Sample records for computerized color test

  1. Assessment of Selective Attention with CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afsaneh, Zarghi; Alireza, Zali; Mehdi, Tehranidost; Farzad, Ashrafi; Reza, Zarindast Mohammad; Mehdi, Moazzezi; Mojtaba, Khodadadi Seyed

    2012-01-01

    The SCWT (Stroop Color-Word Test) is a quick and frequently used measure for assessing selective attention and cognitive flexibility. This study determines age, sex and education level influence on attention and cognitive flexibility by CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among healthy Iranian children and adults. There were 78 healthy…

  2. Quantitative computerized color vision testing in diabetic retinopathy: A possible screening tool?

    PubMed Central

    Al Saeidi, Rashid; Kernt, Marcus; Kreutzer, Thomas C; Rudolph, Guenther; Neubauer, Aljoscha S; Haritoglou, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of a computerized color vision testing (Arden color contrast test) as a screening test for detection of diabetic macular edema (DME). Materials and Methods: A consecutive, prospective case series of 83 eyes of 42 diabetic patients with and without macular edema was enrolled. Macular edema was assessed clinically by stereoscopic grading and by central retinal thickness measurement with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Additionally, a computerized chromatest for the protan- and tritan-axis was performed. Analysis of test characteristics included receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and calculated sensitivity and specificity. Results: Sixty-one eyes had clinically significant macular edema (CSME). OCT yielded an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.92. Color vision testing yielded an AUC of 0.82 for the tritan- and 0.80 for the protan-axis. Using a cut off of 199 microns OCT resulted in a 100% sensitivity at 39% specificity. With a cut-off of 4.85, color testing yielded a sensitivity of 100% at a specificity of 8% on the tritan-axis, respectively. Considering OCT instead of clinical examination as a reference standard resulted in a comparable high sensitivity, but low specificity for color vision testing. Disturbance of the tritan axis was more pronounced than for the protan axis in present macular edema and also better correlated (r = 0.46) with retinal thickness measured with OCT. Conclusions: Computerized, quantitative color testing using the chromatest allows detection of diabetic maculopathy with high sensitivity. However, only a low specificity exists for retinal macular edema, as in diabetic retinopathy (DR) frequently abnormalities of the tritan axis exist before any retinal thickening occurs. PMID:24391371

  3. Computerized Test Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosser, Jon; And Others

    The application of a well-known and fairly simple information retrieval technology to the process of testing undergraduate college students is described. The Computerized Test Library allows the student and/or the professor to extract questions of varying difficulty covering whatever topic the student is studying; if the student performs at the…

  4. Computerized Adaptive Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bickerstaff, D.D.; Gardner, P.R. (Eastern Washington Univ., Cheney (USA). Dept. of Chemistry; Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Using exceedingly easy or difficult test items on a conventional fixed-length mastery test can result in a less-than-optimal measurement of achievement. Studies suggest that the use of variable-length adaptive tests may decrease the average test length, while improving the accuracy of the estimate of achievement. This paper presents an overview of criterion-referenced computerized adaptive testing and described an exploratory study at Westinghouse Hanford Company. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Participants' Reactions to Computerized Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Kim C.; Johnson, Marilyn F.

    This study investigated participants' reactions to computerized testing and assessed the practicability of this testing method in the classroom. A sample of 315 secondary-level students took a computerized and a printed version of a standardized aptitude test battery and a survey assessing their reactions to the computerized testing. Overall…

  6. Computerized Classification Testing with the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    If classification in a limited number of categories is the purpose of testing, computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with algorithms based on sequential statistical testing perform better than estimation-based CATs (e.g., Eggen & Straetmans, 2000). In these computerized classification tests (CCTs), the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) (Wald,…

  7. Termination Criteria for Computerized Classification Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Computerized classification testing (CCT) is an approach to designing tests with intelligent algorithms, similar to adaptive testing, but specifically designed for the purpose of classifying examinees into categories such as "pass" and "fail." Like adaptive testing for point estimation of ability, the key component is the termination criterion,…

  8. An Introduction to the Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Jian-quan; Miao, Dan-min; Zhu, Xia; Gong, Jing-jing

    2007-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has unsurpassable advantages over traditional testing. It has become the mainstream in large scale examinations in modern society. This paper gives a brief introduction to CAT including differences between traditional testing and CAT, the principles of CAT, psychometric theory and computer algorithms of CAT, the…

  9. Item Selection in Computerized Classification Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Several alternatives for item selection algorithms based on item response theory in computerized classification testing (CCT) have been suggested, with no conclusive evidence on the substantial superiority of a single method. It is argued that the lack of sizable effect is because some of the methods actually assess items very similarly through…

  10. Evaluation of reliability of computerized neurobehavioral tests in Korean children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong-Soo; Jeon, Man-Joong; Hwang, Tae-Yoon; Kim, Chang-Yoon; Sakong, Joon

    2012-10-01

    Neurobehavioral tests are among the most efficient methods of identifying the adverse health effects of neurotoxicants. The reliability of neurobehavioral tests may be affected by racial or cultural backgrounds, but the widely used computerized neurobehavioral tests have been developed and standardized for Western children. It is thus necessary to assess the reliability of the existing computerized neurobehavioral tests for Korean children. For this reason, 254 healthy 7- to 8-year-old Korean children completed a neurobehavioral test-retest, with the test and retest held two months apart. Six neurobehavioral test items adapted from Korean Computerized Neurobehavioral Tests (KCNT) and modified to match the children's ability levels: Simple Reaction Time, Choice Reaction Time, Color Word Vigilance, Addition, Symbol Digit, and Finger Tapping Speed. The test reliability was assessed using the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ICCs ranged from 0.46 to 0.84 and were very similar to the Pearson coefficients. High reliability was detected in Symbol Digit (r=0.84, ICC=0.83), followed by the Finger Tapping Speed of the dominant hand (r=0.67, ICC=0.67) and of the non-dominant hand (r=0.65, ICC=0.65). The study findings suggest that the reliability of most computerized neurobehavioral tests is appropriate for epidemiological researches on Korean children, and that Symbol Digit and Finger Tapping Speed are more satisfactory bases for the periodic examination of neurobehavioral performance. These findings can also be useful in the future assembly of a neurobehavioral test battery, by providing more stable neurobehavioral test items for Korean children. PMID:22981304

  11. [Computerized devices for biological testing].

    PubMed

    Zakharov, I S; Paputskaia, N I; Pozharov, A V; Lepiakhov, A Iu

    1995-01-01

    The paper provides evidence for perspectives of the toxicological equipment for protozoa chemotaxis bioassay, which allows one to solve the problems in preparing a culture, a sample, testing solutions and measurement of protozoan reactions. A Poisson process device was proposed to use for construction of a mathematical model of a protozoan concentration transducer. The experimental findings supported the dependence theoretically forwarded. With the new approach, a BIOTESTER-2 device was designed, which has found its use in controlling the quality of water, antibiotics, in mapping the contamination of areas. The device may be used in the evaluation of the toxicity of biological fluids. PMID:7783588

  12. Constraining Item Exposure in Computerized Adaptive Testing with Shadow Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2004-01-01

    Item-exposure control in computerized adaptive testing is implemented by imposing item-ineligibility constraints on the assembly process of the shadow tests. The method resembles Sympson and Hetter's (1985) method of item-exposure control in that the decisions to impose the constraints are probabilistic. The method does not, however, require…

  13. Computerized Adaptive Testing, Anxiety Levels, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritts, Barbara E.; Marszalek, Jacob M.

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the amount of test anxiety experienced on a computerized adaptive test (CAT) to a paper-and-pencil test (P&P), as well as the state test anxiety experienced between males and females. Ninety-four middle school CAT examinees were compared to 65 middle school P&P examinees on their responses to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory…

  14. Online Calibration via Variable Length Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yuan-chin Ivan; Lu, Hung-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Item calibration is an essential issue in modern item response theory based psychological or educational testing. Due to the popularity of computerized adaptive testing, methods to efficiently calibrate new items have become more important than that in the time when paper and pencil test administration is the norm. There are many calibration…

  15. Balancing Flexible Constraints and Measurement Precision in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Eric L.; Galindo, Jennifer L.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2012-01-01

    Managing test specifications--both multiple nonstatistical constraints and flexibly defined constraints--has become an important part of designing item selection procedures for computerized adaptive tests (CATs) in achievement testing. This study compared the effectiveness of three procedures: constrained CAT, flexible modified constrained CAT,…

  16. Controlling Item Exposure Conditional on Ability in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocking, Martha L.; Lewis, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Ensuring item and pool security in a continuous testing environment is explored through a new method of controlling exposure rate of items conditional on ability level in computerized testing. Properties of this conditional control on exposure rate, when used in conjunction with a particular adaptive testing algorithm, are explored using simulated…

  17. Computerized Adaptive Testing with Equated Number-Correct Scoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a constrained computerized adaptive testing (CAT) algorithm that can be used to equate CAT number-correct scores to a reference test. Used an item bank from the Law School Admission Test to compare results of the algorithm with those for equipercentile observed-score equating. Discusses advantages of the approach. (SLD)

  18. Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT): Program Listing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Baldwin; And Others

    This program listing is a supplement to the Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). The driver textfile program allows access to major subprograms of the CAT project. The test administration textfile program gives examinees a prescribed set of subtests. The parameter management textfile program establishes a file containing…

  19. "catR": An R Package for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is an active current research field in psychometrics and educational measurement. However, there is very little software available to handle such adaptive tasks. The R package "catR" was developed to perform adaptive testing with as much flexibility as possible, in an attempt to provide a developmental and…

  20. Computerized Adaptive Testing: From Inquiry to Operation [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    This book documents the research, development, and implementation efforts that allowed the U.S. Department of Defense to initiate the Computerized Adaptive Testing Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery Program for enlistment testing. Traces the history of this program over 30 years. (SLD)

  1. Content Balancing in Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Chi-Keung; Chang, Hua-Hua; Hau, Kit-Tai

    Item selection methods in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can yield extremely skewed item exposure distribution in which items with high "a" values may be over-exposed while those with low "a" values may never be selected. H. Chang and Z. Ying (1999) proposed the a-stratified design (ASTR) that attempts to equalize item exposure distribution…

  2. Sequential Computerized Mastery Tests--Three Simulation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberg, Marie

    2006-01-01

    A simulation study of a sequential computerized mastery test is carried out with items modeled with the 3 parameter logistic item response theory model. The examinees' responses are either identically distributed, not identically distributed, or not identically distributed together with estimation errors in the item characteristics. The…

  3. Hypergeometric Family and Item Overlap Rates in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hua-Hua; Zhang, Jinming

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates mathematically that if every item in an item pool has an equal possibility to be selected from the pool in a fixed-length computerized adaptive test, the number of overlapping items among an alpha randomly sampled examinees follows the hypergeometric distribution family for alpha greater than or equal to 1. (SLD)

  4. Item Selection Criteria with Practical Constraints for Computerized Classification Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chuan-Ju

    2011-01-01

    This study compares four item selection criteria for a two-category computerized classification testing: (1) Fisher information (FI), (2) Kullback-Leibler information (KLI), (3) weighted log-odds ratio (WLOR), and (4) mutual information (MI), with respect to the efficiency and accuracy of classification decision using the sequential probability…

  5. Auditory Performance Characteristics of the Computerized Revised Token Test (CRTT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberwein, Cynthia A.; Pratt, Sheila R.; McNeil, Malcolm R.; Fossett, Tepanta R. D.; Szuminsky, Neil J.; Doyle, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the Computerized Revised Token Test (CRTT) performance of individuals with normal hearing under several intensity conditions and under several spectral and temporal perturbation conditions. Method: Sixty normal-hearing listeners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. Group 1 provided performance-intensity information about…

  6. A Framework for the Development of Computerized Adaptive Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.; Weiss, David J.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has been conducted over the past 40 years on technical aspects of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), such as item selection algorithms, item exposure controls, and termination criteria. However, there is little literature providing practical guidance on the development of a CAT. This paper seeks to collate some…

  7. A New Stopping Rule for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Seung W.; Grady, Matthew W.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to introduce a new stopping rule for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The predicted standard error reduction (PSER) stopping rule uses the predictive posterior variance to determine the reduction in standard error that would result from the administration of additional items. The performance of the PSER was…

  8. Application of the Bifactor Model to Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong Gi

    2011-01-01

    Most computerized adaptive tests (CAT) have been studied under the framework of unidimensional item response theory. However, many psychological variables are multidimensional and might benefit from using a multidimensional approach to CAT. In addition, a number of psychological variables (e.g., quality of life, depression) can be conceptualized…

  9. Item Overexposure in Computerized Classification Tests Using Sequential Item Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Computerized classification tests (CCTs) often use sequential item selection which administers items according to maximizing psychometric information at a cut point demarcating passing and failing scores. This paper illustrates why this method of item selection leads to the overexposure of a significant number of items, and the performances of…

  10. COMPUTERIZED LABORATORY NOTEBOOK CONCEPT FOR GENETIC TOXICOLOGY EXPERIMENTATION AND TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe a microcomputer system utilizing the Computerized Laboratory Notebook (CLN) concept developed in our laboratory for the purpose of automating the Battery of Leukocyte Tests (BLT). The BLT was designed to evaluate blood specimens for toxic, immunotoxic, and genotoxic e...

  11. Computerized assessment in neuropsychology: A review of tests and test batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Kane; Gary G. Kay

    1992-01-01

    This article contains detailed reviews of 13 computerized neuropsychological and performance test batteries and six stand-alone computer tests. Tasks found on these instruments are described and tables illustrate which batteries employ which measures. In addition to issues of reliability and validity, special considerations apply to computerized assessment. These issues are discussed and readers are provided information to help them assess

  12. Practical Issues in Computerized Test Assembly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wightman, Linda F.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the potential contributions of optimal test-design models to practical test-assembly issues that result from limitations in the models or the technology required for their implementation and limitations inherent in the test-assembly process. Outlines research needed to make implementation of these techniques routine in test assembly.…

  13. Development of a Computerized Visual Search Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Denise; Babani, Harsha; Jon, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Visual attention and visual search are the features of visual perception, essential for attending and scanning one's environment while engaging in daily occupations. This study describes the development of a novel web-based test of visual search. The development information including the format of the test will be described. The test was designed…

  14. Rescuing Computerized Testing by Breaking Zipf's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that because of the nonlinear relationship between item usage and item security, the problems of test security posed by continuous administration of standardized tests cannot be resolved merely by increasing the size of the item pool. Offers alternative strategies to overcome these problems, distributing test items so as to avoid the…

  15. Are Our Kids Ready for Computerized Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullen, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    As standardized assessments tied to the Common Core standards approach for K-12 students, U.S. teachers correctly feel that how we test students will change. Will students be ready for tests of proficiency done on computers? Gullen debriefed with 500 students in various grades who had just taken pilot assessment items connected to the coming…

  16. Treatment of Test Anxiety: A Computerized Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pless, Anica

    2010-01-01

    Test anxiety creates problems for many students, and can have a negative impact on the academic performance of many who suffer from it (Jones & Petruzzi, 1995). Typical treatment components for test anxiety involve psychoeducation, relaxation training, gradual exposure, cognitive restructuring, study skills training, and relapse prevention.…

  17. Item Selection Rules in Computerized Adaptive Testing: Accuracy and Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Ramón Barrada; Julio Olea; Vicente Ponsoda; Francisco José Abad

    2009-01-01

    The item selection rule (ISR) most commonly used in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is to select the item with maximum Fisher information for the current trait estimation (PFI). Several alternative ISRs have been proposed. Among them, Fisher information considered in an interval (FI*I), Fisher information weighted with the likelihood function (FI*L), Kullback-Leibler information considered in an interval (KL*I) and Kullback-Leibler

  18. Assessment of Minimal HE (with emphasis on computerized psychometric tests)

    PubMed Central

    Kappus, Matthew R; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is associated with a high risk of development of overt hepatic encephalopathy, impaired quality of life and driving accidents. The detection of MHE requires specialized testing since it cannot by definition, be diagnosed on standard clinical examination. Psychometric (paper-pencil or computerized or a combination) and neuro-physiological techniques are often used to test for MHE. Paper-pencil psychometric batteries like the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) have been validated in several countries but do not have US normative values. Computerized tests such as the inhibitory control test (ICT), cognitive drug research system and Scan test have proven useful to diagnose MHE and predict outcomes. The specificity and sensitivity of these tests are similar to the recommended gold standards. Neuro-physiological tests such as the EEG and its interpretations, evoked potentials and Critical Flicker Frequency (CFF) also provide useful information. The diagnosis of MHE is an important issue for clinicians and patients alike and the testing strategies depend on the normative data available, patient comfort and local expertise. PMID:22321464

  19. A Procedure for Controlling General Test Overlap in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shu-Ying

    2010-01-01

    To date, exposure control procedures that are designed to control test overlap in computerized adaptive tests (CATs) are based on the assumption of item sharing between pairs of examinees. However, in practice, examinees may obtain test information from more than one previous test taker. This larger scope of information sharing needs to be…

  20. Computerized adaptation of The Placing Test for early detection of both mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Vacante, Marco; Wilcock, Gordon K; de Jager, Celeste A

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the hippocampal system have been proposed as a possible marker of incipient Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage. The Placing Test (TPT) evaluates the efficiency of the hippocampal system by measuring the ability to remember associations between images and their locations. Our aim was to validate a novel paper-and-pencil (PnP) version of TPT featuring people's faces in color (versus the traditional test carried out with black-and-white images) and a computerized Placing test with categories of objects, faces, and animals (versus a version featuring the categories of objects, faces, and shapes). A total of 78 subjects were divided into 2 groups; each group included 20 normal control subjects, 10 subjects with MCI, and 9 with AD. All subjects underwent TPT. The correlation between the two versions of the test was highly significant (r=.770, p<.001), demonstrating that the transfer of the test format from PnP to computer was acceptable. Computerized object and animal subtests had the highest overall sensitivity and specificity for discriminating MCI from AD, while PnP faces in color discriminated controls from MCI best. Although this was a preliminary assessment on a small sample of subjects, the results of our study demonstrated that total scores on both the traditional and computerized versions of the test discriminate all three diagnostic categories, but the subtests had varying discriminatory abilities. PMID:23985007

  1. A-Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing with Unequal Item Exposure across Strata.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Hui; Chang, Hua-Hua

    The purpose of this study was to compare a proposed revised a-stratified, or alpha-stratified, USTR method of test item selection with the original alpha-stratified multistage computerized adaptive testing approach (STR) and the use of maximum Fisher information (FSH) with respect to test efficiency and item pool usage using simulated computerized

  2. a-Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing in the Presence of Calibration Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying; Patton, Jeffrey M.; Shao, Can

    2015-01-01

    a-Stratified computerized adaptive testing with b-blocking (AST), as an alternative to the widely used maximum Fisher information (MFI) item selection method, can effectively balance item pool usage while providing accurate latent trait estimates in computerized adaptive testing (CAT). However, previous comparisons of these methods have treated…

  3. Severity of Organized Item Theft in Computerized Adaptive Testing: A Simulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qing; Zhang, Jinming; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2008-01-01

    Criteria had been proposed for assessing the severity of possible test security violations for computerized tests with high-stakes outcomes. However, these criteria resulted from theoretical derivations that assumed uniformly randomized item selection. This study investigated potential damage caused by organized item theft in computerized adaptive…

  4. Predicting item exposure parameters in computerized adaptive testing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Ying; Doong, Shing-Hwang

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to find a formula that describes the relationship between item exposure parameters and item parameters in computerized adaptive tests by using genetic programming (GP) - a biologically inspired artificial intelligence technique. Based on the formula, item exposure parameters for new parallel item pools can be predicted without conducting additional iterative simulations. Results show that an interesting formula between item exposure parameters and item parameters in a pool can be found by using GP. The item exposure parameters predicted based on the found formula were close to those observed from the Sympson and Hetter (1985) procedure and performed well in controlling item exposure rates. Similar results were observed for the Stocking and Lewis (1998) multinomial model for item selection and the Sympson and Hetter procedure with content balancing. The proposed GP approach has provided a knowledge-based solution for finding item exposure parameters. PMID:18482476

  5. Constraining Item Exposure in Computerized Adaptive Testing with Shadow Tests. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    Item-exposure control in computerized adaptive testing is implemented by imposing item-ineligibility constraints on the assembly process of the shadow tests. The method resembles J. Sympson and R. Hetter's (1985) method of item-exposure control in that the decisions to impose the constraints are probabilistic. However, the method does not require…

  6. Computerized Cognitive Testing in the Management of Youth Sports-Related Concussion.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Anthony P; Broshek, Donna K

    2014-12-01

    Computerized neurocognitive testing has become a growing practice across medical populations, but particularly within sports medicine and the management of sports-related concussion. Although traditional neuropsychological measures are solely administered and interpreted by neuropsychologists, computerized cognitive tests are marketed to and utilized by a wide range of professionals involved in the management of sports-related concussions, many of whom lack specialized psychometric training. Although the benefits of computerized testing allow for many youth athletes to be evaluated quickly, professionals implementing their use should be aware of the potential pitfalls and the high potential for misuse. After briefly reviewing the recommended guidelines set forth by the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology, we review the benefits/limitations of computerized testing in the management of sports-related concussion and the basic psychometric properties of some of the more widely used computerized measures. Lastly, we discuss the practical application of these devices. PMID:25477270

  7. Development of a Computerized Adaptive Test for Schizotypy Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Menéndez, Luis Fernando; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Muñiz, José

    2013-01-01

    Background Schizotypal traits in adolescents from the general population represent the behavioral expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Schizotypy assessment in this sector of population has advanced considerably in the last few years; however, it is necessary to incorporate recent advances in psychological and educational measurement. Objective The main goal of this study was to develop a Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT) to evaluate schizotypy through “The Oviedo Questionnaire for Schizotypy Assessment” (ESQUIZO-Q), in non-clinical adolescents. Methods The final sample consisted of 3,056 participants, 1,469 males, with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD?=?1.2). Results The results indicated that the ESQUIZO-Q scores presented adequate psychometric properties under both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory. The Information Function estimated using the Gradual Response Model indicated that the item pool effectively assesses schizotypy at the high end of the latent trait. The correlation between the CAT total scores and the paper-and-pencil test was 0.92. The mean number of presented items in the CAT with the standard error fixed at ?0.30 was of 34 items. Conclusion The CAT showed adequate psychometric properties for schizotypy assessment in the general adolescent population. The ESQUIZO-Q adaptive version could be used as a screening method for the detection of adolescents at risk for psychosis in both educational and mental health settings. PMID:24019907

  8. Computerized Adaptive Testing for Polytomous Motivation Items: Administration Mode Effects and a Comparison with Short Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hol, A. Michiel; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

    2007-01-01

    In a randomized experiment (n = 515), a computerized and a computerized adaptive test (CAT) are compared. The item pool consists of 24 polytomous motivation items. Although items are carefully selected, calibration data show that Samejima's graded response model did not fit the data optimally. A simulation study is done to assess possible…

  9. A Bayesian Method for the Detection of Item Preknowledge in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Lori; Lewis, Charles; Thissen, David

    2003-01-01

    Explored procedures to detect test takers using item preknowledge in computerized adaptive testing and suggested a Bayesian posterior log odds ratio index for this purpose. Simulation results support the use of the odds ratio index. (SLD)

  10. Mutual Information Item Selection Method in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing with Short Test Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) purports to combine the strengths of both CAT and cognitive diagnosis. Cognitive diagnosis models aim at classifying examinees into the correct mastery profile group so as to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of each examinee whereas CAT algorithms choose items to determine those…

  11. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment in Aging: Testing Efficacy and Clinical Ecology of Different Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Catricalà, Eleonora; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Digital technologies have opened new opportunities for psychological testing, allowing new computerized testing tools to be developed and/or paper and pencil testing tools to be translated to new computerized devices. The question that rises is whether these implementations may introduce some technology-specific effects to be considered in neuropsychological evaluations. Two core aspects have been investigated in this work: the efficacy of tests and the clinical ecology of their administration (the ability to measure real-world test performance), specifically (1) the testing efficacy of a computerized test when response to stimuli is measured using a touch-screen compared to a conventional mouse-control response device; (2) the testing efficacy of a computerized test with respect to different input modalities (visual versus verbal); and (3) the ecology of two computerized assessment modalities (touch-screen and mouse-control), including preference measurements of participants. Our results suggest that (1) touch-screen devices are suitable for administering experimental tasks requiring precise timings for detection, (2) intrinsic nature of neuropsychological tests should always be respected in terms of stimuli presentation when translated to new digitalized environment, and (3) touch-screen devices result in ecological instruments being proposed for the computerized administration of neuropsychological tests with a high level of preference from elderly people. PMID:25147578

  12. Item Pocket Method to Allow Response Review and Change in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.

    2013-01-01

    Most computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs do not allow test takers to review and change their responses because it could seriously deteriorate the efficiency of measurement and make tests vulnerable to manipulative test-taking strategies. Several modified testing methods have been developed that provide restricted review options while…

  13. Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). [Final Report, FY81-83].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Baldwin; And Others

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) offers the opportunity to replace paper-and-pencil aptitude tests such as the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery with shorter, more accurate, and more secure computer-administered tests. Its potential advantages need to be verified by experimental administration of automated tests to military recruit…

  14. Design techniques for developing a computerized instrumentation test plan. [for wind tunnel test data acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, S. Kay; Forsyth, Theodore J.; Maynard, Everett E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a computerized instrumentation test plan (ITP) for the NASA/Ames Research Center National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) is discussed. The objective of the ITP program was to aid the instrumentation engineer in documenting the configuration and calibration of data acquisition systems for a given test at any of four low speed wind tunnel facilities (Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility, 7 x 10, 40 x 80, and 80 x 120) at the NFAC. It is noted that automation of the ITP has decreased errors, engineering hours, and setup time while adding a higher level of consistency and traceability.

  15. An Efficiency Balanced Information Criterion for Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.

    2012-01-01

    Successful administration of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs in educational settings requires that test security and item exposure control issues be taken seriously. Developing an item selection algorithm that strikes the right balance between test precision and level of item pool utilization is the key to successful implementation…

  16. The Influence of Item Calibration Error on Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jeffrey M.; Cheng, Ying; Yuan, Ke-Hai; Diao, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Variable-length computerized adaptive testing (VL-CAT) allows both items and test length to be "tailored" to examinees, thereby achieving the measurement goal (e.g., scoring precision or classification) with as few items as possible. Several popular test termination rules depend on the standard error of the ability estimate, which in turn depends…

  17. Evaluating Comparability in Computerized Adaptive Testing: Issues, Criteria and an Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tianyou; Kolen, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research literature on comparability issues in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and synthesizes issues specific to comparability and test security. Develops a framework for evaluating comparability that contains three categories of criteria: (1) validity; (2) psychometric property/reliability; and (3) statistical assumption/test

  18. Adaptation of a-Stratified Method in Variable Length Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Jian-Bing; Chang, Hua-Hua; Hau, Kit-Tai

    Test security has often been a problem in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) because the traditional wisdom of item selection overly exposes high discrimination items. The a-stratified (STR) design advocated by H. Chang and his collaborators, which uses items of less discrimination in earlier stages of testing, has been shown to be very…

  19. A computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A tool for standardized and repeated neuropsychological assessments in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is needed. The objective of this study was to develop a computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for INPH and to evaluate its reliability, validity and patient’s ability to complete the tests. Methods Based on a structured review of the literature on neuropsychological testing in INPH, the eight tests most sensitive to the INPH cognitive profile were implemented in a computerized format. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was also included. Tests were presented on a touch-screen monitor, with animated instructions and speaker sound. The battery was evaluated with the following cohorts: A. Test-retest reliability, 44 healthy elderly; B. Validity against standard pen and pencil testing, 28 patients with various cognitive impairments; C. Ability to complete test battery, defined as completion of at least seven of the eight tests, 40 investigated for INPH. Results A. All except the figure copy test showed good test-retest reliability, r?=?0.67-0.90; B. A high correlation was seen between conventional and computerized tests (r?=?0.66-0.85) except for delayed recognition and figure copy task; C. Seventy-eight percent completed the computerized battery; Patients diagnosed with INPH (n?=?26) performed worse on all tests, including depression score, compared to healthy controls. Conclusions A new computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for patients with communicating hydrocephalus and INPH was introduced. Its reliability, validity for general cognitive impairment and completion rate for INPH was promising. After exclusion of the figure copy task, the battery is ready for clinical evaluation and as a next step we suggest validation for INPH and a comparison before and after shunt surgery. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.org NCT01265251. PMID:25279138

  20. Testing Accommodations for University Students with AD/HD: Computerized vs. Paper-Pencil/Regular vs. Extended Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kathryn S.; Osborne, Randall E.; Carpenter, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Prompted by a previous study investigating the effects of pacing on the academic testing performance of college students with AD/HD, we further explored our preliminary findings, which suggested that a computerized testing environment enhanced the testing performance of college students with AD/HD. We compared the effects of a computerized vs.…

  1. The Application of the Monte Carlo Approach to Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing With Content Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Xiuzhen; Xin, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The Monte Carlo approach which has previously been implemented in traditional computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is applied here to cognitive diagnostic CAT to test the ability of this approach to address multiple content constraints. The performance of the Monte Carlo approach is compared with the performance of the modified maximum global…

  2. Computerized Adaptive Testing for Effective and Efficient Measurement in Counseling and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is described and compared with conventional tests, and its advantages summarized. Some item response theory concepts used in CAT are summarized and illustrated. The author describes the potential usefulness of CAT in counseling and education and reviews some current issues in the implementation of CAT.

  3. Direct and Inverse Problems of Item Pool Design for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belov, Dmitry I.; Armstrong, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    The recent literature on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has developed methods for creating CAT item pools from a large master pool. Each CAT pool is designed as a set of nonoverlapping forms reflecting the skill levels of an assumed population of test takers. This article presents a Monte Carlo method to obtain these CAT pools and discusses…

  4. Considering the Use of General and Modified Assessment Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    This article used several data sets from a large-scale state testing program to examine the feasibility of combining general and modified assessment items in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for different groups of students. Results suggested that several of the assumptions made when employing this type of mixed-item CAT may not be met for…

  5. Application of Computerized Adaptive Testing to Entrance Examination for Graduate Studies in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Okan; Kan, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a sophisticated and efficient way of delivering examinations. In CAT, items for each examinee are selected from an item bank based on the examinee's responses to the items. In this way, the difficulty level of the test is adjusted based on the examinee's ability level. Instead of…

  6. A Comparative Study of Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shun-Wen; Twu, Bor-Yaun

    This study investigated and compared the properties of five methods of item exposure control within the purview of estimating examinees' abilities in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) context. Each of the exposure control algorithms was incorporated into the item selection procedure and the adaptive testing progressed based on the CAT design…

  7. Test Procedure for 170.304.a Computerized Provider Order Entry APPROVED Version 1.1 September 24, 2010

    E-print Network

    Test Procedure for §170.304.a Computerized Provider Order Entry APPROVED Version 1.1 September 24, 2010 1 Test Procedure for §170.304 (a) Computerized Provider Order Entry This document describes criteria defined in 45 CFR Part 170 Subpart C of the Final Rule for Health Information Technology: Initial

  8. Test Procedure for 170.306.a Computerized Provider Order Entry APPROVED Version 1.1 September 24, 2010

    E-print Network

    Test Procedure for §170.306.a Computerized Provider Order Entry APPROVED Version 1.1 September 24, 2010 1 Test Procedure for §170.306 (a) Computerized Provider Order Entry This document describes criteria defined in 45 CFR Part 170 Subpart C of the Final Rule for Health Information Technology: Initial

  9. Development of the CAT-ANX: A Computerized Adaptive Test for Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Robert D.; Weiss, David J.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Frank, Ellen; Moore, Tara; Kim, Jong Bae; Kupfer, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The authors developed a computerized adaptive test for anxiety that decreases patient and clinician burden and increases measurement precision. Method A total of 1,614 individuals with and without generalized anxiety disorder from a psychiatric clinic and community mental health center were recruited. The focus of the present study was the development of the Computerized Adaptive Testing–Anxiety Inventory (CAT-ANX). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to obtain diagnostic classifications of generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder. Results An average of 12 items per subject was required to achieve a 0.3 standard error in the anxiety severity estimate and maintain a correlation of 0.94 with the total 431-item test score. CAT-ANX scores were strongly related to the probability of a generalized anxiety disorder diagnosis. Using both the Computerized Adaptive Testing–-Depression Inventory and the CAT-ANX, comorbid major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder can be accurately predicted. Conclusions Traditional measurement fixes the number of items but allows measurement uncertainty to vary. Computerized adaptive testing fixes measurement uncertainty and allows the number and content of items to vary, leading to a dramatic decrease in the number of items required for a fixed level of measurement uncertainty. Potential applications for inexpensive, efficient, and accurate screening of anxiety in primary care settings, clinical trials, psychiatric epidemiology, molecular genetics, children, and other cultures are discussed. PMID:23929270

  10. Solving Complex Constraints in a-Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Chi-Keung; Chang, Hua-Hua; Hau, Kit-Tai

    Information based item selection methods in computerized adaptive tests (CATs) tend to choose the item that provides maximum information at an examinee's estimated trait level. As a result, these methods can yield extremely skewed item exposure distributions in which items with high "a" values may be overexposed, while those with low "a" values…

  11. Incorporation of Content Balancing Requirements in Stratification Designs for Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Chi-Keung; Chang, Hua-Hua; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2003-01-01

    Studied three stratification designs for computerized adaptive testing in conjunction with three well-developed content balancing methods. Simulation study results show substantial differences in item overlap rate and pool utilization among different methods. Recommends an optimal combination of stratification design and content balancing method.…

  12. Optimal Stratification of Item Pools in a-Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    A method based on 0-1 linear programming (LP) is presented to stratify an item pool optimally for use in "alpha"-stratified adaptive testing. Because the 0-1 LP model belongs to the subclass of models with a network-flow structure, efficient solutions are possible. The method is applied to a previous item pool from the computerized adaptive…

  13. A Strategy for Controlling Item Exposure in Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Ip, Edward H.; Fuh, Cheng-Der

    2008-01-01

    Although computerized adaptive tests have enjoyed tremendous growth, solutions for important problems remain unavailable. One problem is the control of item exposure rate. Because adaptive algorithms are designed to select optimal items, they choose items with high discriminating power. Thus, these items are selected more often than others,…

  14. Using Response-Time Constraints To Control for Differential Speededness in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Scrams, David J.; Schnipke, Deborah L.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes an item-selection algorithm for neutralizing the differential effects of time limits on computerized adaptive test scores. Uses a statistical model for distributions of examinees' response times on items in a bank that is updated each time an item is administered. Demonstrates the method using an item bank from the Armed Services…

  15. Computerized Classification Testing under the One-Parameter Logistic Response Model with Ability-Based Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Yun

    2011-01-01

    The one-parameter logistic model with ability-based guessing (1PL-AG) has been recently developed to account for effect of ability on guessing behavior in multiple-choice items. In this study, the authors developed algorithms for computerized classification testing under the 1PL-AG and conducted a series of simulations to evaluate their…

  16. Optimum Number of Strata in the a-Stratified Computerized Adaptive Testing Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hau, Kit-Tai; Wen, Jian-Bing; Chang, Hua-Hua

    In the a-stratified method, a popular and efficient item exposure control strategy proposed by H. Chang (H. Chang and Z. Ying, 1999; K. Hau and H. Chang, 2001) for computerized adaptive testing (CAT), the item pool and item selection process has usually been divided into four strata and the corresponding four stages. In a series of simulation…

  17. Computerized-Adaptive and Self-Adapted Music-Listening Tests: Psychometric Features and Motivational Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vispoel, Walter P.; Coffman, Don D.

    1994-01-01

    Computerized-adaptive (CAT) and self-adapted (SAT) music listening tests were compared for efficiency, reliability, validity, and motivational benefits with 53 junior high school students. Results demonstrate trade-offs, with greater potential motivational benefits for SAT and greater efficiency for CAT. SAT elicited more favorable responses from…

  18. Item Response Theory and Computerized Adaptive Testing Conference Proceedings (Wayzata, Minnesota, July 27-30, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J., Ed.

    This report contains the Proceedings of the 1982 Item Response Theory and Computerized Adaptive Testing Conference. The papers and their discussions are organized into eight sessions: (1) "Developments in Latent Trait Theory," with papers by Fumiko Samejima and Michael V. Levine; (2) "Parameter Estimation," with papers by Frederic M. Lord and…

  19. Some Considerations for Eliminating Biases in Ability Estimation in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    Item response theory (IRT) has been adapted as the theoretical foundation of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for several decades. In applying IRT to CAT, there are certain considerations that are essential, and yet tend to be neglected. These essential issues are addressed in this paper, and then several ways of eliminating noise and bias in…

  20. Computerized Adaptive Testing Using a Class of High-Order Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Chen, Po-Hsi; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2012-01-01

    In the human sciences, a common assumption is that latent traits have a hierarchical structure. Higher order item response theory models have been developed to account for this hierarchy. In this study, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) algorithms based on these kinds of models were implemented, and their performance under a variety of…

  1. Item Pool Design for an Operational Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wei; Reckase, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    For computerized adaptive tests (CATs) to work well, they must have an item pool with sufficient numbers of good quality items. Many researchers have pointed out that, in developing item pools for CATs, not only is the item pool size important but also the distribution of item parameters and practical considerations such as content distribution…

  2. Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on Cognitive Diagnosis Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chia-Ling; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Shu-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Interest in developing computerized adaptive testing (CAT) under cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) has increased recently. CAT algorithms that use a fixed-length termination rule frequently lead to different degrees of measurement precision for different examinees. Fixed precision, in which the examinees receive the same degree of measurement…

  3. SimulCAT: Windows Software for Simulating Computerized Adaptive Test Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.

    2012-01-01

    Most, if not all, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs use simulation techniques to develop and evaluate CAT program administration and operations, but such simulation tools are rarely available to the public. Up to now, several software tools have been available to conduct CAT simulations for research purposes; however, these existing…

  4. Firestar-"D": Computerized Adaptive Testing Simulation Program for Dichotomous Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Seung W.; Podrabsky, Tracy; McKinney, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) enables efficient and flexible measurement of latent constructs. The majority of educational and cognitive measurement constructs are based on dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models. An integral part of developing various components of a CAT system is conducting simulations using both known and empirical…

  5. A Stochastic Method for Balancing Item Exposure Rates in Computerized Classification Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Alan; Li, Zhushan

    2012-01-01

    Computerized classification tests (CCTs) classify examinees into categories such as pass/fail, master/nonmaster, and so on. This article proposes the use of stochastic methods from sequential analysis to address item overexposure, a practical concern in operational CCTs. Item overexposure is traditionally dealt with in CCTs by the Sympson-Hetter…

  6. Restrictive Stochastic Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Huebner, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two new item selection methods for cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing: the restrictive progressive method and the restrictive threshold method. They are built upon the posterior weighted Kullback-Leibler (KL) information index but include additional stochastic components either in the item selection index or in…

  7. An Investigation of Procedures for Computerized Adaptive Testing Using the Successive Intervals Rasch Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, William R.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    1995-01-01

    Basic procedures for performing computerized adaptive testing based on the successive intervals (SI) Rasch model were evaluated. The SI model was applied to simulated and real attitude data sets. Item pools as small as 30 items performed well, and the model appeared practical for Likert-type data. (SLD)

  8. A Semiparametric Model for Jointly Analyzing Response Times and Accuracy in Computerized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Fan, Zhewen; Chang, Hua-Hua; Douglas, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    The item response times (RTs) collected from computerized testing represent an underutilized type of information about items and examinees. In addition to knowing the examinees' responses to each item, we can investigate the amount of time examinees spend on each item. Current models for RTs mainly focus on parametric models, which have the…

  9. Optimal Item Pool Design for a Highly Constrained Computerized Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Item pool quality has been regarded as one important factor to help realize enhanced measurement quality for the computerized adaptive test (CAT) (e.g., Flaugher, 2000; Jensema, 1977; McBride & Wise, 1976; Reckase, 1976; 2003; van der Linden, Ariel, & Veldkamp, 2006; Veldkamp & van der Linden, 2000; Xing & Hambleton, 2004). However, studies are…

  10. The Development of a Computerized Version of Vandenburg's Mental Rotation Test and the Effect of Visuo-spatial Working Memory Loading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Shawn; Smith, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of a test designed to allow meaningful and widespread computerized testing of various spatial factors. Examines the differences between traditional paper and pencil and computerized versions of the same test. Compares an interactive test designed to measure a working memory factor to the computerized version of…

  11. A Computerized Klinger Cavity Mode Conversion Test Set

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Seip; L. W. Hinderks

    1974-01-01

    A mode conversion test set utilizing the klinger cavity technique has been developed for characterizing circular waveguide components in the millimeter waveguide region. The test set incorporates a precision linear displacement optical encoder and a specially designed controller which interfaces the test set to a Hewlett-Packard 2100 series computer. Control commands of a stored computer program are used by the

  12. Using Out-of-Level Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Hua; Lin, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-level testing refers to the practice of assessing a student with a test that is intended for students at a higher or lower grade level. Although the appropriateness of out-of-level testing for accountability purposes has been questioned by educators and policymakers, incorporating out-of-level items in formative assessments for accurate…

  13. Proceedings of the 1977 Computerized Adaptive Testing Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J., Ed.

    The 27 papers in this collection (26 of which were presented at the conference) are organized according to the eight topical sessions: (1) Improving Ability Measurement Using Different Item Formats, (2) Alternative Models for Adaptive Testing, (3) Psychological and Subgroup Effects, (4) Performance Testing by Interactive Simulation, (5)…

  14. Implementation and Measurement Efficiency of Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi

    2004-01-01

    Multidimensional adaptive testing (MAT) procedures are proposed for the measurement of several latent traits by a single examination. Bayesian latent trait estimation and adaptive item selection are derived. Simulations were conducted to compare the measurement efficiency of MAT with those of unidimensional adaptive testing and random…

  15. Development and Application of Detection Indices for Measuring Guessing Behaviors and Test-Taking Effort in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shu-Ren; Plake, Barbara S.; Kramer, Gene A.; Lien, Shu-Mei

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the amount of time that different ability-level examinees spend on questions they answer correctly or incorrectly across different pretest item blocks presented on a fixed-length, time-restricted computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Results indicate that different ability-level examinees require different amounts of time to…

  16. Learning consequences for university students using computerized mastery testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Liefeld; Thomas F. Herrmann

    1990-01-01

    Mastery learning, it is claimed, is among the most successful practices in higher education. Evidence supporting this claim\\u000a has recently been criticized as empirically weak. This experiment employed a four-group, pre-post design to examine the learning\\u000a consequences of a computer-administered mastery-testing approach in comparison with a seminar-discussion approach in a third-year\\u000a university course. The mastery-testing approach generated significantly higher learning

  17. The maximum priority index method for severely constrained item selection in computerized adaptive testing.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ying; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2009-05-01

    This paper introduces a new heuristic approach, the maximum priority index (MPI) method, for severely constrained item selection in computerized adaptive testing. Our simulation study shows that it is able to accommodate various non-statistical constraints simultaneously, such as content balancing, exposure control, answer key balancing, and so on. Compared with the weighted deviation modelling method, it leads to fewer constraint violations and better exposure control while maintaining the same level of measurement precision. PMID:18534047

  18. Computerization of the Structured-Objective Rorschach Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingenohl, Ingo

    1973-01-01

    SORTSCOR performs raw scoring of the Structured-Objective Rorschach Test (SORT) and REPORT subsequently writes a narrative report in easily readable, nonclinical language. Complete documentation is available, at cost, from the author at Quinnipiac College, Hamden, Conn. 06518. (Author/CB)

  19. Computerized Adaptive Testing with Multiple-Form Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Jones, Douglas H.; Koppel, Nicole B.; Pashley, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    A multiple-form structure (MFS) is an ordered collection or network of testlets (i.e., sets of items). An examinee's progression through the network of testlets is dictated by the correctness of an examinee's answers, thereby adapting the test to his or her trait level. The collection of paths through the network yields the set of all possible…

  20. Investigating Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Nagihan Boztunc; Dogan, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of item exposure control methods on measurement precision and on test security under various item selection methods and item pool characteristics. In this study, the Randomesque (with item group sizes of 5 and 10), Sympson-Hetter, and Fade-Away methods were used as item exposure control methods. Moreover,…

  1. The importance of proper administration and interpretation of neuropsychological baseline and postconcussion computerized testing.

    PubMed

    Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Schatz, Philip; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Media coverage, litigation, and new legislation have resulted in a heightened awareness of the prevalence of sports concussion in both adult and youth athletes. Baseline and postconcussion testing is now commonly used for the assessment and management of sports-related concussion in schools and in youth sports leagues. With increased use of computerized neurocognitive sports concussion testing, there is a need for standards for proper administration and interpretation. To date, there has been a lack of standardized procedures by which assessments are administered. More specifically, individuals who are not properly trained often interpret test results, and their methods of interpretation vary considerably. The purpose of this article is to outline factors affecting the validity of test results, to provide examples of misuse and misinterpretation of test results, and to communicate the need to administer testing in the most effective and useful manner. An increase in the quality of test administration and application may serve to decrease the prevalence of invalid test results and increase the accuracy and utility of baseline test results if an athlete sustains a concussion. Standards for test use should model the American Psychological Association and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, as well as the recent findings of the joint position paper on computerized neuropsychological assessment devices. PMID:24236894

  2. Reliability and validity of a computerized neurocognitive test battery, CNS Vital Signs.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, C Thomas; Johnson, Lynda G

    2006-10-01

    CNS Vital Signs (CNSVS) is a computerized neurocognitive test battery that was developed as a routine clinical screening instrument. It is comprised of seven tests: verbal and visual memory, finger tapping, symbol digit coding, the Stroop Test, a test of shifting attention and the continuous performance test. Because CNSVS is a battery of well-known neuropsychological tests, one should expect its psychometric properties to resemble those of the conventional tests upon which it is based. 1069 subjects age 7-90 participated in the normative database for CNSVS. Test-retest reliability (TRT) was evaluated in 99 Ss who took the battery on two separate occasions, separated, on the average, by 62 days; the results were comparable to those achieved by equivalent conventional and computerized tests. Concurrent validity studies in 180 subjects, normals and neuropsychiatric patients, indicate correlations that are comparable to the concurrent validity of similar tests. Discriminant validity is supported by studies of patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia, post-concussion syndrome and severe traumatic brain injury, ADHD (treated and untreated) and depression (treated and untreated). The tests in CNSVS are also sensitive to malingerers and patients with conversion disorders. The psychometric characteristics of the tests in the CNSVS battery are very similar to the characteristics of the conventional neuropsychological tests upon which they are based. CNSVS is suitable for use as a screening instrument, or as a serial assessment measure. But it is not a substitute for formal neuropsychological testing, it is not diagnostic, and it will have only a limited role in the medical setting, absent the active participation of consulting neuropsychologists. PMID:17014981

  3. The Use of the Graded Response Model in Computerized Adaptive Testing of the Attitudes to Science Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foong, Yoke-Yeen; Lam, Tit-Loong

    The graded response model for two-stage testing was applied to an attitudes toward science scale using real-data simulation. The 48-item scale was administered to 920 students at a grade-8 equivalent in Singapore. A two-stage 16-item computerized adaptive test was developed. In two-stage testing an initial, or routing, test is followed by a…

  4. Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing: Improving the a-Stratified Design with the Sympson-Hetter Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Chi-Keung; Chang, Hua-Hua; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2002-01-01

    Item exposure control, test-overlap minimization, and the efficient use of item pool are some of the important issues in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) designs. The overexposure of some items and high test-overlap rate may cause both item and test security problems. Previously these problems associated with the maximum information (Max-I)…

  5. Effects of a Computerized Program on Use of the Test-Taking Strategy by Secondary Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Paula E.; Schumaker, Jean B.; Lancaster, Sean J. C.; Deshler, Donald D.

    2009-01-01

    Students with disabilities must meet many testing demands, given the current emphasis on accountability and state competency testing. The purpose of this project was to develop and field test a computerized program to teach the Test-Taking Strategy (Hughes, Schumaker, Deshler, & Mercer, 1988) to secondary-level students with disabilities. The…

  6. Developing and testing a computerized decision support system for nurse-to-patient assignment: a multimethod study.

    PubMed

    van Oostveen, Catharina J; Braaksma, Aleida; Vermeulen, Hester

    2014-06-01

    Nurse-to-patient assignment is a frequently recurring, time-consuming, and complex process owing to the many considerations involved. Creating well-balanced, high-quality assignments is crucial to ensuring patient safety, quality of care, and job satisfaction for nurses. A computerized decision support system can assist (charge) nurses in the nurse-to-patient assignment process. In this two-phase multimethod study, a computerized decision support system was developed and evaluated. Three nursing wards in a 1000-bed Dutch university hospital participated. In the first phase of this study, considerations relevant to the assignment process--and their relative importance--were investigated in a literature review, focus group sessions with nurses, and a survey among nurses. Using information from the first phase, the computerized decision support system was developed based on an integer linear program. In the second phase, a before-and-after study was conducted to test and evaluate the computerized decision support system both quantitatively (duration of the assignment process) and qualitatively (survey on workload). Thirty-six measurements were performed to test the computerized decision support system. After implementation, a 30% time reduction was achieved in the nurse-to-patient assignments, and nurses (N = 138) experienced a lower workload. Therefore, the implementation of computerized decision support system would increase both the quality and safety of care as well as the nurses' job satisfaction and should be investigated rigorously in the coming years. PMID:24781813

  7. Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing: Adaptation of the A-Stratified Strategy in Item Selection with Content Balancing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huo, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Variable-length computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can provide examinees with tailored test lengths. With the fixed standard error of measurement ("SEM") termination rule, variable-length CAT can achieve predetermined measurement precision by using relatively shorter tests compared to fixed-length CAT. To explore the application of…

  8. Proceedings of the First Conference on Computerized Adaptive Testing (Washington, D.C., June 12-13, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Cynthia L., Ed.

    The principal objectives of this conference were to exchange information, discuss theoretical and empirical developments, and to coordinate research efforts. The papers and their authors are: "The Graded Response Model of Latent Trait Theory and Tailored Testing" by Fumiko Samejima; (Incomplete Orders and Computerized Testing" by Norman Cliff;…

  9. An Empirical Evaluation of the Slip Correction in the Four Parameter Logistic Models with Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Yung-Chin; Ho, Rong-Guey; Laio, Wen-Wei; Chen, Li-Ju; Kuo, Ching-Chin

    2012-01-01

    In a selected response test, aberrant responses such as careless errors and lucky guesses might cause error in ability estimation because these responses do not actually reflect the knowledge that examinees possess. In a computerized adaptive test (CAT), these aberrant responses could further cause serious estimation error due to dynamic item…

  10. Construct Validity and Measurement Invariance of Computerized Adaptive Testing: Application to Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shudong; McCall, Marty; Jiao, Hong; Harris, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study are twofold. First, to investigate the construct or factorial structure of a set of Reading and Mathematics computerized adaptive tests (CAT), "Measures of Academic Progress" (MAP), given in different states at different grades and academic terms. The second purpose is to investigate the invariance of test factorial…

  11. Representing Response-Time Information in Item Banks. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnipke, Deborah L.; Scrams, David J.

    The availability of item response times made possible by computerized testing represents an entirely new type of information about test items. This study explores the issue of how to represent response-time information in item banks. Empirical response-time distribution functions can be fit with statistical distribution functions with known…

  12. A RATE FUNCTION APPROACH TO COMPUTERIZED ADAPTIVE TESTING FOR COGNITIVE DIAGNOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingchen; Ying, Zhiliang; Zhang, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a sequential experiment design scheme that tailors the selection of experiments to each subject. Such a scheme measures subjects’ attributes (unknown parameters) more accurately than the regular prefixed design. In this paper, we consider CAT for diagnostic classification models, for which attribute estimation corresponds to a classification problem. After a review of existing methods, we propose an alternative criterion based on the asymptotic decay rate of the misclassification probabilities. The new criterion is then developed into new CAT algorithms, which are shown to achieve the asymptotically optimal misclassification rate. Simulation studies are conducted to compare the new approach with existing methods, demonstrating its effectiveness, even for moderate length tests. PMID:24327068

  13. Computerized Adaptive Testing: A Primer (Second Edition). Howard Wainer (Ed.) (with Neil Dorans, Donald Eignor, Ronald Flaugher, Bert Green, Robert Mislevy, Lynne Steinberg, and David Thissen). [book review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reise, Steven P.

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of "Computerized Adaptive Testing" contains new materials related to: (1) chapter 2, system design; (2) chapter 4, item response theory, item calibration, and proficiency estimation; and (3) chapter 10, caveats, pitfalls, and unexpected consequences. The book raises critical computerized adaptive testing research and application…

  14. Effect of Person Cluster on Accuracy of Ability Estimation of Computerized Adaptive Testing in K-12 Education Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shudong; Jiao, Hong; He, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The ability estimation procedure is one of the most important components in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) system. Currently, all CATs that provide K-12 student scores are based on the item response theory (IRT) model(s); while such application directly violates the assumption of independent sample of a person in IRT models because ability…

  15. Application of an Empirical Bayes Enhancement of Mantel-Haenszel Differential Item Functioning Analysis to a Computerized Adaptive Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Thayer, Dorothy T.

    2002-01-01

    Used a simulation to investigate the applicability to computerized adaptive test data of a differential item functioning (DIF) analysis method. Results show the performance of this empirical Bayes enhancement of the Mantel Haenszel DIF analysis method to be quite promising. (SLD)

  16. "Computerized Adaptive Testing: Theory and Practice." Wim J. van der Linden and Cees A. W. Glas, Eds. [book review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reise, Steven P.

    2001-01-01

    This book contains a series of research articles about computerized adaptive testing (CAT) written for advanced psychometricians. The book is divided into sections on: (1) item selection and examinee scoring in CAT; (2) examples of CAT applications; (3) item banks; (4) determining model fit; and (5) using testlets in CAT. (SLD)

  17. Development of computerized Kana Pick-out Test for the neuropsychological examination.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Masashi; Suyama, Akihiko; Kato, Toshiaki; Urakami, Katsuya; Nakashima, Kenji; Meshitsuka, Shunsuke

    2003-03-01

    The Kana Pick-out Test, which was developed in Japan and done with paper and pencil, is said to be suitable for inspecting higher-order brain function and to be a good method for screening persons with mild or slight dementia. We have developed a computerized version of the Kana Pick-out Test, which runs on a stand-alone computer, intended to be utilized for mass screening and self-administration. The program was developed with Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 and runs under the Windows operating system on any IBM PC compatible computer. In this study, all subjects could use the system by interacting with the computer and it was found that the system seemed to have the capability of detecting cognitive status equal to the paper-based Kana Pick-out Test. Besides this, we developed a network-based Kana Pick-out game software which was intended to attract user's notice. The game program was written in JAVA language and runs on a web-browser supporting JAVA on any operating system. The program, a so called applet, is located on our web site (http://environ.med.tottori-u.ac.jp) and anyone can use the applet by accessing our homepage. PMID:12581560

  18. The Effects of Aging, Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury on Computerized Trail-Making Test Performance.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Wyma, John M; Herron, Timothy J; Yund, E William

    2015-01-01

    The trail making test (TMT) is widely used to assess speed of processing and executive function. However, normative data sets gathered at different sites show significant inconsistencies. Here, we describe a computerized version of the TMT (C-TMT) that increases the precision and replicability of the TMT by permitting a segment-by-segment analysis of performance and separate analyses of dwell-time, move-time, and error time. Experiment 1 examined 165 subjects of various ages and found that completion times on both the C-TMT-A (where subjects connect successively numbered circles) and the C-TMT-B (where subjects connect circles containing alternating letters and numbers) were strongly influenced by age. Experiment 2 examined 50 subjects who underwent three test sessions. The results of the first test session were well fit by the normative data gathered in Experiment 1. Sessions 2 and 3 demonstrated significant learning effects, particularly on the C-TMT-B, and showed good test-retest reliability. Experiment 3 examined performance in subjects instructed to feign symptoms of traumatic brain injury: 44% of subjects produced abnormal completion times on the C-TMT-A, and 18% on the C-TMT-B. Malingering subjects could be distinguished from abnormally slow controls based on (1) disproportionate increases in dwell-time on the C-TMT-A, and (2) greater deficits on the C-TMT-A than on the C-TMT-B. Experiment 4 examined the performance of 28 patients with traumatic brain injury: C-TMT-B completion times were slowed, and TBI patients showed reduced movement velocities on both tests. The C-TMT improves the reliability and sensitivity of the trail making test of processing speed and executive function. PMID:26060999

  19. The Effects of Aging, Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury on Computerized Trail-Making Test Performance

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2015-01-01

    The trail making test (TMT) is widely used to assess speed of processing and executive function. However, normative data sets gathered at different sites show significant inconsistencies. Here, we describe a computerized version of the TMT (C-TMT) that increases the precision and replicability of the TMT by permitting a segment-by-segment analysis of performance and separate analyses of dwell-time, move-time, and error time. Experiment 1 examined 165 subjects of various ages and found that completion times on both the C-TMT-A (where subjects connect successively numbered circles) and the C-TMT-B (where subjects connect circles containing alternating letters and numbers) were strongly influenced by age. Experiment 2 examined 50 subjects who underwent three test sessions. The results of the first test session were well fit by the normative data gathered in Experiment 1. Sessions 2 and 3 demonstrated significant learning effects, particularly on the C-TMT-B, and showed good test-retest reliability. Experiment 3 examined performance in subjects instructed to feign symptoms of traumatic brain injury: 44% of subjects produced abnormal completion times on the C-TMT-A, and 18% on the C-TMT-B. Malingering subjects could be distinguished from abnormally slow controls based on (1) disproportionate increases in dwell-time on the C-TMT-A, and (2) greater deficits on the C-TMT-A than on the C-TMT-B. Experiment 4 examined the performance of 28 patients with traumatic brain injury: C-TMT-B completion times were slowed, and TBI patients showed reduced movement velocities on both tests. The C-TMT improves the reliability and sensitivity of the trail making test of processing speed and executive function. PMID:26060999

  20. The Language Research Center's Computerized Test System for environmental enrichment and psychological assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.

    1992-01-01

    In the spring of 1987, we undertook to provide environmental enrichment to nonhuman primate subjects in ways that would complement and even contribute to the bio-behaviorial science that justified the monkeys' captivity. Of course, the psychological well-being of captive primates--and indeed all research species-- has been an area of intense research activity since the 1985 amendment of the Animal Welfare Act. This mandate for researchers to ensure the psychological, as well as physical, fitness of experimental animals catalyzed the humane and scientific interests of the research community. The contemporary literature is replete with proposed means both of assaying and of providing enrichment and well-being. Notwithstanding, consensus on either assessment or intervention has yet to be reached. The paradigm we employed was modelled after successful efforts with chimpanzees. An automated test system was constructed in which subjects responded to computer tasks by manipulating a joystick. The tasks, interactive game-like versions of many of the classic testing paradigms of cognitive and comparative psychology, permitted the controlled presentation of stimuli and demands without the required presence of a human experimenter. Despite significant barriers to the success, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and a variety of other primate species (including, of course, humans) have mastered the skills necessary for testing in this paradigm. Previous experiments have illustrated the utility of the test system for addressing questions of learning, memory, attention, perception, and motivation. Additional data have been reported to support the contention that the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) serves its other raison d'etre--providing environmental enrichment and assessing psychological well-being. This paper is designed to augment previous descriptions of the technology and the paradigm for scientists and caretakers interested in environmental enrichment and performance assessment with primates.

  1. Age-Related Decrements in Stroop Color Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Nancy B.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Administered a modified Stroop Color-Word Test to healthy males (N=80) aged 21-90 years as part of a study of neuropsychological functioning. Results showed differences on simple reading tasks; however, significant age effects were observed for the color naming and interference tasks. (LLL)

  2. Sensitivity and Specificity of Subacute Computerized Neurocognitive Testing and Symptom Evaluation in Predicting Outcomes After Sports-Related Concussion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian C. Lau; Michael W. Collins; Mark R. Lovell

    2011-01-01

    Background: Concussions affect an estimated 136 000 high school athletes yearly. Computerized neurocognitive testing has been shown to be appropriately sensitive and specific in diagnosing concussions, but no studies have assessed its utility to predict length of recovery. Determining prognosis during subacute recovery after sports concussion will help clinicians more confidently address return-to-play and academic decisions.Purpose: To quantify the prognostic

  3. The Nela test for color blindness applied to school children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Haupt

    1926-01-01

    Testing the distribution of color sensitivity among children, the influence of age on sensitivity, distribution, and sex differences, the author used the Nela Test and the Ishihara Test, on the right and left eyes separately of 487 girls and 448 boys ranging in age from 7 to 16 (first grade through eighth) in three schools in Baltimore, one an upper-class

  4. Documentation of CTRS--Computerized Test-Result Reporting System. The Illinois Series on Educational Application of Computers, No. 22e.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muiznieks, Viktors J.; Cox, John

    The Computerized Test-Result Reporting System (CTRS), which consists of three programs written in the BASIC language, was developed to analyze obective tests, test items, test results, and to provide the teacher-user with interpreted data about the performance of tests, Lest items, and students. This paper documents the three programs from the…

  5. A Bayesian Method for the Detection of Item Preknowledge in CAT. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Lori D.; Lewis, Charles; Thissen, David.

    With the increased use of computerized adaptive testing, which allows for continuous testing, new concerns about test security have evolved, one being the assurance that items in an item pool are safeguarded from theft. In this paper, the risk of score inflation and procedures to detect test takers using item preknowledge are explored. When test

  6. Field trials of three tests for color vision and color aptitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschler, Robert; Gay, Jennifer; Ferreira de Oliveira, Danielle

    2002-06-01

    253 visual observers, at the average level of between 'unselected' (inexperienced) and 'in-plant applicants' have been tested under controlled industrial conditions using the Ishihara or T.M.C. (Murakami) pseudoisochromatic plates, the Farnworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test (FM), the HVC Color Vision Skill Test (HVC) and the Japanese Color Aptitude Test (JCAT). There is only loose correlation between the FM and the HVC tests. The FM scores do not improve significantly by retesting, while the HVC scores can be improved through training, e.g. by using the JCAT. We found practically no correlation between the performance in visual pass/fail decisions and the FM or the HVC scores. Three different editions (3 copies from 1991, 3 from 1997 and two from 1998) of the HVC test were measured and analyzed. They showed good, in the latest edition very good, intra-edition repeatability and good inter-edition reproducibility.

  7. HIV Testing Patterns among Urban YMSM of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Noelle R.; Rajan, Sonali; Gwadz, Marya V.; Aregbesola, Temi

    2014-01-01

    The heightened level of risk for HIV infection among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is driven by multilevel influences. Using cross-sectional data, we examined HIV testing patterns among urban YMSM of color in a high-HIV seroprevalence area (ages 16 to 21 years). Self-reported frequency of testing was high, with 42% of…

  8. Testing the Determinants of Computerized Reservation System Users’ Intention to Use Via a Structural Equation Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hae Young Lee; Woo Gon Kim; Yong-Ki Lee

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between users’ personal perceptions and beliefs of the proposed system and their normal day-to-day usage in the context of the travel industry’s computerized reservation systems (CRSs). Using a technology acceptance model as a theoretical background, the influences of three dimensions of fit (i.e., task fit, career fit, and organization fit) on CRS users’ daily routine

  9. Estimation of an examinee's ability in the web-based computerized adaptive testing program IRT-CAT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Hwan; Park, Jung-Ho; Park, In-Yong

    2006-01-01

    We developed a program to estimate an examinee s ability in order to provide freely available access to a web-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) program. We used PHP and Java Script as the program languages, PostgresSQL as the database management system on an Apache web server and Linux as the operating system. A system which allows for user input and searching within inputted items and creates tests was constructed. We performed an ability estimation on each test based on a Rasch model and 2- or 3-parametric logistic models. Our system provides an algorithm for a web-based CAT, replacing previous personal computer-based ones, and makes it possible to estimate an examinee's ability immediately at the end of test. PMID:19223996

  10. A Comparison of Item Selection Procedures Using Different Ability Estimation Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Tsung-Han

    2010-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) provides a highly efficient alternative to the paper-and-pencil test. By selecting items that match examinees' ability levels, CAT not only can shorten test length and administration time but it can also increase measurement precision and reduce measurement error. In CAT, maximum information (MI) is the most…

  11. Colors, Colors?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Susan Songstad

    2009-01-01

    In this activity related to the famous "Stroop Effect," learners explore how words influence what we see and how the brain handles "mixed messages." Learners read colored words and are asked to say the color of the word, not what the word says. Learners use a data table to keep track of where they have trouble reading the colors. They analyze this data by answering questions and drawing conclusions. Learners can also take this test using the online version.

  12. Reliability and Validity of the Computerized Revised Token Test: Comparison of Reading and Listening Versions in Persons with and without Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Malcolm R.; Pratt, Sheila R.; Szuminsky, Neil; Sung, Jee Eun; Fossett, Tepanta R. D.; Fassbinder, Wiltrud; Lim, Kyoung Yuel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the reliability and validity of intermodality associations and differences in persons with aphasia (PWA) and healthy controls (HC) on a computerized listening and 3 reading versions of the Revised Token Test (RTT; McNeil & Prescott, 1978). Method: Thirty PWA and 30 HC completed the test versions, including a…

  13. Computerized program-controlled quasi-laser light source and its application in testing the properties of laser rangefinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhibin; Yan, Pangcheng

    1999-11-01

    How to get a computerized program-controlled quasi-laser light source of 1.06 micrometers wavelength, with high speed response, stable and adjustable source power and high fidelity spectrum, has been studied in this paper. By using computer technology and time-delay method to simulate space distance, a series of problems about non-contact and undisintegration test of the while equipment, such as receiving sensitivity, range of blind area, accuracy of range finding, multi-target resolution, accuracy of selection and setting of laser range finder with 1.06 micrometers wavelength etc., has been solved. The characteristics of this light source is low cost, convenient to operate, and it has wide application prospect in manufacturing, debugging and fault repairing of laser range finder.

  14. Computerized Waters 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    tx H2O | pg. 9 Computerized Waters Story by Kathy Wythe Computerized Waters Model changes management of Texas surface waters In an office on the second floor of a Texas A&MUniversity building, on a desktop computeroperating with the popular... Microsoft Windows,Dr. Ralph Wurbs has designed a computer mod- eling system that has changed the way Texas manages its rivers, streams and reservoirs. The modeling system called Water Rights Availability Package, or WRAP for short, is a set of computer...

  15. Development of a Computerized Adaptive Testing for Diagnosing the Cognitive Process of Grade 7 Students in Learning Algebra, Using Multidimensional Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senarat, Somprasong; Tayraukham, Sombat; Piyapimonsit, Chatsiri; Tongkhambanjong, Sakesan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multidimensional computerized adaptive test for diagnosing the cognitive process of grade 7 students in learning algebra by applying multidimensional item response theory. The research is divided into 4 steps: 1) the development of item bank of algebra, 2) the development of the multidimensional…

  16. Using Response-Time Constraints in Item Selection To Control for Differential Speededness in Computerized Adaptive Testing. Research Report 98-06.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Scrams, David J.; Schnipke, Deborah L.

    An item-selection algorithm to neutralize the differential effects of time limits on scores on computerized adaptive tests is proposed. The method is based on a statistical model for the response-time distributions of the examinees on items in the pool that is updated each time a new item has been administered. Predictions from the model are used…

  17. The stochastically curtailed generalized likelihood ratio: A new termination criterion for variable-length computerized classification tests.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Alan R; Fina, Anthony D

    2015-06-01

    Computerized classification tests (CCTs) are used to classify examinees into categories in the context of professional certification testing. The term "variable-length" refers to CCTs that terminate (i.e., cease administering items to the examinee) when a classification can be made with a prespecified level of certainty. The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) is a common criterion for terminating variable-length CCTs, but recent research has proposed more efficient methods. Specifically, the stochastically curtailed SPRT (SCSPRT) and the generalized likelihood ratio criterion (GLR) have been shown to classify examinees with accuracy similar to the SPRT while using fewer items. This article shows that the GLR criterion itself may be stochastically curtailed, resulting in a new termination criterion, the stochastically curtailed GLR (SCGLR). All four criteria-the SPRT, SCSPRT, GLR, and the new SCGLR-were compared using a simulation study. In this study, we examined the criteria in testing conditions that varied several CCT design features, including item bank characteristics, pass/fail threshold, and examinee ability distribution. In each condition, the termination criteria were evaluated according to their accuracy (proportion of examinees classified correctly), efficiency (test length), and loss (a single statistic combing both accuracy and efficiency). The simulation results showed that the SCGLR can yield increased efficiency without sacrificing accuracy, relative to the SPRT, SCSPRT, and GLR in a wide variety of CCT designs. PMID:24907003

  18. Computerized reminders for five preventive screening tests: generation of patient-specific letters incorporating physician preferences.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, D. J.; Gross, R.; Buchanan, J.

    2000-01-01

    Compliance with preventive screening tests is inadequate in the United States. We describe a computer based system for generating reminder letters to patients who may have missed their indicated screening tests because they do not visit a provider regularly or missed their tests despite the fact that they do visit a provider. We started with national recommendations and generated a local consensus for test indications. We then used this set of indications and our electronic record to determine test deficiencies in our pilot pool of 3073 patients. The computer generated customized reminder letters targeting several tests. Physicians chose any patients who should not receive letters. The response rate for fecal occult blood (FOB) testing was 33% compared with an 18% historical compliance rate within the same community. FOB reminders generated improved test compliance. Test execution must be considered when commencing a program of screening test reminders. PMID:11079954

  19. A group version of the Stroop Color and Word Test.

    PubMed

    Golden, C J

    1975-08-01

    The uses of the Stroop Color and Word Test have been limited because of the lack of a standardized form, particularly one which could be used for both individual and group administrations as demanded by the requirements of a research project. The present version of the test counted the number of items completed by the subject in a 45-second time period. In the individual version the subject said the words out loud while in the group version he said the words to himself. Results indicated that the two versions were equivalent to each other as well as to forms requiring the subject to read a whole page of items. It was felt that a group form would greatly enhance the research capabilities of the Stroop Test. PMID:16367401

  20. The Applicability of Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Cognitive Ability Measurement in Organizational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makransky, Guido; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive ability tests are widely used in organizations around the world because they have high predictive validity in selection contexts. Although these tests typically measure several subdomains, testing is usually carried out for a single subdomain at a time. This can be ineffective when the subdomains assessed are highly correlated. This…

  1. Comparability of Conventional and Computerized Tests of Reading in a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Yasuyo

    2001-01-01

    Addresses issues surrounding the effect of mode of presentation on second language (L2) reading test performance, reviewing the literature in cognitive ability testing in educational and psychological measurement and the non-assessment literature in ergonomics, education, psychology, and first language reading research. Generalization of the…

  2. Reducing the Impact of Inappropriate Items on Reviewable Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Yung-Chin; Ho, Rong-Guey; Liao, Wen-Wei; Chen, Li-Ju

    2012-01-01

    In a test, the testing score would be closer to examinee's actual ability when careless mistakes were corrected. In CAT, however, changing the answer of one item in CAT might cause the following items no longer appropriate for estimating the examinee's ability. These inappropriate items in a reviewable CAT might in turn introduce bias in ability…

  3. Fairness in Computerized Testing: Detecting Item Bias Using CATSIB with Impact Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Man-Wai; Lai, Hollis

    2013-01-01

    In educational assessment, there is an increasing demand for tailoring assessments to individual examinees through computer adaptive tests (CAT). As such, it is particularly important to investigate the fairness of these adaptive testing processes, which require the investigation of differential item function (DIF) to yield information about item…

  4. Steam turbine field testing techniques using a computerized data acquisition system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Shafer; K. C. Cotton; W. W. Kellyhouse; D. P. Smith

    1982-01-01

    An automatic data acquisition system for conducting full-scale ASME (1) acceptance tests of large steam turbine-generators is described. This includes the instrumentation, the interfacing hardware for analog to digital conversion and transmission of the data to the trailer mounted computer, the software that controls the acquisition of the data, and the calculation of test results. In addition, the application of

  5. Integrating a Computerized Testing System and Electronic Lecture Notes in First-year Mathematics Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadway, Ray

    The integration of test-banks for computer-based testing, textbooks, and electronic lecture notes in first-year mathematics courses has changed the way mathematics is taught at Bennett College (Greensboro, North Carolina). Classes meet in two electronic classrooms each with 27 computers on a local area network and a projection system. An…

  6. Age-dependent discrepancies between computerized and paper cognitive testing in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Grignon, Sylvain; Grégoire, Claire-Anne; Durand, Myriam; Mury, Marie; Elie, Dominique; Chianetta, Jean Marc

    2009-01-01

    Computer-based cognitive testing is gaining in popularity because of desirable features such as ease of use, standardized administration and online data acquisition. Information technology and computer familiarity are clearly influenced by age in the general population, but the impact of this situation on cognitive testing of patients with schizophrenia has received little attention. In the present paper, participants underwent cognitive testing with computer and paper versions of the same tests. Patients underperformed controls by 1.36 DS (paper tests) and 2.27 DS (computer tests) after controlling for education. Results were highly correlated but patients with schizophrenia were disproportionately impaired on computer tests compared with their paper counterparts. Moreover, for subtests implying active keyboard input from the participant, the difference between paper and computer scores correlated with age in patients, a pattern that was not found in controls. These results have methodological implications because of the implied risk of measuring (lack of) computer proficiency in addition to bona fide cognitive deficits. They confirm, moreover, that patients with schizophrenia are victims of the "digital divide", which adds to the potential benefits of approaches like computer assisted cognitive remediation in this population. PMID:18661086

  7. Computerized In Vitro Test for Chemical Toxicity Based on Tetrahymena Swimming Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and a method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity have been evaluated as an alternative to the rabbit eye initancy test (Draize). The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The method, called the motility assay (MA), is tested for 30 s to determine the chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy.

  8. Computerized in vitro test for chemical toxicity based on tetrahymena swimming patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity was evaluated. The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The device, called the Motility Assay Apparatus (MAA) is tested for 30 second determination of chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy, in addition to agreeing for all chemicals with previous manual evaluations of single cell motility.

  9. A CEFR-Based Computerized Adaptive Testing System for Chinese Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hsuan-Po; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Tsai, Ya-Hsun; Liao, Chen-Huei

    2012-01-01

    In the era of globalization, the trend towards learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) has become increasingly popular worldwide. The increasing demand in learning CFL has raised the profile of the Chinese proficiency test (CPT). This study will analyze in depth the inadequacy of current CPT's utilizing the common European framework of…

  10. Effect of External Irrelevant Distracters on a Visual Search Test in School-Age Children: Computerized Assessment.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, M A; Santacreu, J; López-Cavada, C; Capote, E; Morillo, D

    2013-08-21

    Objective: This study aimed to test the effect of an irrelevant external distracter included in a computer-administered visual search test. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) If the distracter affects performance, attention efficiency will be lowered; (b) if children do not habituate to the distracter, performance will be lower for every item of the test. Method: Distraction was induced changing the screen color unexpectedly several times in each trial-450 children (225 girls and 225 boys) from second to sixth course were tested. This group was compared with a group of 423 children from the same age range who were tested with the same test without distraction. Results: Induced distraction reduced attention efficiency for all ages and for every trial in the treatment group (test with distraction). Speed was lower, but number of errors did not increase. Conclusion: School-age children cope with an irrelevant external distracter by reducing speed, not accuracy. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) X-XX). PMID:23966352

  11. Versatile computerized system for tracking and analysis of water maze tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatyana V. Mukhina; Sergei O. Bachurin; Nadejda N. Lermontova; Nikolai S. Zefirov

    2001-01-01

    A crucial step in the estimation of properties of compounds in behavioral experiments is the quantification and description\\u000a of the different effects observed. The goal of the present work was the automation of the Morris water maze test, one of the\\u000a most popular behavioral methods for the study of animal memory. An original system was developed that provides fast and

  12. Test Security and Item Exposure Control for Computer-Based Examinations: Performance of a Computerized Classification Test for Professional Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalohn, John C.; Spray, Judith A.

    A client of American College Testing, Inc. (ACT) decided to implement a computer-based testing program to replace their paper-pencil format for professional certification. This paper reports on the results of the developed test after 1 year's use, especially as the results relate to test security issues. ACT research shows that a variable length…

  13. Personality correlates of the Stroop Color and Word Test: more negative results.

    PubMed

    Golden, C J; Marsella, A J; Golden, E E

    1975-10-01

    Numerous studies have investigated personality correlates of performance on the Stroop Color and Word Test. With one exception, these studies have failed to identify any significant correlates between the two variables. The present study examined this relationship by administering the Stroop Color and Word Test, Cattell's 16 PF, and the Maudsley Personality Inventory to a sample of 210 college students. Results indicated no significant correlates existed between five different measures of Stroop Color and Word Test performance and the personality scales. It was concluded that the Stroop Color and Word Test has little relationship to measures of personality and may best be understood in terms of specific cognitive processes. PMID:1187313

  14. Computerized method of visual acuity testing: adaptation of the amblyopia treatment study visual acuity testing protocol 1 1 Additional technical information about the Electronic Visual Acuity Tester and the Amblyopia Treatment Study visual acuity testing protocol application can be obtained from the lead author (pmoke@jaeb.org)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela S. Moke; Andrew H. Turpin; Roy W. Beck; Jonathan M. Holmes; Michael X. Repka; Eileen E. Birch; Richard W. Hertle; Raymond T. Kraker; Joseph M. Miller; Chris A. Johnson

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report a computerized method for determining visual acuity in children using the Amblyopia Treatment Study visual acuity testing protocol.METHODS: A computerized visual acuity tester was developed that uses a programmed handheld device that uses the Palm operating system (Palm, Inc, Santa Clara, California). The handheld device communicates with a personal computer running a Linux operating system and 17-inch

  15. Retrieving object color: the influence of color congruity and test format.

    PubMed

    Cycowicz, Yael M; Nessler, Doreen; Horton, Cort; Friedman, David

    2008-09-17

    Incongruous episodes, relative to congruous episodes, engender better memory, but it is unclear whether recollection or familiarity is responsible. Hence, objects were encoded in either natural (yellow banana) or unnatural (blue banana) outline colors. Event-related potentials were recorded while memory was assessed by item (IT) and source (ST) tasks. During IT, unnatural color relative to natural color objects produced better memory and more positive parietal activity (500-600 ms) indicative of recollection. Surprisingly, the converse occurred in ST. As the encoding task required a natural/unnatural decision, an unnatural color object would have required activation of its natural counterpart to make an informed decision. Thus, source confusion during ST relative to IT would have led to a recollection disadvantage for unnatural color objects. PMID:18766017

  16. Retrieving Object Color: The Influence of Color Congruity and Test Format

    PubMed Central

    Cycowicz, Yael M.; Nessler, Doreen; Horton, Cort; Friedman, David

    2009-01-01

    Incongruous relative to congruous episodes engender better memory, but it is unclear whether recollection or familiarity is responsible. Hence, objects were encoded in either natural (yellow banana) or unnatural (blue banana) outline colors. ERPs were recorded while memory was assessed by item (IT) and source (ST) tasks. During IT, unnatural- relative to natural-color objects produced better memory and more positive parietal activity (500-600 ms) indicative of recollection. Surprisingly, the converse occurred in ST. Because the encoding task required a natural/unnatural decision, an unnatural-color object would have required activation of its natural counterpart to make an informed decision. Thus, source confusion during ST relative to IT would have led to a recollection disadvantage for unnatural-color objects. PMID:18766017

  17. Utility testing of an apple skin color MdMYB1 marker in two progenies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A reported allele-specific dCAP PCR marker associated with apple fruit red skin color was tested in 18 elite breeding parents and two apple cross populations. Among all tested cultivars except one, a consistent relationship was observed between red fruit color and the presence of allele. In both pop...

  18. A Generic Scheme for Color Image Retrieval Based on the Multivariate Wald-Wolfowitz Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos Theoharatos; Nikolaos A. Laskaris; George Economou; Spiros Fotopoulos

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a conceptually simple, yet flexible and extendable strategy to contrast two different color images is introduced. The proposed approach is based on the multivariate Wald-Wolfowitz test, a nonparametric test that assesses the commonality between two different sets of multivariate observations. It provides an aggregate gauge of the match between color images, taking into consideration all the (selected)

  19. Computerized tomography calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Herbert P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A set of interchangeable pieces comprising a computerized tomography calibrator, and a method of use thereof, permits focusing of a computerized tomographic (CT) system. The interchangeable pieces include a plurality of nestable, generally planar mother rings, adapted for the receipt of planar inserts of predetermined sizes, and of predetermined material densities. The inserts further define openings therein for receipt of plural sub-inserts. All pieces are of known sizes and densities, permitting the assembling of different configurations of materials of known sizes and combinations of densities, for calibration (i.e., focusing) of a computerized tomographic system through variation of operating variables thereof. Rather than serving as a phanton, which is intended to be representative of a particular workpiece to be tested, the set of interchangeable pieces permits simple and easy standardized calibration of a CT system. The calibrator and its related method of use further includes use of air or of particular fluids for filling various openings, as part of a selected configuration of the set of pieces.

  20. A Randomized Experiment to Compare Conventional, Computerized, and Computerized Adaptive Administration of Ordinal Polytomous Attitude Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hol, A. Michiel; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

    2005-01-01

    A total of 520 high school students were randomly assigned to a paper-and-pencil test (PPT), a computerized standard test (CST), or a computerized adaptive test (CAT) version of the Dutch School Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ), consisting of ordinal polytomous items. The CST administered items in the same order as the PPT. The CAT administered all…

  1. 8. X15 ENGINE TESTING. A color print showing the engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. X-15 ENGINE TESTING. A color print showing the engine during test firing. View from the rear of the test stand looking northwest. - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rocket Engine & Complete X-15 Vehicle Test Stands, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Using color-color diagrams to test models for the 'blue bump'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, O.; Mcdowell, J. C.; Elvis, M.; Wilkes, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    Color-color diagrams are used to study the set of accretion disk plus power-law models and to determine whether they can adequately fit the optical/UV continua of a sample of 34 quasars, and the soft X-ray excesses measured for seven of the sample objects by Masnou et al. (1991). The loci of pure disk models for cos theta is greater than 0 are virtually superimposed on each other regardless of cos theta, demonstrating that a given observed spectrum cannot be described by a unique combination of S and cos theta. The distributions of model and data colors are found to overlap, showing that the disk plus power-law models do fit the distribution of data colors. For six of the seven objects, the soft X-ray excesses may be fit with an accretion disk plus power-law model without requiring the assumption of super-Eddington accretion; this shows the utility of employing Kerr disks.

  3. The Takeda Three Colors Combination Test: A Screening Test for Detection of Very Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tajime, Kayo; Taniguchi, Toshiatsu

    2014-01-01

    Background. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and is prevalent worldwide. It is expected that AD, for which aging is a risk factor, will increase in the future. Because early detection of AD has become increasingly important, promoting demand for screening tests with adequate sensitivity. In this study, we examined the usefulness of the Takeda Three Colors Combination Test (TTCC) for screening of the very mild AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods. 154 senior persons participated in the research: 55 with very mild AD, 45 with aMCI, and 54 control group. The TTCC, which was a colored cards configuration memory task, was examined for sensitivity and specificity. Results. The sensitivity of the TTCC was 76% and 47% for the very mild AD and aMCI groups, and the specificity was 83%. Conducting TTCC (including instruction and evaluation) was accomplished within 2 minutes for all subjects. Conclusion. The TTCC is useful screening test for early detection of AD. Furthermore, administration time is short and requires no special training or skills. Thus, we believe the TTCC shows great potential for use as an AD screening test by a general practitioner in communities worldwide. PMID:25386623

  4. Assessment of the hemispheric lateralization of grapheme-color synesthesia with Stroop-type tests.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Mathieu J; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia, the idiosyncratic, arbitrary association of colors to letters or numbers, develops in childhood once reading is mastered. Because language processing is strongly left-lateralized in most individuals, we hypothesized that grapheme-color synesthesia could be left-lateralized as well. We used synesthetic versions of the Stroop test with colored letters and numbers presented either in the right or the left visual field of thirty-four synesthetes. Interference by synesthetic colors was stronger for stimuli in the right hemifield (first experiment, color naming task). Synesthetes were also faster in the right hemifield when naming the synesthetic color of graphemes (second experiment). Overall, the lateralization effect was 7 ms (the 95% confidence interval was [1.5 12] ms), a delay compatible with an additional callosal transfer for stimuli presented in the left hemifield. Though weak, this effect suggests that the association of synesthetic colors to graphemes may be preferentially processed in the left hemisphere. We speculate that this left-lateralization could be a landmark of synesthetic grapheme-color associations, if not found for color associations learnt by non-synesthete adults. PMID:25793307

  5. Computerized training management system

    DOEpatents

    Rice, Harold B. (Franklin Furnace, OH); McNair, Robert C. (East Setauket, NY); White, Kenneth (Shirley, NY); Maugeri, Terry (Wading River, NY)

    1998-08-04

    A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base.RTM., an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches.

  6. Computerized training management system

    DOEpatents

    Rice, H.B.; McNair, R.C.; White, K.; Maugeri, T.

    1998-08-04

    A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) is disclosed for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base{trademark}, an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches. 18 figs.

  7. The Measurement of Creativity by the Stroop Color and Word Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Charles J.

    1975-01-01

    The relationship of the Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT) to three independent measures of creativity: a verbal task, nonverbal task and teacher ratings were investigated. The purpose of this investigation was to test the validity of the SCWT as a measure of creativity. (Author/DEP)

  8. A Group Version of the Stroop Color and Word Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Charles J.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to develop a form of the Stroop Test which could be used in both group and individual settings and serve as a basic form for interested researchers. Group and individual measures differ only in that the group test does not require a spoken response. (Author/BJG)

  9. Carotenoid pixels characterization under color space tests and RGB formulas for mesocarp of mango's fruits cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammad, Ahmed Yahya; Kassim, Farid Saad Eid Saad

    2010-01-01

    This study experimented the pulp (mesocarp) of fourteen cultivars were healthy ripe of Mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.) selected after picking from Mango Spp. namely Taimour [Ta], Dabsha [Da], Aromanis [Ar], Zebda [Ze], Fagri Kelan [Fa], Alphonse [Al], Bulbek heart [Bu], Hindi- Sinnara [Hi], Compania [Co], Langra [La], Mestikawi [Me], Ewais [Ew], Montakhab El Kanater [Mo] and Mabroka [Ma] . Under seven color space tests included (RGB: Red, Green and Blue), (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (HSL: Hue, Saturation and Lightness), (CMYK%: Cyan%, Magenta%, Yellow% and Black%), (HSV: Hue, Saturation and Value), (HºSB%: Hueº, Saturation% and Brightness%) and (Lab). (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (HSL: Hue, Saturation and Lightness), (CMYK%: Cyan%, Magenta%, Yellow% and Black%), (HSV: Hue, Saturation and Value), (HºSB%: Hueº, Saturation% and Brightness%) and (Lab). Addition, nine formula of color space tests included (sRGB 0÷1, CMY, CMYK, XYZ, CIE-L*ab, CIE-L*CH, CIE-L*uv, Yxy and Hunter-Lab) and (RGB 0÷FF/hex triplet) and Carotenoid Pixels Scale. Utilizing digital color photographs as tool for obtainment the natural color information for each cultivar then the result expounded with chemical pigment estimations. Our location study in the visual yellow to orange color degrees from the visible color of electromagnetic spectrum in wavelength between (~570 to 620) nm and frequency between (~480 to 530) THz. The results found carotene very strong influence in band Red while chlorophyll (a & b) was very lower subsequently, the values in band Green was depressed. Meanwhile, the general ratios percentage for carotenoid pixels in bands Red, Green and Blue were 50%, 39% and 11% as orderliness opposite the ratios percentage for carotene, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b which were 63%, 22% and 16% approximately. According to that the pigments influence in all color space tests and RGB formulas. Band Yellow% in color test (CMYK%) as signature color for carotene. Bands K% and band C were equal zero in almost cells indicted to a mystical induction for chlorophyll (a & b). The results detection two bands regard as numeric chromatic filter. In RGB formulas the digits of carotenoid pixels under the effects of the various bands followed two characters including (Separation and Isotopic) effects these consider numeric chromatography. Digits of carotenoid pixels physically are disparate the trend and features under each band mostly. The RGB formulas present treatment for the symmetrically values in the columns data of the total pigments percentage and color space tests. Our objective physical study for pigments carotene to present standard evolution for pigment estimations. Addition to study the possibility to obtainment numeric chromatography for separation accuracy of the pigments.

  10. Detection efficiency for loophole-free Bell tests with entangled states affected by colored noise

    E-print Network

    Gustavo Cañas; Johanna F. Barra; Esteban S. Gómez; Gustavo Lima; Fabio Sciarrino; Adan Cabello

    2013-01-17

    Loophole-free Bell tests for quantum nonlocality and long-distance secure communication require photodetection efficiencies beyond a threshold eta_{crit} that depends on the Bell inequality and the noise affecting the entangled state received by the distant parties. Most calculations of eta_{crit} assume that the noise is random and can be modeled as white noise. However, most sources suffer from colored noise. Indeed, since entangled states are usually created as a superposition of two possible deexcitation paths, a partial distinguishability between the two processes leads to the appearance of colored noise in the generated state. Recently, there was a proposal for a loophole-free Bell test [A. Cabello and F. Sciarrino, Phys. Rev. X 2, 021010 (2012)], where a specific colored noise appears as a consequence of the precertification of the photon's presence through single-photon spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Here we obtain eta_{crit}, the optimal quantum states, and the local settings for a loophole-free Bell test as a function of the amount of colored noise. We consider three bipartite Bell inequalities with n dichotomic settings: Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (n=2), I_{3322} (n=3), and A_5 (n=4), both for the case of symmetric efficiencies, corresponding to photon-photon Bell tests, and for the totally asymmetric case, corresponding to atom-photon Bell tests. Remarkably, in all these cases, eta_{crit} is robust against the colored noise. The present analysis can find application in any test of Bell inequalities in which the dominant noise is of the colored type.

  11. Detection efficiency for loophole-free Bell tests with entangled states affected by colored noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañas, Gustavo; Barra, Johanna F.; Gómez, Esteban S.; Lima, Gustavo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Cabello, Adán

    2013-01-01

    Loophole-free Bell tests for quantum nonlocality and long-distance secure communication require photodetection efficiencies beyond a threshold ?crit that depends on the Bell inequality and the noise affecting the entangled state received by the distant parties. Most calculations of ?crit assume that the noise is random and can be modeled as white noise. However, most sources suffer from colored noise. Indeed, since entangled states are usually created as a superposition of two possible deexcitation paths, a partial distinguishability between the two processes leads to the appearance of colored noise in the generated state. Recently, there was a proposal for a loophole-free Bell test [A. Cabello and F. Sciarrino, Phys. Rev. X 2, 021010 (2012)], where a specific colored noise appears as a consequence of the precertification of the photon's presence through single-photon spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Here we obtain ?crit, the optimal quantum states, and the local settings for a loophole-free Bell test as a function of the amount of colored noise. We consider three bipartite Bell inequalities with n dichotomic settings: Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (n=2), I3322 (n=3), and A5 (n=4), both for the case of symmetric efficiencies, corresponding to photon-photon Bell tests, and for the totally asymmetric case, corresponding to atom-photon Bell tests. Remarkably, in all these cases, ?crit is robust against the colored noise. The present analysis can find application in any test of Bell inequalities in which the dominant noise is of the colored type.

  12. Aniseikonia Tests: The Role of Viewing Mode, Response Bias, and Size–Color Illusions

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Miguel A.; Peli, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the factors responsible for the poor validity of the most common aniseikonia tests, which involve size comparisons of red–green stimuli presented haploscopically. Methods: Aniseikonia was induced by afocal size lenses placed before one eye. Observers compared the sizes of semicircles presented haploscopically via color filters. The main factor under study was viewing mode (free viewing versus short presentations under central fixation). To eliminate response bias, a three-response format allowed observers to respond if the left, the right, or neither semicircle appeared larger than the other. To control decisional (criterion) bias, measurements were taken with the lens-magnified stimulus placed on the left and on the right. To control for size–color illusions, measurements were made with color filters in both arrangements before the eyes and under binocular vision (without color filters). Results: Free viewing resulted in a systematic underestimation of lens-induced aniseikonia that was absent with short presentations. Significant size–color illusions and decisional biases were found that would be mistaken for aniseikonia unless appropriate action is taken. Conclusions: To improve their validity, aniseikonia tests should use short presentations and include control conditions to prevent contamination from decisional/response biases. If anaglyphs are used, presence of size–color illusions must be checked for. Translational relevance: We identified optimal conditions for administration of aniseikonia tests and appropriate action for differential diagnosis of aniseikonia in the presence of response biases or size–color illusions. Our study has clinical implications for aniseikonia management. PMID:26101722

  13. The Truth about Students of Color and Standardized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gail L.

    2007-01-01

    Each year, when standardized test scores are published for California students, the same message tends to surface: In general, the scores of blacks and Latinos trail those of other groups, especially whites. This pattern emerges so often that it usually doesn't surprise educators or researchers. In the author's search to better understand the…

  14. Innovations in Computerized Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drasgow, Fritz, Ed.; Olson-Buchanan, Julie B., Ed.

    Chapters in this book present the challenges and dilemmas faced by researchers as they created new computerized assessments, focusing on issues addressed in developing, scoring, and administering the assessments. Chapters are: (1) "Beyond Bells and Whistles; An Introduction to Computerized Assessment" (Julie B. Olson-Buchanan and Fritz Drasgow);…

  15. The Color-Word Interference Test and Its Relation to Performance Impairment under Auditory Distraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thackray, Richard I.; And Others

    The ability to resist distraction is an important requirement for air traffic controllers. The study examined the relationship between performance on the Stroop color-word interference test (a suggested measure of distraction susceptibility) and impairment under auditory distraction on a task requiring the subject to generate random sequences of…

  16. The researchers tested their array on ten common infectious bacteria. The color

    E-print Network

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    of the sensor array show what kind of bacteria is growing and even if they are antibiotic resistant. (Credit: K antibiotic resistance -- a key factor in treatment decisions. In the paper, the researchers showedThe researchers tested their array on ten common infectious bacteria. The color changes

  17. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Genetic and Environmental Influences; Reading, Mental Ability, and Personality Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.; Segal, Nancy L.; Keyes, Margaret; Samuels, Jay

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates prior findings of reading, mental ability, and personality correlates of Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT) scores. In spite of significant correlations between the SCWT scores and selected measures of mental ability, genetic influence on SCWT scores was relatively unaffected when the influences of correlated ability measures were removed.…

  18. Development of a Parent-Report Cognitive Function Item Bank Using Item Response Theory and Exploration of its Clinical Utility in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    PubMed Central

    Butt, Zeeshan; Zelko, Frank; Cella, David; Krull, Kevin R.; Kieran, Mark W.; Goldman, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Objective?The purpose of this study is to report the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of a parent-report perceived cognitive function (pedsPCF) item bank.?Methods?From the U.S. general population, 1,409 parents of children aged 7–17 years completed 45 pedsPCF items. Their psychometric properties were evaluated using Item Response Theory (IRT) approaches. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and discriminant function analysis were used to predict clinical problems on child behavior checklist (CBCL) scales. A computerized adaptive testing (CAT) simulation was used to evaluate clinical utility.?Results?The final 43-item pedsPCF item bank demonstrates no item bias, has acceptable IRT parameters, and provides good prediction of related clinical problems. CAT simulation resulted in correlations of 0.98 between CAT and the full-length pedsPCF.?Conclusions?The pedsPCF has sound psychometric properties, U.S. general population norms, and a brief-yet-precise CAT version is available. Future work will evaluate pedsPCF in other clinical populations in which cognitive function is important. PMID:21378106

  19. Computerized Interactive Harness Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Computerized interactive harness engineering program inexpensive, interactive system for learning and using engineering approach to interconnection systems. Basically data-base system that stores information as files of individual connectors and handles wiring information in circuit groups stored as records.

  20. An investigation of the test-retest reliability of the Stroop Color-Word Test across two intervals.

    PubMed

    Franzen, M D; Tishelman, A C; Sharp, B H; Friedman, A G

    1987-01-01

    The Stroop Color- Word Test is frequently used in neuropsychological settings. However, there has been no rigorous evaluation of the test-retest reliability of the commercially available version of the Stroop. The present study investigated the test-retest reliability of the Stroop across two different time intervals. In addition, the standard error of prediction and the standard error of differences were computed, and applications of the results to the use of the Stroop to document change in cognitive rehabilitation are discussed. PMID:14589618

  1. Brief Report: Cognitive Flexibility and Focused Attention in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism as Measured on the Computerized Version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nils Kaland; Lars Smith; Erik Lykke Mortensen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess mental flexibility and set maintenance of a group of individuals with Asperger\\u000a syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) (N = 13; mean age 16,4), as compared with a matched group of typically developing children and adolescents (N = 13; mean age 15,6) on the computerized version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The participants

  2. 3. SOUTH TEST STAND WITH X15 IN PLACE. A color ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH TEST STAND WITH X-15 IN PLACE. A color photograph taken from a lift boom or from atop a truck, looking northwest to NASA hangars in the far distance. Also shows the shop building at left, and two observation bunkers with hatches open; one at right (Bldg. 1933) and the other in front of Liquid Oxygen tank truck at left (Bldg. 1934). - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. Amine-malonaldehyde condensation products and their relative color contribution in the thiobarbituric acid test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Buttkus; R. J. Bose

    1972-01-01

    Different malonaldehyde-amine condensation products were tested for their relative color contribution to the thiobarbituric\\u000a acid (TBA) test, an indicator for oxidative rancidity of polyunsaturated lipids. The open chain mono- and disubstituted malonaldehyde\\u000a (M) addition products (R-N=CH-CH=CHOH and R-N=CH-CH=CH-NH-R) gave complete (100%) recovery ofM on a mole basis. When theM residue was incorporated into cyclic products which formed between the ureido-

  4. Disposable platform provides visual and color-based point-of-care anemia self-testing

    PubMed Central

    Tyburski, Erika A.; Gillespie, Scott E.; Stoy, William A.; Mannino, Robert G.; Weiss, Alexander J.; Siu, Alexa F.; Bulloch, Rayford H.; Thota, Karthik; Cardenas, Anyela; Session, Wilena; Khoury, Hanna J.; O’Connor, Siobhán; Bunting, Silvia T.; Boudreaux, Jeanne; Forest, Craig R.; Gaddh, Manila; Leong, Traci; Lyon, L. Andrew; Lam, Wilbur A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Anemia, or low blood hemoglobin (Hgb) levels, afflicts 2 billion people worldwide. Currently, Hgb levels are typically measured from blood samples using hematology analyzers, which are housed in hospitals, clinics, or commercial laboratories and require skilled technicians to operate. A reliable, inexpensive point-of-care (POC) Hgb test would enable cost-effective anemia screening and chronically anemic patients to self-monitor their disease. We present a rapid, stand-alone, and disposable POC anemia test that, via a single drop of blood, outputs color-based visual results that correlate with Hgb levels. METHODS. We tested blood from 238 pediatric and adult patients with anemia of varying degrees and etiologies and compared hematology analyzer Hgb levels with POC Hgb levels, which were estimated via visual interpretation using a color scale and an optional smartphone app for automated analysis. RESULTS. POC Hgb levels correlated with hematology analyzer Hgb levels (r = 0.864 and r = 0.856 for visual interpretation and smartphone app, respectively), and both POC test methods yielded comparable sensitivity and specificity for detecting any anemia (n = 178) (<11 g/dl) (sensitivity: 90.2% and 91.1%, specificity: 83.7% and 79.2%, respectively) and severe anemia (n = 10) (<7 g/dl) (sensitivity: 90.0% and 100%, specificity: 94.6% and 93.9%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS. These results demonstrate the feasibility of this POC color-based diagnostic test for self-screening/self-monitoring of anemia. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Not applicable. FUNDING. This work was funded by the FDA-funded Atlantic Pediatric Device Consortium, the Georgia Research Alliance, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, the Georgia Center of Innovation for Manufacturing, and the InVenture Prize and Ideas to Serve competitions at the Georgia Institute of Technology. PMID:25157824

  5. Testing Limits on Matte Surface Color Perception in Three-Dimensional Scenes with Complex Light Fields

    PubMed Central

    Doerschner, K.; Boyaci, H.; Maloney, L. T.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated limits on the human visual system’s ability to discount directional variation in complex lights field when estimating Lambertian surface color. Directional variation in the light field was represented in the frequency domain using spherical harmonics. The bidirectional reflectance distribution function of a Lambertian surface acts as a low-pass filter on directional variation in the light field. Consequently, the visual system needs to discount only the low-pass component of the incident light corresponding to the first nine terms of a spherical harmonics expansion (Basri & Jacobs, 2001; Ramamoorthi & Hanrahan, 2001) to accurately estimate surface color. We test experimentally whether the visual system discounts directional variation in the light field up to this physical limit. Our results are consistent with the claim that the visual system can compensate for all of the complexity in the light field that affects the appearance of Lambertian surfaces. PMID:18053846

  6. Applications of Computerized Adaptive Testing. Proceedings of a Symposium presented at the Annual Convention of the Military Testing Association (18th, October 1976). Research Report 77-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J., Ed.

    This symposium consists of five papers and presents some recent developments in adaptive testing which have applications to several military testing problems. The overview, by James R. McBride, defines adaptive testing and discusses some of its item selection and scoring strategies. Item response theory, or item characteristic curve theory, is…

  7. STAR: A Computerized Tutorial in General Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaparro, Barbara S.; Halcomb, Charles G.

    This study investigated the use of a computerized tutorial--Self-Test and Review (STAR)--in a computer-managed general psychology course. STAR consists of four major modules which provide the student with a variety of learning exercises, including practice quizzes, practice final exams, performance reviews, and structured study questions. The…

  8. Preadmission Student Advising: A Prototype Computerized System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grupe, Fritz H.; Maples, Mary F.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype computerized expert system was designed to advise high school or first-year college students who are uncertain about a particular college or major. On-demand consultation gathers information about student grades, interests, test scores, and aptitudes, assesses admission qualifications for a variety of majors, then recommends curricula…

  9. Computerized Budget Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Julian U.; Rowe, Joe N.

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of budget monitoring in fiscal management; describes ways in which computerized budget monitoring increases accuracy, efficiency, and flexibility; outlines steps in the budget process; and presents sample reports, generated using the Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet and graphics program. (IAH)

  10. Computerized Language Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Steven

    1985-01-01

    The article describes a computerized language analysis system that produces a detailed description and summary statistics to track language growth within student populations. This microcomputer-based language assessment system simplifies identification of deficits in productive language, enabling the teacher or clinician to spend more time…

  11. Computerized shop floor scheduling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELIYAHU M. GOLDRATT

    1988-01-01

    Computerized shop floor scheduling is probably one of the most glaring examples of an area in which the tremendous efforts and investments of a large number of companies have produced at best only a partial solution. One of the more successful attempts is known as OPT (optimized production technology) on which numerous papers have been published highlighting the various aspects

  12. Psychosocial Communication and Computerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Gunilla; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the effect of computerization of the work environment on psychosocial communication. The RAM program, developed at Stockholm University to explore the effect of computers on the structure of organizations and the psychosocial work environment, is described; theoretical models are explained; and the future use of knowledge-based systems…

  13. Computerizing the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jeanie; Whelan, Errol

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the development of a computerized high school library which uses CD-ROM optical storage systems. Describes hardware and software, setting up the system, preparing the online catalog, teaching information retrieval skills, and project evaluation. Notes prices of CD-ROM disks and equipment purchased. 4 references. (SV)

  14. Sharks Are Color-Blind, Retina Study Suggests Ten species tested had no color-sensing cells, while seven had

    E-print Network

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    Published January 19, 2011 Sharks may be able to smell blood from miles away, but they probably don't know help measure brightness, while various types of cone cells help distinguish colors. A technique known linked with rod and cone cells. Rod cells were the most common types of photoreceptor found in all 17

  15. Comparison of the commercial color LCD and the medical monochrome LCD using randomized object test patterns.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jay; Wu, Tung H; Han, Rou P; Chang, Shu J; Shih, Cheng T; Sun, Jing Y; Hsu, Shih M

    2012-01-01

    Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP) commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT) was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p?=?0.265) and OT (p?=?0.07). The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration. PMID:22701534

  16. Comparison of the Commercial Color LCD and the Medical Monochrome LCD Using Randomized Object Test Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jay; Wu, Tung H.; Han, Rou P.; Chang, Shu J.; Shih, Cheng T.; Sun, Jing Y.; Hsu, Shih M.

    2012-01-01

    Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP) commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT) was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p?=?0.265) and OT (p?=?0.07). The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration. PMID:22701534

  17. Computerized Manufacturing Cell An Earthworm and a Leech robot

    E-print Network

    Major, Arkady

    Computerized Manufacturing Cell An Earthworm and a Leech robot Flexible Robot Gripper Professor S modeled after observing the motion of an earthwork and a leech. #12;Aerodynamic testing of a wind turbine

  18. A marvel of colors and ingredients. The story of urine test strip.

    PubMed

    Voswinckel, P

    1994-11-01

    The history of the urinary test papers does not being in the post-war period. As early as the 1880's some practitioners and pharmacists tried to replace the complicated wet-chemical procedures and apparatus by "dry chemistry." The first popular test paper for sugar and albumin originated in England in 1883. Dry reagents for proving hematuria have been available since the beginning of this century. Until the 1930s a wide palette of commercial urine tests with "modern" brand names was established. A methodological breakthrough was created by the spot test chemistry inaugurated by the Austrian, Fritz Feigl, about 1920. Using the capillary properties of filter paper in enhancing color reactions he founded a new area of analytical chemistry. Many of the pioneers were recruited from Jewish scientists. In this lecture is proposed that their emigration and banishment as well as the Second World War have stopped the development of urinary diagnostics on the European continent. In the post-war period the American industry succeeded to the leading position in the researching and marketing of test papers. In 1956, the triumphal progress of the "stick tests" began with the "Clinistix" (Ames Company, today Bayer Diagnostic). PMID:7869669

  19. Demographically adjusted norms for Catalan older adults on the Stroop Color and Word Test.

    PubMed

    Llinàs-Reglà, Jordi; Vilalta-Franch, Joan; López-Pousa, Secundino; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Garre-Olmo, Josep

    2013-05-01

    The Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT) is a short test that is widely used in neuropsychological assessment to evaluate the executive aspects of attention control, information processing speed, selective attention, cognitive flexibility, and executive function in terms of the ability to inhibit a usual response in favor of an unusual response. The aim of this study was to create normative data from the SCWT adjusted for age, sex, and educational level for its clinical use in a population of 55 years of age and above. The SCWT was administered to a population-based sample of 2,151 participants aged 55 or older, and the effect of sex, age, and educational level was determined in the SCWT by means of linear regression models. Normative tables were created following the traditional method based on the stratification by relevant variables and on regression models. PMID:23380811

  20. The measurement of creativity by the Stroop Color and Word Test.

    PubMed

    Golden, C J

    1975-10-01

    The development of a valid and reliable measure of creativity has been a challenging problem to psychologists. Gamble and Kellner (1968) have suggested that the Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT) might be such a measure. The advantages of the Stroop include that it tests basic processes, is stable over long periods of time, and is easy to administer and score. The present study investigated the relationship of the Stroop to three independent measures of creativity: a verbal task, a nonverbal task, and ratings by teachers. In all cases a significant relationship was found between these measures and the Stroop interference score. A concept of creativity as a basic underlying process is discussed by the author as well as implications for further research. PMID:1185503

  1. Enhancing case management through computerized patient files.

    PubMed

    Custer, M L

    1993-05-01

    The need for developing an organizational system for managing a large patient specialty population prompted the use of a computerized data entry and retrieval system. The use of a computerized system has facilitated patient case management, chart organization, and development of accessible data for research. Patient data fields (topic headings) are used for: (1) storing specific categories of patient data, (2) compiling lists for management and research, and (3) referring physician and patient/family contact information. Various lists can be compiled from the field data base in order to develop research and patient management lists. Patient management lists are used to track a patient's progress, provide quality assurance of care, and contribute researchable data. Also, patient information can be transferred automatically from the computerized daily management system into a computerized form letter. Individualized patient letters may be generated. Laboratory and test information from the last clinic or hospital visit can be mailed to families along with a handwritten personalized interpretation of their results by the CNS or physician. PMID:8343931

  2. The Discriminant Validity of the Stroop Color and Word Test: Toward a Cost-Effective Strategy to Distinguish Subgroups of Disruptive Preadolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavoie, Marc E.; Charlebois, Pierre

    1994-01-01

    Compared 16 disruptive preadolescent boys with symptoms of attention deficit (AD) to 16 disruptive boys without attention deficit (DIS) and 16 controls (CO) using Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT). Found AD group was significantly distinct (had lower score) in comparison to DIS and CO on color-word score. ADs showed more hesitations on color-word…

  3. Cognitive and neuropathologic correlates of Stroop Color-Word Test performance in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bondi, Mark W; Serody, Adam B; Chan, Agnes S; Eberson-Shumate, Sonja C; Delis, Dean C; Hansen, Lawrence A; Salmon, David P

    2002-07-01

    The Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT; C. Golden, 1978) was examined in 59 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in 51 demographically comparable normal control (NC) participants. AD patients produced significantly larger Stroop interference effects than NC participants, and level of dementia severity significantly influenced SCWT performance. Principal-components analyses demonstrated a dissociation in the factor structure of the Stroop trials between NC participants and AD patients, suggesting that disruption of semantic knowledge and speeded verbal processing in AD may be a major contributor to impairment on the incongruent trial. Results of clinicopathologic correlations in an autopsy-confirmed AD subgroup further suggest the invocation of a broad network of integrated cortical regions and executive and language processes underlying successful SCWT performance. PMID:12146681

  4. Session 2659 Instrumentation with Computerized Data Acquisition

    E-print Network

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Session 2659 Instrumentation with Computerized Data Acquisition for an Innovative Thermal on the results. The emphasis here is given to the apparatus' instrumentation and computerized data acquisition and control are accomplished and integrated by using a computerized data acquisition system

  5. Computerized procedures system

    DOEpatents

    Lipner, Melvin H. (Monroeville, PA); Mundy, Roger A. (North Huntingdon, PA); Franusich, Michael D. (Upper St. Clair, PA)

    2010-10-12

    An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

  6. SPITZER IRS SPECTRA OF LUMINOUS 8 {mu}m SOURCES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: TESTING COLOR-BASED CLASSIFICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Catherine L. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Kastner, Joel H. [Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Hrivnak, Bruce J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383 (United States); Sahai, Raghvendra [NASA/JPL, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)], E-mail: clb@unimelb.edu.au

    2009-12-15

    We present archival Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of 19 luminous 8 {mu}m selected sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The object classes derived from these spectra and from an additional 24 spectra in the literature are compared with classifications based on Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)/MSX (J, H, K, and 8 {mu}m) colors in order to test the 'JHK8' (Kastner et al.) classification scheme. The IRS spectra confirm the classifications of 22 of the 31 sources that can be classified under the JHK8 system. The spectroscopic classification of 12 objects that were unclassifiable in the JHK8 scheme allow us to characterize regions of the color-color diagrams that previously lacked spectroscopic verification, enabling refinements to the JHK8 classification system. The results of these new classifications are consistent with previous results concerning the identification of the most infrared-luminous objects in the LMC. In particular, while the IRS spectra reveal several new examples of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with O-rich envelopes, such objects are still far outnumbered by carbon stars (C-rich AGB stars). We show that Spitzer IRAC/MIPS color-color diagrams provide improved discrimination between red supergiants and oxygen-rich and carbon-rich AGB stars relative to those based on 2MASS/MSX colors. These diagrams will enable the most luminous IR sources in Local Group galaxies to be classified with high confidence based on their Spitzer colors. Such characterizations of stellar populations will continue to be possible during Spitzer's warm mission through the use of IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] and 2MASS colors.

  7. Stroop Color-Word Test: A Screening Measure of Selective Attention to Differentiate LD From Non LD Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Philip J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Used the Stroop Color-Word Test to measure selective attention in learning disabled (N=45) and nonLD (N=50) children. Results indicated that LD children have a significant weakness in the process of selective attention compared to the nonLD children. Findings suggested that the Stroop is an effective screening measure. (JAC)

  8. Identifying Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder with the WISC-R and the Stroop Color and Word Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lufi, Dubi; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared 29 children with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), 21 emotionally disturbed (ED) children, and control (CO) group of 20 nonproblem children using 12 subtests of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and Stroop Color and Word Test. Results showed CO group superior to ADHD and ED groups and ED group superior to ADHD…

  9. Relationship between Shyness in Children and Constricted Cognitive Control as Measured by the Stroop Color-Word Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Robert P.; Lazarus, Philip J.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the relationship of shyness in children (N=103) to the constricted flexible dimension of cognitive control. Findings showed a significant difference in performance of the shy and nonshy group on the Stroop Color-Word Test. The shy group was less effective in maintaining performance in the presence of interfering stimuli. (JAC)

  10. Proportional Slowing or Disinhibition in ADHD?: A Brinley Plot Meta-Analysis of Stroop Color and Word Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pocklington, Barbara; Maybery, Murray

    2006-01-01

    A meta-analysis in the form of Brinley plots was conducted on the mean reaction times of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Control groups of children and adolescents on the Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT). ADHD reaction times were regressed on Control group reaction times for 17 data sets (accessed from 13 published studies).…

  11. The Colors of Hilda Group Asteroids: Complications For Use in Testing Dynamical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Erin L.; Noll, Keith; Woodward, Charles E.

    2014-11-01

    Hilda group asteroids are in a stable 3:2 resonance with Jupiter which may have been reshaped by giant planet migration in the early epochs of solar system formation. Although the population is currently dynamically stable, the dynamics of this population suggest at minimum an inward migration of Jupiter by ~0.4 AU (Franklin et al. 2004, AJ, 128, 1391). As this population of objects is relatively isolated, compositional types can be used to test dynamical models such as the Grand Tack and Nice Model which suggest that objects of outer solar system (beyond Saturn) origin would be found in the Hilda population. We have undertaken a multi-year observational program at the 2.3-m Bok Telescope to obtain compositional types for a large sample of Hilda group asteroids. With a preliminary sample of ~400 objects from our observations and the literature, we find complications for direct compositional tests of the giant planet migration models. Specifically, we find that the two dynamical families within the Hilda group, Schubart and Hilda, have disparate dynamical ages ( 1.7 +/- 0.7 Gyr vs > 4 Gyr ; Broz & Vokrouhlicky 2008, MNRAS, 390, 715) but similar colors not seen elsewhere in the Hilda group population. This suggests dynamical family members should be removed from samples when using Hilda group asteroid compositions as a test of giant planet migration models. This research was supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at Goddard Space Flight Center, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA. This work also funded by NASA Planetary Astronomy Grant NNX13AJ11G.

  12. Short Communication: Evaluation of a Color Method for Testing Immunoglobulin G Concentration in Goat Colostrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Argüello; N. Castro; J. Capote

    2005-01-01

    Colostrum samples (n = 1084) of first and second milking from Majorera goats were taken. The immuno- globulin (Ig) G concentrations estimated by measure- ment of the color of goat colostrum and by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared. Least squares analysis of the relationship between the color measurement method and IgG concentration resulted in a significant linear relationship. Using

  13. Testing tubewell platform color as a rapid screening tool for arsenic and manganese in drinking water wells.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ashis; Nath, Bibhash; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Halder, Dipti; Kundu, Amit K; Mandal, Ujjal; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost rapid screening tool for arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in groundwater is urgently needed to formulate mitigation policies for sustainable drinking water supply. This study attempts to make statistical comparison between tubewell (TW) platform color and the level of As and Mn concentration in groundwater extracted from the respective TW (n = 423), to validate platform color as a screening tool for As and Mn in groundwater. The result shows that a black colored platform with 73% certainty indicates that well water is safe from As, while with 84% certainty a red colored platform indicates that well water is enriched with As, compared to WHO drinking water guideline of 10 ?g/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 79%, 77%, and 81%, respectively. However, the certainty values become 93% and 38%, respectively, for black and red colored platforms at 50 ?g/L, the drinking water standards for India and Bangladesh. The respective efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity are 65%, 85%, and 59%. Similarly for Mn, black and red colored platform with 78% and 64% certainty, respectively, indicates that well water is either enriched or free from Mn at the Indian national drinking water standard of 300 ?g/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 71%, 67%, and 76%, respectively. Thus, this study demonstrates that TW platform color can be potentially used as an initial screening tool for identifying TWs with elevated dissolved As and Mn, to make further rigorous groundwater testing more intensive and implement mitigation options for safe drinking water supplies. PMID:22077183

  14. Pixel Based Tongue Color Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bo; Li, Naimin

    Tongue diagnosis is a distinctive and essential diagnostic measure in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and chromatic information is its most decisive characteristic which is utilized to unearth pathological changes for identifying diseases. In this paper, a computerized medical biometrics scheme is established which classify all pixels in tongue into various color classes. For train specimens, both a forward and a backward selection are employed to pick up the correct labeled pixel specimens and screen out the wrong, and then various pixels of diversified colors are classified for the tongue color analysis. The experimental outcomes are more applicable to tongue color analysis.

  15. Steep-Slope Assembly Testing of Clay and Concrete Tile With and Without Cool Pigmented Colors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A [ORNL

    2005-11-01

    Cool color pigments and sub-tile venting of clay and concrete tile roofs significantly impact the heat flow crossing the roof deck of a steep-slope roof. Field measures for the tile roofs revealed a 70% drop in the peak heat flow crossing the deck as compared to a direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The Tile Roofing Institute (TRI) and its affiliate members are keenly interested in documenting the magnitude of the drop for obtaining solar reflectance credits with state and federal "cool roof" building efficiency standards. Tile roofs are direct-nailed or are attached to a deck with batten or batten and counter-batten construction. S-Misson clay and concrete tile roofs, a medium-profile concrete tile roof, and a flat slate tile roof were installed on fully nstrumented attic test assemblies. Temperature measures of the roof, deck, attic, and ceiling, heat flows, solar reflectance, thermal emittance, and the ambient weather were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and directnailed asphalt shingle roof. ORNL measured the tile's underside temperature and the bulk air temperature and heat flows just underneath the tile for batten and counter-batten tile systems and compared the results to the conventional asphalt shingle.

  16. Computerized international geothermal information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.L.; Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.

    1980-03-01

    The computerized international geothermal energy information system is reviewed. The review covers establishment of the Italy - United States linked data centers by the NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society, through a bilateral agreement, and up to the present time. The result of the information exchange project is given as the bibliographic and numerical data available from the data centers. Recommendations for the exchange of computerized geothermal information at the international level are discussed.

  17. An Integrated Computerized Instructional System for Classroom and Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadway, Ray

    Bennett College (North Carolina) has developed the use of an Integrated Computerized Instructional Support System (ICISS) featuring the use of large networked test-banks, a sophisticated test management system, application software, and multimedia. These materials are used both for interactive learning experiences in the classroom and for…

  18. 170.304 (a) Computerized provider order entry Errata December 3, 2010

    E-print Network

    170.304 (a) Computerized provider order entry Errata December 3, 2010 1 Errata for §170.304 (a order in TD170.304.a ­ 1.5: Laboratory Orders . Text Prior to Revision: TD170.304.a ­ 1: Record and Store Orders in an Ambulatory Setting Orders test Data ­ Set 2 #12;170.304 (a) Computerized provider

  19. Development of a Computerized In-Basket Exercise for the Classroom: A Sales Management Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Michael M.; Barnes, John W.; Onken, Marina H.

    2006-01-01

    This article follows the development of a sales management in-basket exercise for use in the classroom. The authors have computerized the exercise and added features to allow for additional and more quantitative input from the students. The exercise has evolved and been tested in numerous classroom situations. The computerized in-basket exercise…

  20. Clinical knowledge management using computerized patient record systems: is the current infrastructure adequate?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel P. Lorence; Richard Churchill

    2005-01-01

    The proliferation of technology in health care, spurred by environmental factors encouraging the adoption of computerized patient records (CPRs), has led to a widely held perception of fully computerized patient information systems as the industry norm. To test the validity of this assumption, using data from a national survey of certified health information managers, we examined the CPR technology adoption

  1. Computerized Assessment System for Academic Satisfaction (ASAS) for First-Year University Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medrano, Leonardo Adrian; Liporace, Mercedes Fernandez; Perez, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Computerized tests have become one of the most widely used and efficient educational assessment methods. Increasing efforts to generate computerized assessment systems to identify students at risk for drop out have been recently noted. An important variable influencing student retention is academic satisfaction. Accordingly, the…

  2. French normative data on reading and related skills from EVALEC, a new computerized battery of tests (end Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 3, and Grade 4) 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Sprenger-Charolles; P. Colé; D. Béchennec; A. Kipffer-Piquard

    2005-01-01

    To set-up standardized norms on the development of reading and related skills in French, we have developed a new tool, EVALEC. The data were collected at the end of Grades 1–4 (about 100 children for each level). EVALEC includes four tests focused on written word processing (three reading aloud tests, one silent reading test); both accuracy scores and processing time

  3. A Quick Test for the Highly Colored Ions of the Aluminum-Nickel Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenda, Stanley C.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a technique for eliminating errors in the analysis of the nickel subgroup of the aluminum-nickel group cations. Describes the process of color and chemical changes that occur in this group as a result of ligand and coordination number changes. Discusses opportunities for student observations. (TW)

  4. Illuminant cues in surface color perception: tests of three candidate cues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joong Nam Yang; Laurence T. Maloney

    2001-01-01

    Many recent computational models of surface color perception presuppose information about illumination in scenes. The models differ primarily in the physical process each makes use of as a cue to the illuminant. We evaluated whether the human visual system makes use of any of three of the following candidate illuminant cues: (1) specular highlight, (2) full surface specularity (Lee, H.

  5. Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures

    E-print Network

    Li, Jia

    Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures Jia Li. Wang alipr.com #12;Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures How Visible Are Web Images? Keukenhof photos Jia Li, James Z. Wang alipr.com #12;Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures ALIPR: Automatic

  6. Tests of the harassment-reduction function and frequency-dependent maintenance of a female-specific color polymorphism in a damselfly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingzi Xu; Ola M. Fincke

    2011-01-01

    Color polymorphisms have provided classical examples of how frequency-dependent selection maintains genetic variation in natural\\u000a populations. Here we tested for the first time, the hypothesized adaptive function of a female-specific color polymorphism\\u000a in odonates to lower male harassment towards females generally. Under conditions controlling for sex ratio, population density\\u000a and morph frequency, we also tested two major frequency-dependent selection hypotheses

  7. Using Response-Time Constraints in Item Selection To Control for Differential Speededness in Computerized Adaptive Testing. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Scrams, David J.; Schnipke, Deborah L.

    This paper proposes an item selection algorithm that can be used to neutralize the effect of time limits in computer adaptive testing. The method is based on a statistical model for the response-time distributions of the test takers on the items in the pool that is updated each time a new item has been administered. Predictions from the model are…

  8. Foreign Language Experience and Color Word Interference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, Cyrus R.

    If various color names are printed in various color inks, an observer has great difficulty in rapidly naming the ink colors (Stroop Color Word Test) unless the color names and the ink colors are mutually reinforcing, or the color names are unknown to the observer. The latter suggests a partial measure of second-language fluency, the feasibility of…

  9. Steep-Slope Assembly Testing of Clay and Concrete Tile With and Without Cool Pigmented Colors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A

    2005-01-01

    Cool color pigments and sub-tile venting of clay and concrete tile roofs significantly impact the heat flow crossing the roof deck of a steep-slope roof. Field measures for the tile roofs revealed a 70% drop in the peak heat flow crossing the deck as compared to a direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The Tile Roofing Institute (TRI) and its affiliate members

  10. Arkansas' Curriculum Guide. Competency Based Computerized Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. Div. of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This guide contains the essential parts of a total curriculum for a one-year secondary-level course in computerized accounting. Addressed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the complete accounting cycle, computer operations for accounting, computerized accounting and general ledgers, computerized accounts payable,…

  11. Feasibility tests for treating shampoo and hair colorant wastewaters using anaerobic processes.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, Shaikh Z; Yakubu, A; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

    2012-01-01

    Wastes from the personal care product (PCP) industry are often high in biodegradable carbon, which makes them amenable to aerobic biological treatment, although process costs are usually high due to aeration inefficiencies, high electricity demand and production of large amounts of sludge. As such, anaerobic treatment technologies are being considered to lower net energy costs by reducing air use and increasing methane production. To assess the amenability of PCP wastes to anaerobic treatment, methane yields and rates were quantified in different anaerobic reactors treating typical PCP wastes, including wastes from shampoo and hair colorant products. Overall, shampoo wastes were more amenable to methanogenesis with almost double the methane yields compared with colour wastes. To assess relevant microbial guilds, qPCR was performed on reactor biomass samples. Methanosaetaceae abundances were always significantly higher than Methanosarcinaceae and Methanomicrobiales abundances (P < 0.05), and did not differ significantly between waste types. Although colour wastes were less amenable to anaerobic treatment than shampoo wastes, differences cannot be explained by relative microbial abundances and probably result from the presence of inhibiting compounds in hair colorants (e.g., oxidants) at higher levels. Results showed that anaerobic technologies have great potential for treating PCP wastes, but additional work is needed to establish the basis of elevated methane yields and inhibition, especially when colorant wastes are present. PMID:22233909

  12. Will claims workers dislike a computerized fraud detector?

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert B

    2002-02-01

    The computerized fraud detector (CFRD) assigns suspicion scores to questionable automobile insurance claims. Evaluators pilot tested this algorithm in three offices, comparing its effects with three matched offices. Observers uncovered that in two target offices and one comparison office, Millennium 2000 (M2K) also was being installed. The study design thus became as follows: Two offices had two interventions, one office had CFRD but not M2K, another office had M2K but not CFRD, and two offices had neither. Hierarchical linear models document that offices with both new computer systems will have the most unfavorable employee attitudes toward computerized fraud detection, followed by offices with only one new system. Employees with jobs of higher rank and employees not receptive to innovation will dislike computerized fraud detection. Implementation of one computer system, CFRD or M2K, may have minor negative fixed effects on employee attitudes, but their effects on the between-office variance are inconsequential. PMID:11840637

  13. Will Claims Workers Dislike a Computerized Fraud Detector?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Smith

    2002-01-01

    The computerized fraud detector (CFRD) assigns suspicion scores to questionable automobile insurance claims. Evaluators pilot tested this algorithm in three offices, comparing its effects with three matched offices. Observers uncovered that in two target offices and one comparison office, Millennium 2000 (M2K) also was being installed. The study design thus became as follows: Two offices had two interventions, one office

  14. Patterns of Implementing a District Computerized Instructional Management System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crist-Whitzel, Janet L.; And Others

    A two-part research and evaluation study was conducted to examine an elementary (K-8) school district's implementation of a computerized instructional management system, the "Computer-Managed Instruction/3000" (CMI), as a means of facilitating the assessment and updating of student mastery of 78 district-defined curricular objectives. The testing

  15. Evaluation of computerized nursing care plan: Instrument development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ting-Ting Lee

    2004-01-01

    With the increasingly popular use of information technology in patient care, the need for reliable instrumentation to evaluate information systems has become critical. This article describes the psychometric testing of a scale developed to evaluate a computerized nursing care plan (CNCP) system. A review of the literature generated a 44-item questionnaire, which was then administered to a convenience sample of

  16. NCLEX-RN performance: Predicting success on the computerized examination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela Butler Beeman; Julie Keith Waterhouse

    2001-01-01

    Since the adoption of the Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) format of the National Certification Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN), no studies have been reported in the literature on predictors of successful performance by baccalaureate nursing graduates on the licensure examination. In this study, a discriminant analysis was used to identify which of 21 variables can be significant predictors of

  17. Computerized dairy records management systems 

    E-print Network

    Acosta, Alejandro E. Gonzalez

    1992-01-01

    . . . . . . 1. 3. Management Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. 3. 1. Record Keeping History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . . . . . 3 . . . . . 3 . . . . . . . 4 4 . . . . . . . 5 1. 3. 2. Hand-Kept v. s.... Computerized Records. . . . . . . . . . . 6 1. 3. 3. Direct Access to Records by Telephone. . . . . . . . . 6 II. HEIFER MANAGEMENT. 2. 1. Dairy Replacements. . 2. 2. Heifers Breeding Management . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . 8...

  18. Ionospheric imaging using computerized tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey R. Austen; Steven J. Franke; C. H. Liu

    1988-01-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) techniques can be used to produce a two-dimensional image of the electron density in the ionosphere. The CT problem requires that the measured data be the line integral through the medium of the unknown parameter; transionospheric satellite beacon total electron content data recorded simultaneously at multiple ground stations fulfill this requirement. In this paper the CT problem

  19. COMP (Computerized Operational Materials Prescription).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkranz, Catherine I.

    Described is Project COMP (Computerized Operational Materials Prescription), an individualized reading instructional program for educable mentally retarded (EMR) children in regular or special classes. The program is designed to correlate with the Wisconsin Design for Reading (WDR) and to utilize a diagnostic teaching specialist who uses specific…

  20. Development of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner for NIMBUS 7. Volume 2: Test and performance data, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner protoflight tests are examined in detail while some of the test results are evaluated with respect to expected performance. Performance characteristics examined include spectral response, signal to noise ratio as a function of radiance input, radiance response, the modulation transfer function, and the field of view and coregistration. The results of orbital sequence tests are also included. The in orbit performance or return of radiometric data in the six spectral bands is evaluated along with the data processing sequence necessary to derive the final data products. Examples of the raw data are given and the housekeeping or diagnostic data which provides information on the day to day health or status of the instrument are discussed.

  1. Iterative Evaluation in a Mobile Counseling and Testing Program to Reach People of Color at Risk for HIV--New Strategies Improve Program Acceptability, Effectiveness, and Evaluation Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberg, Freya; Kurth, Ann; Reidy, William; McKnight, Teka; Dikobe, Wame; Wilson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights findings from an evaluation that explored the impact of mobile versus clinic-based testing, rapid versus central-lab based testing, incentives for testing, and the use of a computer counseling program to guide counseling and automate evaluation in a mobile program reaching people of color at risk for HIV. The program's…

  2. The Color Object Association Test (COAT): The Development of a New Measure of Declarative Memory for 18- to 36-Month-Old Toddlers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine M. Jordan; Andrea L. Johnson; Steven J. Hughes; Elsa G. Shapiro

    2007-01-01

    Few methods exist to measure declarative (explicit) memory in children during the toddler and preschool stages of development. We report the development and psychometric properties of a new measure of declarative memory for this age group, the Color Object Association Test (COAT). In pilot testing and large scale application of the test, the COAT was demonstrated to be a reliable

  3. High-School Chemistry Students' Performance and Gender Differences in a Computerized Molecular Modeling Learning Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nitza Barnea; Yehudit J. Dori

    1999-01-01

    Computerized molecular modeling (CMM) contributes to the development of visualization skills via vivid animation of three dimensional representations. Its power to illustrate and explore phenomena in chemistry teaching stems from the convenience and simplicity of building molecules of any size and color in a number of presentation styles. A new CMM-based learning environment for teaching and learning chemistry in Israeli

  4. The Development, Pilot Test, Assessment, and Evaluation of a Computerized Online Internet Community System at Programs for Higher Education, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Diana Sell

    This paper reports on a study to design, develop, pilot test, evaluate, and assess an online Internet community system during the months May-July, 1997 at Nova Southeastern University-Programs for Higher Education (NSU PHE). The system was used as a prototype for developing and studying techniques for building virtual communities. Project research…

  5. CUSUM Statistics for Large Item Banks: Computation of Standard Errors. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, C. A. W.

    In a previous study (1998), how to evaluate whether adaptive testing data used for online calibration sufficiently fit the item response model used by C. Glas was studied. Three approaches were suggested, based on a Lagrange multiplier (LM) statistic, a Wald statistic, and a cumulative sum (CUMSUM) statistic respectively. For all these methods,…

  6. Why and how to establish a computerized system for psychiatric case records.

    PubMed

    Modai, I; Rabinowitz, J

    1993-11-01

    Based on experience with successful implementation of an on-line computerized psychiatric case record system in a psychiatric hospital in Israel, the authors discuss the advantages of such systems and outline the process of converting paper records to computerized records. Computerized records can save time by automatically issuing routine reports, improve clinical practice, simplify quality assurance, and ease collection and analysis of data for research. The process of converting paper records to computerized records can begin with analysis of the hospital's reporting requirements and creation and pilot testing of structured paper forms with a multiple-choice format that is eventually incorporated into the computer program. The authors recommend an on-line computerized record system with direct input of data because such a system can be used for case audits and can generate reports, treatment plans, and medication orders without removing records from circulation. Other advantages include the system's usefulness in electronic communication within and outside the hospital. PMID:8288180

  7. The Stroop task: comparison between the original paradigm and computerized versions in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Penner, Iris-Katharina; Kobel, Maja; Stöcklin, Markus; Weber, Peter; Opwis, Klaus; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    The Stroop task has a long-standing history in psychological research and diagnostics, and many variants have emerged. Computerized versions have recently gained popularity because of their applicability in brain-imaging studies. It remains unclear, however, whether computerized versions are content valid with reference to the original task. We compare the performance in the original task with two computerized versions. All three versions show high test-retest reliability and are able to elicit interference effects, but to varying degrees. However, performances in the computerized versions and in the original task do not correlate. The transition from oral to manual response and from listed to single stimulus presentation seems not only to diminish the interference effect, but also to alter its nature in such a way that it no longer looks genuinely "Stroop-like". These findings have important clinical implications on the use and interpretation of computerized Stroop tasks in children and adults. PMID:22928670

  8. The gap in the color-magnitude diagram of NGC 2420: A test of convective overshoot and cluster age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarque, Pierre; Sarajedini, Ata; Guo, X.-J.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical isochrones have been constructed using the OPAL opacities specifically to study the color-magnitude diagram of the open star cluster NGC 2420. This cluster provides a rare test of core convection in intermediate-mass stars. At the same time, its age is of interest because of its low metallicity and relatively high Galactic latitude for an open cluster. The excellent color-magnitude diagram constructed by Anthony-Twarog et al. (1990) allows a detailed fit of the isochrones to the photometric data. We discuss the importance of convective overshoot at the convective core edge in determining the morphology of the gap located near the main-sequence turnoff. We find that given the assumptions made in the models, a modest amount of overshoot (0.23 H(sub p)) is required for the best fit. Good agreement is achieved with all features of the turnoff gap for a cluster age of 2.4 +/- 0.2 Gyr. We note that a photometrically complete luminosity function near the main-sequence turnoff and subgiant branch would also provide an important test of the overshoot models.

  9. Measuring Global Physical Health in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Illustration of a Multidimensional Bi-factor Model and Computerized Adaptive Testing

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Stephen M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Dumas, Helene M.; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Montpetit, Kathleen; Bilodeau, Nathalie; Gorton, George E.; Watson, Kyle; Tucker, Carole A

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to apply a bi-factor model for the determination of test dimensionality and a multidimensional CAT using computer simulations of real data for the assessment of a new global physical health measure for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Parent respondents of 306 children with cerebral palsy were recruited from four pediatric rehabilitation hospitals and outpatient clinics. We compared confirmatory factor analysis results across four models: (1) one-factor unidimensional; (2) two-factor multidimensional (MIRT); (3) bi-factor MIRT with fixed slopes; and (4) bi-factor MIRT with varied slopes. We tested whether the general and content (fatigue and pain) person score estimates could discriminate across severity and types of CP, and whether score estimates from a simulated CAT were similar to estimates based on the total item bank, and whether they correlated as expected with external measures. Results Confirmatory factor analysis suggested separate pain and fatigue sub-factors; all 37 items were retained in the analyses. From the bi-factor MIRT model with fixed slopes, the full item bank scores discriminated across levels of severity and types of CP, and compared favorably to external instruments. CAT scores based on 10- and 15-item versions accurately captured the global physical health scores. Conclusions The bi-factor MIRT CAT application, especially the 10- and 15-item version, yielded accurate global physical health scores that discriminated across known severity groups and types of CP, and correlated as expected with concurrent measures. The CATs have potential for collecting complex data on the physical health of children with CP in an efficient manner. PMID:19221892

  10. CAT (Computerized Axial Tomography) scans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Grubin Productions

    2001-01-01

    This web page about CAT (computerized axial tomography) scans gives a brief overview of this imaging technique. CAT (or CT) scanning captures a lot of 2-dimensional X-rays that a computer then joins together to generate 3-dimensional images of internal structures. As part of a set of materials about brain scanning technologies, this page mentions what researchers can learn about the brain from CAT scans. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  11. Color Blindness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... three color cone cells to determine our color perception. Color blindness can occur when one or more ... Anyone who experiences a significant change in color perception should see an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.). Next ...

  12. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Influence of Age, Sex, and Education; and Normative Data for a Large Sample Across the Adult Age Range

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

    2006-01-01

    The Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to 1,856 cognitively screened, healthy Dutch-speaking participants aged 24 to 81 years. The effects of age, gender, and education on Stroop test performance were investigated to adequately stratify the normative data. The results showed that especially the speed-dependent Stroop scores (time to complete…

  13. We introduce a general technique for "colorizing" greyscale images by transferring color between a source, color image and a

    E-print Network

    Mueller, Klaus

    approach for pseudocoloring greyscale images of luggage acquired by X-ray equipment at an airport which only acquire greyscale images such Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), X-ray and Computerized is a common technique for adding color to greyscale images such as X-ray, MRI, scanning electron micros- copy

  14. Demographically Corrected Norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Marc A.; Moore, David J.; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised), and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African-Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African-Americans than Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African-Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings. PMID:21547817

  15. Empirical tests of the role of disruptive coloration in reducing detectability.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Stewart; Callahan, Alison; Klassen, Dana; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2007-05-22

    Disruptive patterning is a potentially universal camouflage technique that is thought to enhance concealment by rendering the detection of body shapes more difficult. In a recent series of field experiments, artificial moths with markings that extended to the edges of their 'wings' survived at higher rates than moths with the same edge patterns inwardly displaced. While this result seemingly indicates a benefit to obscuring edges, it is possible that the higher density markings of the inwardly displaced patterns concomitantly reduced their extent of background matching. Likewise, it has been suggested that the mealworm baits placed on the artificial moths could have created differential contrasts with different moth patterns. To address these concerns, we conducted controlled trials in which human subjects searched for computer-generated moth images presented against images of oak trees. Moths with edge-extended disruptive markings survived at higher rates, and took longer to find, than all other moth types, whether presented sequentially or simultaneously. However, moths with no edge markings and reduced interior pattern density survived better than their high-density counterparts, indicating that background matching may have played a so-far unrecognized role in the earlier experiments. Our disruptively patterned non-background-matching moths also had the lowest overall survivorship, indicating that disruptive coloration alone may not provide significant protection from predators. Collectively, our results provide independent support for the survival value of disruptive markings and demonstrate that there are common features in human and avian perception of camouflage. PMID:17360282

  16. Variations in the photoperiodic cloacal response of Japanese quail: association with testes weight and feather color

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, T.; Konishi, T.

    1983-04-01

    The size of the cloacal gland was found to be a reliable indicator of testicular activity of Japanese quail. Six experiments were performed to examine the effects of alternating long and short photoperiod on the size of the cloacal gland of male Japanese quail. Three types of photoperiodic cloacal responses were distinguished. Type I birds became refractory to short photoperiods after they had experienced 5 weeks or more of short days. They maintained large cloacal glands under subsequent condition of alternating long and short photoperiod. Type II birds were intermediate types I and III birds did not become refractory to short photoperiods after experiencing 5 weeks or more of short days. The cloacal glands responded to conditions of alternating long and short photoperiods with increases or decreases in size. Feather color on the throat was found to correspond to the type of cloacal response. Type I birds had brick-red throat feathers. Type II birds had white feathers intermingled with brick-red feathers. Type III had white throat feathers. The percentages of types I, II, and III observed in the experimental population was 67, 18, and 15%, respectively. Type III birds were used to study the effects of blinding on the cloacal response to short photoperiod. Five out of eight blinded type III birds did not lose the responsiveness to short photoperiod. These results are consistent with the view that extraocular photoreceptors participate in the photoperiodic gonadal response of Japanese quail.

  17. [Computerized EEG and personality].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Pérez, A; Martínez López-Coterilla, M; Fajardo López, A; Lardelli Claret, A

    1989-01-01

    The ordinary EEG, on only showing qualitative malfunction of abnormal graphoelements in the tracings, proves itself insufficient to go into the analysis of psychological and psycho-pathological problems. Since computerised studies of EEG permit quantitative comparisons, we tried to apply them in correlation with the characteristics of the personality classified also with quantitative criteria, such as those offered in the personality inventory 16 PF; from which have been chosen the so-called factors of the second order, and the subjectivity-objectivity factors. The test was carried out on 100 voluntary subjects from Almeria (Spain), all with High School grades, between 18 and 40 years of age, of both sexes, all right-handed, without neuro-psychiatric history, and with normal ordinary EEGs. From the statistical analysis of the results one could deduce that there are significant specific relationships from the computerised EEG, with those secondary polar values of 16 PF: high and low anxiety, extroversion-introversion. Subjects with low anxiety presented a significant increase of the alpha band opposed to the subjects with high anxiety. There is a significant differences in power of the frontal areas between extrovert and introvert subjects. The extroverted subjects have a greater power of the right side and the introverted subjects a greater power of the left. PMID:2698596

  18. Brief Report: Cognitive Flexibility and Focused Attention in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism as Measured on the Computerized Version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaland, Nils; Smith, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess mental flexibility and set maintenance of a group of individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) (N = 13; mean age 16,4), as compared with a matched group of typically developing children and adolescents (N = 13; mean age 15,6) on the computerized version of the Wisconsin Card…

  19. Primary Colors of Pigment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this laboratory activity, students create secondary colors by mixing primary colors. Food coloring, test tubes, and a test tube stand are used. The activity is composed of a student handout with directions and a data sheet. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA Why Files: The Case of the Mysterious Red Light. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

  20. Experiences with experimental clinical evaluation of a computerized drug delivery system for regulation of mean arterial blood pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ezra Kwok; S. L. Shah; B. A. Finegan; G. K. Kwong

    1999-01-01

    A number of closed-loop control systems have been investigated and developed for the regulation of physiological variables by automatic administration of therapeutic agents. This paper reflects on several years of practical experience, by the authors, in this area including the development of an adaptive computerized drug delivery system. A computerized adaptive drug delivery system has been designed and tested for

  1. Colored Shadows

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-10-31

    In this optics activity, learners discover that not all shadows are black. Learners explore human color perception by using colored lights to make additive color mixtures. With three colored lights, learners can make shadows of seven different colors. They can also explore how to make shadows of individual colors, including black. Use this activity demonstrate how receptors in the retina of the eye work to see color.

  2. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems. 307.5 Section 307.5 Public...SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems. (a) Basic requirement....

  3. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems. 307.5 Section 307.5 Public...SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems. (a) Basic requirement....

  4. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems. 307.5 Section 307.5 Public...SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems. (a) Basic requirement....

  5. Test of primary channel independence of LCD and wavelength piecewise LCD color model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haoxue; Liu, Yu; Huang, Min; Xu, Yangfang; Wu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    An experiment with EIZO CG 19, DELL 19, IBM 19 and HP 19 LCD was designed and carried out to test the interaction between RGB channels, and then to test the spectral additive property of LCDs. The results show that the interaction between channels is very weak and spectral additivity is held well. This result indicates that the manufacture technology of LCDs is improved greatly. But the computation results of tristimuli addition are not very accurate. A new calculation method based on spectral additivity, in which gamma is fitted by a cubic polynomial in each piece of wavelength, is proposed and discussed. The proposed method is proved simple and very few samples need to measure while the computation precision is very high.

  6. Diversity in computerized reactor protection systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D. Fischer; L. Piel

    1999-01-01

    Based on engineering judgement, the most important measures to increase the independency of redundant trains of a computerized safety instrumentation and control system (I&C) in a nuclear power plant are evaluated with respect to practical applications. This paper will contribute to an objective discussion on the necessary and justifiable arrangement of diversity in a computerized safety I&C system. Important conclusions

  7. Cassel Psych Center Computerized Biofeedback Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Cassel Psych Center, a computerized biofeedback clinic, where the "well" patient is a major concern, and where biofeedback instruments are used with computers to form a Computerized-Biofeedback Clinical Support System. The Center's activities are designed to parallel the services of the pathologist in a medical setting. (PAS)

  8. The Evaluation of SISMAKOM (Computerized SDI Project).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Science, Penang (Malaysia).

    A survey of 88 users of SISMAKOM, a computerized selective dissemination of information (SDI) and document delivery service provided by the Universiti Sains Malaysia and four other Malaysian universities, was conducted in August 1982 in order to collect data about SISMAKOM and to assess the value of a computerized SDI service in a developing…

  9. Computerized Management of Physical Plant Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkey, Earl W.; Kleinpeter, Joseph

    Outlining the major areas to be considered when deciding whether or not to computerize physical plant services in higher education institutions, the author points out the shortcomings of manual record keeping systems. He gives five factors to consider when deciding to computerize: (1) time and money, (2) extent of operation, (3) current and future…

  10. Resources for Improving Computerized Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated review of human factors literature that discusses computerized environments. Topics discussed include the application of office automation practices to educational environments; video display terminal (VDT) workstations; health and safety hazards; planning educational facilities; ergonomics in computerized offices; and…

  11. Integrating computerized anesthesia charting into a hospital information system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Wang; R. M. Gardner; P. R. Seager

    1995-01-01

    Background: Systems for computerization of anesthesia records have typically been ‘stand-alone’ computers many times connected to monitoring\\u000a devices in the operating theater. A system was developed and tested at LDS Hospital in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA that was\\u000a an integral part of the Health Evaluation through Logical Processing (HELP) hospiial information system.Methods: The system was evaluated using time and

  12. Three dimensional computerized microtomography in the analysis of sculpture.

    PubMed

    Badde, Aurelia; Illerhaus, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    The Alte Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (SMB) and the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) tested the accomplishment of the three dimensional computerized microtomography (3D-microCT)-a new flat panel detector computerized tomography (CT) system at the BAM with extended energy range, with high voltage X-ray tubes (330 and 225 kV), with micrometer focal spot size and micrometer resolution and enlarged object size (up to 70 cm diameter)-for examining plaster statues. The high spatial and density resolution of the tomograph enable detailed insights into the individual work processes of the investigated cast plaster statues. While initiated in support of the conservation process, computed tomography (CT) analysis has assisted in revealing relative chronologies within the series of the cast works of art, thus serving as a valuable tool in the art-historical appraisal of the oeuvres. The image-processing systems visualize the voids and cracks within and the cuts through the original cast works. Internal structures, armoring, sculptural reworking as well as restorative interventions are virtually reconstructed. The authors are currently employing the 3D-microCT systems at the BAM into the detection of defects in Carrara marble sculpture. Microcracks, fractures, and material flaws are visualized at spatial resolution down to 10 microm. Computerized reconstruction of ultrasound tomography is verified by analyzing correlations in the results obtained from the complementary application of these two non-destructive testing (NDT) methods of diagnosis. PMID:18214860

  13. Map Coloring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Hadley

    2005-06-18

    Is there any math in coloring maps. Believe it or not there is alot of math involoved in coloring a map. The cool people at MEGA MATH have created activities for you to experiment with map coloring and see just how fun it is. Mega Math Workbook open the activity called The Most Colorful Math of All Some other fun activities can be found at Coloring Penrose Tiles Colorful mathematics Jeff Week&s Geometry Software Games ...

  14. Development and testing of PCM doped cool colored coatings to mitigate urban heat island and cool buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Karlessi; M. Santamouris; A. Synnefa; D. Assimakopoulos; P. Didaskalopoulos; K. Apostolakis

    2011-01-01

    In this study the performance of organic PCMs used as latent heat storage materials, when incorporated in coatings for buildings and urban fabric, is investigated. Thirty six coatings of six colors containing different quantities of PCMs in different melting points were produced. Accordingly, infrared reflective (cool) and common coatings with the same binder system and of the same color were

  15. Assessment of performance validity in the Stroop Color and Word Test in mild traumatic brain injury patients: a criterion-groups validation design.

    PubMed

    Guise, Brian J; Thompson, Matthew D; Greve, Kevin W; Bianchini, Kevin J; West, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The current study assessed performance validity on the Stroop Color and Word Test (Stroop) in mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) using criterion-groups validation. The sample consisted of 77 patients with a reported history of mild TBI. Data from 42 moderate-severe TBI and 75 non-head-injured patients with other clinical diagnoses were also examined. TBI patients were categorized on the basis of Slick, Sherman, and Iverson (1999) criteria for malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND). Classification accuracy is reported for three indicators (Word, Color, and Color-Word residual raw scores) from the Stroop across a range of injury severities. With false-positive rates set at approximately 5%, sensitivity was as high as 29%. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23253228

  16. Computerization of Mental Health Integration Complexity Scores at Intermountain Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Oniki, Thomas A.; Rodrigues, Drayton; Rahman, Noman; Patur, Saritha; Briot, Pascal; Taylor, David P.; Wilcox, Adam B.; Reiss-Brennan, Brenda; Cannon, Wayne H.

    2014-01-01

    Intermountain Healthcare’s Mental Health Integration (MHI) Care Process Model (CPM) contains formal scoring criteria for assessing a patient’s mental health complexity as “mild,” “medium,” or “high” based on patient data. The complexity score attempts to assist Primary Care Physicians in assessing the mental health needs of their patients and what resources will need to be brought to bear. We describe an effort to computerize the scoring. Informatics and MHI personnel collaboratively and iteratively refined the criteria to make them adequately explicit and reflective of MHI objectives. When tested on retrospective data of 540 patients, the clinician agreed with the computer’s conclusion in 52.8% of the cases (285/540). We considered the analysis sufficiently successful to begin piloting the computerized score in prospective clinical care. So far in the pilot, clinicians have agreed with the computer in 70.6% of the cases (24/34). PMID:25954401

  17. Quality Control of On-Line Calibration in Computerized Assessment. Research Report 98-03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.

    In computerized adaptive testing, updating parameter estimates using adaptive testing data is often called online calibration. In this paper, how to evaluate whether the adaptive testing model used for online calibration fits the item response model used sufficiently is studied. Three approaches are investigated, based on a Lagrange multiplier…

  18. Quality Control of Online Calibration in Computerized Assessment. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, C. A. W.

    In computerized adaptive testing, updating item parameter estimates using adaptive testing data is often called online calibration. This study investigated how to evaluate whether the adaptive testing data used for online calibration sufficiently fit the item response model used. Three approaches were investigated, based on a Lagrange multiplier…

  19. Test-retest reliability of standard and emotional stroop tasks: an investigation of color-word and picture-word versions.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Gregory P; Allen, Daniel N; Jorgensen, Melinda L; Cramer, Stacey L

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies have examined the reliability of scores derived from various Stroop tasks. However, few studies have compared reliability of more recently developed Stroop variants such as emotional Stroop tasks to standard versions of the Stroop. The current study developed four different single-stimulus Stroop tasks and compared test-retest reliabilities. The four Stroop tasks included two standard Stroop tasks (color-word and picture-word) as well as two emotional Stroop tasks (color-word and picture-word). The four Stroop tasks were administered on two occasions, separated by 1 week, to 28 undergraduate students. Test-retest reliability coefficients were high for standard and emotional Stroop tasks when reliability was measured using response latencies alone. However, test-retest coefficients were unacceptably low when reliability estimates were calculated using difference scores. The findings have important implications for clinical and experimental use of standard and emotional Stroop tasks. PMID:16123253

  20. Reduced Stroop Interference for Opponent Colors May Be Due to Input Factors: Evidence from Individual Differences and a Neural Network Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laeng, Bruno; Torstein, Lag; Brennen, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Sensory or input factors can influence the strength of interference in the classic Stroop color-word task. Specifically, in a single-trial computerized version of the Stroop task, when color-word pairs were incongruent, opponent color pairs (e.g., the word BLUE in yellow) showed reduced Stroop interference compared with nonopponent color pairs…

  1. Computerized tomography using video recorded fluoroscopic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kak, A. C.; Jakowatz, C. V., Jr.; Baily, N. A.; Keller, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A computerized tomographic imaging system is examined which employs video-recorded fluoroscopic images as input data. By hooking the video recorder to a digital computer through a suitable interface, such a system permits very rapid construction of tomograms.

  2. HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Katya Le Blanc

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures in nuclear power plant control rooms. It is beyond the scope of this paper to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper provides a review of HRA as applied to traditional paper-based procedures, followed by a discussion of what specific factors should additionally be considered in HRAs for computerized procedures. Performance shaping factors and failure modes unique to computerized procedures are highlighted. Since there is no definitive guide to HRA for paper-based procedures, this paper also serves to clarify the existing guidance on paper-based procedures before delving into the unique aspects of computerized procedures.

  3. Classifying mammographic lesions using computerized image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kilday, J; Palmieri, F; Fox, M D

    1993-01-01

    The classification of 3 common breast lesions, fibroadenomas, cysts, and cancers, was achieved using computerized image analysis of tumor shape in conjunction with patient age. The process involved the digitization of 69 mammographic images using a video camera and a commercial frame grabber on a PC-based computer system. An interactive segmentation procedure identified the tumor boundary using a thresholding technique which successfully segmented 57% of the lesions. Several features were chosen based on the gross and fine shape describing properties of the tumor boundaries as seen on the radiographs. Patient age was included as a significant feature in determining whether the tumor was a cyst, fibroadenoma, or cancer and was the only patient history information available for this study. The concept of a radial length measure provided a basis from which 6 of the 7 shape describing features were chosen, the seventh being tumor circularity. The feature selection process was accomplished using linear discriminant analysis and a Euclidean distance metric determined group membership. The effectiveness of the classification scheme was tested using both the apparent and the leaving-one-out test methods. The best results using the apparent test method resulted in correctly classifying 82% of the tumors segmented using the entire feature space and the highest classification rate using the leaving-one-out test method was 69% using a subset of the feature space. The results using only the shape descriptors, and excluding patient age resulted in correctly classifying 72% using the entire feature space (except age), and 51% using a subset of the feature space. PMID:18218460

  4. Portable computerized tester improves flight-line maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinberg, Y.

    1985-11-01

    The present general purpose and portable Computerized Organizational Level Tester (COLT) for the flight-line maintenance of advanced weapons systems is in effect a fully functioning replica of contemporary automated test equipment architectures previously available only in laboratory test installations. The COLT's automated equipment architecture has been scaled down to a ruggedized, portable, suitcase-sized field tester for both analog and digital equipment. Tester software is designed to minimize programming effort, and possesses a real time executive kernel which transparently interfaces high level user commands with tester hardware. Automatic software-generation tools are incorporated.

  5. Detecting the significance of changes in performance on the Stroop Color-Word Test, Rey's Verbal Learning Test, and the Letter Digit Substitution Test: the regression-based change approach.

    PubMed

    Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P J; Van Breukelen, Gerard J P; Jolles, Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Serial neuropsychological assessment is often conducted to monitor changes in the cognitive abilities of individuals over time. Because practice effects occur and the reliability of test scores is less than perfect, it is difficult to judge whether varying test results should be attributed to chance trends or to real changes in underlying cognitive abilities. In a large sample of adults (age range, 49-81 years), we evaluated the influence of age, gender, and education on test-retest changes in performance after 3 years on Rey's Verbal Learning Test (VLT), the Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT), and the Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST). A new statistical method was applied to assess the significance of changes in test performance (i.e., the regression-based change method). The results showed that test-retest changes differed as a function of age for the VLT Total recall 1-3, VLT Total recall 1-5, VLT Delayed recall, and LDST measures. An age x gender interaction was found for the SCWT Interference change score, suggesting that the age-related decline in executive functioning after 3 years was more pronounced for males than for females. A normative change table with appropriate corrections for the relevant independent variables was established. PMID:18078533

  6. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color

  7. Computerized grading of anatomy laboratory practical examinations.

    PubMed

    Krippendorf, Beth B; Bolender, David L; Kolesari, Gary L

    2008-01-01

    At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the items were anatomical structures that could be tagged on a given lab practical examination. Each lab exam featured an anatomy laboratory component and a computer laboratory component. For the anatomy lab component, students moved from one question station to another at timed intervals and identified tagged anatomical structures. As students identified a tagged structure, they referred to a copy of the list (provided with their answer sheet) and wrote the number corresponding to the structure on their answer sheet. Immediately after the anatomy lab component, students were escorted to a computer instruction laboratory where they typed their answer numbers into a secured testing component of a learning management system that recorded their answers for automatic grading. After a brief review of examination scores and item analysis by faculty, exam scores were reported to students electronically. Adding this brief computer component to each lab exam greatly reduced faculty grading time, reduced grading errors and provided faster performance feedback for students without changing overall student performance. PMID:19177415

  8. Computerized assessment of dental student writing skills.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Joseph M; Elliot, Norbert; Biber, Cheryl L; Sanders, R Michael

    2005-02-01

    This study tested the feasibility of using computer-based tools for the assessment of written materials produced by dental students. Written assignments produced by three consecutive incoming dental school classes (240 students) were assessed, and the performance among and between classes was analyzed. Computerized assessment of documents produced by students in the context of their regular coursework proved to be an efficient and effective mechanism for assessing performance. Student performance, assessed as a byproduct of this research, was disappointing. The performance of all classes fell below the eleventh grade level, with some students producing written material at a level of sophistication generally expected from middle school children. Existing technology shows promise as a vehicle for enhancing the assessment of dental students' written communication skills. The ease of use and minimal training necessary to apply this technology can help mitigate the time-intensive nature of writing assessment. If this assessment information is then used to enhance instruction--a process inherently available through software such as WebCT--the distance between assessment and instruction may be more readily bridged through an increase in the use of technology. PMID:15689614

  9. Influence of color word availability on the Stroop color-naming effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyosun Kim; Yang Seok Cho; Motonori Yamaguchi; Robert W. Proctor

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments tested whether the Stroop color-naming effect is a consequence of word recognition's being automatic or\\u000a of the color word's capturing visual attention. In Experiment 1, a color bar was presented at fixation as the color carrier,\\u000a with color and neutral words presented in locations above or below the color bar; Experiment 2 was similar, except that the\\u000a color

  10. Color notations

    E-print Network

    Gardner, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    This study presents research regarding the language of colors and of computers. The focus was color: translated through personal imagery, transferred and changed through media, and programmed through the computer. The ...

  11. Evaluation of Ocean Color Scanner (OCS) photographic and digital data: Santa Barbara Channel test site, 29 October 1975 overflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, S. P.; Estes, J. E.; Kronenberg, M. R.; Hajic, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    A summary of Ocean Color Scanner data was examined to evaluate detection and discrimination capabilities of the system for marine resources, oil pollution and man-made sea surface targets of opportunity in the Santa Barbara Channel. Assessment of the utility of OCS for the determination of sediment transport patterns along the coastal zone was a secondary goal. Data products provided 1975 overflight were in digital and analog formats. In evaluating the OCS data, automated and manual procedures were employed. A total of four channels of data in digital format were analyzed, as well as three channels of color combined imagery, and four channels of black and white imagery. In addition, 1:120,000 scale color infrared imagery acquired simultaneously with the OCS data were provided for comparative analysis purposes.

  12. Manga colorization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingge Qu; Tien-tsin Wong; Pheng-ann Heng

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel colorization technique that propagates color over regions exhibiting pattern-continuity as well as intensity- continuity. The proposed method works effectively on colorizing black-and-white manga which contains intensive amount of strokes, hatching, halftoning and screening. Such ne details and discon- tinuities in intensity introduce many difculties to intensity-based colorization methods. Once the user scribbles on the drawing,

  13. Seeing Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

  14. Assessment of readiness to change and relationship to AUDIT score in a trauma population utilizing computerized alcohol screening and brief intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahram Lotfipour; Victor Cisneros; Bharath Chakravarthy; Cristobal Barrios; Craig L. Anderson; John Christian Fox; Samer Roumani; Wirachin Hoonpongsimanont; Federico E. Vaca

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Trauma patient readiness to change score and its relationship to the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) score were assessed in addition to the feasibility of Computerized Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention (CASI). Methods: A bilingual computerized tablet for trauma patients was utilized and the data was analyzed using Stata. Results: Twenty-five percent of 1,145 trauma patients drank more

  15. A Test of Color Constancy in 9- and 20-Week-Old Human Infants Following Simulated Illuminant Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannemiller, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Results indicated that habituated 20-week-olds showed evidence of color constancy, but habituated 9-week-olds did not. The younger subjects responded with increased attention to simulated changes either of the illuminant or of surface reflectance, whereas older subjects responded with increased attention only to simulated changes of surface…

  16. How to Compare Apples and Oranges: Infants' Object Identification Tested with Equally Salient Shape, Luminance, and Color Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldy, Zsuzsa; Blaser, Erik

    2009-01-01

    What kind of featural information do infants rely on when they are trying to recognize a previously seen object? The question of whether infants use certain features (e.g., shape or color) more than others (e.g., luminance) can only be studied legitimately if visual salience is controlled, as the magnitude of feature values--how noticeable and…

  17. How to Compare Apples and Oranges: Infants' Object Identification Tested With Equally Salient Shape, Luminance and Color Changes

    PubMed Central

    Kaldy, Zsuzsa; Blaser, Erik

    2009-01-01

    What kind of featural information do infants rely on when they are trying to recognize a previously seen object? The question of whether infants use certain features (e.g. shape or color) more than others (e. g. luminance), can only be studied legitimately if visual salience is controlled, since the magnitude of feature values – how noticeable and interesting they are – will affect results. We employed a novel methodology, ‘Interdimensional Salience Mapping’, that allowed us to quantify and calibrate salience changes along shape, luminance and color feature dimensions. We then compared 9-month-old infants' identification of objects, employing feature changes that were equally salient. These results show that infants more readily identify objects on the basis of color and shape than luminance. Additionally, we show that relative salience changes rapidly in infancy – in particular, we found significantly higher salience thresholds for color in younger (6.5-month-old) infants – but that individual differences within an age group are remarkably modest. PMID:20161281

  18. A Method for Peat Inventory Based on LANDSAT Data and Computerized Mapping. [Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pala, S.

    1982-01-01

    Wetlands were preliminarily delineated on a geometrically-corrected color composite map printed from digital LANDSAT data using a computerized color plotting system. A digital classification was performed to identify the location and extent of wetland types (e.g., open bog, types of treed fen and black spruce-alder swamp). A map is printed from the results of this classification using the computerized color plotter. This color-coded map, produced at several different scales, provides a basis for pre-selecting field sampling sites. Helicopter-aided spot sampling based on the LANDSAT-derived map was conducted over the entire 1700 sq km area of North Ontario. Traditional transect sampling was carried out over a portion of the area, so that the two methods could be compared. Spot sampling based on the LANDSAT-derived map was found to produce results virtually identical to those produced by the transect sampling technique, in approximately one-fifteenth of the time and with a proportionate reduction in cost.

  19. Technology and Language Testing. A Collection of Papers from the Annual Colloquium on Language Testing Research (7th, Princeton, New Jersey, April 6-9, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W., Ed.

    This collection of essays on measurement theory and language testing includes: "Computerized Adaptive Testing: Implications for Language Test Developers" (Peter Tung); "The Promise and Threat of Computerized Adaptive Assessment of Reading Comprehension" (Michael Canale); "Computerized Rasch Analysis of Item Bias in ESL Tests" (Harold S. Madsen,…

  20. Color Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  1. Computerized ultrasound differentiation of curly birch from silver birch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmi, Ari; Hintikka, Tuomas; Karppinen, Timo; Forsman, Pia; Hæggström, Edward

    2007-01-01

    We report on computerized differentiation of two birch types. Curly birch (CB, Betula pendula var. carelica Sok) commands a higher price than a normal silver birch (SB, Betula pendula Roth). Hence it is crucial to differentiate the two wood types when the trees are young. We studied the possibility to use ultrasound for such differentiation. A propagation velocity of 4MHz longitudinal tone bursts, transmitted through block samples of 20×20mm2 cross section, comprising of both CB and SB woods, was determined. The samples originating from southern Finland were sawed so that the sound propagation direction was longitudinal or radial with respect to the trunk. One sample set comprised of seven different sample thicknesses with a range of 2-12mm. From the time-of-flight measurements of the samples (19±1%weight humidity) the wave propagation velocity under laboratory conditions (50±5%RH, 23±1°C) was determined from a least-squares fit. The results indicate a significant difference (t-test p =0.032 and velocity difference of 24±8%) in longitudinal direction and a highly significant difference (t-test p =0.001 and velocity difference of 22±10%) in the radial direction between the two wood types. A blinded probability of detection test was conducted using 48 samples originating from two different trunks as well as from single trunks' curly and noncurly sections. The results indicate 93% probability of correct type classification using computerized clusterization.

  2. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...an operational computerized support enforcement system, which...improve the State's Child Support Enforcement program. ...disapproval is a final administrative decision and is not subject to administrative...FFP for costs of computerized support enforcement systems....

  3. Laboratory and field imaging test results on single-color and dual-band QWIP focal plane arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold Goldberg; Theodore Fischer; Stephen Kennerly; William Beck; Vincent Ramirez; Ken Garner

    2001-01-01

    We report on recent laboratory and field measurements on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays (FPAs). The results of laboratory measurements of imaging performance such as noise-equivalent temperature difference (NE?T), minimum resolvable temperature, conversion efficiency, uniformity of response and dark current and their dependence on operating temperature are presented on large format (640×480 pixels) single-color long-wavelength infrared (LWIR)

  4. Color blindness and a color human visual system model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Curtis E. Martin; John G. Keller; Steven K. Rogers; Matthew Kabrisky

    2000-01-01

    A physiologically motivated human color visual system model which represents visual information with one brightness component (A) and two chromatic components (C1 and C2) is used to create stimuli for testing the color perception of deuteranomalous trichromats. Two experiments are performed. Using simple ramp patterns, the first experiment finds that three deuteranomalous trichromat test subjects can distinguish variations only in

  5. Polar Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 3 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on January 1, 2003 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Troughs.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79, Longitude 346 East (14 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. A subjective evaluation of high-chroma color with wide color-gamut display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Junko; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2009-01-01

    Displays tends to expand its color gamut, such as multi-primary color display, Adobe RGB and so on. Therefore displays got possible to display high chroma colors. However sometimes, we feel unnatural some for the image which only expanded chroma. Appropriate gamut mapping method to expand color gamut is not proposed very much. We are attempting preferred expanded color reproduction on wide color gamut display utilizing high chroma colors effectively. As a first step, we have conducted an experiment to investigate the psychological effect of color schemes including highly saturated colors. We used the six-primary-color projector that we have developed for the presentation of test colors. The six-primary-color projector's gamut volume in CIELAB space is about 1.8 times larger than the normal RGB projector. We conducted a subjective evaluation experiment using the SD (Semantic Differential) technique to find the quantitative psychological effect of high chroma colors.

  7. An observational trial of a computerized drug delivery system on two patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ezra Kwok; Sirish L. Shah; Barry A. Finegan; Gary K. Kwong

    1997-01-01

    A computerized drug delivery system has been designed and tested for automatic regulation of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of human patients by infusion of a vasodilator (sodium nitroprusside). Its control algorithm belongs to a type of long-range predictive control with a combination of finite-horizon and an infinite horizon optimization terms. The controller operates in an adaptive mode by using

  8. Computerized Aid Improves Safety Decision Process for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B.; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user.…

  9. Reducing depressive intrusions via a computerized cognitive bias modification of appraisals task: Developing a cognitive vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara J. Lang; Michelle L. Moulds; Emily A. Holmes

    2009-01-01

    A feature of depression is the distressing experience of intrusive, negative memories. The maladaptive appraisals of such intrusions have been associated with symptom persistence. This study aimed to experimentally manipulate appraisals about depressive intrusions via a novel computerized cognitive bias modification (CBM) of appraisals paradigm, and to test the impact on depressive intrusion frequency for a standardized event (a depressive

  10. Improving Emergency Department Triage Classification with Computerized Clinical Decision Support at a Pediatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunisch, Joseph Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Emergency Severity Index (ESI) is an emergency department (ED) triage classification system based on estimated patient-specific resource utilization. Rules for a computerized clinical decision support (CDS) system based on a patient's chief complaint were developed and tested using a stochastic model for predicting ESI scores.…

  11. Evaluating the Validity of Computerized Content Analysis Programs for Identification of Emotional Expression in Cancer Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Owen, Jason E.

    2009-01-01

    Psychological interventions provide linguistic data that are particularly useful for testing mechanisms of action and improving intervention methodologies. For this study, emotional expression in an Internet-based intervention for women with breast cancer (n = 63) was analyzed via rater coding and 2 computerized coding methods (Linguistic Inquiry…

  12. B. Hannaford et al./Computerised Endoscopic Surgical Grasper-1/7 -Computerized Endoscopic Surgical Grasper

    E-print Network

    ://rcs.ee.washington.edu/brl 3) Haptic Technology Incorporated, 4729 40th Ave. NE Seattle, WA 98105 Abstract. We report a computerized endoscopic surgical grasper with computer control and a force feedback (haptic) user interface by direct surgeon control, via teleoperation, or under software control. In this paper, we test an automated

  13. Implementation of a District Computerized Instructional Management System: Barriers and Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Patricia D.; And Others

    A two-part research and evaluation study was conducted to examine an elementary (K-8) school district's implementation of a computerized instructional management system, the "Computer-Managed Instruction/3000" (CMI), as a means of facilitating the assessment and updating of student mastery of 78 district-defined curricular objectives. The testing

  14. Assessing the effectiveness of a computerized blood order "consultation" system.

    PubMed

    Lepage, E F; Gardner, R M; Laub, R M; Jacobson, J T

    1991-01-01

    To optimize blood ordering and accurately assess transfusion practice, in 1987, an "on line" computerized, knowledge-based, blood order critiquing system was integrated into the HELP Hospital Information System (HIS) at LDS Hospital. Evaluations of the computerized ordering system demonstrated its benefits and limitations on transfusion practice. Based on this experience, a second generation blood ordering system using a consultation mode was developed. A pilot test of this blood order consultant system, using historical data in the HELP system's database, was performed. This pilot test demonstrated that the consultation system provided accurate recommendations for red blood cell (RBC) and platelet orders. Comparing the appropriateness of blood orders with the recommendations made by the director of the blood bank, the orders recommended by the computer "consultant" agreed 95.5% of the time. The computer consultation system also recommended fewer RBC units for transfusion. Preliminary results obtained using the consultant approach suggest that we may be able to simplify blood ordering practice and also reduce the number of units of blood products ordered. Based on these findings we are now preparing to compare the "critiquing" and "consultation" approaches using a clinical trial. PMID:1807617

  15. Computerized quantitative evaluation of mammographic accreditation phantom images

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih; Shinohara, Norimitsu [Department of Radiological Technology, School of Health Sciences, Niigata University, 2-746 Asahimachidori, Chuouku, Niigata 951-8518 (Japan); Department of Radiological Technology, Gifu Univesity of Medical Science, 1-795 Hiraga-aza-nagamine, Seki, Gifu 501-3892 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: The objective was to develop and investigate an automated scoring scheme of the American College of Radiology (ACR) mammographic accreditation phantom (RMI 156, Middleton, WI) images. Methods: The developed method consisted of background subtraction, determination of region of interest, classification of fiber and mass objects by Mahalanobis distance, detection of specks by template matching, and rule-based scoring. Fifty-one phantom images were collected from 51 facilities for this study (one facility provided one image). A medical physicist and two radiologic technologists also scored the images. The human and computerized scores were compared. Results: In terms of meeting the ACR's criteria, the accuracies of the developed method for computerized evaluation of fiber, mass, and speck were 90%, 80%, and 98%, respectively. Contingency table analysis revealed significant association between observer and computer scores for microcalcifications (p<5%) but not for masses and fibers. Conclusions: The developed method may achieve a stable assessment of visibility for test objects in mammographic accreditation phantom image in whether the phantom image meets the ACR's criteria in the evaluation test, although there is room left for improvement in the approach for fiber and mass objects.

  16. NATIONAL ARCHIVE OF COMPUTERIZED DATA ON AGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Archive of Computerized Data on Aging (NACDA), located within ICPSR, is funded by the National Institute on Aging. NACDA's mission is to advance research on aging by helping researchers to profit from the under-exploited potential of a broad range of datasets. NACDA ...

  17. The Four Generations of Computerized Educational Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunderson, C. Victor; And Others

    Educational measurement is undergoing a revolution due to the rapid dissemination of information-processing technology. The recent growth in computing resources and their widespread dissemination in daily life have brought about irreversible changes in educational measurement. Recent developments in computerized measurement are summarized by…

  18. Computerized Collective Training for Teams. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurmond, Paul; Kribs, H. Dewey

    The purpose of this investigation was to empirically demonstrate and evaluate a brassboard for computerized collective training for teams (COLT2). The underlying tasks were to (1) conduct a state of the art assessment of instructional strategies appropriate for COLT2, (2) derive a conceptual framework for COLT2 instructional strategies, (3)…

  19. Artificial Intelligence in Computerized Linguistic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokmouline, Timur

    This article explores whether or not it is possible for computers to be effectively used to analyze textual information. Computerization of human linguistic analysis would be enormously useful, because it would relieve many highly skilled linguistics professionals (researchers and teachers) from having to spend enormous amounts of time on the…

  20. THE COMPUTERIZED COMPREHENSIBILITY SYSTEM MAINTAINER'S GUIDE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Kieras

    Abstract The Computerized Comprehensibility System (CCS) generates a critique of the comprehensibility of a technical document, using techniques and results from AI and cognitive psychology. This report is a guide for the maintainer or developer of CCS. It is not intended as a tutorial on the mechanisms used in CCS, but to allow the qualified programmer to rapidly understand the

  1. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    PubMed

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2012-11-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the établissement francais du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding to recipients, blood products, blood supply of the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, the integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So, it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed to be a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks. PMID:23039955

  2. Calibrator Blocks For Computerized Tomography (CT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, H. Peter

    1990-01-01

    Sets of calibrator blocks developed for use with industrial computerized tomography (CT) systems. Set of blocks (or number of stacked sets of blocks) placed on object table of CT system and scanned in usual way. Blocks include holes of known size, shape, and location. Appearance of holes in output image of CT system used to verify operation of system.

  3. Computerized Symbol Processing for Handicapped Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osguthorpe, Russell T.; And Others

    The paper describes the development of a computerized symbol processing system which allows nonspeaking severely handicapped persons to create communication electronically. Two pilot studies investigated the use of Rebus and Bliss Symbols with either an Apple Graphics Tablet or the Power Pad, a peripheral which allowed users to activate the…

  4. Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures

    E-print Network

    Tian, Qi

    Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures Presentation by: Yijuan Lu Data and Vision Seminar: real-time automatic annotation of pictures System Architecture Methodology: D2-clustering and Mixture image collections. Label: Images are often stored with the name that is produced by the digital camera

  5. Issues in Computerized Communication: Components and Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Gregory Reed

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the growth of computerized communications. Attributes this growth to rapid growth of the computer industry, price reductions on computer equipment, and university installation of departmental computers. Describes the Internet, USENET, and electronic mail. Concludes that individuals must be trained to use, understand, and participate in…

  6. Colored Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 7 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 30, 2002 during the Southern Fall season in Atlantis Chaos.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.5, Longitude 183.6 East (176.4 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Utilization of evidence-based computerized order sets in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Chisolm, Deena; Veneris, Sofia; Rich, David; Kelleher, Kelly

    2006-07-01

    Little is known about utilization of different evidence-based order sets within computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems. We designed a retrospective study of resident and attending physician order set utilization to evaluate the use of three evidence-based computerized order sets (asthma, post-appendectomy care, and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)), and examine patient and admission characteristics associated with order set utilization in pediatrics. We studied all 529 asthma patients, 277 appendectomy patients, and 210 CAP patients admitted between 1 November 2001 and 30 November 2003 during implementation of standardized order sets at a large, independent, not-for-profit pediatric institution. We analyzed order set utilization for the three order sets and tested the relationship between order set use and potential factors associated with utilization. Order set utilization varied by condition (X(2)=339.2, p<0.001), with the asthma order set use rate highest (88.1%), followed by appendectomy order set utilization (79.4%), and substantially lower CAP order set use (21.1%). We found that trends in order set utilization also varied by condition. Only the asthma order set showed a trend of increasing use after implementation (z= -3.02, p=0.002). In addition, factors associated with order set utilization varied. Uses of the asthma and post-appendectomy order sets were associated with factors such as admission unit and case complexity. CAP order set utilization was associated with case complexity but not admission source. We conclude that health services organizations looking to implement computerized order sets to reduce unnecessary practice variation while promoting best practices must consider the different factors that may influence the use of each order set rather than relying on a one-size-fits-all implementation strategy. Further, issues such as the level of physician involvement in order set development and consensus around order set content may be particularly important factors influencing order set utilization. PMID:16169772

  8. Training Synesthetic Letter-color Associations by Reading in Color

    PubMed Central

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Rouw, Romke

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing, hearing and thinking about letters, words and numbers. We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. In this protocol, participants are given specially prepared books to read in which four high-frequency letters are paired with four high-frequency colors. Participants receive unique sets of letter-color pairs based on their pre-existing preferences for colored letters. A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. In addition to objective testing, a reading experience questionnaire is administered that is designed to probe for differences in subjective experience. A subset of questions may predict how well an individual learned the associations from reading in color. Importantly, we are not claiming that this method will cause each individual to develop grapheme-color synesthesia, only that it is possible for certain individuals to form letter-color associations by reading in color and these associations are similar in some aspects to those seen in developmental grapheme-color synesthetes. The method is quite flexible and can be used to investigate different aspects and outcomes of training synesthetic associations, including learning-induced changes in brain function and structure. PMID:24638033

  9. Training synesthetic letter-color associations by reading in color.

    PubMed

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Rouw, Romke

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing, hearing and thinking about letters, words and numbers. We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. In this protocol, participants are given specially prepared books to read in which four high-frequency letters are paired with four high-frequency colors. Participants receive unique sets of letter-color pairs based on their pre-existing preferences for colored letters. A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. In addition to objective testing, a reading experience questionnaire is administered that is designed to probe for differences in subjective experience. A subset of questions may predict how well an individual learned the associations from reading in color. Importantly, we are not claiming that this method will cause each individual to develop grapheme-color synesthesia, only that it is possible for certain individuals to form letter-color associations by reading in color and these associations are similar in some aspects to those seen in developmental grapheme-color synesthetes. The method is quite flexible and can be used to investigate different aspects and outcomes of training synesthetic associations, including learning-induced changes in brain function and structure. PMID:24638033

  10. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  11. Color harmonization for images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhen; Miao, Zhenjiang; Wan, Yanli; Wang, Zhifei

    2011-04-01

    Color harmonization is an artistic technique to adjust a set of colors in order to enhance their visual harmony so that they are aesthetically pleasing in terms of human visual perception. We present a new color harmonization method that treats the harmonization as a function optimization. For a given image, we derive a cost function based on the observation that pixels in a small window that have similar unharmonic hues should be harmonized with similar harmonic hues. By minimizing the cost function, we get a harmonized image in which the spatial coherence is preserved. A new matching function is proposed to select the best matching harmonic schemes, and a new component-based preharmonization strategy is proposed to preserve the hue distribution of the harmonized images. Our approach overcomes several shortcomings of the existing color harmonization methods. We test our algorithm with a variety of images to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  12. Color Blind or Color Conscious?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Beverly Daniel

    1999-01-01

    A color-blind approach often signifies that an educator has not considered what racial/ethnic identity means to youngsters. Students want to find themselves reflected in the faces of teachers and other students. Color-conscious teachers seek out materials that positively reflect students' identities and initiate discussions about race and racism.…

  13. CTMS. Computerized Training Management System

    SciTech Connect

    McNair, R.C.; Rice, H.B.; White, T.; Maugeri, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-10-03

    CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base, and SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked to its respective test items, In addition, tasks performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS included key word and reference document searches.

  14. Feasibility of computerized scheduled gradual reduction for adolescent smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Riley, William; Jerome, Albert; Behar, Albert; Zack, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to modify a smoking cessation program that uses computerized scheduled gradual reduction for use with adolescent smokers and to test the feasibility of this cessation approach in group support and minimal contact modalities. Utilizing a lesson plan approach with high school marketing students in five high schools and student survey feedback, the LifeSign program was modified to be an acceptable smoking cessation program for adolescent smokers. In the first study, 17 adolescent smokers used the modified program with seven associated weekly group support sessions. At the end of treatment, 29% had quit smoking, and over half of those who continued to smoke reduced their smoking rate by 50%. In the second study, the LifeSign for Teens program was evaluated with 18 adolescent smokers in a minimal contact format. At the end of treatment, 17% had quit smoking, and mean smoking rate reductions of 43% were found among those who continued smoking. At 1-year follow-up, all subjects who had quit at posttreatment reported continuous abstinence. The results of these two small trials suggest that a computerized scheduled gradual reduction approach may be an accepted and potentially efficacious approach for smoking cessation among adolescent smokers. PMID:11863279

  15. Color Sudoku

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    OMSI

    2008-01-01

    The popular sudoku puzzles use numbers, but the game could played with any set of 9 different objects! In this activity (on pages 56-75 of PDF), learners use objects of different colors (marbles, paper squares, candies) to solve sudoku puzzles. Learners use logic to determine where all the colored objects go, given the different colors already present on the puzzles. The activity includes suggestions for how to approach the game, 10 puzzles of varying size and difficulty, and links to websites with many more puzzles.

  16. Computerized device for critical flicker fusion frequency determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racene, Diana

    2003-08-01

    The critical fusion flicker frequency of the human visual system is the threshold sensitivity for a sine wave-modulated patch of monochromatic flickering light measured as a function of its temporal frequency and average luminance level. The critical flicker fusion frequency changes in different ocular and non-ocular conditions, for example: high-myopia, AMR, glaucoma, schizophrenia, after alcohol intake, fatigue. A computerized test for critical flicker fusion frequency determination was developed. Visual stimuli are two monochromatic LED light sources that are connected to a microcircuit driven by a computer program. The control of the device is realized through the parallel port of the PC. During the test a patient has to choose which one of two light sources is flickering. The critical cliker fusion frequency is determined by a psychophysical procedure, where the stimulus frequency that showed detection probability 75% is considered as threshold.

  17. An experimental test of the contributions and condition dependence of microstructure and carotenoids in yellow plumage coloration

    PubMed Central

    Shawkey, Matthew D; Hill, Geoffrey E; McGraw, Kevin J; Hood, Wendy R; Huggins, Kristal

    2006-01-01

    A combination of structural and pigmentary components is responsible for many of the colour displays of animals. Despite the ubiquity of this type of coloration, neither the relative contribution of structures and pigments to variation in such colour displays nor the relative effects of extrinsic factors on the structural and pigment-based components of such colour has been determined. Understanding the sources of colour variation is important because structures and pigments may convey different information to conspecifics. In an experiment on captive American goldfinches Carduelis tristis, we manipulated two parameters, carotenoid availability and food availability, known to affect the expression of carotenoid pigments in a full-factorial design. Yellow feathers from these birds were then analysed in two ways. First, we used full-spectrum spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography to examine the extent to which variation in white structural colour and total carotenoid content was associated with variation in colour properties of feathers. The carotenoid content of yellow feathers predicted two colour parameters (principal component 1—representing high values of ultraviolet and yellow chroma and low values of violet–blue chroma—and hue). Two different colour parameters (violet–blue and yellow chroma) from white de-pigmented feathers, as well as carotenoid content, predicted reflectance measurements from yellow feathers. Second, we determined the relative effects of our experimental manipulations on white structural colour and yellow colour. Carotenoid availability directly affected yellow colour, while food availability affected it only in combination with carotenoid availability. None of our manipulations had significant effects on the expression of white structural colour. Our results suggest that the contribution of microstructures to variation in the expression of yellow coloration is less than the contribution of carotenoid content, and that carotenoid deposition is more dependent on extrinsic variability than is the production of white structural colour. PMID:17015356

  18. Complete sparing of high-contrast color input to motion perception in cortical color blindness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Anne Hénaff; François Michel; Theodor Landis; Tom Troscianko; James Intriligator; Patrick Cavanagh

    1998-01-01

    It is widely held that color and motion are processed by separate parallel pathways in the visual system, but this view is difficult to reconcile with the fact that motion can be detected in equiluminant stimuli that are defined by color alone. To examine the relationship between color and motion, we tested three patients who had lost their color vision

  19. Colorful Electrophoresis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Utah

    2012-01-01

    In this activity, learners follow step-by-step instructions to build a gel electrophoresis chamber using inexpensive materials from local hardware and electronic stores. Then, learners follow instructions to simulate DNA electrophoresis using food colors from the kitchen pantry.

  20. Finding Colors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-08-27

    In this chemistry challenge, learners combine acids and bases in a universal indicator to create five different colors. Using vinegar, washing soda, and Bogen universal indicator, the goal is to find combinations that create red, orange, yellow, green, and blue solutions. Background information explains a little about how acids and bases interact to affect the pH of a solution, and how the indicator changes color based on the pH. Safety notes are included.

  1. Objective assessment of clinical computerized thermal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbar, Michael

    1991-06-01

    The efficacy of diagnostic thermal imaging, the visualization of abnormal distribution of temperature over the human skin, can be significantly augmented by computerized image processing procedures that overcome the limitations of subjective image assessment. This paper reviews diagnostic thermal imaging and describes common image processing approaches applicable to the analysis of static thermal images and of time series of images that provide diagnostic information about the dynamics of neurological regulation of skin temperature.

  2. Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, D.; White, D. (Sedco Forex, Paris (FR))

    1992-02-24

    This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well. The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes and fluid losses before the changes in flow would normally be apparent.

  3. Computerized tomography studies of concrete samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. Martz; G. P. Roberson; M. F. Skeate; D. J. Schneberk; S. G. Azevedo

    1991-01-01

    X-ray computerized tomography (CAT or CT) is a sophisticated imaging technique that provides cross-sectional views of materials, components and assemblies for industrial nondestructive evaluation (NDE). We have studied the feasibility of using CT as an inspection tool for reinforced concrete and the use of multi-energy, linear, attenuation techniques to deduce variations in density (rho) and\\/or atomic number (Z) that could

  4. Sequential color video to parallel color video converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The engineering design, development, breadboard fabrication, test, and delivery of a breadboard field sequential color video to parallel color video converter is described. The converter was designed for use onboard a manned space vehicle to eliminate a flickering TV display picture and to reduce the weight and bulk of previous ground conversion systems.

  5. Computerized implant-dentistry: Advances toward automation

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Minkle; Anand, Vishal; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Jain, Nikil; Gupta, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in the field of implantology such as three-dimensional imaging, implant-planning software, computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, computer-guided, and navigated implant surgery have led to the computerization of implant-dentistry. This three-dimensional computer-generated implant-planning and surgery has not only enabled accurate preoperative evaluation of the anatomic limitations but has also facilitated preoperative planning of implant positions along with virtual implant placement and subsequently transferring the virtual treatment plans onto the surgical phase via static (guided) or dynamic (navigated) systems aided by CAD/CAM technology. Computerized-implant-dentistry being highly predictable and minimally invasive in nature has also allowed implant placement in patients with medical comorbidities (e.g. radiation therapy, blood dyscrasias), in patients with complex problems following a significant alteration of the bony anatomy as a result of benign or malignant pathology of the jaws or trauma and in patients with other physical and emotional problems. With significant achievements accomplished in the field of computerized implant-dentistry, attempts are now been made toward complete automation of implant-dentistry. PMID:25810585

  6. Spanish Multicenter Normative Studies (NEURONORMA Project): norms for the Stroop color-word interference test and the Tower of London-Drexel.

    PubMed

    Peña-Casanova, Jordi; Quiñones-Ubeda, Sonia; Gramunt-Fombuena, Nina; Quintana, María; Aguilar, Miquel; Molinuevo, José Luis; Serradell, Mónica; Robles, Alfredo; Barquero, María Sagrario; Payno, Maria; Antúnez, Carmen; Martínez-Parra, Carlos; Frank-García, Anna; Fernández, Manuel; Alfonso, Verónica; Sol, Josep M; Blesa, Rafael

    2009-06-01

    As part of the NEURONORMA project, we provide age- and education-adjusted norms for the Stroop color-word interference test (SCWT)-Golden version and the Tower of London-Drexel University version (TOL(DX)). The sample consists of 344 and 347 participants, respectively, who are cognitively normal, community dwelling, and ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to age-adjusted scaled scores. These were further converted into education-adjusted scaled scores by applying regression-based adjustments. Demographic variables, age, and education significantly affect scores of the SWCT and TOL(DX), sex, however, was found to be unrelated to performance in this sample. The normative data presented here were obtained from the same study sample as all the other NEURONORMA tests. In addition, the same statistical procedures for data analyses were applied. These co-normed data allow clinicians to compare scores from one test with all tests. PMID:19661108

  7. Laboratory and field imaging test results on single-color and dual-band QWIP focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Arnold; Fischer, Theodore; Kennerly, Stephen; Beck, William; Ramirez, Vincent; Garner, Ken

    2001-06-01

    We report on recent laboratory and field measurements on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays (FPAs). The results of laboratory measurements of imaging performance such as noise-equivalent temperature difference (NE ?T), minimum resolvable temperature, conversion efficiency, uniformity of response and dark current and their dependence on operating temperature are presented on large format (640×480 pixels) single-color long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and dual-band (256×256 pixels) mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR)/LWIR arrays. We found that under optimum operating conditions (65 K and 1 V bias), the NE ?T of the LWIR FPA was approximately 30 mK and was limited by the optics and noise from the closed-cycle cooler. We will show field imagery of military targets taken with this FPA. In addition, field imagery taken with the LWIR QWIP camera of a large-transient event will be compared with that taken with an InSb MWIR camera. We will also show imagery of a recent total eclipse of the moon. We will also present laboratory results on a simultaneously integrating, pixel-registered dual-band FPA showing excellent operability and response uniformity with NE ?T of approximately 30 mK in both bands ( T=60 K). The dual-band FPA was also taken to the field and we will present imagery of various targets acquired with this FPA.

  8. Evaluating the uniformity of color spaces and performance of color difference formulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yusheng; Liao, Ningfang; Wang, Jiajia; Tan, Boneng; Liu, Zilong

    2010-11-01

    Using small color difference data sets (Macadam ellipses dataset and RIT-DuPont suprathreshold color difference ellipses dataset), and large color difference data sets (Munsell Renovation Data and OSA Uniform Color Scales dataset), the uniformity of several color spaces and performance of color difference formulae based on these color spaces are evaluated. The color spaces used are CIELAB, DIN99d, IPT, and CIECAM02-UCS. It is found that the uniformity of lightness is better than saturation and hue. Overall, for all these color spaces, the uniformity in the blue area is inferior to the other area. The uniformity of CIECAM02-UCS is superior to the other color spaces for the whole color-difference range from small to large. The uniformity of CIELAB and IPT for the large color difference data sets is better than it for the small color difference data sets, but the DIN99d is opposite. Two common performance factors (PF/3 and STRESS) and the statistical F-test are calculated to test the performance of color difference formula. The results show that the performance of color difference formulae based on these four color spaces is consistent with the uniformity of these color spaces.

  9. Spas color camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toffales, C.

    1983-01-01

    The procedures to be followed in assessing the performance of the MOS color camera are defined. Aspects considered include: horizontal and vertical resolution; value of the video signal; gray scale rendition; environmental (vibration and temperature) tests; signal to noise ratios; and white balance correction.

  10. Evaluation of computerized nursing care plan: instrument development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ting-Ting

    2004-01-01

    With the increasingly popular use of information technology in patient care, the need for reliable instrumentation to evaluate information systems has become critical. This article describes the psychometric testing of a scale developed to evaluate a computerized nursing care plan (CNCP) system. A review of the literature generated a 44-item questionnaire, which was then administered to a convenience sample of 729 hospital nurses in Taiwan. Factor analysis (principal component analysis with varimax rotation) and item analysis were applied to establish the scale's construct validity and reliability. Twenty-two items selected from the original 44-item pool were grouped into 6 major constructs: patient care, nursing efficiency, professionalism, usage benefit, education and training, and usability. The alpha coefficient was 0.85. The statistical results showed that nurses generally valued using the CNCP system. Further psychometric analysis of the scale is suggested in other nursing populations, for subscale development and to refine item wording. PMID:15343497

  11. Colorful Mathematics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Funded by Industry Canada's SchoolNet initiative with the cooperation of the Canadian Mathematical Society, Colorful Mathematics takes a game-oriented approach to teaching K-12 mathematics. The project has developed five coloring games that teach children about problem solving, and pattern identification, which "are all at the very heart of mathematics." The coloring approach makes difficult graph concepts "that are still the subject of active research by mathematicians, computer scientists and industry researchers" more accessible to children. The software program, which is available for free from this website, is set up to check for mistakes and challenge students to improve on their results. A Teacher's Corner section gives an overview of the games, "some sample questions for discussion with the curious student," and an overview of terminology used in the software program. The website is also available in French.

  12. Kool Colors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Oregon Museum of Science and Industry

    2007-01-01

    Learners investigate how temperature affects the rate of chemical reactions by observing how steel wool reacts with various types of Kool-Aid solutions at different temperatures. The reaction is monitored as the color fades in the Kool-Aid solutions. Background information includes how the dyes change color from an oxidation-reduction reaction. Extensions include investigating how surface area and concentration affect reaction rate. Part of the "No Hassle Messy Science with a Wow" activity guide by OMSI, where all activities use only household materials.

  13. Color Term Knowledge Does Not Affect Categorical Perception of Color in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, A.; Clifford, A.; Williamson, E.; Davies, I.

    2005-01-01

    Categorical perception of color is shown when colors from the same category are discriminated less easily than equivalently spaced colors that cross a category boundary. The current experiments tested various models of categorical perception. Experiment 1 tested for categorical responding in 2- to 4-year-olds, the age range for the onset…

  14. Examining Colors, Color Perception, and Sight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Eichinger

    2009-05-15

    Students of all ages are fascinated by color and how we perceive it. For the main activity in this chapter, your class explores colors and visual perception by mixing colors in several ways. Students learn more about colors, light, vision, and color compo

  15. 40 CFR 51.358 - Test equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...characteristics of computerized emission test systems. The test system is composed of motor vehicle test... (1) [Reserved] (2) Test systems in enhanced I/M programs shall include a real-time data link to a host computer...

  16. 40 CFR 51.358 - Test equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...characteristics of computerized emission test systems. The test system is composed of motor vehicle test... (1) [Reserved] (2) Test systems in enhanced I/M programs shall include a real-time data link to a host computer...

  17. 40 CFR 51.358 - Test equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...characteristics of computerized emission test systems. The test system is composed of motor vehicle test... (1) [Reserved] (2) Test systems in enhanced I/M programs shall include a real-time data link to a host computer...

  18. 40 CFR 51.358 - Test equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...characteristics of computerized emission test systems. The test system is composed of motor vehicle test... (1) [Reserved] (2) Test systems in enhanced I/M programs shall include a real-time data link to a host computer...

  19. 45 CFR 307.13 - Security and confidentiality for computerized support enforcement systems in operation after...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...confidentiality for computerized support enforcement systems...in the computerized support enforcement system...establishing parental rights with respect to a child; and (iv) NDNH...of the computerized support enforcement...

  20. 45 CFR 307.13 - Security and confidentiality for computerized support enforcement systems in operation after...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...confidentiality for computerized support enforcement systems...in the computerized support enforcement system...establishing parental rights with respect to a child; and (iv) NDNH...of the computerized support enforcement...

  1. 45 CFR 307.13 - Security and confidentiality for computerized support enforcement systems in operation after...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...confidentiality for computerized support enforcement systems...in the computerized support enforcement system...establishing parental rights with respect to a child; and (iv) NDNH...of the computerized support enforcement...

  2. 45 CFR 307.15 - Approval of advance planning documents for computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...documents for computerized support enforcement systems. 307.15 Section 307.15 Public...SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.15 Approval of advance planning...documents for computerized support enforcement systems. (a) Approval of an APD....

  3. 45 CFR 307.15 - Approval of advance planning documents for computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...documents for computerized support enforcement systems. 307.15 Section 307.15 Public...SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.15 Approval of advance planning...documents for computerized support enforcement systems. (a) Approval of an APD....

  4. 45 CFR 307.15 - Approval of advance planning documents for computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...documents for computerized support enforcement systems. 307.15 Section 307.15 Public...SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.15 Approval of advance planning...documents for computerized support enforcement systems. (a) Approval of an APD....

  5. 45 CFR 307.15 - Approval of advance planning documents for computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...documents for computerized support enforcement systems. 307.15 Section 307.15 Public...SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.15 Approval of advance planning...documents for computerized support enforcement systems. (a) Approval of an APD....

  6. 45 CFR 307.13 - Security and confidentiality for computerized support enforcement systems in operation after...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Security and confidentiality for computerized support enforcement...SYSTEMS § 307.13 Security and confidentiality for computerized support enforcement...follows: § 307.13 Security and confidentiality for computerized support...

  7. Optimum Watermark Detection in Color Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisa Sayrol; Josep Vidal; Silvia Cabanillas; Sonia Santamaria

    1999-01-01

    This work concentrates on the problem of watermarking embedding and optimum detection in color images through the use of spread spectrum techniques, both in spa ce (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum or DSSS) and frequency (Frequency Hopping). It is applied to RGB and opponent color component representations. Perceptive information is considered in both color systems. Some tests are performed in order

  8. Breaking from Big Brother: Computerizing Small, Government-Funded Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodberg, Leonard

    1991-01-01

    Discusses computerizing the operations of small nonprofit organizations and describes the process of computerization and software development for community-based organizations that receive funds from the New York State Weatherization Assistance Program. Training programs are described, and the need to focus on the local agencies is stressed. (LRW)

  9. R-WISE: A Computerized Environment for Tutoring Critical Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, P.; Crevoisier, M.

    This paper describes a computerized environment for teaching the conceptual patterns of critical literacy. While the full implementation of the software covers both reading and writing, this paper covers only the writing aspects of R-WISE (Reading and Writing in a Supportive Environment). R-WISE consists of a suite of computerized "tools" to aid…

  10. Application of computerized tomography to the investigation of ionospheric structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. Raymund; J. R. Austen; S.J. Franke; J. A. Klobuchar; J. Stalker

    1990-01-01

    Ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements, obtained simultaneously at several locations, can be processed using computerized tomography (CT) algorithms to obtain two-dimensional images of ionospheric electron density. Using TEC data computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) reconstructs an image of the electron density structures in a vertical slice above the receiving stations. We successfully applied this technique to realistic simulations of ionospheric

  11. Natural Language Computerized Comparison of Word List Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert J.; Jacobson, Milton D.

    The development of a computerized system of word analysis in order to compare and compile word lists is outlined. It is suggested that a computerized system would be an efficient way of comparing word lists for such elements as content (according to criteria of range, scope, and form of words), obsolescence, levels of difficulty, number of words,…

  12. A study of reconstruction algorithms in computerized tomographic images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Arathi; Latha Parameswaran; K. P. Soman

    2010-01-01

    Computerized tomography is extensively used in the medical imaging field. It has made a revolutionary impact in diagnostic medicine, helping doctors to view the internal organs of the human body to a very high precision, at the same time ensuring complete safety to the patient. This paper is a study of two such reconstruction algorithms, most commonly used in computerized

  13. Enhancing Writing-Related Metacognitions through a Computerized Writing Partner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellermayer, Michal; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Ongoing computerized procedural facilitation with strategies and writing-related metacognitions for improving writing during and after computerized assistance--the Writing Partner (WP)--was studied, using 60 Israeli high school students. Compared to two non-WP groups, the WP group wrote better essays, internalized explicitly provided guidance, and…

  14. Computerized training of cryosurgery - a system approach.

    PubMed

    Keelan, R; Yamakawa, S; Shimada, K; Rabin, Y

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the current study is to provide the foundation for a computerized training platform for cryosurgery. Consistent with clinical practice, the training process targets the correlation of the frozen region contour with the target region shape, using medical imaging and accepted criteria for clinical success. The current study focuses on system design considerations, including a bioheat transfer model, simulation techniques, optimal cryoprobe layout strategy, and a simulation core framework. Two fundamentally different approaches were considered for the development of a cryosurgery simulator, based on a finite-elements (FE) commercial code (ANSYS) and a proprietary finite-difference (FD) code. Results of this study demonstrate that the FE simulator is superior in terms of geometric modeling, while the FD simulator is superior in terms of runtime. Benchmarking results further indicate that the FD simulator is superior in terms of usage of memory resources, pre-processing, parallel processing, and post-processing. It is envisioned that future integration of a human-interface module and clinical data into the proposed computer framework will make computerized training of cryosurgery a practical reality. PMID:23995400

  15. Computerized Measurement of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alex S.; Alpert, Murray; Nienow, Tasha M.; Dinzeo, Thomas J.; Docherty, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate measurement of negative symptoms is crucial for understanding and treating schizophrenia. However, current measurement strategies are reliant on subjective symptom rating scales which often have psychometric and practical limitations. Computerized analysis of patients’ speech offers a sophisticated and objective means of evaluating negative symptoms. The present study examined the feasibility and validity of using widely-available acoustic and lexical-analytic software to measure flat affect, alogia and anhedonia (via positive emotion). These measures were examined in their relationships to clinically-rated negative symptoms and social functioning. Natural speech samples were collected and analyzed for 14 patients with clinically-rated flat affect, 46 patients without flat affect and 19 healthy controls. The computer-based inflection and speech rate measures significantly discriminated patients with flat affect from controls, and the computer-based measure of alogia and negative emotion significantly discriminated the flat and non-flat patients. Both the computer and clinical measures of positive emotion/anhedonia corresponded to functioning impairments. The computerized method of assessing negative symptoms offered a number of advantages over the symptom scale-based approach. PMID:17920078

  16. Computerized atmospheric trace contaminant control simulation for manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Buildup of atmospheric trace contaminants in enclosed volumes such as a spacecraft may lead to potentially serious health problems for the crew members. For this reason, active control methods must be implemented to minimize the concentration of atmospheric contaminants to levels that are considered safe for prolonged, continuous exposure. Designing hardware to accomplish this has traditionally required extensive testing to characterize and select appropriate control technologies. Data collected since the Apollo project can now be used in a computerized performance simulation to predict the performance and life of contamination control hardware to allow for initial technology screening, performance prediction, and operations and contingency studies to determine the most suitable hardware approach before specific design and testing activities begin. The program, written in FORTRAN 77, provides contaminant removal rate, total mass removed, and per pass efficiency for each control device for discrete time intervals. In addition, projected cabin concentration is provided. Input and output data are manipulated using commercial spreadsheet and data graphing software. These results can then be used in analyzing hardware design parameters such as sizing and flow rate, overall process performance and program economics. Test performance may also be predicted to aid test design.

  17. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  18. A randomized-controlled trial of computerized alerts to reduce unapproved medication abbreviation use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer S. Myers; Sattar Gojraty; Wei Yang; Amy Linsky; Subha Airan-Javia; Rosemary C. Polomano

    2011-01-01

    Abbreviation use is a preventable cause of medication errors. The objective of this study was to test whether computerized alerts designed to reduce medication abbreviations and embedded within an electronic progress note program could reduce these abbreviations in the non-computer-assisted handwritten notes of physicians. Fifty-nine physicians were randomized to one of three groups: a forced correction alert group; an auto-correction

  19. Fully automated sample preparation microsystem for genetic testing of hereditary hearing loss using two-color multiplex allele-specific PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Bin; Gan, Wupeng; Wang, Shuaiqin; Han, Junping; Xiang, Guangxin; Li, Cai-Xia; Sun, Jing; Liu, Peng

    2015-01-20

    A fully automated microsystem consisting of a disposable DNA extraction and PCR microchip, as well as a compact control instrument, has been successfully developed for genetic testing of hereditary hearing loss from human whole blood. DNA extraction and PCR were integrated into a single 15-?L reaction chamber, where a piece of filter paper was embedded for capturing genomic DNA, followed by in-situ PCR amplification without elution. Diaphragm microvalves actuated by external solenoids together with a "one-way" fluidic control strategy operated by a modular valve positioner and a syringe pump were employed to control the fluids and to seal the chamber during thermal cycling. Fully automated DNA extractions from as low as 0.3-?L human whole blood followed by amplifications of 59-bp ?-actin fragments can be completed on the microsystem in about 100 min. Negative control tests that were performed between blood sample analyses proved the successful elimination of any contamination or carryover in the system. To more critically test the microsystem, a two-color multiplex allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) assay for detecting c.176_191del16, c.235delC, and c.299_300delAT mutations in GJB2 gene that accounts for hereditary hearing loss was constructed. Two allele-specific primers, one labeled with TAMRA for wild type and the other with FAM for mutation, were designed for each locus. DNA extraction from blood and ASPCR were performed on the microsystem, followed by an electrophoretic analysis on a portable microchip capillary electrophoresis system. Blood samples from a healthy donor and five persons with genetic mutations were all accurately analyzed with only two steps in less than 2 h. PMID:25495389

  20. Overview of Computerized Library Networking in Canada. Canadian Computerized Bibliographic Centre Study Background Paper. 1979-05-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchesne, R. M.; And Others

    Conducted to review the present status of computerized bibliographic centers in Canada and to report on the most effective means of promoting computerized library network development in that country, this study summary of the findings of seven substudies (1) describes the salient features of 20 Canadian and United States centers; (2) reviews major…

  1. Performance on the "Stroop Color-Word Test" as Related to Learning Potential Status of Educable Mentally Retarded Adolescents. Volume 1, Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pines, Ayala; Budoff, Milton

    Adolescents defined as educable retarded who have demonstrated their ability to profit from experiences (highscorers and gainers) were hypothesized to perform more adequately than nongainers on the Stroop Color-Word interference task. The tasks were administered on three successive days to each subject in the following order: color, word,…

  2. A Computerized Asthma Outcomes Measure Is Feasible for Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Turner-Bowker, Diane M; Saris-Baglama, Renee N; Anatchkova, Milena; Mosen, David M

    2010-04-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop and test an online assessment referred to as the ASTHMA-CAT (computerized adaptive testing), a patient-based asthma impact, control, and generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measure. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional pilot study of the ASTHMA-CAT's administrative feasibility in a disease management population. METHODS: The ASTHMA-CAT included a dynamic or static Asthma Impact Survey (AIS), Asthma Control Test, and SF-8 Health Survey. A sample of clinician-diagnosed adult asthmatic patients (N = 114) completed the ASTHMA-CAT. Results were used to evaluate administrative feasibility of the instrument and psychometric performance of the dynamic AIS relative to the static AIS. A prototype aggregate (group-level) report was developed and reviewed by care providers. RESULTS: Online administration of the ASTHMA-CAT was feasible for patients in disease management. The dynamic AIS functioned well compared with the static AIS in preliminary studies evaluating response burden, precision, and validity. Providers found reports to be relevant, useful, and applicable for care management. CONCLUSION: The ASTHMA-CAT may facilitate asthma care management. PMID:20852675

  3. Computerized image processing in the Reginald Denny beating trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Lawrence C.

    1997-02-01

    New image processing techniques may have significant benefits to law enforcement officials but need to be legally admissible in court. Courts have different tests for determining the admissibility of new scientific procedures, requiring their reliability to be established by expert testimony. The first test developed was whether there has been general acceptance of the new procedure within the scientific community. In 1993 the U.S. Supreme Court loosened the requirements for admissibility of new scientific techniques, although the California Supreme Court later retained the general acceptance test. What the proper standard is for admission of such evidence is important to both the technical community and to the legal community because of the conflict between benefits of rapidly developing technology, and the dangers of 'junk science.' The Reginald Denny beating case from the 1992 Los Angeles riots proved the value of computerized image processing in identifying persons committing crimes on videotape. The segmentation process was used to establish the presence of a tattoo on one defendant, which was key in his identification. Following the defendant's conviction, the California Court of Appeal approved the use of the evidence involving the segmentation process. This published opinion may be cited as legal precedent.

  4. A Plan for Scaling the Computerized Adaptive Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB). Research Report 83-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bert F.; And Others

    The Navy Personnel Research and Development Center is developing a computerized adaptive test (CAT) administration, scoring, and reporting system for use in the selection and classification of military applicants. Scaling of the CAT version of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) will produce CAT scores comparable to the current…

  5. Color constancy supports cross-illumination color selection

    PubMed Central

    Radonji?, Ana; Cottaris, Nicolas P.; Brainard, David H.

    2015-01-01

    We rely on color to select objects as the targets of our actions (e.g., the freshest fish, the ripest fruit). To be useful for selection, color must provide accurate guidance about object identity across changes in illumination. Although the visual system partially stabilizes object color appearance across illumination changes, how such color constancy supports object selection is not understood. To study how constancy operates in real-life tasks, we developed a novel paradigm in which subjects selected which of two test objects presented under a test illumination appeared closer in color to a target object presented under a standard illumination. From subjects' choices, we inferred a selection-based match for the target via a variant of maximum likelihood difference scaling, and used it to quantify constancy. Selection-based constancy was good when measured using naturalistic stimuli, but was dramatically reduced when the stimuli were simplified, indicating that a naturalistic stimulus context is critical for good constancy. Overall, our results suggest that color supports accurate object selection across illumination changes when both stimuli and task match how color is used in real life. We compared our selection-based constancy results with data obtained using a classic asymmetric matching task and found that the adjustment-based matches predicted selection well for our stimuli and instructions, indicating that the appearance literature provides useful guidance for the emerging study of constancy in natural tasks.

  6. Experiences with HIV Testing, Entry, and Engagement in Care by HIV-Infected Women of Color, and the Need for Autonomy, Competency, and Relatedness

    PubMed Central

    Messer, Lynne C.; Adimora, Adaora A.; Roytburd, Katya; Bowditch, Natasha; Parnell, Heather; Seay, Julia; Bell, Lynda; Pierce, Jonah K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Self-determination theory examines the needs of people adopting new behaviors but has not been applied to the adoption of HIV healthcare behaviors. The current study applied self-determination theory to descriptions of healthcare behaviors adopted by ethnic minority women after an HIV diagnosis. Women of color were asked to describe their experiences with HIV testing, entry, and engagement-in-care in qualitative interviews and focus groups. Participants were mostly African-American (88%), over 40 years old (70%), had been diagnosed for more than 6 years (87%) and had disclosed their HIV infection to more than 3 people (73%). Women described unmet self-determination needs at different time points along the HIV Continuum of Care. Women experienced a significant loss of autonomy at the time of HIV diagnosis. Meeting competency and relatedness needs assisted women in entry and engagement-in-care. However, re-establishing autonomy was a key element for long-term engagement-in-care. Interventions that satisfy these needs at the optimal time point in care could improve diagnosis, entry-to-care, and retention-in-care for women living with HIV. PMID:23829331

  7. Modeling and Implementing of an Automated Warehouse via Colored Timed Petri Nets; a Behavior Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shan-Jun He; Fei Cheng; Jian Luo

    2007-01-01

    The automated warehouse considered here consists of a number of rack locations with three cranes, a narrow aisle shuttle, and several buffer stations with the roller. Based on analyzing of the behaviors of the active resources in the system, a modular and computerized model is presented via a colored timed Petri net approach, in which places are multicolored to simplify

  8. Citrus fruit recognition using color image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Ying, Yibin

    2004-10-01

    An algorithm for the automatic recognition of citrus fruit on the tree was developed. Citrus fruits have different color with leaves and branches portions. Fifty-three color images with natural citrus-grove scenes were digitized and analyzed for red, green, and blue (RGB) color content. The color characteristics of target surfaces (fruits, leaves, or branches) were extracted using the range of interest (ROI) tool. Several types of contrast color indices were designed and tested. In this study, the fruit image was enhanced using the (R-B) contrast color index because results show that the fruit have the highest color difference among the objects in the image. A dynamic threshold function was derived from this color model and used to distinguish citrus fruit from background. The results show that the algorithm worked well under frontlighting or backlighting condition. However, there are misclassifications when the fruit or the background is under a brighter sunlight.

  9. Brainard Color Constancy 1 Color Constancy

    E-print Network

    Brainard, David H.

    out likely candidates; our driver's licenses list the color of our eyes and hair for identificationBrainard Color Constancy 1 1 Color Constancy We would rather eat a banana that looks yellow rather than one that looks green, as the banana's color appearance carries reliable information about its

  10. Computerized plutonium wound-analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Waechter, D.A.; Brake, R.J.; Vasilik, D.G.; Erkkila, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    A new plutonium wound monitor has been developed at Los Alamos to upgrade a system which has been in use for about five years. The instrument, called a Computerized Wound Screening System, is designed around a readily available personal computer. It includes a full-function 256-channel pulse height analyzer and software necessary to calculate plutonium and americium activity from a spectrum. This new system provides medical and health physics personnel with considerable flexability in recognizing and recording situations where a wound incurred in a plutonium processing facility might be contaminated. This flexibility includes fast, accurate determination of contaminants in a wound, hard copy printout of results, and full patient logging capabilities via flexible disk storage. Use of a low cost computer greatly simplifies hardware and software design, and makes duplication of the instrument very simple and inexpensive.

  11. Computerized Structure Clearance Measurement System (CSCMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Richard; Kubik, Kurt; Bub, Ed; Townson, Peter

    1994-10-01

    Traditional surveying techniques and the use of mechanical structures mounted on rolling stock are the current methods for measuring clearance around Queensland railway lines. A new method, described in this paper, is being developed for Queensland Rail by a consortium of three Brisbane companies. The project involves the merging of two technologies, both of which are themselves evolving rapidly. The first of these is Digital Photogrammetry which provides 3D information through the processing of stereo images. The second is the capture of digital images and the pre-processing and transmission of large quantities of video data in an industrial environment. The result is a Computerized Structure Clearance Measurement System which allows operators to make accurate measurements with reference to a clearance gauge profile.

  12. Computerized system for translating a torch head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, W. A., Jr.; Ives, R. E.; Bruce, M. M., Jr.; Pryor, P. P., Jr.; Gard, L. H. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    The system provides a constant travel speed along a contoured workpiece. It has a driven skate characterized by an elongated bed, with a pair of independently pivoted trucks connected to the bed for support. The trucks are mounted on a contoured track of arbitrary configuration in a mutually spaced relation. An axially extensible torch head manipulator arm is mounted on the bed of the carriage and projects perpendicular from the midportion. The torch head is mounted at its distal end. A real-time computerized control drive subsystem is used to advance the skate along the track of a variable rate for maintaining a constant speed for the torch head tip, and to position the torch axis relative to a preset angle to the workpiece.

  13. YACCD: Yet Another Color Constancy Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Alessandro; Gatta, Carlo; Marini, Daniele

    2003-01-01

    Different image databases have been developed so far to test algorithms of color constancy. Each of them differs in the image characteristics, according to the features to test. In this paper we present a new image database, created at the University of Milano. Since a database cannot contain all the types of possible images, to limit the number of images it is necessary to make some choices and these choices should be as neutral as possible. The first image detail that we have addressed is the background. Which is the more convenient background for a color constancy test database? This choice can be affected by the goal of the color correction algorithms. In developing this DB we tried to consider a large number of possible approaches considering color constancy in a broader sense. Images under standard illuminants are presented together with particular non-standard light sources. In particular we collect two groups of lamps: with a weak and with a strong color casts. Another interesting feature is the presence of shadows, that allow to test the local effects of the color correction algorithms. The proposed DB can be used to test algorithms to recover the corresponding color under standard reference illuminants or alternatively assuming a visual appearance approach, to test algorithms for their capability to minimize color variations across the different illuminants, performing in this way a perceptual color constancy. This second approach is used to present preliminary tests. The IDB will be made available on the web.

  14. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors. PMID:24695195

  15. Computerized tomography detects pulmonary lesions in children with normal radiographs diagnosed to have tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Soumya; Raghavan, Aarti; Datta, Manjula; Paramasivan, C N; Saravanan, K C

    2005-03-01

    This report is based on observations during the conduct of a larger study to develop diagnostic criteria for childhood tuberculosis (TB). Of 201 children confirmed to have pulmonary or lymph node TB, 84 had normal chest radiographs. Computerized tomography (CT) of the chest was performed in nine of them, seven of whom had normal chest radiographs while two had visible calcification. Eight of the nine children had definitive lesions detected by computerized tomography of the chest. While five children had primarily hilar lymph node enlargement, three had pulmonary parenchymal lesions. The use of more sensitive diagnostic tests like computed tomography helps to detect tuberculosis lesions not otherwise visualized on chest radiographs. This report highlights the difficulty in excluding active tuberculosis in children. More studies are required on the role of CT scans in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in children. PMID:15817975

  16. Computerized training program usage at the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzic, D.H.; Reed, W.H.; Lawton, R.K.; Fluehr, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The increased US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) interest in the nuclear power industry training programs resulted in the Omaha Public Power District staff at the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Station investigating the potential for computerizing their recently accredited training records, student training requirements, and the process of determining student certification status. Additional areas that were desirable were a computerized question data bank with random test generation, maintaining history of question usage, and tracking of the job task analysis process and course objectives. SCI Software's online personnel training information management system (OPTIM) was selected, subsequent to a bid evaluation, to provide these features while operating on the existing corporate IBM mainframe.

  17. Space Simulation, 7th. [facilities and testing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Space simulation facilities and techniques are outlined that encompass thermal scale modeling, computerized simulations, reentry materials, spacecraft contamination, solar simulation, vacuum tests, and heat transfer studies.

  18. Development of an XYZ Digital Camera with Embedded Color Calibration System for Accurate Color Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretkowski, Maciej; Jablonski, Ryszard; Shimodaira, Yoshifumi

    Acquisition of accurate colors is important in the modern era of widespread exchange of electronic multimedia. The variety of device-dependent color spaces causes troubles with accurate color reproduction. In this paper we present the outlines of accomplished digital camera system with device-independent output formed from tristimulus XYZ values. The outstanding accuracy and fidelity of acquired color is achieved in our system by employing an embedded color calibration system based on emissive device generating reference calibration colors with user-defined spectral distribution and chromaticity coordinates. The system was tested by calibrating the camera using 24 reference colors spectrally reproduced from 24 color patches of the Macbeth Chart. The average color difference (CIEDE2000) has been found to be ?E =0.83, which is an outstanding result compared to commercially available digital cameras.

  19. Outpatient prescribing errors and the impact of computerized prescribing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tejal K. Gandhi; Saul N. Weingart; Andrew C. Seger; Joshua Borus; Elisabeth Burdick; Eric G. Poon; Lucian L. Leape; David W. Bates

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medication errors are common among inpatients and many are preventable with computerized prescribing. Relatively little is\\u000a known about outpatient prescribing errors or the impact of computerized prescribing in this setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To assess the rates, types, and severity of outpatient prescribing errors and understand the potential impact of computerized\\u000a prescribing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in 4 adult primary care

  20. [Research on developping the spectral dataset for Dunhuang typical colors based on color constancy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Wan, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Zhen; Li, Chan; Liang, Jin-Xing

    2013-11-01

    The present paper aims at developping a method to reasonably set up the typical spectral color dataset for different kinds of Chinese cultural heritage in color rendering process. The world famous wall paintings dating from more than 1700 years ago in Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes was taken as typical case in this research. In order to maintain the color constancy during the color rendering workflow of Dunhuang culture relics, a chromatic adaptation based method for developping the spectral dataset of typical colors for those wall paintings was proposed from the view point of human vision perception ability. Under the help and guidance of researchers in the art-research institution and protection-research institution of Dunhuang Academy and according to the existing research achievement of Dunhuang Research in the past years, 48 typical known Dunhuang pigments were chosen and 240 representative color samples were made with reflective spectral ranging from 360 to 750 nm was acquired by a spectrometer. In order to find the typical colors of the above mentioned color samples, the original dataset was devided into several subgroups by clustering analysis. The grouping number, together with the most typical samples for each subgroup which made up the firstly built typical color dataset, was determined by wilcoxon signed rank test according to the color inconstancy index comprehensively calculated under 6 typical illuminating conditions. Considering the completeness of gamut of Dunhuang wall paintings, 8 complementary colors was determined and finally the typical spectral color dataset was built up which contains 100 representative spectral colors. The analytical calculating results show that the median color inconstancy index of the built dataset in 99% confidence level by wilcoxon signed rank test was 3.28 and the 100 colors are distributing in the whole gamut uniformly, which ensures that this dataset can provide reasonable reference for choosing the color with highest color constancy during the color rendering process of Dunhuang cultural heritage. PMID:24555383

  1. Color of Salts (Flame Test)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ramsey Miller, Menahga High School, Menahga, MN, based on an original activity from the Prentice Hall Chemistry (2005), Flame Tests, p.142.

    This is a laboratory exercise designed to allow students to further investigate the light spectrum. This lab is used to have students view the light spectrum first hand as opposed to using lecture alone.

  2. Relative Role of Flower Color and Scent on Pollinator Attraction: Experimental Tests using F1 and F2 Hybrids of Daylily and Nightlily

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shun K. Hirota; Kozue Nitta; Yuni Kim; Aya Kato; Nobumitsu Kawakubo; Akiko A. Yasumoto; Tetsukazu Yahara

    2012-01-01

    The daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) and nightlily (H. citrina) are typical examples of a butterfly-pollination system and a hawkmoth-pollination system, respectively. H. fulva has diurnal, reddish or orange-colored flowers and is mainly pollinated by diurnal swallowtail butterflies. H. citrina has nocturnal, yellowish flowers with a sweet fragrance and is pollinated by nocturnal hawkmoths. We evaluated the relative roles of flower color

  3. New approach to color calibration of high fidelity color digital camera by using unique wide gamut color generator based on LED diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretkowski, M.; Shimodaira, Y.; Jab?o?ski, R.

    2008-11-01

    Development of a high accuracy color reproduction system requires certain instrumentation and reference for color calibration. Our research led to development of a high fidelity color digital camera with implemented filters that realize the color matching functions. The output signal returns XYZ values which provide absolute description of color. In order to produce XYZ output a mathematical conversion must be applied to CCD output values introducing a conversion matrix. The conversion matrix coefficients are calculated by using a color reference with known XYZ values and corresponding output signals from the CCD sensor under each filter acquisition from a certain amount of color samples. The most important feature of the camera is its ability to acquire colors from the complete theoretically visible color gamut due to implemented filters. However market available color references such as various color checkers are enclosed within HDTV gamut, which is insufficient for calibration in the whole operating color range. This led to development of a unique color reference based on LED diodes called the LED Color Generator (LED CG). It is capable of displaying colors in a wide color gamut estimated by chromaticity coordinates of 12 primary colors. The total amount of colors possible to produce is 25512. The biggest advantage is a possibility of displaying colors with desired spectral distribution (with certain approximations) due to multiple primary colors it consists. The average color difference obtained for test colors was found to be ?E~0.78 for calibration with LED CG. The result is much better and repetitive in comparison with the Macbeth ColorCheckerTM which typically gives ?E~1.2 and in the best case ?E~0.83 with specially developed techniques.

  4. Vision Screening by Color Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R.; Richardson, J. R.; Kerr, J.; Hay, S.; Mcbride, R.

    1985-01-01

    Screening test developed for detecting a range of vision defects in eye, including common precursors to amblyopia. Test noninvasive, safe, and administered easily in field by operator with no medical training. Only minimal momentary cooperation of subject required: Thus, test shows promise for use with very young children. Test produces color-slide images of retinas of eyes under specially-controlled lighting conditions. Trained observer screens five children per minute.

  5. The Carrot To Read: Computerized Reading Incentive Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engvall, Barb

    1999-01-01

    Describes and compares four computerized reading incentive programs that quiz students on their reading comprehension of self-selected books and award points for their efforts. Topics include price, hardware requirements, reading level, training, and recommendations. (LRW)

  6. Improving Efficiency and Quality in a Computerized ICU

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Karen E.; Sittig, Dean F.; Gardner, Reed M.; Pryor, T. Allan; Budd, Marge

    1988-01-01

    Ongoing efforts have been made to improve the efficiency and quality of care available in ICU's at LDS Hospital. ICU's have been computerized, and patient data collection, storage and presentation have been improved. Nurse care plans and charting have been computerized, and effects of these changes have been evaluated. Work sampling studies showed a decrease in direct patient care (49.1% to 43.2%) and an increase in nurse charting (18.2% to 24.2%) after implementation of computerized nurse charting. These changes were accounted for by a decrease in patient severity of illness. Implementation of the computerized nurse charting system had no significant impact on daily ICU nursing activities. Time savings are not automatic, but could be realized through management practices designed to maximize benefits of the nurse charting system and to make best use of available nursing resources.

  7. Computerized Mappings of the Cerebral Cortex: A Multiresolution Flattening Method

    E-print Network

    Van Essen, David

    Computerized Mappings of the Cerebral Cortex: A Multiresolution Flattening Method and a Surface for the amount o f distortion introduced. The second stage reduces distortions using a multiresolution strategy

  8. Disruptive Coloration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Ipsen

    2009-04-01

    Most animals are patterned. While some markings may serve as an advertisement, many appear to function in concealment. Because of the principal way in which they seem to function, such markings are often termed disruptive coloration . Although there are a number of characteristics that may influence the effectiveness of markings in disruption; this study will only focus on two aspects: (1) the effectiveness of the position of markings in blurring or enhancing outline, and (2) the degree to which strongly contrasting markings may interfere with or aid recognition. In regard to the former, it must be kept in mind that the profile changes with change in viewing angle. Thus the pattern seen in relation to the profile most commonly presented to predator (or prey) is of most interest to us here.

  9. Why and how a functional information system improves computerized operations

    SciTech Connect

    Pirus, D. [EDF SEPTEN, Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires, 12-14, Avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    At the beginning of the eighties, designing a computerized control room was similar to exploring a terra incognita. Some major projects were carried out (N4 project, Kashiwasaki for example) in order to provide initial experience feedback. Today design guidelines and standards exist to help designers and now all projects (for new control rooms or for renovating existing ones) are designed to use computerized operations. Experience feedback on existing projects clearly shows that the computerization of operations significantly improves the overall quality and efficiency of operations. Nevertheless, the computerization of operations introduces new specific problems, the most important being the 'key hole effect' and the lack of global vision. These problems can be directly attributed to the media currently used (the screens) where space is scarce, and to the philosophy used when designing the information system (fundamentally, based on a reproduction of existing piping diagrams with little or no summary information). Yesterday, the challenge was to computerize the control room, today, it is to computerize operations and reduce or eliminate these existing problems. One promising method is to design the HSI using a functional methodology. This paper describes the operators' operational needs and how and why a functional information system can help address those needs. Finally, the paper presents a few proposals on how to design a functional information system. (authors)

  10. Comparison of narrow-band reflectance spectroscopy and tristimulus colorimetry for measurements of skin and hair color in persons of different biological ancestry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Shriver; Esteban J. Parra

    2000-01-01

    We have used two modern computerized handheld reflectome- ters, the Photovolt ColorWalk colorimeter (a tristimulus colorimeter; Photovolt, UMM Electronics, Indianapolis, IN) and the DermaSpectrometer (a specialized narrow-band reflectometer; Cortex Technology, Hadsund, Denmark), to compare two methods for the objective determination of skin and hair color. These in- struments both determine color by measuring the intensity of reflected light of particular

  11. Computerized Testing and Feedback for Faculty and Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Heijia L.

    At Santa Fe Community College, the development of a biology course and departmental final examination was accomplished in the following stages: (1) faculty reached consensus on course content, major objectives and sub-objectives; (2) faculty contributed final examination questions corresponding to the 10 major course topics to a pool for review…

  12. Benchmarking a computerized test of immediate verbal memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rochelle E. Tractenberg; Colin E. Freas

    2007-01-01

    We modified the traditional (verbal) digit span task for administration via computer and the Internet. This online version\\u000a collects data on the floor and ceiling of a subject’s span capacity, rather than generating a rough estimate of capacity based\\u000a on a 50% success rate, as the traditional version does. We compared the two versions within adult subjects in two cohorts:

  13. Color Perception Optical Illusions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website from eChalk contains optical illusions offering proof that our color perception is strongly influenced by surrounding colors. The site also includes educational games related to optical illusions and color.

  14. Patient specific computerized phantoms to estimate dose in pediatric CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segars, W. P.; Sturgeon, G.; Li, X.; Cheng, L.; Ceritoglu, C.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I.; Tsui, B. M. W.; Frush, D.; Samei, E.

    2009-02-01

    We create a series of detailed computerized phantoms to estimate patient organ and effective dose in pediatric CT and investigate techniques for efficiently creating patient-specific phantoms based on imaging data. The initial anatomy of each phantom was previously developed based on manual segmentation of pediatric CT data. Each phantom was extended to include a more detailed anatomy based on morphing an existing adult phantom in our laboratory to match the framework (based on segmentation) defined for the target pediatric model. By morphing a template anatomy to match the patient data in the LDDMM framework, it was possible to create a patient specific phantom with many anatomical structures, some not visible in the CT data. The adult models contain thousands of defined structures that were transformed to define them in each pediatric anatomy. The accuracy of this method, under different conditions, was tested using a known voxelized phantom as the target. Errors were measured in terms of a distance map between the predicted organ surfaces and the known ones. We also compared calculated dose measurements to see the effect of different magnitudes of errors in morphing. Despite some variations in organ geometry, dose measurements from morphing predictions were found to agree with those calculated from the voxelized phantom thus demonstrating the feasibility of our methods.

  15. Computerized tomographic analysis of fluid flow in fractured tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, C.W.; Sharer, J.C. [Terra Tek, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Springer, E.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this summary is to demonstrate the usefulness of X-ray computerized tomography to observe fluid flow down a fracture and rock matrix imbibition in a sample of Bandelier tuff. This was accomplished by using a tuff sample 152.4 mm long and 50.8 mm in diameter. A longitudinal fracture was created by cutting the core with a wire saw. The fractured piece was then coupled to its adjacent section to that the fracture was not expected. Water was injected into a dry sample at five flow rates and CT scanning performed at set intervals during the flow. Cross sectional images and longitudinal reconstructions were built and saturation profiles calculated for the sample at each time interval at each flow rate. The results showed that for the test conditions, the fracture was not a primary pathway of fluid flow down the sample. At a slow fluid injection rate into the dry sample, the fluid was imbibed into the rock uniformly down the length of the core. With increasing injection rates, the flow remained uniform over the core cross section through complete saturation.

  16. Computerized tomographic analysis of fluid flow in fractured tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, C.W.; Sharer, J.C. (Terra Tek, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Springer, E.P. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this summary is to demonstrate the usefulness of X-ray computerized tomography to observe fluid flow down a fracture and rock matrix imbibition in a sample of Bandelier tuff. This was accomplished by using a tuff sample 152.4 mm long and 50.8 mm in diameter. A longitudinal fracture was created by cutting the core with a wire saw. The fractured piece was then coupled to its adjacent section to that the fracture was not expected. Water was injected into a dry sample at five flow rates and CT scanning performed at set intervals during the flow. Cross sectional images and longitudinal reconstructions were built and saturation profiles calculated for the sample at each time interval at each flow rate. The results showed that for the test conditions, the fracture was not a primary pathway of fluid flow down the sample. At a slow fluid injection rate into the dry sample, the fluid was imbibed into the rock uniformly down the length of the core. With increasing injection rates, the flow remained uniform over the core cross section through complete saturation.

  17. Computerized system for the performance of environmental impact assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, M. [ESSA Software Ltd. (United States); Hodges, M. [CH2M Hill (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A wide range of techniques and methods are employed in the performance of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) worldwide. There is currently a great need for consistency in approach, so that predicted impacts from project to project, and region to region can be readily compared. A systematic approach has been developed and computerized so as to provide for a consistent, rapid and cost-effective means of performing EIAs for a wide variety of projects. The system also facilitates iterative, least-cost gaming to arrive at the most appropriate project design and location. The system is supported by custom developed knowledge bases and a geographic information system (GIS). The system was originally developed under contract to the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The system has been distributed to all ADB-member countries. Current applications also include US Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded conversion of the system to support performance of EIAs in Russia, to satisfy Russian regulatory requirements, and the requirements of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). The World Bank (WB) is also current testing the system for applications on WB-financed or funded projects.

  18. Computerized craniofacial reconstruction: Conceptual framework and review.

    PubMed

    Claes, Peter; Vandermeulen, Dirk; De Greef, Sven; Willems, Guy; Clement, John Gerald; Suetens, Paul

    2010-09-10

    When confronted with a corpse that is unrecognizable due to its state of decomposition, soft-tissue mutilation or incineration, and if no other identification evidence is available, craniofacial reconstruction (CFR) can be a useful tool in the identification of the body. Traditional methods are based on manual reconstruction by physically modelling a face on a skull replica with clay or plasticine. The progress in computer science and the improvement of medical imaging technologies during recent years has had a significant impact on this domain. New, fast, flexible and computer-based objective reconstruction programs are under development. Employing the newer technologies and permanently evaluating the obtained results will hopefully lead to more accurate reconstructions, beneficial to the added value of CFR methods during crime-scene investigations. A general model-based workflow is observed, when analysing computerized CFR techniques today. The main purpose of this paper is to give an overview of existing computer-based CFR methods up to date defined within a common framework using a general taxonomy. The paper will also discuss the various alternatives and problems which arise during the process of designing a CFR program. PMID:20359837

  19. Computerized tomography studies of concrete samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martz, H. E.; Roberson, G. P.; Skeate, M. F.; Schneberk, D. J.; Azevedo, S. G.

    1991-06-01

    X-ray computerized tomography (CAT or CT) is a sophisticated imaging technique that provides cross-sectional views of materials, components and assemblies for industrial nondestructive evaluation (NDE). We have studied the feasibility of using CT as an inspection tool for reinforced concrete and the use of multi-energy, linear, attenuation techniques to deduce variations in density (?) and/or atomic number ( Z) that could be caused by varying the types of concrete mixes and/or compaction in the concrete itself. To perform this study, we designed and built a prototype medium-/high-energy (200- to 2000 keV) CT scanner — ZCAT — to image small concrete samples (± 30 cm in diameter and ± 75 cm in height) with a spatial resolution of about 2 mm. We used ZCAT to quantitatively inspect a 20 cm concrete cube with 1.27 cm diameter reinforcing bars (rebars) and to measure p and/or Z variations in a 20 cm diameter concrete cylinder. We describe the ZCAT scanner design, some of its physical limitations and the data-acquisition parameters used in our study. Our results and those of others [1,2] show that CT can be used to inspect reinforced concrete and to distinguish material p and/or Z variations within concrete.

  20. Relative role of flower color and scent on pollinator attraction: experimental tests using F1 and F2 hybrids of daylily and nightlily.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Shun K; Nitta, Kozue; Kim, Yuni; Kato, Aya; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Yasumoto, Akiko A; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2012-01-01

    The daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) and nightlily (H. citrina) are typical examples of a butterfly-pollination system and a hawkmoth-pollination system, respectively. H. fulva has diurnal, reddish or orange-colored flowers and is mainly pollinated by diurnal swallowtail butterflies. H. citrina has nocturnal, yellowish flowers with a sweet fragrance and is pollinated by nocturnal hawkmoths. We evaluated the relative roles of flower color and scent on the evolutionary shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina. We conducted a series of experiments that mimic situations in which mutants differing in either flower color, floral scent or both appeared in a diurnally flowering population. An experimental array of 6 × 6 potted plants, mixed with 24 plants of H. fulva and 12 plants of either F1 or F2 hybrids, were placed in the field, and visitations of swallowtail butterflies and nocturnal hawkmoths were recorded with camcorders. Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers. Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission. Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent. PMID:22720016

  1. Relative Role of Flower Color and Scent on Pollinator Attraction: Experimental Tests using F1 and F2 Hybrids of Daylily and Nightlily

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Shun K.; Nitta, Kozue; Kim, Yuni; Kato, Aya; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Yasumoto, Akiko A.; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2012-01-01

    The daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) and nightlily (H. citrina) are typical examples of a butterfly-pollination system and a hawkmoth-pollination system, respectively. H. fulva has diurnal, reddish or orange-colored flowers and is mainly pollinated by diurnal swallowtail butterflies. H. citrina has nocturnal, yellowish flowers with a sweet fragrance and is pollinated by nocturnal hawkmoths. We evaluated the relative roles of flower color and scent on the evolutionary shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina. We conducted a series of experiments that mimic situations in which mutants differing in either flower color, floral scent or both appeared in a diurnally flowering population. An experimental array of 6×6 potted plants, mixed with 24 plants of H. fulva and 12 plants of either F1 or F2 hybrids, were placed in the field, and visitations of swallowtail butterflies and nocturnal hawkmoths were recorded with camcorders. Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers. Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission. Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent. PMID:22720016

  2. Computerization of the standard corsi block-tapping task affects its underlying cognitive concepts: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Claessen, Michiel H G; van der Ham, Ineke J M; van Zandvoort, Martine J E

    2015-01-01

    The tablet computer initiates an important step toward computerized administration of neuropsychological tests. Because of its lack of standardization, the Corsi Block-Tapping Task could benefit from advantages inherent to computerization. This task, which requires reproduction of a sequence of movements by tapping blocks as demonstrated by an examiner, is widely used as a representative of visuospatial attention and working memory. The aim was to validate a computerized version of the Corsi Task (e-Corsi) by comparing recall accuracy to that on the standard task. Forty university students (Mage = 22.9 years, SD = 2.7 years; 20 female) performed the standard Corsi Task and the e-Corsi on an iPad 3. Results showed higher accuracy in forward reproduction on the standard Corsi compared with the e-Corsi, whereas backward performance was comparable. These divergent performance patterns on the 2 versions (small-to-medium effect sizes) are explained as a result of motor priming and interference effects. This finding implies that computerization has serious consequences for the cognitive concepts that the Corsi Task is assumed to assess. Hence, whereas the e-Corsi was shown to be useful with respect to administration and registration, these findings also stress the need for reconsideration of the underlying theoretical concepts of this task. PMID:25258029

  3. Effect of mescaline, lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin on color perception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan M. Hartman; Leo E. Hollister

    1963-01-01

    Twenty subjects were given three psychotomimetic drugs (mescaline, LSD-25 and psilocybin) in fixed doses, 18 receiving all three. Color experience was tested by applying stimuli involving color perception, stimuli eliciting subjective colors, and stimuli usually devoid of visual experience.

  4. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment Devices: Joint Position Paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology†

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Russell M.; Iverson, Grant L.; Cernich, Alison N.; Binder, Laurence M.; Ruff, Ronald M.; Naugle, Richard I.

    2013-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22394228

  5. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment Devices: Joint Position Paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology†

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Russell M.; Iverson, Grant L.; Cernich, Alison N.; Binder, Laurence M.; Ruff, Ronald M.; Naugle, Richard I.

    2012-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22382386

  6. Color Constancy: Phenomenal or Projective?

    PubMed Central

    REEVES, ADAM J.; AMANO, KINJIRO; FOSTER, DAVID H.

    2008-01-01

    Naive observers viewed a sequence of colored Mondrian patterns, simulated on a color monitor. Each pattern was presented twice in succession, first under one daylight illuminant with a correlated color temperature of either 16,000 or 4,000 K and then under the other, to test for color-constancy. The observers compared the central square of the pattern across illuminants, either rating it for sameness of material-appearance or sameness of hue and saturation or judging an objective property—that is, whether its change of color originated from a change in material or only from a change in illumination. Average color constancy indices were high for material-appearance ratings and binary judgments of origin and low for hue–saturation ratings. Individuals' performance varied, but judgments of material and of hue and saturation remained demarcated. Observers seem able to separate phenomenal percepts from their ontological projections of mental appearance onto physical phenomena; thus, even when a chromatic change alters perceived hue and saturation, observers can reliably infer the cause, the constancy of the underlying surface spectral reflectance. PMID:18372745

  7. Report of the National Sub-Committee to the Interprovincial Standards Program Coordinating Committee on the Interprovincial Computerized Examination Management System=Rapport du Sous-Comite National presente au Comite de Coordination du Programme de Normes Interprovincials sur le systeme de gestion des examens informatises interprovinciaux.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Brunswick Dept. of Advanced Education and Training, Fredericton. Interprovincial Standards Program Coordinating Committee.

    In January 1985, Employment and Immigration Canada funded a pilot project in New Brunswick for the development and testing of an Interprovincial Computerized Examination Management (ICEM) System. The resulting system is comprised of a dual interprovincial and provincial item bank facility, a software component offering the option of computerized

  8. Color Me Understood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Judy J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "color system" as a way of grouping children into different personality types based on a certain color: orange, blue, green, and gold. Lists stress producers for specific color people. Asserts that, through making groups of different colors, children begin to see the various specialties others can bring to the group and learn to…

  9. New color anaglyph method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomohiko Hattori; Eiji Arita; Toshihisa Nakamura; Masaru Kurio; Sadayuki Sakuma

    1997-01-01

    Anagliphs generally means a stereoscopic method using 2 principal color filters and is impossible to perceive the full-color stereo-pair for the viewers as above. A new anagliph method using 3 principal color filters (RGB) is presented in this paper. The method enables the complete full- color stereoscopic image taking and output technique. We produced the prototype system which composed of

  10. Color in architecture 

    E-print Network

    Vrooman, Richard

    1952-01-01

    Good design can be spoiled by poor color. Weak design can be helped by good color. Color is therefore of prime importance as an integral element of architectural design. Color is vitally related to man in many fields. The study of architecture...

  11. Color: A Functionalist Proposal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Cohen

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I propose and defend an account of color that I call color functionalism. I argue that functionalism is a non-traditional species of primary quality theory, and that it accommodates our intuitions about color and the facts of color science better than more widely discussed alternatives.

  12. Color Code

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-28

    In this activity, learners conduct the "Stroop Effect" test and explore what happens when they try to complete two simple tasks at the same time. Use this activity to explain how the brain can get confused when it tries to process two different stimuli at the same time.

  13. 45 CFR 310.25 - What conditions apply to acquisitions of Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND OFFICE AUTOMATION Funding for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation § 310.25 What conditions apply to acquisitions of Computerized Tribal...

  14. 45 CFR 310.25 - What conditions apply to acquisitions of Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND OFFICE AUTOMATION Funding for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation § 310.25 What conditions apply to acquisitions of Computerized Tribal...

  15. 45 CFR 310.25 - What conditions apply to acquisitions of Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND OFFICE AUTOMATION Funding for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation § 310.25 What conditions apply to acquisitions of Computerized Tribal...

  16. 45 CFR 310.25 - What conditions apply to acquisitions of Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND OFFICE AUTOMATION Funding for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation § 310.25 What conditions apply to acquisitions of Computerized Tribal...

  17. 45 CFR 310.25 - What conditions apply to acquisitions of Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND OFFICE AUTOMATION Funding for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation § 310.25 What conditions apply to acquisitions of Computerized Tribal...

  18. A laboratory evaluation of color video monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, P.L.

    1993-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video monitors used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than to identify intruders. There is a growing interest in the identification function of security video systems for both access control and insider protection. Because color video technology is rapidly changing and because color information is useful for identification purposes, Sandia National Laboratories established a program to evaluate the newest relevant color video equipment. This report documents the evaluation of an integral component, color monitors. It briefly discusses a critical parameter, dynamic range, details test procedures, and evaluates the results.

  19. Bold Colors in a Cryptic Lineage: Do Eastern Indigo Snakes Exhibit Color Dimorphism?

    PubMed Central

    Deitloff, Jennifer; Johnson, Valerie M.; Guyer, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Many species exhibit variation in the color of their scales, feathers, or fur. Various forms of natural selection, such as mimicry, crypsis, and species recognition, as well as sexual selection, can influence the evolution of color. Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi), a federally threatened species, have coloration on the sides of the head and the chin that can vary from black to red or cream. Despite significant conservations efforts for this species, little is known about its biology in the field. Past researchers have proposed that the color variation on the head and chin is associated with the sex of the individual. Alternatively, color might vary among individuals because it is controlled by genes that are under natural selection or neutral evolution. We tested these alternative hypotheses by examining whether coloration of the sublabial, submaxillary, and ventral scales of this species differed by sex or among clutches. We used color spectrometry to characterize important aspects of color in two ways: by examining overall color differences across the entire color spectrum and by comparing differences within the ultraviolet, yellow, and red colorbands. We found that Eastern Indigo Snakes do not exhibit sexual dichromatism, but their coloration does vary among clutches; therefore, the pattern of sexual selection leading to sexual dichromatism observed in many squamates does not appear to play a role in the evolution and maintenance of color variation in Eastern Indigo Snakes. We suggest that future studies should focus on determining whether color variation in these snakes is determined by maternal effects or genetic components and if color is influenced by natural selection or neutral evolutionary processes. Studying species that exhibit bright colors within lineages that are not known for such coloration will contribute greatly to our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological factors that drive these differences. PMID:23691245

  20. Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  1. Statistical pressure snakes based on color images.

    SciTech Connect

    Schaub, Hanspeter [ORION International Technologies, Albuquerque, NM

    2004-05-01

    The traditional mono-color statistical pressure snake was modified to function on a color image with target errors defined in HSV color space. Large variations in target lighting and shading are permitted if the target color is only specified in terms of hue. This method works well with custom targets where the target is surrounded by a color of a very different hue. A significant robustness increase is achieved in the computer vision capability to track a specific target in an unstructured, outdoor environment. By specifying the target color to contain hue, saturation and intensity values, it is possible to establish a reasonably robust method to track general image features of a single color. This method is convenient to allow the operator to select arbitrary targets, or sections of a target, which have a common color. Further, a modification to the standard pixel averaging routine is introduced which allows the target to be specified not only in terms of a single color, but also using a list of colors. These algorithms were tested and verified by using a web camera attached to a personal computer.

  2. A system of regional agricultural land use mapping tested against small scale Apollo 9 color infrared photography of the Imperial Valley (California)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Claude W.; Browden, Leonard W.; Pease, Robert W.

    1969-01-01

    Interpretation results of the small scale ClR photography of the Imperial Valley (California) taken on March 12, 1969 by the Apollo 9 earth orbiting satellite have shown that world wide agricultural land use mapping can be accomplished from satellite ClR imagery if sufficient a priori information is available for the region being mapped. Correlation of results with actual data is encouraging although the accuracy of identification of specific crops from the single image is poor. The poor results can be partly attributed to only one image taken during mid-season when the three major crops were reflecting approximately the same and their ClR image appears to indicate the same crop type. However, some incapacity can be attributed to lack of understanding of the subtle variations of visual and infrared color reflectance of vegetation and surrounding environment. Analysis of integrated color variations of the vegetation and background environment recorded on ClR imagery is discussed. Problems associated with the color variations may be overcome by development of a semi-automatic processing system which considers individual field units or cells. Design criteria for semi-automatic processing system are outlined.

  3. Documentation of Nursing Practice Using a Computerized Medical Information System

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Carol

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses a definition of the content of the computerized nursing data base developed by the Nursing Department for the Clinical Center Medical Information System at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. The author describes the theoretical framework for the content and presents a model to describe the organization of the nursing data components in relation to the process of nursing care delivery. Nursing documentation requirements of Nurse Practice Acts, American Nurses Association Standards of Practice and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals are also addressed as they relate to this data base. The advantages and disadvantages of such an approach to computerized documentation are discussed.

  4. THE VALIDITY OF HUMAN AND COMPUTERIZED WRITING ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring

    2005-09-01

    This paper summarizes an experiment designed to assess the validity of essay grading between holistic and analytic human graders and a computerized grader based on latent semantic analysis. The validity of the grade was gauged by the extent to which the student’s knowledge of the topic correlated with the grader’s expert knowledge. To assess knowledge, Pathfinder networks were generated by the student essay writers, the holistic and analytic graders, and the computerized grader. It was found that the computer generated grades more closely matched the definition of valid grading than did human generated grades.

  5. Development of a student nurse practitioner computerized clinical log.

    PubMed

    Longworth, J C; Lesh, D

    2000-04-01

    A computerized clinical log was developed and revised over a period of three semesters by the family nurse practitioner students at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio, Texas. Students entered data on a disk formatted in Microsoft Access, and results were analyzed by the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS). More than 4,000 patient encounters were documented during three semesters. The development and refinement of the computerized log are described. Results are presented and the implications of the database for educational, curricular and employment purposes are discussed. PMID:11930415

  6. A computerized business simulation for dental practice management.

    PubMed

    Willis, D O; Smith, J R; Golden, P

    1997-10-01

    Computerized simulations have been used for many years for teaching principles of management in business schools. This paper describes the development of a computerized business simulation for use in dental school practice management courses. The simulation is in a competitive game format. It requires students to formulate strategies and to implement management decisions that reinforce and fulfill that strategy. Participants use the outcomes of these decisions to formulate new management decisions for the upcoming period. Student response to participation in the simulation has been positive, with students indicating that participation is valuable for developing better understanding of analytical business management techniques and interpersonal techniques such as group process and leadership skills. PMID:9385326

  7. Cognitive performance in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: A longitudinal study in daily practice using a brief computerized cognitive battery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Edgar; Peter J Jongen; Evert Sanders; Christian Sindic; Sophie Goffette; Michel Dupuis; Philippe Jacquerye; Daniel Guillaume; Regine Reznik; Keith Wesnes

    2011-01-01

    Background  There is need for a cognitive test battery that can be easily used in clinical practice to detect or monitor cognitive performance\\u000a in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In order to conduct, in this patient group, a preliminary investigation of the validity\\u000a and utility of a brief computerized battery, the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) battery, we longitudinally assessed cognition\\u000a in

  8. Effects of sophistication and motivation on the detection of malingered memory performance using a computerized forced-choice task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy C. Martin; John F. Bolter; Mark E. Todd; Wm Drew Gouvier; Raymon Niccolls

    1993-01-01

    The present study employed a computerized forced-choice recognition memory task, the Multi-Digit Memory Test (MDMT), to examine the effects of instructional set (i.e., dissimulation information provided subjects) and motivation (i.e., monetary incentive) on simulated malingering behavior in a group of 119 university undergraduate students and 33 patients sustaining varying severity of closed-head injury. For the nonpatient groups, a significant effect

  9. Biotechnological production of colorants.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Lex

    2014-01-01

    The color of food and drinks is important, as it is associated with freshness and taste. Despite that natural colorants are more expensive to produce, less stable to heat and light, and less consistent in color range, natural colorants have been gaining market share in recent years. The background is that artificial colorants are often associated with negative health aspects. Considerable progress has been made towards the fermentative production of some colorants. Because colorant biosynthesis is under close metabolic control, extensive strain and process development are needed in order to establish an economical production process. Another approach is the synthesis of colors by means of biotransformation of adequate precursors. Algae represent a promising group of microorganisms that have shown a high potential for the production of different colorants, and dedicated fermentation and downstream technologies have been developed. This chapter reviews the available information with respect to these approaches. PMID:24037500

  10. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  11. Disappearing Colors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sciencenter

    2014-08-27

    In this challenge, learners figure out how to make a juice stain disappear. (Younger learners will definitely need assistance, and safety instructions are included in the PDF.) First they experiment with cleaning solutions (vinegar, dishwasher detergent, and bleach) and types of juice (beet, purple grape, and cranberry). The experimental surface is a laminated paper grid (grid design in PDF) on which they drop solutions. A cloth used to blot up juice from the grid becomes the surface for learners to test which solution they think will best make stains disappear. Some background information is provided about how some cleaners work by adding and removing hydrogen atoms (acid and base reactions, e.g. vinegar and dishwasher detergent), and others work by removing and adding electrons (oxidation-reduction reactions, e.g. bleach).

  12. The Brain Adaptation to the Color of Illumination and not the Retinal Adaptation to the Color of Objects that Determines the Color Appearance of an Object in the Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Mitsuo; Pungrassamee, Pontawee; Katemake, Pichayada; Hansuebsai, Aran

    2006-09-01

    Color appearance was measured for a test patch which was placed in a test room illuminated by the daylight type of illumination and was looked at from the subject room illuminated by one of the four colored illuminations, red, yellow, green, and blue, through a window of three different sizes. When the window was the smallest so that only the test patch was seen within the window the color of the test patch appeared almost opponent to the illumination color, but as soon as something is seen within the window of larger size the color returned to the original color of the test patch to indicate the color constancy. To recognize the test room as a space was essential to perceive the real color of the test patch. This returning to the original colors was not influenced by green color of objects densely placed in the test room or by red color of objects again densely placed in the test room. The results imply that the color appearance of the test patch is not determined by the retinal chromatic adaptation, but by the brain adaptation to color of the illumination in the space.

  13. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, Minoru (Troy, NY); Watson, E. Bruce (Troy, NY); Acocella, John (Troy, NY)

    1986-01-01

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

  14. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

    1986-11-04

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the "Cool Teens" CD-ROM Computerized Program for Adolescent Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuthrich, Viviana M.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Cunningham, Michael J.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Schniering, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Computerized cognitive behavioral interventions for anxiety disorders in adults have been shown to be efficacious, but limited data are available on the use of computerized interventions with young persons. Adolescents in particular are difficult to engage in treatment and may be especially suited to computerized technologies. This…

  16. Computerization upgrade project for the Rocky Flats Plant Critical Mass Laboratory Reactor Control Console

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Bachman; R. E. Miles; R. D. Sachs

    1987-01-01

    This report discusses present and planned future work on computerization of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) Critical Mass Laboratory (CML) Nuclear Reactor Control Console. No computerized control functions are planned or anticipated at this time. The scope of this computerization effort is limited to Data Acquisition and Analysis. In this work an IBM-PC will be connected to four (4) Nuclear

  17. Stools - pale or clay-colored

    MedlinePLUS

    ... out of the liver is blocked. Yellow skin (jaundice) often occurs with clay-colored stools, due to ... P, Korenblat K. Approach to the patient with jaundice or abnormal liver test results. In: Goldman L, ...

  18. Study on color difference estimation method of medicine biochemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunhong; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongxia; Sun, Jiashi; Zhou, Fengkun

    2006-01-01

    The biochemical analysis in medicine is an important inspection and diagnosis method in hospital clinic. The biochemical analysis of urine is one important item. The Urine test paper shows corresponding color with different detection project or different illness degree. The color difference between the standard threshold and the test paper color of urine can be used to judge the illness degree, so that further analysis and diagnosis to urine is gotten. The color is a three-dimensional physical variable concerning psychology, while reflectance is one-dimensional variable; therefore, the estimation method of color difference in urine test can have better precision and facility than the conventional test method with one-dimensional reflectance, it can make an accurate diagnose. The digital camera is easy to take an image of urine test paper and is used to carry out the urine biochemical analysis conveniently. On the experiment, the color image of urine test paper is taken by popular color digital camera and saved in the computer which installs a simple color space conversion (RGB -> XYZ -> L *a *b *)and the calculation software. Test sample is graded according to intelligent detection of quantitative color. The images taken every time were saved in computer, and the whole illness process will be monitored. This method can also use in other medicine biochemical analyses that have relation with color. Experiment result shows that this test method is quick and accurate; it can be used in hospital, calibrating organization and family, so its application prospect is extensive.

  19. Color and Streptomycetes1

    PubMed Central

    Pridham, Thomas G.

    1965-01-01

    A report summarizing the results of an international workshop on determination of color of streptomycetes is presented. The results suggest that the color systems which seem most practically appealing and effective to specialists on actinomycetes are those embracing a limited number of color names and groups. The broad groupings allow placement of isolates into reasonably well-defined categories based on color of aerial mycelium. Attempts to expand such systems (more color groups) lead to difficulties. It is common knowledge that many, if not all, of the individual groups would in these broad systems contain strains that differ in many other respects, e.g., spore-wall ornamentation, color of vegetative (substratal) mycelium, morphology of chains of spores, and numerous physiological criteria. Also, cultures of intermediate color can be found, which makes placement difficult. As it now stands, color as a criterion for characterization of streptomycetes and streptoverticillia is in questionable status. Although much useful color information can be obtained by an individual, the application of this information to that in the literature or its use in communication with other individuals leaves much to be desired. More objective methods of color determination are needed. At present, the most effective method that could be used internationally is the color-wheel system of Tresner and Backus. Furthermore, the significance of color in speciation of these organisms is an open question. Obviously, more critical work on the color problem is needed. PMID:14264847

  20. Luminance dependence of pigment color discrimination in bees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rose; R. Menzel

    1981-01-01

    1.A system is described in which a behavioral test is used to match color shades to an arbitrarily chosen level to the compound of brightness and saturation. This system was used with honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica) to develop a series of color marks which were equal to the compound of brightness and color saturation to bees.2.Freely flying honeybees were trained

  1. Anaglyph image generation by matching color appearance attributes

    E-print Network

    Nigan, King Ngi

    Anaglyph image generation by matching color appearance attributes Songnan Li n , Lin Ma, King Ngi Accepted 18 March 2013 Available online 4 April 2013 Keywords: Anaglyph CIELAB color space Color appearance attributes Subjective test a b s t r a c t Anaglyph is an inexpensive three-dimensional (3D) displaying

  2. Explaining Color Term Typology with an Evolutionary Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowman, Mike

    2007-01-01

    An expression-induction model was used to simulate the evolution of basic color terms to test Berlin and Kay's (1969) hypothesis that the typological patterns observed in basic color term systems are produced by a process of cultural evolution under the influence of biases resulting from the special properties of universal focal colors. Ten agents…

  3. A Comparison of Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation and Computerized Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Effects on Anxiety, Depression, Attentional Control, and Interpretive Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Jennifer O.; Mackintosh, Bundy; Dunn, Barnaby D.; Mathews, Andrew; Dalgleish, Tim; Hoppitt, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) and cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) both have demonstrated efficacy in alleviating social anxiety, but how they compare with each other has not been investigated. The present study tested the prediction that both interventions would reduce anxiety relative to a…

  4. Computerized Periodical Systems in Two Small Special Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Muriel; Zimmerman, H. Neil

    This paper describes how two small non-profit libraries successfully computerized their periodical record and routing systems. The steps required in gaining acceptance of the idea, planning, designing, installing, and perfecting each system are included. The Population Council library, whose clerical staff was formerly responsible for manually…

  5. X- and ?-rays computerized minitomograph scanner for soil science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAULO ESTEVAO CRUVINEL; ROBERTO CESAREO; SILVIO CRESTANA; SERGIO MASCARENHAS

    1990-01-01

    A computerized tomograph scanner system that uses X- and ?-rays for applications in soil science is described. Use of the apparatus in measuring volumetric water content to an accuracy of ±3% and soil bulk density to ±2% (in grams per cubic centimeters) is discussed. The system features translation and rotation scanning modes, a 200-mm effective field of view, signal processing

  6. GPSS V model of a computerized manufacturing system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1979-01-01

    The role of simulation in the design of a Computerized Manufacturing System is analyzed. A case study of a particular application is given. The rationale for selecting a particular simulation language is presented. Several useful methods of representing the simulation output both in terms of actual movement of system elements and aggregate statistics are demonstrated. The validity of the results

  7. KIDSNET: A Computerized Clearinghouse for Children's Radio and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Patrice K.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a computerized database for children's radio and television, which contains detailed information and evaluations of children's programs and public service announcements currently on the air or available on cassette. Information on access to the system, subscriber and search costs, and a contact for further information are provided. (CLB)

  8. Conversion to computerized patient records streamlines ER process, saves money.

    PubMed

    1997-03-01

    If your billing department can't read physician notes on ER patient records, you could be wasting valuable time and dollars getting bills out the door. Learn how a Boston hospital ER switched to a computerized patient record system, improved documentation, cut labor costs, and maximized reimbursement. PMID:10175059

  9. Computerized face recognition technologies: 3D face analysis and

    E-print Network

    Schettini, Raimondo

    Computerized face recognition technologies: 3D face analysis and synthesis Imaging and Vision, Milano Ricerche, CNR, Microsystems, Ocè Printing, Hewlett Packard, Olivetti, STMicroelectronics, ST;Biometrics systems a) DNA b) Ear c) Face d) Facial thermogram e) Hand thermogram f) Hand vein g) Fingerprint

  10. A Comparison of Computerized Techniques for Recognized Spanish Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesecke, G. Lee

    The results of various computerized coding techniques used to identify persons of Spanish derivation were compared to questionnaire responses in which people identified themselves as Spanish. The coding techniques classified names as Spanish and non-Spanish using the following: census surnames; Morton surnames; "Broad" Spanish surnames; "Narrow"…

  11. A computerized design environment for functional modeling of mechanical products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-M. Deng; S. B. Tor; G. A. Britton

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the strategies and the methods for the development of a computerized functional modeling design environment to support the conceptual phase of mechanical product design. A new design concept called behavioral scenario is introduced. The modeling process begins with an initial function decomposition and a conversion of the required function into immediate function. This information is then used

  12. A Computerized Library and Evaluation System for Integral Neutron Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Viktor E.; And Others

    A computerized library of references to integral neutron experiments has been developed at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at Livermore. This library serves as a data base for the systematic retrieval of documents describing diverse critical and bulk nuclear experiments. The evaluation and reduction of the physical parameters of the experiments…

  13. The Role of Schemes in Designing Computerized Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkovitz, Sara; Nesher, Pearla

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of the effectiveness of two computerized environments, Schemes for Problem Analysis (SPA) and Algebraic Proposer (AP), with two sixth-grade classes found that in solving easy word problems, both software systems were equally helpful, but in harder word problems, those students who learned with SPA experienced more success than those who…

  14. Computerized Simulation and Experimental Analysis for Efficient Polymerase Chain Reaction*

    E-print Network

    Computerized Simulation and Experimental Analysis for Efficient Polymerase Chain Reaction* Hee@plaza.snu.ac.kr Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a useful biochemical operation not only in biological application but also, Effectiveness of Denaturation Temperature Gradient-Polymerase Chain Reaction for Biased DNAAlgorithms

  15. A Computerized System for Follow-Up of Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Gustave G.; Corson, Hal

    Miami-Dade Community College has conducted an annual survey of its graduates for nearly a decade. In the past, the processing and tabulation of results were essentially manual operations. This paper describes a recently-developed computerized system which carries out most of the processing of this survey up through the tabulation of results. The…

  16. Bilingual Computerized Speech Recognition Screening for Depression Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo; Carter, Colby; Blanes, Erika

    2007-01-01

    The Voice-Interactive Depression Assessment System (VIDAS) is a computerized speech recognition application for screening depression based on the Center for Epidemiological Studies--Depression scale in English and Spanish. Study 1 included 50 English and 47 Spanish speakers. Study 2 involved 108 English and 109 Spanish speakers. Participants…

  17. Computerized Assessment of Preference for Severely Handicapped Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dattilo, John

    1986-01-01

    A computer program interpreted three subjects' (ages 6-10) microswitch activations to produce three distinct types of events (visual, auditory, and tactile). Data obtained from the computerized assessment procedure revealed idiosyncratic preference patterns for the three subjects. Results demonstrated that preferences of severely handicapped…

  18. Ultrasonic Imaging of Welded Metals Using Simplified Ultrasonic Computerized Tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung-Cho Kim; Hiroaki Fukuhara; Hisashi Yamawaki

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, as a new measurement method to estimate the infinitesimal change of material condition, the simplified ultrasonic computerized tomography (CT) system, which uses the information of three directions, i.e., the 90°, +45\\\\circ and -45\\\\circ directions about the inspection plane, is proposed. The use of the simplified ultrasonic CT system has two merits: First, the measurement time is very

  19. Unesco Integrated Documentation Network; Computerized Documentation System (CDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Dept. of Documentation, Libraries, and Archives.

    Intended for use by the Computerized Documentation System (CDS), the Unesco version of ISIS (Integrated Set of Information Systems)--originally developed by the International Labour Organization--was developed in 1975 and named CDS/ISIS. This system has a comprehensive collection of programs for input, management, and output, running in batch or…

  20. Guidelines for Evaluating Computerized Instructional Materials. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, William P.; And Others

    This document presents guidelines for evaluating computerized instructional materials. Included are reference sources, suggestions for evaluation criteria, guidelines for both software and documentation evaluation, and forms that can be used in the evaluation process. Five separately labeled reference lists contain citations for approximately 100…

  1. Guidelines for the Development of Computerized Student Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armes, Nancy, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to provide guidelines for the development of computerized student information systems, this report raises policy issues and questions to be resolved at the campus level and describes a variety of computer-generated reports and records that can assist in educational decision making and planning. Introductory material discusses the…

  2. Computerized energy analysis for the Mars operations support building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, C. S.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed computerized building load simulation of the Operations Support Building at the Mars Deep Space Station, Goldstone, California is described. Five energy conservation suggestions were investigated prior to implementation. The results showed that cost savings of about 16 percent of present energy costs are possible.

  3. COMPUTERIZED BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS FROM FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATES

    E-print Network

    Street, Nick

    was 100%. Tumor size and lymph node status were weak prognosticators compared with nuclear features and lymph node status (p=0.11). Conclusions: Computer technology will improve breast fine­needle aspiration1 COMPUTERIZED BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS FROM FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATES William H. Wolberg

  4. Differences in Attitudes between Women and Men toward Computerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Ananda; LaFrance, Betty; McCullough, Sandra

    2001-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the gender differences in attitudes toward computerization at a liberal arts university. Discusses gender effects research in computer use; diffusion of innovations; innovation adoption; and gender effects on innovation adoption. Results show women are more cautious in their interpretation of technological…

  5. Development of a Computerized Method to Inspect Empty Glass Bottle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huan-jun Liu; Yao-nan Wang

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a computerized empty glass bottle inspection method in an attempt to replace manual inspection. The inspection system structure based on machine vision was illustrated in the article. Morphologic methods and wavelet transform were used to extract features of the bottle body and the finish from images. The fuzzy support vector machine neural

  6. Technology Solutions for Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Allan

    2002-01-01

    Northwest Evaluation Association in Portland, Oregon, consults with state and local educators on assessment issues. Describes several approaches in place at school districts that are using some combination of computer-based tests to measure student growth. The computerized adaptive test adjusts items based on a student's answer in "real time."…

  7. Adaptive Testing without IRT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Duanli; Lewis, Charles; Stocking, Martha

    It is unrealistic to suppose that standard item response theory (IRT) models will be appropriate for all new and currently considered computer-based tests. In addition to developing new models, researchers will need to give some attention to the possibility of constructing and analyzing new tests without the aid of strong models. Computerized

  8. Assessing CAT Test Security Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qing; Zhang, Jinming; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2006-01-01

    In addition to its precision superiority over nonadaptive tests, another known advantage of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) is that they can be offered on a continuous basis. This is advantageous to examinees in terms of flexibility of test scheduling, as well as advantageous to schools and other testing centers in terms of both space and…

  9. Fingers that change color

    MedlinePLUS

    Blanching of the fingers; Fingers - pale; Toes that change color; Toes - pale ... Necrotizing vasculitis Peripheral artery disease Raynaud's phenomenon - sudden change in the finger color ranges from pale to ...

  10. Color and form

    E-print Network

    Buchanan, Mark C. (Mark Calvin)

    1992-01-01

    I have always been interested in painting, particularly in the use of color to describe space, time and emotion. This thesis integrates painterly concepts in the making of architecture. Some issues explored include color ...

  11. Show Your Colors!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-08-20

    In this family or group activity, learners conduct a chromatography experiment to reveal the colors that leaves "hide" under their green pigments. Use this experiment to predict what colors the leaves will "turn" in the fall.

  12. The Trouble with Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses problems with color quality in Web sites. Topics include differences in monitor settings, including contrast; amount of video RAM; user preference settings; browser-safe colors; cross-platform readability; and gamma values. (LRW)

  13. Effect of glucuronosylation on anthocyanin color stability.

    PubMed

    Osmani, Sarah Anne; Hansen, Esben Halkjaer; Malien-Aubert, Céline; Olsen, Carl-Erik; Bak, Søren; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2009-04-22

    The effect of glucuronosylation on the color stability of anthocyanins was investigated using glucuronosylated anthocyanins isolated from the flower petals of the red daisy (Bellis perennis) or obtained by enzymatic in vitro synthesis using heterologously expressed red daisy glucuronosyltransferase BpUGT94B1. Color stability toward light and heat stress was assessed by monitoring CIELAB color coordinates and stability at pH 7.0 by A(550). Cyanidin-3-O-2''-O-glucuronosylglucoside showed improved color stability in response to light compared to both cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-2''-O-diglucoside. A similar increase in color stability was not observed following heat treatment. Glucuronosylation did not increase the stability of anthocyanins at pH 7.0 as determined by A(550). To test for a possible effect of glucuronosylation on the color stability of anthocyanins in plant extracts used for food coloration, an elderberry (Sambucus nigra) extract was glucuronosylated in vitro. Glucuronosylation of approximately 50% of total anthocyanins proceeded fast and resulted in increased color stability in response to both heat and light. The data show that glucuronosylation may be used to stabilize industrially used extracts of natural colorants. PMID:19281238

  14. Skilled but Unaware of It: CAT Undermines a Test Taker's Metacognitive Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortner, Tuulia M.; Weisskopf, Eva; Gerstenberg, Friederike X. R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated students' metacognitive experiences with regard to feelings of difficulty (FD), feelings of satisfaction (FS), and estimate of effort (EE), employing either computerized adaptive testing (CAT) or computerized fixed item testing (FIT). In an experimental approach, 174 students in grades 10 to 13 were tested either with a CAT or a…

  15. Mixed graph colorings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Hansen; Julio Kuplinsky; Dominique de Werra

    1997-01-01

    A mixed graphGp contains both undirected edges and directed arcs. Ak-coloring ofGp is an assignment to its vertices of integers not exceedingk (also called colors) so that the endvertices of an edge have different colors and the tail of any arc has a smaller color than its head. The chromatic number ?p(G) of a mixed graph is the smallestk such

  16. Quantum Dots and Colors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students are introduced to the physical concept of the colors of rainbows as light energy in the form of waves with distinct wavelengths, but in a different manner than traditional kaleidoscopes. Looking at different quantum dot solutions, they make observations and measurements, and graph their data. They come to understand how nanoparticles interact with absorbing photons to produce colors. They learn the dependence of particle size and color wavelength and learn about real-world applications for using these colorful liquids.

  17. PERCEIVING COLOR Visual Perception

    E-print Network

    Majumder, Aditi

    Visual Mechanisms Category Based Perception Slide 4 Aditi Majumder, UCI The Color Stimuli #12;3 Slide 5 Aditi Majumder, UCI Color is due to.. Selective emission/reflection of different wavelengths by surfaces ­ I() #12;4 Slide 7 Aditi Majumder, UCI Reflectance ­ R() Slide 8 Aditi Majumder, UCI Color Stimuli

  18. COLOR-MUSIC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodore F. Karwoski; Henry S. Odbert

    1938-01-01

    Colored hearing is a phenomenon with important implications both for the psychologist and for the artist interested in developing new art forms. The present findings thus pertain to the problem of color-music as a possible art form. A determination of the nature and frequency of colored responses to music requires some sort of standard material which can easily be presented

  19. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  20. Rainbow Coloring of Graphs Rainbow Coloring of Graphs

    E-print Network

    Narasayya, Vivek

    Rainbow Coloring of Graphs Rainbow Coloring of Graphs L. Sunil Chandran Computer Science and Automation Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Email: sunil@csa.iisc.ernet.in #12;Rainbow Coloring of Graphs What is Rainbow Coloring? Consider an edge coloring, not necessarily proper. #12;Rainbow Coloring