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1

Computerized Classification Testing with the Rasch Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If classification in a limited number of categories is the purpose of testing, computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with algorithms based on sequential statistical testing perform better than estimation-based CATs (e.g., Eggen & Straetmans, 2000). In these computerized classification tests (CCTs), the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) (Wald,…

Eggen, Theo J. H. M.

2011-01-01

2

Computerized Adaptive Testing under Nonparametric IRT Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonparametric item response models have been developed as alternatives to the relatively inflexible parametric item response models. An open question is whether it is possible and practical to administer computerized adaptive testing with nonparametric models. This paper explores the possibility of computerized adaptive testing when using…

Xu, Xueli; Douglas, Jeff

2006-01-01

3

Graphical Models and Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers computerized adaptive testing from the perspective of graphical modeling (GM). GM provides methods for making inferences about multifaceted skills and knowledge and for extracting data from complex performances. Provides examples from language-proficiency assessment. (SLD)

Almond, Russell G.; Mislevy, Robert J.

1999-01-01

4

A Computerized Implementation of a Flexilevel Test and Its Comparison with a Bayesian Computerized Adaptive Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computerized flexilevel test was implemented and its ability estimates were compared with those of a Bayesian estimation based computerized adaptive test (CAT) as well as with known true ability estimates. Results showed that when the flexilevel test was terminated according to Lord's criterion, its ability estimates were highly and…

DeAyala, R. J.; Koch, William R.

5

Computerized Placement Testing and Academic Placement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Testing Center at Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC) in North Carolina, Educational Testing Service, and the College Board are participating jointly in pilot and field testing Computerized Placement Tests (CPTs). CPTs, which assess communications, reading, and mathematics skills, have the following benefits: (1) students may take the…

Webb, Nan; Tripp, John

6

Dichotomous Search Strategies for Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dichotomous search strategies (DSSs) for computerized adaptive testing are similar to golden section search strategies (GSSSs). Each middle point of successive search regions is a testing point. After each item is administered, the subject's obtained score is compared with the expected score at successive testing points. If the subject's obtained…

Xiao, Beiling

7

Strategies for Computerized Adaptive Grading Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated three strategies for assigning examinees to grading categories in computerized adaptive testing. The expected a posteriori-based method had more correct classifications in the middle range of grade levels and more errors for the extremes than the golden section search grading test and the Z-score grading test. (SLD)

Xiao, Beiling

1999-01-01

8

An Introduction to the Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has unsurpassable advantages over traditional testing. It has become the mainstream in large scale examinations in modern society. This paper gives a brief introduction to CAT including differences between traditional testing and CAT, the principles of CAT, psychometric theory and computer algorithms of CAT, the…

Tian, Jian-quan; Miao, Dan-min; Zhu, Xia; Gong, Jing-jing

2007-01-01

9

The Computerized Adaptive Testing System Development Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) project is a joint Armed Services coordinated effort to develop and evaluate a system for automated, adaptive administration of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB). The CAT is a system for administering personnel tests that differs from conventional test administration in two major…

McBride, James R.; Sympson, J. B.

10

Graphical Models and Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper synthesizes ideas from the fields of graphical modeling and education testing, particularly item response theory (IRT) applied to computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Graphical modeling can offer IRT a language for describing multifaceted skills and knowledge, and disentangling evidence from complex performances. IRT-CAT can offer…

Mislevy, Robert J.; Almond, Russell G.

11

Computerized pattern recognition applied to battery testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of this work has been to develop non-destructive testing methods as a screening procedure for batteries to predict lifetime and identify probably failure mechanisms. A secondary goal has been to develop criteria for predicting imminent failure from battery performance data. We believe that these goals can be met by the application of computerized pattern recognition to the

S. P. Perone

1980-01-01

12

The NASA/LRC Computerized Test System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new testing package, including apparatus and tasks for the behavioral study of a number of species in a variety of experiments is presented. The package is described with respect to the kinds of comparative psychological investigations for which it is best suited. The preliminary data generated within this new testing paradigm demonstrate that the NASA/LRC Computerized Test System provides a flexible yet powerful environment for the investigation of behavioral and psychological processes.

Richardson, W. Kirk; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Sue; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

1990-01-01

13

MCATL: A Language for Authoring Computerized Adaptive Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The specification of a computerized adaptive test, like the specification of computer-assisted instruction, is easier and can be done by personnel who are not proficient in computer programming if an authoring language is provided. The Minnesota Computerized Adaptive Testing Language (MCATL) is an authoring language specifically designed for…

Vale, C. David

14

Computerized color separation system for printed fabrics by using backward-propagation neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile production must be coupled with hi-tech assistant system to save cost of labor, material, time. Therefore color quality\\u000a control is one very important step in any textiles, however excellent the fabric material itself is, if it lacks good color,\\u000a then it may still result in dull sale. Therefore, this paper proposes a printed fabrics computerized color separation system\\u000a based

Chung-Feng Jeffrey Kuo; Te-Li Su; Yi-Jen Huang

2007-01-01

15

Online Calibration via Variable Length Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Item calibration is an essential issue in modern item response theory based psychological or educational testing. Due to the popularity of computerized adaptive testing, methods to efficiently calibrate new items have become more important than that in the time when paper and pencil test administration is the norm. There are many calibration…

Chang, Yuan-chin Ivan; Lu, Hung-Yi

2010-01-01

16

Balancing Flexible Constraints and Measurement Precision in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managing test specifications--both multiple nonstatistical constraints and flexibly defined constraints--has become an important part of designing item selection procedures for computerized adaptive tests (CATs) in achievement testing. This study compared the effectiveness of three procedures: constrained CAT, flexible modified constrained CAT,…

Moyer, Eric L.; Galindo, Jennifer L.; Dodd, Barbara G.

2012-01-01

17

Assessing the Efficiency of Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the efficiency of item selection in a computerized adaptive test (CAT), where efficiency was defined in terms of the accumulated test information at an examinee's true ability level. A simulation methodology compared the efficiency of 2 item selection procedures with 5 ability estimation procedures for CATs of 5, 10, 15,…

Weissman, Alexander

18

"catR": An R Package for Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is an active current research field in psychometrics and educational measurement. However, there is very little software available to handle such adaptive tasks. The R package "catR" was developed to perform adaptive testing with as much flexibility as possible, in an attempt to provide a developmental and…

Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles

2011-01-01

19

When Cognitive Diagnosis Meets Computerized Adaptive Testing: CD-CAT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a mode of testing which enables more efficient and accurate recovery of one or more latent traits. Traditionally, CAT is built upon Item Response Theory (IRT) models that assume unidimensionality. However, the problem of how to build CAT upon latent class models (LCM) has not been investigated until recently,…

Cheng, Ying

2009-01-01

20

Computerized Adaptive Testing with the Generalized Graded Unfolding Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the use of the generalized graded unfolding model (GGUM) in computerized adaptive testing, using simulation and attempting to minimize the number of items required to produce equiprecise estimates of person locations. Results suggest that adaptive testing with the GGUM is a good method for achieving estimates with an approximately uniform…

Roberts, James S.; Lin, Yan; Laughlin, James E.

2001-01-01

21

Computerized feature quantification of sublingual veins from color sublingual images.  

PubMed

Characteristics of tongue pose the most important information for Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnosis. So far, extensive studies have been made on extracting tongue surface features, but rarely refer to sublingual vein that is also diagnostically important. This paper focuses on establishing a feature quantification framework for the inspection of sublingual veins, composed of two parts: the segmentation of sublingual veins and the feature quantification of them. Pixel-based sublingual vein segmentation algorithm and adaptive sublingual vein segmentation algorithm for color sublingual images with visible contrast and low contrast are proposed respectively. The experiments prove that the proposed algorithms perform well on the segmentation of sublingual veins from color sublingual images with both visible contrast and low contrast. A chromatic system in conformity with diagnostic standard of tongue diagnosis is established to characterize the chromatic feature of sublingual veins. Experimental results reveal that the breadth and chromatic features quantified by the proposed framework are properly consistent with the diagnostic standard summarized by tongue diagnosis. PMID:18992958

Yan, Zifei; Wang, Kuanquan; Li, Naimin

2009-02-01

22

Auditory Performance Characteristics of the Computerized Revised Token Test (CRTT)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To assess the Computerized Revised Token Test (CRTT) performance of individuals with normal hearing under several intensity conditions and under several spectral and temporal perturbation conditions. Method: Sixty normal-hearing listeners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. Group 1 provided performance-intensity information about…

Eberwein, Cynthia A.; Pratt, Sheila R.; McNeil, Malcolm R.; Fossett, Tepanta R. D.; Szuminsky, Neil J.; Doyle, Patrick J.

2007-01-01

23

A Framework for the Development of Computerized Adaptive Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A substantial amount of research has been conducted over the past 40 years on technical aspects of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), such as item selection algorithms, item exposure controls, and termination criteria. However, there is little literature providing practical guidance on the development of a CAT. This paper seeks to collate some…

Thompson, Nathan A.; Weiss, David J.

2011-01-01

24

Computerized pattern recognition applied to battery testing. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of this work has been to develop non-destructive testing methods as a screening procedure for batteries to predict lifetime and identify probably failure mechanisms. A secondary goal has been to develop criteria for predicting imminent failure from battery performance data. We believe that these goals can be met by the application of computerized pattern recognition to the

Perone

1980-01-01

25

COMPUTERIZED LABORATORY NOTEBOOK CONCEPT FOR GENETIC TOXICOLOGY EXPERIMENTATION AND TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

We describe a microcomputer system utilizing the Computerized Laboratory Notebook (CLN) concept developed in our laboratory for the purpose of automating the Battery of Leukocyte Tests (BLT). The BLT was designed to evaluate blood specimens for toxic, immunotoxic, and genotoxic e...

26

Development of a Computerized Visual Search Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual attention and visual search are the features of visual perception, essential for attending and scanning one's environment while engaging in daily occupations. This study describes the development of a novel web-based test of visual search. The development information including the format of the test will be described. The test was designed…

Reid, Denise; Babani, Harsha; Jon, Eugenia

2009-01-01

27

Treatment of Test Anxiety: A Computerized Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Test anxiety creates problems for many students, and can have a negative impact on the academic performance of many who suffer from it (Jones & Petruzzi, 1995). Typical treatment components for test anxiety involve psychoeducation, relaxation training, gradual exposure, cognitive restructuring, study skills training, and relapse prevention.…

Pless, Anica

2010-01-01

28

Tomato Analyzer Color Test User Manual (v10.2007) TOMATO ANALYZER COLOR TEST: USER MANUAL  

E-print Network

Tomato Analyzer ­ Color Test User Manual (v10.2007) TOMATO ANALYZER ­ COLOR TEST: USER MANUAL 4 Part 1: Overview of color and Tomato Analyzer ­ Color Test (TACT) Digital color and the RGB color space Tomato Analyzer and the CIELab color space Standard illuminant and observer angle TACT application Part 2

van der Knaap, Esther

29

Computerized Neurocognitive Test Performance in Schizophrenia: A Lifespan Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Computerized neurocognitive batteries based on advanced behavioral neuroscience methods are increasingly used in large-scale clinical and genomic studies. Favorable construct validity in younger schizophrenia patients has been reported, but not in older patients. New variables afforded by computerized assessments were used to clarify age-associated cognitive impairment across the lifespan. Methods 624 patients with schizophrenia and 624 healthy comparison (HC) subjects aged 16–75 completed a 1–2 hour computerized neurocognitive battery (CNB) that assessed abstraction and mental flexibility, attention, working memory, recognition memory (verbal, facial, spatial), language, visuospatial and emotion processing. Linear mixed effects models tested for group differences in accuracy, response time, and efficiency scores. Contrasts were stratified by age. Results 91% of older (45+) and 94% of younger (<45) groups provided “good” data quality. After controlling for parental education and project, there were significant three-way interactions for diagnosis x domain x age group on all three outcome variables. Patients performed worse than HC across all neurocognitive domains, except in the oldest group of 60+ patients. Age-stratified analyses did not show differences between younger (16–45) and older patients (45–60, 60+), except for the attention domain. Older patients’ reduced working memory efficiency was due to worse speed, not accuracy. Older patients were quicker than younger patients in processing emotions. Conclusions Computerized assessments are feasible in large cohorts of schizophrenia patients. There is stable and generalized neurocognitive dysfunction across the lifespan in schizophrenia, albeit with fewer differences in some domains between older patients and HC after age 60. Speed-accuracy tradeoff strategies suggest deceleration of some frontal networks and improvements in speed of emotional processing. PMID:22183011

Irani, Farzin; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Richard, Jan; Calkins, Monica E.; Moberg, Paul J.; Bilker, Waren; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

2011-01-01

30

Testing Children for Color Blindness  

MedlinePLUS

... Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening ... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Testing Children for Color Blindness ... Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with Diabetes ...

31

An Efficient Algorithm of Computerized Checking System for Hard Copy MCQs Test (HCMCQST)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: A noval approach for checking of computerized multiple choice questions test (HCMCQST) like in NTS (National Testing Service, Pakistan), Engineering Universities and Medical colleges Entry tests without any errors is presented in this world. In this world tests are conducted in two ways; computerized \\/soft copy and on paper \\/ hard copy. The NTS and Entry tests in Pakistan

Tabassam Nawaz; Khurram Ishfaq Qazi; Muhammad Imran Ashraf

2009-01-01

32

The Influence of Examinee Test-Taking Motivation in Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of test motivation on estimated ability, test anxiety, and attitudes toward computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Korean college students (n=208) were given the Math Aptitude Test, Math Self-Concept Scale, Math Test Anxiety Scale, Computer Competence Instrument, Computer Anxiety Scale, and…

Kim, JinGyu; McLean, James E.

33

Influence of Demographics on Computerized Cognitive Testing in a Military Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized cognitive testing with software programs such as the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) have long been used to assess cognition in military samples. This study describes demographic influences on computerized testing performance in a large active duty military sample (n = 2366). Performance differences between men and women were minimal on most ANAM subtests, but there was a clear

T. M. Roebuck-Spencer; D. L. Reeves; J. Bleiberg; A. N. Cernich; K. Schwab; B. Ivins; A. Salazar; S. Harvey; F. Brown; D. Warden

2008-01-01

34

Development and Evaluation of a Confidence-Weighting Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine whether the efficiency, precision, and validity of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) could be improved by assessing confidence differences in knowledge that examinees possessed. We proposed a novel polytomous CAT model called the confidence-weighting computerized adaptive testing (CWCAT), which combined a…

Yen, Yung-Chin; Ho, Rong-Guey; Chen, Li-Ju; Chou, Kun-Yi; Chen, Yan-Lin

2010-01-01

35

Revisiting a Cognitive Framework for Test Design: Applications for a Computerized Perceptual Speed Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights the need for a systematic, content aware, and theoretically-based approach to test design. The cognitive components approach is endorsed, and is applied to the development of a computerized perceptual speed test. Psychometric literature is reviewed and shows that: every major multi-factor theory includes a clerical/perceptual…

Alderton, David L.

36

Computerized Cognitive Testing in the Management of Youth Sports-Related Concussion.  

PubMed

Computerized neurocognitive testing has become a growing practice across medical populations, but particularly within sports medicine and the management of sports-related concussion. Although traditional neuropsychological measures are solely administered and interpreted by neuropsychologists, computerized cognitive tests are marketed to and utilized by a wide range of professionals involved in the management of sports-related concussions, many of whom lack specialized psychometric training. Although the benefits of computerized testing allow for many youth athletes to be evaluated quickly, professionals implementing their use should be aware of the potential pitfalls and the high potential for misuse. After briefly reviewing the recommended guidelines set forth by the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology, we review the benefits/limitations of computerized testing in the management of sports-related concussion and the basic psychometric properties of some of the more widely used computerized measures. Lastly, we discuss the practical application of these devices. PMID:25477270

De Marco, Anthony P; Broshek, Donna K

2014-12-01

37

Development of a Computerized Adaptive Test for Schizotypy Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Schizotypal traits in adolescents from the general population represent the behavioral expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Schizotypy assessment in this sector of population has advanced considerably in the last few years; however, it is necessary to incorporate recent advances in psychological and educational measurement. Objective The main goal of this study was to develop a Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT) to evaluate schizotypy through “The Oviedo Questionnaire for Schizotypy Assessment” (ESQUIZO-Q), in non-clinical adolescents. Methods The final sample consisted of 3,056 participants, 1,469 males, with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD?=?1.2). Results The results indicated that the ESQUIZO-Q scores presented adequate psychometric properties under both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory. The Information Function estimated using the Gradual Response Model indicated that the item pool effectively assesses schizotypy at the high end of the latent trait. The correlation between the CAT total scores and the paper-and-pencil test was 0.92. The mean number of presented items in the CAT with the standard error fixed at ?0.30 was of 34 items. Conclusion The CAT showed adequate psychometric properties for schizotypy assessment in the general adolescent population. The ESQUIZO-Q adaptive version could be used as a screening method for the detection of adolescents at risk for psychosis in both educational and mental health settings. PMID:24019907

Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Menéndez, Luis Fernando; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Muñiz, José

2013-01-01

38

Mutual Information Item Selection Method in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing with Short Test Length  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) purports to combine the strengths of both CAT and cognitive diagnosis. Cognitive diagnosis models aim at classifying examinees into the correct mastery profile group so as to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of each examinee whereas CAT algorithms choose items to determine those…

Wang, Chun

2013-01-01

39

A Bayesian Method for the Detection of Item Preknowledge in Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored procedures to detect test takers using item preknowledge in computerized adaptive testing and suggested a Bayesian posterior log odds ratio index for this purpose. Simulation results support the use of the odds ratio index. (SLD)

McLeod, Lori; Lewis, Charles; Thissen, David

2003-01-01

40

Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment in Aging: Testing Efficacy and Clinical Ecology of Different Interfaces  

PubMed Central

Digital technologies have opened new opportunities for psychological testing, allowing new computerized testing tools to be developed and/or paper and pencil testing tools to be translated to new computerized devices. The question that rises is whether these implementations may introduce some technology-specific effects to be considered in neuropsychological evaluations. Two core aspects have been investigated in this work: the efficacy of tests and the clinical ecology of their administration (the ability to measure real-world test performance), specifically (1) the testing efficacy of a computerized test when response to stimuli is measured using a touch-screen compared to a conventional mouse-control response device; (2) the testing efficacy of a computerized test with respect to different input modalities (visual versus verbal); and (3) the ecology of two computerized assessment modalities (touch-screen and mouse-control), including preference measurements of participants. Our results suggest that (1) touch-screen devices are suitable for administering experimental tasks requiring precise timings for detection, (2) intrinsic nature of neuropsychological tests should always be respected in terms of stimuli presentation when translated to new digitalized environment, and (3) touch-screen devices result in ecological instruments being proposed for the computerized administration of neuropsychological tests with a high level of preference from elderly people. PMID:25147578

Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Catricalà, Eleonora; Castiglioni, Isabella

2014-01-01

41

A Computerized Test of Self-Control Predicts Classroom Behavior  

PubMed Central

We assessed choices on a computerized test of self-control (CTSC) for a group of children with features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a group of controls. Thirty boys participated in the study. Fifteen of the children had been rated by their parents as hyperactive and inattentive, and 15 were age- and gender-matched controls in the same classroom. The children were observed in the classroom for three consecutive mornings, and data were collected on their activity levels and attention. The CTSC consisted of two tasks. In the delay condition, children chose to receive three rewards after a delay of 60?s or one reward immediately. In the task-difficulty condition, the children chose to complete a difficult math problem and receive three rewards or complete an easier problem for one reward. The children with ADHD features made more impulsive choices than their peers during both conditions, and these choices correlated with measures of their activity and attention in the classroom. PMID:16813037

Hoerger, Marguerite L; Mace, F. Charles

2006-01-01

42

CATSIB: A Modified SIBTEST Procedure To Detect Differential Item Functioning in Computerized Adaptive Tests. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized adaptive tests (CATs) pose major obstacles to the traditional assessment of differential item functioning (DIF). This paper proposes a modification of the SIBTEST DIF procedure for CATs, called CATSIB. CATSIB matches test takers on estimated ability based on unidimensional item response theory. To control for impact-induced Type I…

Nandakumar, Ratna; Roussos, Louis

43

Validity of a Brief Computerized Cognitive Screening Test in Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: While preliminary evidence supports the criterion validity of the CogState computerized brief battery in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD), definitive validation studies examining a wider range of dementia-related disorders relative to conventional neuropsychological techniques are necessary. Methods: Participants satisfying clinical consensus criteria for dementia (AD, n = 37; frontotemporal dementia, n = 7; and dementia with

Dustin Hammers; Elizabeth Spurgeon; Kelly Ryan; Carol Persad; Nancy Barbas; Judith Heidebrink; David Darby; Bruno Giordani

2012-01-01

44

An Efficiency Balanced Information Criterion for Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful administration of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs in educational settings requires that test security and item exposure control issues be taken seriously. Developing an item selection algorithm that strikes the right balance between test precision and level of item pool utilization is the key to successful implementation…

Han, Kyung T.

2012-01-01

45

The Influence of Item Calibration Error on Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Variable-length computerized adaptive testing (VL-CAT) allows both items and test length to be "tailored" to examinees, thereby achieving the measurement goal (e.g., scoring precision or classification) with as few items as possible. Several popular test termination rules depend on the standard error of the ability estimate, which in turn depends…

Patton, Jeffrey M.; Cheng, Ying; Yuan, Ke-Hai; Diao, Qi

2013-01-01

46

A computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus  

PubMed Central

Background A tool for standardized and repeated neuropsychological assessments in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is needed. The objective of this study was to develop a computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for INPH and to evaluate its reliability, validity and patient’s ability to complete the tests. Methods Based on a structured review of the literature on neuropsychological testing in INPH, the eight tests most sensitive to the INPH cognitive profile were implemented in a computerized format. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was also included. Tests were presented on a touch-screen monitor, with animated instructions and speaker sound. The battery was evaluated with the following cohorts: A. Test-retest reliability, 44 healthy elderly; B. Validity against standard pen and pencil testing, 28 patients with various cognitive impairments; C. Ability to complete test battery, defined as completion of at least seven of the eight tests, 40 investigated for INPH. Results A. All except the figure copy test showed good test-retest reliability, r?=?0.67-0.90; B. A high correlation was seen between conventional and computerized tests (r?=?0.66-0.85) except for delayed recognition and figure copy task; C. Seventy-eight percent completed the computerized battery; Patients diagnosed with INPH (n?=?26) performed worse on all tests, including depression score, compared to healthy controls. Conclusions A new computerized neuropsychological test battery designed for patients with communicating hydrocephalus and INPH was introduced. Its reliability, validity for general cognitive impairment and completion rate for INPH was promising. After exclusion of the figure copy task, the battery is ready for clinical evaluation and as a next step we suggest validation for INPH and a comparison before and after shunt surgery. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.org NCT01265251. PMID:25279138

2014-01-01

47

Testing Accommodations for University Students with AD/HD: Computerized vs. Paper-Pencil/Regular vs. Extended Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prompted by a previous study investigating the effects of pacing on the academic testing performance of college students with AD/HD, we further explored our preliminary findings, which suggested that a computerized testing environment enhanced the testing performance of college students with AD/HD. We compared the effects of a computerized vs.…

Lee, Kathryn S.; Osborne, Randall E.; Carpenter, David N.

2010-01-01

48

The Application of the Monte Carlo Approach to Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing With Content Constraints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Monte Carlo approach which has previously been implemented in traditional computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is applied here to cognitive diagnostic CAT to test the ability of this approach to address multiple content constraints. The performance of the Monte Carlo approach is compared with the performance of the modified maximum global…

Mao, Xiuzhen; Xin, Tao

2013-01-01

49

Computerized Adaptive Testing for Effective and Efficient Measurement in Counseling and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is described and compared with conventional tests, and its advantages summarized. Some item response theory concepts used in CAT are summarized and illustrated. The author describes the potential usefulness of CAT in counseling and education and reviews some current issues in the implementation of CAT.

Weiss, David J.

2004-01-01

50

Direct and Inverse Problems of Item Pool Design for Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent literature on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has developed methods for creating CAT item pools from a large master pool. Each CAT pool is designed as a set of nonoverlapping forms reflecting the skill levels of an assumed population of test takers. This article presents a Monte Carlo method to obtain these CAT pools and discusses…

Belov, Dmitry I.; Armstrong, Ronald D.

2009-01-01

51

Trait Parameter Recovery Using Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing in Reading and Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under a multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) computerized adaptive testing (CAT) testing scenario, a trait estimate (&thgr;) in one dimension will provide clues for subsequently seeking a solution in other dimensions. This feature may enhance the efficiency of MIRT CAT’s item selection and its scoring algorithms compared with its counterpart, the unidimensional CAT (UCAT). The present study used existing Reading

Yuan H. Li; William D. Schafer

2005-01-01

52

Trait Parameter Recovery Using Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing in Reading and Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under a multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) computerized adaptive testing (CAT) testing scenario, a trait estimate (theta) in one dimension will provide clues for subsequently seeking a solution in other dimensions. This feature may enhance the efficiency of MIRT CAT's item selection and its scoring algorithms compared with its…

Li, Yuan H.; Schafer, William D.

2005-01-01

53

Comparing Assessments of Students' Knowledge by Computerized Open-Ended and Multiple-Choice Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interactive computerized tests accepting unrestricted natural-language input were used to assess knowledge of clinical biophysics at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Comparison of responses to open-ended sequential questions and multiple-choice questions on the same material found the two formats test different aspects of competence.…

Anbar, Michael

1991-01-01

54

A Comparison of the Nominal and Graded Response Models in Computerized Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, the majority of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) systems for achievement and aptitude testing have been based on the dichotomous item response models. However, current research with polychotomous model-based CATs is yielding promising results. This study extends previous work on nominal response model-based CAT (NR CAT) and compares…

De Ayala, R. J.; And Others

55

7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418...PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS...51.3418 Optional test for fry color. Fry color may be determined in...

2014-01-01

56

7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418...PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS...51.3418 Optional test for fry color. Fry color may be determined in...

2013-01-01

57

7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS...51.3418 Optional test for fry color. Fry color may be determined in...

2010-01-01

58

7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS...51.3418 Optional test for fry color. Fry color may be determined in...

2011-01-01

59

A Method for the Comparison of Item Selection Rules in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a typical study comparing the relative efficiency of two item selection rules in computerized adaptive testing, the common result is that they simultaneously differ in accuracy and security, making it difficult to reach a conclusion on which is the more appropriate rule. This study proposes a strategy to conduct a global comparison of two or…

Barrada, Juan Ramon; Olea, Julio; Ponsoda, Vicente; Abad, Francisco Jose

2010-01-01

60

The Adolescent Health Review: Test of a Computerized Screening Tool in School-Based Clinics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implemented a computerized screening instrument, the Adolescent Health Review, in urban school-based clinics to test the viability of a stand-alone screening process and its acceptance by patients and providers, examining the relationship between health risks and the stated purpose for the clinic visit. Patients and providers readily accepted the…

Harrison, Patricia A.; Beebe, Timothy J.; Funk, Eunkyung; Rancome, Jeanne

2003-01-01

61

A Genre-Based Perspective for the Development of Communicative Computerized Adaptive Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the communicative potentials of Computerized Adaptive Testing. The study is based on a model that offers a set of independent communicative concepts to describe the Genre of an interactive application. This model will be the starting point to analyze the stages of the interaction cycle that are typically inherent to every…

Lopez-Cuadrado, Javier; Armendariz, Ana J.; Latapy, Marion; Lopisteguy, Philippe

2008-01-01

62

Computerized-Adaptive and Self-Adapted Music-Listening Tests: Psychometric Features and Motivational Benefits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized-adaptive (CAT) and self-adapted (SAT) music listening tests were compared for efficiency, reliability, validity, and motivational benefits with 53 junior high school students. Results demonstrate trade-offs, with greater potential motivational benefits for SAT and greater efficiency for CAT. SAT elicited more favorable responses from…

Vispoel, Walter P.; Coffman, Don D.

1994-01-01

63

Item Pool Design for an Operational Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For computerized adaptive tests (CATs) to work well, they must have an item pool with sufficient numbers of good quality items. Many researchers have pointed out that, in developing item pools for CATs, not only is the item pool size important but also the distribution of item parameters and practical considerations such as content distribution…

He, Wei; Reckase, Mark D.

2014-01-01

64

Firestar-"D": Computerized Adaptive Testing Simulation Program for Dichotomous Item Response Theory Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) enables efficient and flexible measurement of latent constructs. The majority of educational and cognitive measurement constructs are based on dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models. An integral part of developing various components of a CAT system is conducting simulations using both known and empirical…

Choi, Seung W.; Podrabsky, Tracy; McKinney, Natalie

2012-01-01

65

Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on Cognitive Diagnosis Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in developing computerized adaptive testing (CAT) under cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) has increased recently. CAT algorithms that use a fixed-length termination rule frequently lead to different degrees of measurement precision for different examinees. Fixed precision, in which the examinees receive the same degree of measurement…

Hsu, Chia-Ling; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Shu-Ying

2013-01-01

66

SimulCAT: Windows Software for Simulating Computerized Adaptive Test Administration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most, if not all, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs use simulation techniques to develop and evaluate CAT program administration and operations, but such simulation tools are rarely available to the public. Up to now, several software tools have been available to conduct CAT simulations for research purposes; however, these existing…

Han, Kyung T.

2012-01-01

67

A Stochastic Method for Balancing Item Exposure Rates in Computerized Classification Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized classification tests (CCTs) classify examinees into categories such as pass/fail, master/nonmaster, and so on. This article proposes the use of stochastic methods from sequential analysis to address item overexposure, a practical concern in operational CCTs. Item overexposure is traditionally dealt with in CCTs by the Sympson-Hetter…

Huebner, Alan; Li, Zhushan

2012-01-01

68

Computerized Adaptive Testing Using a Class of High-Order Item Response Theory Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the human sciences, a common assumption is that latent traits have a hierarchical structure. Higher order item response theory models have been developed to account for this hierarchy. In this study, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) algorithms based on these kinds of models were implemented, and their performance under a variety of…

Huang, Hung-Yu; Chen, Po-Hsi; Wang, Wen-Chung

2012-01-01

69

A Feedback Control Strategy for Enhancing Item Selection Efficiency in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computerized adaptive test (CAT) may be modeled as a closed-loop system, where item selection is influenced by trait level ([theta]) estimation and vice versa. When discrepancies exist between an examinee's estimated and true [theta] levels, nonoptimal item selection is a likely result. Nevertheless, examinee response behavior consistent with…

Weissman, Alexander

2006-01-01

70

Three Response Types for Broadening the Conception of Mathematical Problem Solving in Computerized Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three open-ended response types that could broaden the conception of mathematical problem solving used in computerized admissions tests: (1) mathematical expression (ME); (2) generating examples (GE); and (3) and graphical modeling (GM). Illustrates how combining ME, GE, and GM can form extended constructed response problems. (SLD)

Bennett, Randy Elliot; Morley, Mary; Quardt, Dennis

2000-01-01

71

A Comparison of the Partial Credit and Graded Response Models in Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized adaptive testing procedures (CATPs) based on the graded response method (GRM) of F. Samejima (1969) and the partial credit model (PCM) of G. Masters (1982) were developed and compared. Both programs used maximum likelihood estimation of ability, and item selection was conducted on the basis of information. Two simulated data sets, one…

De Ayala, R. J.; And Others

72

A Comparative Study of Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the properties of five methods of item exposure control in the context of estimating examinees' abilities in a computerized adaptive testing situation. Findings show advantages to the Stocking and Lewis conditional multinomial procedure (M. Stocking and C. Lewis, 1995) and, to a lesser degree, the Davy and Parshall method (T. Davey and C.…

Chang, Shun-Wen; Ansley, Timothy N.

2003-01-01

73

Computerized Classification Testing under the One-Parameter Logistic Response Model with Ability-Based Guessing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The one-parameter logistic model with ability-based guessing (1PL-AG) has been recently developed to account for effect of ability on guessing behavior in multiple-choice items. In this study, the authors developed algorithms for computerized classification testing under the 1PL-AG and conducted a series of simulations to evaluate their…

Wang, Wen-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Yun

2011-01-01

74

Placement Decisions for First-Time-in-College Students Using the Computerized Placement Test. Information Capsule.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This information capsule explores the effectiveness of score ranges on the Computerized Placement Test (CPT), used to assess the skills of entry-level students at Miami-Dade Community College and place first-time-in-college students in classes. Data are provided for students entering in Fall terms 1996 and 1997 showing the number of students…

Bashford, Joanne

75

Using Out-of-Level Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Out-of-level testing refers to the practice of assessing a student with a test that is intended for students at a higher or lower grade level. Although the appropriateness of out-of-level testing for accountability purposes has been questioned by educators and policymakers, incorporating out-of-level items in formative assessments for accurate…

Wei, Hua; Lin, Jie

2015-01-01

76

Testing primates with joystick-based automated apparatus - Lessons from the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonhuman primates provide useful models for studying a variety of medical, biological, and behavioral topics. Four years of joystick-based automated testing of monkeys using the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) are examined to derive hints and principles for comparable testing with other species - including humans. The results of multiple parametric studies are reviewed, and reliability data are presented to reveal the surprises and pitfalls associated with video-task testing of performance.

Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

1992-01-01

77

Optimal Design of Item Banks for Computerized Adaptive Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applied optimal design methods to the item-bank design of adaptive testing for continuous testing situations using a version of the weighted-deviations model (M. Stocking and L. Swanson, 1993) in a simulation. Independent and overlapping item banks used items more efficiently than did a large item bank. (SLD)

Stocking, Martha L.; Swanson, Len

1998-01-01

78

Item Response Theory and Computerized Adaptive Testing: Implications for Outcomes Measurement in Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate computerized adaptive testing (CAT) measures of rehabilitation outcomes.\\u000aStudy Design: Physical functioning questions were calibrated via item response theory (IRT) and administered with CAT software.\\u000aSubjects: 485 adults interviewed during postacute care rehabilitation (simulation study) and 26 adults who completed CAT and personal interviews (CAT pilot study).\\u000aMain Outcome Measures: Patient acceptance and respondent burden, reliability, and

Ware John E. Jr; Barbara Gandek; Samuel J. Sinclair; Jakob B. Bjorner

2005-01-01

79

Validity and internal consistency reliability of a computerized test to assess prone extension in children ages four to six years.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop a computerized test of prone extension to measure performance of prone extension in children 4 to 6 years of age. The participants were selected from kindergartens, comprising 132 boys and 107 girls with a mean age of 5 yr. 2 mo. (SD = 6 mo.). Sensitivity and specificity of the computerized test of prone extension were assessed by comparison with the judgments of an expert, an occupational therapist with more than 20 yr. of pediatric experience, as the criterion standard. The computerized test of prone extension identified children with poor outcomes with a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.88, and an accuracy of 0.87. The internal reliability index was 0.81. The computerized test of prone extension could be of value in detecting problems of antigravity posture in prone extension and permitting early intervention to correct it. PMID:21058600

Lin, Chin-Kai; Wu, Huey-Min; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Li, Cheng-Hsaun

2010-08-01

80

The importance of proper administration and interpretation of neuropsychological baseline and postconcussion computerized testing.  

PubMed

Media coverage, litigation, and new legislation have resulted in a heightened awareness of the prevalence of sports concussion in both adult and youth athletes. Baseline and postconcussion testing is now commonly used for the assessment and management of sports-related concussion in schools and in youth sports leagues. With increased use of computerized neurocognitive sports concussion testing, there is a need for standards for proper administration and interpretation. To date, there has been a lack of standardized procedures by which assessments are administered. More specifically, individuals who are not properly trained often interpret test results, and their methods of interpretation vary considerably. The purpose of this article is to outline factors affecting the validity of test results, to provide examples of misuse and misinterpretation of test results, and to communicate the need to administer testing in the most effective and useful manner. An increase in the quality of test administration and application may serve to decrease the prevalence of invalid test results and increase the accuracy and utility of baseline test results if an athlete sustains a concussion. Standards for test use should model the American Psychological Association and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, as well as the recent findings of the joint position paper on computerized neuropsychological assessment devices. PMID:24236894

Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Schatz, Philip; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D

2015-01-01

81

Computerized Placement Tests: User Manual. Installation and Operation, Version 3.0. Including the College-Level Mathematics Test and Seamless Serial Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This user manual describes procedures for using Version 3.0 Computerized Placement Tests (CPTs) software and provides information about the hardware required to operate it. The software features the College-Level Mathematics (CLM) test, Seamless Serial Testing branching capabilities, new system installation and uninstallation procedures, and new…

College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

82

Exploring differences in computerized neurocognitive concussion testing between African American and White athletes.  

PubMed

The purpose of the current study was to explore potential differences in pre- and post-concussion performance on a computerized neurocognitive concussion test between African American and White high-school and collegiate student-athletes. A prospective case-control design was used to compare baseline and 2- and 7-day post-concussion computerized neurocognitive performance and symptoms between 48 White and 48 African American athletes matched for age, gender, and concussion history. The Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment Cognitive Test (ImPACT) version 2.0 (NeuroHealth System, LLC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA) computer software program was used to assess neurocognitive function (i.e., verbal and visual memory, motor processing speed, and reaction time) and concussion symptoms. Regardless of race/ethnicity, there were significant decrements in computerized neurocognitive performance and increased symptoms following a concussion for the entire sample. African Americans and Whites did not differ significantly on baseline or post-concussion verbal memory, visual memory, reaction time, and total reported symptoms. However, African American participants were 2.4× more likely to have at least one clinically significant cognitive decline on ImPACT at 7 days post-concussion and scored lower at 7 days post-concussion compared with baseline on processing speed than White participants. The authors concluded that the baseline ImPACT test was culturally equivalent and construct valid for use with these two racial/ethnic groups. However, in contrast, the findings support deleterious performance for the African American athletes compared with the White athletes on the ImPACT post-concussion evaluation that is of critical clinical relevance and warrants further research. PMID:20861034

Kontos, Anthony P; Elbin, Robert J; Covassin, Tracey; Larson, Elizabeth

2010-12-01

83

Construct Validity and Measurement Invariance of Computerized Adaptive Testing: Application to Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study are twofold. First, to investigate the construct or factorial structure of a set of Reading and Mathematics computerized adaptive tests (CAT), "Measures of Academic Progress" (MAP), given in different states at different grades and academic terms. The second purpose is to investigate the invariance of test factorial…

Wang, Shudong; McCall, Marty; Jiao, Hong; Harris, Gregg

2012-01-01

84

A Comparison of Validity Rates between Paper-and-Pencil and Computerized Testing with the MMPI-2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the use of computerized testing in psychopathology assessment has increased in recent years, limited research has examined the impact of this format in terms of potential differences in test validity rates. The current study explores potential differences in the rates of valid and invalid Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2…

Blazek, Nicole L.; Forbey, Johnathan D.

2011-01-01

85

An Empirical Evaluation of the Slip Correction in the Four Parameter Logistic Models with Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a selected response test, aberrant responses such as careless errors and lucky guesses might cause error in ability estimation because these responses do not actually reflect the knowledge that examinees possess. In a computerized adaptive test (CAT), these aberrant responses could further cause serious estimation error due to dynamic item…

Yen, Yung-Chin; Ho, Rong-Guey; Laio, Wen-Wei; Chen, Li-Ju; Kuo, Ching-Chin

2012-01-01

86

A Comparison of the Nominal Response Model and the Three-Parameter Logistic Model in Computerized Adaptive Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is intuitive to presume that when an examinee incorrectly answers a test item that he or she may possess partial knowledge of the item's correct answer. However, current use of dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models in IRT-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) ignore this partial information in their ability estimation. In this study a (polychotomous) nominal response model-based CAT

R. J. De Ayala

1989-01-01

87

Representing Response-Time Information in Item Banks. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The availability of item response times made possible by computerized testing represents an entirely new type of information about test items. This study explores the issue of how to represent response-time information in item banks. Empirical response-time distribution functions can be fit with statistical distribution functions with known…

Schnipke, Deborah L.; Scrams, David J.

88

Using Computerized Provider Order Entry to Enforce Documentation of Tests with Pending Results at Hospital Discharge  

PubMed Central

Background Small numbers of tests with pending results are documented in hospital discharge summaries leading to breakdown in communication and medical errors due to inadequate followup. Objective Evaluate effect of using a computerized provider order entry (CPOE) system to enforce documentation of tests with pending results into hospital discharge summaries. Methods We assessed the percent of all tests with pending results and those with actionable results that were documented before (n = 182 discharges) and after (n = 203 discharges) implementing the CPOE-enforcement tool. We also surveyed providers (n = 52) about the enforcement functionality. Results Documentation of all tests with pending results improved from 12% (87/701 tests) before to 22% (178/812 tests) (p = 0.02) after implementation. Documentation of tests with eventual actionable results increased from 0% (0/24) to 50% (14/28)(p<0.001). Survey respondents felt the intervention improved quality of summaries, provider communication, and was not time-consuming. Conclusions A CPOE tool enforcing documentation of tests with pending results into discharge summaries significantly increased documentation rates, especially of actionable tests. However, gaps in documentation still exist. PMID:23616906

Cadwallader, J.; Asirwa, C.; Li, X.; Kesterson, J.; Tierney, W.M.; Were, M.C.

2012-01-01

89

Application of an Empirical Bayes Enhancement of Mantel-Haenszel Differential Item Functioning Analysis to a Computerized Adaptive Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used a simulation to investigate the applicability to computerized adaptive test data of a differential item functioning (DIF) analysis method. Results show the performance of this empirical Bayes enhancement of the Mantel Haenszel DIF analysis method to be quite promising. (SLD)

Zwick, Rebecca; Thayer, Dorothy T.

2002-01-01

90

Effect of Person Cluster on Accuracy of Ability Estimation of Computerized Adaptive Testing in K-12 Education Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability estimation procedure is one of the most important components in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) system. Currently, all CATs that provide K-12 student scores are based on the item response theory (IRT) model(s); while such application directly violates the assumption of independent sample of a person in IRT models because ability…

Wang, Shudong; Jiao, Hong; He, Wei

2011-01-01

91

Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using this project will expose you to concepts of color, color wheels, color combinations, and techniques of using color. Use the following links, follow the directions to define color terms, create color schemes and explore the use of color in creating designs. Color Scheme Generator 2 This site identifiesbasic terms related to color, using acolor wheeland making color schemes. Color Theory This site explains terminology of color. Color Theory Tutorial This site gives excellent examples and information about ...

Dent, Mrs.

2010-03-23

92

Further development of forensic eye color predictive tests.  

PubMed

In forensic analysis predictive tests for external visible characteristics (or EVCs), including inference of iris color, represent a potentially useful tool to guide criminal investigations. Two recent studies, both focused on forensic testing, have analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes underlying common eye color variation (Mengel-From et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 4:323 and Walsh et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 5:170). Each study arrived at different recommendations for eye color predictive tests aiming to type the most closely associated SNPs, although both confirmed rs12913832 in HERC2 as the key predictor, widely recognized as the most strongly associated marker with blue and brown iris colors. Differences between these two studies in identification of other eye color predictors may partly arise from varying approaches to assigning phenotypes, notably those not unequivocally blue or dark brown and therefore occupying an intermediate iris color continuum. We have developed two single base extension assays typing 37 SNPs in pigmentation-associated genes to study SNP-genotype based prediction of eye, skin, and hair color variation. These assays were used to test the performance of different sets of eye color predictors in 416 subjects from six populations of north and south Europe. The presence of a complex and continuous range of intermediate phenotypes distinct from blue and brown eye colors was confirmed by establishing eye color populations compared to genetic clusters defined using Structure software. Our study explored the effect of an expanded SNP combination beyond six markers has on the ability to predict eye color in a forensic test without extending the SNP assay excessively - thus maintaining a balance between the test's predictive value and an ability to reliably type challenging DNA with a multiplex of manageable size. Our evaluation used AUC analysis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves) and naïve Bayesian likelihood-based classification approaches. To provide flexibility in SNP-based eye color predictive tests in forensic applications we modified an online Bayesian classifier, originally developed for genetic ancestry analysis, to provide a straightforward system to assign eye color likelihoods from a SNP profile combining additional informative markers from the predictors analyzed by our study plus those of Walsh and Mengel-From. Two advantages of the online classifier is the ability to submit incomplete SNP profiles, a common occurrence when typing challenging DNA, and the ability to handle physically linked SNPs showing independent effect, by allowing the user to input frequencies from SNP pairs or larger combinations. This system was used to include the submission of frequency data for the SNP pair rs12913832 and rs1129038: indicated by our study to be the two SNPs most closely associated to eye color. PMID:22709892

Ruiz, Y; Phillips, C; Gomez-Tato, A; Alvarez-Dios, J; Casares de Cal, M; Cruz, R; Maroñas, O; Söchtig, J; Fondevila, M; Rodriguez-Cid, M J; Carracedo, A; Lareu, M V

2013-01-01

93

Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will be used to teach the importance of color. Watch the following video about color Primary Colors Click on the link Exploration of Color. When you get into the website select the different colors to see what secondary colors are made from the primary colors. Review the following siteColor Theory and then design and paint a color wheel. ...

JoLene

2008-09-29

94

Comparing countdown- and IRT-based approaches to computerized adaptive personality testing.  

PubMed

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is an emerging technology in the personality assessment literature given the greater efficiency it affords compared with traditional methods. However, few studies have directly compared the efficiency and validity of 2 competing methods for personality CAT: (a) methods based on item response theory (IRT-CAT) versus (b) methods based on the countdown method (CM-CAT). To that end, we conducted real-data simulations with previously collected responses (N = 8,690) to the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP). Three CAT algorithms (IRT-CAT, IRT-CAT with 5-item minimum, CM-CAT) were evaluated for item savings, classification accuracy, and convergent/discriminant validity. All CATs yielded lower classification accuracy and validity than traditional testing but required 18%-86% fewer items. Ultimately, the IRT-CAT, with minimum 5-item requirement, struck the most ideal balance of highest item savings, and generally fewer costs to validity and accuracy. These results confirm findings regarding item savings trends from previous CAT studies. In addition, this study provides a model for how the validity and precision of CATs may be compared across personality assessments. PMID:23647045

Rudick, Monica M; Yam, Wern How; Simms, Leonard J

2013-09-01

95

Personal Profiles of Color Synesthesia: Developing a Testing Method for Artists and Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a practical method for assessing personal profiles of color:word, color:taste, color:music and color:odor synesthesia. The Netherlands Color Synesthesia (NeCoSyn) method is based on the Swedish Natural Color System and the test of genuineness for colored-word synesthesia developed by Baron-Cohen et al. The NeCoSyn method has been tested scientifically and shown to reliably distinguish different types of color

Crétien van Campen; Clara Froger

2003-01-01

96

Monte Carlo Simulation Comparison of Two-Stage Testing and Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-stage testing strategy is one method of adapting the difficulty of a test to an individual's ability level in an effort to achieve more precise measurement. A routing test provides an initial estimate of ability level, and a second-stage measurement test then evaluates the examinee further. The measurement accuracy and efficiency of item…

Kim, Haeok; Plake, Barbara S.

97

Computerized neuropsychological testing to rapidly evaluate cognition in pediatric patients with neurologic disorders.  

PubMed

Computerized neuropsychological tests represent a viable method for rapidly screening cognition. The purpose of this study was to explore performance on the CNS Vital Signs in a large pediatric neurology sample. Participants included 166 neurology patients (mean age, 13.0 years; standard deviation, 3.2) and 281 controls (mean age, 13.2 years; standard deviation, 3.2) between 7 and 19 years. The neurology sample performed significantly worse on all domain scores and nearly all subtest scores. Cohen d effect sizes were small to medium for verbal memory (d= 0.44), visual memory (d= 0.40), and reaction time (d= 0.48) and very large for psychomotor speed (d= 1.19), complex attention (d = 0.94), cognitive flexibility (d = 0.94), and the overall composite score (d = 1.08). Using the criterion for cognitive impairment of 2 or more scores ?5th percentile, 36.6% of the neurology sample was identified as having an uncommon cognitive profile. This is the first study to demonstrate the performance of pediatric patients with neurologic disorders on CNS Vital Signs. PMID:22290863

Brooks, Brian L; Sherman, Elisabeth M S

2012-08-01

98

Computerized Adaptive Testing for Follow-up after Discharge from Inpatient Rehabilitation: II. Participation Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective To measure participation outcomes with a computerized adaptive test (CAT) and compare CAT and traditional fixed-length surveys in terms of score agreement, respondent burden, discriminant validity, and responsiveness. Design Longitudinal, prospective cohort study of patients interviewed approximately two weeks after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation and three months later. Setting Follow-up interviews conducted in patients’ home setting. Participants 94 adults with diagnoses of neurological, orthopedic or medically complex conditions. Main Outcome Measures Participation domains of Mobility, Domestic Life, and Community, Social and Civic Life, measured using a CAT version of the Participation Measure for Post-acute Care (PM-PAC-CAT) and a 53-item fixed-length survey (PM-PAC-53). Results PM-PAC-CAT showed substantial agreement with PM-PAC-53 scores (ICC3,1= 0.71–0.81). On average, the PM-PAC-CAT could be completed in 48% of the time and with only 45% of the items as compared to PM-PAC-53. Both formats discriminated across functional severity groups. PM-PAC-CAT and PM-PAC-53 were comparable in responsiveness to patient-reported change over a 3-month interval. Conclusions Accurate estimates of participation status and responsiveness to change for group-level analyses and can be obtained from CAT administrations, with a considerable reduction in respondent burden. PMID:18226651

Haley, Stephen M.; Siebens, Hilary; Black-Schaffer, Randie M.; Tao, Wei; Coster, Wendy J.; Ni, Pengsheng; Jette, Alan M.

2009-01-01

99

Computerized Ultrasonic Testing System (CUTS) for in-process thickness determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Computerized Ultrasonic Testing System (CUTS) was developed to measure, in real-time, the rate of deposition and thickness of chromium plated on the inside of thick steel tubes. The measurements are made from the outside of the tubes with the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The resolution of the system is 2.5 micron. (0.0001 in.) and the accuracy is better than 10 micron (0.0004 in.). The thickness is measured using six transducers mounted at different locations on the tube. In addition, two transducers are mounted on two reference standards, thereby allowing the system to be continuously calibrated. The tube temperature varies during the process, thus the input from eight thermocouples, located at the measurement sites, is used to calculate and compensate for the change in return time of the ultrasonic echo due to the temperature dependence of the sound velocity. CUTS is applicable to any commercial process where real-time change of thickness of a sample has to be known, with the advantage of facilitating increased efficiency and of improving process control.

Frankel, J.; Doxbeck, M.; Schroeder, S. C.; Abbate, A.

1994-01-01

100

Color-Shape Associations Revealed with Implicit Association Tests  

PubMed Central

Kandinsky proposed a correspondence theory that suggests associations between specific colors and shapes (i.e., circle-blue, square-red, triangle-yellow). Makin and Wuerger tested the theory using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and did not find clear evidence for Kandinsky’s color-shape associations among British participants. In the present study, we first replicated the previous study among Japanese participants and found similar results to those of Makin and Wuerger, showing little support for Kandinsky’s theory. In the subsequent experiment, we tested another set of color-shape associations that had been revealed by using an explicit matching method (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow) in Japanese participants. The IAT tests showed that response times were significantly faster when circle-red, square-blue, and triangle-yellow combinations were mapped onto the same response key, rather than different key combinations, indicating that these color-shape combinations were encoded. These results provide the first empirical evidence that color-shape associations can be measured by indirect behavioral methods, and in particular, Japanese people’s color-shape associations (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow) can be observed by both direct and indirect experimental methods. PMID:25625717

Chen, Na; Tanaka, Kanji; Watanabe, Katsumi

2015-01-01

101

Test-Retest Reliability of Computerized, Everyday Memory Measures and Traditional Memory Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Test-retest reliabilities and practice effect magnitudes were considered for nine computer-simulated tasks of everyday cognition and five traditional neuropsychological tests. The nine simulated everyday memory tests were from the Memory Assessment Clinic battery as follows: (1) simple reaction time while driving; (2) divided attention (driving…

Youngjohn, James R.; And Others

102

Applying Computerized Adaptive Testing to the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised: Rasch Analysis of Workplace Bullying  

PubMed Central

Background Workplace bullying is a prevalent problem in contemporary work places that has adverse effects on both the victims of bullying and organizations. With the rapid development of computer technology in recent years, there is an urgent need to prove whether item response theory–based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can be applied to measure exposure to workplace bullying. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative efficiency and measurement precision of a CAT-based test for hospital nurses compared to traditional nonadaptive testing (NAT). Under the preliminary conditions of a single domain derived from the scale, a CAT module bullying scale model with polytomously scored items is provided as an example for evaluation purposes. Methods A total of 300 nurses were recruited and responded to the 22-item Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R). All NAT (or CAT-selected) items were calibrated with the Rasch rating scale model and all respondents were randomly selected for a comparison of the advantages of CAT and NAT in efficiency and precision by paired t tests and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Results The NAQ-R is a unidimensional construct that can be applied to measure exposure to workplace bullying through CAT-based administration. Nursing measures derived from both tests (CAT and NAT) were highly correlated (r=.97) and their measurement precisions were not statistically different (P=.49) as expected. CAT required fewer items than NAT (an efficiency gain of 32%), suggesting a reduced burden for respondents. There were significant differences in work tenure between the 2 groups (bullied and nonbullied) at a cutoff point of 6 years at 1 worksite. An AUROC of 0.75 (95% CI 0.68-0.79) with logits greater than –4.2 (or >30 in summation) was defined as being highly likely bullied in a workplace. Conclusions With CAT-based administration of the NAQ-R for nurses, their burden was substantially reduced without compromising measurement precision. PMID:24534113

Ma, Shu-Ching; Li, Yu-Chi; Yui, Mei-Shu

2014-01-01

103

Measuring Physical Functioning in Children with Spinal Impairments with Computerized Adaptive Testing  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of measuring current physical functioning status of children with complex spinal impairments by applying computerized adaptive testing (CAT) methods. CAT uses a computer-interface to administer the most optimal items based on previous responses, reducing the number of items needed to obtain a scoring estimate. Methods This was a prospective study of 77 subjects (0.6 – 19.8 yrs) with spinal impairments who were seen during a routine clinic visit. Using a multidimensional version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory CAT program (PEDI-MCAT), we evaluated content range, accuracy and efficiency, known –groups validity, concurrent validity with the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), and test-retest reliability in a sub-sample (n=16) within a two-week interval. Results We found the PEDI-MCAT to have sufficient item coverage in both self-care and mobility content for this sample, although a majority of the patients tended to score at the higher ends of both scales. Both the accuracy of PEDI-MCAT scores as compared to a fixed-format of the PEDI (r = 0.98 for both mobility and self-care) and test-retest reliability were very high (self-care: ICC (3,1)=0.98, mobility: ICC(3,1)=0.99). The PEDI-MCAT took an average of 2.9 minutes for the parents to complete. The PEDI-MCAT detected expected differences between patient groups, and scores on the PEDI-MCAT correlated in expected directions with scores from the PODCI domains. Conclusion Use of the PEDI-MCAT to assess the physical functioning status, as perceived by parents of children with complex spinal impairments, appears to be feasible and achieves accurate and efficient estimates of self-care and mobility function. Additional item development will be needed at the higher functioning end of the scale to avoid ceiling effects for older children. Level of Evidence This is a level II prospective study designed to establish the utility of computer adaptive testing as an evaluation method in a busy pediatric spine practice. PMID:18362799

Mulcahey, M. J.; Haley, Stephen M.; Duffy, Theresa; Ni, Pengsheng; Betz, Randal R.

2009-01-01

104

Use of computerized tests to evaluate psychomotor performance in children with specific learning disabilities in comparison to normal children  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) have an unexplained difficulty in acquiring basic academic skills resulting in a significant discrepancy between their academic potential and achievements. This study was undertaken to compare the performance on a battery of six psychomotor tests of children with SpLD and those without any learning disabilities (controls) using computerized tests. Methods: In this study, 25 children with SpLD and 25 controls (matched for age, socio-economic status and medium of instruction) were given three training sessions over one week. Then children were asked to perform on the six computerized psychomotor tests. Results were compared between the two groups. Results: Children with SpLD fared significantly worse on finger tapping test, choice reaction test, digit picture substitution test and card sorting test compared to the controls (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Children with SpLD have impairment of psychomotor skills like attention, sensory-motor coordination and executive functioning. Further research is needed to evaluate if the remedial education plan results in improvement in psychomotor performance of children with SpLD on these selected tests. PMID:25579146

Taur, Santosh; Karande, Sunil; Saxena, Akriti A.; Gogtay, Nithya J.; Thatte, Urmila M.

2014-01-01

105

Colors, Colors?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to the famous "Stroop Effect," learners explore how words influence what we see and how the brain handles "mixed messages." Learners read colored words and are asked to say the color of the word, not what the word says. Learners use a data table to keep track of where they have trouble reading the colors. They analyze this data by answering questions and drawing conclusions. Learners can also take this test using the online version.

Susan Songstad

2009-01-01

106

Estimation of an Examinee's Ability in the Web-Based Computerized Adaptive Testing Program IRT-CAT  

PubMed Central

We developed a program to estimate an examinee s ability in order to provide freely available access to a web-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) program. We used PHP and Java Script as the program languages, PostgresSQL as the database management system on an Apache web server and Linux as the operating system. A system which allows for user input and searching within inputted items and creates tests was constructed. We performed an ability estimation on each test based on a Rasch model and 2- or 3-parametric logistic models. Our system provides an algorithm for a web-based CAT, replacing previous personal computer-based ones, and makes it possible to estimate an examinee's ability immediately at the end of test. PMID:19223996

Park, Jung-Ho; Park, In-Yong

2006-01-01

107

Estimation of an examinee's ability in the web-based computerized adaptive testing program IRT-CAT.  

PubMed

We developed a program to estimate an examinee s ability in order to provide freely available access to a web-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) program. We used PHP and Java Script as the program languages, PostgresSQL as the database management system on an Apache web server and Linux as the operating system. A system which allows for user input and searching within inputted items and creates tests was constructed. We performed an ability estimation on each test based on a Rasch model and 2- or 3-parametric logistic models. Our system provides an algorithm for a web-based CAT, replacing previous personal computer-based ones, and makes it possible to estimate an examinee's ability immediately at the end of test. PMID:19223996

Lee, Yoon-Hwan; Park, Jung-Ho; Park, In-Yong

2006-01-01

108

Test and evaluation of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the definition of a Material Balance Area (MBA) as a well-defined geographical area involving an Integral operation, the building housing the BFS-1 and BFS-1 critical facilities is considered to consist of one MBA. The BFS materials are in the form of small disks clad in stainless steel and each disk with nuclear material has its own serial number. Fissile material disks in the BFS MBA can be located at three key monitoring points: BFS-1 facility, BFS-2 facility and main storage of BFS fissile materials (storage 1). When used in the BFS-1 or BFS-2 critical facilities, the fissile material disks are loaded in tubes (fuel rods) forming critical assembly cores. The following specific features of the BFS MBA should be taken into account for the purpose of computerized accounting of nuclear material: (1) very large number of nuclear material items (about 70,000 fissile material items); and (2) periodically very intensive shuffling of nuclear material items. Requirements for the computerized system are determined by basic objectives of nuclear material accounting: (1) providing accurate information on the identity and location of all items in the BFS material balance area; (2) providing accurate information on location and identity of tamper-indicating devices; (3) tracking nuclear material inventories; (4) issuing periodic reports; (5) assisting with the detection of material gains or losses; (6) providing a history of nuclear material transactions; (7) preventing unauthorized access to the system and data falsification. In August 1995, the prototype computerized accounting system was installed on the BFS facility for trial operation. Information on two nuclear material types was entered into the data base: weapon-grade plutonium metal and 36% enriched uranium dioxide. The total number of the weapon-grade plutonium disks is 12,690 and the total number of the uranium dioxide disks is 1,700.

NONE

1995-12-31

109

Instructional (II); Computerized Testing; and CATC Discussion and Demonstration. Papers Presented at the Association for Educational Data Systems Annual Convention (Phoenix, Arizona, May 3-7, 1976).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighteen papers on instructional technology, computerized testing, and computer assisted test construction (CATC) presented at the 1976 Association for Educational Data Systems (AEDS) convention are included here. Two papers discuss computer assisted instruction in calculus and teacher education courses. The use of computers in theoretical…

Association for Educational Data Systems, Washington, DC.

110

Color-Object Interference: Further Tests of an Executive Control Account  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children are slower in naming the color of a meaningful picture than in naming the color of an abstract form (Stroop-like color-object interference). The current experiments tested an executive control account of this phenomenon. First, color-object interference was observed in 6- and 8-year-olds but not in 12- and 16-year-olds (Experiment…

La Heij, Wido; Boelens, Harrie

2011-01-01

111

Evaluation of an Item Bank for a Computerized Adaptive Test of Activity in Children With Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Background: Contemporary clinical assessments of activity are needed across the age span for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has the potential to efficiently administer items for children across wide age spans and functional levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a new item bank and simulated computerized adaptive test to assess activity level abilities in children with CP. Design: This was a cross-sectional item calibration study. Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 308 children and youth with CP, aged 2 to 20 years (X=10.7, SD=4.0), recruited from 4 pediatric hospitals. We collected parent-report data on an initial set of 45 activity items. Using an Item Response Theory (IRT) approach, we compared estimated scores from the activity item bank with concurrent instruments, examined discriminate validity, and developed computer simulations of a CAT algorithm with multiple stop rules to evaluate scale coverage, score agreement with CAT algorithms, and discriminant and concurrent validity. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis supported scale unidimensionality, local item dependence, and invariance. Scores from the computer simulations of the prototype CATs with varying stop rules were consistent with scores from the full item bank (r=.93–.98). The activity summary scores discriminated across levels of upper-extremity and gross motor severity and were correlated with the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) physical function and sports subscale (r=.86), the Functional Independence Measure for Children (Wee-FIM) (r=.79), and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory–Cerebral Palsy version (r=.74). Limitations: The sample size was small for such IRT item banks and CAT development studies. Another limitation was oversampling of children with CP at higher functioning levels. Conclusions: The new activity item bank appears to have promise for use in a CAT application for the assessment of activity abilities in children with CP across a wide age range and different levels of motor severity. PMID:19423642

Haley, Stephen M.; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A.; Dumas, Helene M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Gorton, George E.; Watson, Kyle; Montpetit, Kathleen; Bilodeau, Nathalie; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Tucker, Carole A.

2009-01-01

112

An Evaluation of Computerized Tests as Predictors of Job Performance: II. Differential Validity for Global and Job Element Criteria. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents data concerning the validity of a set of experimental computerized and paper-and-pencil tests for measures of on-job performance on global and job elements. It reports on the usefulness of 30 experimental and operational variables for predicting marks on 42 job elements and on a global criterion for Electrician's Mate,…

Cory, Charles H.

113

A Comparison of Content-Balancing Procedures for Estimating Multiple Clinical Domains in Computerized Adaptive Testing: Relative Precision, Validity, and Detection of Persons with Misfitting Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This simulation study sought to compare four different computerized adaptive testing (CAT) content-balancing procedures designed for use in a multidimensional assessment with respect to measurement precision, symptom severity classification, validity of clinical diagnostic recommendations, and sensitivity to atypical responding. The four…

Riley, Barth B.; Dennis, Michael L.; Conrad, Kendon J.

2010-01-01

114

Development of a Computerized Adaptive Testing for Diagnosing the Cognitive Process of Grade 7 Students in Learning Algebra, Using Multidimensional Item Response Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research is to develop a multidimensional computerized adaptive test for diagnosing the cognitive process of grade 7 students in learning algebra by applying multidimensional item response theory. The research is divided into 4 steps: 1) the development of item bank of algebra, 2) the development of the multidimensional…

Senarat, Somprasong; Tayraukham, Sombat; Piyapimonsit, Chatsiri; Tongkhambanjong, Sakesan

2013-01-01

115

COLORS!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students will learn about primary, secondary, and complementary colors. After exploring a few sites and participating in a few deep questions as a class, they will create an optical illusion using complimentary colors. Younger students who are learning this unit will need to do this activity with a parent or as a class with a teacher or aide. INTRODUCTION: Questions to discuss with the students: 1. What colors do you see in this room? 2. What are some jobs that use colors? An Artist? Decorator? ...

Sarah

2009-09-28

116

Can computerized clinical decision support systems improve practitioners' diagnostic test ordering behavior? A decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Underuse and overuse of diagnostic tests have important implications for health outcomes and costs. Decision support technology purports to optimize the use of diagnostic tests in clinical practice. The objective of this review was to assess whether computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs) are effective at improving ordering of tests for diagnosis, monitoring of disease, or monitoring of treatment. The outcome of interest was effect on the diagnostic test-ordering behavior of practitioners. Methods We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid's EBM Reviews database, Inspec, and reference lists for eligible articles published up to January 2010. We included randomized controlled trials comparing the use of CCDSSs to usual practice or non-CCDSS controls in clinical care settings. Trials were eligible if at least one component of the CCDSS gave suggestions for ordering or performing a diagnostic procedure. We considered studies 'positive' if they showed a statistically significant improvement in at least 50% of test ordering outcomes. Results Thirty-five studies were identified, with significantly higher methodological quality in those published after the year 2000 (p = 0.002). Thirty-three trials reported evaluable data on diagnostic test ordering, and 55% (18/33) of CCDSSs improved testing behavior overall, including 83% (5/6) for diagnosis, 63% (5/8) for treatment monitoring, 35% (6/17) for disease monitoring, and 100% (3/3) for other purposes. Four of the systems explicitly attempted to reduce test ordering rates and all succeeded. Factors of particular interest to decision makers include costs, user satisfaction, and impact on workflow but were rarely investigated or reported. Conclusions Some CCDSSs can modify practitioner test-ordering behavior. To better inform development and implementation efforts, studies should describe in more detail potentially important factors such as system design, user interface, local context, implementation strategy, and evaluate impact on user satisfaction and workflow, costs, and unintended consequences. PMID:21824382

2011-01-01

117

Examining Differences in Examinee Performance in Paper and Pencil and Computerized Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study evaluated the comparability of two versions of a certification test: a paper-and-pencil test (PPT) and computer-based test (CBT). An effect size measure known as Cohen's d and differential item functioning (DIF) analyses were used as measures of comparability at the test and item levels, respectively. Results indicated that the effect…

Puhan, Gautam; Boughton, Keith; Kim, Sooyeon

2007-01-01

118

Orbital docking system centerline color television camera system test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of tests was run to verify that the design of the centerline color television camera (CTVC) system is adequate optically for the STS-71 Space Shuttle Orbiter docking mission with the Mir space station. In each test, a mockup of the Mir consisting of hatch, docking mechanism, and docking target was positioned above the Johnson Space Center's full fuselage trainer, which simulated the Orbiter with a mockup of the external airlock and docking adapter. Test subjects viewed the docking target through the CTVC under 30 different lighting conditions and evaluated target resolution, field of view, light levels, light placement, and methods of target alignment. Test results indicate that the proposed design will provide adequate visibility through the centerline camera for a successful docking, even with a reasonable number of light failures. It is recommended that the flight deck crew have individual switching capability for docking lights to provide maximum shadow management and that centerline lights be retained to deal with light failures and user preferences. Procedures for light management should be developed and target alignment aids should be selected during simulated docking runs.

Mongan, Philip T.

1993-01-01

119

A Standard Computerized Version of the Reading Span Test in Different Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Reading Span Test (RST) is a verbal working-memory test. The original RST (Daneman & Carpenter, 1980), and derivatives of it, are being used increasingly as assessments of central executive functioning and for research on aging-associated cognitive decline (Whitney, Arnett, Driver, & Budd, 2001). Several versions have been made in order to further improve the test or to develop a

Maurits van den Noort; Peggy Bosch; Marco Haverkort; Kenneth Hugdahl

2008-01-01

120

IRAS colors of carbon stars - An optical spectroscopic test  

SciTech Connect

Optical spectra are obtained of 57 photographic counterparts to IRAS sources not previously studied spectroscopically, and expected on the basis of their IRAS colors to be M or C type stars. Confirmed carbon stars are found only in a restricted range of 12-25 index, and constitute a striking vertical sequence in the 12-25-60 micron color-color diagram. This sequence is in accord with evolutionary models for AGB stars that convert M into C stars by dredge-up, and follow loops in the color-color plane. Optically visible and optically invisible carbon stars occupy different color-color locations consistent with their representations of different evolutionary states in the life of relatively low-mass stars. 16 refs.

Cohen, M.; Wainscoat, R.J.; Walker, H.J.; Volk, K.; Schwartz, D.E. (California Univ., Berkeley (USA); Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Los Altos, CA (USA))

1989-06-01

121

Color Vision in Horses (Equus caballus): Deficiencies Identified Using a Pseudoisochromatic Plate Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, equine color vision was tested with stimuli composed either of painted cards or photographic slides or through physiological testing using electroretinogram flicker photometry. Some studies produced similar results, but others did not, demonstrating that there was not yet a definitive answer regarding color vision in horses (Equus caballus). In this study, a pseudoisochromatic plate test—which is highly

Evelyn B. Hanggi; Jerry F. Ingersoll; Terrace L. Waggoner

2007-01-01

122

Fairness in Computerized Testing: Detecting Item Bias Using CATSIB with Impact Present  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In educational assessment, there is an increasing demand for tailoring assessments to individual examinees through computer adaptive tests (CAT). As such, it is particularly important to investigate the fairness of these adaptive testing processes, which require the investigation of differential item function (DIF) to yield information about item…

Chu, Man-Wai; Lai, Hollis

2013-01-01

123

Reducing the Impact of Inappropriate Items on Reviewable Computerized Adaptive Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a test, the testing score would be closer to examinee's actual ability when careless mistakes were corrected. In CAT, however, changing the answer of one item in CAT might cause the following items no longer appropriate for estimating the examinee's ability. These inappropriate items in a reviewable CAT might in turn introduce bias in ability…

Yen, Yung-Chin; Ho, Rong-Guey; Liao, Wen-Wei; Chen, Li-Ju

2012-01-01

124

Comparability of Conventional and Computerized Tests of Reading in a Second Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses issues surrounding the effect of mode of presentation on second language (L2) reading test performance, reviewing the literature in cognitive ability testing in educational and psychological measurement and the non-assessment literature in ergonomics, education, psychology, and first language reading research. Generalization of the…

Sawaki, Yasuyo

2001-01-01

125

Computerized Adaptive Testing with the Zinnes and Griggs Pairwise Preference Ideal Point Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article delves into a relatively unexplored area of measurement by focusing on adaptive testing with unidimensional pairwise preference items. The use of such tests is becoming more common in applied non-cognitive assessment because research suggests that this format may help to reduce certain types of rater error and response sets commonly…

Stark, Stephen; Chernyshenko, Oleksandr S.

2011-01-01

126

Computerized In Vitro Test for Chemical Toxicity Based on Tetrahymena Swimming Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and a method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity have been evaluated as an alternative to the rabbit eye initancy test (Draize). The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The method, called the motility assay (MA), is tested for 30 s to determine the chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy.

Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

1994-01-01

127

Empirical vs. Expected IRT-Based Reliability Estimation in Computerized Multistage Testing (MST)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two IRT-based procedures to estimate test reliability for a certification exam that used both adaptive (via a MST model) and non-adaptive design were considered in this study. Both procedures rely on calibrated item parameters to estimate error variance. In terms of score variance, one procedure (Method 1) uses the empirical ability distribution…

Zhang, Yanwei; Breithaupt, Krista; Tessema, Aster; Chuah, David

2006-01-01

128

A CEFR-Based Computerized Adaptive Testing System for Chinese Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the era of globalization, the trend towards learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) has become increasingly popular worldwide. The increasing demand in learning CFL has raised the profile of the Chinese proficiency test (CPT). This study will analyze in depth the inadequacy of current CPT's utilizing the common European framework of…

Wang, Hsuan-Po; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Tsai, Ya-Hsun; Liao, Chen-Huei

2012-01-01

129

A new computer-based Farnsworth Munsell 100-hue test for evaluation of color vision.  

PubMed

To evaluate a computer-based Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) 100-hue test and compare it with a manual FM 100-hue test in normal and congenital color-deficient individuals. Fifty color defective subjects and 200 normal subjects with a best-corrected visual acuity ? 6/12 were compared using a standard manual FM 100-hue test and a computer-based FM 100-hue test under standard operating conditions as recommended by the manufacturer after initial trial testing. Parameters evaluated were total error scores (TES), type of defect and testing time. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between the test scores. Cohen's kappa was used to assess agreement of color defect classification between the two tests. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the optimal cut-off score for the computer-based FM 100-hue test. The mean time was 16 ± 1.5 (range 6-20) min for the manual FM 100-hue test and 7.4 ± 1.4 (range 5-13) min for the computer-based FM 100-hue test, thus reducing testing time to <50 % (p < 0.05). For grading color discrimination, Pearson's correlation coefficient for TES between the two tests was 0.91 (p < 0.001). For color defect classification, Cohen's agreement coefficient was 0.98 (p < 0.01). The computer-based FM 100-hue is an effective and rapid method for detecting, classifying and grading color vision anomalies. PMID:24097078

Ghose, Supriyo; Parmar, Twinkle; Dada, Tanuj; Vanathi, Murugesan; Sharma, Sourabh

2014-08-01

130

Experimental Tests for Heritable Morphological Color Plasticity in Non-Native Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) Populations  

PubMed Central

The success of invasive species is frequently attributed to phenotypic plasticity, which facilitates persistence in novel environments. Here we report on experimental tests to determine whether the intensity of cryptic coloration patterns in a global invader (brown trout, Salmo trutta) was primarily the result of plasticity or heritable variation. Juvenile F1 offspring were created through experimental crosses of wild-caught parents and reared for 30 days in the laboratory in a split-brood design on either light or dark-colored gravel substrate. Skin and fin coloration quantified with digital photography and image analysis indicated strong plastic effects in response to substrate color; individuals reared on dark substrate had both darker melanin-based skin color and carotenoid-based fin colors than other members of their population reared on light substrate. Slopes of skin and fin color reaction norms were parallel between environments, which is not consistent with heritable population-level plasticity to substrate color. Similarly, we observed weak differences in population-level color within an environment, again suggesting little genetic control on the intensity of skin and fin colors. Taken as whole, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that phenotypic plasticity may have facilitated the success of brown trout invasions and suggests that plasticity is the most likely explanation for the variation in color intensity observed among these populations in nature. PMID:24260385

Westley, Peter A. H.; Stanley, Ryan; Fleming, Ian A.

2013-01-01

131

Experimental tests for heritable morphological color plasticity in non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations.  

PubMed

The success of invasive species is frequently attributed to phenotypic plasticity, which facilitates persistence in novel environments. Here we report on experimental tests to determine whether the intensity of cryptic coloration patterns in a global invader (brown trout, Salmo trutta) was primarily the result of plasticity or heritable variation. Juvenile F1 offspring were created through experimental crosses of wild-caught parents and reared for 30 days in the laboratory in a split-brood design on either light or dark-colored gravel substrate. Skin and fin coloration quantified with digital photography and image analysis indicated strong plastic effects in response to substrate color; individuals reared on dark substrate had both darker melanin-based skin color and carotenoid-based fin colors than other members of their population reared on light substrate. Slopes of skin and fin color reaction norms were parallel between environments, which is not consistent with heritable population-level plasticity to substrate color. Similarly, we observed weak differences in population-level color within an environment, again suggesting little genetic control on the intensity of skin and fin colors. Taken as whole, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that phenotypic plasticity may have facilitated the success of brown trout invasions and suggests that plasticity is the most likely explanation for the variation in color intensity observed among these populations in nature. PMID:24260385

Westley, Peter A H; Stanley, Ryan; Fleming, Ian A

2013-01-01

132

The Takeda Three Colors Combination Test: A Screening Test for Detection of Very Mild Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and is prevalent worldwide. It is expected that AD, for which aging is a risk factor, will increase in the future. Because early detection of AD has become increasingly important, promoting demand for screening tests with adequate sensitivity. In this study, we examined the usefulness of the Takeda Three Colors Combination Test (TTCC) for screening of the very mild AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods. 154 senior persons participated in the research: 55 with very mild AD, 45 with aMCI, and 54 control group. The TTCC, which was a colored cards configuration memory task, was examined for sensitivity and specificity. Results. The sensitivity of the TTCC was 76% and 47% for the very mild AD and aMCI groups, and the specificity was 83%. Conducting TTCC (including instruction and evaluation) was accomplished within 2 minutes for all subjects. Conclusion. The TTCC is useful screening test for early detection of AD. Furthermore, administration time is short and requires no special training or skills. Thus, we believe the TTCC shows great potential for use as an AD screening test by a general practitioner in communities worldwide. PMID:25386623

Tajime, Kayo; Taniguchi, Toshiatsu

2014-01-01

133

A Randomized Experiment to Compare Conventional, Computerized, and Computerized Adaptive Administration of Ordinal Polytomous Attitude Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 520 high school students were randomly assigned to a paper-and-pencil test (PPT), a computerized standard test (CST), or a computerized adaptive test (CAT) version of the Dutch School Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ), consisting of ordinal polytomous items. The CST administered items in the same order as the PPT. The CAT administered all…

Hol, A. Michiel; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

2005-01-01

134

The stability of color discrimination threshold determined using pseudoisochromatic test plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Congenital red-green color vision deficiency is one of the most common genetic disorders. A previously printed set of pseudoisochromatic plates (KAMS test, 2012) was created for individual discrimination threshold determination in case of mild congenital red-green color vision deficiency using neutral colors (colors confused with gray). The diagnostics of color blind subjects was performed with Richmond HRR (4th edition, 2002) test, Oculus HMC anomaloscope, and further the examination was made using the KAMS test. 4 male subjects aged 20 to 24 years old participated in the study: all of them were diagnosed with deuteranomalia. Due to the design of the plates, the threshold of every subject in each trial was defined as the plate total color difference value ?E at which the stimulus was detected 75% of the time, so the just-noticeable difference (jnd) was calculated in CIE LAB DeltaE (?E) units. Authors performed repeated discrimination threshold measurements (5 times) for all four subjects under controlled illumination conditions. Psychophysical data were taken by sampling an observer's performance on a psychophysical task at a number of different stimulus saturation levels. Results show that a total color difference value ?E threshold exists for each individual tested with the KAMS pseudoisochromatic plates, this threshold value does not change significantly in multiple measurements. Deuteranomal threshold values aquired using greenish plates of KAMS test are significantly higher than thresholds acquired using reddish plates. A strong positive correlation (R=0.94) exists between anomaloscope matching range (MR) and deuteranomal thresholds aquired by the KAMS test and (R=0.81) between error score in the Richmond HRR test and thresholds aquired by the KAMS test.

Zutere, B.; Jurasevska Luse, K.; Livzane, A.

2014-09-01

135

Additional usage possibilities for the computerized Hess screen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study was to work out a method how to use the computerized Hess screen in proximal vergence measurements. Proximal vergence or vergence due to knowledge of nearness is one of four independent components making up the total vergence response. Proximal vergence is expressed as a ratio - proximal convergence/test distance (PC/T). The computerized Hess screen is usually used to detect and to measure an ocular misalignment in patients with paralytic strabismus in different directions of gaze. The computerized Hess screen can be used to assess PC/T ratio in different directions of gaze, providing the open-loop disparity vergence and accommodation systems and assuming that tonic vergence is stable. The fusional system loop is opned using red/green filter goggles, objects with different size and color, a completely darkened room, and vertical dissociation (using a prism). The accommodation system loop is opened using pinhole. The test was performed on 16 neurologically and binocularly normal subjects (14 women, 2 men; average 24 y., 20-38 y.) Average PC/T ratio in a primary position for the whole group was 2.8pd/D with a standard deviation +/-0.8 pd/D, which correlates with results in literature obtained by other methods.

Svede, Aiga; Dzenis, Janis

2003-08-01

136

J. AMER. SOC. HORT. SCI. 133(4):579586. 2008. Tomato Analyzer-color Test: A New Tool for  

E-print Network

measured internal fruit color of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) with a colorimeter and from scanned also be applied to the characterization of color in other fruit and vegetable crops. DigitalJ. AMER. SOC. HORT. SCI. 133(4):579­586. 2008. Tomato Analyzer-color Test: A New Tool for Efficient

van der Knaap, Esther

137

Computerized training management system  

DOEpatents

A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base.RTM., an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches.

Rice, Harold B. (Franklin Furnace, OH); McNair, Robert C. (East Setauket, NY); White, Kenneth (Shirley, NY); Maugeri, Terry (Wading River, NY)

1998-08-04

138

Computerized training management system  

DOEpatents

A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) is disclosed for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base{trademark}, an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches. 18 figs.

Rice, H.B.; McNair, R.C.; White, K.; Maugeri, T.

1998-08-04

139

EPRI automated telephotometer: field test, color-measuring capability, and data analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the work described was to continue the development of the prototype EPRI automated telephotometer to yield an instrument that can routinely monitor daytime atmospheric visibility and visibility impairment, including visual discoloration of scenic targets with emphasis on pristine areas. During Fall 1980, the prototype system was operated by SRI at Sunshine, Arizona, to test and validate its overall performance under field conditions. The system was programmed to monitor nine visibility targets on a daily routine basis. No malfunctions occurred, and a large data base of brightness measurements was recorded. Initial measurements of scene color were also made. A multispectral (color) capability was developed after the field test. The color camera has a motor-driven 15.9-cm-diameter filter wheel that can accommodate four replaceable filters. The Reticon linear sensor array and associated interface electronics are nearly identical to those used for the photopic system. Upgraded operating software acquires and organizes the color measurements. A complete set of vertical color-scans at a given azimuth is acquired in one second with either four narrow-band or three broad-band filters. A large matrix of spectral data can be recorded for automated analysis of the psychological aspects of the viewed color scene. Current analysis and interpretation procedures follow the methods of tristimulus colorimetry. Data analysis software for the photopic system was developed. The system can now routinely monitor such classical measures of visibility as horizon contrast, visual range, and prevailing visibility, and can also quantify other indices of atmospheroic clarity such as terrain detail and structure. The assembled prototype instrument has been charactrized and documented, and is available in photopic or color mode.

Evans, W.E.; Viezee, W.

1982-05-01

140

The Color-Word Interference Test and Its Relation to Performance Impairment under Auditory Distraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to resist distraction is an important requirement for air traffic controllers. The study examined the relationship between performance on the Stroop color-word interference test (a suggested measure of distraction susceptibility) and impairment under auditory distraction on a task requiring the subject to generate random sequences of…

Thackray, Richard I.; And Others

141

The researchers tested their array on ten common infectious bacteria. The color  

E-print Network

the presence of bacteria. But after a culture is positive, doctors still need to identify which speciesThe researchers tested their array on ten common infectious bacteria. The color changes of the sensor array show what kind of bacteria is growing and even if they are antibiotic resistant. (Credit: K

Suslick, Kenneth S.

142

Automated segmentation of tissue images for computerized IHC analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two automated methods for the segmentation of immunohistochemical tissue images that overcome the limitations of the manual approach as well as of the existing computerized techniques. The first independent method, based on unsupervised color clustering, recognizes automatically the target cancerous areas in the specimen and disregards the stroma; the second method, based on colors separation and morphological

Santa Di Cataldo; Elisa Ficarra; Andrea Acquaviva; Enrico Macii

2010-01-01

143

Short communication: evaluation of a color method for testing immunoglobulin G concentration in goat colostrum.  

PubMed

Colostrum samples (n = 1084) of first and second milking from Majorera goats were taken. The immunoglobulin (Ig) G concentrations estimated by measurement of the color of goat colostrum and by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared. Least squares analysis of the relationship between the color measurement method and IgG concentration resulted in a significant linear relationship. Using 20 mg of IgG/ mL of colostrum as the cut-off point for colostrum selection, the sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of the color method as a test of IgG concentration in goat colostrum were 93.03, 71.43, and 78.12%, respectively. PMID:15829668

Argüello, A; Castro, N; Capote, J

2005-05-01

144

A novel useful tool of computerized touch panel-type screening test for evaluating cognitive function of chronic ischemic stroke patients.  

PubMed

Cognitive and affective impairments are important non-motor features of ischemic stroke (IS) related to white-matter hyperintensity, including periventricular hyperintensity (PVH). To confirm the usefulness of a novel computerized touch panel-type screening test, we investigated cognitive and affective functioning among 142 IS patients and 105 age-and gender-matched normal control subjects. Assessment using the mini-mental state examination, Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, and frontal assessment battery revealed reduced cognitive function in IS patients, with the most severe reduction exhibited by cardiogenic embolism patients, followed by lacunar infarction patients, and atherothrombotic infarction patients. Our novel touch panel screening test revealed a similar pattern of results. In addition, PVH grading, classified using Fazekas' magnetic resonance imaging method, was also correlated with cognitive decline and touch panel screening test performance. In contrast, affective function, assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, vitality index, and apathy scale, was not significantly decreased in IS, and did not correlate with touch panel screening test results or PVH, although the number of microbleeds was correlated with apathy scale results. The present findings revealed that IS and PVH grading were significantly correlated with decline in general cognitive status (mini-mental state examination and Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised) and frontal lobe function (frontal assessment battery). Performance on all touch panel screening tests was correlated with IS and PVH grading, but was largely independent of depression or apathy. Touch panel screening tests were easily understood and performed by almost all patients with mild cognitive and motor dysfunction, due to visually clear images and simple methods not involving detailed manual-handling tasks such as writing. Touch panel screening tests may provide a useful tool for the early screening of cognitive function. PMID:23290436

Deguchi, Kentaro; Kono, Syoichiro; Deguchi, Shoko; Morimoto, Nobutoshi; Kurata, Tomoko; Ikeda, Yoshio; Abe, Koji

2013-10-01

145

Decisive test of color coherence in proton-nucleus collisions at the LHC.  

PubMed

Proton-nucleus collisions (p+A) at LHC energies provide a rigorous test of color glass condensate (CGC), a model proposed to describe the high energy limit of quantum chromodynamics. In the CGC the average multiplicity of charged particles at midrapidity in p+A collisions depends logarithmically on the number of participants, N(part). In contrast, the wounded nucleon model of independent nucleon-nucleon scatterings, verified at RHIC energies, predicts that multiplicity in p+A depends linearly on N(part). We argue that the dependence of mean multiplicity on N(part) in p+A collisions at LHC energies can single out a model of particle production, thus offering a stringent test of the CGC and the wounded nucleon model. Based on this observation we propose a novel experimental test of color coherence in p+A collisions. PMID:24237511

Bzdak, Adam; Skokov, Vladimir

2013-11-01

146

Innovations in Computerized Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chapters in this book present the challenges and dilemmas faced by researchers as they created new computerized assessments, focusing on issues addressed in developing, scoring, and administering the assessments. Chapters are: (1) "Beyond Bells and Whistles; An Introduction to Computerized Assessment" (Julie B. Olson-Buchanan and Fritz Drasgow);…

Drasgow, Fritz, Ed.; Olson-Buchanan, Julie B., Ed.

147

Computerization in the OR.  

PubMed

This article highlights the process of establishing a computerized scheduling and materials management system in a surgical department. The following facets of the computerization process are discussed: options staff members should consider when choosing a computer system, the importance of scheduling and inventory control, cost savings, how computer systems work when using electronic data interchange and bar coding, and case studies. PMID:9513701

Bird, L J

1997-08-01

148

Computerized assessment of verbal skill.  

PubMed

This paper describes a computerized diagnostic test for the assessment of basic literacy skills in Dutch. Central in this test is a skill labeled word image, referring to the subject's implicit knowledge of orthographic structure. Test norms were obtained in a group of reference subjects. The most notable trend found in the standardization study was that the development of word image performance showed a nonlinear, U-shaped trend. Two case studies are reported. A supplementary validation study, based on test data collected from standard reference groups of normal and poor readers, demonstrated that word image performance is significantly related to between-group differences. PMID:8229899

Assink, E; Kattenberg, G

1993-07-01

149

[Computerized analysis of esophageal manometry].  

PubMed

Computerized analysis of esophageal manometry should consider the following objectives: a) objectivation of data acquisition; b) precision in calculating the various parameters; c) speed of analysis; d) an easy-to-read and promptly understandable graphic display of the manometric data; e) computation of new parameters capable of defining normal and pathologic function. It is with these objectives in mind that we launched our research project. Five normal subjects and 10 patients, of whom 5 presented esophageal achalasia and 5 gastroesophageal reflux disease, underwent computerized esophageal manometry and were evaluated on the basis of both traditional and innovative parameters, of our own inception. Among the various indexes tested, the "Esophageal transport" parameter, calculated as the ratio of momentum (dp*dT) over speed of propagation of the esophageal contractions, gave rise to particular interest. In our opinion, this parameter can be used as an index of the dynamic function of the organ. PMID:2067691

Spigno, L; Pandolfo, N; Guiddo, G; Calci, G; Mattioli, G; De Salvo, L

1991-04-15

150

Multimedia Computer Technology and Performance-Based Language Testing: A Demonstration of the Computerized Oral Proficiency Instrument (COPI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of language testing has long led the way in integrative, performance-based assessment. However, the use of technology in language testing has often meant limiting assessment options. We believe computer- mediated language assessment can enrich opportunities for language learners to demonstrate what they are able to do with their second language. In this paper, we describe the rationale and

Valerie A. MALABONGA; Dorry M. KENYON

151

Postharvest Biology and Technology 24 (2002) 147154 Testing the reliability of skin color as an indicator of  

E-print Network

Postharvest Biology and Technology 24 (2002) 147­154 Testing the reliability of skin color skin color at harvest (full light red, 50% bright red, full bright red and full dark red) and consumer acceptance using fruit grown in different geographic locations in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Soluble

Crisosto, Carlos H.

152

Development of the computerized Mandarin pediatric lexical tone and disyllabic-word picture identification test in noise (MAPPID-N).  

PubMed

MAPPID-N was developed to assess the speech-recognition abilities in noise of Mandarin-speaking children on disyllabic words, and lexical tones in monosyllabic words, in a picture-identification test format. Twenty-six normal-hearing children aged four to nine years listened repeatedly to the test materials where noise was spatially mixed with or separated from speech, in different signal-to-noise (SNR) ratios, to obtain performance-SNR functions and SNR for 50% correct scores (SNR-50%). SNR-50% improved with age only when noise was spatially separated from speech but not when noise was mixed with speech, suggesting the improvement with age in the use of intensity and timing cues differences between the two ears. The homogeneity of the test items was improved by adjusting the intensity levels of individual test items to align their SNR-50% to the mean SNR-50% level. PMID:19195001

Yuen, Kevin C P; Luan, Lan; Li, Huan; Wei, Cao-Gang; Cao, Ke-Li; Yuan, Meng; Lee, Tan

2009-01-01

153

Can automated alerts within computerized physician order entry improve compliance with laboratory practice guidelines for ordering Pap tests?  

PubMed Central

Background: The electronic health record (EHR) provides opportunity to improve health and enhance appropriate test utilization through decision support. Electronic alerts in the order entry system can guide test use. Few published reports have assessed the impact of automated alerts on compliance of Pap ordering with published screening guidelines. Methods: Programming rules for Pap test ordering were developed within the EHR (Epic, Madison, WI) of the University of California, Davis Health System using American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology's 2009 guidelines and implemented in primary care clinics in 2010. Alerts discouraged Pap orders in women <21 and >71 years and displayed when an order was initiated. Providers were not prevented from placing an order. Results were measured during four calendar periods: (1) pre-alert (baseline) (July 2010 to June 2011), (2) post alert (alerts on) (July 2011 to December 2011), (3) inadvertent alert turn-off (“glitch”) (January 2012 to December 2012), (5) post-glitch (alerts re-instated) (1/2013-7/2013). Metrics used to measure alert impact were between time and period seasonally adjusted relative frequency ratios. Results: Alerts were most effective in the <21 year old age group. During the baseline period 2.7 Pap tests were order in patients less than age 21 for every 100 Paps in those 21-71 years of age. This relative frequency decreased to 1.7 in the post-alert period and 1.4 during the glitch, with an even greater decline to 0.8 post-glitch when alerts were reinstated. Less impact was observed in the >70 year old group where the baseline relative frequency was 2.4 and declined to 2.1 post-alert, remained stable at 2.0 during the glitch period, and declined again to 1.7 post-glitch when alerts were reinstated. This likely reflects inclusion of women with a history of abnormal Pap tests for whom continued Pap testing is indicated, as well as reluctance by providers and patients to accept discontinuation of Pap testing for women with a history of normal Pap results. In both age groups, decreases in ordering were greatest when the alerts were functioning, indicating that the alerts had an effect beyond the influences of the environment. Conclusions: Discouraging alerts can impact ordering of Pap tests and improve compliance with established guidelines, thus avoiding unnecessary follow-up tests that can create potential patient harm and unnecessary expense. Alerts represent a potential model to address utilization of other lab tests. Longer study intervals are necessary to determine if provider compliance is maintained. PMID:25337434

Howell, Lydia Pleotis; MacDonald, Scott; Jones, Jacqueline; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Melnikow, Joy

2014-01-01

154

Strategies and techniques for testing the precision, reliability and reproducibility of computerized two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis systems.  

PubMed

A set of test procedures is described for evaluating the reliability, precision and reproducibility of computer systems designed to analyze two-dimensional gel electrophoretograms. The Elsie 4 gel analysis system (Analyt. Biochem., 169, 49-70 (1988) is used to demonstrate the use of these tests. Three major groups of tests are described: analysis of the scanner; analysis of mathematically constructed model gels; and analysis of real gel images. Scanner tests involve evaluating the stability and reproducibility of the scanner. The tests consist primarily of measuring the output of the scanner over a time period to determine its stability, and evaluating the consistency of the scanner at different points in the scanning field. Commonly encountered real gel situations are simulated and analyzed by arranging computer-generated 'ideal spots' in different ways. With such gels we can determine such things as the ability of the computer system to separate closely resolved and/or shoulder spots; whether or not streaks and/or smears are handled correctly; how random noise affects measurements; and, in idealized situation, the accuracy of the quantitation. The idealized spots are generated using the two-dimensional Gaussian as a model of density distribution; other spot models can be used. The Elsie 4 system is capable of finding virtually any spot (if detection parameters are set low enough), and of resolving different-sized spots whose peaks are separated by one and one-half their mean half width). The most significant tests are done on a set of actual gels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2488595

Miller, M J; Merril, C

1989-01-01

155

Disposable platform provides visual and color-based point-of-care anemia self-testing  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND. Anemia, or low blood hemoglobin (Hgb) levels, afflicts 2 billion people worldwide. Currently, Hgb levels are typically measured from blood samples using hematology analyzers, which are housed in hospitals, clinics, or commercial laboratories and require skilled technicians to operate. A reliable, inexpensive point-of-care (POC) Hgb test would enable cost-effective anemia screening and chronically anemic patients to self-monitor their disease. We present a rapid, stand-alone, and disposable POC anemia test that, via a single drop of blood, outputs color-based visual results that correlate with Hgb levels. METHODS. We tested blood from 238 pediatric and adult patients with anemia of varying degrees and etiologies and compared hematology analyzer Hgb levels with POC Hgb levels, which were estimated via visual interpretation using a color scale and an optional smartphone app for automated analysis. RESULTS. POC Hgb levels correlated with hematology analyzer Hgb levels (r = 0.864 and r = 0.856 for visual interpretation and smartphone app, respectively), and both POC test methods yielded comparable sensitivity and specificity for detecting any anemia (n = 178) (<11 g/dl) (sensitivity: 90.2% and 91.1%, specificity: 83.7% and 79.2%, respectively) and severe anemia (n = 10) (<7 g/dl) (sensitivity: 90.0% and 100%, specificity: 94.6% and 93.9%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS. These results demonstrate the feasibility of this POC color-based diagnostic test for self-screening/self-monitoring of anemia. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Not applicable. FUNDING. This work was funded by the FDA-funded Atlantic Pediatric Device Consortium, the Georgia Research Alliance, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, the Georgia Center of Innovation for Manufacturing, and the InVenture Prize and Ideas to Serve competitions at the Georgia Institute of Technology. PMID:25157824

Tyburski, Erika A.; Gillespie, Scott E.; Stoy, William A.; Mannino, Robert G.; Weiss, Alexander J.; Siu, Alexa F.; Bulloch, Rayford H.; Thota, Karthik; Cardenas, Anyela; Session, Wilena; Khoury, Hanna J.; O’Connor, Siobhán; Bunting, Silvia T.; Boudreaux, Jeanne; Forest, Craig R.; Gaddh, Manila; Leong, Traci; Lyon, L. Andrew; Lam, Wilbur A.

2014-01-01

156

Color Categories and Color Appearance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

2012-01-01

157

Computerized Neurocognitive Scanning: II. The Profile of Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia is well established with neuropsychological batteries, which have assessed multiple domains indicating diffuse deficits especially in processing related to frontotemporal systems. Two studies are reported examining the feasibility of the computerized neurocognitive scan to assess differential deficits in schizophrenia. In Study 1, we tested 53 patients and 71 controls with the traditional and computerized assessments counterbalanced

Ruben C Gur; J Daniel Ragland; Paul J Moberg; Warren B Bilker; Christian Kohler; Steven J Siegel; Raquel E Gur

2001-01-01

158

High resolution computerized tomography of the chest and pulmonary function testing in evaluating the effect of tobramycin solution for inhalation in cystic fibrosis patients.  

PubMed

To evaluate the sensitivity of high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) of the chest compared to spirometry measures in evaluating the effects of tobramycin solution for inhalation (TSI) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients.Thirty-two subjects >/=6 years old with mild to moderate CF lung disease were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Duration was 28 days; 31 subjects completed the study.HRCT scores decreased 4.06 +/- 3.20 (mean +/- SD) for TSI and decreased 0.17 +/- 1.78 for placebo subjects (P = 0.13). Mean forced expiratory flow during middle half of forced vital capacity (FEF(25%-75%)) predicted increased 6.08 +/- 4.86 for TSI and decreased 0.60 +/- 2.34 for placebo (P = 0.23). Percentage forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) predicted increased slightly for both TSI and placebo (1.29 +/- 3.33 for TSI and 1.17 +/- 1.4 for placebo) (P = 0.97). Two of eight HRCT component scores (atelectasis and inhomogeneity) were observed to be highly discordant with observed HRCT global total score and other HRCT component scores. A modified total score was calculated by dropping them from the global total score. The modified HRCT total scores decreased 6.68 +/- 3.09 for TSI subjects and increased 0.02 +/- 2.0 for the placebo subjects (P = 0.07). Sample sizes were calculated to show statistical significance by differences in modified total HRCT scores, global total HRCT scores, FEF(25%-75%) predicted or FEV(1) % predicted. A total of 60, 100, 200, and over 800 patients would be necessary respectively.HRCT can be a useful measure of change in CF pulmonary disease, requiring a smaller sample size than that required to show treatment effect by pulmonary function testing (PFT) alone. PMID:17068818

Nasr, Samya Z; Gordon, Diane; Sakmar, Ermelinda; Yu, Xin; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Eckhardt, Boris P; Strouse, Peter J

2006-12-01

159

Munsell Color Science Laboratory Newsletter Winter 1994 Testing Chromatic-Adaptation  

E-print Network

the effectiveness of chromatic adaptation and color appearance models in many situations. For my Color Science M presented models' corresponding color predictions was the best match to the original sample. Ten areas of color space were judged, including a neutral scale. We used z- score and logistic scale values

Zanibbi, Richard

160

10 CFR Appendix R to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Average Lamp Efficacy (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps R Appendix R to Subpart...Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps 1. Scope: ...the test and the electrical circuits, reference ballasts, stabilization...specified by the reference circuit as described in ANSI...

2011-01-01

161

10 CFR Appendix R to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Average Lamp Efficacy (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps R Appendix R to Subpart...Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps 1. Scope: ...the test and the electrical circuits, reference ballasts, stabilization...specified by the reference circuit as described in ANSI...

2012-01-01

162

10 CFR Appendix R to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Average Lamp Efficacy (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps R Appendix R to Subpart...Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps 1. Scope: ...the test and the electrical circuits, reference ballasts, stabilization...specified by the reference circuit as described in ANSI...

2014-01-01

163

10 CFR Appendix R to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Average Lamp Efficacy (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps R Appendix R to Subpart...Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps 1. Scope: ...the test and the electrical circuits, reference ballasts, stabilization...specified by the reference circuit as described in ANSI...

2013-01-01

164

Computerized Drug Information Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To compare computerized services in chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical medicine of pharmaceutical interest, equivalent profiles were run on magnetic tape files of CA-Condensates," CBAC," Excerpta Medica," MEDLARS" and Ringdoc." The results are tabulated for overlap of services, relative speed of citing references, and unique…

And Others; Smith, Daniel R.

1972-01-01

165

Computerized Fleet Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The computerization of school bus maintenance records by the Niskayuna (New York) Central School District enabled the district's transportation department to engage in management practices resulting in significant savings. The district obtains computer analyses of the work performed on all vehicles, including time spent, parts, labor, costs,…

Cataldo, John J.

166

Computerized geophysical tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized tomography is used as an aid in geophysical exploration. With this method, detailed pictures of electromagnetic properties in the regions between pairs of boreholes can be reconstructed. The spatial distribution of attenuation or propagation velocity is calculated from line integrals along rays in the plane between boreholes, and displayed as a digital picture. In principle, the transmission of seismic

K. A. Dines; R. J. Lytle

1979-01-01

167

Validation of a new scoring system for the Weigl Color Form Sorting Test in a memory disorders clinic sample.  

PubMed

The Bristol Memory Disorders Clinic uses the Weigl Color Form Sorting Test (CFST) to appraise abstraction and the ability to shift set. The original scoring system for the CFST (Grewal & Haward, 1984), developed on the premise that sorting to form is more difficult than sorting to color, had no score for an individual able to sort to form and subsequently unable to shift to color with a cue. Clinical experience suggested that the performance of some individuals required such a score. A new scoring system was developed and validated in a memory-disorders-clinic sample. The validation showed the new score to be necessary and gave support to the original premise that people with organic brain damage show a preference for sorting to color. PMID:9777483

Byrne, L M; Bucks, R S; Cuerden, J M

1998-04-01

168

SPITZER IRS SPECTRA OF LUMINOUS 8 {mu}m SOURCES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: TESTING COLOR-BASED CLASSIFICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

We present archival Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of 19 luminous 8 {mu}m selected sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The object classes derived from these spectra and from an additional 24 spectra in the literature are compared with classifications based on Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)/MSX (J, H, K, and 8 {mu}m) colors in order to test the 'JHK8' (Kastner et al.) classification scheme. The IRS spectra confirm the classifications of 22 of the 31 sources that can be classified under the JHK8 system. The spectroscopic classification of 12 objects that were unclassifiable in the JHK8 scheme allow us to characterize regions of the color-color diagrams that previously lacked spectroscopic verification, enabling refinements to the JHK8 classification system. The results of these new classifications are consistent with previous results concerning the identification of the most infrared-luminous objects in the LMC. In particular, while the IRS spectra reveal several new examples of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with O-rich envelopes, such objects are still far outnumbered by carbon stars (C-rich AGB stars). We show that Spitzer IRAC/MIPS color-color diagrams provide improved discrimination between red supergiants and oxygen-rich and carbon-rich AGB stars relative to those based on 2MASS/MSX colors. These diagrams will enable the most luminous IR sources in Local Group galaxies to be classified with high confidence based on their Spitzer colors. Such characterizations of stellar populations will continue to be possible during Spitzer's warm mission through the use of IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] and 2MASS colors.

Buchanan, Catherine L. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Kastner, Joel H. [Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Hrivnak, Bruce J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383 (United States); Sahai, Raghvendra [NASA/JPL, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)], E-mail: clb@unimelb.edu.au

2009-12-15

169

Egg coloration in ring-billed gulls ( Larus delawarensis ): a test of the sexual signaling hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many avian eggs appear to be cryptically colored, many species also lay vibrant blue green eggs. This seemingly conspicuous\\u000a coloration has puzzled biologists since Wallace, as natural selection should favor reduced egg visibility to minimize predation\\u000a pressure. The sexual signaling hypothesis posits that blue green egg coloration serves as a signal of female quality and that\\u000a males exert post-mating

Daniel Hanley; Stéphanie M. Doucet

2009-01-01

170

An experimental test of female choice relative to male structural coloration in eastern bluebirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experimental studies have shown that female birds use ornamental melanin and carotenoid plumage coloration as criteria\\u000a in mate choice. Whether females choose mates based on natural variation in structural coloration, however, has not been well\\u000a established. Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) display brilliant ultraviolet (UV)-blue plumage coloration on their head, back, wings, and tail, which is positively correlated\\u000a with

Mark Liu; Lynn Siefferman; Geoffrey E. Hill

2007-01-01

171

Effect of Color Coding and Test Type (Visual/Verbal) on Students Identified as Possessing Different Field Dependence Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that coding (black and white, and color) and testing mode (visual/verbal) has on the achievement of students categorized as field independent (FID)/field dependent (FD) learners. One hundred eighty-three students enrolled in basic college level educational psychology courses were classified as…

Dwyer, Francis M.; Moore, David M.

172

The achromatic 'philosophical zombie', a syndrome of cerebral achromatopsia with color anopsognosia.  

PubMed

We describe a patient with persistent cerebral achromatopsia occurring after bilateral occipital strokes. Blinded color recognition was assessed with a computerized experimental paradigm and the patient reported the degree of confidence in the response exactness on a visual percent scale. Color recognition was accurate and above chance (Fisher's exact test, p < 0.002). The degree of confidence in the answers showed a significant correlation with recognition scores (Spearman rank order correlation, p < 0.0001). These findings constitute the exceptional condition of what we called color anopsognosia (not knowing of seeing colors) and recall the theoretic figure of the 'philosophical zombie'. However, the cognitive mechanisms of the dissociation between a subjective colorless vision and good performance for color naming still remain poorly understood. PMID:23687498

Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

2013-01-01

173

The Achromatic ‘Philosophical Zombie’, a Syndrome of Cerebral Achromatopsia with Color Anopsognosia  

PubMed Central

We describe a patient with persistent cerebral achromatopsia occurring after bilateral occipital strokes. Blinded color recognition was assessed with a computerized experimental paradigm and the patient reported the degree of confidence in the response exactness on a visual percent scale. Color recognition was accurate and above chance (Fisher's exact test, p < 0.002). The degree of confidence in the answers showed a significant correlation with recognition scores (Spearman rank order correlation, p < 0.0001). These findings constitute the exceptional condition of what we called color anopsognosia (not knowing of seeing colors) and recall the theoretic figure of the ‘philosophical zombie’. However, the cognitive mechanisms of the dissociation between a subjective colorless vision and good performance for color naming still remain poorly understood. PMID:23687498

Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

2013-01-01

174

The Colors of Hilda Group Asteroids: Complications For Use in Testing Dynamical Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hilda group asteroids are in a stable 3:2 resonance with Jupiter which may have been reshaped by giant planet migration in the early epochs of solar system formation. Although the population is currently dynamically stable, the dynamics of this population suggest at minimum an inward migration of Jupiter by ~0.4 AU (Franklin et al. 2004, AJ, 128, 1391). As this population of objects is relatively isolated, compositional types can be used to test dynamical models such as the Grand Tack and Nice Model which suggest that objects of outer solar system (beyond Saturn) origin would be found in the Hilda population. We have undertaken a multi-year observational program at the 2.3-m Bok Telescope to obtain compositional types for a large sample of Hilda group asteroids. With a preliminary sample of ~400 objects from our observations and the literature, we find complications for direct compositional tests of the giant planet migration models. Specifically, we find that the two dynamical families within the Hilda group, Schubart and Hilda, have disparate dynamical ages ( 1.7 +/- 0.7 Gyr vs > 4 Gyr ; Broz & Vokrouhlicky 2008, MNRAS, 390, 715) but similar colors not seen elsewhere in the Hilda group population. This suggests dynamical family members should be removed from samples when using Hilda group asteroid compositions as a test of giant planet migration models. This research was supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at Goddard Space Flight Center, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA. This work also funded by NASA Planetary Astronomy Grant NNX13AJ11G.

Ryan, Erin L.; Noll, Keith; Woodward, Charles E.

2014-11-01

175

Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

1983-01-01

176

Short Communication: Evaluation of a Color Method for Testing Immunoglobulin G Concentration in Goat Colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum samples (n = 1084) of first and second milking from Majorera goats were taken. The immuno- globulin (Ig) G concentrations estimated by measure- ment of the color of goat colostrum and by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared. Least squares analysis of the relationship between the color measurement method and IgG concentration resulted in a significant linear relationship. Using

A. Argüello; N. Castro; J. Capote

2005-01-01

177

The ocean color experiment (OCE) on the second orbital flight test of the Space Shuttle (OSTA-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ocean Color Experiment was one of the six remote-sensing experiments which for the first time were launched and successfully operated on board of the second flight of the Space Shuttle during November 1981. The experiment consists of a multispectral image scanner dedicated to the measurement of water color and its interpretation in terms of major water constituents and circulation patterns. The objectives of the experiment, the test site selection, and associated activities are described. The actual mission and results of an initial data analysis is discussed.

Van Der Piepen, H.; Amann, V.; Helbig, H.; Kim, H. H.; Hart, W. D.; Fiuza, A. F. G.; Viollier, M.; Doerffer, R.

1983-01-01

178

Steep-Slope Assembly Testing of Clay and Concrete Tile With and Without Cool Pigmented Colors  

SciTech Connect

Cool color pigments and sub-tile venting of clay and concrete tile roofs significantly impact the heat flow crossing the roof deck of a steep-slope roof. Field measures for the tile roofs revealed a 70% drop in the peak heat flow crossing the deck as compared to a direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The Tile Roofing Institute (TRI) and its affiliate members are keenly interested in documenting the magnitude of the drop for obtaining solar reflectance credits with state and federal "cool roof" building efficiency standards. Tile roofs are direct-nailed or are attached to a deck with batten or batten and counter-batten construction. S-Misson clay and concrete tile roofs, a medium-profile concrete tile roof, and a flat slate tile roof were installed on fully nstrumented attic test assemblies. Temperature measures of the roof, deck, attic, and ceiling, heat flows, solar reflectance, thermal emittance, and the ambient weather were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and directnailed asphalt shingle roof. ORNL measured the tile's underside temperature and the bulk air temperature and heat flows just underneath the tile for batten and counter-batten tile systems and compared the results to the conventional asphalt shingle.

Miller, William A [ORNL

2005-11-01

179

Pixel Based Tongue Color Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tongue diagnosis is a distinctive and essential diagnostic measure in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and chromatic information is its most decisive characteristic which is utilized to unearth pathological changes for identifying diseases. In this paper, a computerized medical biometrics scheme is established which classify all pixels in tongue into various color classes. For train specimens, both a forward and a backward selection are employed to pick up the correct labeled pixel specimens and screen out the wrong, and then various pixels of diversified colors are classified for the tongue color analysis. The experimental outcomes are more applicable to tongue color analysis.

Huang, Bo; Li, Naimin

180

Research and Teaching: Does the Color-Coding of Examination Versions Affect College Science Students' Test Performance? Countering Claims of Bias  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To circumvent the problem of academic dishonesty through the mass administration of multiple-choice exams in college classrooms, a study was conducted from 2003 to 2005, in which multiple versions of the same examination were color coded during testing in a large-enrollment classroom. Instructors reported that this color-coded exam system appeared to work remarkably well. However, some students strongly asserted that they only performed well on the blue tests, or that certain examination colors negatively affected their test performance. As a result, this study attempts to determine, through the investigation of the test scores earned by students on the different colored examination versions, whether there was any significant effect of examination paper color on student test performance.

Wandersee, James; Elias, Janet S.; Clary, Renee

2007-09-01

181

Color Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will be used to teach the importance of color. Watch the following video about color Primary Colors Click on the link Exploration of Color. When you get into the website select the different colors to see what secondary colors are made from the primary colors. Review the following siteColor Theory and then design and paint a color wheel. ...

Mr. Sturgell

2009-12-02

182

Development of paper-based color test-strip for drug detection in aquatic environment: Application to oxytetracycline.  

PubMed

The wide use of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to the emergence of resistant microbial species. It should be avoided/minimized by controlling the amount of drug employed in fish farming. For this purpose, the present work proposes test-strip papers aiming at the detection/semi-quantitative determination of organic drugs by visual comparison of color changes, in a similar analytical procedure to that of pH monitoring by universal pH paper. This is done by establishing suitable chemical changes upon cellulose, attributing the paper the ability to react with the organic drug and to produce a color change. Quantitative data is also enabled by taking a picture and applying a suitable mathematical treatment to the color coordinates given by the HSL system used by windows. As proof of concept, this approach was applied to oxytetracycline (OXY), one of the antibiotics frequently used in aquaculture. A bottom-up modification of paper was established, starting by the reaction of the glucose moieties on the paper with 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES). The so-formed amine layer allowed binding to a metal ion by coordination chemistry, while the metal ion reacted after with the drug to produce a colored compound. The most suitable metals to carry out such modification were selected by bulk studies, and the several stages of the paper modification were optimized to produce an intense color change against the concentration of the drug. The paper strips were applied to the analysis of spiked environmental water, allowing a quantitative determination for OXY concentrations as low as 30ng/mL. In general, this work provided a simple, method to screen and discriminate tetracycline drugs, in aquaculture, being a promising tool for local, quick and cheap monitoring of drugs. PMID:25461138

Gomes, Helena I A S; Sales, M Goreti F

2014-10-01

183

Block Design Test Performance as a Function of Race and Block Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to see if a relationship between color sensitivity and skin pigmentation would affect performance on the WISC block design subtest when both the standard red/white design and the blue/yellow design were used. It was hypothesized that the white children would perform better overall because black children have been…

Mitchell, Nancy B.; Pollack, Robert H.

184

"Does Hope Change? Testing a Project-Based Health Intervention among Urban Students of Color"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hope is positively correlated with educational attainment and health. Interventions based on project-based learning (PBL) may increase youth hope. This study examined how a PBL intervention affected hope among urban students of color. Students in health classes were invited to participate. A PBL health class was implemented in four classrooms. The…

Zusevics, Kaija L.; Johnson, Sheri

2014-01-01

185

Computerized molecular modeling of carbohydrates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Computerized molecular modleing continues to increase in capability and applicability to carbohydrates. This chapter covers nomenclature and conformational aspects of carbohydrates, perhaps of greater use to carbohydrate-inexperienced computational chemists. Its comments on various methods and studi...

186

Computerized international geothermal information systems  

SciTech Connect

The computerized international geothermal energy information system is reviewed. The review covers establishment of the Italy - United States linked data centers by the NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society, through a bilateral agreement, and up to the present time. The result of the information exchange project is given as the bibliographic and numerical data available from the data centers. Recommendations for the exchange of computerized geothermal information at the international level are discussed.

Phillips, S.L.; Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.

1980-03-01

187

Computerized database on dielectric materials  

SciTech Connect

This computerized, interactive database provides technical, application, and commercial data on more than a thousand solid, liquid, and gaseous dielectric materials. The information is readily accessible to designers, engineers, scientists, researchers, and others via user-friendly on-line operation. This project was carried out in two phases. In the proof-of-concept phase, a pilot database was developed by the contractor and then tested and critiqued by a small group of users. In the second phase, the pilot database was expanded to the size needed. Constructing the database required (1) developing a database management system, (2) extracting numerical data from the worldwide literature on dielectric materials, (3) compiling other information on materials, (4) formatting and inserting into the database the numerical data and information, and (5) critically evaluating numerical data and developing recommended values. The database is operational and accessible 24 hours a day. Interested users can, from their computer terminals, extract data on materials properties in tabular or graphical form and perform unit conversions, graphical manipulations, and other analyses. The database now contains information on more than 1300 materials and is periodically updated.

Ho, C.Y.; Li, H.H.; Marinescu, G.M. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Center for Information and Numerical Data Analysis and Synthesis)

1992-05-01

188

Reliability of Repeated Cognitive Assessment of Dementia Using a Brief Computerized Battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term stability and reliability of a brief computerized cognitive battery in established dementia types. Method: Patients were administered the computerized battery twice with administrations approximately 2 hours apart, with intervening conventional neuropsychological tests. Patients were classified clinically, via consensus conference, as healthy controls (n = 23), mild cognitive impairment (n

Dustin Hammers; Elizabeth Spurgeon; Kelly Ryan; Carol Persad; Judith Heidebrink; Nancy Barbas; Roger Albin; Kirk Frey; David Darby; Bruno Giordani

2011-01-01

189

Development of a Computerized In-Basket Exercise for the Classroom: A Sales Management Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article follows the development of a sales management in-basket exercise for use in the classroom. The authors have computerized the exercise and added features to allow for additional and more quantitative input from the students. The exercise has evolved and been tested in numerous classroom situations. The computerized in-basket exercise…

Pearson, Michael M.; Barnes, John W.; Onken, Marina H.

2006-01-01

190

A Multiplex Two-Color Real-Time PCR Method for Quality-Controlled Molecular Diagnostic Testing of FFPE Samples  

PubMed Central

Background Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) tests support personalized cancer treatment through more clinically meaningful diagnosis. However, samples obtained through standard clinical pathology procedures are formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and yield small samples with low integrity RNA containing PCR interfering substances. RT-qPCR tests able to assess FFPE samples with quality control and inter-laboratory reproducibility are needed. Methods We developed an RT-qPCR method by which 1) each gene was measured relative to a known number of its respective competitive internal standard molecules to control for interfering substances, 2) two-color fluorometric hydrolysis probes enabled analysis on a real-time platform, 3) external standards controlled for variation in probe fluorescence intensity, and 4) pre-amplification maximized signal from FFPE RNA samples. Reagents were developed for four genes comprised by a previously reported lung cancer diagnostic test (LCDT) then subjected to analytical validation using synthetic native templates as test articles to assess linearity, signal-to-analyte response, lower detection threshold, imprecision and accuracy. Fitness of this method and these reagents for clinical testing was assessed in FFPE normal (N?=?10) and malignant (N?=?10) lung samples. Results Reagents for each of four genes, MYC, E2F1, CDKN1A and ACTB comprised by the LCDT had acceptable linearity (R2>0.99), signal-to-analyte response (slope 1.0±0.05), lower detection threshold (<10 molecules) and imprecision (CV <20%). Poisson analysis confirmed accuracy of internal standard concentrations. Internal standards controlled for experimentally introduced interference, prevented false-negatives and enabled pre-amplification to increase signal without altering measured values. In the fitness for purpose testing of this two-color fluorometric LCDT using surgical FFPE samples, the diagnostic accuracy was 93% which was similar to that previously reported for analysis of fresh samples. Conclusions This quality-controlled two-color fluorometric RT-qPCR approach will facilitate the development of reliable, robust RT-qPCR-based molecular diagnostic tests in FFPE clinical samples. PMID:24586747

Yeo, Jiyoun; Crawford, Erin L.; Blomquist, Thomas M.; Stanoszek, Lauren M.; Dannemiller, Rachel E.; Zyrek, Jill; De Las Casas, Luis E.; Khuder, Sadik A.; Willey, James C.

2014-01-01

191

NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. IV. TESTING THE NONLINEARITY SCENARIO FOR COLOR BIMODALITY VIA HST/WFC3 u-BAND PHOTOMETRY OF M84 (NGC 4374)  

SciTech Connect

Color distributions of globular clusters (GCs) in most massive galaxies are bimodal. Assuming linear color-to-metallicity conversions, bimodality is viewed as the presence of merely two GC subsystems with distinct metallicities, which serves as a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Recent studies, however, revealed that the color-metallicity relations (CMRs) often used to derive GC metallicities (e.g., CMRs of g - z, V - I, and C - T{sub 1}) are in fact inflected. Such inflection can create bimodal color distributions if the underlying GC metallicity spread is simply broad as expected from the hierarchical merging paradigm of galaxy formation. In order to test the nonlinear-CMR scenario for GC color bimodality, the u-band photometry is proposed because the u-related CMRs (e.g., CMRs of u - g and u - z) are theoretically predicted to be least inflected and most distinctive among commonly used optical CMRs. Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3 F336W (u-band) photometry of the GC system in M84, a giant elliptical in the Virgo galaxy cluster. Combining the u data with the existing HST ACS/WFC g and z data, we find that the u - z and u - g color distributions are different from the g - z distribution in a very systematic manner and remarkably consistent with our model predictions based on the nonlinear-CMR hypothesis. The results lend further confidence to the validity of the nonlinear-CMR scenario as an explanation for GC color bimodality. There are some GC systems showing bimodal spectroscopic metallicity, and in such systems the inflected CMRs often create stronger bimodality in the color domain.

Yoon, Suk-Jin; Kim, Hak-Sub; Chung, Chul; Cho, Jaeil; Lee, Sang-Yoon [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Sangmo T. [Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Blakeslee, John P., E-mail: sjyoon@galaxy.yonsei.ac.kr [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

2013-05-10

192

The gap in the color-magnitude diagram of NGC 2420: A test of convective overshoot and cluster age  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical isochrones have been constructed using the OPAL opacities specifically to study the color-magnitude diagram of the open star cluster NGC 2420. This cluster provides a rare test of core convection in intermediate-mass stars. At the same time, its age is of interest because of its low metallicity and relatively high Galactic latitude for an open cluster. The excellent color-magnitude diagram constructed by Anthony-Twarog et al. (1990) allows a detailed fit of the isochrones to the photometric data. We discuss the importance of convective overshoot at the convective core edge in determining the morphology of the gap located near the main-sequence turnoff. We find that given the assumptions made in the models, a modest amount of overshoot (0.23 H(sub p)) is required for the best fit. Good agreement is achieved with all features of the turnoff gap for a cluster age of 2.4 +/- 0.2 Gyr. We note that a photometrically complete luminosity function near the main-sequence turnoff and subgiant branch would also provide an important test of the overshoot models.

Demarque, Pierre; Sarajedini, Ata; Guo, X.-J.

1994-01-01

193

Computerized technology for restorative dentistry.  

PubMed

Computers have had a meaningful impact on the dental office and dental practice leading to significant changes in communication, financial accounting, and administrative functions. Computerized systems have more recently generated increasing diversity of application for the delivery of patient treatment. Digital impression systems and chairside CAD/CAM systems offer opportunities to integrate digital impressions and full contour restorations in the dental office. Systems rely on single image and video cameras to record the digital file that is the foundation for an accurate outcome. This article presents key aspects of computerized technology using the CAD/CAM process. PMID:23986956

Fasbinder, Dennis J

2013-06-01

194

Arkansas' Curriculum Guide. Competency Based Computerized Accounting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains the essential parts of a total curriculum for a one-year secondary-level course in computerized accounting. Addressed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the complete accounting cycle, computer operations for accounting, computerized accounting and general ledgers, computerized accounts payable,…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. Div. of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

195

Color Blindness  

MedlinePLUS

... three color cone cells to determine our color perception. Color blindness can occur when one or more ... Anyone who experiences a significant change in color perception should see an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.). Next ...

196

An Application of Computerized Instructional Television in Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized instructional television was used to teach undergraduate students about 100,000 or more extant fungi through an interactive, self testing, teaching program. Students did not find this sophisticated hardware an adequate substitute for the lecture experience and ultimately gave their professor a strong vote of confidence. (Author/JEG)

Kendrick, Bryce

197

DOE transporation programs - computerized techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major thrusts of the transportation programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been the development of a number of computerized transportation programs and data bases. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting these efforts through the Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories and the Tranportation Operations and Traffic Management (TOTM) organization at DOE Headquarters.

D. S. Joy; P. E. Johnson; C. S. Fore; B. E. Peterson

1983-01-01

198

Computerized molecular modeling of carbohydrates.  

PubMed

Computerized molecular modeling continues to increase in capability and applicability to carbohydrates. This chapter covers nomenclature and conformational aspects of carbohydrates, perhaps of greater use to carbohydrate-inexperienced computational chemists. Its comments on various methods and studies might be of more use to computation-inexperienced carbohydrate chemists. New work on intrinsic variability of glucose, an overall theme, is described. PMID:21222074

French, Alfred D; Johnson, Glenn P

2011-01-01

199

Computerized Clinical Electroencephalography in Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in the field of computerized clinical electroencephalography (EEG) are surveyed, with particular reference to techniques of analysis of background (stationary) EEG activity, transient (nonstationary) activity, and to integrated systems for multichannel clinical EEG's. A variety of approaches have been used for the basic EEG analyses. For background activity, the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and autoregressive approaches have predominated.

John S. Barlow

1979-01-01

200

Affective priming using a color-naming task: a test of an affective-motivational account of affective priming effects.  

PubMed

The affective priming effect, i.e. shorter response latencies for affectively congruent as compared to affectively incongruent prime-target pairs, is now a well-documented phenomenon. Nevertheless, little is known about the specific processes that underlie the affective priming effect. Several mechanisms have been put forward by different authors, but these theoretical accounts only apply to specific types of tasks (e.g. evaluation lexical decisions) or are rather unparsimonious. Hermans, De Houwer, and Eelen (1996) recently proposed a model of the affective priming effect that is based on the idea of the activation of corresponding or conflicting affective-motivational action tendencies. According to this model, affectively incongruent prime-target pairs should not only lead to relatively longer response latencies on tasks that concern the target word itself (target-specific tasks, e.g. evaluation pronunciation), but also on tasks that are unrelated to the actual identity of the specific target word. This hypothesis was tested in a series of four experiments in which participants had to name the color in which the target word was printed. In spite of procedural variations, results showed that the congruence between the valence of prime and target did not influence the color-naming times. The present results therefore provide no direct support for the affective-motivational account of the affective priming effect. Suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:9677860

Hermans, D; Van den Broeck, A; Eelen, P

1998-01-01

201

241-AZ-101 Waste Tank Color Video Camera System Shop Acceptance Test Report  

SciTech Connect

This report includes shop acceptance test results. The test was performed prior to installation at tank AZ-101. Both the camera system and camera purge system were originally sought and procured as a part of initial waste retrieval project W-151.

WERRY, S.M.

2000-03-23

202

The Development, Pilot Test, Assessment, and Evaluation of a Computerized Online Internet Community System at Programs for Higher Education, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study to design, develop, pilot test, evaluate, and assess an online Internet community system during the months May-July, 1997 at Nova Southeastern University-Programs for Higher Education (NSU PHE). The system was used as a prototype for developing and studying techniques for building virtual communities. Project research…

Watkins, Diana Sell

203

CUSUM Statistics for Large Item Banks: Computation of Standard Errors. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a previous study (1998), how to evaluate whether adaptive testing data used for online calibration sufficiently fit the item response model used by C. Glas was studied. Three approaches were suggested, based on a Lagrange multiplier (LM) statistic, a Wald statistic, and a cumulative sum (CUMSUM) statistic respectively. For all these methods,…

Glas, C. A. W.

204

Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

Meurant, Robert C.

205

Colored Shadows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this optics activity, learners discover that not all shadows are black. Learners explore human color perception by using colored lights to make additive color mixtures. With three colored lights, learners can make shadows of seven different colors. They can also explore how to make shadows of individual colors, including black. Use this activity demonstrate how receptors in the retina of the eye work to see color.

Exploratorium, The

2011-10-31

206

Primary Colors of Pigment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this laboratory activity, students create secondary colors by mixing primary colors. Food coloring, test tubes, and a test tube stand are used. The activity is composed of a student handout with directions and a data sheet. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA Why Files: The Case of the Mysterious Red Light. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

207

Measuring Global Physical Health in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Illustration of a Multidimensional Bi-factor Model and Computerized Adaptive Testing  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to apply a bi-factor model for the determination of test dimensionality and a multidimensional CAT using computer simulations of real data for the assessment of a new global physical health measure for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Parent respondents of 306 children with cerebral palsy were recruited from four pediatric rehabilitation hospitals and outpatient clinics. We compared confirmatory factor analysis results across four models: (1) one-factor unidimensional; (2) two-factor multidimensional (MIRT); (3) bi-factor MIRT with fixed slopes; and (4) bi-factor MIRT with varied slopes. We tested whether the general and content (fatigue and pain) person score estimates could discriminate across severity and types of CP, and whether score estimates from a simulated CAT were similar to estimates based on the total item bank, and whether they correlated as expected with external measures. Results Confirmatory factor analysis suggested separate pain and fatigue sub-factors; all 37 items were retained in the analyses. From the bi-factor MIRT model with fixed slopes, the full item bank scores discriminated across levels of severity and types of CP, and compared favorably to external instruments. CAT scores based on 10- and 15-item versions accurately captured the global physical health scores. Conclusions The bi-factor MIRT CAT application, especially the 10- and 15-item version, yielded accurate global physical health scores that discriminated across known severity groups and types of CP, and correlated as expected with concurrent measures. The CATs have potential for collecting complex data on the physical health of children with CP in an efficient manner. PMID:19221892

Haley, Stephen M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Dumas, Helene M.; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A.; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Montpetit, Kathleen; Bilodeau, Nathalie; Gorton, George E.; Watson, Kyle; Tucker, Carole A

2009-01-01

208

Hands-On Science: Is It an Acid or a Base? These Colorful Tests Tell All!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two hands-on science activities for K-6 students teach them how to determine if something is an acid or a base. The activities require acid/base indicator juice, testing strips, and a base solution. A recipe for making them in the classroom using red cabbage and baking soda is provided. (SM)

VanCleave, Janice

1998-01-01

209

Computerized mega code recording.  

PubMed

A system has been developed to facilitate recording of advanced cardiac life support mega code testing scenarios. By scanning a paper "keyboard" using a bar code wand attached to a portable microcomputer, the person assigned to record the scenario can easily generate an accurate, complete, timed, and typewritten record of the given situations and the obtained responses. PMID:3354937

Burt, T W; Bock, H C

1988-04-01

210

Introduction to Color Superconductivity  

E-print Network

At high nuclear density and small temperature, due to the asymptotic freedom property of Quantum ChromoDynamics and to the existence of an attractive channel in the color interaction, diquark condensates might be formed. Since these condensates break the color gauge symmetry, this phenomenon has the name of color superconductivity. In the last few years this has become a very active field of research. While a direct experimental test is still missing, color superconductivity might have implications in astrophysics because for some compact stars, e.g. pulsars, the baryon densities necessary for color superconductivity can probably be reached.

G. Nardulli

2006-10-23

211

Computerized Pork Quality Evaluation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Pork quality assessment is important in the pork industry application. However, traditional pork quality assessment is conducted\\u000a by experienced workers and thereby is subjective. In this paper, a computerized system scheme based on hyperspectral imaging\\u000a technique is proposed for objective pork quality evaluation. This hyperspectral imaging technique used texture characteristics\\u000a to develop an accurate system of pork quality evaluation. Hypercube,

Li Liu; Michael O. Ngadi

2010-01-01

212

Color Thieves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This story poses a challenge to its readers to solve the mystery of light, color, and how we see color. It also asks the question, "What is color?" After investigating the phenomena of color and color filters, students should realize that light is made up

Richard Konicek-Moran

2009-04-01

213

Minority mating advantage of certain eye color mutants of Drosophila melanogaster . I. Multiple-choice and single-female tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alleles at the brown locus ofDrosophila melanogaster combined with homozygous scarlet provide a useful model to demonstrate minority advantage of males in mating. Heterozygotes with orange (O) eyes equal in numbers to homozygotes with red (R) eyes (10?10 in both sexes) displayed no bias favoring either eye color, but each eye color was favored when males occurred in a minority

Eliot B. Spiess; William A. Schwer

1978-01-01

214

Color realism and color science  

E-print Network

The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, ...

Byrne, Alex

215

Innovative Item Types for Computerized Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial applications of a new technology often retain many of the characteristics of the older products or processes that they are displacing. Early automobiles were horse-drawn carriages simply fitted with motors. Television programming remains firmly rooted in the formats pioneered by radio. And air travel initially featured the elegance and service that passengers had come to expect on board trains

Cynthia G. Parshall; Tim Davey; Peter J. Pashley

216

39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15 Section...EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits...

2014-07-01

217

39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15 Section...EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits...

2012-07-01

218

39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15 Section...EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits...

2010-07-01

219

39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15 Section...EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits...

2013-07-01

220

39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15 Section...EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits...

2011-07-01

221

Coordination and display of nuclear facility technical and management data. [Computerized communications and coordination center  

SciTech Connect

A computerized communications and coordination center at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant provides for rapid cross-flow of information between Computerized Production, Safety, Nuclear Materials Control, and Physical Security information systems. Near real-time data are collected from a wide variety of sensors, instruments, and terminal inputs from each of the Plant's computerized systems and is displayed in a single location on color and black-and-white CRT's in easily understandable graphic and text forms. A foundation for the system has been operated for three years and has expanded in capability each year. In current demonstrations all available plant information networks are tied into a communications network that enables the plant management to review data at a single physical location outside the main control room. The current status of development of the system is described.

Bambas, K.J.; Barnes, L.D.

1982-06-01

222

Assessment of performance validity in the Stroop Color and Word Test in mild traumatic brain injury patients: a criterion-groups validation design.  

PubMed

The current study assessed performance validity on the Stroop Color and Word Test (Stroop) in mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) using criterion-groups validation. The sample consisted of 77 patients with a reported history of mild TBI. Data from 42 moderate-severe TBI and 75 non-head-injured patients with other clinical diagnoses were also examined. TBI patients were categorized on the basis of Slick, Sherman, and Iverson (1999) criteria for malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND). Classification accuracy is reported for three indicators (Word, Color, and Color-Word residual raw scores) from the Stroop across a range of injury severities. With false-positive rates set at approximately 5%, sensitivity was as high as 29%. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23253228

Guise, Brian J; Thompson, Matthew D; Greve, Kevin W; Bianchini, Kevin J; West, Laura

2014-03-01

223

Barriers and facilitators to testing, treatment entry, and engagement in care by HIV-positive women of color.  

PubMed

Women of color (WOC) are at increased risk of dying from HIV/AIDS, a disparity that may be partially explained by the care barriers they face. Based in a health care disparity model and the socio-ecological framework, the objective of this study was to identify the barriers and facilitators to HIV care at three points along the HIV continuum: HIV testing, entry/early care, and engagement. Two focus groups (n=11 women) and 19 semi-structured interviews were conducted with HIV-positive WOC in an academic medical setting in North Carolina. Content was analyzed and interpreted. We found barriers and facilitators to be present at multiple levels of the ecological framework, including personal-, provider-, clinic-, and community-levels. The barriers reported by women were aligned with the racial health care disparity model constructs and varied by stage of HIV. Identifying the salient barriers and facilitators at multiple ecological levels along the HIV care continuum may inform intervention development. PMID:23829330

Messer, Lynne C; Quinlivan, E Byrd; Parnell, Heather; Roytburd, Katya; Adimora, Adaora A; Bowditch, Natasha; DeSousa, Nancy

2013-07-01

224

Color Addition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is inquiry in that students do not know how colors are combined. They likely think that the primary colors are red, yellow, and blue. In fact, there are two sets of primary colors: red, green, and blue for additive colors of light, and cyan,

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

225

Color Blindness  

MedlinePLUS

... looking at a lush green lawn or a red rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the most common. ...

226

Color Mixing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online activity where learners can virtually mix different colors of light or paint (you can switch between them) and see how the colors combine. It demonstrates how millions of colors are created on computer monitors and TVs, and in art and printing. Learners can try to match a given target color ("Mix to Match"), or simply play around with mixtures ("Mix for Fun"). Background information explains how light is additive (more colors tends towards white), whereas paint absorbs color and is subtractive (more colors tends towards black). There's also information about how the human eye works.

Industry, Oregon M.

2002-01-01

227

Cognitive Ability Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study validated computerized versions of selected tests from the Kit of Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests of 1976, compared performance of higher education students on computerized and paper-and-pencil versions of the tests, and explored whether gender, academic status, or age interacted with the tests. (MBR)

Sorensen, H. Barbara

1985-01-01

228

The Evaluation of SISMAKOM (Computerized SDI Project).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 88 users of SISMAKOM, a computerized selective dissemination of information (SDI) and document delivery service provided by the Universiti Sains Malaysia and four other Malaysian universities, was conducted in August 1982 in order to collect data about SISMAKOM and to assess the value of a computerized SDI service in a developing…

University of Science, Penang (Malaysia).

229

Computerized Prostate Models Tumor Progression | Physical Sciences in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

Using a type of computer simulation known as cellular automata modeling, a research team led by David Basanta of the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute has created a computerized view of the human prostate gland that faithfully represents the interactions between early tumors and adjacent tissues. More importantly, this model generated hypotheses about tumor growth that were successfully tested in vivo. The investigators describe their model in the journal Cancer Research.

230

[Establishment and application of a computerized radiography cephalometrics system].  

PubMed

We have developed a new-typed computerized radiography cephalometrics and prediction system. It includes cephalometrics, growth prediction, orthopedics/orthodontics prediction and profile prediction. In this study, 47 lateral cephalograms were randomly selected to process a reliability test. The results showed the two groups were in agreement on all of the 25 measurement index. The system is easier, quicker and less prone to error than traditional cephalometrics approach. It is convenient for orthodontists. PMID:12515153

Zhou, J; Luo, S; Huang, L; Chen, Y; Li, Y; Jiang, X; Bai, D; Zhou, Z

2000-06-01

231

DOE transporation programs - computerized techniques  

SciTech Connect

One of the major thrusts of the transportation programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been the development of a number of computerized transportation programs and data bases. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting these efforts through the Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories and the Tranportation Operations and Traffic Management (TOTM) organization at DOE Headquarters. Initially this project was centered upon research activities. However, since these tools provide traffic managers and key personnel involved in preshipment planning with a unique resource for ensuring that the movement of radioactive materials can be properly accomplished, additional interest and support is coming from the operational side of DOE. The major accomplishments include the development of two routing models (one for rail shipments and the other for highway shipments), an emergency response assistance program, and two data bases containing pertinent legislative and regulatory information. This paper discusses the mose recent advances in, and additions to, these computerized techniques and provides examples of how they are used.

Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Fore, C.S.; Peterson, B.E.

1983-01-01

232

Color vision test  

MedlinePLUS

... difficulty telling the difference between red/purple and green/purple Protanopia -- difficulty telling the difference between blue/green and red/green Tritanopia -- difficulty telling the difference ...

233

Computerized clinical dietetics management system.  

PubMed

A computerized Clinical Dietetics Management System (CDMS) was designed to support and facilitate accurate and timely delivery of clinical dietetics services. The CDMS is an integral part of a comprehensive hospital computer system that interfaces with 17 data bases. Thirty-one functions provide order processing, inquiry, calculations, message sending, charge capture, data base maintenance, and management reporting capabilities. System features include immediate and continuous access to the most current patient information, automatic routing of messages, a complete diet-order history for each patient and minimal printed output. Since implementation of the CDMS, users report benefits such as smoothing of workload peaks, fewer interruptions, fewer wasted trays, better and faster problem solving, and increased visibility in clinical dietetics services. The dynamic nature of the system allows additional applications to be added as they are developed. PMID:3745746

Weathers, B J; Hoover, L W; Warriner, W J; Dillon, J D

1986-09-01

234

Validation of a Computerized Cognitive Assessment System for Persons with Stroke: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the validity of a newly developed computerized cognitive assessment system (CCAS) that is equipped with rich multimedia to generate simulated testing situations and considers both test item difficulty and the test taker's ability. It is also hypothesized that better predictive validity of the CCAS in self-care of persons…

Yip, Chi Kwong; Man, David W. K.

2009-01-01

235

Evaluation of Ocean Color Scanner (OCS) photographic and digital data: Santa Barbara Channel test site, 29 October 1975 overflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of Ocean Color Scanner data was examined to evaluate detection and discrimination capabilities of the system for marine resources, oil pollution and man-made sea surface targets of opportunity in the Santa Barbara Channel. Assessment of the utility of OCS for the determination of sediment transport patterns along the coastal zone was a secondary goal. Data products provided 1975 overflight were in digital and analog formats. In evaluating the OCS data, automated and manual procedures were employed. A total of four channels of data in digital format were analyzed, as well as three channels of color combined imagery, and four channels of black and white imagery. In addition, 1:120,000 scale color infrared imagery acquired simultaneously with the OCS data were provided for comparative analysis purposes.

Kraus, S. P.; Estes, J. E.; Kronenberg, M. R.; Hajic, E. J.

1977-01-01

236

Children's color trails.  

PubMed

Color Trails for Children was developed in response to the need for instruments which minimize cultural bias in neuropsychological testing. The test, similar in format to Trail Making, was designed to provide an evaluation of speeded visuomotor tracking while minimizing the influence of language. The present research involves two exploratory studies which examine the relationship between Color Trails for Children and Trail Making, factors that may affect performance times, and discriminant validity. Results indicate that the tests appear to measure the same neuropsychological domains, and administration of Trail Making did not significantly alter performance times on Color Trails. Increasing age and IQ were related to quicker completion time for both tests. Females were found to complete Color Trails 2 and Trail Making Part B more quickly than males in this sample. Comparison between children diagnosed with learning disabilities, attention deficits, or mild neurological conditions and a preliminary standardization sample supported the discriminant validity of Color Traits to distinguish between normal controls and children with altered neuropsychological functioning. Comparison between clinical conditions indicated that Color Trails 2 was particularly sensitive in discriminating among the groups. Although further research is needed, results suggest that Color Trails has the potential to be an effective research and clinical tool in child neuropsychological assessment. PMID:14588688

Williams, J; Rickert, V; Hogan, J; Zolten, A J; Satz, P; D'Elia, L F; Asarnow, R F; Zaucha, K; Light, R

1995-05-01

237

Seeing Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

Texley, Juliana

2005-01-01

238

Computerized tomography using video recorded fluoroscopic images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computerized tomographic imaging system is examined which employs video-recorded fluoroscopic images as input data. By hooking the video recorder to a digital computer through a suitable interface, such a system permits very rapid construction of tomograms.

Kak, A. C.; Jakowatz, C. V., Jr.; Baily, N. A.; Keller, R. A.

1975-01-01

239

Computerizing a house organ: recharting familiar territory  

SciTech Connect

Computerization can offer great advantages. But one publication ideally suited to computerization was slow to take advantage of the new technology. The main reason was reluctance to try an unfamiliar way of doing things. Having now switched to computerization, the publication has reaped many benefits. Among them: production time is faster; costs are lower; errors are fewer. Computerization has not been without minor problems. The most obvious is vulnerability to the rarity of a system failure. Others include the technology's potential reinforcement of overediting and of excessive reliance on extremely rapid response. Such problems, however, do not indicate weaknesses in the technology itself; rather, they reflect an incomplete adaption to it and the need for more realistic expectations. An unwarranted reluctance to innovate can slow advances in communication. Technical communicators must be willing to rechart their own familiar territory.

none,

1982-01-01

240

HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures in nuclear power plant control rooms. It is beyond the scope of this paper to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper provides a review of HRA as applied to traditional paper-based procedures, followed by a discussion of what specific factors should additionally be considered in HRAs for computerized procedures. Performance shaping factors and failure modes unique to computerized procedures are highlighted. Since there is no definitive guide to HRA for paper-based procedures, this paper also serves to clarify the existing guidance on paper-based procedures before delving into the unique aspects of computerized procedures.

Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Katya Le Blanc

2011-09-01

241

Computerized Anatomy Atlas Of The Human Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A software for developing, editing and displaying a 3-D computerized anatomic atlas of a human brain is described. The objective of this atlas is to serve as a reference in identifying various structures in CT scans.

Adair, Taylor; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Karp, Peter; Stein, Alan

1981-10-01

242

Color Terms and Color Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

Davidoff, Jules

2006-01-01

243

Maternal Experiences with Everyday Discrimination and Infant Birth Weight: A Test of Mediators and Moderators among Young, Urban Women of Color  

PubMed Central

Background Racial/ethnic disparities in birth weight persist within the United States. Purpose Examine the association between maternal everyday discrimination and infant birth weight among young, urban women of color; as well as mediators (depressive symptoms, pregnancy distress, pregnancy symptoms) and moderators (age, race/ethnicity, attributions of discrimination) of this association. Methods 420 women participated (14–21 years old; 62% Latina, 38% Black), completing measures of everyday discrimination and moderators during their second trimester of pregnancy and mediators during their third trimester. Birth weight was primarily recorded from medical record review. Results Path analysis demonstrated that everyday discrimination was associated with lower birth weight. Depressive symptoms mediated this relationship, and no tested factors moderated this relationship. Conclusions Given the association between birth weight and health across the lifespan, it is critical to reduce discrimination directed at young, urban women of color so that all children can begin life with greater promise for health. PMID:22927016

Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Rosenthal, Lisa; Lewis, Jessica B.; Stasko, Emily C.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Lewis, Tené T.; Reid, Allecia E.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

2012-01-01

244

Portable computerized tester improves flight-line maintenance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present general purpose and portable Computerized Organizational Level Tester (COLT) for the flight-line maintenance of advanced weapons systems is in effect a fully functioning replica of contemporary automated test equipment architectures previously available only in laboratory test installations. The COLT's automated equipment architecture has been scaled down to a ruggedized, portable, suitcase-sized field tester for both analog and digital equipment. Tester software is designed to minimize programming effort, and possesses a real time executive kernel which transparently interfaces high level user commands with tester hardware. Automatic software-generation tools are incorporated.

Grinberg, Y.

1985-11-01

245

High-School Chemistry Students' Performance and Gender Differences in a Computerized Molecular Modeling Learning Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computerized molecular modeling (CMM) contributes to the development of visualization skills via vivid animation of three dimensional representations. Its power to illustrate and explore phenomena in chemistry teaching stems from the convenience and simplicity of building molecules of any size and color in a number of presentation styles. A new CMM-based learning environment for teaching and learning chemistry in Israeli high schools has been designed and implemented. Three tenth grade experimental classes used this discovery CMM approach, while two other classes, who studied the same topic in the customary approach, served as a control group. We investigated the effects of using molecular modeling on students' spatial ability, understanding of new concepts related to geometric and symbolic representations and students' perception of the model concept. Each variable was examined for gender differences. Students of the experimental group performed better than control group students in all three performance aspects. Experimental group students scored higher than the control group students in the achievement test on structure and bonding. Students' spatial ability improved in both groups, but students from the experimental group scored higher. For the average students in the two groups the improvement in all three spatial ability sub-tests —paper folding, card rotation, and cube comparison—was significantly higher for the experimental group. Experimental group students gained better insight into the model concept than the control group and could explain more phenomena with the aid of a variety of models. Hence, CMM helps in particular to improve the examined cognitive aspects of the average student population. In most of the achievement and spatial ability tests no significant differences between the genders were found, but in some aspects of model perception and verbal argumentation differences still exist. Experimental group females improved their model perception more than the control group females in understanding ways to create models and in the role of models as mental structures and prediction tools. Teachers' and students' feedback on the CMM learning environment was found to be positive, as it helped them understand concepts in molecular geometry and bonding. The results of this study suggest that teaching/learning of topics in chemistry that are related to three dimensional structures can be improved by using a discovery approach in a computerized learning environment.

Barnea, Nitza; Dori, Yehudit J.

1999-12-01

246

Language networks associated with computerized semantic indices.  

PubMed

Tests of generative semantic verbal fluency are widely used to study organization and representation of concepts in the human brain. Previous studies demonstrated that clustering and switching behavior during verbal fluency tasks is supported by multiple brain mechanisms associated with semantic memory and executive control. Previous work relied on manual assessments of semantic relatedness between words and grouping of words into semantic clusters. We investigated a computational linguistic approach to measuring the strength of semantic relatedness between words based on latent semantic analysis of word co-occurrences in a subset of a large online encyclopedia. We computed semantic clustering indices and compared them to brain network connectivity measures obtained with task-free fMRI in a sample consisting of healthy participants and those differentially affected by cognitive impairment. We found that semantic clustering indices were associated with brain network connectivity in distinct areas including fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal and fusiform gyrus regions. This study shows that computerized semantic indices complement traditional assessments of verbal fluency to provide a more complete account of the relationship between brain and verbal behavior involved organization and retrieval of lexical information from memory. PMID:25315785

Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Jones, David T; Knopman, David S

2015-01-01

247

Computerized tongue diagnosis based on Bayesian networks.  

PubMed

Tongue diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experience-based nature, traditional tongue diagnosis has a very limited-application in clinical medicine. Moreover, traditional tongue diagnosis is always concerned with the identification of syndromes rather than with the connection between tongue abnormal appearances and diseases. This is not well understood in Western medicine, thus greatly obstruct its wider use in the world. In this paper, we present a novel computerized tongue inspection method aiming to address these problems. First, two kinds of quantitative features, chromatic and textural measures, are extracted from tongue images by using popular digital image processing techniques. Then, Bayesian networks are employed to model the relationship between these quantitative features and diseases. The effectiveness of the method is tested on a group of 455 patients affected by 13 common diseases as well as other 70 healthy volunteers, and the diagnostic results predicted by the previously trained Bayesian network classifiers are reported. PMID:15490827

Pang, Bo; Zhang, David; Li, Naimin; Wang, Kuanquan

2004-10-01

248

78 FR 17940 - Certain Computerized Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Computerized Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof...Computerized Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof...computerized orthopedic surgical devices, software, implants, and components...

2013-03-25

249

Computerization of a colposcopy clinic.  

PubMed

The first phase of a paperless computer record has been developed at Hammersmith Hospital. The system was designed around the work practices of the clinic staff. In this phase the data are collected on forms which replace the normal case notes. This information is entered onto an IBM compatible computer by the secretary using a quick, user-friendly program written in a dBASE dialect and compiled with Quicksilver. The program produces letters to patients and their doctors and a printed record of the clinic findings for the case sheet to replace the handwritten form. When funding for hardware becomes available the data will be entered directly into the system by the medical staff in the clinic. Clinic appointment lists are maintained and patients "lost to follow-up' can be identified. Ad hoc enquiries can be made using dBASE III Plus or any similar program. This approach has integrated the computerized recording of data in a colposcopy clinic with the normal work of the staff involved so that no extra effort is required from medical or secretarial staff. The immediate accessibility of patient data and the ability to audit the work of the clinic have been particularly useful. PMID:1911593

Soutter, W P

1991-08-01

250

Laboratory and field imaging test results on single-color and dual-band QWIP focal plane arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on recent laboratory and field measurements on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays (FPAs). The results of laboratory measurements of imaging performance such as noise-equivalent temperature difference (NE?T), minimum resolvable temperature, conversion efficiency, uniformity of response and dark current and their dependence on operating temperature are presented on large format (640×480 pixels) single-color long-wavelength infrared (LWIR)

Arnold Goldberg; Theodore Fischer; Stephen Kennerly; William Beck; Vincent Ramirez; Ken Garner

2001-01-01

251

SWS2 visual pigment evolution as a test of historically contingent patterns of plumage color evolution in warblers.  

PubMed

Distantly related clades that occupy similar environments may differ due to the lasting imprint of their ancestors-historical contingency. The New World warblers (Parulidae) and Old World warblers (Phylloscopidae) are ecologically similar clades that differ strikingly in plumage coloration. We studied genetic and functional evolution of the short-wavelength-sensitive visual pigments (SWS2 and SWS1) to ask if altered color perception could contribute to the plumage color differences between clades. We show SWS2 is short-wavelength shifted in birds that occupy open environments, such as finches, compared to those in closed environments, including warblers. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate New World warblers were derived from a finch-like form that colonized from the Old World 15-20 Ma. During this process, the SWS2 gene accumulated six substitutions in branches leading to New World warblers, inviting the hypothesis that passage through a finch-like ancestor resulted in SWS2 evolution. In fact, we show spectral tuning remained similar across warblers as well as the finch ancestor. Results reject the hypothesis of historical contingency based on opsin spectral tuning, but point to evolution of other aspects of visual pigment function. Using the approach outlined here, historical contingency becomes a generally testable theory in systems where genotype and phenotype can be connected. PMID:25496318

Bloch, Natasha I; Morrow, James M; Chang, Belinda S W; Price, Trevor D

2015-02-01

252

Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

2010-01-01

253

Do Different Colors Absorb Heat Better?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students test whether the color of a material affects how much heat it absorbs. They leave ice cubes placed in boxes made of colored paper (one box per color; white, yellow, red and black) in the sun, and predict in which colored box ice cubes melt first. They record the order and time required for the ice cubes to melt.

2014-09-18

254

Technology and Language Testing. A Collection of Papers from the Annual Colloquium on Language Testing Research (7th, Princeton, New Jersey, April 6-9, 1985).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays on measurement theory and language testing includes: "Computerized Adaptive Testing: Implications for Language Test Developers" (Peter Tung); "The Promise and Threat of Computerized Adaptive Assessment of Reading Comprehension" (Michael Canale); "Computerized Rasch Analysis of Item Bias in ESL Tests" (Harold S. Madsen,…

Stansfield, Charles W., Ed.

255

A Method for Peat Inventory Based on LANDSAT Data and Computerized Mapping. [Ontario  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wetlands were preliminarily delineated on a geometrically-corrected color composite map printed from digital LANDSAT data using a computerized color plotting system. A digital classification was performed to identify the location and extent of wetland types (e.g., open bog, types of treed fen and black spruce-alder swamp). A map is printed from the results of this classification using the computerized color plotter. This color-coded map, produced at several different scales, provides a basis for pre-selecting field sampling sites. Helicopter-aided spot sampling based on the LANDSAT-derived map was conducted over the entire 1700 sq km area of North Ontario. Traditional transect sampling was carried out over a portion of the area, so that the two methods could be compared. Spot sampling based on the LANDSAT-derived map was found to produce results virtually identical to those produced by the transect sampling technique, in approximately one-fifteenth of the time and with a proportionate reduction in cost.

Pala, S.

1982-01-01

256

A subjective evaluation of high-chroma color with wide color-gamut display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Displays tends to expand its color gamut, such as multi-primary color display, Adobe RGB and so on. Therefore displays got possible to display high chroma colors. However sometimes, we feel unnatural some for the image which only expanded chroma. Appropriate gamut mapping method to expand color gamut is not proposed very much. We are attempting preferred expanded color reproduction on wide color gamut display utilizing high chroma colors effectively. As a first step, we have conducted an experiment to investigate the psychological effect of color schemes including highly saturated colors. We used the six-primary-color projector that we have developed for the presentation of test colors. The six-primary-color projector's gamut volume in CIELAB space is about 1.8 times larger than the normal RGB projector. We conducted a subjective evaluation experiment using the SD (Semantic Differential) technique to find the quantitative psychological effect of high chroma colors.

Kishimoto, Junko; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

2009-01-01

257

Training Synesthetic Letter-color Associations by Reading in Color  

PubMed Central

Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing, hearing and thinking about letters, words and numbers. We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. In this protocol, participants are given specially prepared books to read in which four high-frequency letters are paired with four high-frequency colors. Participants receive unique sets of letter-color pairs based on their pre-existing preferences for colored letters. A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. In addition to objective testing, a reading experience questionnaire is administered that is designed to probe for differences in subjective experience. A subset of questions may predict how well an individual learned the associations from reading in color. Importantly, we are not claiming that this method will cause each individual to develop grapheme-color synesthesia, only that it is possible for certain individuals to form letter-color associations by reading in color and these associations are similar in some aspects to those seen in developmental grapheme-color synesthetes. The method is quite flexible and can be used to investigate different aspects and outcomes of training synesthetic associations, including learning-induced changes in brain function and structure. PMID:24638033

Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Rouw, Romke

2014-01-01

258

Training synesthetic letter-color associations by reading in color.  

PubMed

Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing, hearing and thinking about letters, words and numbers. We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. In this protocol, participants are given specially prepared books to read in which four high-frequency letters are paired with four high-frequency colors. Participants receive unique sets of letter-color pairs based on their pre-existing preferences for colored letters. A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. In addition to objective testing, a reading experience questionnaire is administered that is designed to probe for differences in subjective experience. A subset of questions may predict how well an individual learned the associations from reading in color. Importantly, we are not claiming that this method will cause each individual to develop grapheme-color synesthesia, only that it is possible for certain individuals to form letter-color associations by reading in color and these associations are similar in some aspects to those seen in developmental grapheme-color synesthetes. The method is quite flexible and can be used to investigate different aspects and outcomes of training synesthetic associations, including learning-induced changes in brain function and structure. PMID:24638033

Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Rouw, Romke

2014-01-01

259

11 CFR 9033.12 - Production of computerized information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(9) of this section, the committee shall provide computerized magnetic media, such as magnetic tapes or magnetic diskettes, containing the computerized information at the times specified in 11 CFR...

2013-01-01

260

11 CFR 9033.12 - Production of computerized information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(9) of this section, the committee shall provide computerized magnetic media, such as magnetic tapes or magnetic diskettes, containing the computerized information at the times specified in 11 CFR...

2011-01-01

261

11 CFR 9033.12 - Production of computerized information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(9) of this section, the committee shall provide computerized magnetic media, such as magnetic tapes or magnetic diskettes, containing the computerized information at the times specified in 11 CFR...

2012-01-01

262

Mounter, Color Film (any ind.) 976.885--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

263

Computerized microscopic image analysis of follicular lymphoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Follicular Lymphoma (FL) is a cancer arising from the lymphatic system. Originating from follicle center B cells, FL is mainly comprised of centrocytes (usually middle-to-small sized cells) and centroblasts (relatively large malignant cells). According to the World Health Organization's recommendations, there are three histological grades of FL characterized by the number of centroblasts per high-power field (hpf) of area 0.159 mm2. In current practice, these cells are manually counted from ten representative fields of follicles after visual examination of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides by pathologists. Several studies clearly demonstrate the poor reproducibility of this grading system with very low inter-reader agreement. In this study, we are developing a computerized system to assist pathologists with this process. A hybrid approach that combines information from several slides with different stains has been developed. Thus, follicles are first detected from digitized microscopy images with immunohistochemistry (IHC) stains, (i.e., CD10 and CD20). The average sensitivity and specificity of the follicle detection tested on 30 images at 2×, 4× and 8× magnifications are 85.5+/-9.8% and 92.5+/-4.0%, respectively. Since the centroblasts detection is carried out in the H&E-stained slides, the follicles in the IHC-stained images are mapped to H&E-stained counterparts. To evaluate the centroblast differentiation capabilities of the system, 11 hpf images have been marked by an experienced pathologist who identified 41 centroblast cells and 53 non-centroblast cells. A non-supervised clustering process differentiates the centroblast cells from noncentroblast cells, resulting in 92.68% sensitivity and 90.57% specificity.

Sertel, Olcay; Kong, Jun; Lozanski, Gerard; Catalyurek, Umit; Saltz, Joel H.; Gurcan, Metin N.

2008-03-01

264

Changing Colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this challenge, learners have to figure out in what order to combine five solutions to change the color from clear, to yellow, to blue, and back to clear. The five chemicals are potassium iodide, sodium thiosulfate, sodium hypochlorite (Clorox bleach), soluble starch (Niagara spray starch), and water. The color changes indicate chemical reactions, and the lesson includes some background information about the reactions that create different colors. Suggestions are given for guiding learners through systematic approaches to making the different combinations and observing the results, and for explaining to different age groups what happens when the solutions are combined.

Sciencenter

2014-08-27

265

Color Sudoku  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The popular sudoku puzzles use numbers, but the game could played with any set of 9 different objects! In this activity (on pages 56-75 of PDF), learners use objects of different colors (marbles, paper squares, candies) to solve sudoku puzzles. Learners use logic to determine where all the colored objects go, given the different colors already present on the puzzles. The activity includes suggestions for how to approach the game, 10 puzzles of varying size and difficulty, and links to websites with many more puzzles.

Omsi

2008-01-01

266

Color Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, developed by the Exploratories Project at Brown University, provides a series of applets to help users understand the various concepts in Color Theory. In the combined Color Mixing applet, undergraduate and high school students can discover how lights, paints, and filters interact. Users can learn about the properties of incoming light, frequency, and reflectance. The site also provides activities for metamers, Triple Cell Response, and much more. Anyone seeking help with color concepts will benefit from this educational, interactive Web site.

267

Validation and workflow optimization of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing using INFORM HER2 dual-color in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status is useful for predicting response to trastuzumab. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 gene amplification is accurate but limited because of cost, the need for fluorescence microscopy, the limited assessment of histology, and the fading of its signal over time. Dual-color in situ hybridization (Dual ISH) is fully automated, is viewable by bright-field microscopy, has a stable signal, and has separate colors for HER2 and chromosome 17 signals. HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC), FISH, and Dual ISH were performed on 101 breast cancer cases. Sixteen of 17 cases with 3+ HER2 by IHC showed gene amplification by FISH, and 15 showed amplification by Dual ISH. Three of the 2+ IHC cases were either amplified or equivocal by Dual ISH. None of the IHC-negative cases were amplified by either FISH or Dual ISH. Dual ISH agreed with FISH in 93% of cases. Among the 6 discrepancies, 4 were for an equivocal result for 1 test compared with either a positive or a negative result for the other test. The average differences in readings between Dual ISH and FISH in the discrepant cases were only 0.02, with a range of -1.37 to 1.85. Turnaround time for FISH as a send-out test from test ordering to reporting averaged 8.27 workdays, whereas the turnaround time for Dual ISH performed in-house averaged 4.94 workdays (P < .0000001). Our results indicated that automated Dual ISH is a useful method for evaluating HER2 status in a clinical setting. PMID:24075600

Lim, Sung-Jig; Cantillep, Alegria; Carpenter, Philip M

2013-11-01

268

Colorful Electrophoresis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners follow step-by-step instructions to build a gel electrophoresis chamber using inexpensive materials from local hardware and electronic stores. Then, learners follow instructions to simulate DNA electrophoresis using food colors from the kitchen pantry.

Utah, University O.

2012-01-01

269

Further Evidence for a Multifaceted Model of Mental Speed: Factor Structure and Validity of Computerized Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to replicate the structure of mental speed and relations evidenced with fluid intelligence (Gf) found in a number of recent studies. Specifically, a battery of computerized tasks examined whether results with paper-and-pencil assessments held across different test media. Participants (N = 186) completed the battery,…

Danthiir, Vanessa; Wilhelm, Oliver; Roberts, Richard D.

2012-01-01

270

Computerized Aid Improves Safety Decision Process for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user.…

Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B.; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

2010-01-01

271

Computerized prediction of breast cancer risk: comparison between the global and local bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed and preliminarily tested a new breast cancer risk prediction model based on computerized bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry. In this study, we investigated and compared the performance difference of our risk prediction model when the bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetrical features were extracted in two different methods namely (1) the entire breast area and (2) the mirror-matched local strips

Xingwei Wang; Dror Lederman; Jun Tan; Xiao Hui Wang; Bin Zheng

2011-01-01

272

Changing control strategies during standard assessment using computerized dynamic posturography with older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this investigation was to explore the use of spectral analysis to examine the data obtained during computerized dynamic posturography (CDP). In particular, we examined whether spectral analysis would provide more detailed information about underlying postural control strategies and potential learning across conditions and trials of the sensory organization test (SOT). Twenty older women between the ages of

Karl S. Rosengren; Karthikeyan Rajendran; Jonas Contakos; Li-Ling Chuang; Melissa Peterson; Richard Doyle; Edward McAuley

2007-01-01

273

The Effects of Computerized Symbol Processor Instruction on the Communication Skills of Nonspeaking Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computerized symbol processor system using an Apple IIe computer and a Power Pad graphics tablet was tested with 22 nonspeaking, multiply disabled students. The students were taught to express themselves independently in writing, and they did significantly better than control students on measures of language comprehension and symbol recognition.…

Osguthorpe, Russell T.; Li Chang, Linda

1988-01-01

274

Reliability and Validity of the Flemish Physical Activity Computerized Questionnaire in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Flemish Physical Activity Computerized Questionnaire (FPACQ) in employed/unemployed and retired people. The FPACQ was developed to assess detailed information on several dimensions of physical activity and sedentary behavior over a usual week. A…

Matton, Lynn; Wijndaele, Katrien; Duvigneaud, Nathalie; Duquet, William; Philippaerts, Renaat; Thomis, Martine; Lefevre, Johan

2007-01-01

275

SHAWNEE LIME/LIMESTONE SCRUBBING COMPUTERIZED DESIGN/COST-ESTIMATE MODEL USERS MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual gives a general description of the Shawnee lime/limestone scrubbing computerized design/cost-estimate model and detailed procedures for using it. It describes all inputs and outputs, along with available options. The model, based on Shawnee Test Facility scrubbing data...

276

Computerized Progressive Attentional Training (CPAT) Program: Effective Direct Intervention for Children with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the efficacy of a pioneering intervention program grounded in a contemporary theoretical framework of attention and designed to directly improve the various attentional functions of children with ADHD. The computerized progressive attentional training (CPAT) program is composed of four sets of structured tasks that uniquely activate sustained attention, selective attention, orienting of attention, and executive attention. Performance was

Lilach Shalev; Yehoshua Tsal; Carmel Mevorach

2007-01-01

277

Computerized quantitative evaluation of mammographic accreditation phantom images  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The objective was to develop and investigate an automated scoring scheme of the American College of Radiology (ACR) mammographic accreditation phantom (RMI 156, Middleton, WI) images. Methods: The developed method consisted of background subtraction, determination of region of interest, classification of fiber and mass objects by Mahalanobis distance, detection of specks by template matching, and rule-based scoring. Fifty-one phantom images were collected from 51 facilities for this study (one facility provided one image). A medical physicist and two radiologic technologists also scored the images. The human and computerized scores were compared. Results: In terms of meeting the ACR's criteria, the accuracies of the developed method for computerized evaluation of fiber, mass, and speck were 90%, 80%, and 98%, respectively. Contingency table analysis revealed significant association between observer and computer scores for microcalcifications (p<5%) but not for masses and fibers. Conclusions: The developed method may achieve a stable assessment of visibility for test objects in mammographic accreditation phantom image in whether the phantom image meets the ACR's criteria in the evaluation test, although there is room left for improvement in the approach for fiber and mass objects.

Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih; Shinohara, Norimitsu [Department of Radiological Technology, School of Health Sciences, Niigata University, 2-746 Asahimachidori, Chuouku, Niigata 951-8518 (Japan); Department of Radiological Technology, Gifu Univesity of Medical Science, 1-795 Hiraga-aza-nagamine, Seki, Gifu 501-3892 (Japan)

2010-12-15

278

Implementation of a Computerized Maintenance Management System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A primer Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) has been established for NASA Ames pressure component certification program. The CMMS takes full advantage of the latest computer technology and SQL relational database to perform periodic services for vital pressure components. The Ames certification program is briefly described and the aspects of the CMMS implementation are discussed as they are related to the certification objectives.

Shen, Yong-Hong; Askari, Bruce

1994-01-01

279

NATIONAL ARCHIVE OF COMPUTERIZED DATA ON AGING  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Archive of Computerized Data on Aging (NACDA), located within ICPSR, is funded by the National Institute on Aging. NACDA's mission is to advance research on aging by helping researchers to profit from the under-exploited potential of a broad range of datasets. NACDA ...

280

Computerized management support for swine breeding farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. INTRODUCTION<\\/strong>The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and definition of farm management and management information systems (MIS), (2) individual farm analysis, and (3) sow replacement optimization. As part of the study, a

R. B. M. Huirne

1990-01-01

281

Computerized Tailoring Interventions Workgroup Meeting - Implementation Science  

Cancer.gov

The Computerized Tailored Interventions (CTI) Workgroup convened to discuss the translation of CTIs into practice. The Workgroup’s discussion over the two days addressed the designing of CTIs for broad dissemination with emerging and future technologies, and dissemination of existing CTIs in the absence of available support from the CTI developer.

282

Computerized Enrollment Driven Financial Forecasting Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interactive, computerized model developed for Old Dominion University utilizes university historical data, demographic characteristics, projected selected economic variables and population figures by various age groups and planning districts to forecast enrollment, financial projections, and future fiscal conditions of the institution. The…

Sarvella, John R.

283

Computerized Grading of Anatomy Laboratory Practical Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the…

Krippendorf, Beth B.; Bolender, David L.; Kolesari, Gary L.

2008-01-01

284

Exploring computerized mammographic reporting with feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-aided diagnosis is generally dependent on feature detection and identification on digitized images. In this project, we explored the use of a computerized system in which features identified by radiologists for a previous set of mammography cases, in addition to other information on those cases, formed a database of information that provided readers of new cases with statistical probabilities (feedback)

Kathleen M. Harris; Barbara C. Good; Jill L. King; David Toma; David Gur; Zahra S. Ilkhanipour; Melinda J. Staiger; James H. Oliver; Phyllis W. Wintz; Marie A. Ganott; Cynthia A. Britton; William H. Straub

1993-01-01

285

A computerized plant species recognition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a computerized plant species recognition system (CPSRS) is presented. CPSRS is a Web-based application, which provides a familiar and efficient way to search and identify plant species in the field. It is built on the Java Web infrastructure to support platform-independent application. The Java applets and servlets are adopted to balance the computing burden in both client

Yanhua Ye; Chun Chen; Chun-Tak Li; Hong Fu; Zheru Chi

2004-01-01

286

Computerized management information systems and organizational structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computerized management of information systems and organizational structures is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) critical factors favoring centralization and decentralization of organizations, (2) classification of organizations by relative structure, (3) attempts to measure change in organization structure, and (4) impact of information technology developments on organizational structure changes.

Zannetos, Z. S.; Sertel, M. R.

1970-01-01

287

MMI Preparatory School Computerized Model Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides a detailed description of the computerization of the library of MMI Preparatory School, a private, non-sectarian college preparatory school in Pennsylvania for students in grades 7 through 12. Each of the following functions is investigated: (1) catalog card production; (2) online reference services; (3) circulation; (4) word…

Everhart, Nancy

288

MU's Early Space-Planning Computerization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of the University of Missouri-Columbia's Space Planning and Management office (SPAM) and the computerization of the school's space-planning archives. Discusses SPAM's software selection for standardization as well as its manual development, placing the school's buildings and floor plans on the Web, and its space-modeling…

Shader, Scott; Vaughn, Anthony

1998-01-01

289

Issues in computerized art therapy assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to explore some of the main issues springing from the computerized assessment of art-based instruments (CAABI). The results indicated that there were opposing viewpoints, limitations, and solutions regarding the limitations. Many art therapists believe that this technology will supplant their own expertise in assessment (Hartwich & Brandecker, 1997; Kim, Ryu, Hwang, & Kim, 2006).

Donald C. Mattson

2010-01-01

290

The Colors of the Alphabet: Naturally-Biased Associations between Shape and Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many letters of the alphabet are consistently mapped to specific colors in English-speaking adults, both in the general population and in individuals with grapheme-color synaesthesia who perceive letters in color. Here, across six experiments, we tested the ubiquity of the color/letter associations with typically developing toddlers, literate…

Spector, Ferrinne; Maurer, Daphne

2011-01-01

291

Sequential color video to parallel color video converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The engineering design, development, breadboard fabrication, test, and delivery of a breadboard field sequential color video to parallel color video converter is described. The converter was designed for use onboard a manned space vehicle to eliminate a flickering TV display picture and to reduce the weight and bulk of previous ground conversion systems.

1975-01-01

292

Computerized system for data handling  

SciTech Connect

An open-ended, menu-directed set of FORTRAN programs is being written to produce graphic displays and otherwise process data from a number of different surface science instruments. To date, programs have been written for x-ray photoelectron (XPS, ESCA) and Auger spectroscopies. The data produced by these instruments are stored in a Nicolet, Model 1074, hard-wired, multichannel, data analyzer in 1024 channels. These 1024 data points are sent serially to the computer. The operator then enters the sample information and experimental parameters of the spectrum. The spectrum can then be manipulated using a variety of interactive graphic routines. The basic hardware for the system consists of an LSI-11/2, 10 Mbyte disk drive, and a 4027 Tektronix color graphics terminal. These programs have been designed with the aid of top-down structure diagrams. These diagrams are used to discuss the general feature of the programs and how they interact. Software, hardware, future expansion, and user reaction are also discussed. 10 figures.

Boyle, W.; Brand, H.; Yamauchi, R.; Bystroff, R.

1980-01-01

293

A Study of The Effects of Computerized Multimedia Technology on Anatomical and Physiological Concept Retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized multimedia educational software has been developed for many disciplines but not for teaching clinical dietetics. The effectiveness of incorporating multimedia technology into lectures on anatomical and physiological concepts was studied using a pre-test\\/post-test format and cross-over design. Two groups of students (N=44) enrolled in a clinical nutrition class were given a pre-test that included normal and pathological lower gastrointestinal

W. V. Strauss; S. S. Dahlheimer

1998-01-01

294

Selective Advantage of Resistant Strains at Trace Levels of Antibiotics: a Simple and Ultrasensitive Color Test for Detection of Antibiotics and Genotoxic Agents?  

PubMed Central

Many studies have examined the evolution of bacterial mutants that are resistant to specific antibiotics, and many of these focus on concentrations at and above the MIC. Here we ask for the minimum concentration at which existing resistant mutants can outgrow sensitive wild-type strains in competition experiments at antibiotic levels significantly below the MIC, and we define a minimum selective concentration (MSC) in Escherichia coli for two antibiotics, which is near 1/5 of the MIC for ciprofloxacin and 1/20 of the MIC for tetracycline. Because of the prevalence of resistant mutants already in the human microbiome, allowable levels of antibiotics to which we are exposed should be below the MSC. Since this concentration often corresponds to low or trace levels of antibiotics, it is helpful to have simple tests to detect such trace levels. We describe a simple ultrasensitive test for detecting the presence of antibiotics and genotoxic agents. The test is based on the use of chromogenic proteins as color markers and the use of single and multiple mutants of Escherichia coli that have greatly increased sensitivity to either a wide range of antibiotics or specific antibiotics, antibiotic families, and genotoxic agents. This test can detect ciprofloxacin at 1/75 of the MIC. PMID:21199928

Liu, Anne; Fong, Amie; Becket, Elinne; Yuan, Jessica; Tamae, Cindy; Medrano, Leah; Maiz, Maria; Wahba, Christine; Lee, Catherine; Lee, Kim; Tran, Katherine P.; Yang, Hanjing; Hoffman, Robert M.; Salih, Anya; Miller, Jeffrey H.

2011-01-01

295

Colors of Centaurs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minor planets on outer planet-crossing orbits, called Centaur objects, are important members of the solar system in that they dynamically link Kuiper belt objects to Jupiter-family comets. In addition, perhaps 6% of near-Earth objects have histories as Centaur objects. The total mass of Centaurs (10-4&) Earth masses) is significant, about one-tenth of the mass of the asteroid belt. Centaur objects exhibit a physical property not seen among any other objects in the solar system; their B-R colors divide into two distinct populations: a gray and a red population. Application of the dip test to B-R colors in the literature indicates there is a 99.5% probability that Centaurs exhibit a bimodal color distribution. Although there are hints that gray and red Centaurs exhibit different orbital elements, application of the Wilcoxon rank sum test finds no statistically significant difference between the orbital elements of the two color groups. On theother hand, gray and red Centaurs exhibit a statistically significant difference in albedo, with the gray Centaurs having a lower median albedo than the red Centaurs. Further observational and dynamical work is necessary to determine whether the two color populations are the result of (1) evolutionary processes such as radiation-reddening, collisions, and sublimation or (2) a primordial, temperature-induced, composition gradient.

Tegler, S. C.; Bauer, J. M.; Romanishin, W.; Peixinho, N.

296

Color Television Signal Receiver Demodulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a discussion of the problems and techniques involved in the design and development of color television receiver demodulators. The basic concepts of a simultaneous subcarrier color system are described as relating to the receiver demodulator problem. The particular signal specifications for field testing as proposed by the National Television System Committee are included to the extent of

D. H. Pritchard; R. N. Rhodes

1953-01-01

297

Evaluating the uniformity of color spaces and performance of color difference formulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using small color difference data sets (Macadam ellipses dataset and RIT-DuPont suprathreshold color difference ellipses dataset), and large color difference data sets (Munsell Renovation Data and OSA Uniform Color Scales dataset), the uniformity of several color spaces and performance of color difference formulae based on these color spaces are evaluated. The color spaces used are CIELAB, DIN99d, IPT, and CIECAM02-UCS. It is found that the uniformity of lightness is better than saturation and hue. Overall, for all these color spaces, the uniformity in the blue area is inferior to the other area. The uniformity of CIECAM02-UCS is superior to the other color spaces for the whole color-difference range from small to large. The uniformity of CIELAB and IPT for the large color difference data sets is better than it for the small color difference data sets, but the DIN99d is opposite. Two common performance factors (PF/3 and STRESS) and the statistical F-test are calculated to test the performance of color difference formula. The results show that the performance of color difference formulae based on these four color spaces is consistent with the uniformity of these color spaces.

Lian, Yusheng; Liao, Ningfang; Wang, Jiajia; Tan, Boneng; Liu, Zilong

2010-11-01

298

To Prove Four Color Theorem  

E-print Network

In this paper, we give a proof for four color theorem(four color conjecture). Our proof does not involve computer assistance and the most important is that it can be generalized to prove Hadwiger Conjecture. Moreover, we give algorithms to color and test planarity of planar graphs, which can be generalized to graphs containing $K_x(x>5)$ minor. There are four parts of this paper: Part-1: To Prove Four Color Theorem Part-2: An Equivalent Statement of Hadwiger Conjecture when $k=5$ Part-3: A New Proof of Wagner's Equivalence Theorem Part-4: A Geometric View of Outerplanar Graph

Weiya Yue; Weiwei Cao

2010-10-19

299

Colorful Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You're probably really upset that all you have so far is a simple little ray model of light. When do we get to the good stuff, you say? How about now? As a bonus, you get to look at lots of pretty colors. This chapter addresses how light can be modeled as a series of waves. These waves consist of changing electric and magnetic fields that can travel through empty space, as well as through other mediums. Different frequencies of light waves correspond to different colors of light. White light is composed of all the colors of visible light. Visible light is just a small portion of the entire spectrum of electromagnetic waves.

William C. Robertson, Ph.D.

2003-01-01

300

Colorful Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Funded by Industry Canada's SchoolNet initiative with the cooperation of the Canadian Mathematical Society, Colorful Mathematics takes a game-oriented approach to teaching K-12 mathematics. The project has developed five coloring games that teach children about problem solving, and pattern identification, which "are all at the very heart of mathematics." The coloring approach makes difficult graph concepts "that are still the subject of active research by mathematicians, computer scientists and industry researchers" more accessible to children. The software program, which is available for free from this website, is set up to check for mistakes and challenge students to improve on their results. A Teacher's Corner section gives an overview of the games, "some sample questions for discussion with the curious student," and an overview of terminology used in the software program. The website is also available in French.

301

Identification of individuals using palatal rugae: Computerized method  

PubMed Central

Identification of individuals is a challenging task in forensic odontology. In circumstances where identification of an individual by fingerprint or dental record comparison is difficult, the palatal rugae may be considered as an alternative source. Palatal rugae have been shown to be highly individualistic and it maintains consistency in shape throughout life. Aims and Objectives: The present study is conducted to test the efficiency of computerized software in the identification of individuals after obtaining digital photographic images of the rugae. Materials and Methods: The intra oral photographs of 100 individuals were taken using a SLR digital camera. The custom made external attachment was attached to the camera to standardize all the photographs. A special software was designed called the Palatal Rugae Comparison Software (PRCS Version 2.0) to match the clinical photographs. Five evaluators including 3 dentists, 1 computer professional, and 1 general surgeon were asked to match the rugae pattern using the software. The results were recorded along with time taken by each operator to match all the photos using software. Results: The software recorded an accuracy of 99% in identification of individuals. Conclusion: The present study supports the fact of individuality of the rugae. Computerized method has given very good results to support the individualization of rugae. Through our study, we feel that palatal rugae patterns will be of great use in the future of forensic odontology. PMID:21731346

Hemanth, M; Vidya, M; Shetty, Nandaprasad; Karkera, Bhavana V

2010-01-01

302

Computerized quantification of ultrasonic heterogeneity in thyroid nodules.  

PubMed

To test whether computerized quantification of ultrasonic heterogeneity can be of help in the diagnosis of thyroid malignancy, we evaluated ultrasonic heterogeneity with an objective and quantitative computerized method in a prospective setting. A total of 400 nodules including 271 benign thyroid nodules and 129 malignant thyroid nodules were evaluated. Patient clinical data were collected, and the grading of heterogeneity on conventional gray-scale ultrasound images was retrospectively reviewed by a thyroid specialist. Quantification of ultrasonic heterogeneity (heterogeneity index, HI) was performed by a proprietary program implemented with methods proposed in this article. HI values differed significantly between benign and malignant nodules, diagnosed by a combination of fine-needle aspiration and surgical pathology results (p < 0.001, area under the curve = 0.714). The ultrasonic heterogeneity of these samples, as assessed by an experienced clinician, could not significantly differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. However, nodules with marked ultrasonic heterogeneity had higher HI values than nodules with homogeneous nodules. These results indicate that the new computer-aided diagnosis method for evaluation of the ultrasonic heterogeneity of thyroid nodules is an objective and quantitative method that is correlated with conventional ultrasonic heterogeneity assessment, but can better aid in the diagnosis of thyroid malignancy. PMID:25218450

Chen, Kuen-Yuan; Chen, Chiung-Nien; Wu, Ming-Hsun; Ho, Ming-Chih; Tai, Hao-Chih; Kuo, Wen-Hong; Huang, Wen-Chang; Wang, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Argon; Chang, King-Jen

2014-11-01

303

Kool Colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners investigate how temperature affects the rate of chemical reactions by observing how steel wool reacts with various types of Kool-Aid solutions at different temperatures. The reaction is monitored as the color fades in the Kool-Aid solutions. Background information includes how the dyes change color from an oxidation-reduction reaction. Extensions include investigating how surface area and concentration affect reaction rate. Part of the "No Hassle Messy Science with a Wow" activity guide by OMSI, where all activities use only household materials.

2013-07-30

304

Computerized device for critical flicker fusion frequency determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The critical fusion flicker frequency of the human visual system is the threshold sensitivity for a sine wave-modulated patch of monochromatic flickering light measured as a function of its temporal frequency and average luminance level. The critical flicker fusion frequency changes in different ocular and non-ocular conditions, for example: high-myopia, AMR, glaucoma, schizophrenia, after alcohol intake, fatigue. A computerized test for critical flicker fusion frequency determination was developed. Visual stimuli are two monochromatic LED light sources that are connected to a microcircuit driven by a computer program. The control of the device is realized through the parallel port of the PC. During the test a patient has to choose which one of two light sources is flickering. The critical cliker fusion frequency is determined by a psychophysical procedure, where the stimulus frequency that showed detection probability 75% is considered as threshold.

Racene, Diana

2003-08-01

305

Computerized dairy records management systems  

E-print Network

the same from previous to current test day. Fat% and protein% values across 30 lactations were almost identical, 2ndL cows producing the lowest values. TABLE A. 4. MASTITIS-PRODUCTION RELATIONSHIP HOLSTEIN HERD Cows CI'DM PTDM SCCSTM SCCSLM CTD%F CID%P...

Acosta, Alejandro E. Gonzalez

1992-01-01

306

Examining Colors, Color Perception, and Sight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students of all ages are fascinated by color and how we perceive it. For the main activity in this chapter, your class explores colors and visual perception by mixing colors in several ways. Students learn more about colors, light, vision, and color compo

Eichinger, John

2009-05-15

307

Color Sense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

2009-01-01

308

Color transparency  

SciTech Connect

The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed.

Jennings, B.K. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Miller, G.A. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1993-11-01

309

Computerized Assessment Tool for Mouse Operating Proficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper substantiates the process of developing a computerized mouse proficiency assessment tool (CAT-MP), which could\\u000a be used to measure proficiency of clients in mouse operating skills. Moreover, CAT-MP also helps evaluator to diagnose specific\\u000a difficulties and provide individual remedies for the persons with limitations to access computer. Based on the results of\\u000a task analysis of mouse operating, clinical experiences

Ming-chung Chen; Ling-Fu Meng; Cheng-feng Hsieh; Ting-fang Wu; Chi-Nung Chu; Tien-yu Li

2004-01-01

310

Color Term Knowledge Does Not Affect Categorical Perception of Color in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Categorical perception of color is shown when colors from the same category are discriminated less easily than equivalently spaced colors that cross a category boundary. The current experiments tested various models of categorical perception. Experiment 1 tested for categorical responding in 2- to 4-year-olds, the age range for the onset…

Franklin, A.; Clifford, A.; Williamson, E.; Davies, I.

2005-01-01

311

Color appearance in stereoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

2011-03-01

312

Contrasting signals of positive selection in genes involved in human skin-color variation from tests based on SNP scans and resequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous genome-wide scans conducted by genotyping previously ascertained single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have provided candidate signatures for positive selection in various regions of the human genome, including in genes involved in pigmentation traits. However, it is unclear how well the signatures discovered by such haplotype-based test statistics can be reproduced in tests based on full resequencing data. Four genes (oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), dopachrome tautomerase (DCT), and KIT ligand (KITLG)) implicated in human skin-color variation, have shown evidence for positive selection in Europeans and East Asians in previous SNP-scan data. In the current study, we resequenced 4.7 to 6.7 kb of DNA from each of these genes in Africans, Europeans, East Asians, and South Asians. Results Applying all commonly used neutrality-test statistics for allele frequency distribution to the newly generated sequence data provided conflicting results regarding evidence for positive selection. Previous haplotype-based findings could not be clearly confirmed. Although some tests were marginally significant for some populations and genes, none of them were significant after multiple-testing correction. Combined P values for each gene-population pair did not improve these results. Application of Approximate Bayesian Computation Markov chain Monte Carlo based to these sequence data using a simple forward simulator revealed broad posterior distributions of the selective parameters for all four genes, providing no support for positive selection. However, when we applied this approach to published sequence data on SLC45A2, another human pigmentation candidate gene, we could readily confirm evidence for positive selection, as previously detected with sequence-based and some haplotype-based tests. Conclusions Overall, our data indicate that even genes that are strong biological candidates for positive selection and show reproducible signatures of positive selection in SNP scans do not always show the same replicability of selection signals in other tests, which should be considered in future studies on detecting positive selection in genetic data. PMID:22133426

2011-01-01

313

Fully automated sample preparation microsystem for genetic testing of hereditary hearing loss using two-color multiplex allele-specific PCR.  

PubMed

A fully automated microsystem consisting of a disposable DNA extraction and PCR microchip, as well as a compact control instrument, has been successfully developed for genetic testing of hereditary hearing loss from human whole blood. DNA extraction and PCR were integrated into a single 15-?L reaction chamber, where a piece of filter paper was embedded for capturing genomic DNA, followed by in-situ PCR amplification without elution. Diaphragm microvalves actuated by external solenoids together with a "one-way" fluidic control strategy operated by a modular valve positioner and a syringe pump were employed to control the fluids and to seal the chamber during thermal cycling. Fully automated DNA extractions from as low as 0.3-?L human whole blood followed by amplifications of 59-bp ?-actin fragments can be completed on the microsystem in about 100 min. Negative control tests that were performed between blood sample analyses proved the successful elimination of any contamination or carryover in the system. To more critically test the microsystem, a two-color multiplex allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) assay for detecting c.176_191del16, c.235delC, and c.299_300delAT mutations in GJB2 gene that accounts for hereditary hearing loss was constructed. Two allele-specific primers, one labeled with TAMRA for wild type and the other with FAM for mutation, were designed for each locus. DNA extraction from blood and ASPCR were performed on the microsystem, followed by an electrophoretic analysis on a portable microchip capillary electrophoresis system. Blood samples from a healthy donor and five persons with genetic mutations were all accurately analyzed with only two steps in less than 2 h. PMID:25495389

Zhuang, Bin; Gan, Wupeng; Wang, Shuaiqin; Han, Junping; Xiang, Guangxin; Li, Cai-Xia; Sun, Jing; Liu, Peng

2015-01-20

314

15 CFR 950.9 - Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. 950.9 Section...Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. The Environmental...industry. A computerized, information retrieval service provides a...

2011-01-01

315

15 CFR 950.9 - Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. 950.9 Section...Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. The Environmental...industry. A computerized, information retrieval service provides a...

2013-01-01

316

Experiences with HIV Testing, Entry, and Engagement in Care by HIV-Infected Women of Color, and the Need for Autonomy, Competency, and Relatedness  

PubMed Central

Abstract Self-determination theory examines the needs of people adopting new behaviors but has not been applied to the adoption of HIV healthcare behaviors. The current study applied self-determination theory to descriptions of healthcare behaviors adopted by ethnic minority women after an HIV diagnosis. Women of color were asked to describe their experiences with HIV testing, entry, and engagement-in-care in qualitative interviews and focus groups. Participants were mostly African-American (88%), over 40 years old (70%), had been diagnosed for more than 6 years (87%) and had disclosed their HIV infection to more than 3 people (73%). Women described unmet self-determination needs at different time points along the HIV Continuum of Care. Women experienced a significant loss of autonomy at the time of HIV diagnosis. Meeting competency and relatedness needs assisted women in entry and engagement-in-care. However, re-establishing autonomy was a key element for long-term engagement-in-care. Interventions that satisfy these needs at the optimal time point in care could improve diagnosis, entry-to-care, and retention-in-care for women living with HIV. PMID:23829331

Messer, Lynne C.; Adimora, Adaora A.; Roytburd, Katya; Bowditch, Natasha; Parnell, Heather; Seay, Julia; Bell, Lynda; Pierce, Jonah K.

2013-01-01

317

Computerized Workstation for Tsunami Hazard Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present general structure and functionality of the proposed Computerized Workstation for Tsunami Hazard Monitoring (CWTHM). The tool allows interactive monitoring of hazard, tsunami risk assessment, and mitigation - at all stages, from the period of strong tsunamigenic earthquake preparation to inundation of the defended coastal areas. CWTHM is a software-hardware complex with a set of software applications, optimized to achieve best performance on hardware platforms in use. The complex is calibrated for selected tsunami source zone(s) and coastal zone(s) to be defended. The number of zones (both source and coastal) is determined, or restricted, by available hardware resources. The presented complex performs monitoring of selected tsunami source zone via the Internet. The authors developed original algorithms, which enable detection of the preparation zone of the strong underwater earthquake automatically. For the so-determined zone the event time, magnitude and spatial location of tsunami source are evaluated by means of energy of the seismic precursors (foreshocks) analysis. All the above parameters are updated after each foreshock. Once preparing event is detected, several scenarios are forecasted for wave amplitude parameters as well as the inundation zone. Estimations include the lowest and the highest wave amplitudes and the least and the most inundation zone. In addition to that, the most probable case is calculated. In case of multiple defended coastal zones, forecasts and estimates can be done in parallel. Each time the simulated model wave reaches deep ocean buoys or tidal gauge, expected values of wave parameters and inundation zones are updated with historical events information and pre-calculated scenarios. The Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) software package is used for mathematical simulation. The authors suggest code acceleration for deep water wave propagation. As a result, performance is 15 times faster compared to MOST, original version. Performance gain is achieved by compiler options, use of optimized libraries, and advantages of OpenMP parallel technology. Moreover, it is possible to achieve 100 times code acceleration by using modern Graphics Processing Units (GPU). Parallel evaluation of inundation zones for multiple coastal zones is also available. All computer codes can be easily assembled under MS Windows and Unix OS family. Although software is virtually platform independent, the most performance gain is achieved while using the recommended hardware components. When the seismic event occurs, all valuable parameters are updated with seismic data and wave propagation monitoring is enabled. As soon as the wave passes each deep ocean tsunameter, parameters of the initial displacement at source are updated from direct calculations based on original algorithms. For better source reconstruction, a combination of two methods is used: optimal unit source linear combination from preliminary calculated database and direct numerical inversion along the wave ray between real source and particular measurement buoys. Specific dissipation parameter along with the wave ray is also taken into account. During the entire wave propagation process the expected wave parameters and inundation zone(s) characteristics are updated with all available information. If recommended hardware components are used, monitoring results are available in real time. The suggested version of CWTHM has been tested by analyzing seismic precursors (foreshocks) and the measured tsunami waves at North Pacific for the Central Kuril's tsunamigenic earthquake of November 15, 2006.

Lavrentiev-Jr, Mikhail; Marchuk, Andrey; Romanenko, Alexey; Simonov, Konstantin; Titov, Vasiliy

2010-05-01

318

Breast density: Computerized analysis on digitized mammograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim-Background  Mammographically dense breast tissue is related to a higher risk of breast cancer. We aim to evaluate a computerized system,\\u000a assess whether it can provide an accurate and objective estimation of the breast density and if it can accurately classify\\u000a the mammograms according to the ACR\\/BIRADS system.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We retrospectively reviewed the mediolateral oblique (MLO) and cranial-caudal (CC) views of 83

A. Papaevangelou; S. Chatzistergos; K. S. Nikita; G. Zografos

2011-01-01

319

Computerized Profilometer For Inspection Of Welds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Third-generation profilometer for inspection of butt welds includes hand-held probe unit operating in conjunction with computer. Unit positioned across weld, in contact with workpiece, to obtain profile. Increases precision by reducing subjective inputs and concomitant variations in outputs among different operators. Computerization retains capabilities of first- and second-generation profilometers to measure peak angles and mismatches of butt welds and extends measurement capabilities into field of image analysis. Output data more readily processable into forms used by same or another computer.

Badinger, M. A.; Stone, F. N.; Drouant, G. J.

1991-01-01

320

Color Burst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will help students gain experience in asking questions and conducting inquiry by exploring the separation of colors in water and other solvents; and to communicate and share findings of student investigations. The lesson uses a technique called paper chromatography, which is demonstrated using water, ink, and a coffee filter. Scientists use chromatography frequently to separate and identify the component parts of a mixture. This lesson will help young students gain experience in conducting simple investigations of their own while working in small groups.

321

Citrus fruit recognition using color image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm for the automatic recognition of citrus fruit on the tree was developed. Citrus fruits have different color with leaves and branches portions. Fifty-three color images with natural citrus-grove scenes were digitized and analyzed for red, green, and blue (RGB) color content. The color characteristics of target surfaces (fruits, leaves, or branches) were extracted using the range of interest (ROI) tool. Several types of contrast color indices were designed and tested. In this study, the fruit image was enhanced using the (R-B) contrast color index because results show that the fruit have the highest color difference among the objects in the image. A dynamic threshold function was derived from this color model and used to distinguish citrus fruit from background. The results show that the algorithm worked well under frontlighting or backlighting condition. However, there are misclassifications when the fruit or the background is under a brighter sunlight.

Xu, Huirong; Ying, Yibin

2004-10-01

322

Computerized Maze Navigation and On-Road Performance by Drivers With Dementia  

PubMed Central

This study examined the ability of computerized maze test performance to predict the road test performance of cognitively impaired and normal older drivers. The authors examined 133 older drivers, including 65 with probable Alzheimer disease, 23 with possible Alzheimer disease, and 45 control subjects without cognitive impairment. Subjects completed 5 computerized maze tasks employing a touch screen and pointer as well as a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Parameters measured for mazes included errors, planning time, drawing time, and total time. Within 2 weeks, subjects were examined by a professional driving instructor on a standardized road test modeled after the Washington University Road Test. Road test total score was significantly correlated with total time across the 5 mazes. This maze score was significant for both Alzheimer disease subjects and control subjects. One maze in particular, requiring less than 2 minutes to complete, was highly correlated with driving performance. For the standard neuropsychological tests, highest correlations were seen with Trail Making A (TrailsA) and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Tests Trial 1 (HVLT1). Multiple regression models for road test score using stepwise subtraction of maze and neuropsychological test variables revealed significant independent contributions for total maze time, HVLT1, and TrailsA for the entire group; total maze time and HVLT1 for Alzheimer disease subjects; and TrailsA for normal subjects. As a visual analog of driving, a brief computerized test of maze navigation time compares well to standard neuropsychological tests of psychomotor speed, scanning, attention, and working memory as a predictor of driving performance by persons with early Alzheimer disease and normal elders. Measurement of maze task performance appears to be useful in the assessment of older drivers at risk for hazardous driving. PMID:18287166

Ott, Brian R.; Festa, Elena K.; Amick, Melissa M.; Grace, Janet; Davis, Jennifer D.; Heindel, William C.

2012-01-01

323

Color-flavor locked strangelets.  

PubMed

Finite lumps of color-flavor locked strange-quark matter (CFL strangelets) are significantly more stable than strangelets without color-flavor locking for wide ranges of parameters, increasing the likelihood of strangelet metastability, or even absolute stability beyond some minimum baryon number A(min). Whereas bulk CFL strange-quark matter is electrically neutral, CFL strangelets are positively charged, with Z approximately 0.3A(2/3). This is quite different from "ordinary" strangelets and may provide a possible test of color-flavor locking if strangelets are detected in upcoming cosmic-ray space experiments. PMID:11690265

Madsen, J

2001-10-22

324

Evaluation of a Computerized Clinical Information System (Micromedex).  

PubMed

This paper summarizes data collected as part of a project designed to identify and assess the technical and organizational problems associated with the implementation and evaluation of a Computerized Clinical Information System (CCIS), Micromedex, in three U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The study began in 1987 as a national effort to implement decision support technologies in the Veterans Administration Decentralized Hospital Computer Program (DHCP). The specific objectives of this project were to (1) examine one particular decision support technology, (2) identify the technical and organizational barriers to the implementation of a CCIS in the VA host environment, (3) assess the possible benefits of this system to VA clinicians in terms of therapeutic decision making, and (4) develop new methods for identifying the clinical utility of a computer program designed to provide clinicians with a new information tool. The project was conducted intermittently over a three-year period at three VA medical centers chosen as implementation and evaluation test sites for Micromedex. Findings from the Kansas City Medical Center in Missouri are presented to illustrate some of the technical problems associated with the implementation of a commercial database program in the DHCP host environment, the organizational factors influencing clinical use of the system, and the methods used to evaluate its use. Data from 4581 provider encounters with the CCIS are summarized. Usage statistics are presented to illustrate the methodological possibilities for assessing the "benefits and burdens" of a computerized information system by using an automated collection of user demographics and program audit trails that allow evaluators to monitor user interactions with different segments of the database. PMID:1807583

Lundsgaarde, H P; Moreshead, G E

1991-01-01

325

Kinds of Arguments Emerging While Exploring in a Computerized Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper there is a description of a case in which mathematical argumentation emerge and develop between 7th grade students working in an interactive computerized environment without a deliberate mentoring. The computerized environment has its influence on the characteristics of this argumentation which include mathematical regularities based…

Lavy, Ilana

2004-01-01

326

A three-dimensional computerized isometric strength measurement system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three-dimensional Computerized Isometric Strength Measurement System (CISMS) reliably and accurately measures isometric pull and push strengths in workspaces of paraplegic populations while anticipating comparative studies with other populations. The main elements of the system were: an extendable arm, a vertical supporting track, a rotating platform, a force transducer, stability sensors and a computerized data collection interface. The CISMS with

Nancy L. Black; Biman Das

2007-01-01

327

The Reality, Direction, and Future of Computerized Publications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sharing information in digital form by using a computer is a growing phenomenon. Many universities are making their applications available on computer. More than one hundred and thirty-six universities have developed computerized applications on their own or through a commercial vendor. Universities developed computerized applications in order to…

Levenstein, Nicholas

2012-01-01

328

Computerization of the Newspaper in the 1980s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the literature on the computerization of newspaper newsrooms shows that since 1960, computers have assumed an increasingly important role in information collection, news writing and editing, pagination, and news transmission. When newspaper libraries are computerized, reporters are able to find information more quickly and to use…

Garrison, Bruce

329

Color Theory for Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will introduce students to color theory with a focus on the use of color in digital design. Students will discover the color wheel, and color harmonies. Color is a very powerful tool in design. It can, enhance a message, give an object visual weight and emphasis, and add richness and depth to a design. We can use color to signify data, to draw attention to a particular object, or to set a mood. Color ...

Jensen, Mr.

2009-10-04

330

Learning About Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students will learn about primary, secondary, and complementary colors. Students will also learn about warm & cool colors, along with tints & shades. Lastly, they will create an optical illusion using complimentary colors. INTRODUCTION: Welcome students! Begin by watching this fun video about colors. LEARNING ABOUT COLOR: Now, that you've had an introduction to colors, lets play a little game! Click on the link below. Carmine s Introduction to Color Awesome! Click on the links below ...

Whitni Erickson

2009-04-18

331

Computerized atmospheric trace contaminant control simulation for manned spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Buildup of atmospheric trace contaminants in enclosed volumes such as a spacecraft may lead to potentially serious health problems for the crew members. For this reason, active control methods must be implemented to minimize the concentration of atmospheric contaminants to levels that are considered safe for prolonged, continuous exposure. Designing hardware to accomplish this has traditionally required extensive testing to characterize and select appropriate control technologies. Data collected since the Apollo project can now be used in a computerized performance simulation to predict the performance and life of contamination control hardware to allow for initial technology screening, performance prediction, and operations and contingency studies to determine the most suitable hardware approach before specific design and testing activities begin. The program, written in FORTRAN 77, provides contaminant removal rate, total mass removed, and per pass efficiency for each control device for discrete time intervals. In addition, projected cabin concentration is provided. Input and output data are manipulated using commercial spreadsheet and data graphing software. These results can then be used in analyzing hardware design parameters such as sizing and flow rate, overall process performance and program economics. Test performance may also be predicted to aid test design.

Perry, J. L.

1993-01-01

332

Computerized training of cryosurgery - a system approach.  

PubMed

The objective of the current study is to provide the foundation for a computerized training platform for cryosurgery. Consistent with clinical practice, the training process targets the correlation of the frozen region contour with the target region shape, using medical imaging and accepted criteria for clinical success. The current study focuses on system design considerations, including a bioheat transfer model, simulation techniques, optimal cryoprobe layout strategy, and a simulation core framework. Two fundamentally different approaches were considered for the development of a cryosurgery simulator, based on a finite-elements (FE) commercial code (ANSYS) and a proprietary finite-difference (FD) code. Results of this study demonstrate that the FE simulator is superior in terms of geometric modeling, while the FD simulator is superior in terms of runtime. Benchmarking results further indicate that the FD simulator is superior in terms of usage of memory resources, pre-processing, parallel processing, and post-processing. It is envisioned that future integration of a human-interface module and clinical data into the proposed computer framework will make computerized training of cryosurgery a practical reality. PMID:23995400

Keelan, R; Yamakawa, S; Shimada, K; Rabin, Y

2013-01-01

333

Modernizing computerized nuclear material accounting systems  

SciTech Connect

DOE Orders and draft orders for nuclear material control and accountability address a complete material control and accountability (MC and A) program for all DOE contractors processing, using, or storing nuclear materials. A critical element of an MC and A program is the accounting system used to track and record all inventories of nuclear material and movements of materials in those inventories. Most DOE facilities use computerized accounting systems to facilitate the task of accounting for all their inventory of nuclear materials. Many facilities still use a mixture of a manual paper system with a computerized system. Also, facilities may use multiple systems to support information needed for MC and A. For real-time accounting it is desirable to implement a single integrated data base management system for a variety of users. In addition to accountability needs, waste management, material management, and production operations must be supported. Information in these systems can also support criticality safety and other safety issues. Modern networked microcomputers provide extensive processing and reporting capabilities that single mainframe computer systems struggle with. This paper describes an approach being developed at Los Alamos to address these problems.

Erkkila, B.H.; Claborn, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Safeguards Systems Group

1995-09-01

334

Introduction Understanding the mechanisms by which color is produced  

E-print Network

of coloration is referred to as structural coloration, and is typically classified as either iridescent (i.e. varying in hue at different angles of observation) or non-iridescent. Non-iridescent coloration provide a unique opportunity to test the function of the basal melanin layer in structural color Non-iridescent

Shawkey, Matthew

335

Color of Salts (Flame Test)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a laboratory exercise designed to allow students to further investigate the light spectrum. This lab is used to have students view the light spectrum first hand as opposed to using lecture alone.

Ramsey Miller, Menahga High School, Menahga, MN, based on an original activity from the Prentice Hall Chemistry (2005), Flame Tests, p.142.

336

Relative Role of Flower Color and Scent on Pollinator Attraction: Experimental Tests using F1 and F2 Hybrids of Daylily and Nightlily  

Microsoft Academic Search

The daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) and nightlily (H. citrina) are typical examples of a butterfly-pollination system and a hawkmoth-pollination system, respectively. H. fulva has diurnal, reddish or orange-colored flowers and is mainly pollinated by diurnal swallowtail butterflies. H. citrina has nocturnal, yellowish flowers with a sweet fragrance and is pollinated by nocturnal hawkmoths. We evaluated the relative roles of flower color

Shun K. Hirota; Kozue Nitta; Yuni Kim; Aya Kato; Nobumitsu Kawakubo; Akiko A. Yasumoto; Tetsukazu Yahara

2012-01-01

337

A hard tissue cephalometric comparative study between hand tracing and computerized tracing  

PubMed Central

Aims: To analyze and compare the angular and linear hard tissue cephalometric measurements using hand-tracing and computerized tracings with Nemoceph and Dolphin software systems. Subjects and Methods: A total of 30 cephalograms were randomly chosen for study with the following criteria, cephalograms of patients with good contrast, no distortion, and minimal radiographic artifacts were considered using the digital method (Kodak 8000 C) with 12 angular and nine linear parameters selected for the study. Comparisons were determined by post-hoc test using Tukey HSD method. The N-Par tests were performed using Kruskal-Walli's method. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA and post-hoc. Results: The results of this study show that there is no significant difference in the angular and linear measurements recorded. The P values were significant at 0.05 levels for two parameters, Co-A and Co-Gn with the hand-tracing method. This was significant in ANOVA and post-hoc test by Tukey HSD method. Conclusions: This study of comparison provides support for transition from digital hand to computerized tracing methodology. In fact, digital computerized tracings were easier and less time consuming, with the same reliability irrespective of each method of tracing. PMID:25210347

Prabhakar, Ramachandra; Rajakumar, P.; Karthikeyan, M. K.; Saravanan, R.; Vikram, N. Raj; Reddy, Adarsh

2014-01-01

338

The Role of Item Feedback in Self-Adapted Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of item feedback in self-adapted testing was studied by comparing feedback and no feedback conditions for computerized adaptive tests and self-adapted tests taken by 363 college students. Results indicate that item feedback is not necessary to realize score differences between self-adapted and computerized adaptive testing. (SLD)

Roos, Linda L.; And Others

1997-01-01

339

Spectrophotometric and computerized evaluation of tooth bleaching employing 10 different home-bleaching procedures: In-vitro study  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of bleaching products, determine the applicability and validation of the measurement methods. Materials and Methods: Freshly extracted 110 human incisor teeth were stained with whole blood and hemolysate solution prior to the application of 10 different home-bleaching products. Spectrophotometric measurements of the tooth shades were performed for each specimen before and after bleaching at the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 14 days. Differences in lightness (?l), chroma (?c), hue (?h) values and shade changes were measured to evaluate process. Computerized digital imaging analyses to determine the color changes were performed with Photoshop CS4 software (Adobe, San Jose, CA, USA). Statistical analyses were performed with analysis of variance, Scheffe and Tukey tests. Results: In all of the test groups regardless of the material used, a significant increase in lightness and hue, and decrease of chroma were observed, as compared to the control group. After recommended bleaching applications, ?l and ?h values respectively increased in group Zaris White and Brite (ZWB) and group Pola Night and ?c values showed significant decrease in groups ZWB and Rembrandt REM3 (P < 0.05). At the end of the procedure both spectrophotometric and digital imaging analysis showed ZWB was the most effective product among the others while Yotuel and Happy Smile were the least (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Home-bleaching systems showed slower but almost permanent bleaching effect likewise office-based methods. Both software and spectrophotometric analyses have advantages such as evaluating the results objectively and numerically, also treatment outcomes could be preserved. PMID:25512738

Peskersoy, Cem; Tetik, Ayhan; Ozturk, Veli Ozgen; Gokay, Necmi

2014-01-01

340

Space Simulation, 7th. [facilities and testing techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space simulation facilities and techniques are outlined that encompass thermal scale modeling, computerized simulations, reentry materials, spacecraft contamination, solar simulation, vacuum tests, and heat transfer studies.

1973-01-01

341

Combined single photon emission computerized tomography and conventional computerized tomography: Clinical value for the shoulder surgeons?  

PubMed

With the cases described, we strive to introduce single photon emission computerized tomography in combination with conventional computer tomography (SPECT/CT) to shoulder surgeons, illustrate the possible clinical value it may offer as new diagnostic radiologic modality, and discuss its limitations. SPECT/CT may facilitate the establishment of diagnosis, process of decision making, and further treatment for complex shoulder pathologies. Some of these advantages were highlighted in cases that are frequently seen in most shoulder clinics. PMID:22058640

Hirschmann, Michael T; Schmid, Rahel; Dhawan, Ranju; Skarvan, Jiri; Rasch, Helmut; Friederich, Niklaus F; Emery, Roger

2011-07-01

342

Color Perception Optical Illusions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from eChalk contains optical illusions offering proof that our color perception is strongly influenced by surrounding colors. The site also includes educational games related to optical illusions and color.

2011-06-24

343

Color Blindness Simulations  

MedlinePLUS

Color blindness Simulations Normal Color Vision Deuteranopia Color blindness marked by confusion of purplish red and green Tritanopia A dichromatism in ... and green and reduced sensitivity to monochromatic lights. Simulations created using Image J 1.22d, National Institutes ...

344

Computerized call scheduling for hospital departments.  

PubMed

A computerized system that assigns personnel to night-call and daytime duty is described. The system reduces the department's scheduling effort from days to hours each month. It provides an equitable and unbiased assignment of staff to tasks. Information about individual qualifications and availability and about the tasks to which individuals can be assigned is entered on standard forms each month. This information is transformed into a suitable format for entering into the computer via a typewriter terminal. The computer generates a series of schedules that are printed at the terminal in a number of formats, depending upon the nature of the schedule and the type of summary requested. Equitable schedules are produced with a minimum of administrative effort. The system increases accuracy and summarizes information for control and planning. PMID:10238827

Axelrod, C W

1978-01-01

345

Economic Evaluation of Computerized Structural Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This completed effort involved a technical and economic study of the capabilities of computer programs in the area of structural analysis. The applicability of the programs to NASA projects and to other users was studied. The applications in other industries was explored including both research and development and applied areas. The costs of several alternative analysis programs were compared. A literature search covered applicable technical literature including journals, trade publications and books. In addition to the literature search, several commercial companies that have developed computerized structural analysis programs were contacted and their technical brochures reviewed. These programs include SDRC I-DEAS, MSC/NASTRAN, SCADA, SUPERSAP, NISA/DISPLAY, STAAD-III, MICAS, GTSTRUDL, and STARS. These programs were briefly reviewed as applicable to NASA projects.

Fortin, P. E.

1985-01-01

346

The Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computerized anatomical man (CAM) model, representing the most detailed and anatomically correct geometrical model of the human body yet prepared, has been developed for use in analyzing radiation dose distribution in man. This model of a 50-percentile standing USAF man comprises some 1100 unique geometric surfaces and some 2450 solid regions. Internal body geometry such as organs, voids, bones, and bone marrow are explicitly modeled. A computer program called CAMERA has also been developed for performing analyses with the model. Such analyses include tracing rays through the CAM geometry, placing results on magnetic tape in various forms, collapsing areal density data from ray tracing information to areal density distributions, preparing cross section views, etc. Numerous computer drawn cross sections through the CAM model are presented.

Billings, M. P.; Yucker, W. R.

1973-01-01

347

Computerized Structure Clearance Measurement System (CSCMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional surveying techniques and the use of mechanical structures mounted on rolling stock are the current methods for measuring clearance around Queensland railway lines. A new method, described in this paper, is being developed for Queensland Rail by a consortium of three Brisbane companies. The project involves the merging of two technologies, both of which are themselves evolving rapidly. The first of these is Digital Photogrammetry which provides 3D information through the processing of stereo images. The second is the capture of digital images and the pre-processing and transmission of large quantities of video data in an industrial environment. The result is a Computerized Structure Clearance Measurement System which allows operators to make accurate measurements with reference to a clearance gauge profile.

Taylor, Richard; Kubik, Kurt; Bub, Ed; Townson, Peter

1994-10-01

348

Computerized tomography based on DEI refraction information.  

PubMed

Conventional computerized tomography (CT) technique is based on the absorption contrast. In recent years, X-ray phase-contrast CT (PCCT) has been developing rapidly. It uses the phase information to reconstruct the object and provide high contrast and spatial resolution. Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) method is one of the three phase-sensitive X-ray imaging techniques. DEI method employs an analyzer crystal to extract the object's refraction information which can be used for CT. However, when DEI refraction CT is combined with the conventional CT algorithm, it should be satisfied that the refraction information of an arbitrary point in the object is invariable at every projection view. In this paper, the invariance condition of refraction information is analyzed and two feasible methods are provided for reconstruction. Using these two methods, two samples of weak absorption are reconstructed with the experimental data obtained at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). PMID:17428637

Sun, Yi; Zhu, Peiping; Yu, Jian; Chen, Xin

2007-09-01

349

Relative Role of Flower Color and Scent on Pollinator Attraction: Experimental Tests using F1 and F2 Hybrids of Daylily and Nightlily  

PubMed Central

The daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) and nightlily (H. citrina) are typical examples of a butterfly-pollination system and a hawkmoth-pollination system, respectively. H. fulva has diurnal, reddish or orange-colored flowers and is mainly pollinated by diurnal swallowtail butterflies. H. citrina has nocturnal, yellowish flowers with a sweet fragrance and is pollinated by nocturnal hawkmoths. We evaluated the relative roles of flower color and scent on the evolutionary shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina. We conducted a series of experiments that mimic situations in which mutants differing in either flower color, floral scent or both appeared in a diurnally flowering population. An experimental array of 6×6 potted plants, mixed with 24 plants of H. fulva and 12 plants of either F1 or F2 hybrids, were placed in the field, and visitations of swallowtail butterflies and nocturnal hawkmoths were recorded with camcorders. Swallowtail butterflies preferentially visited reddish or orange-colored flowers and hawkmoths preferentially visited yellowish flowers. Neither swallowtail butterflies nor nocturnal hawkmoths showed significant preferences for overall scent emission. Our results suggest that mutations in flower color would be more relevant to the adaptive shift from a diurnally flowering ancestor to H. citrina than that in floral scent. PMID:22720016

Hirota, Shun K.; Nitta, Kozue; Kim, Yuni; Kato, Aya; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Yasumoto, Akiko A.; Yahara, Tetsukazu

2012-01-01

350

Colored Shadows Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into mixing colors with light. Groups of learners will set up colored lights in a darkened room and record the color of shadows cast by each color. They will continue to collect data as they experiment with combinations of multiple colored lights and produce a data table to organize their findings. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Light and Color.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

351

Evaluation of a computerized assessment package for general practitioner trainees.  

PubMed Central

A computerized assessment package for general practitioner trainees has been developed in order to measure the impact of teaching during the trainee year and to help identify areas of possible weakness in the knowledge base of trainees. The programme consists of an electronic questionnaire asking for background educational details, confidence rating scales, 60 multiple choice questions divided into 11 educational areas and a patient management problem to add variety and interest and to test decision making skills. A printout is produced at the end of the test summarizing the trainee's results and comparing these with the previous cohort of trainees. The programme was designed to be interesting and stimulating to the trainee by using colour and graphics, ensuring it was easy to use and providing instant feedback of results in comparison with their peer group. It was also designed to require the minimum intervention by trainers. Three sets of 70 trainees undertook the test in consecutive years with each trainee completing the assessment twice, once at the beginning of the trainee year and again towards the end of the year. In addition, a group of trainees completed a manual questionnaire asking them to rate certain aspects of the test. The results of the assessments showed a significant increase in knowledge in nearly all topic areas between the first and second tests. In general, the trainees' response to the test was positive with 63% stating it was useful in pinpointing areas of possible knowledge deficiency. The computer package described has been shown to be an effective and acceptable method for some aspects of trainee assessment. PMID:8323789

Donald, J B; Thomson, D

1993-01-01

352

High Rates of Adverse Drug Events in a Highly Computerized Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Numerous studies have shown that spe- cific computerized interventions may reduce medica- tion errors, but few have examined adverse drug events (ADEs) across all stages of the computerized medica- tion process. We describe the frequency and type of inpatient ADEs that occurred following the adoption of multiple computerized medication ordering and admin- istration systems, including computerized physician or- der

Jonathan R. Nebeker; Jennifer M. Hoffman; Charlene R. Weir; Charles L. Bennett; John F. Hurdle

2005-01-01

353

Outpatient prescribing errors and the impact of computerized prescribing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Medication errors are common among inpatients and many are preventable with computerized prescribing. Relatively little is\\u000a known about outpatient prescribing errors or the impact of computerized prescribing in this setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To assess the rates, types, and severity of outpatient prescribing errors and understand the potential impact of computerized\\u000a prescribing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in 4 adult primary care

Tejal K. Gandhi; Saul N. Weingart; Andrew C. Seger; Joshua Borus; Elisabeth Burdick; Eric G. Poon; Lucian L. Leape; David W. Bates

2005-01-01

354

Wetting in Color  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. However, expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. In this thesis I present in detail the development of Wetting in Color Technology, focusing primarily on its application as an inexpensive and highly selective colorimetric indicator for organic liquids. The technology exploits chemically-encoded inverse-opal photonic crystals to control the infiltration of fluids to liquid-specific spatial patterns, projecting minute differences in liquids' wettability to macroscopically distinct, easy-to-visualize structural color patterns. It is shown experimentally and corroborated with theoretical modeling using percolation theory that the high selectivity of wetting, upon-which the sensitivity of the indicator relies, is caused by the highly symmetric structure of our large-area, defect-free SiO2 inverse-opals. The regular structure also produces a bright iridescent color, which disappears when infiltrated with liquid - naturally coupling the optical and fluidic responses. Surface modification protocols are developed, requiring only silanization and selective oxidation, to facilitate the deterministic design of an indicator that differentiates a broad range of liquids. The resulting tunable, built-in horizontal and vertical chemistry gradients allow the wettability threshold to be tailored to specific liquids across a continuous range, and make the readout rely only on countable color differences. As wetting is a generic fluidic phenomenon, Wetting in Color technology could be suitable for applications in authentication or identification of unknown liquids across a broad range of industries. However, the generic nature of the response also ensures chemical non-specificity. It is shown that combinatorial measurements from an array of indicators add a degree of chemical specificity to the platform, which can be further improved by monitoring the drying of the inverse-opal films. While colorimetry is the central focus of this thesis, applications of this platform in encryption, fluidics and nanofabrication are also briefly explored.

Burgess, Ian Bruce

355

Testing Our Limits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computerized testing, including the widely used MAP test, has infiltrated the public schools in Milwaukee and across the nation, bringing with it a frightening future for public education. High-stakes standardized tests can be scored almost immediately via the internet, and testing companies can now easily link districts to their online data…

Tempel, Melissa Bollow

2012-01-01

356

Extraction of memory colors for preferred color correction in digital TVs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subjective image quality is one of the most important performance indicators for digital TVs. In order to improve subjective image quality, preferred color correction is often employed. More specifically, areas of memory colors such as skin, grass, and sky are modified to generate pleasing impression to viewers. Before applying the preferred color correction, tendency of preference for memory colors should be identified. It is often accomplished by off-line human visual tests. Areas containing the memory colors should be extracted then color correction is applied to the extracted areas. These processes should be performed on-line. This paper presents a new method for area extraction of three types of memory colors. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by calculating the correct and false detection ratios. Experimental results indicate that proposed method outperform previous methods proposed for the memory color extraction.

Ryu, Byong Tae; Yeom, Jee Young; Kim, Choon-Woo; Ahn, Ji-Young; Kang, Dong-Woo; Shin, Hyun-Ho

2009-01-01

357

A "Rearrangement Procedure" for Scoring Adaptive Tests with Review Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the increased popularity of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), many admissions tests, as well as certification and licensure examinations, have been transformed from their paper-and-pencil versions to computerized adaptive versions. A major difference between paper-and-pencil tests and CAT from an examinee's point of view is that in…

Papanastasiou, Elena C.; Reckase, Mark D.

2007-01-01

358

11 CFR 9033.12 - Production of computerized information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Upon request, the committee shall provide documentation explaining the computer system's software capabilities, such as user guides, technical...the operation of the computer system's software and the computerized information...

2010-01-01

359

11 CFR 9033.12 - Production of computerized information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Upon request, the committee shall provide documentation explaining the computer system's software capabilities, such as user guides, technical...the operation of the computer system's software and the computerized information...

2014-01-01

360

Computerized occlusal analysis as an alternative occlusal indicator.  

PubMed

Background: All disciplines of dentistry require that clinicians assess the articulation of the teeth/prosthesis with respect to simultaneous contacts, bite force and timing. Aims: This article intends to describe the advantages and limitations of the data acquired when using a computerized occlusal analysis as a dynamic occlusal indicator. Methodology: A search of the literature was completed (Medline, PubMed) using the keywords occlusion, occlusal registration, computerized occlusal analysis and T-Scan for dental. Results: According to the evidence available, the computerized occlusal analysis system is the only occlusal indicator that demonstrates the ability to provide quantifiable force and time variance in a real-time window from the initial tooth contact into maximum intercuspation. Conclusion: The reported advantages to accurately indicate occlusal contacts make the computerized occlusal analysis system a better occlusal indicator when compared with other non-digital convention indicator materials available. PMID:25323220

Afrashtehfar, Kelvin I; Qadeer, Sarah

2014-10-16

361

7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413...CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.413 Middling Light Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted...

2010-01-01

362

7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413...CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.413 Middling Light Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted...

2014-01-01

363

7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413...CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.413 Middling Light Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted...

2012-01-01

364

7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28.415...CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.415 Low Middling Light Spotted Color. Low Middling Light...

2014-01-01

365

7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28.411...CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.411 Good Middling Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light...

2014-01-01

366

7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28.412...CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.412 Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light...

2014-01-01

367

7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28.415...CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.415 Low Middling Light Spotted Color. Low Middling Light...

2013-01-01

368

Color Constancy: Phenomenal or Projective?  

PubMed Central

Naive observers viewed a sequence of colored Mondrian patterns, simulated on a color monitor. Each pattern was presented twice in succession, first under one daylight illuminant with a correlated color temperature of either 16,000 or 4,000 K and then under the other, to test for color-constancy. The observers compared the central square of the pattern across illuminants, either rating it for sameness of material-appearance or sameness of hue and saturation or judging an objective property—that is, whether its change of color originated from a change in material or only from a change in illumination. Average color constancy indices were high for material-appearance ratings and binary judgments of origin and low for hue–saturation ratings. Individuals' performance varied, but judgments of material and of hue and saturation remained demarcated. Observers seem able to separate phenomenal percepts from their ontological projections of mental appearance onto physical phenomena; thus, even when a chromatic change alters perceived hue and saturation, observers can reliably infer the cause, the constancy of the underlying surface spectral reflectance. PMID:18372745

REEVES, ADAM J.; AMANO, KINJIRO; FOSTER, DAVID H.

2008-01-01

369

Standard RGB Color Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the specifications and usage of standard RGB color spaces promoted today by standard bodies and\\/or the imaging industry. As in the past, most of the new standard RGB color spaces were developed for specific imaging workflow and applications. They are used as interchange spaces to communicate color and\\/or as working spaces in imaging applications. Standard color spaces

Sabine Süsstrunk; Robert Buckley; Steve Swen

1999-01-01

370

Color: An Unsuspected Influence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the appropriate use of colors in school libraries. Highlights include how colors affect students' learning and behavior; influences on users' moods; users' ages; the use of colors to bring out the best physical attributes; and the use of color for floor coverings, window treatments, furnishings, and accessories. (LRW)

Scargall, Hollie

1999-01-01

371

Color Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners conduct the "Stroop Effect" test and explore what happens when they try to complete two simple tasks at the same time. Use this activity to explain how the brain can get confused when it tries to process two different stimuli at the same time.

Television, Twin C.

2013-01-01

372

RGB Additive Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Color is all around us. RGB is the color system that is used when mixing light. The RGB system is what we use in computers, televisions, stage lighting, displays and more. It is also called the additive color system because the colors are combined or added to each other to make the colors that we see. What wavelength goes with a color? Remember that a a nanometer is a unit of length in the metric system equal to one billionth of a meter. NASA What is a wave? NASA Color Why is the sky blue? What is RGB and how and where is it used? RGB World 21st Century Color Theory RGB colors are identified on computers by a color value that ranges for R, G, and B, ...

Engelman, Mr.

2010-12-05

373

Synesthesia: When colors count  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tacitly held assumption in synesthesia research is the unidirectionality of digit–color associations. This notion is based on synesthetes' report that digits evoke a color percept, but colors do not elicit any numerical impression. In a random color generation task, we found evidence for an implicit co-activation of digits by colors, a finding that constrains neurological theories concerning cross-modal associations

Daria Knoch; Lorena R. R. Gianotti; Christine Mohr; Peter Brugger

2005-01-01

374

The Initial Development of a Computerized Operator Support System  

SciTech Connect

A computerized operator support system (COSS) is a collection of resilient software technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall nuclear power plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. The COSS provides rapid assessments, computations, and recommendations to reduce workload and augment operator judgment and decision-making during fast- moving, complex events. A prototype COSS for a chemical volume control system at a nuclear power plant has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The development process identified four underlying elements necessary for the prototype, which consist of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. An operational prototype resides at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) using the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). Several human-machine interface (HMI) considerations are identified and incorporated in the prototype during this initial round of development.

Roger Lew; Ronald L Boring; Thomas A Ulrich; Ken Thomas

2014-08-01

375

Computerized adaptive measurement of depression: A simulation study  

PubMed Central

Background Efficient, accurate instruments for measuring depression are increasingly important in clinical practice. We developed a computerized adaptive version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We examined its efficiency and its usefulness in identifying Major Depressive Episodes (MDE) and in measuring depression severity. Methods Subjects were 744 participants in research studies in which each subject completed both the BDI and the SCID. In addition, 285 patients completed the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results The adaptive BDI had an AUC as an indicator of a SCID diagnosis of MDE of 88%, equivalent to the full BDI. The adaptive BDI asked fewer questions than the full BDI (5.6 versus 21 items). The adaptive latent depression score correlated r = .92 with the BDI total score and the latent depression score correlated more highly with the Hamilton (r = .74) than the BDI total score did (r = .70). Conclusions Adaptive testing for depression may provide greatly increased efficiency without loss of accuracy in identifying MDE or in measuring depression severity. PMID:15132755

Gardner, William; Shear, Katherine; Kelleher, Kelly J; Pajer, Kathleen A; Mammen, Oommen; Buysse, Daniel; Frank, Ellen

2004-01-01

376

Computerized tomographic analysis of fluid flow in fractured tuff  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this summary is to demonstrate the usefulness of X-ray computerized tomography to observe fluid flow down a fracture and rock matrix imbibition in a sample of Bandelier tuff. This was accomplished by using a tuff sample 152.4 mm long and 50.8 mm in diameter. A longitudinal fracture was created by cutting the core with a wire saw. The fractured piece was then coupled to its adjacent section to that the fracture was not expected. Water was injected into a dry sample at five flow rates and CT scanning performed at set intervals during the flow. Cross sectional images and longitudinal reconstructions were built and saturation profiles calculated for the sample at each time interval at each flow rate. The results showed that for the test conditions, the fracture was not a primary pathway of fluid flow down the sample. At a slow fluid injection rate into the dry sample, the fluid was imbibed into the rock uniformly down the length of the core. With increasing injection rates, the flow remained uniform over the core cross section through complete saturation.

Felice, C.W.; Sharer, J.C. (Terra Tek, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Springer, E.P. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1992-01-01

377

Computerized system for the performance of environmental impact assessments  

SciTech Connect

A wide range of techniques and methods are employed in the performance of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) worldwide. There is currently a great need for consistency in approach, so that predicted impacts from project to project, and region to region can be readily compared. A systematic approach has been developed and computerized so as to provide for a consistent, rapid and cost-effective means of performing EIAs for a wide variety of projects. The system also facilitates iterative, least-cost gaming to arrive at the most appropriate project design and location. The system is supported by custom developed knowledge bases and a geographic information system (GIS). The system was originally developed under contract to the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The system has been distributed to all ADB-member countries. Current applications also include US Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded conversion of the system to support performance of EIAs in Russia, to satisfy Russian regulatory requirements, and the requirements of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). The World Bank (WB) is also current testing the system for applications on WB-financed or funded projects.

Rose, M. [ESSA Software Ltd. (United States); Hodges, M. [CH2M Hill (United States)

1997-12-31

378

Effect of Color Coding on Cognitive Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that coding (black and white or color) has on the achievement of students categorized as field dependent (FD) and field independent (FI) learners and to determine if there was any interaction between these variables (field dependency and color) across both visually and verbally oriented tests

Dwyer, Francis M.; Moore, David M.

379

A laboratory evaluation of color video monitors  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video monitors used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than to identify intruders. There is a growing interest in the identification function of security video systems for both access control and insider protection. Because color video technology is rapidly changing and because color information is useful for identification purposes, Sandia National Laboratories established a program to evaluate the newest relevant color video equipment. This report documents the evaluation of an integral component, color monitors. It briefly discusses a critical parameter, dynamic range, details test procedures, and evaluates the results.

Terry, P.L.

1993-07-01

380

The color measurement system for spot color printing basing multispectral camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color measurement and control of printing has been an important issue in computer vision technology . In the past, people have used density meter and spectrophotometer to measure the color of printing product. For the color management of 4 color press, by these kind meters, people can measure the color data from color bar printed at the side of sheet, then do ink key presetting. This way have wide application in printing field. However, it can not be used in the case that is to measure the color of spot color printing and printing pattern directly. With the development of multispectral image acquisition, it makes possible to measure the color of printing pattern in any area of the pattern by CCD camera than can acquire the whole image of sheet in high resolution. This essay give a way to measure the color of printing by multispectral camera in the process of printing. A 12 channel spectral camera with high intensity white LED illumination that have driven by a motor, scans the printing sheet. Then we can get the image, this image can include color and printing quality information of each pixel, LAB value and CMYK value of each pixel can be got by reconstructing the reflectance spectra of printing image. By this data processing, we can measure the color of spot color printing and control it. Through the spot test in the printing plant, the results show this way can get not only the color bar density value but also ROI color value. By the value, we can do ink key presetting, that makes it true to control the spot color automatically in high precision.

Liu, Nanbo; Jin, Weiqi; Huang, Qinmei; Song, Li

2014-11-01

381

Bold colors in a cryptic lineage: do Eastern Indigo Snakes exhibit color dimorphism?  

PubMed

Many species exhibit variation in the color of their scales, feathers, or fur. Various forms of natural selection, such as mimicry, crypsis, and species recognition, as well as sexual selection, can influence the evolution of color. Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi), a federally threatened species, have coloration on the sides of the head and the chin that can vary from black to red or cream. Despite significant conservations efforts for this species, little is known about its biology in the field. Past researchers have proposed that the color variation on the head and chin is associated with the sex of the individual. Alternatively, color might vary among individuals because it is controlled by genes that are under natural selection or neutral evolution. We tested these alternative hypotheses by examining whether coloration of the sublabial, submaxillary, and ventral scales of this species differed by sex or among clutches. We used color spectrometry to characterize important aspects of color in two ways: by examining overall color differences across the entire color spectrum and by comparing differences within the ultraviolet, yellow, and red colorbands. We found that Eastern Indigo Snakes do not exhibit sexual dichromatism, but their coloration does vary among clutches; therefore, the pattern of sexual selection leading to sexual dichromatism observed in many squamates does not appear to play a role in the evolution and maintenance of color variation in Eastern Indigo Snakes. We suggest that future studies should focus on determining whether color variation in these snakes is determined by maternal effects or genetic components and if color is influenced by natural selection or neutral evolutionary processes. Studying species that exhibit bright colors within lineages that are not known for such coloration will contribute greatly to our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological factors that drive these differences. PMID:23691245

Deitloff, Jennifer; Johnson, Valerie M; Guyer, Craig

2013-01-01

382

Bold Colors in a Cryptic Lineage: Do Eastern Indigo Snakes Exhibit Color Dimorphism?  

PubMed Central

Many species exhibit variation in the color of their scales, feathers, or fur. Various forms of natural selection, such as mimicry, crypsis, and species recognition, as well as sexual selection, can influence the evolution of color. Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi), a federally threatened species, have coloration on the sides of the head and the chin that can vary from black to red or cream. Despite significant conservations efforts for this species, little is known about its biology in the field. Past researchers have proposed that the color variation on the head and chin is associated with the sex of the individual. Alternatively, color might vary among individuals because it is controlled by genes that are under natural selection or neutral evolution. We tested these alternative hypotheses by examining whether coloration of the sublabial, submaxillary, and ventral scales of this species differed by sex or among clutches. We used color spectrometry to characterize important aspects of color in two ways: by examining overall color differences across the entire color spectrum and by comparing differences within the ultraviolet, yellow, and red colorbands. We found that Eastern Indigo Snakes do not exhibit sexual dichromatism, but their coloration does vary among clutches; therefore, the pattern of sexual selection leading to sexual dichromatism observed in many squamates does not appear to play a role in the evolution and maintenance of color variation in Eastern Indigo Snakes. We suggest that future studies should focus on determining whether color variation in these snakes is determined by maternal effects or genetic components and if color is influenced by natural selection or neutral evolutionary processes. Studying species that exhibit bright colors within lineages that are not known for such coloration will contribute greatly to our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological factors that drive these differences. PMID:23691245

Deitloff, Jennifer; Johnson, Valerie M.; Guyer, Craig

2013-01-01

383

A system of regional agricultural land use mapping tested against small scale Apollo 9 color infrared photography of the Imperial Valley (California)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Interpretation results of the small scale ClR photography of the Imperial Valley (California) taken on March 12, 1969 by the Apollo 9 earth orbiting satellite have shown that world wide agricultural land use mapping can be accomplished from satellite ClR imagery if sufficient a priori information is available for the region being mapped. Correlation of results with actual data is encouraging although the accuracy of identification of specific crops from the single image is poor. The poor results can be partly attributed to only one image taken during mid-season when the three major crops were reflecting approximately the same and their ClR image appears to indicate the same crop type. However, some incapacity can be attributed to lack of understanding of the subtle variations of visual and infrared color reflectance of vegetation and surrounding environment. Analysis of integrated color variations of the vegetation and background environment recorded on ClR imagery is discussed. Problems associated with the color variations may be overcome by development of a semi-automatic processing system which considers individual field units or cells. Design criteria for semi-automatic processing system are outlined.

Johnson, Claude W.; Browden, Leonard W.; Pease, Robert W.

1969-01-01

384

Visual search and natural color distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined visual search for color within the distributions of colors that characterize natural images, by using a foraging task designed to mimic the problem of finding a fruit among foliage. Color distributions were taken from spectroradiometric measurements of outdoor scenes and used to define the colors of a dense background of ellipses. Search times were measured for locating test colors presented as a superposed circular target. Reaction times varied from high values for target colors within the distribution (where they are limited by serial search based on form) to asymptotically low values for colors far removed from the distribution (where targets pop out). The variation in reaction time follows the distribution of background contrasts but is substantially broader. In further experiments we assessed the color organization underlying visual search, and how search is influenced by contrast adaptation to the colors of the background. Asymmetries between blue-yellow and red-green backgrounds suggest that search times do not depend on the separable L-M and S- (L+M) dimensions of early postreceptoral color vision. Prior adaptation facilitates search over adaptation to a uniform background, while adaptation to an inappropriate background impedes search. Contrast adaptation may therefore enhance the salience of novel stimuli by partially discounting the ambient background.

Webster, Michael A.; Raker, Vincent E.; Malkoc, Gokhan

1998-07-01

385

Statistical pressure snakes based on color images.  

SciTech Connect

The traditional mono-color statistical pressure snake was modified to function on a color image with target errors defined in HSV color space. Large variations in target lighting and shading are permitted if the target color is only specified in terms of hue. This method works well with custom targets where the target is surrounded by a color of a very different hue. A significant robustness increase is achieved in the computer vision capability to track a specific target in an unstructured, outdoor environment. By specifying the target color to contain hue, saturation and intensity values, it is possible to establish a reasonably robust method to track general image features of a single color. This method is convenient to allow the operator to select arbitrary targets, or sections of a target, which have a common color. Further, a modification to the standard pixel averaging routine is introduced which allows the target to be specified not only in terms of a single color, but also using a list of colors. These algorithms were tested and verified by using a web camera attached to a personal computer.

Schaub, Hanspeter [ORION International Technologies, Albuquerque, NM] [ORION International Technologies, Albuquerque, NM

2004-05-01

386

Automatic favorite-color control for reference color  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The color control of reproduced images has been a critical problem in TV system. The viewer can adjust the color control at the receiver for optimal color reproduction, but frequent color adjustment is the most common problem experienced by the viewer. In this paper, we propose an automatic favorite color control system which represents the favorite color to the viewer on demand. The system consists of phase detector to detect the favorite colors at real time from the color burst signal and color signal, comparators to discriminate the types of favorite color. The proposed system reproduces flesh tone, blue color, and green color. In the proposed algorithm, the variation range of phase detector output voltage was minimized for the favorite color saturation changes and also the color signal phase is readjusted from the color burst signal. Thus, the favorite color was easily detected from the other colors without overlapping of correction range and it provides reference color to viewer.

Lee, Eung-Joo; Hyun, Ki-Ho; Ha, Yeong-Ho

1998-01-01

387

What color is it?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color management allows the deterministic handling of color data from input to output. This, of course, assumes that the first digital representation of our data is the "correct" color. It assumes that we did not make any errors in the input definitions, did not use wrong color input profiles, captured the user's intent, or fell prey to a host of other potential problems. After we have made those assumptions, we now can deterministically transfer the color from one place to another. Note that there is a big difference between "reproducing" one color at a different location and "deterministically transferring one set of color data to another location". The deterministic transfer is limited to the small set of physical metrics we decided to call "color". All other components of color are ignored.

Eschbach, Reiner; Sharma, Gaurav; Unal, Gozde B.

2005-01-01

388

What color is it?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color management allows the deterministic handling of color data from input to output. This, of course, assumes that the first digital representation of our data is the "correct" color. It assumes that we did not make any errors in the input definitions, did not use wrong color input profiles, captured the user's intent, or fell prey to a host of other potential problems. After we have made those assumptions, we now can deterministically transfer the color from one place to another. Note that there is a big difference between "reproducing" one color at a different location and "deterministically transferring one set of color data to another location". The deterministic transfer is limited to the small set of physical metrics we decided to call "color". All other components of color are ignored.

Eschbach, Reiner; Sharma, Gaurav; Unal, Gozde B.

2004-12-01

389

Searching through synaesthetic colors.  

PubMed

Synaesthesia can be characterized by illusory colors being elicited automatically when one reads an alphanumeric symbol. These colors can affect attention; synaesthetes can show advantages in visual search of achromatic symbols that normally cause slow searches. However, some studies have failed to find these advantages, challenging the conclusion that synaesthetic colors influence attention in a manner similar to the influence of perceptual colors. In the present study, we investigated 2 synaesthetes who reported colors localized in space over alphanumeric symbols' shapes. The Euclidian distance in CIE xyY color space between two synaesthetic colors was computed for each specific visual search, so that the relationship between color distance (CD) and efficiency of search could be explored with simple regression analyses. Target-to-distractors color salience systematically predicted the speed of search, but the CD between a target or distractors and the physically presented achromatic color did not. When the synaesthetic colors of a target and distractors were nearly complementary, searches resembled popout performance with real colors. Control participants who performed searches for the same symbols (which were colored according to the synaesthetic colors) showed search functions very similar to those shown by the synaesthetes for the physically achromatic symbols. PMID:19801606

Laeng, Bruno

2009-10-01

390

Military Services Fitness Database: Development of a Computerized Physical Fitness and Weight Management Database for the U.S. Army  

PubMed Central

The Department of Defense (DoD) has mandated development of a system to collect and manage data on the weight, percent body fat (%BF), and fitness of all military personnel. This project aimed to (1) develop a computerized weight and fitness database to track individuals and Army units over time allowing cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluations and (2) test the computerized system for feasibility and integrity of data collection over several years of usage. The computer application, the Military Services Fitness Database (MSFD), was designed for (1) storage and tracking of data related to height, weight, %BF for the Army Weight Control Program (AWCP) and Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores and (2) generation of reports using these data. A 2.5-year pilot test of the MSFD indicated that it monitors population and individual trends of changing body weight, %BF, and fitness in a military population. PMID:19216292

Williamson, Donald A.; Bathalon, Gaston P.; Sigrist, Lori D.; Allen, H. Raymond; Friedl, Karl E.; Young, Andrew J.; Martin, Corby K.; Stewart, Tiffany M.; Burrell, Lolita; Han, Hongmei; Hubbard, Van S.; Ryan, Donna

2009-01-01

391

Dynamics of Color Contrast Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Many forms of color adaptation have been found to reflect both short- and long-term adjustments. We explored the buildup and decay of adaptation to chromatic contrast (temporal modulations of color) for which the dynamics are unknown. A matching task was used to track the perceived contrast of chromatic pulses of varying physical contrast during and after adapting for one hour to a high contrast modulation repeated over 5 successive days. The adaptation was characterized by rapid response changes that remained stable in both time course and form across sessions. There was no consistent evidence for long-term plasticity over the timescales we tested. PMID:24695188

Tregillus, Katherine; Webster, Michael A.

2014-01-01

392

Computerization of the Standard Corsi Block-Tapping Task Affects Its Underlying Cognitive Concepts: A Pilot Study.  

PubMed

The tablet computer initiates an important step toward computerized administration of neuropsychological tests. Because of its lack of standardization, the Corsi Block-Tapping Task could benefit from advantages inherent to computerization. This task, which requires reproduction of a sequence of movements by tapping blocks as demonstrated by an examiner, is widely used as a representative of visuospatial attention and working memory. The aim was to validate a computerized version of the Corsi Task (e-Corsi) by comparing recall accuracy to that on the standard task. Forty university students (M age = 22.9 years, SD = 2.7 years; 20 female) performed the standard Corsi Task and the e-Corsi on an iPad 3. Results showed higher accuracy in forward reproduction on the standard Corsi compared with the e-Corsi, whereas backward performance was comparable. These divergent performance patterns on the 2 versions (small-to-medium effect sizes) are explained as a result of motor priming and interference effects. This finding implies that computerization has serious consequences for the cognitive concepts that the Corsi Task is assumed to assess. Hence, whereas the e-Corsi was shown to be useful with respect to administration and registration, these findings also stress the need for reconsideration of the underlying theoretical concepts of this task. PMID:25258029

Claessen, Michiel H G; van der Ham, Ineke J M; van Zandvoort, Martine J E

2014-09-25

393

Radiation coloration resistant glass  

DOEpatents

A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

Tomozawa, Minoru (Troy, NY); Watson, E. Bruce (Troy, NY); Acocella, John (Troy, NY)

1986-01-01

394

Radiation coloration resistant glass  

DOEpatents

A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

1986-11-04

395

Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment Devices: Joint Position Paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology†  

PubMed Central

This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22382386

Bauer, Russell M.; Iverson, Grant L.; Cernich, Alison N.; Binder, Laurence M.; Ruff, Ronald M.; Naugle, Richard I.

2012-01-01

396

Computerized neuropsychological assessment devices: joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology.  

PubMed

This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22394228

Bauer, Russell M; Iverson, Grant L; Cernich, Alison N; Binder, Laurence M; Ruff, Ronald M; Naugle, Richard I

2012-01-01

397

Computerized neuropsychological assessment devices: joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology.  

PubMed

This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22382386

Bauer, Russell M; Iverson, Grant L; Cernich, Alison N; Binder, Laurence M; Ruff, Ronald M; Naugle, Richard I

2012-05-01

398

Image Recoloring Induced by Palette Color Associations  

E-print Network

Impressionist paintings at the top of Fig. 1. For Starry Night, Van Gogh uses stark color contrast. The cool a quiet glow. Figure 1. Test images and an image recoloring. (Van Gogh and Cezanne from http

House, Donald H.

399

Color character recognition method based on human perception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color is one of the most powerful and important types of visual information in various fields such as image processing, electronic imaging, and robot vision technologies. A new color character recognition system, composed of a camera, optical filters, an image board, a neuro board, and a micro computer was constructed. Using typewriter characters and backgrounds in five colors, two kinds of experiments were performed. The first consisted of preliminary experiments testing the effectiveness of the modified opponent-color theory of the human eye for use in machine character recognition. The second was an experiment in color character recognition, in which the system recognized both characters and their colors.

Yamaba, Kazuo; Miyake, Yoichi

1993-01-01

400

45 CFR 307.10 - Functional requirements for computerized support enforcement systems in operation by October 1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...computerized support enforcement systems in operation by October 1, 1997. 307...COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.10 Functional...computerized support enforcement systems in operation by October 1, 1997....

2010-10-01

401

Semantic versus perceptual influences of color in object recognition.  

PubMed

The influence of color as a surface feature versus its influence as stored knowledge in object recognition was assessed. Participants decided whether a briefly presented and masked picture matched a test name. For pictures and words referring to similarly shaped objects, semantic color similarity (SCS) was present when picture and word shared the same prototypical color (e.g., purple apple followed by cherry). Perceptual color similarity (PCS) was present when the surface color of the picture matched the prototypical color of the named object (e.g., purple apple followed by blueberry). Response interference was primarily due to SCS, despite the fact that participants based similarity ratings on PCS. When uncolored objects were used, SCS interference still occurred, implying that the influence of SCS did not depend on the presence of surface color. The results indicate that, relative to surface color, stored color knowledge was more influential in object recognition. PMID:8901343

Joseph, J E; Proffitt, D R

1996-03-01

402

General Atomics Sciences: Chromatics - The Science of Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is a comprehensive module for grades 8-12 on the origin of colors in materials, including liquids, solids, and gases. "Color in gases" includes experiments that explore the color of fireworks, the origin of smog, the cause of rainbows, and why the sky is blue. The "Color in liquids" section includes investigations into why plants are green, the color change of acid/base indicators, why objects change color when they rust, and how glowsticks and fireflies produce colored light. The section dealing with "Color in solids" examines how colors are produced by the interference of light using an audio CD, how UV light can be detected using fluorescence, and how light emitting diodes work. This resource is aligned with national science education standards and has been refined through classroom testing. This item is part of a larger collection of inquiry-based modules. SEE RELATED ITEMS on this page for a link to these materials.

Woolf, Lawrence

2009-05-25

403

Optical Colors of Plutinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We continue to measure BVR optical colors of faint outer solar system objects using the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT), a 1.8-m telescope located on Mt. Graham, Arizona. We report colors for 27 objects observed in one of five observing runs between November 2003 and October 2005. These objects bring the total number of outer solar system objects with BVR colors in our survey to about 120. A table of these colors can be found at www.physics.nau.edu/ tegler/research/home.htm. We have combined our colors with those of other large surveys to yield the largest possible samples of colors of objects of various dynamical groups. In this talk, we will concentrate on the colors of Plutinos, as we now have colors for over 40 Plutinos. We thank the NASA Planetary Astronomy program for funding this work.

Romanishin, William; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G.

2006-09-01

404

Show Your Colors!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this family or group activity, learners conduct a chromatography experiment to reveal the colors that leaves "hide" under their green pigments. Use this experiment to predict what colors the leaves will "turn" in the fall.

2011-08-20

405

Color realism redux  

E-print Network

Our reply is in three parts. The first part concerns some foundational issues in the debate about color realism. The second part addresses the many objections to the version of physicalism about color (“productance ...

Byrne, Alex

406

Theoretical analysis for moiré effect of circular gratings for volume optical computerized tomography.  

PubMed

Obtaining the radial derivatives of wavefronts in projections is a critical step for volume optical computerized tomography. In this paper, the moiré effect of two identical circular gratings in acquiring the first-order radial derivative of a wavefront is analyzed. Based on scalar diffraction theory, the formation mechanism of circular gratings' moiré fringes is derived. A more explicit analytical relation between moiré fringes of different diffraction orders and tested wavefront is obtained. The involved results will be useful for extracting the projection information that is used in three-dimensional reconstruction by volume OCT. PMID:23201886

Wang, Jia; Song, Yang; Li, Zhen-hua; Sun, Nan; He, An-zhi

2012-08-01

407

Explaining Color Term Typology With an Evolutionary Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expression-induction model was used to simulate the evolution of basic color terms to test Berlin and Kay's (1969) hypothesis that the typological patterns observed in basic color term systems are pro- duced by a process of cultural evolution under the influence of biases resulting from the special proper- ties of universal focal colors. Ten agents were simulated, each of

Mike Dowman

2007-01-01

408

Explaining Color Term Typology with an Evolutionary Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An expression-induction model was used to simulate the evolution of basic color terms to test Berlin and Kay's (1969) hypothesis that the typological patterns observed in basic color term systems are produced by a process of cultural evolution under the influence of biases resulting from the special properties of universal focal colors. Ten agents…

Dowman, Mike

2007-01-01

409

Quantum Dots and Colors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the physical concept of the colors of rainbows as light energy in the form of waves with distinct wavelengths, but in a different manner than traditional kaleidoscopes. Looking at different quantum dot solutions, they make observations and measurements, and graph their data. They come to understand how nanoparticles interact with absorbing photons to produce colors. They learn the dependence of particle size and color wavelength and learn about real-world applications for using these colorful liquids.

2014-09-18

410

Feature Article Interactive Color  

E-print Network

similar to this one? I Can I find a color like brown by searching for it by name? I HowcanIarrangemyswatchessothatalltheredsare near each other or all the dark colors are together? We believe that image-makers, from occasionalIPTs,we conducted a Web-based survey of individuals who work with color (see the Color Task Analysis Survey at http://www.cs.brown

Meier, Barbara J.

411

Categorical color perception of color normal and deficient observers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color changes as a continuous variable. We can discriminate millions of colors, but at the same time we categorize colors into discrete color names. Dichromat (color deficient) observers also categorize colors in manners very similar to that of color normal (trichromat) observers despite the fact that color deficient observers confuse many colors. In this study, we investigated characteristics of categorical color perception of trichromat and dichromat under various chromatic illuminations. Observers named 424 OSA uniform color samples using only the Berlin and Kay's eleven basic color terms. Categorical color perception of normal trichromat was found to be robuster under strong chromatic illuminants than dichromats. Dichromats could utilize a lightness cue to name indistinguishable colors. It is unlikely that dichromats have the same categorical color mechanism as normal trichromat has. The present results support that there is the physiological substrate for categorical color perception specific to trichromat or dichromats.

Uchikawa, Keiji

2014-11-01

412

Cross-cultural color-odor associations.  

PubMed

Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents), using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience. PMID:25007343

Levitan, Carmel A; Ren, Jiana; Woods, Andy T; Boesveldt, Sanne; Chan, Jason S; McKenzie, Kirsten J; Dodson, Michael; Levin, Jai A; Leong, Christine X R; van den Bosch, Jasper J F

2014-01-01

413

Color constancy influenced by unnatural spatial structure.  

PubMed

The recognition of spatial structures is important for color constancy because we cannot identify an object's color under different illuminations without knowing which space it is in and how that space is illuminated. To show the importance of the natural structure of environments on color constancy, we investigated the way in which color appearance was affected by unnatural viewing conditions in which a spatial structure was distorted. Observers judged the color of a test patch placed in the center of a small room illuminated by white or reddish lights, as well as two rooms illuminated by white and reddish light, respectively. In the natural viewing condition, an observer saw the room(s) through a viewing window, whereas in an unnatural viewing condition, the scene structure was scrambled by a kaleidoscope-type viewing box. Results of single room condition with one illuminant color showed little difference in color constancy between the two viewing conditions. However, it decreased in the two-rooms condition with a more complex arrangement of space and illumination. The patch's appearance under the unnatural viewing condition was more influenced by simultaneous contrast than its appearance under the natural viewing condition. It also appears that color appearance under white illumination is more stable compared to that under reddish illumination. These findings suggest that natural spatial structure plays an important role for color constancy in a complex environment. PMID:24695167

Mizokami, Yoko; Yaguchi, Hirohisa

2014-04-01

414

Four Color Theorem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Suppose we have a map in which no single territory is made up of disconnected regions. How many colors are needed to color the territories of this map, if all the territories that share a border segment must be of different colors?

415

A Semester of Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every Thursday evening, ten high school students meet at the Riverdale Art Project, a New York City-based art program that the author co-founded ten years ago. Students are participating in a semester-long color workshop where they learn about color theory in a structured and engaging way. Focusing on five essential characteristics of color

Rabinovitch, Andrea

2006-01-01

416

Color Image Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a new approach to fully automatic color image segmentation, called JSEG, is presented. First, col- ors in the image are quantized to several representing classes that can be used to differentiate regions in the image. Then, image pixel colors are replaced by their cor- responding color class labels, thus forming a class-map of the image. A criterion

Yining Deng; B. S. Manjunath; Hyundoo Shin

1999-01-01

417

TAXONOMICALLY SIGNIFICANT COLOR REACTIONS OF BREVIBACTERIUM LINENS  

PubMed Central

Grecz, Nicholas (University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.), and Gail M. Dack. Taxonomically significant color reactions of Brevibacterium linens. J. Bacteriol. 82:241–246. 1961.—Brevibacterium linens was observed to give characteristic color reactions with certain bases and acids. An intensive carmine-red color appeared immediately after addition of a drop of 5 n sodium hydroxide, 5 n potassium hydroxide, and saturated barium hydroxide. A light carmine-red was given by lithium hydroxide, and a light orange-red with a milky suspension of calcium hydroxide. No discernible color change was given with weak bases such as ammonium hydroxide, aniline, and pyridine. A characteristic salmon-pink color was produced when B. linens was rubbed with a glass rod in a drop of glacial acetic acid or filter paper; a brick-red color was produced with aniline under these conditions. With syrupy phosphoric acid a green color appeared within 3 to 4 min which turned blue after approximately 3 hr. The blue color was stable for several days. On the basis of these color reactions, B. linens could be distinguished from other microorganisms possessing yellow-orange pigmentation, i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus flavus, Micrococcus citreus, Mycobacterium phlei, Sarcina lutea. Therefore, these color changes may be used for the identification of B. linens. Original isolates of B. linens from cheese were tested by these spot reactions and all presumptive identifications could be subsequently confirmed by conventional methods. Blue and green colors appeared in all yellow-orange chromogens treated with sulfuric, perchloric, and hydrochloric acids and hence these colors were not specific for B. linens. PMID:13708147

Grecz, Nicholas; Dack, Gail M.

1961-01-01

418

Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures  

SciTech Connect

Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

Ronald L. Boring

2012-06-01

419

Color improves “visual” acuity via sound  

PubMed Central

Visual-to-auditory sensory substitution devices (SSDs) convey visual information via sound, with the primary goal of making visual information accessible to blind and visually impaired individuals. We developed the EyeMusic SSD, which transforms shape, location, and color information into musical notes. We tested the “visual” acuity of 23 individuals (13 blind and 10 blindfolded sighted) on the Snellen tumbling-E test, with the EyeMusic. Participants were asked to determine the orientation of the letter “E.” The test was repeated twice: in one test, the letter “E” was drawn with a single color (white), and in the other test, with two colors (red and white). In the latter case, the vertical line in the letter, when upright, was drawn in red, with the three horizontal lines drawn in white. We found no significant differences in performance between the blind and the sighted groups. We found a significant effect of the added color on the “visual” acuity. The highest acuity participants reached in the monochromatic test was 20/800, whereas with the added color, acuity doubled to 20/400. We conclude that color improves “visual” acuity via sound. PMID:25426015

Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Riemer, Dar; Amedi, Amir

2014-01-01

420

Surface gloss and color perception of 3D objects  

PubMed Central

Two experiments explore the color perception of objects in complex scenes. The first experiment examines the color perception of objects across variation in surface gloss. Observers adjusted the color appearance of a matte sphere to match that of a test sphere. Across conditions we varied the body color and glossiness of the test sphere. The data indicate that observers do not simply match the average light reflected from the test. Indeed, the visual system compensates for the physical effect of varying the gloss, so that appearance is stabilized relative to what is predicted by the spatial average. The second experiment examines how people perceive color across locations on an object. We replaced the test sphere with a soccer ball that had one of its hexagonal faces colored. Observers were asked to adjust the match sphere have the same color appearance as this test patch. The test patch could be located at either an upper or lower location on the soccer ball. In addition, we varied the surface gloss of the entire soccer ball (including the test patch). The data show that there is an effect of test patch location on observers’ color matching, but this effect is small compared to the physical change in the average light reflected from the test patch across the two locations. In addition, the effect of glossy highlights on the color appearance of the test patch was consistent with the results from Experiment 1. PMID:18598406

Xiao, Bei; Brainard, David H.

2008-01-01

421

15 CFR 950.9 - Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. 950.9 Section...COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA AND INFORMATION § 950.9 Computerized...

2014-01-01

422

Rainbow Coloring of Graphs Rainbow Coloring of Graphs  

E-print Network

Rainbow Coloring of Graphs Rainbow Coloring of Graphs L. Sunil Chandran Computer Science and Automation Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Email: sunil@csa.iisc.ernet.in #12;Rainbow Coloring of Graphs What is Rainbow Coloring? Consider an edge coloring, not necessarily proper. #12;Rainbow Coloring

Narasayya, Vivek

423

THE VALIDITY OF HUMAN AND COMPUTERIZED WRITING ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes an experiment designed to assess the validity of essay grading between holistic and analytic human graders and a computerized grader based on latent semantic analysis. The validity of the grade was gauged by the extent to which the student’s knowledge of the topic correlated with the grader’s expert knowledge. To assess knowledge, Pathfinder networks were generated by the student essay writers, the holistic and analytic graders, and the computerized grader. It was found that the computer generated grades more closely matched the definition of valid grading than did human generated grades.

Ronald L. Boring

2005-09-01

424

Documentation of Nursing Practice Using a Computerized Medical Information System  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses a definition of the content of the computerized nursing data base developed by the Nursing Department for the Clinical Center Medical Information System at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. The author describes the theoretical framework for the content and presents a model to describe the organization of the nursing data components in relation to the process of nursing care delivery. Nursing documentation requirements of Nurse Practice Acts, American Nurses Association Standards of Practice and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals are also addressed as they relate to this data base. The advantages and disadvantages of such an approach to computerized documentation are discussed.

Romano, Carol

1981-01-01

425

Adaptive Testing without IRT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is unrealistic to suppose that standard item response theory (IRT) models will be appropriate for all new and currently considered computer-based tests. In addition to developing new models, researchers will need to give some attention to the possibility of constructing and analyzing new tests without the aid of strong models. Computerized

Yan, Duanli; Lewis, Charles; Stocking, Martha

426

Effects of sophistication and motivation on the detection of malingered memory performance using a computerized forced-choice task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study employed a computerized forced-choice recognition memory task, the Multi-Digit Memory Test (MDMT), to examine the effects of instructional set (i.e., dissimulation information provided subjects) and motivation (i.e., monetary incentive) on simulated malingering behavior in a group of 119 university undergraduate students and 33 patients sustaining varying severity of closed-head injury. For the nonpatient groups, a significant effect

Roy C. Martin; John F. Bolter; Mark E. Todd; Wm Drew Gouvier; Raymon Niccolls

1993-01-01

427

Molecular Expressions: Color Separation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an interactive Java simulation for introductory physics students on the topic of color. It explores how individual subtractive primary colors can be separated from a full-color photograph and then be reassembled to create the original scene. The mouse cursor may be used to superimpose color separations over one another. As additional separations are added, the resulting image exhibits the realism of a color photograph. This item is part of a larger collection of materials on optics and microscopy developed by the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and Florida State University.

Davidson, Michael; Parry-Hill, Matthew J.; Sutter, Robert

2008-08-21

428

Resistor Color-Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Resistor manufactures implement the standard EIA color-code using three, four and five color bands to identify nominal resistor values. It is imperative that engineers and technicians know how to interpret the color markings on resistors in order to perform analysis and repairs on electronic products." On this page, visitors will find a key to the code for three, four, and five band resistors and exercises to check for understanding. A Resistor Color-Code chart can also be downloaded and printed from this site, as well as a Resistor Color-Code Converter.

2011-07-19

429

Writing Sample Assessment: Reliable, Efficient, and Computerized.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the Mesa, Arizona Public Schools initiated an ambitious writing instruction program in 1978, two assessments based on student writing samples were developed. The first is based on a ninth grade proficiency test. If the student does not pass the test, high school remediation is provided. After 1987, students must pass this test in order to…

Merrill, Beverly; Peterson, Sarah

430

Effect of tinted contact lenses on color vision.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the effects of various contact lens tints on color vision. Color vision performance of eight subjects was evaluated with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test while each subject wore each of 13 differently tinted contact lenses. No significant differences in color vision were found with the various lenses. However, performance on the test was affected by repetition. Regardless of the lens tints tested, color discrimination for the blue quadrant of the 100 Hue Test was the poorest. Further research is needed to determine the effect of tinted contact lenses on scotopic and mesopic vision. PMID:937486

Harris, M G; Cabrera, C R

1976-03-01

431

Etendue conserved color mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colored variable lighting is being used in more and more locations to enhance the "beauty" and "atmosphere" of interiors and exteriors. Lamps based on different colored LED are an obvious choice for such systems. The light from the differently colored LEDS needs to be mixed together very well because otherwise objects in the beam could create colored shadows. The difficulty is that we often want a lighting system where the light is collimated, where we can set the color of the beam, and where the lamp is as small as possible with an as small as possible exit diameter. This means that ideally we would like to mix colors etendue preserving. In this paper we discuss a new method of color mixing with dichroic color filters, which aims to achieve this. It is based on a special arrangement of the color filters, whereby the filters act as collimators. We have build prototypes and have done raytracing simulations. These show that we can indeed mix light of different wavelengths and make relatively small, color-variable, collimated, high brightness, light-sources. The advantages are an increase in brightness, a reduction/elimination of the colored shadows, and a small volume. This new method can, e.g., be used in spotlights, mini-beamers and logo projectors.

van Gorkom, R. P.; van As, M. A.; Verbeek, G. M.; Hoelen, C. G. A.; Alferink, R. G.; Mutsaers, C. A.; Cooijmans, H.

2007-09-01

432

Fibromyalgia patients had normal distraction related pain inhibition but cognitive impairment reflected in caudate nucleus and hippocampus during the Stroop Color Word Test.  

PubMed

The mechanisms causing cognitive problems in chronic pain patients are not well understood. We used the Stroop color word task (SCWT) to investigate distraction-induced analgesia, cognitive performance, and cerebral activation patterns in 29 fibromyalgia (FM) patients (mean age 49.8 years, range 25-64 years) and 31 healthy controls (HC) (mean age 46.3 years, range 20-63 years). In the first study, SCWT was used to investigate distraction-induced analgesia in FM patients. Two versions of the task were applied, one with only congruent color-word images and one with incongruent images. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed using a pressure algometer before, during, and following SCWT. In the second study, reaction times (RTs) were assessed and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate cerebral activation patterns in FM patients and HC during the SCWT. An event-related task mixing incongruent and congruent images was used. In study one, we found reduced pressure pain sensitivity during SCWT in both groups alike and no statistically significant differences were seen between the incongruent and congruent conditions. The study two revealed longer RTs during the incongruent compared to the congruent condition in both groups. FM patients had longer RTs than HC in both conditions. Furthermore, we found a significant interaction between group and congruency; that is, the group differences in RTs were more pronounced during the incongruent condition. This was reflected in a reduced activation of the caudate nucleus, lingual gyrus, temporal areas, and the hippocampus in FM patients compared to HC. In conclusion, we found normal pain inhibition during SWTC in FM patients. The cognitive difficulties seen in FM patients, reflected in longer RTs, were related to reduced activation of the caudate nucleus and hippocampus during incongruent SCWT, which most likely affected the mechanisms of cognitive learning in FM patients. PMID:25275449

Martinsen, Sofia; Flodin, Pär; Berrebi, Jonathan; Löfgren, Monika; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Ingvar, Martin; Fransson, Peter; Kosek, Eva

2014-01-01

433

Fibromyalgia Patients Had Normal Distraction Related Pain Inhibition but Cognitive Impairment Reflected in Caudate Nucleus and Hippocampus during the Stroop Color Word Test  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms causing cognitive problems in chronic pain patients are not well understood. We used the Stroop color word task (SCWT) to investigate distraction-induced analgesia, cognitive performance, and cerebral activation patterns in 29 fibromyalgia (FM) patients (mean age 49.8 years, range 25–64 years) and 31 healthy controls (HC) (mean age 46.3 years, range 20–63 years). In the first study, SCWT was used to investigate distraction-induced analgesia in FM patients. Two versions of the task were applied, one with only congruent color-word images and one with incongruent images. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed using a pressure algometer before, during, and following SCWT. In the second study, reaction times (RTs) were assessed and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate cerebral activation patterns in FM patients and HC during the SCWT. An event-related task mixing incongruent and congruent images was used. In study one, we found reduced pressure pain sensitivity during SCWT in both groups alike and no statistically significant differences were seen between the incongruent and congruent conditions. The study two revealed longer RTs during the incongruent compared to the congruent condition in both groups. FM patients had longer RTs than HC in both conditions. Furthermore, we found a significant interaction between group and congruency; that is, the group differences in RTs were more pronounced during the incongruent condition. This was reflected in a reduced activation of the caudate nucleus, lingual gyrus, temporal areas, and the hippocampus in FM patients compared to HC. In conclusion, we found normal pain inhibition during SWTC in FM patients. The cognitive difficulties seen in FM patients, reflected in longer RTs, were related to reduced activation of the caudate nucleus and hippocampus during incongruent SCWT, which most likely affected the mechanisms of cognitive learning in FM patients. PMID:25275449

Martinsen, Sofia; Flodin, Pär; Berrebi, Jonathan; Löfgren, Monika; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Ingvar, Martin; Fransson, Peter; Kosek, Eva

2014-01-01

434

Asymmetry in size, shape, and color impairs the protective value of conspicuous color patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The received view of protective coloration in animals is that conspicuous colors and patterns have evolved because they elicit avoidance behavior in potential predators. In the present study, we examine the spontaneous response of naive predators (Gallus gallus domesticus) to artificial prey to test the hypothesis that deviations from bilateral symmetry of signaling pattern elements may negatively influence the avoidance-inducing

Anders Forsman; Joakim Herrström

2004-01-01

435

Color Use in Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, you will learn a little bit about color theory and how it can effect the colors that you choose for a design. This activity covers the Arizona State CTE Standard for demonstrating drawing and visualization skills required for graphic communications (Standard #13). Read each section below carefully and follow the links provided to find more information on the topics discussed. When you are finished with the lesson, complete the assignment at the bottom of the screen. Introduction There are certain colors that look good together in designs and there is a reason for it. Colors that look good together are based on their relationship to each other on a color wheel. In the following lesson, you are going explore the color wheel and the color relationships ...

Pope

2008-10-07

436

Influence of step complexity and presentation style on step performance of computerized emergency operating procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of information technology, computerized emergency operating procedures (EOPs) are taking the place of paper-based ones. However, ergonomics issues of computerized EOPs have not been studied adequately since the industrial practice is quite limited yet. This study examined the influence of step complexity and presentation style of EOPs on step performance. A simulated computerized EOP system was developed

Song Xu; Zhizhong Li; Fei Song; Wei Luo; Qianyi Zhao; Gavriel Salvendy

2009-01-01

437

An ergonomics study of computerized emergency operating procedures: Presentation style, task complexity, and training level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency operating procedures (EOPs) are widely used in nuclear power plants (NPPs). With the development of information technology, computerized EOPs are taking the place of paper-based ones. Unlike paper-based EOPs, the industrial practice of computerized EOPs is still quite limited. Ergonomics issues of computerized EOPs have not been studied adequately. This study focuses on the effects of EOP presentation style,

Song Xu; Fei Song; Zhizhong Li; Qianyi Zhao; Wei Luo; Xuhong He; Gavriel Salvendy

2008-01-01

438

A Randomized Controlled Trial of the "Cool Teens" CD-ROM Computerized Program for Adolescent Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Computerized cognitive behavioral interventions for anxiety disorders in adults have been shown to be efficacious, but limited data are available on the use of computerized interventions with young persons. Adolescents in particular are difficult to engage in treatment and may be especially suited to computerized technologies. This…

Wuthrich, Viviana M.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Cunningham, Michael J.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Schniering, Carolyn A.

2012-01-01

439

General Atomics Sciences: It's a Colorful Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is a multi-day module for grades 8-12 on the topic of color. It was designed as a set of six interlinked experiments to explore how colors are formed by light absorption and emission. Activities include: physical models to experiment with additive and subtractive color and explore how objects reflect and absorb light; examining color mixing by using a simple Power Point tool called CMYK; using magnification to examine the dot colors produced by an ink jet printer, and more. Detailed lesson plans, student activity guides, and background information are freely accessible online. The module was developed to be used with a set of unique hands-on lab materials sold by the publisher, however, many items are readily obtainable from teacher supply stores. This resource is aligned with national science education standards and has been refined through classroom testing. This item is part of a larger collection of inquiry-based modules.

Lawrence Woolf

440

Testing  

MedlinePLUS

... curesma.org > learn about sma > causes & diagnoses > testing Testing An SMA diagnosis must be confirmed through genetic ... and must be identified through further testing. Prenatal Testing Prenatal testing is used to determine if a ...

441

Skilled but Unaware of It: CAT Undermines a Test Taker's Metacognitive Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated students' metacognitive experiences with regard to feelings of difficulty (FD), feelings of satisfaction (FS), and estimate of effort (EE), employing either computerized adaptive testing (CAT) or computerized fixed item testing (FIT). In an experimental approach, 174 students in grades 10 to 13 were tested either with a CAT or a…

Ortner, Tuulia M.; Weisskopf, Eva; Gerstenberg, Friederike X. R.

2013-01-01

442

Computerized assessment of breast lesion malignancy using DCE-MRI: robustness study on two independent clinical datasets from two manufacturers  

PubMed Central

Rationale and Objectives To conduct a pre-clinical evaluation of the robustness of our computerized system for breast lesion characterization on two breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) databases that were acquired using scanners from two different manufacturers. Materials and Methods Two clinical breast MRI databases were acquired from a Siemens scanner and a GE scanner, which shared similar imaging protocols and retrospectively collected under an IRB-approved protocol. In our computerized analysis system, once a breast lesion is identified by the radiologist, the computer performs automatic lesion segmentation and feature extraction, and outputs an estimated probability of malignancy. We used a Bayesian neural network with automatic relevance determination for joint feature selection and classification. To evaluate the robustness of our classification system, we first used Database 1 for feature selection and classifier training, and Database 2 to test the trained classifier. Then, we exchanged the two datasets and repeated the process. Area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used as a performance figure of merit in the task of distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions. Results We obtained an AUC of 0.85 (approximate 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.79, 0.91]) for (a) feature selection and classifier training using Database 1 and testing on Database 2; and an AUC of 0.90 (approximate 95% CI: [0.84, 0.96]) for (b) feature selection and classifier training using Database2 and testing on Database1. We failed to observe statistical significance for the difference AUC of 0.05 between the two database-conditions (P=0.24; 95% confidence interval [? 0.03, 0.1]). Conclusion These results demonstrate the robustness of our computerized classification system in the task of distinguishing between malignant and benign breast lesions on DCE-MRI images from two manufacturers. Our study showed the feasibility of developing a computerized classification system that is robust across different scanners. PMID:20540907

Chen, Weijie; Giger, Maryellen L.; Newstead, Gillian M.; Bick, Ulrich; Jansen, Sanaz A.; Li, Hui; Lan, Li

2010-01-01

443

Evaluation of Learning Associated with Multiple Exposures to Computerized Dynamic Posturography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computerized dynamic posturography has been used to quantitatively assess the time course of functional sensorimotor recovery after exposure to spaceflight or to groundbased analogs such as head-down bed rest. An assessment of balance recovery may be confounded as subjects develop new strategies through repeated exposures to test paradigms. The purpose of this control study was to characterize the learning effects of sensory organization and motor control tests across multiple sessions. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy subjects were tested over four sessions. To examine the effects of between-session interval, subjects were assigned to one of four groups in which the interval between the 1 st and 2nd sessions was 7 (+/- 1) days, 14 (+/-1) days, 28 (+/-2) days, or 56 (+/-3) days. The interval between remaining sessions was 28 (+/-4) days. Peak-to-peak anterior-posterior sway was measured during standard Sensory Organization Tests (SOTs) using either fixed or unstable sway-referenced support with eyes open, eyes closed, or sway-referenced vision. Sway was also measured during modified SOTs using eyes-closed conditions with either static or dynamic head tilts. Postural recovery to unexpected support surface perturbations (translations or rotations) was measured during Motor Control Tests. The test order was block randomized across subjects. RESULTS: The learning effects varied with test condition. There were no measurable differences with a stable support surface. The more challenging conditions (unstable support surface with and without head tilts) led to greater differences and took more trials to stabilize. The effect of time interval between the first two sessions was negligible across conditions. Evidence suggested that learning carried across similar conditions (such as unstable support SOTs). DISCUSSION: Familiarization session and/or trials are recommended to minimize learning effects when characterizing functional recovery after exposure to altered sensory environments. The number of practice trials required depends on task difficulty and similarity across conditions. Learning statement: This presentation will review the learning effects of computerized d

Dean, S. Lance; Paloski, William H.; Taylor, Laura C.; Vanya, Robert D.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Wood, Scott J.

2009-01-01

444

Test Development Exposure Control for Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When items are selected during a computerized adaptive test (CAT) solely with regard to their measurement properties, it is commonly found that certain items are administered to nearly every examinee, and that a small number of the available items will account for a large proportion of the item administrations. This presents a clear security risk…

Parshall, Cynthia G.; Davey, Tim; Nering, Mike L.

445

A Comparison of Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation and Computerized Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Effects on Anxiety, Depression, Attentional Control, and Interpretive Bias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) and cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) both have demonstrated efficacy in alleviating social anxiety, but how they compare with each other has not been investigated. The present study tested the prediction that both interventions would reduce anxiety relative to a…

Bowler, Jennifer O.; Mackintosh, Bundy; Dunn, Barnaby D.; Mathews, Andrew; Dalgleish, Tim; Hoppitt, Laura

2012-01-01

446

Unesco Integrated Documentation Network; Computerized Documentation System (CDS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use by the Computerized Documentation System (CDS), the Unesco version of ISIS (Integrated Set of Information Systems)--originally developed by the International Labour Organization--was developed in 1975 and named CDS/ISIS. This system has a comprehensive collection of programs for input, management, and output, running in batch or…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Dept. of Documentation, Libraries, and Archives.

447

A Report on Project CVIS (Computerized Vocational Information System).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Computerized Vocational Information System (CVIS) team, has designed a system utilizing a computer as a tool to help students explore occupations in the light of their own student records. This system aims at teaching a decision-making process in a way that interests students and allows counselors more time for counseling functions. The…

Willowbrook High School, Villa Park, IL. Computerized Vocational Information System Project.

448

Rapid Computerized Assessment of Neurocognitive Deficits in Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to illustrate the clinical usefulness of a computerized neuropsychological battery for identifying neurocognitive deficits in adults with bipolar disorder. Participants were 47 outpatients with bipolar disorder who were individually matched on age, education, sex, and ethnicity to 47 control subjects from the Central Nervous System (CNS) Vital Signs normative database. CNS Vital Signs is

Grant L. Iverson; Brian L. Brooks; Allan H. Young

2009-01-01

449

Implementing computerized physician order entry: the importance of special people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To articulate important lessons learned during a study to identify success factors for implementing computerized physician order entry (CPOE) in inpatient and outpatient settings. Design: Qualitative study by a multidisciplinary team using data from observation, focus groups, and both formal and informal interviews. Data were analyzed using a grounded approach to develop a taxonomy of patterns and themes from

Joan S. Ash; P. Zoë Stavri; Richard H. Dykstra; Lara Fournier

2003-01-01

450

Automatic Data Processing System and Procedures, Computerized Academic Counseling System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Computerized Academic Counseling System (CACS) designed by the System Development Corporation is reviewed. Aspects of the system, constructed to assist counselors in guiding undergraduates in the selection of academic majors, which are discussed include: problem definition, system analysis, design rationale, methodology, measurement…

Zagorski, Henry J.; And Others

451

AFB's Computerized Travel Aid: Two Years of Research and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Progress on the computerized travel aid, an electronic device, using elements of the Polaroid Sonar Camera and a microprocessor, for visually handicapped persons is reviewed, and research on the effectiveness of various models noted. Recommended modifications touch on aspects of mounting, beam shape, and audible outputs. (CL)

Uslan, Mark M.; And Others

1983-01-01

452

Computerized Literature Searching: An Orientation for the Search Requestor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed to orient the information seeker to the computerized literature search process, this guide provides background information that will help the user facilitate the search interview and the formation of a search topic, enabling him or her to focus on personal search needs and not on the fundamentals of online searching. Major purposes for…

Fabiano, Emily

453

Guidelines for Evaluating Computerized Instructional Materials. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents guidelines for evaluating computerized instructional materials. Included are reference sources, suggestions for evaluation criteria, guidelines for both software and documentation evaluation, and forms that can be used in the evaluation process. Five separately labeled reference lists contain citations for approximately 100…

Heck, William P.; And Others

454

COMPUTERIZED FGD BYPRODUCT PRODUCTION AND MARKETING SYSTEM: USERS MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The users manual describes a computerized system--consisting of a number of integrated programs, models, and data bases--that has been developed to compare the costs of power plant strategies designed to meet clean air regulations. It describes the data bases, programs, and proce...

455

MCAT to XCAT: The Evolution of 4-D Computerized Phantoms  

E-print Network

INVITED P A P E R MCAT to XCAT: The Evolution of 4-D Computerized Phantoms for Imaging Research, to the current 4-D extended Cardiac-Torso (XCAT) and Mouse Whole-Body (MOBY) phantoms, hybrid models of the human and female (XCAT) anatomies (at different ages from newborn to adult), each containing more than 9000

456

Computerized Acoustical Respiratory Phase Detection without Airflow Measurement  

E-print Network

Computerized Acoustical Respiratory Phase Detection without Airflow Measurement Zahra .K. Moussavi1):198:203, 2000. 2 ABSTRACT We sought to develop a simple, non-invasive acoustical method to detect respiratory of respiratory phases without using the measured airflow signal. Thus, acoustically monitoring breath

Moussavi, Zahra M. K.

457

Computerized Systems for Collecting Real-Time Observational Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 15 developers of computerized real-time observation systems found many systems have incorporated laptop or handheld computers as well as bar-code scanners. Most systems used IBM-compatible software, and ranged from free to complete systems costing more than $1,500. Data analysis programs were included with most programs. (Author/CR)

Kahng, SungWoo; Iwata, Brian

1998-01-01

458

Medical Imaging By Various Modes Of Ultrasound Computerized Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computerized Tomography (CT) using ultrasonic waves is possible in various modes, the application of CT-algorithms leads to cross-sectional distributions of several physical parameters. These images promise progress in tissue characterization of small organs, for example in tumour diagnosis of the female breast and of the male testicles.

Ermert, H.; Hiller, D.

1982-11-01

459

The Development of a Computerized Regional Library System. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the research and development described in this report is to implement and operate an on-line, computerized regional library system that makes available to faculty and students in individual colleges and universities the library resources throughout a region, while at the same time decelerating the rate of rise of per-student library…

Kilgour, Frederick G., Comp.; Davis, Hillis D., Comp.

460

Louisiana comprehensive planning information system. [computerized land use mapping system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A statewide computerized land use mapping system is reported that uses polygons to identify inventories from aerial photography by employing the USGS classification system. In addition, the system provides soil, population, and housing census data as well as economic indicators that can be useful in relating to the overall system.

Ryan, P. W.; Schwertz, E.

1975-01-01

461

Patient specific computerized phantoms to estimate dose in pediatric CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We create a series of detailed computerized phantoms to estimate patient organ and effective dose in pediatric CT and investigate techniques for efficiently creating patient-specific phantoms based on imaging data. The initial anatomy of each phantom was previously developed based on manual segmentation of pediatric CT data. Each phantom was extended to include a more detailed anatomy based on morphing

W. P. Segars; G. Sturgeon; X. Li; L. Cheng; C. Ceritoglu; J. T. Ratnanather; M. I. Miller; B. M. W. Tsui; D. Frush; E. Samei

2009-01-01

462

A computerized design environment for functional modeling of mechanical products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the strategies and the methods for the development of a computerized functional modeling design environment to support the conceptual phase of mechanical product design. A new design concept called behavioral scenario is introduced. The modeling process begins with an initial function decomposition and a conversion of the required function into immediate function. This information is then used

Y.-M. Deng; S. B. Tor; G. A. Britton

1999-01-01

463

COMPUTERIZED SHAWNEE LIME/LIMESTONE SCRUBBING MODEL USERS MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual gives a general description of a computerized model for estimating design and cost of lime or limestone scrubber systems for flue gas desulfurization (FGD). It supplements PB80-123037 by extending the number of scrubber options which can be evaluated. It includes spray...

464

Employment Effects of Computerization, 1971-1991. [Working Paper Series].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the significant role of computers in the transformation of the Canadian employment structure. An executive summary appears in English and French. Following an introduction, Section 2 discusses how the role of computerization of the employment structure is viewed in the literature. Section 3 presents an overview of past…

Lavoie, Marie; Therrien, Pierre

465

The Inverse Radon Transform and PET Introduction to Computerized  

E-print Network

Part II The Inverse Radon Transform and PET 83 #12; #12; Chapter 6 Introduction to Computerized, to some extent, have been based on inversion of Radon transform, but it should be mentioned that the MRI scanners mostly use inverse Fourier transformation. The most direct use of inverse Radon transform is found

Mosegaard, Klaus

466

Computerized Respiratory Sounds in Patients with COPD: A Systematic Review.  

PubMed

Abstract Computerized respiratory sound analysis provides objective information about the respiratory system and may be useful to monitor patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and detect exacerbations early. For these purposes, a thorough understanding of the typical computerized respiratory sounds in patients with COPD during stable periods is essential. This review aimed to systematize the existing evidence on computerized respiratory sounds in stable COPD. A literature search in the Medline, EBSCO, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases was performed. Seven original articles were included. The maximum frequencies of normal inspiratory sounds at the posterior chest were between 113 and 130Hz, lower than the frequency found at trachea (228 Hz). During inspiration, the frequency of normal respiratory sounds was found to be higher than expiration (130 vs. 100Hz). Crackles were predominantly inspiratory (2.9-5 vs. expiratory 0.73-2) and characterized by long durations of the variables initial deflection width (1.88-2.1 ms) and two cycle duration (7.7-11.6 ms). Expiratory wheeze rate was higher than inspiratory rate. In patients with COPD normal respiratory sounds seem to follow the pattern observed in healthy people and adventitious respiratory sounds are mainly characterized by inspiratory and coarse crackles and expiratory wheezes. Further research with larger samples and following the Computerized Respiratory Sound Analysis (CORSA) guidelines are needed. PMID:24914587

Jácome, Cristina; Marques, Alda

2015-02-01

467

A Computerized Library and Evaluation System for Integral Neutron Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computerized library of references to integral neutron experiments has been developed at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at Livermore. This library serves as a data base for the systematic retrieval of documents describing diverse critical and bulk nuclear experiments. The evaluation and reduction of the physical parameters of the experiments…

Hampel, Viktor E.; And Others

468

Characteristics of Schoolteachers' Adaptation to the Values of Computerization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The computerization of Russian society is a dynamic, complex, goal-directed, innovative process of the creation, dissemination, and use of information and communication technologies [ICT]. This process entails a transition to a qualitatively new and different state of society, the emergence of new group communities and a revision of traditional or…

Shcheglova, S. N.

2007-01-01

469

Computerized Periodical Systems in Two Small Special Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes how two small non-profit libraries successfully computerized their periodical record and routing systems. The steps required in gaining acceptance of the idea, planning, designing, installing, and perfecting each system are included. The Population Council library, whose clerical staff was formerly responsible for manually…

Regan, Muriel; Zimmerman, H. Neil

470

X- and ?-rays computerized minitomograph scanner for soil science  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized tomograph scanner system that uses X- and ?-rays for applications in soil science is described. Use of the apparatus in measuring volumetric water content to an accuracy of ±3% and soil bulk density to ±2% (in grams per cubic centimeters) is discussed. The system features translation and rotation scanning modes, a 200-mm effective field of view, signal processing

PAULO ESTEVAO CRUVINEL; ROBERTO CESAREO; SILVIO CRESTANA; SERGIO MASCARENHAS

1990-01-01

471

Computerized clinical documentation system in the pediatric intensive care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To determine whether a computerized clinical documentation system (CDS): 1) decreased time spent charting and increased time spent in patient care; 2) decreased medication errors; 3) improved clinical decision making; 4) improved quality of documentation; and\\/or 5) improved shift to shift nursing continuity. METHODS: Before and after implementation of CDS, a time study involving nursing care, medication delivery, and

James A Menke; Cynthia W Broner; Deborah Y Campbell; Michelle Y McKissick; Joy A Edwards-Beckett

2001-01-01

472

Computerized Simulation and Experimental Analysis for Efficient Polymerase Chain Reaction*  

E-print Network

Computerized Simulation and Experimental Analysis for Efficient Polymerase Chain Reaction* Hee@plaza.snu.ac.kr Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a useful biochemical operation not only in biological application but also, Effectiveness of Denaturation Temperature Gradient-Polymerase Chain Reaction for Biased DNAAlgorithms

473

The computerized patient record: Where do we stand?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To provide an overview of trends in research, developments and implementations of the computerized patient record (CPR) of the lost two years. Methods: We surveyed the medical informatics literature, spanning the years 2004-2005, focusing on publications on CPRs. Results: The main trends revealed were: 1) the development of technologies to realize privacy and security goals or remote data entry

M. W. M. Jaspers; P. Knaup; D. Schmidt

2006-01-01

474

NCLEX-RN Performance: Predicting Success on the Computerized Examination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discriminant analysis was used to identify variables predictive of success in the computerized National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses with data from 289 nursing graduates. Using seven significant predictors, 94% of passes and 92% of failures were correctly identified. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

Waterhouse, Julie Keith; Beeman, Pamela Butler

2001-01-01

475

Monkeys Exhibit Prospective Memory in a Computerized Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prospective memory (PM) involves forming intentions, retaining those intentions, and later executing those intended responses at the appropriate time. Few studies have investigated this capacity in animals. Monkeys performed a computerized task that assessed their ability to remember to make a particular response if they observed a PM cue embedded…

Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

2012-01-01

476

Guidelines for the Development of Computerized Student Information Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide guidelines for the development of computerized student information systems, this report raises policy issues and questions to be resolved at the campus level and describes a variety of computer-generated reports and records that can assist in educational decision making and planning. Introductory material discusses the…

Armes, Nancy, Ed.; And Others

477

Designing a Computerized Instructional Training Room for the Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses issues in designing or enhancing a computerized training room for teaching end-users how to search online databases. These include environmental aesthetics and practical considerations such as lighting, sound, wiring, furniture, and equipment and software selection. How to design the room to suit multiple purposes and to accommodate…

Ring, Donna M; Vander Meer, Patricia F.

1994-01-01

478

A Method of Retrospective Computerized System Validation for Drug Manufacturing Software Considering Modifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a Retrospective Computerized System Validation (RCSV) method for Drug Manufacturing Software (DMSW) that relates to drug production considering software modification. Because DMSW that is used for quality management and facility control affects big impact to quality of drugs, regulatory agency required proofs of adequacy for DMSW's functions and performance based on developed documents and test results. Especially, the work that explains adequacy for previously developed DMSW based on existing documents and operational records is called RCSV. When modifying RCSV conducted DMSW, it was difficult to secure consistency between developed documents and test results for modified DMSW parts and existing documents and operational records for non-modified DMSW parts. This made conducting RCSV difficult. In this paper, we proposed (a) definition of documents architecture, (b) definition of descriptive items and levels in the documents, (c) management of design information using database, (d) exhaustive testing, and (e) integrated RCSV procedure. As a result, we could conduct adequate RCSV securing consistency.

Takahashi, Masakazu; Fukue, Yoshinori

479

Color management in textile application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this research was to study a system of acquisition and processing of images capable of confronting colored wool with a reference specimen, in order to define the conformity using objective parameters. The first step of the research was to comprise and to analyze in depth the problem: there has been numerous implications of technical, physical, cultural, biological and also psychological character, that come down from the attempt of giving a quantitative appraisal to the color. In the scene of the national and international scientific and technological research, little has been made as regards measurement of color through digital processing of the images through linear CCD. The reason is fundamentally of technological nature: only during the last years we found the presence on the market of low cost equipment capable of acquiring and processing images with adequate performances and qualities. The job described has permitted to create a first prototype of system for the color measuring with use of CCD linear devices. -Hardware identification to carry out a series of tests and experiments in laboratory. -Verification of such device in a textile facility. -Statistics analysis of the collected data and of the employed models.

De Lucia, Maurizio; Vannucci, Massimiliano; Buonopane, Massimo; Fabroni, Cosimo; Fabrini, Francesco

2002-03-01

480

Learning color names for real-world applications.  

PubMed

Color names are required in real-world applications such as image retrieval and image annotation. Traditionally, they are learned from a collection of labeled color chips. These color chips are labeled with color names within a well-defined experimental setup by human test subjects. However, naming colors in real-world images differs significantly from this experimental setting. In this paper, we investigate how color names learned from color chips compare to color names learned from real-world images. To avoid hand labeling real-world images with color names, we use Google Image to collect a data set. Due to the limitations of Google Image, this data set contains a substantial quantity of wrongly labeled data. We propose several variants of the PLSA model to learn color names from this noisy data. Experimental results show that color names learned from real-world images significantly outperform color names learned from labeled color chips for both image retrieval and image annotation. PMID:19482579

van de Weijer, Joost; Schmid, Cordelia; Verbeek, Jakob; Larlus, Diane

2009-07-01

481

Digital color representation  

DOEpatents

An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes which represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete lookup table (LUT) where an 8-bit data signal is enabled to form a display of 24-bit color values. The LUT is formed in a sampling and averaging process from the image color values with no requirement to define discrete Voronoi regions for color compression. Image color values are assigned 8-bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8-bit pointer value to provide 24-bit color values from the LUT.

White, James M. (Los Alamos, NM); Faber, Vance (Los Alamos, NM); Saltzman, Jeffrey S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01

482

Colors in Disposable Diapers: Addressing Myths.  

PubMed

Colors are frequently added to disposable diapers to enhance the diapering experience. The colors in the interior of diapers are composed of nonsensitizing pigments that are bound during the fiber-making process into the fibers of the nonwoven that covers the absorbent core materials. In the past, the use of color in diapers has been called into question based on the presumed use of disperse dyes, known sensitizers in the textile industry, and erroneous reports in literature. In fact, disperse dyes are not used in leading disposable diapers; the colors used in these disposable diapers are nonsensitizing pigments with favorable safety profiles. Numerous safety tests, such as skin patch tests with pigments used on diaper backsheets, have found no evidence of skin irritation or sensitization. PMID:24961780

Evans, Eric B; Helmes, C Tucker; Kirsch, Taryn; Ruble, Karen M

2014-06-24

483

NCI Color Palette  

Cancer.gov

NCI's official colors are red and gray. To create a strong, cohesive NCI presence and an intuitive website experience, the main NCI website was designed in light of this color scheme. NCI's official colors are used consistently throughout the main NCI website to help create a uniform look for the site and to reinforce the tie between the site's home page and its constituent pages.

484

Color gamut transform pairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital control of color television monitors—in particular, via frame buffers—has added precise control of a large subset of human colorspace to the capabilities of computer graphics. This subset is the gamut of colors spanned by the red, green, and blue (RGB) electron guns exciting their respective phosphors. It is called the RGB monitor gamut. Full-blown color theory is a quite

Alvy Ray Smith

1978-01-01

485

Restorer: Four Color Chart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Restorer is a visualization technique for indicating the location of missing data in a scientific visualization. Rather than filling missing data regions with interpolated data colored with the same scale as real data or simply leaving such regions empty, the restorer technique fills the regions with interpolated data colored with a color table with only luminance values. This technique allows missing data to be indicated clearly without distracting from the content of the real data.

John Cavallo

1994-08-24

486

Resolution and Color Depth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This computer interactive lets you explore the effect of changing the number of colors and resolution of a picture. You can see the picture in high quality (72 dots per inch), low quality (10 dpi), or in-between (30 dpi). You also can change the color depth from two colors to millions. Background information and extensions are provided, including connections to paintings by artists George Seurat and Roy Lichtenstein.

2012-07-23

487

Color Control in Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sand shrimp, Crangon septemspinosus, are capable of varying their color or shading in response to several environmental changes (background color, light intensity, light wavelength, and temperature). The degree of color change can be determined quantitatively by examining the chromatophores under a dissecting microscope and staging the amount of pigment dispersion, (b) the location or type of receptors involved, and (c) the type of communication between receptors and effectors.

Mary-Jane O'Halloran (Dalhousie University; )

1989-06-06

488

Colors Collide or Combine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners place multiple M&M's in a plate of water to watch what happens as the candies dissolve. Often learners expect the colors from each M&M to blend when they come together, but instead the colors remain separate along a defined border. Learners will explore how the areas of color change shape as M&Mâs are placed in different positions in the plate.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

489

Polarization encoded color camera.  

PubMed

Digital cameras would be colorblind if they did not have pixelated color filters integrated into their image sensors. Integration of conventional fixed filters, however, comes at the expense of an inability to modify the camera's spectral properties. Instead, we demonstrate a micropolarizer-based camera that can reconfigure its spectral response. Color is encoded into a linear polarization state by a chiral dispersive element and then read out in a single exposure. The polarization encoded color camera is capable of capturing three-color images at wavelengths spanning the visible to the near infrared. PMID:24690806

Schonbrun, Ethan; Möller, Guðfríður; Di Caprio, Giuseppe

2014-03-15

490

Using Color to See How Liquids Combine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners add different liquids (water, salt water, alcohol, and detergent solution) to water and observe the different ways the different liquids combine with water. The liquids are colored yellow and the water is colored blue to aid in observing the combinations. After carefully observing the combining liquids in this activity, learners can identify them as unknowns in the related activity, "Using the Combining Test to Identify the Unknown Liquids" from the same resource (see related resources).

James H. Kessler

2007-01-01

491

The Impact of Anxious and Calm Emotional States on Color Usage in Pre-Drawn Mandalas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this single-subject experiment was to test whether a link exists between emotional state and color usage in a common art therapy technique. The researchers hypothesized that when coloring a pre-drawn mandala, participants would choose warm colors when they were anxious and cool colors when they were calm. The non-random sample…

Kersten, Andrea; van der Vennet, Renee

2010-01-01

492

Fiery red heads: female dominance among head color morphs in the Gouldian finch  

E-print Network

Fiery red heads: female dominance among head color morphs in the Gouldian finch Sarah R. Pryke the color polymorphic Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae), this study experimentally tests the status in dominance behavior. Key words: color polymorphism, female dominance, Gouldian finch, plumage coloration

493

Synesthesia and Memory: Color Congruency, Von Restorff, and False Memory Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current study, we explored the influence of synesthesia on memory for word lists. We tested 10 grapheme-color synesthetes who reported an experience of color when reading letters or words. We replicated a previous finding that memory is compromised when synesthetic color is incongruent with perceptual color. Beyond this, we found that,…

Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Gibson, Bradley S.; McNerney, M. Windy

2011-01-01

494

Structural and melanin coloration indicate parental effort and reproductive success in male eastern bluebirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) have two types of ornamental plumage coloration: a brilliant blue-ultraviolet head, back, and wings, and a patch of chestnut breast feathers. The blue-UV coloration is produced from feather microstructure, whereas the chestnut coloration is produced by a combination of pheaomelanin and eumelanin pigments deposited in feathers. We tested the hypothesis that plumage coloration reflects male

Lynn Siefferman; Geoffrey E. Hill

2003-01-01

495

Color naming and sunlight Color naming and sunlight  

E-print Network

Color naming and sunlight Color naming and sunlight: Commentary on Lindsey and Brown (2002) Terry@uchicago.edu #12;Color naming and sunlight Lindsey and Brown (2002) (L&B) propose an intriguing explanation. Others may include blue in a color term that also encompasses dark colors such as black, yielding a black

Kay, Paul

496

Digit ratio (2D:4D) in Lithuania once and now: testing for sex differences, relations with eye and hair color, and a possible secular change.  

PubMed

The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic somatic trait and has been proposed as a biomarker for the organizational, i.e., permanent, effects of prenatal testosterone on the human brain. Accordingly, recent research has related 2D:4D to a variety of sex-dependent, hormonally influenced traits and phenotypes. The geographical variation in typical 2D:4D is marked and presently poorly understood. This study presents the first investigation into the 2D:4D ratio in a Baltic country. A contemporary sample of 109 Lithuanian men and women was compared with data from a historical sample of 100 Lithuanian men and women, collected and published in the 1880s and rediscovered only now. The findings included the following lines of evidence: (i) seen in an international perspective, the average 2D:4D in Lithuania is low; (ii) there was a sex difference in 2D:4D in the expected direction in both samples; (iii) a previously adduced hypothesis of an association of lighter eye and hair color with higher, i.e., more feminized, 2D:4D received no support in both samples; and (iv) the average 2D:4D in the contemporary sample was higher than in the historical sample. In view of a hypothesized increase in 2D:4D in modern populations, owing to increased environmental levels of endocrine disruptors such as xenoestrogens, this latter finding appears to be of particular notice. However, because finger-length measurement methods differed across the samples, it cannot be safely ruled out that the apparent time trend in Lithuanian 2D:4D in truth is an artifact. The puzzling geographical pattern seen in the 2D:4D ratio and the question of possible time trends therein deserve further investigations. PMID:18041401

Voracek, Martin; Bagdonas, Albinas; Dressler, Stefan G

2007-09-01

497

Development of a computerized data base for low-level radioactive waste leaching data: Topical report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development of a computerized data base (db) of leaching data for solidified low-level radioactive waste (LLW) forms. Brookhaven National Lab performed this work under contract with the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program as part of an effort to develop an accelerated leach test(s) that can be used to predict leachabilities of LLW forms over long time periods, i.e., hundreds of years. The accelerated leach test(s) is (are) to be developed based on knowledge of leaching mechanisms and factors that affect leaching. Although developed specifically for the Accelerated Leach Test(s) Program, this db may be useful to others concerned with the management of low-level waste. The db is being developed to provide efficient data compilation and analysis capabilities. The data compiled in the db, which include data from the Accelerated Leach Test(s) Program and selected data from the literature, have been selected to elucidate leaching mechanisms and factors that affect leaching and are not meant to be a comprehensive compilation of leaching data. This report presents the data compilation aspect of the db. It does not present the programmatic results obtained from analysis of the data regarding leaching mechanisms and factors that affect leaching, which will be presented in reports from the Accelerated Leach Test(s) Program. 6 refs.

Dougherty, D.R.; Colombo, P.

1986-09-01

498

Research on color constancy computation based on YCbCr color space and gray surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color constancy is of important for many computer vision applications, such as image classification, color object recognition, object tracking and so on. But unlike the human visual system, imaging device cannot be able to compute color constant descriptors which do not vary with the color of the illuminant, so solving color constancy problem is necessary. In the calculation of color constancy, illuminant estimation is the key. Because grey surfaces can perfectly reflect the color of the scene illumination, many methods have been proposed to identify grey surfaces to estimate the illuminant. But they either rely on the camera's parameters, lacking universality, or work inaccurate in worse conditions. In order to solve these problems, in this paper, an iterative method is proposed. The quality of the proposed method is tested and compared to the previous color constancy methods on the Macbeth Chart and two data sets of synthetic and real images. Through MATLAB simulation, experimental pictures and quantitative data for performance evaluation were gotten. The simulated results show that the proposed algorithm is accurate and efficient in identification of the grey surfaces, even in worse condition. And it performs well in color constancy computation on both synthetic and real images.

Wang, Hong; Yang, Jianfeng; Xue, Bin; Yan, Xingtao; Liang, Xiaofen

2014-11-01

499

A randomized-controlled trial of computerized alerts to reduce unapproved medication abbreviation use  

PubMed Central

Abbreviation use is a preventable cause of medication errors. The objective of this study was to test whether computerized alerts designed to reduce medication abbreviations and embedded within an electronic progress note program could reduce these abbreviations in the non-computer-assisted handwritten notes of physicians. Fifty-nine physicians were randomized to one of three groups: a forced correction alert group; an auto-correction alert group; or a group that received no alerts. Over time, physicians in all groups significantly reduced their use of these abbreviations in their handwritten notes. Physicians exposed to the forced correction alert showed the greatest reductions in use when compared to controls (p=0.02) and the auto-correction alert group (p=0.0005). Knowledge of unapproved abbreviations was measured before and after the intervention and did not improve (p=0.81). This work demonstrates the effects that alert systems can have on physician behavior in a non-computerized environment and in the absence of knowledge. PMID:21131606

Gojraty, Sattar; Yang, Wei; Linsky, Amy; Airan-Javia, Subha; Polomano, Rosemary C

2010-01-01

500

Computerized Silent Reading Rate and Strategy Instruction for Fourth Graders at Risk in Silent Reading Rate.  

PubMed

Fourth graders whose silent word reading and/or sentence reading rate was, on average, two-thirds standard deviation below their oral reading of real and pseudowords and reading comprehension accuracy were randomly assigned to treatment (n=7) or wait-listed (n=7) control groups. Following nine sessions combining computerized rapid accelerated-reading program (RAP), which individually tailors rate of written text presentation to comprehension criterion (80%), and self-regulated strategies for attending and engaging, the treated group significantly outperformed the wait-listed group before treatment on (a) a grade-normed, silent sentence reading rate task requiring lexical- and syntactic level processing to decide which of three sentences makes sense; and (b) RAP presentation rates yoked to comprehension accuracy level. Each group improved significantly on these same outcomes from before to after instruction. Attention ratings and working memory for written words predicted post-treatment accuracy, which correlated significantly with the silent sentence reading rate score. Implications are discussed for (a) preventing silent reading disabilities during the transition to increasing emphasis on silent reading, (b) evidence-based approaches for making accommodation of extra time on timed tests requiring silent reading, and (c) combining computerized instruction with strategies for self-regulation during silent reading. PMID:24914248

Niedo, Jasmin; Lee, Yen Ling; Breznitz, Zvia; Berninger, Virginia

2014-05-01