Long, E C; Hill, J; Luna, B; Verhulst, B; Clark, D B

    2015-10-01

    Disinhibition contributes to the development of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) in adolescents. Self-reports and behavioral tasks are commonly used to assess disinhibition, each with their unique strengths and limitations. Accordingly, it is important to identify which measure, or combination thereof, is the most effective in predicting DBD symptoms. This study assessed the relationship between DBD (symptoms of ADHD/ODD/CD) and two behavioral disinhibition tasks: the anti-saccade task and the D-KEFS color-word interference test, as well as a self-report measure (the BRIEF-SR). The results indicated that the BRIEF-Inhibit scale accounted for the majority of the variance in the DBD sum score. The anti-saccade task and color-word interference test were also significantly associated with an increase in the number of DBD symptoms endorsed. These behavioral tasks accounted for 9% additional variance than the self-report alone. Therefore, combining self-report measures with behavioral disinhibition tasks may provide the most thorough assessment of adolescent DBD. PMID:26277405

  19. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  20. Training Synesthetic Letter-color Associations by Reading in Color

    PubMed Central

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Rouw, Romke

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing, hearing and thinking about letters, words and numbers. We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. In this protocol, participants are given specially prepared books to read in which four high-frequency letters are paired with four high-frequency colors. Participants receive unique sets of letter-color pairs based on their pre-existing preferences for colored letters. A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. In addition to objective testing, a reading experience questionnaire is administered that is designed to probe for differences in subjective experience. A subset of questions may predict how well an individual learned the associations from reading in color. Importantly, we are not claiming that this method will cause each individual to develop grapheme-color synesthesia, only that it is possible for certain individuals to form letter-color associations by reading in color and these associations are similar in some aspects to those seen in developmental grapheme-color synesthetes. The method is quite flexible and can be used to investigate different aspects and outcomes of training synesthetic associations, including learning-induced changes in brain function and structure. PMID:24638033

  1. Training synesthetic letter-color associations by reading in color.

    PubMed

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Rouw, Romke

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing, hearing and thinking about letters, words and numbers. We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. In this protocol, participants are given specially prepared books to read in which four high-frequency letters are paired with four high-frequency colors. Participants receive unique sets of letter-color pairs based on their pre-existing preferences for colored letters. A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. In addition to objective testing, a reading experience questionnaire is administered that is designed to probe for differences in subjective experience. A subset of questions may predict how well an individual learned the associations from reading in color. Importantly, we are not claiming that this method will cause each individual to develop grapheme-color synesthesia, only that it is possible for certain individuals to form letter-color associations by reading in color and these associations are similar in some aspects to those seen in developmental grapheme-color synesthetes. The method is quite flexible and can be used to investigate different aspects and outcomes of training synesthetic associations, including learning-induced changes in brain function and structure. PMID:24638033

  2. Color logic of apparent motion.

    PubMed

    Kolers, P A; Green, M

    1984-01-01

    Two shapes of either the same or different color will seem to be in smooth apparent motion with like-colored mates, at proper conditions of flash timing and spacing. An experiment is reported in which the condition was tested for unlike-colored pairs, for example red-green alternated with green-red. The question of interest was how the visual system would resolve the disparity of color. An 'intelligent' solution would rotate the shapes in three dimensions. Like-colored and unlike-colored parts were found to move and transform similarly, however, the resolution being dependent more upon timing than upon color. The motion of intelligence as it might be applied to vision is discussed in light of these results. PMID:6514510

  3. EDF field operation computerization study

    SciTech Connect

    Guillot, L.; Pirus, D.

    2006-07-01

    The main control room has been the subject of extensive research and actions into improved operations assistance. On the other hand, few studies concern the need for field operation improvements, which have few assistance resources adapted to working requirements. Why? Past studies have shown the inability of technology to assume job constraints (insufficient screen readability, excessive equipment weight, prohibitive response times). Nevertheless, today new technologies can be adapted to field operations, and they justify further study. Real needs exist: local operations are often complex and are led in difficult environments where conditions prevent the use of paper-based documents. The issue is a significant risk of error which might impact plant reliability. The cumbersome nature of paper procedures, the working environment and the operational feed-back of experience led us to concentrate on the field operation to identify how it may be improved by the use of these new technologies. Such equipment would allow a better traceability and quality of actions. Possibility of communications with other plant personnel and information sharing may be also immediately available for all. This paper presents a study which intends to collect assistance requirements through an analysis of working practices and organizations with local personnel. Our aim is to identify which of those might benefit from IT support. This collection was obtained through interviews and observations. These two methods helped us to define potential needs, constraints and consequences for work organization. This paper presents the study results and findings, identifies professions which may benefit from the use of wearable computers and describes how the reliability and efficiency of human actions would be improved. Finally we identify design requirements and criteria to be used for writing the technical specifications for a test prototype. (authors)

  4. Computerized topographical analysis of functionally homogeneous neuronal sets.

    PubMed

    Giannazzo, E; Licata, F; Li Volsi, G; Mio, G; Santangelo, F; Scivoli, M

    1992-11-01

    A computer-assisted analysis of the spatial distribution of neurons having homogeneous characteristics is described in this paper. The camera lucida drawings of sections of a brain nucleus and the points representing the neurons labeled on the basis of a specific behavior of discharge rates were digitized on a personal computer Amiga 2000 or IBM compatible. Our software provided: a) the computerized, stereotaxically oriented reconstruction of the stored sections and of the plotted neurons; b) the identification within each section of the mass center (MC) of the units sharing a given behavior and of the area where the density of such neurons was maximal (MDA). The routine was tested on the spatial distribution of neuronal responses to serotonin in the lateral vestibular nucleus. PMID:1297363

  5. Computerized adaptive control weld skate with CCTV weld guidance project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes progress of the automatic computerized weld skate development portion of the Computerized Weld Skate with Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) Arc Guidance Project. The main goal of the project is to develop an automatic welding skate demonstration model equipped with CCTV weld guidance. The three main goals of the overall project are to: (1) develop a demonstration model computerized weld skate system, (2) develop a demonstration model automatic CCTV guidance system, and (3) integrate the two systems into a demonstration model of computerized weld skate with CCTV weld guidance for welding contoured parts.

  6. Cross-Media Evaluation of Color T.V., Black and White T.V. and Color Photography in the Teaching of Endoscopy. Appendix A, Sample Schedule; Appendix B, Testing; Appendix C, Scripts; Appendix D, Analyses of Covariance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balin, Howard; And Others

    Based on the premise that in situations where the subject requires visual identification, where students cannot see the subject physically from the standpoint of the instructor, and where there is a high dramatic impact, color and television might be significant factors in learning, a comparative evaluation was made of: color television, black and…

  7. Computerized acoustical characterization system of medical phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazihah, M. D.; Kadri, S.; Yaacob, M. I. H.; Rosly, J.

    2013-05-01

    The development of a computerized acoustical characterization system of medical phantoms is described in this paper. The system employs the insertion technique and it was developed using LabView 2011 where the ultrasound signal was acquired through the interfacing scheme of an oscilloscope to a personal computer. The system performance was validated by comparing measured acoustical properties with values obtained from the previous studies. Other than faster measurement time, the developed system carried percentage difference at less than 1.00% for all of the acoustical properties measurements at 23.0°C to 25.0°C respectively.

  8. Computerized certification of digital ultrasonic instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, M. W.

    1987-09-01

    A computerized inspection system is being set up at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to enable certification of the Krautkramer Branson ultrasonic instrumentation used extensively in Y-12 production operations. The system takes the data required to certify the linearity and frequency response of the receiver and to certify the correct operation of the pulsers, gates, and computer interface. A subset of the program will be able to verify correct instrumentation in the field by using the actual computer and instrumentation being used for production ultrasonic weld inspections. The system can reduce the certification time from approximately one week to less than an hour.

  9. 15 CFR 950.9 - Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. 950.9 Section...Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. The Environmental...industry. A computerized, information retrieval service provides a...

  10. 15 CFR 950.9 - Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. 950.9 Section...Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. The Environmental...industry. A computerized, information retrieval service provides a...

  11. The Colors of the Alphabet: Naturally-Biased Associations between Shape and Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Ferrinne; Maurer, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    Many letters of the alphabet are consistently mapped to specific colors in English-speaking adults, both in the general population and in individuals with grapheme-color synaesthesia who perceive letters in color. Here, across six experiments, we tested the ubiquity of the color/letter associations with typically developing toddlers, literate…

  12. Color-tuned neurons are spatially clustered according to color preference within alert macaque posterior

    E-print Network

    Color-tuned neurons are spatially clustered according to color preference within alert macaque, 2008) Large islands of extrastriate cortex that are enriched for color- tuned neurons have recently the globs and then used MRI-guided microelectrodes to test the color properties of single glob cells. We

  13. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade...

  14. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade...

  15. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade...

  16. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade...

  17. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451 Agriculture...STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade...

  18. Sequential color video to parallel color video converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The engineering design, development, breadboard fabrication, test, and delivery of a breadboard field sequential color video to parallel color video converter is described. The converter was designed for use onboard a manned space vehicle to eliminate a flickering TV display picture and to reduce the weight and bulk of previous ground conversion systems.

  19. Children's Book Color Preferences as Related to Their Favorite Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Jill L.

    Because young children disregard writing on the spine of a book, researchers chose to run a test on color preferences in books. In a library situation young children see most books from a spine-out angle; thus when allowed to select a book by themselves, the first characteristics noticed are size and color. This study is based on the hypothesis…

  20. Standards and metadata requirements for computerization of selected mechanical properties of metallic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    To assist in building a computerized information system on the engineering properties of materials, the standards and metadata requirements for a representative group of mechanical property categories are considered. These categories include: tensile behavior, hardness numbers, notch-bar impact test parameters, and fatigue properties. For each property group, definitions of terms, synonyms (and non-synonyms), standard test methods, standards for reporting data, precision and accuracy, and correlations of properties are addressed. The principal findings and recommendations are as follows. Existing test methods are generally adequate for the properties considered, but better standards are needed for data reporting. Appraisal of materials variability and testing machine variability would be assisted by access to standard reference materials, certified as to their mechanical properties. All properties considered for inclusion in a computerized system can be categorized as parameters for direct search, parameters retrievable with extraction of all data stored for a given material, and parameters which are derived from an analytical representation of experimental data. Drafting of some general standards on computerized file structures and metadata files suitable for the engineering field is advised.

  1. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.413 Middling Light Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between...

  2. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.413 Middling Light Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between...

  3. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.413 Middling Light Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between...

  4. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.413 Middling Light Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between...

  5. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.411 Good Middling Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both,...

  6. 7 CFR 28.421 - Good Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Spotted Color. 28.421 Section 28.421... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.421 Good Middling Spotted Color. Good Middling Spotted Color is color which is better than Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  7. 7 CFR 28.407 - Good Ordinary Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Good Ordinary Color. 28.407 Section 28.407 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.407 Good Ordinary Color. Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the...

  8. 7 CFR 28.401 - Good Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Good Middling Color. 28.401 Section 28.401 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.401 Good Middling Color. Good Middling Color is color which is within the...

  9. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  10. 7 CFR 28.405 - Low Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Low Middling Color. 28.405 Section 28.405 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.405 Low Middling Color. Low Middling Color is color which is within the...

  11. 7 CFR 28.401 - Good Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Good Middling Color. 28.401 Section 28.401 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.401 Good Middling Color. Good Middling Color is color which is within the...

  12. 7 CFR 28.405 - Low Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Low Middling Color. 28.405 Section 28.405 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.405 Low Middling Color. Low Middling Color is color which is within the...

  13. 7 CFR 28.407 - Good Ordinary Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Good Ordinary Color. 28.407 Section 28.407 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.407 Good Ordinary Color. Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the...

  14. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  15. 7 CFR 28.401 - Good Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Good Middling Color. 28.401 Section 28.401 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.401 Good Middling Color. Good Middling Color is color which is within the...

  16. 7 CFR 28.401 - Good Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Good Middling Color. 28.401 Section 28.401 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.401 Good Middling Color. Good Middling Color is color which is within the...

  17. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  18. 7 CFR 28.405 - Low Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Low Middling Color. 28.405 Section 28.405 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.405 Low Middling Color. Low Middling Color is color which is within the...

  19. 7 CFR 28.405 - Low Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Low Middling Color. 28.405 Section 28.405 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.405 Low Middling Color. Low Middling Color is color which is within the...

  20. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  1. 7 CFR 28.407 - Good Ordinary Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Good Ordinary Color. 28.407 Section 28.407 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.407 Good Ordinary Color. Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the...

  2. 7 CFR 28.405 - Low Middling Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Color. 28.405 Section 28.405 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.405 Low Middling Color. Low Middling Color is color which is within the...

  3. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  4. 7 CFR 28.407 - Good Ordinary Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Good Ordinary Color. 28.407 Section 28.407 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.407 Good Ordinary Color. Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the...

  5. Computerized Clinical Decision Support: Contributions from 2014

    PubMed Central

    Koutkias, V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective To summarize recent research and propose a selection of best papers published in 2014 in the field of computerized clinical decision support for the Decision Support section of the IMIA yearbook. Method A literature review was performed by searching two bibliographic databases for papers related to clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) and computerized provider order entry systems in order to select a list of candidate best papers to be then peer-reviewed by external reviewers. A consensus meeting between the two section editors and the editorial team was finally organized to conclude on the selection of best papers. Results Among the 1,254 returned papers published in 2014, the full review process selected four best papers. The first one is an experimental contribution to a better understanding of unintended uses of CDSSs. The second paper describes the effective use of previously collected data to tailor and adapt a CDSS. The third paper presents an innovative application that uses pharmacogenomic information to support personalized medicine. The fourth paper reports on the long-term effect of the routine use of a CDSS for antibiotic therapy. Conclusions As health information technologies spread more and more meaningfully, CDSSs are improving to answer users’ needs more accurately. The exploitation of previously collected data and the use of genomic data for decision support has started to materialize. However, more work is still needed to address issues related to the correct usage of such technologies, and to assess their effective impact in the long term. PMID:26293858

  6. Automated Computerized Analysis of Speechin Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alex S.; Elvevåg, Brita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review Disturbances in communication are a hallmark of severe mental illnesses. Recent technological advances have paved the way for objectifying communication using automated computerized linguistic and acoustic analysis. We review recent studies applying various computer-based assessments to the natural language produced by adult patients with severe mental illness. Recent Findings Automated computerized methods afford tools with which it is possible to objectively evaluate patients in a reliable, valid and efficient manner that complements human ratings. Crucially, these measures correlate with important clinical measures. The clinical relevance of these novel metrics has been demonstrated by showing their relationship to functional outcome measures, their in vivo link to classic ‘language’ regions in the brain, and, in the case of linguistic analysis, their relationship to candidate genes for severe mental illness. Summary Computer based assessments of natural language afford a framework with which to measure communication disturbances in adults with SMI. Emerging evidence suggests that they can be reliable and valid, and overcome many practical limitations of more traditional assessment methods. The advancement of these technologies offers unprecedented potential for measuring and understanding some of the most crippling symptoms of some of the most debilitating illnesses known to humankind. PMID:24613984

  7. FFDM image quality assessment using computerized image texture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Rachelle; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Kontos, Despina

    2010-04-01

    Quantitative measures of image quality (IQ) are routinely obtained during the evaluation of imaging systems. These measures, however, do not necessarily correlate with the IQ of the actual clinical images, which can also be affected by factors such as patient positioning. No quantitative method currently exists to evaluate clinical IQ. Therefore, we investigated the potential of using computerized image texture analysis to quantitatively assess IQ. Our hypothesis is that image texture features can be used to assess IQ as a measure of the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). To test feasibility, the "Rachel" anthropomorphic breast phantom (Model 169, Gammex RMI) was imaged with a Senographe 2000D FFDM system (GE Healthcare) using 220 unique exposure settings (target/filter, kVs, and mAs combinations). The mAs were varied from 10%-300% of that required for an average glandular dose (AGD) of 1.8 mGy. A 2.5cm2 retroareolar region of interest (ROI) was segmented from each image. The SNR was computed from the ROIs segmented from images linear with dose (i.e., raw images) after flat-field and off-set correction. Image texture features of skewness, coarseness, contrast, energy, homogeneity, and fractal dimension were computed from the Premium ViewTM postprocessed image ROIs. Multiple linear regression demonstrated a strong association between the computed image texture features and SNR (R2=0.92, p<=0.001). When including kV, target and filter as additional predictor variables, a stronger association with SNR was observed (R2=0.95, p<=0.001). The strong associations indicate that computerized image texture analysis can be used to measure image SNR and potentially aid in automating IQ assessment as a component of the clinical workflow. Further work is underway to validate our findings in larger clinical datasets.

  8. Evaluation of a Computerized Clinical Information System (Micromedex).

    PubMed Central

    Lundsgaarde, H. P.; Moreshead, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes data collected as part of a project designed to identify and assess the technical and organizational problems associated with the implementation and evaluation of a Computerized Clinical Information System (CCIS), Micromedex, in three U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The study began in 1987 as a national effort to implement decision support technologies in the Veterans Administration Decentralized Hospital Computer Program (DHCP). The specific objectives of this project were to (1) examine one particular decision support technology, (2) identify the technical and organizational barriers to the implementation of a CCIS in the VA host environment, (3) assess the possible benefits of this system to VA clinicians in terms of therapeutic decision making, and (4) develop new methods for identifying the clinical utility of a computer program designed to provide clinicians with a new information tool. The project was conducted intermittently over a three-year period at three VA medical centers chosen as implementation and evaluation test sites for Micromedex. Findings from the Kansas City Medical Center in Missouri are presented to illustrate some of the technical problems associated with the implementation of a commercial database program in the DHCP host environment, the organizational factors influencing clinical use of the system, and the methods used to evaluate its use. Data from 4581 provider encounters with the CCIS are summarized. Usage statistics are presented to illustrate the methodological possibilities for assessing the "benefits and burdens" of a computerized information system by using an automated collection of user demographics and program audit trails that allow evaluators to monitor user interactions with different segments of the database. PMID:1807583

  9. Kinds of Arguments Emerging While Exploring in a Computerized Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Ilana

    2004-01-01

    In this paper there is a description of a case in which mathematical argumentation emerge and develop between 7th grade students working in an interactive computerized environment without a deliberate mentoring. The computerized environment has its influence on the characteristics of this argumentation which include mathematical regularities based…

  10. Design of a computerized, temperature-controlled, recirculating aquaria system

    E-print Network

    Bonar, Scott A.

    Design of a computerized, temperature-controlled, recirculating aquaria system Ann M. Widmer November 2005; accepted 15 November 2005 Abstract We built a recirculating aquaria system with computerized B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Temperature control; Recirculating; Mixing valves; Fluctuations

  11. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15 Section 501.15 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS AUTHORIZATION TO MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System....

  12. 11 CFR 9033.12 - Production of computerized information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... magnetic media, such as magnetic tapes or magnetic diskettes, containing the computerized information at the times specified in 11 CFR 9038.1(b)(1): (1) Information required by law to be maintained regarding.... The computerized magnetic media shall be prepared and delivered at the committee's expense and...

  13. 11 CFR 9033.12 - Production of computerized information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... magnetic media, such as magnetic tapes or magnetic diskettes, containing the computerized information at the times specified in 11 CFR 9038.1(b)(1): (1) Information required by law to be maintained regarding.... The computerized magnetic media shall be prepared and delivered at the committee's expense and...

  14. 11 CFR 9033.12 - Production of computerized information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... magnetic media, such as magnetic tapes or magnetic diskettes, containing the computerized information at the times specified in 11 CFR 9038.1(b)(1): (1) Information required by law to be maintained regarding.... The computerized magnetic media shall be prepared and delivered at the committee's expense and...

  15. Computerized atmospheric trace contaminant control simulation for manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Buildup of atmospheric trace contaminants in enclosed volumes such as a spacecraft may lead to potentially serious health problems for the crew members. For this reason, active control methods must be implemented to minimize the concentration of atmospheric contaminants to levels that are considered safe for prolonged, continuous exposure. Designing hardware to accomplish this has traditionally required extensive testing to characterize and select appropriate control technologies. Data collected since the Apollo project can now be used in a computerized performance simulation to predict the performance and life of contamination control hardware to allow for initial technology screening, performance prediction, and operations and contingency studies to determine the most suitable hardware approach before specific design and testing activities begin. The program, written in FORTRAN 77, provides contaminant removal rate, total mass removed, and per pass efficiency for each control device for discrete time intervals. In addition, projected cabin concentration is provided. Input and output data are manipulated using commercial spreadsheet and data graphing software. These results can then be used in analyzing hardware design parameters such as sizing and flow rate, overall process performance and program economics. Test performance may also be predicted to aid test design.

  16. To Prove Four Color Theorem

    E-print Network

    Weiya Yue; Weiwei Cao

    2015-12-07

    In this paper, we give a proof for four color theorem(four color conjecture). Our proof does not involve computer assistance and the most important is that it can be generalized to prove Hadwiger Conjecture. Moreover, we give algorithms to color and test planarity of planar graphs, which can be generalized to graphs containing $K_x(x>5)$ minor. There are four parts of this paper: Part-1: To Prove Four Color Theorem Part-2: An Equivalent Statement of Hadwiger Conjecture when $k=5$ Part-3: A New Proof of Wagner's Equivalence Theorem Part-4: A Geometric View of Outerplanar Graph

  17. Computerized image processing in the Reginald Denny beating trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Lawrence C.

    1997-02-01

    New image processing techniques may have significant benefits to law enforcement officials but need to be legally admissible in court. Courts have different tests for determining the admissibility of new scientific procedures, requiring their reliability to be established by expert testimony. The first test developed was whether there has been general acceptance of the new procedure within the scientific community. In 1993 the U.S. Supreme Court loosened the requirements for admissibility of new scientific techniques, although the California Supreme Court later retained the general acceptance test. What the proper standard is for admission of such evidence is important to both the technical community and to the legal community because of the conflict between benefits of rapidly developing technology, and the dangers of 'junk science.' The Reginald Denny beating case from the 1992 Los Angeles riots proved the value of computerized image processing in identifying persons committing crimes on videotape. The segmentation process was used to establish the presence of a tattoo on one defendant, which was key in his identification. Following the defendant's conviction, the California Court of Appeal approved the use of the evidence involving the segmentation process. This published opinion may be cited as legal precedent.

  18. Asymmetric color matching: how color appearance depends on the illuminant.

    PubMed

    Brainard, D H; Wandell, B A

    1992-09-01

    We report the results of matching experiments designed to study the color appearance of objects rendered under different simulated illuminants on a CRT monitor. Subjects set asymmetric color matches between a standard object and a test object that were rendered under illuminants with different spectral power distributions. For any illuminant change, we found that the mapping between the cone coordinates of matching standard and test objects was well approximated by a diagonal linear transformation. In this sense, our results are consistent with von Kries's hypothesis [Handb. Physiol. Menschen 3, 109 (1905) [in Sources of Color Vision, D. L. MacAdam, ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1970)

  19. Color Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  20. Color Guard 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Since its introduction to the world, Alice Walker?s The Color Purple has been recreated in other media. Audiences are just as likely to have learned about Celie's journey from the 1985 Warner Bros.' movie or the 2005 Tony Award-winning musical...

  1. Colored Preons

    E-print Network

    Finkelstein, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested complementary models of the elementary particles as (a) quantum knots and (b) preonic nuclei that are field and particle descriptions, respectively, of the same particles. This earlier work, carried out in the context of standard electroweak (SU(2) x U(1)) physics, is here extended to the strong interactions by the introduction of color (SU(3)) charges.

  2. Colored Preons

    E-print Network

    Robert J. Finkelstein

    2009-01-12

    Previous studies have suggested complementary models of the elementary particles as (a) quantum knots and (b) preonic nuclei that are field and particle descriptions, respectively, of the same particles. This earlier work, carried out in the context of standard electroweak (SU(2) x U(1)) physics, is here extended to the strong interactions by the introduction of color (SU(3)) charges.

  3. Computerized system for translating a torch head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, W. A., Jr.; Ives, R. E.; Bruce, M. M., Jr.; Pryor, P. P., Jr.; Gard, L. H. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    The system provides a constant travel speed along a contoured workpiece. It has a driven skate characterized by an elongated bed, with a pair of independently pivoted trucks connected to the bed for support. The trucks are mounted on a contoured track of arbitrary configuration in a mutually spaced relation. An axially extensible torch head manipulator arm is mounted on the bed of the carriage and projects perpendicular from the midportion. The torch head is mounted at its distal end. A real-time computerized control drive subsystem is used to advance the skate along the track of a variable rate for maintaining a constant speed for the torch head tip, and to position the torch axis relative to a preset angle to the workpiece.

  4. Computerized tomography in acute and chronic pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmar, J.A.; Matthews, C.C.; Bishop, L.A.

    1984-11-01

    Modern imaging techniques have revolutionized the diagnostic evaluation of pancreatitis, primarily demonstrating its complications. Computerized tomography (CT) is a more sensitive method than ultrasonography and pancreatic ductography. A chart review revealed 214 patients at our hospital with a discharge diagnosis of pancreatitis. Sixty patients had CT for evaluation of possible complications. Only five scans were normal. Of 37 cases of acute pancreatitis, 92% demonstrated localized or diffuse enlargement, and 65% showed loss of pancreatic outline. Other frequent findings included thickening of perirenal fascia (49%), ileus (43%), edema of mesentery (35%), and inflammatory exudate (32%). Abscess and pseudocyst were each detected in 8% of cases. In chronic pancreatitis 65% of patients showed localized or diffuse pancreatic enlargement. Atrophy of the gland (30%), calcification (30%), pseudocyst (26%), and dilated pancreatic ducts (17%) were also seen. CT is effective in evaluating pancreatitis and its complications. 14 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  5. The Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, M. P.; Yucker, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    A computerized anatomical man (CAM) model, representing the most detailed and anatomically correct geometrical model of the human body yet prepared, has been developed for use in analyzing radiation dose distribution in man. This model of a 50-percentile standing USAF man comprises some 1100 unique geometric surfaces and some 2450 solid regions. Internal body geometry such as organs, voids, bones, and bone marrow are explicitly modeled. A computer program called CAMERA has also been developed for performing analyses with the model. Such analyses include tracing rays through the CAM geometry, placing results on magnetic tape in various forms, collapsing areal density data from ray tracing information to areal density distributions, preparing cross section views, etc. Numerous computer drawn cross sections through the CAM model are presented.

  6. Economic Evaluation of Computerized Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortin, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    This completed effort involved a technical and economic study of the capabilities of computer programs in the area of structural analysis. The applicability of the programs to NASA projects and to other users was studied. The applications in other industries was explored including both research and development and applied areas. The costs of several alternative analysis programs were compared. A literature search covered applicable technical literature including journals, trade publications and books. In addition to the literature search, several commercial companies that have developed computerized structural analysis programs were contacted and their technical brochures reviewed. These programs include SDRC I-DEAS, MSC/NASTRAN, SCADA, SUPERSAP, NISA/DISPLAY, STAAD-III, MICAS, GTSTRUDL, and STARS. These programs were briefly reviewed as applicable to NASA projects.

  7. Spectrophotometric and computerized evaluation of tooth bleaching employing 10 different home-bleaching procedures: In-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Peskersoy, Cem; Tetik, Ayhan; Ozturk, Veli Ozgen; Gokay, Necmi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of bleaching products, determine the applicability and validation of the measurement methods. Materials and Methods: Freshly extracted 110 human incisor teeth were stained with whole blood and hemolysate solution prior to the application of 10 different home-bleaching products. Spectrophotometric measurements of the tooth shades were performed for each specimen before and after bleaching at the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 14 days. Differences in lightness (?l), chroma (?c), hue (?h) values and shade changes were measured to evaluate process. Computerized digital imaging analyses to determine the color changes were performed with Photoshop CS4 software (Adobe, San Jose, CA, USA). Statistical analyses were performed with analysis of variance, Scheffe and Tukey tests. Results: In all of the test groups regardless of the material used, a significant increase in lightness and hue, and decrease of chroma were observed, as compared to the control group. After recommended bleaching applications, ?l and ?h values respectively increased in group Zaris White and Brite (ZWB) and group Pola Night and ?c values showed significant decrease in groups ZWB and Rembrandt REM3 (P < 0.05). At the end of the procedure both spectrophotometric and digital imaging analysis showed ZWB was the most effective product among the others while Yotuel and Happy Smile were the least (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Home-bleaching systems showed slower but almost permanent bleaching effect likewise office-based methods. Both software and spectrophotometric analyses have advantages such as evaluating the results objectively and numerically, also treatment outcomes could be preserved. PMID:25512738

  8. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a green leaf might look tan or gray. Color Blindness Is Passed Down Color blindness is almost always an inherited (say: in-HER- ... Eye doctors (and some school nurses) test for color blindness by showing a picture made up of different ...

  9. The impact of a computerized medical record summary system on incidence and length of hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J L; Haring, O M

    1979-06-01

    The present study examined the influence of a computerized medical record summary system on incidence and length of hospitalization. Additional indicators of process of care were also considered. A prospective, randomized design was used where 241 experimental patients had a computerized medical record summary and 238 control patients had the traditional medical record. All patients were followed and compared over a two-year period. Although no difference in incidence of hospitalization was found between patients with and without the summary, during the second year, patients with summaries spent fewer days in the hospital. Patients with summaries also had more completed referrals for consultation, assigned diets, detected new problems and diagnostic tests on record than patients without the summary. PMID:449434

  10. Contrasting signals of positive selection in genes involved in human skin-color variation from tests based on SNP scans and resequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous genome-wide scans conducted by genotyping previously ascertained single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have provided candidate signatures for positive selection in various regions of the human genome, including in genes involved in pigmentation traits. However, it is unclear how well the signatures discovered by such haplotype-based test statistics can be reproduced in tests based on full resequencing data. Four genes (oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), dopachrome tautomerase (DCT), and KIT ligand (KITLG)) implicated in human skin-color variation, have shown evidence for positive selection in Europeans and East Asians in previous SNP-scan data. In the current study, we resequenced 4.7 to 6.7 kb of DNA from each of these genes in Africans, Europeans, East Asians, and South Asians. Results Applying all commonly used neutrality-test statistics for allele frequency distribution to the newly generated sequence data provided conflicting results regarding evidence for positive selection. Previous haplotype-based findings could not be clearly confirmed. Although some tests were marginally significant for some populations and genes, none of them were significant after multiple-testing correction. Combined P values for each gene-population pair did not improve these results. Application of Approximate Bayesian Computation Markov chain Monte Carlo based to these sequence data using a simple forward simulator revealed broad posterior distributions of the selective parameters for all four genes, providing no support for positive selection. However, when we applied this approach to published sequence data on SLC45A2, another human pigmentation candidate gene, we could readily confirm evidence for positive selection, as previously detected with sequence-based and some haplotype-based tests. Conclusions Overall, our data indicate that even genes that are strong biological candidates for positive selection and show reproducible signatures of positive selection in SNP scans do not always show the same replicability of selection signals in other tests, which should be considered in future studies on detecting positive selection in genetic data. PMID:22133426

  11. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  12. Survey of methods for improving operator acceptance of computerized aids

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, P. R.; Kisner, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    The success of current attempts to improve the operational performance and safety of nuclear power plants by installing computerized operational aids in the control rooms is dependent, in part, on the operator's attitude toward the aid. Utility experience with process computer systems indicates that problems may already exist with operator acceptance of computerized aids. The growth of the role that computers have in nuclear power plants makes user acceptance of computer technology an important issue for the nuclear industry. The purpose of this report is to draw from the literature factors related to user acceptance of computerized equipment that may also be applicable to the acceptance of computerized aids used in the nuclear power plant control room.

  13. Space Simulation, 7th. [facilities and testing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Space simulation facilities and techniques are outlined that encompass thermal scale modeling, computerized simulations, reentry materials, spacecraft contamination, solar simulation, vacuum tests, and heat transfer studies.

  14. Color space conversion for linear color grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dah-Jye

    2000-10-01

    Color grading is an important process for various industries such as food processing, fruit and vegetable grading, etc. Quality and price are often determined by the color of product. For example, darker red color for apples means higher price. In color machine vision applications, image is acquired with a color CCD camera that outputs color information in three channels, red, gree, and blue. When grading color, these three primary colors must be processed to determine the color level for separation. A very popular color space conversion technique for color image processing is RGB-to-HSI, where HSI represents hue, saturation, and intensity, respectively. However, the conversion result is still 3D information that makes determining color grades very difficult. A new color space conversion technique that can be implemented for high-speed real-time processing for color grading is introduced in this paper. Depending on the application, different color space conversion equations must be used. The result of this technique is a simple one-dimensional array that represents different color levels. This linear array makes linear color grading adjustment possible.

  15. Color constancy supports cross-illumination color selection

    PubMed Central

    Radonji?, Ana; Cottaris, Nicolas P.; Brainard, David H.

    2015-01-01

    We rely on color to select objects as the targets of our actions (e.g., the freshest fish, the ripest fruit). To be useful for selection, color must provide accurate guidance about object identity across changes in illumination. Although the visual system partially stabilizes object color appearance across illumination changes, how such color constancy supports object selection is not understood. To study how constancy operates in real-life tasks, we developed a novel paradigm in which subjects selected which of two test objects presented under a test illumination appeared closer in color to a target object presented under a standard illumination. From subjects' choices, we inferred a selection-based match for the target via a variant of maximum likelihood difference scaling, and used it to quantify constancy. Selection-based constancy was good when measured using naturalistic stimuli, but was dramatically reduced when the stimuli were simplified, indicating that a naturalistic stimulus context is critical for good constancy. Overall, our results suggest that color supports accurate object selection across illumination changes when both stimuli and task match how color is used in real life. We compared our selection-based constancy results with data obtained using a classic asymmetric matching task and found that the adjustment-based matches predicted selection well for our stimuli and instructions, indicating that the appearance literature provides useful guidance for the emerging study of constancy in natural tasks. PMID:26024460

  16. Experiences with HIV Testing, Entry, and Engagement in Care by HIV-Infected Women of Color, and the Need for Autonomy, Competency, and Relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Messer, Lynne C.; Adimora, Adaora A.; Roytburd, Katya; Bowditch, Natasha; Parnell, Heather; Seay, Julia; Bell, Lynda; Pierce, Jonah K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Self-determination theory examines the needs of people adopting new behaviors but has not been applied to the adoption of HIV healthcare behaviors. The current study applied self-determination theory to descriptions of healthcare behaviors adopted by ethnic minority women after an HIV diagnosis. Women of color were asked to describe their experiences with HIV testing, entry, and engagement-in-care in qualitative interviews and focus groups. Participants were mostly African-American (88%), over 40 years old (70%), had been diagnosed for more than 6 years (87%) and had disclosed their HIV infection to more than 3 people (73%). Women described unmet self-determination needs at different time points along the HIV Continuum of Care. Women experienced a significant loss of autonomy at the time of HIV diagnosis. Meeting competency and relatedness needs assisted women in entry and engagement-in-care. However, re-establishing autonomy was a key element for long-term engagement-in-care. Interventions that satisfy these needs at the optimal time point in care could improve diagnosis, entry-to-care, and retention-in-care for women living with HIV. PMID:23829331

  17. Computerized Operator Support System – Phase II Development

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Ronald L. Boring; Roger T. Lew; Kenneth D. Thomas

    2015-02-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) prototype for nuclear control room process control is proposed and discussed. The COSS aids operators in addressing rapid plant upsets that would otherwise result in the shutdown of the power plant and interrupt electrical power generation, representing significant costs to the owning utility. In its current stage of development the prototype demonstrates four advanced functions operators can use to more efficiently monitor and control the plant. These advanced functions consist of: (1) a synthesized and intuitive high level overview display of system components and interrelations, (2) an enthalpy-based mathematical chemical and volume control system (CVCS) model to detect and diagnose component failures, (3) recommended strategies to mitigate component failure effects and return the plant back to pre-fault status, and (4) computer-based procedures to walk the operator through the recommended mitigation actions. The COSS was demonstrated to a group of operators and their feedback was collected. The operators responded positively to the COSS capabilities and features and indicated the system would be an effective operator aid. The operators also suggested several additional features and capabilities for the next iteration of development. Future versions of the COSS prototype will include additional plant systems, flexible computer-based procedure presentation formats, and support for simultaneous component fault diagnosis and dual fault synergistic mitigation action strategies to more efficiently arrest any plant upsets.

  18. Computerized engineering logic for nuclear procurement and dedication processes

    SciTech Connect

    Tulay, M.P.

    1996-12-31

    In an attempt to better meet the needs of operations and maintenance organizations, many nuclear utility procurement engineering groups have simplified their procedures, developed on-line tools for performing the specification of replacement items, and developed relational databases containing part-level information necessary to automate the procurement process. Although these improvements have helped to reduce the engineering necessary to properly specify and accept/dedicate items for nuclear safety-related applications, a number of utilities have recognized that additional long-term savings can be realized by integrating a computerized logic to assist technical procurement engineering personnel. The most commonly used logic follows the generic processes contained in Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) published guidelines. The processes are typically customized to some extent to accommodate each utility`s organizational structure, operating procedures, and strategic goals. This paper will discuss a typical logic that integrates the technical evaluation, acceptance, and receipt inspection and testing processes. The logic this paper will describe has been successfully integrated at a growing number of nuclear utilities and has produced numerous positive results. The application of the logic ensures that utility-wide standards or procedures, common among multi-site utilities, are followed.

  19. The Initial Development of a Computerized Operator Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Roger Lew; Ronald L Boring; Thomas A Ulrich; Ken Thomas

    2014-08-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) is a collection of resilient software technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall nuclear power plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. The COSS provides rapid assessments, computations, and recommendations to reduce workload and augment operator judgment and decision-making during fast- moving, complex events. A prototype COSS for a chemical volume control system at a nuclear power plant has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The development process identified four underlying elements necessary for the prototype, which consist of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. An operational prototype resides at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) using the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). Several human-machine interface (HMI) considerations are identified and incorporated in the prototype during this initial round of development.

  20. The Importance of Interpolation in Computerized Growth Charting.

    PubMed

    Kiger, James R; Taylor, Sarah N

    2016-01-01

    Computer growth charting is increasingly available for clinical and research applications. The LMS method is used to define the growth curves on the charts most commonly used in practice today. The data points for any given chart are at discrete points, and computer programs may simply round to the closest LMS data point when calculating growth centiles. We sought to determine whether applying an interpolation algorithm to the LMS data for commonly used growth charts may reduce the inherent errors which occur with rounding to the nearest data point. We developed a simple, easily implemented interpolation algorithm to use with LMS data. Using published growth charts, we compared predicted growth centiles using our interpolation algorithm versus a standard rounding approach. Using a test scenario of a patient at the 50th centile in weight, compared to using our interpolation algorithm, the method of simply rounding to the nearest data point resulted in maximal z-score errors in weight of the following: 2.02 standard deviations for the World Health Organization 0-to-23 month growth chart, 1.07 standard deviations for the Fenton preterm growth chart, 0.71 standard deviations for the Olsen preterm growth chart, and 0.11 standard deviations for the CDC 2-to-18 year growth chart. Failure to include an interpolation algorithm when designing computerizing growth charts can lead to large errors in centile and z-score calculations. PMID:26573652

  1. YACCD: Yet Another Color Constancy Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Alessandro; Gatta, Carlo; Marini, Daniele

    2003-01-01

    Different image databases have been developed so far to test algorithms of color constancy. Each of them differs in the image characteristics, according to the features to test. In this paper we present a new image database, created at the University of Milano. Since a database cannot contain all the types of possible images, to limit the number of images it is necessary to make some choices and these choices should be as neutral as possible. The first image detail that we have addressed is the background. Which is the more convenient background for a color constancy test database? This choice can be affected by the goal of the color correction algorithms. In developing this DB we tried to consider a large number of possible approaches considering color constancy in a broader sense. Images under standard illuminants are presented together with particular non-standard light sources. In particular we collect two groups of lamps: with a weak and with a strong color casts. Another interesting feature is the presence of shadows, that allow to test the local effects of the color correction algorithms. The proposed DB can be used to test algorithms to recover the corresponding color under standard reference illuminants or alternatively assuming a visual appearance approach, to test algorithms for their capability to minimize color variations across the different illuminants, performing in this way a perceptual color constancy. This second approach is used to present preliminary tests. The IDB will be made available on the web.

  2. The psychological four-color mapping problem.

    PubMed

    Francis, Gregory; Bias, Keri; Shive, Joshua

    2010-06-01

    Mathematicians have proven that four colors are sufficient to color 2-D maps so that no neighboring regions share the same color. Here we consider the psychological 4-color problem: Identifying which 4 colors should be used to make a map easy to use. We build a model of visual search for this design task and demonstrate how to apply it to the task of identifying the optimal colors for a map. We parameterized the model with a set of 7 colors using a visual search experiment in which human participants found a target region on a small map. We then used the model to predict search times for new maps and identified the color assignments that minimize or maximize average search time. The differences between these maps were predicted to be substantial. The model was then tested with a larger set of 31 colors on a map of English counties under conditions in which participants might memorize some aspects of the map. Empirical tests of the model showed that an optimally best colored version of this map is searched 15% faster than the correspondingly worst colored map. Thus, the color assignment seems to affect search times in a way predicted by the model, and this effect persists even when participants might use other sources of knowledge about target location. PMID:20565196

  3. Computerized Adaptive Testing with Item Clones. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    To reduce the cost of item writing and to enhance the flexibility of item presentation, items can be generated by item-cloning techniques. An important consequence of cloning is that it may cause variability on the item parameters. Therefore, a multilevel item response model is presented in which it is assumed that the item parameters of a…

  4. Computerized Testing and Feedback for Faculty and Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Heijia L.

    At Santa Fe Community College, the development of a biology course and departmental final examination was accomplished in the following stages: (1) faculty reached consensus on course content, major objectives and sub-objectives; (2) faculty contributed final examination questions corresponding to the 10 major course topics to a pool for review…

  5. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.426 Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  6. 7 CFR 28.432 - Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Middling Tinged Color. 28.432 Section 28.432... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Tinged Cotton § 28.432 Middling Tinged Color. Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody...

  7. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody...

  8. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody...

  9. 7 CFR 28.434 - Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.434 Section 28.434... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Tinged Cotton § 28.434 Low Middling Tinged Color. Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in...

  10. 7 CFR 28.434 - Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.434 Section 28.434... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Tinged Cotton § 28.434 Low Middling Tinged Color. Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in...

  11. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody...

  12. 7 CFR 28.432 - Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Middling Tinged Color. 28.432 Section 28.432... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Tinged Cotton § 28.432 Middling Tinged Color. Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody...

  13. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody...

  14. 7 CFR 28.434 - Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.434 Section 28.434... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Tinged Cotton § 28.434 Low Middling Tinged Color. Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in...

  15. 7 CFR 28.432 - Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Middling Tinged Color. 28.432 Section 28.432... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Tinged Cotton § 28.432 Middling Tinged Color. Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody...

  16. 7 CFR 28.434 - Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.434 Section 28.434... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Tinged Cotton § 28.434 Low Middling Tinged Color. Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in...

  17. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody...

  18. 7 CFR 28.432 - Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Tinged Color. 28.432 Section 28.432... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Tinged Cotton § 28.432 Middling Tinged Color. Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody...

  19. 7 CFR 28.434 - Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.434 Section 28.434... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Tinged Cotton § 28.434 Low Middling Tinged Color. Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in...

  20. 7 CFR 28.432 - Middling Tinged Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Middling Tinged Color. 28.432 Section 28.432... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Tinged Cotton § 28.432 Middling Tinged Color. Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody...

  1. Testing Our Limits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempel, Melissa Bollow

    2012-01-01

    Computerized testing, including the widely used MAP test, has infiltrated the public schools in Milwaukee and across the nation, bringing with it a frightening future for public education. High-stakes standardized tests can be scored almost immediately via the internet, and testing companies can now easily link districts to their online data…

  2. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bag of ice or frozen vegetables instead. High Tech for Low Vision Today's smartphones, e-readers and ... May Improve Vision Around Blind Spot Could Stem Cells Cure Blindness Caused by Macular Degeneration? Related Answers ...

  3. The Distances to Open Clusters from Main-sequence Fitting. V. Extension of Color Calibration and Test Using Cool and Metal-rich Stars in NGC 6791

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Deokkeun; Terndrup, Donald M.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Lee, Jae-Woo

    2015-09-01

    We extend our effort to calibrate stellar isochrones in the Johnson-Cousins ({{BVI}}C) and the 2MASS ({{JHK}}s) filter systems based on observations of well-studied open clusters. Using cool main-sequence (MS) stars in Praesepe, we define empirical corrections to the Lejeune et al. color-effective temperature ({T}{eff}) relations down to {T}{eff}˜ 3600 {{K}}, complementing our previous work based on the Hyades and the Pleiades. We apply empirically corrected isochrones to existing optical and near-infrared photometry of cool ({T}{eff}? 5500 {{K}}) and metal-rich ([{Fe}/{{H}}]= +0.37) MS stars in NGC 6791. The current methodology relies on an assumption that color-{T}{eff} corrections are independent of metallicity, but we find that estimates of color excess and distance from color-magnitude diagrams with different color indices converge on each other at the precisely known metallicity of the cluster. Along with a satisfactory agreement with eclipsing binary data in the cluster, we view the improved internal consistency as a validation of our calibrated isochrones at super-solar metallicities. For very cool stars ({T}{eff}? 4800 {{K}}), however, we find that B - V colors of our models are systematically redder than the cluster photometry by ˜0.02 mag. We use color-{T}{eff} transformations from the infrared flux method and alternative photometry to examine a potential color-scale error in the input cluster photometry. After excluding B - V photometry of these cool MS stars, we derive E(B\\-\\V)=0.105+/- 0.014, [M/H]\\=\\+0.42+/- 0.07, {(m\\-\\M)}0=13.04+/- 0.08, and the age of 9.5 ± 0.3 Gyr for NGC 6791.

  4. Vision Screening by Color Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R.; Richardson, J. R.; Kerr, J.; Hay, S.; Mcbride, R.

    1985-01-01

    Screening test developed for detecting a range of vision defects in eye, including common precursors to amblyopia. Test noninvasive, safe, and administered easily in field by operator with no medical training. Only minimal momentary cooperation of subject required: Thus, test shows promise for use with very young children. Test produces color-slide images of retinas of eyes under specially-controlled lighting conditions. Trained observer screens five children per minute.

  5. Military Services Fitness Database: Development of a Computerized Physical Fitness and Weight Management Database for the U.S. Army

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Donald A.; Bathalon, Gaston P.; Sigrist, Lori D.; Allen, H. Raymond; Friedl, Karl E.; Young, Andrew J.; Martin, Corby K.; Stewart, Tiffany M.; Burrell, Lolita; Han, Hongmei; Hubbard, Van S.; Ryan, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has mandated development of a system to collect and manage data on the weight, percent body fat (%BF), and fitness of all military personnel. This project aimed to (1) develop a computerized weight and fitness database to track individuals and Army units over time allowing cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluations and (2) test the computerized system for feasibility and integrity of data collection over several years of usage. The computer application, the Military Services Fitness Database (MSFD), was designed for (1) storage and tracking of data related to height, weight, %BF for the Army Weight Control Program (AWCP) and Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores and (2) generation of reports using these data. A 2.5-year pilot test of the MSFD indicated that it monitors population and individual trends of changing body weight, %BF, and fitness in a military population. PMID:19216292

  6. Computerized detection and classification of microcalcifications on mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Heang-Ping; Wei, Datong; Lam, Kwok L.; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Sahiner, Berkman; Helvie, Mark A.; Adler, Dorit D.

    1995-05-01

    We are developing computer-aided diagnosis algorithms to assist radiologists in detection and classification of microcalcifications on mammograms. A digitized mammogram was processed with a difference-image technique and signal segmentation methods to identify suspicious signals. False-positive detections were reduced by using morphological features as well as a convolution neural network. A regional clustering technique was applied to the remaining signals to identify clinically significant clustered microcalcifications. For the development of a malignant/benign classifier, the microcalcifications were extracted from the digital images by computerized segmentation techniques. A number of visibility descriptors and shape descriptors were developed to describe the features of the microcalcifications. Linear discriminant analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology were used to classify the benign and malignant microcalcifications. For detection of microcalcifications, the computer reached a true-positive (TP) rate of 100% at 0.1 false-positive (FP) clusters per image for obvious microcalcifications, a TP rate of 93% at 1 FP clusters per image for average subtle microcalcifications, and a TP rate of 87% at 1.5 FP clusters per image for very subtle microcalcifications. For classification of microcalcifications, preliminary results indicated that an area under the ROC curve (Az) of 0.91 and 0.89 could be achieved during training, and an Az of 0.82 and 0.87 during jackknife testing for obvious and subtle clusters, respectively. When all cases were combined, the Az was 0.87 and 0.84, respectively, for training and jackknife testing.

  7. Color preferences change after experience with liked/disliked colored objects.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eli D; Schloss, Karen B; Palmer, Stephen E

    2013-10-01

    How are color preferences formed, and can they be changed by affective experiences with correspondingly colored objects? We examined these questions by testing whether affectively polarized experiences with images of colored objects would cause changes in color preferences. Such changes are implied by the ecological valence theory (EVT), which posits that color preferences are determined by people's average affective responses to correspondingly colored objects (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 8877-8882, 2010). Seeing images of strongly liked (and disliked) red and green objects, therefore, should lead to increased (and decreased) preferences for correspondingly colored red and green color patches. Experiment 1 showed that this crossover interaction did occur, but only if participants were required to evaluate their preferences for the colored objects when they saw them. Experiment 2 showed that these overall changes decreased substantially over a 24-h delay, but the degree to which the effect lasted for individuals covaried with the magnitude of the effects immediately after object exposure. Experiment 3 demonstrated a similar, but weaker, effect of affectively biased changes in color preferences when participants did not see, but only imagined, the colored objects. The overall pattern of results indicated that color preferences are not fixed, but rather are shaped by affective experiences with colored objects. Possible explanations for the observed changes in color preferences were considered in terms of associative learning through evaluative conditioning and/or priming of prior knowledge in memory. PMID:23616112

  8. Color image retrieval and analysis using image color measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chen; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos

    2015-05-01

    Image color is an important property that contains essential information that can be utilized for conducting accurate image analyses as well as for searching and retrieving images from databases. The colors of an image may be distorted during image acquisition, transmission, and display due to a variety of factors including environmental conditions. Developing an effective and quantitative metric for evaluating the color quality of an image that agrees with human observers is challenging, yet essential for computer vision and autonomous imaging systems. The traditional colorfulness measures are not robust to noise and fail to distinguish different color tones. In this paper, a new nonreference color quality measure CQE, that combines a colorfulness measure and a Uni-Color Differentiation term is presented. This CQE is shown to satisfy the established properties of a good measure, namely: The CQE correlates well with the human perception, which means that the measure can evaluate the quality of images accurately compared to the human observer's evaluation; The measure is robust to noise and distortions so that it can provide consistent and reliable measure values for a wide range of images; The measure is computationally efficient and can be used in real time applications. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the CQE measure in evaluating image color qualities for a variety of test images subjected to different environmental conditions, as well as showing its applicability for fast image retrieval for synthetic patches and natural images. Conducting image retrieval by simply searching for the value of the image's CQE measure is fast, easy to implement, and invariant to image orientations.

  9. Report of the National Sub-Committee to the Interprovincial Standards Program Coordinating Committee on the Interprovincial Computerized Examination Management System=Rapport du Sous-Comite National presente au Comite de Coordination du Programme de Normes Interprovincials sur le systeme de gestion des examens informatises interprovinciaux.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Brunswick Dept. of Advanced Education and Training, Fredericton. Interprovincial Standards Program Coordinating Committee.

    In January 1985, Employment and Immigration Canada funded a pilot project in New Brunswick for the development and testing of an Interprovincial Computerized Examination Management (ICEM) System. The resulting system is comprised of a dual interprovincial and provincial item bank facility, a software component offering the option of computerized

  10. Detection of drugs and explosives using neutron computerized tomography and artificial intelligence techniques.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, F J O; Crispim, V R; Silva, A X

    2010-06-01

    In this study the development of a methodology to detect illicit drugs and plastic explosives is described with the objective of being applied in the realm of public security. For this end, non-destructive assay with neutrons was used and the technique applied was the real time neutron radiography together with computerized tomography. The system is endowed with automatic responses based upon the application of an artificial intelligence technique. In previous tests using real samples, the system proved capable of identifying 97% of the inspected materials. PMID:20149671

  11. Color Blindness Simulations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NOAA Line Office Section 508 Coordinator Color blindness Simulations Normal Color Vision Deuteranopia Color blindness marked by ... and green and reduced sensitivity to monochromatic lights. Simulations created using Image J 1.22d, National Institutes ...

  12. LED Color Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Color quality is an important consideration when evaluating LED-based products for general illumination. This fact sheet reviews the basics regarding light and color and summarizes the most important color issues related to white-light LED systems.

  13. Rethinking color cameras

    E-print Network

    Chakrabarti, Ayan

    Digital color cameras make sub-sampled measurements of color at alternating pixel locations, and then “demosaick” these measurements to create full color images by up-sampling. This allows traditional cameras with restricted ...

  14. The evolving role of computerized tomography in radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Rockoff, S D

    1977-02-01

    The development and application of computerized tomography of the body have important implications in the diagnosis of tumors and in the planning of the radiotherapy treatment of malignancies because the modality provedes: a) an exact contour of transverse sections of the body; b) distinct representation of anatomic internal structures; c) ability to diagnose the presence and extent of tumor involvement of internal organs; d) opportunity to obtain, quantitatively, the "density" (x-ray absorption) of the anatomical structures in the sections; e) capability to develop isodose curves with inhomogeneity corrections; and f) ability to follow the response of a tumor to treatment, non-invasively. Although the diagnostic efficacy of computerized tomography of tumors, relative to other diagnostic modalities, is still to be defined accurately and the exact role of this new method in radiotherapy treatment planning is still to be determined, computerized tomography appears to provide oncologists with a valuable adjunct in their management of tumor patients. PMID:837345

  15. Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  16. Basic Color Theory and Color in Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroh, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the nature of light and its relationship to color, particularly two models of color production: the additive and subtractive models. Explains the importance of these models for understanding how computers and printers generate colors. Argues that it is important to understand these processes given the prevalence of computers in art. (DSK)

  17. Coincident disruptive coloration

    PubMed Central

    Cuthill, Innes C.; Székely, Aron

    2008-01-01

    Even if an animal matches its surroundings perfectly in colour and texture, any mismatch between the spatial phase of its pattern and that of the background, or shadow created by its three-dimensional relief, is potentially revealing. Nevertheless, for camouflage to be fully broken, the shape must be recognizable. Disruptive coloration acts against object recognition by the use of high-contrast internal colour boundaries to break up shape and form. As well as the general outline, characteristic features such as eyes and limbs must also be concealed; this can be achieved by having the colour patterns on different, but adjacent, body parts aligned to match each other (i.e. in phase). Such ‘coincident disruptive coloration’ ensures that there is no phase disjunction where body parts meet, and causes different sections of the body to blend perceptually. We tested this theory using field experiments with predation by wild birds on artificial moth-like targets, whose wings and (edible pastry) bodies had colour patterns that were variously coincident or not. We also carried out an experiment with humans searching for analogous targets on a computer screen. Both experiments show that coincident disruptive coloration is an effective mechanism for concealing an otherwise revealing body form. PMID:18990668

  18. THE VALIDITY OF HUMAN AND COMPUTERIZED WRITING ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring

    2005-09-01

    This paper summarizes an experiment designed to assess the validity of essay grading between holistic and analytic human graders and a computerized grader based on latent semantic analysis. The validity of the grade was gauged by the extent to which the student’s knowledge of the topic correlated with the grader’s expert knowledge. To assess knowledge, Pathfinder networks were generated by the student essay writers, the holistic and analytic graders, and the computerized grader. It was found that the computer generated grades more closely matched the definition of valid grading than did human generated grades.

  19. Determination of the mass function of extra-galactic GMCs via NIR color maps. Testing the method in a disk-like geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kainulainen, J.; Juvela, M.; Alves, J.

    2007-06-01

    The giant molecular clouds (GMCs) of external galaxies can be mapped with sub-arcsecond resolution using multiband observations in the near-infrared. However, the interpretation of the observed reddening and attenuation of light, and their transformation into physical quantities, is greatly hampered by the effects arising from the unknown geometry and the scattering of light by dust particles. We examine the relation between the observed near-infrared reddening and the column density of the dust clouds. In this paper we particularly assess the feasibility of deriving the mass function of GMCs from near-infrared color excess data. We perform Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations with 3D models of stellar radiation and clumpy dust distributions. We include the scattered light in the models and calculate near-infrared color maps from the simulated data. The color maps are compared with the true line-of-sight density distributions of the models. We extract clumps from the color maps and compare the observed mass function to the true mass function. For the physical configuration chosen in this study, essentially a face-on geometry, the observed mass function is a non-trivial function of the true mass function with a large number of parameters affecting its exact form. The dynamical range of the observed mass function is confined to 103.5dots 105.5 M_? regardless of the dynamical range of the true mass function. The color maps are more sensitive in detecting the high-mass end of the mass function, and on average the masses of clouds are underestimated by a factor of ˜ 10 depending on the parameters describing the dust distribution. A significant fraction of clouds is expected to remain undetected at all masses. The simulations show that the cloud mass function derived from JHK color excess data using simple foreground screening geometry cannot be regarded as a one-to-one tracer of the underlying mass function.

  20. Extraction of memory colors for preferred color correction in digital TVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Byong Tae; Yeom, Jee Young; Kim, Choon-Woo; Ahn, Ji-Young; Kang, Dong-Woo; Shin, Hyun-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Subjective image quality is one of the most important performance indicators for digital TVs. In order to improve subjective image quality, preferred color correction is often employed. More specifically, areas of memory colors such as skin, grass, and sky are modified to generate pleasing impression to viewers. Before applying the preferred color correction, tendency of preference for memory colors should be identified. It is often accomplished by off-line human visual tests. Areas containing the memory colors should be extracted then color correction is applied to the extracted areas. These processes should be performed on-line. This paper presents a new method for area extraction of three types of memory colors. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by calculating the correct and false detection ratios. Experimental results indicate that proposed method outperform previous methods proposed for the memory color extraction.

  1. Computerized characterization of lung nodule subtlety using thoracic CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xin; Sahiner, Berkman; Gallas, Brandon D.; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this work is to design computerized image analysis techniques for automatically characterizing lung nodule subtlety in CT images. Automated subtlety estimation methods may help in computer-aided detection (CAD) assessment by quantifying dataset difficulty and facilitating comparisons among different CAD algorithms. A dataset containing 813 nodules from 499 patients was obtained from the Lung Image Database Consortium. Each nodule was evaluated by four radiologists regarding nodule subtlety using a 5-point rating scale (1: most subtle). We developed a 3D technique for segmenting lung nodules using a prespecified initial ROI. Texture and morphological features were automatically extracted from the segmented nodules and their margins. The dataset was partitioned into trainers and testers using a 1:1 ratio. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with average reader subtlety scores as the reference. Effective features for characterizing nodule subtlety were selected based on the training set using the ANN and a stepwise feature selection method. The performance of the classifier was evaluated using prediction probability (PK) as an agreement measure, which is considered a generalization of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve when the reference standard is multi-level. Using an ANN classifier trained with a set of 2 features (selected from a total of 30 features), including compactness and average gray value, the test concordance between computer scores and the average reader scores was 0.789 ± 0.014. Our results show that the proposed method had strong agreement with the average of subtlety scores provided by radiologists.

  2. Computerized Tool to Manage Dental Anxiety: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Tellez, M; Potter, C M; Kinner, D G; Jensen, D; Waldron, E; Heimberg, R G; Myers Virtue, S; Zhao, H; Ismail, A I

    2015-09-01

    Anxiety regarding dental and physical health is a common and potentially distressing problem, for both patients and health care providers. Anxiety has been identified as a barrier to regular dental visits and as an important target for enhancement of oral health-related quality of life. The study aimed to develop and evaluate a computerized cognitive-behavioral therapy dental anxiety intervention that could be easily implemented in dental health care settings. A cognitive-behavioral protocol based on psychoeducation, exposure to feared dental procedures, and cognitive restructuring was developed. A randomized controlled trial was conducted (N = 151) to test its efficacy. Consenting adult dental patients who met inclusion criteria (e.g., high dental anxiety) were randomized to 1 of 2 groups: immediate treatment (n = 74) or a wait-list control (n = 77). Analyses of covariance based on intention-to-treat analyses were used to compare the 2 groups on dental anxiety, fear, avoidance, and overall severity of dental phobia. Baseline scores on these outcomes were entered into the analyses as covariates. Groups were equivalent at baseline but differed at 1-mo follow-up. Both groups showed improvement in outcomes, but analyses of covariance demonstrated significant differences in dental anxiety, fear, avoidance, and overall severity of dental phobia in favor of immediate treatment at the follow-up assessment. Of the patients who met diagnostic criteria for phobia at baseline, fewer patients in the immediate treatment group continued to meet criteria for dental phobia at follow-up as compared with the wait-list group. A new computer-based tool seems to be efficacious in reducing dental anxiety and fear/avoidance of dental procedures. Examination of its effectiveness when administered in dental offices under less controlled conditions is warranted (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02081365). PMID:26202996

  3. Numerical expression of color emotion and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tetsuya; Kajiwara, Kanji; Xin, John H.; Hansuebsai, Aran; Nobbs, Jim

    2002-06-01

    Human emotions induced by colors are various but the emotions are expressed through words and languages. In order to analyze the emotions expressed through words and languages, visual assessment tests against color emotions expressed by twelve kinds of word pairs were carried out in Japan, Thailand, Hong Kong and UK. The numerical expression of each color emotion is being tried as a formula with an ellipsoid-shape resembling that of a color difference formula. In this paper, the numerical expression of 'Soft- Hard' color emotion was mainly discussed. The application of color emotions via the empirical color emotions formulae derived from kansei database (database of sensory assessments) was also briefly reported.

  4. Hunter-Gatherer Color Naming Provides New Insight into the Evolution of Color Terms.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Delwin T; Brown, Angela M; Brainard, David H; Apicella, Coren L

    2015-09-21

    Most people name the myriad colors in the environment using between two and about a dozen color terms [1], with great variation within and between languages [2]. Investigators generally agree that color lexicons evolve from fewer terms to more terms, as technology advances and color communication becomes increasingly important [3]. However, little is understood about the color naming systems at the least technologically advanced end of the continuum. The Hadza people of Tanzania are nomadic hunter-gatherers who live a subsistence lifestyle that was common before the advent of agriculture (see Supplemental Experimental Procedures, section I; [4]), suggesting that the Hadzane language should be at an early stage of color lexicon evolution. When Hadza, Somali, and US informants named 23 color samples, Hadza informants named only the black, white, and red samples with perfect consensus. Otherwise, they used low-consensus terms or responded "don't know." However, even low-consensus color terms grouped test colors into lexical categories that aligned with those found in other world languages [5]. Furthermore, information-theoretic analysis showed that color communication efficiency within the Hadza, Somali, and US language communities falls on the same continuum as other world languages. Thus, the structure of color categories is in place in Hadzane, even though words for many of the categories are not in general use. These results suggest that even very simple color lexicons include precursors of many color categories but that these categories are initially represented in a diverse and distributed fashion. PMID:26365254

  5. Color wavefront printer with mosaic delivery of primary colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hoonjong; Stoykova, Elena; Kim, Youngmin; Hong, Sunghee; Park, Joosup; Hong, Jisoo

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents design and implementation of a color wavefront holographic printer which prints white light viewable holograms of three-dimensional (3D) objects from digital contents. Similarly to other holographic printers, the printed hologram is composed as a two-dimensional array of elemental volume holograms. In the proposed wavefront printer, the 3D information was encoded in computer generated holograms displayed in succession on an amplitude spatial light modulator. The light beam diffracted from the modulator was filtered to extract the beam coming from the object and demagnified to be recorded onto the holographic emulsion as a small size elemental hologram that made possible application of mosaic delivery of exposures at primary colors. As a result, each elemental hologram corresponded to a single color channel. A modified phase-added stereogram approach based on a hologram partitioning method was proposed to accelerate computer generation of digital contents. We achieved bright 3D reconstruction with a motion parallax at saturated colors from holograms of test objects that were printed on a silver-halide emulsion. Thus we proved experimentally feasibility of recording analog color volume holograms from digital contents by applying spatially separated exposures at primary colors to the elemental holograms.

  6. Language is not necessary for color categories.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Ozge; Shayan, Shakila; Liszkowski, Ulf; Majid, Asifa

    2013-01-01

    The origin of color categories is under debate. Some researchers argue that color categories are linguistically constructed, while others claim they have a pre-linguistic, and possibly even innate, basis. Although there is some evidence that 4-6-month-old infants respond categorically to color, these empirical results have been challenged in recent years. First, it has been claimed that previous demonstrations of color categories in infants may reflect color preferences instead. Second, and more seriously, other labs have reported failing to replicate the basic findings at all. In the current study we used eye-tracking to test 8-month-old infants' categorical perception of a previously attested color boundary (green-blue) and an additional color boundary (blue-purple). Our results show that infants are faster and more accurate at fixating targets when they come from a different color category than when from the same category (even though the chromatic separation sizes were equated). This is the case for both blue-green and blue-purple. Our findings provide independent evidence for the existence of color categories in pre-linguistic infants, and suggest that categorical perception of color can occur without color language. PMID:23278932

  7. Improving Scores on Computerized Reading Assessments: The Effects of Colored Overlay Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Tracy A.

    2012-01-01

    Visual stress is a perceptual dysfunction that appears to affect how information is processed as it passes from the eyes to the brain. Photophobia, visual resolution, restricted focus, sustaining focus, and depth perception are all components of visual stress. Because visual stress affects what is perceived by the eye, students with this disorder…

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the "Cool Teens" CD-ROM Computerized Program for Adolescent Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuthrich, Viviana M.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Cunningham, Michael J.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Schniering, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Computerized cognitive behavioral interventions for anxiety disorders in adults have been shown to be efficacious, but limited data are available on the use of computerized interventions with young persons. Adolescents in particular are difficult to engage in treatment and may be especially suited to computerized technologies. This…

  9. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413...CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.413 Middling Light Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted...

  10. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28.412...CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.412 Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light...

  11. Contrasting signals of positive selection in genes involved in human skin color variation from tests based on SNP scans and resequencing

    E-print Network

    de Gruijter, Johanna Maria; Lao, Oscar; Vermeulen, Mark; Xue, Yali; Woodwark, Cara; Gillson, Christopher J.; Coffey, Alison J.; Ayub, Qasim; Mehdi, S. Qasim; Kayser, Manfred; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2011-12-01

    -related protein 1 (TYRP1), dopachrome tautomerase (DCT), and KIT ligand (KITLG)) implicated in human skin-color variation, have shown evidence for positive selection in Europeans and East Asians in previous SNP-scan data. In the current study, we resequenced 4...

  12. Color in architecture 

    E-print Network

    Vrooman, Richard

    1952-01-01

    Good design can be spoiled by poor color. Weak design can be helped by good color. Color is therefore of prime importance as an integral element of architectural design. Color is vitally related to man in many fields. The study of architecture...

  13. Feature Article Interactive Color

    E-print Network

    Meier, Barbara J.

    IPTs,we conducted a Web-based survey of individuals who work with color (see the Color Task Analysis Survey at http, illus- trators, animators, computer artists, and color techni- cians. The respondents had an averageFeature Article Interactive Color Palette Tools 64 May/June 2004 Published by the IEEE Computer

  14. Bibliography 1. Color Vision

    E-print Network

    Rheingans, Penny

    , Sunderland, MA, 1981. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson. An opponent-process theory of color vision. Psychological of General Psychology, vol. 97, pp. 145-149. J. Walraven, T. L. Benzschawel, and B. E. Rogowitz. ColorBibliography 1. Color Vision L. Arend. Apparent contrast and surface color in complex scenes. In B

  15. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePLUS

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  16. Cognitive Workload of Computerized Nursing Process in Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    Dal Sasso, Grace Marcon; Barra, Daniela Couto Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to measure the cognitive workload to complete printed nursing process versus computerized nursing process from International Classification Practice of Nursing in intensive care units. It is a quantitative, before-and-after quasi-experimental design, with a sample of 30 participants. Workload was assessed using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task-Load Index. Six cognitive categories were measured. The "temporal demand" was the largest contributor to the cognitive workload, and the role of the nursing process in the "performance" category has excelled that of computerized nursing process. It was concluded that computerized nursing process contributes to lower cognitive workload of nurses for being a support system for decision making based on the International Classification Practice of Nursing. The computerized nursing process as a logical structure of the data, information, diagnoses, interventions and results become a reliable option for health improvement of healthcare, because it can enhance nurse safe decision making, with the intent to reduce damage and adverse events to patients in intensive care. PMID:26061562

  17. A Computerized System for Workplace Design for Visually Impaired Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J-G; Hou, C-A

    1991-01-01

    VITAL (Vision Impaired Task and Assignment Lexicon) is an integrated computerized system that performs workplace design tasks for visually impaired workers. VITAL consists of three modules: ergonomics consultation, disability index, and work measurement. Evaluation indicated that VITAL could be used as a tool to help nonprofessional vocational…

  18. Potential of Audiographic Computerized Telelearning for Distance Extension Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, Satish; And Others

    In the last 10 years, an approach to electronic distance education called audiographic computerized telelearning using standard telephone lines has come to the fore. Telelearning is a cost-effective system which optimizes existing computer facilities and creates a teaching-learning environment that is interactive, efficient, and adaptable to a…

  19. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disapproval is a final administrative decision and is not subject to administrative appeal. (g) FFP... computerized support enforcement system. (iii) FFP is not available for developing new systems or making major... hardware, operational system software, and electronic linkages with the separate components of...

  20. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... disapproval is a final administrative decision and is not subject to administrative appeal. (g) FFP... computerized support enforcement system. (iii) FFP is not available for developing new systems or making major... hardware, operational system software, and electronic linkages with the separate components of...