Science.gov

Sample records for computerized thermodynamics databases

  1. Instruction manual for the Wahoo computerized database

    SciTech Connect

    Lasota, D.; Watts, K.

    1995-05-01

    As part of our research on the Lisburne Group, we have developed a powerful relational computerized database to accommodate the huge amounts of data generated by our multi-disciplinary research project. The Wahoo database has data files on petrographic data, conodont analyses, locality and sample data, well logs and diagenetic (cement) studies. Chapter 5 is essentially an instruction manual that summarizes some of the unique attributes and operating procedures of the Wahoo database. The main purpose of a database is to allow users to manipulate their data and produce reports and graphs for presentation. We present a variety of data tables in appendices at the end of this report, each encapsulating a small part of the data contained in the Wahoo database. All the data are sorted and listed by map index number and stratigraphic position (depth). The Locality data table (Appendix A) lists of the stratigraphic sections examined in our study. It gives names of study areas, stratigraphic units studied, locality information, and researchers. Most localities are keyed to a geologic map that shows the distribution of the Lisburne Group and location of our sections in ANWR. Petrographic reports (Appendix B) are detailed summaries of data the composition and texture of the Lisburne Group carbonates. The relative abundance of different carbonate grains (allochems) and carbonate texture are listed using symbols that portray data in a format similar to stratigraphic columns. This enables researchers to recognize trends in the evolution of the Lisburne carbonate platform and to check their paleoenvironmental interpretations in a stratigraphic context. Some of the figures in Chapter 1 were made using the Wahoo database.

  2. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 74 Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (Web, free access)   The Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database contains thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that have been recently published in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data (JPCRD). For each reaction the following information is provided: the reference for the data, the reaction studied, the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number, the method of measurement, the data and an evaluation thereof.

  3. Environmental databases and other computerized information tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    1995-01-01

    Increasing environmental legislation has brought about the development of many new environmental databases and software application packages to aid in the quest for environmental compliance. These databases and software packages are useful tools and applicable to a wide range of environmental areas from atmospheric modeling to materials replacement technology. The great abundance of such products and services can be very overwhelming when trying to identify the tools which best meet specific needs. This paper will discuss the types of environmental databases and software packages available. This discussion will also encompass the affected environmental areas of concern, product capabilities, and hardware requirements for product utilization.

  4. Allied health applications of a computerized clinical log database system.

    PubMed

    Boyce, K E; Winn, J S; Anderson, S L; Bryant, B G

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary research in the development and use of computerized clinical log records began in 1987 in an allied health college at a midwestern academic health center. This article reviews development and implementation of a computerized system for managing clinical log records to improve and enhance allied health educational programs in the radiation sciences. These clinical log databases are used for quantitative and qualitative analyses of student participation in clinical procedures, and educational planning for each student. Collecting and recording data from clinical log records serves as a valuable instructional tool for students, with both clinical and didactic applications. PMID:10389054

  5. A thermodynamic database for zirconium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupin, N.; Ansara, I.; Servant, C.; Toffolon, C.; Lemaignan, C.; Brachet, J. C.

    1999-11-01

    A thermodynamic database, Zircobase, was developed for zirconium alloys for use in the nuclear industry. Two examples of the assessments concerning the Sn-Zr and H-Zr systems are given. The complete set for the binary systems, compiled or assessed during the course of this study, is to be found on the web site: www.inpg.fr/ltpcm/base/zircobase. The utility of this database is demonstrated in examples of thermodynamic calculations of the α/β phase transformation temperatures performed on industrial Zr-Nb and Zy4 type alloys. These last results show fairly good predictions, using extrapolations of the actual thermodynamic database to ternary or higher order systems.

  6. Databases for Computational Thermodynamics and Diffusion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattner, U. R.; Boettinger, W. J.; Morral, J. E.

    2002-11-01

    Databases for computational thermodynamics and diffusion modeling can be applied to predict phase diagrams for alloy design and alloy behavior during processing and service. Databases that are currently available to scientists, engineers and students need to be expanded and improved. The approach of the workshop was to first identify the database and information delivery tool needs of industry and education. The workshop format was a series of invited talks given to the group as a whole followed by general discussions of needs and benefits to provide a roadmap of future activities.

  7. Computerized database management system for breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Sim, Kok Swee; Chong, Sze Siang; Tso, Chih Ping; Nia, Mohsen Esmaeili; Chong, Aun Kee; Abbas, Siti Fathimah

    2014-01-01

    Data analysis based on breast cancer risk factors such as age, race, breastfeeding, hormone replacement therapy, family history, and obesity was conducted on breast cancer patients using a new enhanced computerized database management system. My Structural Query Language (MySQL) is selected as the application for database management system to store the patient data collected from hospitals in Malaysia. An automatic calculation tool is embedded in this system to assist the data analysis. The results are plotted automatically and a user-friendly graphical user interface is developed that can control the MySQL database. Case studies show breast cancer incidence rate is highest among Malay women, followed by Chinese and Indian. The peak age for breast cancer incidence is from 50 to 59 years old. Results suggest that the chance of developing breast cancer is increased in older women, and reduced with breastfeeding practice. The weight status might affect the breast cancer risk differently. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25045606

  8. PINT: Protein-protein Interactions Thermodynamic Database.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M D Shaji; Gromiha, M Michael

    2006-01-01

    The first release of Protein-protein Interactions Thermodynamic Database (PINT) contains >1500 data of several thermodynamic parameters along with sequence and structural information, experimental conditions and literature information. Each entry contains numerical data for the free energy change, dissociation constant, association constant, enthalpy change, heat capacity change and so on of the interacting proteins upon binding, which are important for understanding the mechanism of protein-protein interactions. PINT also includes the name and source of the proteins involved in binding, their Protein Information Resource, SWISS-PROT and Protein Data Bank (PDB) codes, secondary structure and solvent accessibility of residues at mutant positions, measuring methods, experimental conditions, such as buffers, ions and additives, and literature information. A WWW interface facilitates users to search data based on various conditions, feasibility to select the terms for output and different sorting options. Further, PINT is cross-linked with other related databases, PIR, SWISS-PROT, PDB and NCBI PUBMED literature database. The database is freely available at http://www.bioinfodatabase.com/pint/index.html. PMID:16381844

  9. Computerized databases for emergency care: what impact on patient care?

    PubMed

    Pugh, G E; Tan, J K

    1994-12-01

    A field-based evaluation is conducted of a Clinical Computerized Information System (CCIS). Following training, the use of the CCIS database, word processing and other programs by thirteen full-time practicing emergency physicians in two urban emergency departments of a University-associated teaching hospital was studied over a one-year period. A tracking program automatically logged frequency and duration of use by the physicians, and user satisfaction was assessed by a reliable and validated questionnaire instrument. Based on utilization data and verbal reports of these physicians, CCIS database searching was not only found to be easy-to-learn but was readily accessible during emergency shifts. Individual physicians were found to perform an average of 3.5 searches per month lasting a mean search time of 8 min. Positive notes about the CCIS system included ease-of-use, accuracy of data, accessibility of system, and value of output while negative perceptions included a lack of integration with other systems, a lack of system completeness, and a high subscription cost. It was suggested that a less costly telephone link to a high-volume Centre would be desirable in actual implementation of the system. PMID:7869949

  10. [A computerized database for managing otorhinolaryngologic oncology patients].

    PubMed

    Mira, E; Lanza, L; Castelli, A; Benazzo, M; Tinelli, C

    1998-06-01

    In recent years the management and interdisciplinary treatment of oncological patients has become extremely complex due to the progress made in diagnosis and therapy. As a result, the knowledge required to treat patients can no longer be simply memorized or manually filed. Computer technology provides the ideal instrument for organizing, saving and analyzing data from head and neck tumor patients. The authors have prepared a computerized database to meet the following needs: ease of use, even for non computer savvy users; minimal ambiguity for data entry; use for both clinical and scientific purposes; possibility to create a network with similar database at other Centers; possibility to expand to include image management. The archive is based on a personal computer with an INTEL 80486 microprocessor, 40 Mb RAM, DOS 6.0. and Windows 3.1. The software includes four main routines: a) formulation and management of tables where oncological data are gathered; b) entry and management of patient-related clinical data; c) statistical processing for epidemiological and oncological research and; d) management of basic computer services. In clinical practice the database allows the following: a) preparation of a monthly chart of check-ups, b) rapid tracking of patients lost to followup, c) printout of a summary of the clinical history of each patient at the time of check-up and rapid updating at the end of the examination, d) automatic production of forms such as discharge letters and reports to be shared with related services (i.e. medical oncology, radiotherapy). In addition, the database is a powerful, versatile research tool which can promptly provide all sorts of oncological data and can automatically prepare tables, diagrams, correlations, survival curves. The system was developed from 1993 to 1995 and has been operative, with a few minor modifications and updates, since 1995. Today the database contains more than 1200 oncological cases and the system is used daily by

  11. Thermodynamic database for proteins: features and applications.

    PubMed

    Gromiha, M Michael; Sarai, Akinori

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a thermodynamic database for proteins and mutants, ProTherm, which is a collection of a large number of thermodynamic data on protein stability along with the sequence and structure information, experimental methods and conditions, and literature information. This is a valuable resource for understanding/predicting the stability of proteins, and it can be accessible at http://www.gibk26.bse.kyutech.ac.jp/jouhou/Protherm/protherm.html . ProTherm has several features including various search, display, and sorting options and visualization tools. We have analyzed the data in ProTherm to examine the relationship among thermodynamics, structure, and function of proteins. We describe the progress on the development of methods for understanding/predicting protein stability, such as (i) relationship between the stability of protein mutants and amino acid properties, (ii) average assignment method, (iii) empirical energy functions, (iv) torsion, distance, and contact potentials, and (v) machine learning techniques. The list of online resources for predicting protein stability has also been provided. PMID:20221915

  12. A thermodynamic database for geophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    Several thermodynamic databases are available for calculation of equilibrium reference state of the model earth. Prominent among these are the data bases of (a) SLB (1), (b) HP (2) and (c) FSPW (3). The two major problems, as discussed in a meeting of the database scientists (4), lie in the formulation of solid solutions and equations of state. The models adopted in databases (1) and (2) do not account for multi-components in natural solids and the sub-lattice or compound-energy models used in (3) require lot of fictive compound and mixing energy data for which there is no present ongoing attempt. The EOS formulation in (1) is based on Mie-Gruneisen equation of state and in (2) on modification of Tait EOS with limited parameters. The database (3) adopted the Birch-Murnaghan EOS and used it for high temperature by making compressibility a function of temperature. The (2) and (3) models lead to physically unacceptable values of entropy and heat capacity at extreme conditions. The problem is as much associated with the EOS formulation as with the adoption of a heat capacity change with temperature at 1 bar as discussed by Brosh (5). None of the databases (1), (2) or (3) include the database on multicomponent fluid at extreme conditions. These problems have been addressed in the new database modified after (3). It retains the solution models for solids as in (3) and adds the Brosh Model (5) for solid solutions and the Belonoshko et al (6) model for 13-component C-H-O-S fluid. The Superfluid model builds on the combination of experimental data on pure and mixed fluids at temperatures lower than 1000 K over several kilobars and molecular dynamics generated data at extreme conditions and has been found to be consistent with all the recent experimental data. New high pressure experiments on dissociation of volatile containing solids using laser- and externally-heated DAC are being conducted to obtain new pressure-volume-temperature data on fluids to extend the current kb

  13. Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (REFPROP)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 23 NIST Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (REFPROP) (PC database for purchase)   NIST 23 contains revised data in a Windows version of the database, including 105 pure fluids and allowing mixtures of up to 20 components. The fluids include the environmentally acceptable HFCs, traditional HFCs and CFCs and 'natural' refrigerants like ammonia

  14. SOLGAS refined: A computerized thermodynamic equilibrium calculation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, L.D.; Leitnaker, J.M.

    1993-11-01

    SOLGAS, an early computer program for calculating equilibrium in a chemical system, has been made more user-friendly, and several{open_quote} bells and whistles{close_quotes} have been added. The necessity to include elemental species has been eliminated. The input of large numbers of starting conditions has been automated. A revised format for entering data simplifies and reduces chances for error. Calculated errors by SOLGAS are flagged, and several programming errors are corrected. Auxiliary programs are available to assemble and partially automate plotting of large amounts of data. Thermodynamic input data can be changed {open_quotes}on line.{close_quote} The program can be operated with or without a co-processor. Copies of the program, suitable for the IBM-PC or compatible with at least 384 bytes of low RAM, are available from the authors.

  15. Statistical Approach to Quality Control of Large Thermodynamic Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, Henrik; Talonen, Tarja; Roine, Antti; Hupa, Mikko; Corander, Jukka

    2012-10-01

    In chemistry and engineering, thermodynamic databases are widely used to obtain the basic properties of pure substances or mixtures. Large and reliable databases are the basis of all thermodynamic modeling of complex chemical processes or systems. However, the effort needed in the establishment, maintenance, and management of a database increases exponentially along with the size and scope of the database. Therefore, we developed a statistical modeling approach to assist an expert in the evaluation and management process, which can pinpoint various types of erroneous records in a database. We have applied this method to investigate the enthalpy, entropy, and heat capacity characteristics in a large commercial database for approximately 25,000 chemical species. Our highly successful results show that a statistical approach is a valuable tool (1) for the management of such databases and (2) to create enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity estimates for such species in which thermochemical data are not available.

  16. Toward a National Computerized Database for Moving Image Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartenberg, Jon

    This report summarizes a project conducted by a group of catalogers from film archives devoted to nitrate preservation, which explored ways of developing a database to provide a complete film and television information service that would be available nationwide and could contain filmographic data, information on holdings in archives and…

  17. Military Services Fitness Database: Development of a Computerized Physical Fitness and Weight Management Database for the U.S. Army

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Donald A.; Bathalon, Gaston P.; Sigrist, Lori D.; Allen, H. Raymond; Friedl, Karl E.; Young, Andrew J.; Martin, Corby K.; Stewart, Tiffany M.; Burrell, Lolita; Han, Hongmei; Hubbard, Van S.; Ryan, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has mandated development of a system to collect and manage data on the weight, percent body fat (%BF), and fitness of all military personnel. This project aimed to (1) develop a computerized weight and fitness database to track individuals and Army units over time allowing cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluations and (2) test the computerized system for feasibility and integrity of data collection over several years of usage. The computer application, the Military Services Fitness Database (MSFD), was designed for (1) storage and tracking of data related to height, weight, %BF for the Army Weight Control Program (AWCP) and Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores and (2) generation of reports using these data. A 2.5-year pilot test of the MSFD indicated that it monitors population and individual trends of changing body weight, %BF, and fitness in a military population. PMID:19216292

  18. [Implementation of a computerized pharmacological database for pediatric use].

    PubMed

    Currò, V; Grimaldi, V; Polidori, G; Cascioli, E; Lanni, R; De Luca, F; D'Atri, A; Bernabei, A

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a pharmacological database to support teaching and care activity carried out in the Divisional Paediatric Ambulatory of the Catholic University of Rome. This database is included in a integrated system, ARPIA (Ambulatory and Research in Pediatric by Information Assistance), devoted to manage ambulatory paediatric data. ARPIA has been implemented by using a relational DBMS, very cheap and highly diffused on personal computers. The database specifies: active ingredient and code number related to it, clinical uses, doses, contra-indications and precautions, adverse effects, besides the possible wrapping available on the market. All this is showed on a single for that appears on the screen and allows a fast reading of the most important elements characterizing every drug. The search of the included drugs can be made on the basis of three different detailed lists: active ingredient, proprietary preparation and clinical use. It is, besides, possible to have a complete report about the drugs requested by the user. This system allows the user, without modifying the program, to interact with the included data modifying each element of the form. In the system there is also a fast consultation handbook containing for every active ingredient, the complete list of italian proprietary medicines. This system aims to give a better knowledge of the most commonly used drugs, not only limited to the paediatrician but also to the ambulatory health staff; an improvement of the therapy furthering, a more effective use of several pharmacological agents and first of all a training device not only to specialists but also to students. PMID:2093888

  19. Computerized Design Synthesis (CDS), A database-driven multidisciplinary design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M.; Bolukbasi, A. O.

    1989-01-01

    The Computerized Design Synthesis (CDS) system under development at McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company (MDHC) is targeted to make revolutionary improvements in both response time and resource efficiency in the conceptual and preliminary design of rotorcraft systems. It makes the accumulated design database and supporting technology analysis results readily available to designers and analysts of technology, systems, and production, and makes powerful design synthesis software available in a user friendly format.

  20. ProTherm: Thermodynamic Database for Proteins and Mutants.

    PubMed

    Gromiha, M M; An, J; Kono, H; Oobatake, M; Uedaira, H; Sarai, A

    1999-01-01

    The first release of the Thermodynamic Database for Proteins and Mutants (ProTherm) contains more than 3300 data of several thermodynamic parameters for wild type and mutant proteins. Each entry includes numerical data for unfolding Gibbs free energy change, enthalpy change, heat capacity change, transition temperature, activity etc., which are important for understanding the mechanism of protein stability. ProTherm also includes structural information such as secondary structure and solvent accessibility of wild type residues, and experimental methods and other conditions. A WWW interface enables users to search data based on various conditions with different sorting options for outputs. Further, ProTherm is cross-linked with NCBI PUBMED literature database, Protein Mutant Database, Enzyme Code and Protein Data Bank structural database. Moreover, all the mutation sites associated with each PDB structure are automatically mapped and can be directly viewed through 3DinSight developed in our laboratory. The database is available at the URL, http://www.rtc.riken.go.jp/protherm.htm l PMID:9847203

  1. Thermodynamic database for the Co-Pr system

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, S.H.; Kramer, M.J.; Meng, F.Q.; McCallum, R.W.; Ott, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe data on (1) compositions for both as-cast and heat treated specimens were summarized in Table 1; (2) the determined enthalpy of mixing of liquid phase is listed in Table 2; (3) thermodynamic database of the Co-Pr system in TDB format for the research articled entitle Chemical partitioning for the Co-Pr system: First-principles, experiments and energetic calculations to investigate the hard magnetic phase W. PMID:26900594

  2. Thermodynamic database for the Co-Pr system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, S. H.; Kramer, M. J.; Meng, F. Q.; McCallum, R. W.; Ott, R. T.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we describe data on (1) compositions for both as-cast and heat treated specimens were summarized in Table 1; (2) the determined enthalpy of mixing of liquid phase is listed in Table 2; (3) thermodynamic database of the Co-Pr system in TDB format for the research articled entitled ''Chemical partitioning for the Co-Pr system: First-principles, experiments and energetic calculations to investigate the hard magnetic phase W.''

  3. Americium thermodynamic data for the EQ3/6 database

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-07-01

    Existing thermodynamic data for aqueous and solid species of americium have been reviewed and collected in a form that can be used with the EQ3/6 database. Data that are important in solubility calculations for americium at a proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository were emphasized. Conflicting data exist for americium complexes with carbonates. Essentially no data are available for americium solids or complexes at temperatures greater than 25{sup 0}C. 17 references, 4 figures.

  4. Thermodynamic database for the Co-Pr system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, S H; Kramer, M J; Meng, F Q; McCallum, R W; Ott, R T

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we describe data on (1) compositions for both as-cast and heat treated specimens were summarized in Table 1; (2) the determined enthalpy of mixing of liquid phase is listed in Table 2; (3) thermodynamic database of the Co-Pr system in TDB format for the research articled entitle Chemical partitioning for the Co-Pr system: First-principles, experiments and energetic calculations to investigate the hard magnetic phase W. PMID:26900594

  5. Using Spreadsheets and Internally Consistent Databases to Explore Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, S.; Chakraborty, S.

    2003-12-01

    Much common wisdom has been handed down to generations of petrology students in words - a non-exhaustive list may include (a) do not mix data from two different thermodynamic databases, (b) use of different heat capacity functions or extrapolation beyond the P-T range of fit can have disastrous results, (c) consideration of errors in thermodynamic calculations is crucial, (d) consideration of non-ideality, interaction parameters etc. are important in some cases, but not in others. Actual calculations to demonstrate these effects were either too laborious, tedious, time consuming or involved elaborate computer programming beyond the reaches of the average undergraduate. We have produced "Live" thermodynamic tables in the form of ExcelTM spreadsheets based on standard internally consistent thermodynamic databases (e.g. Berman, Holland and Powell) that allow quick, easy and most importantly, transparent manipulation of thermodynamic data to calculate mineral stabilities and to explore the role of different parameters. We have intentionally avoided the use of advanced tools such as macros, and have set up columns of data that are easy to relate to thermodynamic relationships to enhance transparency. The approach consists of the following basic steps: (i) use a simple supporting spreadsheet to enter mineral compositions (in formula units) to obtain a balanced reaction by matrix inversion. (ii) enter the stoichiometry of this reaction in a designated space and a P and T to get the delta G of the reaction (iii) vary P and or T to locate equilibrium through a change of sign of delta G. These results can be collected to explore practically any problem of chemical equilibrium and mineral stability. Some of our favorites include (a) hierarchical addition of complexity to equilibrium calculations - start with a simple end member reaction ignoring heat capacity and volume derivatives, add the effects of these, followed by addition of compositional effects in the form of ideal

  6. Technical Work Plan for: Thermodynamic Database for Chemical Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    C.F. Jovecolon

    2006-09-07

    The objective of the work scope covered by this Technical Work Plan (TWP) is to correct and improve the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) thermodynamic databases, to update their documentation, and to ensure reasonable consistency among them. In addition, the work scope will continue to generate database revisions, which are organized and named so as to be transparent to internal and external users and reviewers. Regarding consistency among databases, it is noted that aqueous speciation and mineral solubility data for a given system may differ according to how solubility was determined, and the method used for subsequent retrieval of thermodynamic parameter values from measured data. Of particular concern are the details of the determination of ''infinite dilution'' constants, which involve the use of specific methods for activity coefficient corrections. That is, equilibrium constants developed for a given system for one set of conditions may not be consistent with constants developed for other conditions, depending on the species considered in the chemical reactions and the methods used in the reported studies. Hence, there will be some differences (for example in log K values) between the Pitzer and ''B-dot'' database parameters for the same reactions or species.

  7. Generic Natural Systems Evaluation - Thermodynamic Database Development and Data Management

    SciTech Connect

    Wolery, T W; Sutton, M

    2011-09-19

    they use a large body of thermodynamic data, generally from a supporting database file, to sort out the various important reactions from a wide spectrum of possibilities, given specified inputs. Usually codes of this kind are used to construct models of initial aqueous solutions that represent initial conditions for some process, although sometimes these calculations also represent a desired end point. Such a calculation might be used to determine the major chemical species of a dissolved component, the solubility of a mineral or mineral-like solid, or to quantify deviation from equilibrium in the form of saturation indices. Reactive transport codes such as TOUGHREACT and NUFT generally require the user to determine which chemical species and reactions are important, and to provide the requisite set of information including thermodynamic data in an input file. Usually this information is abstracted from the output of a geochemical modeling code and its supporting thermodynamic data file. The Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) developed two qualified thermodynamic databases to model geochemical processes, including ones involving repository components such as spent fuel. The first of the two (BSC, 2007a) was for systems containing dilute aqueous solutions only, the other (BSC, 2007b) for systems involving concentrated aqueous solutions and incorporating a model for such based on Pitzer's (1991) equations. A 25 C-only database with similarities to the latter was also developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP, cf. Xiong, 2005). The NAGRA/PSI database (Hummel et al., 2002) was developed to support repository studies in Europe. The YMP databases are often used in non-repository studies, including studies of geothermal systems (e.g., Wolery and Carroll, 2010) and CO2 sequestration (e.g., Aines et al., 2011).

  8. Detecting errors and anomalies in computerized materials control and accountability databases

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteson, R.; Hench, K.; Yarbro, T.; Baumgart, C.

    1998-12-31

    The Automated MC and A Database Assessment project is aimed at improving anomaly and error detection in materials control and accountability (MC and A) databases and increasing confidence in the data that they contain. Anomalous data resulting in poor categorization of nuclear material inventories greatly reduces the value of the database information to users. Therefore it is essential that MC and A data be assessed periodically for anomalies or errors. Anomaly detection can identify errors in databases and thus provide assurance of the integrity of data. An expert system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory that examines these large databases for anomalous or erroneous data. For several years, MC and A subject matter experts at Los Alamos have been using this automated system to examine the large amounts of accountability data that the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility generates. These data are collected and managed by the Material Accountability and Safeguards System, a near-real-time computerized nuclear material accountability and safeguards system. This year they have expanded the user base, customizing the anomaly detector for the varying requirements of different groups of users. This paper describes the progress in customizing the expert systems to the needs of the users of the data and reports on their results.

  9. The Moli-sani project: computerized ECG database in a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Iacoviello, Licia; Rago, Livia; Costanzo, Simona; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Zito, Francesco; Assanelli, Deodato; Badilini, Fabio; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Computerized electrocardiogram (ECG) acquisition and interpretation may be extremely useful in handling analysis of data from large cohort studies and exploit research on the use of ECG data as prognostic markers for cardiovascular disease. The Moli-sani project (http://www.moli-sani.org) is a population-based cohort study aiming at evaluating the risk factors linked to chronic-degenerative disease with particular regard to cardiovascular disease and cancer and intermediate metabolic phenotypes such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Between March 2005 and April 2010, 24 325 people aged 35 years or older, living in the Molise region (Italy), were randomly recruited. A follow-up based on linkage with hospital discharge records and mortality regional registry and reexamination of the cohort is ongoing and will be repeated at prefixed times. Each subject was administered questionnaires on personal and medical history, food consumption, quality of life (FS36), and psychometry. Plasma serum, cellular pellet, and urinary spots were stored in liquid nitrogen. Subjects were measured blood pressure, weight, height, and waist and hip circumferences, and underwent spirometry to evaluate pulmonary diffusion capacity, gas diffusion, and pulmonary volumes. Standard 12-lead resting ECG was performed by a Cardiette ar2100-view electrocardiograph and tracings stored in digital standard communication protocol format for subsequent analysis. The digital ECG database of the Moli-sani project is currently being used to assess the association between physiologic variables and pathophyiosiologic conditions and parameters derived from the ECG signal. This computerized ECG database represents a unique opportunity to identify and assess prognostic factors associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. PMID:23021814

  10. The Bayesian approach to an internally consistent thermodynamic database: theory, database, and generation of phase diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Niranjan D.; Krüger, Ralf; Haller, Gerd; Olbricht, Walter

    An internally consistent thermodynamic dataset has been derived for 148 endmember phases (145 solids and 3 fluids) comprising the elements Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Al, Si, C, H, and O. This has been achieved by simultaneous treatment of phase property (like standard enthalpy of formation, standard entropy, molar heat capacity, molar volume, thermal expansivity, bulk modulus etc.) and reaction reversal data by the Bayesian method. The theory underlying the approach, and the computational methods involved, are briefly outlined. (For the benefit of readers unfamiliar with inference statistics, the basic concepts of the Bayes method are also presented in such a way that they can be grasped intuitively.) Although not yet addressed, this method can be extended to refine the thermodynamic mixing properties of crystalline solutions. The sources of the input data, culled from the literature, are summarized in the Appendix. The resulting database is succinctly documented in this paper. It includes the enthalpies of formation and entropies, their uncertainties, and the correlation among them. The database allows calculation of P-T, T-XCO2, P-XCO2, and T-fO2 sections, with error propagation into the computed phase diagrams on a routine basis. A user-friendly computer program has been written to generate such phase diagrams. It is public domain software. The software and the thermodynamic database (which includes a complete documentation of the thermodynamic data above and beyond those listed (Table 2, here) may be downloaded from the web site http://homepage.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/niranjan.chatterjee/Index.htm. Examples of computed phase diagrams are given to illustrate the quality of the data and the capabilities of the software.

  11. Procedures for Writers in the Field of Adult Education: How To Make Your Writings More Consistently Accessible within Computerized Information Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, Judith Gwinn

    Educators who write documents or journal articles want to have their writing read and cited. To achieve this today, educators need to produce writings that are easily accessible through computerized searching (online and on compact disk) in databases. The trend toward end-users doing their own computerized information retrieval has caused database…

  12. Historical Policy Capturing Through Use of Computerized Databases and Trend Analysis Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobner, Ronald F.; And Others

    This paper suggests one way that trends in the literature might be captured by historians through the use of computerized information retrieval services and particular statistical techniques for analyzing trends. For illustrative purposes, the topic "desegregation" was investigated in Lockheed's DIALOG (1982) information retrieval system utilizing…

  13. A spreadsheet-coupled SOLGAS: A computerized thermodynamic equilibrium calculation tool. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, L.D.; Leitnaker, J.M.

    1995-07-01

    SOLGAS, an early computer program for calculating equilibrium in a chemical system, has been made more user-friendly, and several ``bells and whistles`` have been added. The necessity to include elemental species has been eliminated. The input of large numbers of starting conditions has been automated. A revised spreadsheet-based format for entering data, including non-ideal binary and ternary mixtures, simplifies and reduces chances for error. Calculational errors by SOLGAS are flagged, and several programming errors are corrected. Auxiliary programs are available to assemble and partially automate plotting of large amounts of data. Thermodynamic input data can be changed on line. The program can be operated with or without a co-processor. Copies of the program, suitable for the IBM-PC or compatibles with at least 384 bytes of low RAM, are available from the authors. This user manual contains appendices with examples of the use of SOLGAS. These range from elementary examples, such as, the relationships among water, ice, and water vapor, to more complex systems: phase diagram calculation of UF{sub 4} and UF{sub 6} system; burning UF{sub 4} in fluorine; thermodynamic calculation of the Cl-F-O-H system; equilibria calculations in the CCl{sub 4}--CH{sub 3}OH system; and limitations applicable to aqueous solutions. An appendix also contains the source code.

  14. Comparison of thermodynamic databases for 3xx and 6xxx aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, C.; Wolverton, C.

    2005-08-01

    Computational thermodynamics, or Calculation of Phase Diagram (CALPHAD) methods have proven useful in applications to modeling a variety of alloy properties. However, the methods are only as accurate as the thermodynamic databases they use, and two commercial thermodynamic databases exist for aluminum alloys: Thermotech and Computherm. In order to provide a critical comparison of these databases, we used both the databases to calculate equilibrium solid-state phase fractions and phase diagram isothermal sections of several industrial aluminum alloys: a 319-type and 356 cast alloys, as well as the wrought alloys 6022 and 6111. All of these alloys may be generically described as being based on the Al-Mg-Si-Cu quaternary with other additions such as Fe, Mn, and Zn. Although many of the results are consistent between the two databases, several qualitative and quantitative differences were observed. Many of these differences are found to be due to the intermetallic compounds involving Fe, Mn, Cr, and Zn. On the other hand, thermodynamics involving only phases from the Al-Mg-Si-Cu quaternary show good agreement between the databases, although some small differences still exist, particularly involving the quaternary Q phase. To understand and assess these differences, formation enthalpies and reaction energies from the databases were compared against density functional first-principles energetics. These comparisons indicate possible avenues for future improvements of Al-alloy thermodynamic databases. Finally, we demonstrate an interesting correlation between the calculated phase fractions and the measured yield strengths across this wide family of 3xx cast and 6xxx wrought alloys.

  15. THERMODYNAMIC TABLES FOR NUCLEAR WASTE ISOLATION, V.1: AQUEOUSSOLUTIONS DATABASE

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.L.; Hale, F.V.; Silvester, L.F.

    1988-05-01

    Tables of consistent thermodynamic property values for nuclear waste isolation are given. The tables include critically assessed values for Gibbs energy of formation. enthalpy of formation, entropy and heat capacity for minerals; solids; aqueous ions; ion pairs and complex ions of selected actinide and fission decay products at 25{sup o}C and zero ionic strength. These intrinsic data are used to calculate equilibrium constants and standard potentials which are compared with typical experimental measurements and other work. Recommendations for additional research are given.

  16. Objectifying the Subjective: toward the Development of a Computerized Database of the Treatment of Ethnicity and Foreignness in American Motion Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Thomas C.; Cortes, Carlos E.

    This paper reports on a project to construct a computerized database of the treatment of ethnic groups and foreign nations in American motion pictures. The project is being conducted in response to a need for a scholarly examination of how film depicts these groups and nations. Since these media presentations are important influences on public…

  17. Development of a critically evaluated thermodynamic database for the systems containing alkaline-earth oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Adarsh

    In a thermodynamic system which contains several elements, the phase relationships among the components are usually very complex. Especially, systems containing oxides are generally very difficult to investigate owing to the very high experimental temperatures and corrosive action of slags. Due to such difficulties, large inconsistencies are often observed among the available experimental data. In order to investigate and understand the complex phase relationships effectively, it is very useful to develop thermodynamic databases containing optimized model parameters giving the thermodynamic properties of all phases as functions of temperature and composition. In a thermodynamic optimization, adjustable model parameters are calculated using, simultaneously, all available thermodynamic and phase-equilibrium data in order to obtain one set of model equations as functions of temperature and composition. Thermodynamic data, such as activities, can aid in the evaluation of the phase diagrams, and information on phase equilibria can be used to deduce thermodynamic properties. Thus, it is frequently possible to resolve discrepancies in the available data. From the model equations, all the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams can be back-calculated, and interpolations and extrapolations can be made in a thermodynamically correct manner. The data are thereby rendered self-consistent and consistent with thermodynamic principles, and the available data are distilled into a small set of model parameters, ideal for computer storage. As part of a broader research project at the Centre de Recherche en Calcul Thermochimique (CRCT), Ecole Polytechnique to develop a thermodynamic database for multicomponent oxide systems, this thesis deals with the addition of components SrO and BaO to the existing multicomponent database of the SiO2-B2O3-Al2O 3-CaO-MgO system. Over the years, in collaboration with many industrial companies, a thermodynamic database for the SiO2-B2O 3-Al2O3-Ca

  18. The use of a computerized database to monitor vaccine safety in Viet Nam.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad; Canh, Gia Do; Clemens, John D.; Park, Jin-Kyung; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Minh, Tan Truong; Thiem, Dinh Vu; Tho, Huu Le; Trach, Duc Dang

    2005-01-01

    Health information systems to monitor vaccine safety are used in industrialized countries to detect adverse medical events related to vaccinations or to prove the safety of vaccines. There are no such information systems in the developing world, but they are urgently needed. A large linked database for the monitoring of vaccine-related adverse events has been established in Khanh Hoa province, Viet Nam. Data collected during the first 2 years of surveillance, a period which included a mass measles vaccination campaign, were used to evaluate the system. For this purpose the discharge diagnoses of individuals admitted to polyclinics and hospitals were coded according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 guidelines and linked in a dynamic population database with vaccination histories. A case-series analysis was applied to the cohort of children vaccinated during the mass measles vaccination campaign. The study recorded 107,022 immunizations in a catchment area with a population of 357,458 and confirmed vaccine coverage of 87% or higher for completed routine childhood vaccinations. The measles vaccination campaign immunized at least 86% of the targeted children aged 9 months to 10 years. No medical event was detected significantly more frequently during the 14 days after measles vaccination than before it. The experience in Viet Nam confirmed the safety of a measles vaccination campaign and shows that it is feasible to establish health information systems such as a large linked database which can provide reliable data in a developing country for a modest increase in use of resources. PMID:16193545

  19. A lattice vibrational model using vibrational density of states for constructing thermodynamic databases (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, M. H.; Van Den Berg, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    Thermodynamic databases are indispensable tools in materials science and mineral physics to derive thermodynamic properties in regions of pressure-temperature-composition space for which experimental data are not available or scant. Because the amount of phases and substances in a database is arbitrarily large, thermodynamic formalisms coupled to these databases are often kept as simple as possible to sustain computational efficiency. Although formalisms based on parameterizations of 1 bar thermodynamic data, commonly used in Calphad methodology, meet this requirement, physically unrealistic behavior in properties hamper the application in the pressure regime prevailing in the Earth's lower mantle. The application becomes especially cumbersome when they are applied to planetary mantles of massive super earth exoplanets or in the development of pressure scales, where Hugoniot data at extreme conditions are involved. Methods based on the Mie-Grüneisen-Debye formalism have the advantage that physically unrealistic behavior in thermodynamic properties is absent, but due to the simple construction of the vibrational density of states (VDoS), they lack engineering precision in the low-pressure regime, especially at 1 bar pressure, hampering application of databases incorporating such formalism to industrial processes. To obtain a method that is generally applicable in the complete stability range of a material, we developed a method based on an alternative use of Kieffer's lattice vibrational formalism. The method requires experimental data to constrain the model parameters and is therefore semi-empirical. It has the advantage that microscopic properties for substances, such as the VDoS, Grüneisen parameters and electronic and static lattice properties resulting from present-day ab-initio methods can be incorporated to constrain a thermodynamic analysis of experimental data. It produces results free from physically unrealistic behavior at high pressure and temperature

  20. Critically Evaluated Database of Environmental Properties: The Importance of Thermodynamic Relationships, Chemical Family Trends, and Prediction Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockbank, Sarah A.; Russon, Jenna L.; Giles, Neil F.; Rowley, Richard L.; Wilding, W. Vincent

    2013-11-01

    A database containing Henry's law constants, infinite dilution activity coefficients, and solubility data of industrially important chemicals has been compiled for aqueous systems. These properties are important in predicting the fate and transport of chemicals in the environment. The structure of this database is compatible with the existing 801 database and DIADEM interface, and data are included for a subset of compounds found in the 801 database. Thermodynamic relationships, chemical family trends, and predicted values were carefully considered when designating recommended values.

  1. The development and application of a thermodynamic database for magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Shunli; Zhang, Hui; Ganeshan, Swetha; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2008-12-01

    The available thermodynamic databases for magnesium alloys are discussed in this paper. Of particular interest are the features of a magnesium database developed by the authors with 19 elements: Mg-Al-Ca-Ce-Cu-Fe-KLa-Li-Mn-Na-Nd-Pr-Si-Sn-Sr-Y-Zn-Zr. Using this database, two applications are presented. One is the phase evolution in AZ61 magnesium alloy including the variations of phase fractions, alloying compositions, and partition coefficients of alloying elements as a function of temperature (or solid fraction). The other is to understand sodium-induced high-temperature embrittlement in the Al-Mg alloy, which is ascribed to the formation of a liquid phase due to the presence of sodium traces.

  2. AntiJen: a quantitative immunology database integrating functional, thermodynamic, kinetic, biophysical, and cellular data.

    PubMed

    Toseland, Christopher P; Clayton, Debra J; McSparron, Helen; Hemsley, Shelley L; Blythe, Martin J; Paine, Kelly; Doytchinova, Irini A; Guan, Pingping; Hattotuwagama, Channa K; Flower, Darren R

    2005-10-01

    AntiJen is a database system focused on the integration of kinetic, thermodynamic, functional, and cellular data within the context of immunology and vaccinology. Compared to its progenitor JenPep, the interface has been completely rewritten and redesigned and now offers a wider variety of search methods, including a nucleotide and a peptide BLAST search. In terms of data archived, AntiJen has a richer and more complete breadth, depth, and scope, and this has seen the database increase to over 31,000 entries. AntiJen provides the most complete and up-to-date dataset of its kind. While AntiJen v2.0 retains a focus on both T cell and B cell epitopes, its greatest novelty is the archiving of continuous quantitative data on a variety of immunological molecular interactions. This includes thermodynamic and kinetic measures of peptide binding to TAP and the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), peptide-MHC complexes binding to T cell receptors, antibodies binding to protein antigens and general immunological protein-protein interactions. The database also contains quantitative specificity data from position-specific peptide libraries and biophysical data, in the form of diffusion co-efficients and cell surface copy numbers, on MHCs and other immunological molecules. The uses of AntiJen include the design of vaccines and diagnostics, such as tetramers, and other laboratory reagents, as well as helping parameterize the bioinformatic or mathematical in silico modeling of the immune system. The database is accessible from the URL: http://www.jenner.ac.uk/antijen. PMID:16305757

  3. Thermodynamic optimization of individual steel database by means of systematic DSC measurements according the CALPHAD approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presoly, P.; Six, J.; Bernhard, C.

    2016-03-01

    Reliable thermodynamic data are essential information required for the design of new steel types and are a prerequisite to effective process optimization and simulation. Moreover, it is important to know the exact temperatures at which the high-temperature phase transformations (TLiquid, TSolid, TPerit, Tγ→δ) occur in order to describe the solidification sequence and to describe further processing parameters. By utilizing DTA/DSC measurements, our earlier experimental studies of selected commercial DP, TRIP and high-Mn TWIP steels, have indicated that currently commercially available databases can often not be utilised to reliably describe the behaviour and microstructural development in such complex alloy systems. Because of these ostensible deficiencies, an experimental study was undertaken in an attempt to determine the pertaining thermodynamic data to analyse the behaviour of the important five- component Fe-C-Si-Mn-Al alloy system. High purity model alloys with systematic alloy variations were prepared and utilized in order to determine the influence of individual alloying elements in this complex, but industrially important alloy system. The present study provides new validated experimental thermodynamic data and analysis of the five-component Fe-C-Si- Mn-Al system, which will allow the construction of new phase diagrams, prediction of solidification sequences and the assessment of micro-segregation.

  4. An Assessment of Thermodynamic Database Effects on Reactive Transport Models' Predictions of Permeability Fields: Insights from CO2/Brine Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutolo, B. M.; Seyfried, W. E.; Saar, M. O.

    2011-12-01

    Numerical modeling software such as TOUGHREACT, ECLIPSE, and Geochemist's Workbench provide modules that couple mineral reactive chemistry with porosity and permeability modifications to predict the behavior of energy byproducts, such as carbon dioxide, in the subsurface. Modern coders have already included increasingly complex equations that describe natural systems (i.e. mineral dissolution/precipitation kinetic parameters and porosity/permeability functions) into these and other software applications. Generally, these computer models use the bulk volumetric changes predicted by geochemical calculations to infer porosity changes, and subsequently use highly simplified porosity/permeability correlation functions, such as the Carman-Kozeny equation, to modify permeability fields. In spite of the computational complexity provided in these models, they require, as a foundation, fundamental information on the thermodynamic stability of minerals and aqueous species at a wide range of temperatures and pressures to produce accurate predictions of the geochemistry of long-term energy byproduct storage in the subsurface, even in the simplest cases. With improvements in geochemical thermodynamic databases, researchers may begin to produce more realistic simulations of the complex interactions between fluid and heat flow and geological systems. Unfortunately, the requisite thermodynamic data is often lacking, or inaccurate. In this study, therefore, we provide a discussion of geochemical thermodynamic databases, discuss the synthesis and reconciliation of the databases used in this study, and compare predictions from reactive transport software with single phase CO2/brine experiments performed at temperatures and pressures applicable to geologic storage conditions.

  5. A computerized representation of a medical school curriculum: integration of relational and text management software in database design.

    PubMed Central

    Mattern, W. D.; Wagner, J. A.; Brown, J. S.; Fisher-Neenan, L.

    1991-01-01

    We describe the development of a computer-based representation of the medical school curriculum at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH). Over the past seven years the Medical School's Office of Academic Affairs has employed both relational database and text management software to design an integrated curriculum database system. Depending on the function selected--exploring the curriculum, searching through course outlines, retrieving elective descriptions, identifying teaching faculty, or searching for specific topics--either text management or relational database management routines are activated in a manner transparent to the user. Initial evaluation of the system has been positive but highlights the need for a more robust biomedical language for use as a controlled vocabulary to index content. Efforts are now underway, with support from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), to engage other interested schools in the U.S. and Canada in collaborating on further development of a system. PMID:1807615

  6. The History Computerization Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Description of the History Computerization Project, which is being developed for the exchange of information between researchers, librarians, archivists, museum curators, preservation groups, and historical societies, focuses on workshops that teach the use of computer database management for historical cataloging and research. (LRW)

  7. Recent initiatives in experimental thermodynamic studies on ionic liquids [IL]--the emergence of a standard thermochemical database for ILs.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Harry Donald Brooke

    2011-01-01

    One of the ultimate goals in the exciting on-going development and study of ionic liquids (ILs) must be the quest to establish "before synthesis" tools that could be used to predict and guide synthetic chemists towards ILs having "tuned" target properties. The tools needed in this exercise will come from many sources, not least from the acquisition of standard experimental thermodynamic data. The routine measurement of such data for new compounds had become very much a thing of the past in traditional chemistry. However with the surge of interest across the globe seen in these relatively new IL materials has come a recognition of the need to acquire experimental data and this review article seeks to assemble much of the emerging thermochemical data for ILs in one place. After all, there are very few data in current existing thermochemical databases that could offer much of a clue concerning the specific thermodynamic behaviour of ILs. We are charting new territory here. Development of any new large scale commercial process is preceded these days by a full study of its thermodynamic feasibility, usually at the pilot stage, and thus such data as are reported here are of the utmost value in this respect. It has a secondary role too in enabling predictions of missing data to become feasible and hence in predicting synthetic outcomes ahead of practical experiment. This commentary tracks very recent trends and developments on the more quantitative and thermodynamic aspects of this exciting chemistry. PMID:21805911

  8. Estimation of interaction energies Me-(C, N) in fcc iron-based alloys using Thermo-Calc thermodynamic database

    SciTech Connect

    Sozinov, A.L.; Gavriljuk, V.G.

    1999-08-20

    At present, there is a number of thermodynamic data for Fe base liquid and solid systems containing substitutional and interstitial solute elements. A variety of properties of carbon and nitrogen austenitic steels is essentially determined by the distribution of interstitials in solid solutions, which, in turn, depends on the interaction between solute atoms. The aim of this study is to estimate the values of interaction energy Me-i in f.c.c. Fe-Me-i systems, where Me represents various substitutional alloying elements and i is an interstitial (C or N), using the Fe-base database of the Thermo-Calc program created by the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology.

  9. Advanced Composition and the Computerized Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hult, Christine

    1989-01-01

    Discusses four kinds of computerized access tools: online catalogs; computerized reference; online database searching; and compact disks and read only memory (CD-ROM). Examines how these technologies are changing research. Suggests how research instruction in advanced writing courses can be refocused to include the new technologies. (RS)

  10. Modelling of the reactive transport for rock salt-brine in geological repository systems based on improved thermodynamic database (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, W.; Alkan, H.; Xie, M.; Moog, H.; Sonnenthal, E. L.

    2009-12-01

    The release and migration of toxic contaminants from the disposed wastes is one of the main issues in long-term safety assessment of geological repositories. In the engineered and geological barriers around the nuclear waste emplacements chemical interactions between the components of the system may affect the isolation properties considerably. As the chemical issues change the transport properties in the near and far field of a nuclear repository, modelling of the transport should also take the chemistry into account. The reactive transport modelling consists of two main components: a code that combines the possible chemical reactions with thermo-hydrogeological processes interactively and a thermodynamic databank supporting the required parameters for the calculation of the chemical reactions. In the last decade many thermo-hydrogeological codes were upgraded to include the modelling of the chemical processes. TOUGHREACT is one of these codes. This is an extension of the well known simulator TOUGH2 for modelling geoprocesses. The code is developed by LBNL (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Univ. of California) for the simulation of the multi-phase transport of gas and liquid in porous media including heat transfer. After the release of its first version in 1998, this code has been applied and improved many times in conjunction with considerations for nuclear waste emplacement. A recent version has been extended to calculate ion activities in concentrated salt solutions applying the Pitzer model. In TOUGHREACT, the incorporated equation of state module ECO2N is applied as the EOS module for non-isothermal multiphase flow in a fluid system of H2O-NaCl-CO2. The partitioning of H2O and CO2 between liquid and gas phases is modelled as a function of temperature, pressure, and salinity. This module is applicable for waste repositories being expected to generate or having originally CO2 in the fluid system. The enhanced TOUGHREACT uses an EQ3/6-formatted database

  11. Biofuel Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  12. DBCreate: A SUPCRT92-based program for producing EQ3/6, TOUGHREACT, and GWB thermodynamic databases at user-defined T and P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiang-Zhao; Tutolo, Benjamin M.; Saar, Martin O.

    2013-02-01

    SUPCRT92 is a widely used software package for calculating the standard thermodynamic properties of minerals, gases, aqueous species, and reactions. However, it is labor-intensive and error-prone to use it directly to produce databases for geochemical modeling programs such as EQ3/6, the Geochemist's Workbench, and TOUGHREACT. DBCreate is a SUPCRT92-based software program written in FORTRAN90/95 and was developed in order to produce the required databases for these programs in a rapid and convenient way. This paper describes the overall structure of the program and provides detailed usage instructions.

  13. Bridging the Gap in the Chemical Thermodynamic Database for Nuclear Waste Repository: Studies of the Effect of Temperature on Actinide Complexation

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Xia, Yuanxian; Friese, Judah I.; Zanonato, PierLuigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio

    2009-12-21

    Recent results of thermodynamic studies on the complexation of actinides (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and Pu{sup 4+}) with F{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}/HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} at elevated temperatures are reviewed. The data indicate that, for all systems except the 1:1 complexation of Np(V) with HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, the complexation of actinides is enhanced by the increase in temperature. The enhancement is primarily due to the increase in the entropy term (T{Delta}S) that exceeds the increase in the enthalpy ({Delta}H) as the temperature is increased. These data bridge the gaps in the chemical thermodynamic database for nuclear waste repository where the temperature could remain significantly higher than 25 C for a long time after the closure of the repository.

  14. Computerized training management system

    DOEpatents

    Rice, H.B.; McNair, R.C.; White, K.; Maugeri, T.

    1998-08-04

    A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) is disclosed for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base{trademark}, an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches. 18 figs.

  15. Computerized training management system

    DOEpatents

    Rice, Harold B.; McNair, Robert C.; White, Kenneth; Maugeri, Terry

    1998-08-04

    A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base.RTM., an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches.

  16. Semi-empirical Gibbs free energy formulations for minerals and fluids for use in thermodynamic databases of petrological interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerya, T. V.; Maresch, W. V.; Podlesskii, K. K.; Perchuk, L. L.

    2004-09-01

    The P T partition function in statistical thermodynamics can be used to derive semi-empirical formulations of the Gibbs free energy G for minerals and fluids. Parameterization of these equations includes simultaneous regression of experimental heat capacity and molar volume data, allowing fitting, appraisal and optimization of various data sources, as required in the construction of internally consistent petrological data bases. This approach can also be extended to minerals with λ-transitions and to fluids by considering the Gibbs free energy as a function of pressure P, temperature T and an ordering parameter Xα, so that accurate modelled representation and extrapolation of the thermodynamic properties of large numbers of petrologically significant minerals and coexisting fluids can be attained. The ordering parameter is chosen to denote the equilibrium mole fraction (thermodynamic probability) of ordered clusters (structural units) in a substance when G(T,P, Xα)=min. The procedure is tested on existing experimental data for the system MgO SiO2 H2O. The proposed Gibbs free energy formulation permits thermodynamic properties of minerals, fluids and phase equilibria to be described and extrapolated over a wide range of pressure (0 800 kbar) and temperature (20 3000 K), thus allowing effective use in thermodynamic data bases of petrological interest.

  17. Cyanide and antimony thermodynamic database for the aqueous species and solids for the EPA-MINTEQ geochemical code

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1989-05-01

    Thermodynamic data for aqueous species and solids that contain cyanide and antimony were tabulated from several commonly accepted, published sources of thermodynamic data and recent journal article. The review does not include gases or organic complexes of either antimony or cyanide, nor does the review include the sulfur compounds of cyanide. The basic thermodynamic data, ..delta..G/sub f,298//sup o/, ..delta..H/sub f,298//sup o/, and S/sub f//sup o/ values, were chosen to represent each solid phase and aqueous species for which data were available in the appropriate standard state. From these data the equilibrium constants (log K/sub r,298//sup o/) and enthalpies of reaction (..delta..H/sub r,298//sup o/) at 298 K (25/degree/C) were calculated for reactions involving the formation of these aqueous species and solids from the basic components. 34 refs., 14 tabs.

  18. Establishment of computerized numerical databases on thermophysical and other properties of molten as well as solid materials and data evaluation and validation for generating recommended reliable reference data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Information and Numerical Data Analysis and Synthesis, (CINDAS), measures and maintains databases on thermophysical, thermoradiative, mechanical, optical, electronic, ablation, and physical properties of materials. Emphasis is on aerospace structural materials especially composites and on infrared detector/sensor materials. Within CINDAS, the Department of Defense sponsors at Purdue several centers: the High Temperature Material Information Analysis Center (HTMIAC), the Ceramics Information Analysis Center (CIAC) and the Metals Information Analysis Center (MIAC). The responsibilities of CINDAS are extremely broad encompassing basic and applied research, measurement of the properties of thin wires and thin foils as well as bulk materials, acquisition and search of world-wide literature, critical evaluation of data, generation of estimated values to fill data voids, investigation of constitutive, structural, processing, environmental, and rapid heating and loading effects, and dissemination of data. Liquids, gases, molten materials and solids are all considered. The responsibility of maintaining widely used databases includes data evaluation, analysis, correlation, and synthesis. Material property data recorded on the literature are often conflicting, diverging, and subject to large uncertainties. It is admittedly difficult to accurately measure materials properties. Systematic and random errors both enter. Some errors result from lack of characterization of the material itself (impurity effects). In some cases assumed boundary conditions corresponding to a theoretical model are not obtained in the experiments. Stray heat flows and losses must be accounted for. Some experimental methods are inappropriate and in other cases appropriate methods are carried out with poor technique. Conflicts in data may be resolved by curve fitting of the data to theoretical or empirical models or correlation in terms of various affecting parameters. Reasons (e.g. phase

  19. Implementation of a Computerized Maintenance Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Yong-Hong; Askari, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A primer Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) has been established for NASA Ames pressure component certification program. The CMMS takes full advantage of the latest computer technology and SQL relational database to perform periodic services for vital pressure components. The Ames certification program is briefly described and the aspects of the CMMS implementation are discussed as they are related to the certification objectives.

  20. Computerizing Maintenance Management Improves School Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Pat

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS), a centralized maintenance operations database that facilitates work order procedures and staff directives, can help individual school campuses and school districts to manage maintenance. Presents the benefits of CMMS and things to consider in CMMS selection. (EV)

  1. Innovations in Computerized Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drasgow, Fritz, Ed.; Olson-Buchanan, Julie B., Ed.

    Chapters in this book present the challenges and dilemmas faced by researchers as they created new computerized assessments, focusing on issues addressed in developing, scoring, and administering the assessments. Chapters are: (1) "Beyond Bells and Whistles; An Introduction to Computerized Assessment" (Julie B. Olson-Buchanan and Fritz Drasgow);…

  2. Computerized Data Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywinski, Carol M.

    1983-01-01

    Argues that a computerized data management system can help the developmental educator maintain professional accountability. Reports on a project conducted at the State University of New York Agricultural and Technical College at Canton during which paperwork was reduced and report writing expedited through a computerized management information…

  3. On the Future of Thermochemical Databases, the Development of Solution Models and the Practical Use of Computational Thermodynamics in Volcanology, Geochemistry and Petrology: Can Innovations of Modern Data Science Democratize an Oligarchy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiorso, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Computational thermodynamics (CT) has now become an essential tool of petrologic and geochemical research. CT is the basis for the construction of phase diagrams, the application of geothermometers and geobarometers, the equilibrium speciation of solutions, the construction of pseudosections, calculations of mass transfer between minerals, melts and fluids, and, it provides a means of estimating materials properties for the evaluation of constitutive relations in fluid dynamical simulations. The practical application of CT to Earth science problems requires data. Data on the thermochemical properties and the equation of state of relevant materials, and data on the relative stability and partitioning of chemical elements between phases as a function of temperature and pressure. These data must be evaluated and synthesized into a self consistent collection of theoretical models and model parameters that is colloquially known as a thermodynamic database. Quantitative outcomes derived from CT reply on the existence, maintenance and integrity of thermodynamic databases. Unfortunately, the community is reliant on too few such databases, developed by a small number of research groups, and mostly under circumstances where refinement and updates to the database lag behind or are unresponsive to need. Given the increasing level of reliance on CT calculations, what is required is a paradigm shift in the way thermodynamic databases are developed, maintained and disseminated. They must become community resources, with flexible and assessable software interfaces that permit easy modification, while at the same time maintaining theoretical integrity and fidelity to the underlying experimental observations. Advances in computational and data science give us the tools and resources to address this problem, allowing CT results to be obtained at the speed of thought, and permitting geochemical and petrological intuition to play a key role in model development and calibration.

  4. Computerized Fleet Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldo, John J.

    1985-01-01

    The Computerized Fleet Maintenance (CFM) program of a New York school district has major component areas of garage operation, vehicle replacement, and fuel consumption. CFM detects high expenditures and provides the rationale for bus replacement. (MLF)

  5. Seismic Computerized Alert Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1986-01-01

    In 1985 the USGS devised a model for a Seismic Computerized Alert Network (SCAN) that would use continuous monitoring of seismic data from existing types of instruments to provide automatic, highly-reliable early warnings of earthquake shaking. In a large earthquake, substantial damaging ground motions may occur at great distances from the earthquake's epicenter.

  6. Computerized Drug Information Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Smith, Daniel R.

    1972-01-01

    To compare computerized services in chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical medicine of pharmaceutical interest, equivalent profiles were run on magnetic tape files of CA-Condensates," CBAC," Excerpta Medica," MEDLARS" and Ringdoc." The results are tabulated for overlap of services, relative speed of citing references, and unique…

  7. Adaptive Computerized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Roger D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes an artificially intelligent multimedia computerized instruction system capable of developing a conceptual image of what a student is learning while the student is learning it. It focuses on principles of learning and adaptive behavioral control systems theory upon which the system is designed and demonstrates multiple user modes.…

  8. Computerized Fleet Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldo, John J.

    The computerization of school bus maintenance records by the Niskayuna (New York) Central School District enabled the district's transportation department to engage in management practices resulting in significant savings. The district obtains computer analyses of the work performed on all vehicles, including time spent, parts, labor, costs,…

  9. Computerizing Audit Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Joanna N.; Beasley, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the history, benefits, and shortcomings of traditional audit field experiments to study market discrimination. Specifically it identifies template bias and experimenter bias as major concerns in the traditional audit method, and demonstrates through an empirical example that computerization of a resume or correspondence audit can efficiently increase sample size and greatly mitigate these concerns. Finally, it presents a useful meta-tool that future researchers can use to create their own resume audits. PMID:24904189

  10. Computerized leak training

    SciTech Connect

    Parella, C.; Monroe, A.

    1985-11-01

    Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation's computerized leak detection training system is discussed. The system is able to simulate gas leak situations by means of a computer. The training setup includes actual visual display via slides of houses represented on a plotting board; computer with plotter board in front that simulates an area and various leakage situations; a typical handheld CGI; and a control pad for the computer. The training system has filled a valuable need in the area of emergency training.

  11. Computerized tomography calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Herbert P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A set of interchangeable pieces comprising a computerized tomography calibrator, and a method of use thereof, permits focusing of a computerized tomographic (CT) system. The interchangeable pieces include a plurality of nestable, generally planar mother rings, adapted for the receipt of planar inserts of predetermined sizes, and of predetermined material densities. The inserts further define openings therein for receipt of plural sub-inserts. All pieces are of known sizes and densities, permitting the assembling of different configurations of materials of known sizes and combinations of densities, for calibration (i.e., focusing) of a computerized tomographic system through variation of operating variables thereof. Rather than serving as a phanton, which is intended to be representative of a particular workpiece to be tested, the set of interchangeable pieces permits simple and easy standardized calibration of a CT system. The calibrator and its related method of use further includes use of air or of particular fluids for filling various openings, as part of a selected configuration of the set of pieces.

  12. A Computerized Data-Base System for Land-Use and Land-Cover Data Collected at Ground-Water Sampling Sites in the Pilot National Water Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Jonathon C.

    1989-01-01

    Data-base software has been developed for the management of land-use and land-cover data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a pilot program to test and refine concepts for a National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This report describes the purpose, use, and design of the land-use and land-cover data-base software. The software provides capabilities for interactive storage and retrieval of land-use and land-cover data collected at ground-water sampling sites. Users of the software can add, update, and delete land-use and land-cover data. The software also provides capabilities to group, print, and summarize the data. The land-use and land-cover data-base software supports multiple data-base systems so that data can be accessed by persons in different offices. Data-base systems are organized in a tiered structure. Each data-base system contains all the data stored in the data-base systems located in the lower tiers of the structure. Data can be readily transmitted from lower tiers to high tiers of the structure. Therefore, the data-base system at the highest tier of the structure contains land-use and land-cover data for the entire pilot program.

  13. The School Building Principal and Inventory Control: A Case for Computerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James

    1987-01-01

    General and special purpose database programs are appropriate for inventory control at the school building level. A fixed asset equipment inventory example illustrates the feasibility of computerized inventory control. (MLF)

  14. Thermodynamic Database for the Terrestrial and Planetary Mantle Studies: Where we stand, and some future directions involving experimental studies, numerical protocol for EoS and atomistic calculations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, J.; Tirone, M.; Sorcar, N.

    2013-12-01

    Reliable thermodynamic databases for rock forming minerals are essential for petrological and geodynamic studies. While the available databases (1-3) represent laudable efforts, none seems to be completely satisfactory. We show inter-comparison of phase diagrams computed from different databases and also their comparisons with experimental phase diagrams in complex systems. The results show good agreement and also significant disagreements in some P-T-X regimes; resolution of these disagreements via new experimental and thermodynamic data is needed to sort out the problems and make further progress. Two of the main challenges in the development of databases (4) seem to be (a) appropriate formulation of an EoS for solids that is suitable for studies of Earth and planetary interiors and (b) relatively simple formulations of thermodynamic mixing properties of mantle minerals that perform well within the compositional space of interest. While work on EoS formulation continues, we present a semi-empirical numerical approach that creates a consistent set of material properties (α, K, Cp, Cv) up to very high P-T conditions by satisfying certain physical constraints. Adequate experimental data are not available to constrain the mixing properties of several minerals that would be valid over the compositional range of interest in the natural environments. We have, thus, pursued an alternative approach on the basis of physical and crystal-chemical data. It is found that combination of elastic mixing energy, incorporating the effect of multi-atom interactions (5, 6), and crystal-field (CF) energy of mixing provide enthalpy of mixing in binary solid solutions that are in good agreement with experimental and calorimetric data. The CF-splitting vs. composition in a solid solution involving transition metal ion may be approximated by a semi-empirical relation using mean metal-oxygen bond-distance when such data are not available from spectroscopic studies. We also discuss the

  15. Computer Pix: A Computerized Summer Reading Program for YAs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makowski, Silvia A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a summer reading program developed for young adults that features a computerized approach to book selection. Details of the use, rationale, database development, organization and marketing of the program, which was developed by a Michigan library federation, are provided. Sample publicity materials accompany the article. (KRN)

  16. Using Computerized Clinical Nursing Data Bases for Nursing Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nail, Lillian M.; Lange, Linda L.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the recognition of differences between clinical and research data in using computerized clinical nursing databases and the issues of privacy and confidentiality for patients whose records are involved. Describes procedures for assessing the quality and usability of these data for nursing research. (SK)

  17. A Computerized Interactive Vocabulary Development System for Advanced Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the process of recording newly encountered vocabulary items in a typical language learning situation can be improved through a computerized system of vocabulary storage based on database management software that improves the discovery and recording of meaning, subsequent retrieval of items for productive use, and memory retention.…

  18. Exploration of Career Information Delivery Systems Via Computerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rod; And Others

    Based on research conducted by Southwest Virginia Community College, this monograph presents information in a variety of formats on seven computerized career information systems: (1) microcomputers, which have the advantage of low cost, amenability to the production of locally generated databases, and portability; (2) the Coordinated Occupational…

  19. Computerized design of CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, B. E.; Pham, T. A.

    1982-11-01

    A computerized ballistic design technique for CAD/PAD is described by which a set of ballistic design parameters are determined, all of which satisfy a particular performance requirement. In addition, the program yields the remaining performance predictions, so that only a very few computer runs of the design program can quickly bring the ballistic design within the specification limits prescribed. An example is presented for a small propulsion device, such as a remover or actuator, for which the input specifications define a maximum allowable thrust and minimum end-of-stroke velocity. The resulting output automatically satisfies the input requirements, and will always yield an acceptable ballistic design.

  20. Computerized procedures system

    DOEpatents

    Lipner, Melvin H.; Mundy, Roger A.; Franusich, Michael D.

    2010-10-12

    An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

  1. Ch. 33 Modeling: Computational Thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, Theodore M

    2012-01-01

    This chapter considers methods and techniques for computational modeling for nuclear materials with a focus on fuels. The basic concepts for chemical thermodynamics are described and various current models for complex crystalline and liquid phases are illustrated. Also included are descriptions of available databases for use in chemical thermodynamic studies and commercial codes for performing complex equilibrium calculations.

  2. Computerized Placement Tests: Background Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    This document is a compilation of background readings for the user of Computerized Placement Tests (CPTs) developed by the College Board for student placement purposes. CPTs are computerized adaptive tests that test the individual abilities and backgrounds of examinees. CPTs are part of the ACCUPLACER student information management system. The…

  3. Computerized Numerical Control Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide is intended for use in a course in programming and operating a computerized numerical control system. Addressed in the course are various aspects of programming and planning, setting up, and operating machines with computerized numerical control, including selecting manual or computer-assigned programs and matching them with…

  4. Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access)   IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.

  5. Computerized Physician Order Entry

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Raman; Yen, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) has been promoted as an important component of patient safety, quality improvement, and modernization of medical practice. In practice, however, CPOE affects health care delivery in complex ways, with benefits as well as risks. Every implementation of CPOE is associated with both generally recognized and unique local factors that can facilitate or confound its rollout, and neurohospitalists will often be at the forefront of such rollouts. In this article, we review the literature on CPOE, beginning with definitions and proceeding to comparisons to the standard of care. We then proceed to discuss clinical decision support systems, negative aspects of CPOE, and cultural context of CPOE implementation. Before concluding, we follow the experiences of a Chief Medical Information Officer and neurohospitalist who rolled out a CPOE system at his own health care organization and managed the resulting workflow changes and setbacks. PMID:24381708

  6. Computerized Measuring Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Thomas D.

    1980-05-01

    In the manufacturing of printed circuit boards, microscopic analysis is an essential process control activity. An inspector microscopically analyzes board samples to deter-mine board lot quality and process conditions. Prior to computerizing, this sustained measurement-taking involved the tedious process of recording raw data, converting microscope filar readings, calculating averages, logging information in a job notebook, and completing detailed final lab reports. It is evident from this brief task description that this time-consuming repetitious data recording routine was an added burden to the already fatiguing visual inspection method and therefore was a prime candidate for automatic data capture and printout. Secondly, the creation of a permanent and easily accessible data base would improve process feedback and provide for a system with quick identification of any suspect boards if further assembly/testing exhibited board-related failures. This paper describes the evolution and implementation of a computer-aided microscopic inspection operation.

  7. Computerizing natural history collections.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Mary E

    2013-09-01

    Computers are ubiquitous in the life sciences and are associated with many of the practical and conceptual changes that characterize biology's twentieth-century transformation. Yet comparatively little has been written about how scientists use computers. Despite this relative lack of scholarly attention, the claim that computers revolutionized the life sciences by making the impossible possible is widespread, and relatively unchallenged. How did the introduction of computers into research programs shape scientific practice? The Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ) at the University of California, Berkeley provides a tractable way into this under-examined question because it is possible to follow the computerization of data in the context of long-term research programs. PMID:23664113

  8. Thermodynamic Database for the NdO(1.5)-YO(1.5)-YbO(1.5)-ScO(1.5)-ZrO2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Copland, Evan H.; Kaufman, Larry

    2001-01-01

    A database for YO(1.5)-NdO(1.5)-YbO(1.5)-ScO(1.5)-ZrO2 for ThermoCalc (ThermoCalc AB, Stockholm, Sweden) has been developed. The basis of this work is the YO(1.5)-ZrO2 assessment by Y. Du, Z. Jin, and P. Huang, 'Thermodynamic Assessment of the ZrO2-YO(1.5) System'. Experimentally only the YO(1.5)-ZrO2 system has been well-studied. All other systems are only approximately known. The major simplification in this work is the treatment of each single cation unit as a component. The pure liquid oxides are taken as reference states and two term lattice stability descriptions are used for each of the components. The limited experimental phase diagrams are reproduced.

  9. Thermodynamic properties of cerium mononitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristova, N. M.; Belov, G. V.

    2014-09-01

    Data on the thermodynamic properties of cerium mononitride CeN in the solid state are analyzed. Relations approximating the temperature dependence of the thermodynamic functions of CeN(cr.) in the temperature range of 298.15-2900 K are obtained. Using the relations of thermodynamics known for this temperature range, the thermodynamic functions of cerium mononitride (entropy, Gibbs energy, and enthalpy variation) are calculated. The resulting data is entered into the database of the IVTANTHERMO software package and is used to analyze the thermal stability of CeN(cr.), and to estimate its boiling point at atmospheric pressure.

  10. Computerized molecular modeling of carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Computerized molecular modleing continues to increase in capability and applicability to carbohydrates. This chapter covers nomenclature and conformational aspects of carbohydrates, perhaps of greater use to carbohydrate-inexperienced computational chemists. Its comments on various methods and studi...

  11. Computerized international geothermal information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.L.; Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.

    1980-03-01

    The computerized international geothermal energy information system is reviewed. The review covers establishment of the Italy - United States linked data centers by the NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society, through a bilateral agreement, and up to the present time. The result of the information exchange project is given as the bibliographic and numerical data available from the data centers. Recommendations for the exchange of computerized geothermal information at the international level are discussed.

  12. Computerizing Your Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Rick

    This paper summarizes information about using computer hardware and software to aid in making purchase decisions that are based on user needs. The two major options in hardware are IBM-compatible machines and the Apple Macintosh line. The three basic software applications include word processing, database management, and spreadsheet applications.…

  13. A computerized data base system for medical diagnostic studies (Diastu).

    PubMed

    Rosen, I I; Hall, T C; Mettler, F; Wicks, J; Kelsey, C A; Gustafson, D E

    1980-12-01

    A computerized database system (DIASTU) has been developed for the storage and selective retrieval of the results of medical diagnostic studies. The system is being used to analyze the disease process and the efficacy and yield of selected diagnostic studies. The system runs on a DEC PDP-11/60 computer. It consists of three FORTRAN IV programs linked to a general-purpose assembly language database handler. One program, DSENT, interactively modifies the information in the database. The second, DSLIST, prints all or portions of the database. The third program, DSTAT, interactively assembles the parameters for selective searches of the database and executes them. A query language is used that allows the use of time and size specifications and Boolean operators in nested loops. PMID:7249603

  14. Computerized Clinical Decision Support: Contributions from 2014

    PubMed Central

    Koutkias, V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective To summarize recent research and propose a selection of best papers published in 2014 in the field of computerized clinical decision support for the Decision Support section of the IMIA yearbook. Method A literature review was performed by searching two bibliographic databases for papers related to clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) and computerized provider order entry systems in order to select a list of candidate best papers to be then peer-reviewed by external reviewers. A consensus meeting between the two section editors and the editorial team was finally organized to conclude on the selection of best papers. Results Among the 1,254 returned papers published in 2014, the full review process selected four best papers. The first one is an experimental contribution to a better understanding of unintended uses of CDSSs. The second paper describes the effective use of previously collected data to tailor and adapt a CDSS. The third paper presents an innovative application that uses pharmacogenomic information to support personalized medicine. The fourth paper reports on the long-term effect of the routine use of a CDSS for antibiotic therapy. Conclusions As health information technologies spread more and more meaningfully, CDSSs are improving to answer users’ needs more accurately. The exploitation of previously collected data and the use of genomic data for decision support has started to materialize. However, more work is still needed to address issues related to the correct usage of such technologies, and to assess their effective impact in the long term. PMID:26293858

  15. Information integrity and privacy for computerized medical patient records

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, J.; Hamilton, V.; Gaylor, T.; McCurley, K.; Meeks, T.

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Oceania, Inc. entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) in November 1993 to provide ``Information Integrity and Privacy for Computerized Medical Patient Records`` (CRADA No. SC93/01183). The main objective of the project was to develop information protection methods that are appropriate for databases of patient records in health information systems. This document describes the findings and alternative solutions that resulted from this CRADA.

  16. Using a computerized patient record to reengineer an outpatient clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Borowitz, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    By employing process flow analysis and work redesign techniques during the design and implementation of a computerized patient record in the pediatric outpatient clinics at the University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, we have developed a database of clinical observations while simultaneously shortening the time that patients spend waiting in the pediatric clinics and decreasing the number of support staff employed within the clinics. PMID:7949936

  17. Thermodynamic Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaston, Scot

    1999-02-01

    Thermodynamic data such as equilibrium constants, standard cell potentials, molar enthalpies of formation, and standard entropies of substances can be a very useful basis for an organized presentation of knowledge in diverse areas of applied chemistry. Thermodynamic data can become particularly useful when incorporated into thermodynamic diagrams that are designed to be easy to recall, to serve as a basis for reconstructing previous knowledge, and to determine whether reactions can occur exergonically or only with the help of an external energy source. Few students in our chemistry-based courses would want to acquire the depth of knowledge or rigor of professional thermodynamicists. But they should nevertheless learn how to make good use of thermodynamic data in their professional occupations that span the chemical, biological, environmental, and medical laboratory fields. This article discusses examples of three thermodynamic diagrams that have been developed for this purpose. They are the thermodynamic energy account (TEA), the total entropy scale, and the thermodynamic scale diagrams. These diagrams help in the teaching and learning of thermodynamics by bringing the imagination into the process of developing a better understanding of abstract thermodynamic functions, and by allowing the reader to keep track of specialist thermodynamic discourses in the literature.

  18. Steam Properties Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 10 NIST/ASME Steam Properties Database (PC database for purchase)   Based upon the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) 1995 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of water and the most recent IAPWS formulations for transport and other properties, this updated version provides water properties over a wide range of conditions according to the accepted international standards.

  19. Arkansas' Curriculum Guide. Competency Based Computerized Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. Div. of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This guide contains the essential parts of a total curriculum for a one-year secondary-level course in computerized accounting. Addressed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the complete accounting cycle, computer operations for accounting, computerized accounting and general ledgers, computerized accounts payable,…

  20. Computerized Proof Techniques for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete…

  1. California's Computerized Pupil Transportation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, James C.

    1983-01-01

    Traces efforts to develop a statewide plan for computerized school bus fleet operation by means of questionnaires distributed to all 58 county education offices, 7 regional data processing centers, and selected private school bus contractors and school districts. Findings indicate significant potential savings for fleets of 20 or more busses. (JBM)

  2. Student Perceptions of Computerized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino-Silva, Juan

    2008-01-01

    The challenge to test small groups by means of microcomputers demands appropriate software design and sound test design. To comply with this demand, students' beliefs or perceptions on the advantages and disadvantages of a computerized test were tapped. Overall, self-reported advantages outnumbered disadvantages to a significant degree. This was…

  3. An automated system for terrain database construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L. F.; Fretz, R. K.; Logan, T. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1987-01-01

    An automated Terrain Database Preparation System (TDPS) for the construction and editing of terrain databases used in computerized wargaming simulation exercises has been developed. The TDPS system operates under the TAE executive, and it integrates VICAR/IBIS image processing and Geographic Information System software with CAD/CAM data capture and editing capabilities. The terrain database includes such features as roads, rivers, vegetation, and terrain roughness.

  4. Thermodynamic holography

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Bo-Bo; Jiang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2015-01-01

    The holographic principle states that the information about a volume of a system is encoded on the boundary surface of the volume. Holography appears in many branches of physics, such as optics, electromagnetism, many-body physics, quantum gravity, and string theory. Here we show that holography is also an underlying principle in thermodynamics, a most important foundation of physics. The thermodynamics of a system is fully determined by its partition function. We prove that the partition function of a finite but arbitrarily large system is an analytic function on the complex plane of physical parameters, and therefore the partition function in a region on the complex plane is uniquely determined by its values along the boundary. The thermodynamic holography has applications in studying thermodynamics of nano-scale systems (such as molecule engines, nano-generators and macromolecules) and provides a new approach to many-body physics. PMID:26478214

  5. Thermodynamic holography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bo-Bo; Jiang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2015-01-01

    The holographic principle states that the information about a volume of a system is encoded on the boundary surface of the volume. Holography appears in many branches of physics, such as optics, electromagnetism, many-body physics, quantum gravity, and string theory. Here we show that holography is also an underlying principle in thermodynamics, a most important foundation of physics. The thermodynamics of a system is fully determined by its partition function. We prove that the partition function of a finite but arbitrarily large system is an analytic function on the complex plane of physical parameters, and therefore the partition function in a region on the complex plane is uniquely determined by its values along the boundary. The thermodynamic holography has applications in studying thermodynamics of nano-scale systems (such as molecule engines, nano-generators and macromolecules) and provides a new approach to many-body physics. PMID:26478214

  6. Atomic Spectroscopic Databases at NIST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reader, J.; Kramida, A. E.; Ralchenko, Yu.

    2006-01-01

    We describe recent work at NIST to develop and maintain databases for spectra, transition probabilities, and energy levels of atoms that are astrophysically important. Our programs to critically compile these data as well as to develop a new database to compare plasma calculations for atoms that are not in local thermodynamic equilibrium are also summarized.

  7. Stochastic thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik

    2014-04-01

    'Stochastic thermodynamics as a conceptual framework combines the stochastic energetics approach introduced a decade ago by Sekimoto [1] with the idea that entropy can consistently be assigned to a single fluctuating trajectory [2]'. This quote, taken from Udo Seifert's [3] 2008 review, nicely summarizes the basic ideas behind stochastic thermodynamics: for small systems, driven by external forces and in contact with a heat bath at a well-defined temperature, stochastic energetics [4] defines the exchanged work and heat along a single fluctuating trajectory and connects them to changes in the internal (system) energy by an energy balance analogous to the first law of thermodynamics. Additionally, providing a consistent definition of trajectory-wise entropy production gives rise to second-law-like relations and forms the basis for a 'stochastic thermodynamics' along individual fluctuating trajectories. In order to construct meaningful concepts of work, heat and entropy production for single trajectories, their definitions are based on the stochastic equations of motion modeling the physical system of interest. Because of this, they are valid even for systems that are prevented from equilibrating with the thermal environment by external driving forces (or other sources of non-equilibrium). In that way, the central notions of equilibrium thermodynamics, such as heat, work and entropy, are consistently extended to the non-equilibrium realm. In the (non-equilibrium) ensemble, the trajectory-wise quantities acquire distributions. General statements derived within stochastic thermodynamics typically refer to properties of these distributions, and are valid in the non-equilibrium regime even beyond the linear response. The extension of statistical mechanics and of exact thermodynamic statements to the non-equilibrium realm has been discussed from the early days of statistical mechanics more than 100 years ago. This debate culminated in the development of linear response

  8. Clinical applications of computerized thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anbar, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Computerized or digital, thermography is a rapidly growing diagnostic imaging modality. It has superseded contact thermography and analog imaging thermography which do not allow effective quantization. Medical applications of digital thermography can be classified in two groups: static and dynamic imaging. They can also be classified into macro thermography (resolution greater than 1 mm) and micro thermography (resolution less than 100 microns). Both modalities allow a thermal resolution of 0.1 C. The diagnostic power of images produced by any of these modalities can be augmented by the use of digital image enhancement and image recognition procedures. Computerized thermography has been applied in neurology, cardiovascular and plastic surgery, rehabilitation and sports medicine, psychiatry, dermatology and ophthalmology. Examples of these applications are shown and their scope and limitations are discussed.

  9. Computerized accounting methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the research performed under the Task Order on computerized accounting methods in a period from 03 August to 31 December 1994. Computerized nuclear material accounting methods are analyzed and evaluated. Selected methods are implemented in a hardware-software complex developed as a prototype of the local network-based CONMIT system. This complex has been put into trial operation for test and evaluation of the selected methods at two selected ``Kurchatov Institute`` Russian Research Center (``KI`` RRC) nuclear facilities. Trial operation is carried out since the beginning of Initial Physical Inventory Taking in these facilities that was performed in November 1994. Operation of CONMIT prototype system was demonstrated in the middle of December 1994. Results of evaluation of CONMIT prototype system features and functioning under real operating conditions are considered. Conclusions are formulated on the ways of further development of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. The most important conclusion is a need to strengthen computer and information security features supported by the operating environment. Security provisions as well as other LANL Client/Server System approaches being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory are recommended for selection of software and hardware components to be integrated into production version of CONMIT system for KI RRC.

  10. A Computerized Risk Index Screening Program for At-Risk Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowitschek, Joseph J.; And Others

    This paper describes a data-based screening tool for identifying at-risk students. It is intended to complement referral and other qualitative means of identification. The Computerized Risk Index Screening Program (CRISP) is an application of a commonly available data management program that: (1) provides a school-based screening system; (2) can…

  11. Improving Instructional Efficiency Through the Implementation of Computerized Management and Prescriptive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisano, Thomas N.

    A computerized management system to improve efficiency was implemented for one year in a fifth grade classroom in a large metropolitan city in the southwest. A variety of computer application software packages were reviewed and selections were made for use in grading and prescriptive analysis. The teacher also developed a database of student…

  12. Development of Student Inquiry Skills: A Constructivist Approach in a Computerized Classroom Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maor, Dorit

    A study investigated the extent to which students' inquiry skills can be facilitated through the use of a computerized science database (Birds of the Antarctica) and specially designed curriculum materials. Much attention was given in the program to developing both students' inquiry skills and their subject-matter knowledge. Grade 11 and 12…

  13. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-11-09

    The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

  14. Computer Databases: Applications for the Social Studies. ERIC Digest No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn

    This ERIC Digest examines the uses of databases in the social studies, including what a database is and how to use it, types of databases available for social studies classroom use, and the role this educational tool can play in achieving the goals and objectives of the social studies. A distinction between print and computerized database files…

  15. Computerized lesion detection on breast ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Drukker, Karen; Giger, Maryellen L; Horsch, Karla; Kupinski, Matthew A; Vyborny, Carl J; Mendelson, Ellen B

    2002-07-01

    We investigated the use of a radial gradient index (RGI) filtering technique to automatically detect lesions on breast ultrasound. After initial RGI filtering, a sensitivity of 87% at 0.76 false-positive detections per image was obtained on a database of 400 patients (757 images). Next, lesion candidates were segmented from the background by maximizing an average radial gradient (ARD) index for regions grown from the detected points. At an overlap of 0.4 with a radiologist lesion outline, 75% of the lesions were correctly detected. Subsequently, round robin analysis was used to assess the quality of the classification of lesion candidates into actual lesions and false-positives by a Bayesian neural network. The round robin analysis yielded an Az value of 0.84, and an overall performance by case of 94% sensitivity at 0.48 false-positives per image. Use of computerized analysis of breast sonograms may ultimately facilitate the use of sonography in breast cancer screening programs. PMID:12148724

  16. Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Carbonate Reactions Associated with CO2 Sequestration – Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2010-09-01

    Permanent storage of anthropogenic CO2 in deep geologic formations is being considered as a means to reduce the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and thus its contribution to global climate change. To ensure safe and effective geologic sequestration, numerous studies have been completed of the extent to which the CO2 migrates within geologic formations and what physical and geochemical changes occur in these formations when CO2 is injected. Sophisticated, computerized reservoir simulations are used as part of field site and laboratory CO2 sequestration studies. These simulations use coupled multiphase flow-reactive chemical transport models and/or standalone (i.e., no coupled fluid transport) geochemical models to calculate gas solubility, aqueous complexation, reduction/oxidation (redox), and/or mineral solubility reactions related to CO2 injection and sequestration. Thermodynamic data are critical inputs to modeling geochemical processes. The adequacy of thermodynamic data for carbonate compounds has been identified as an important data requirement for the successful application of these geochemical reaction models to CO2 sequestration. A review of thermodynamic data for CO2 gas and carbonate aqueous species and minerals present in published data compilations and databases used in geochemical reaction models was therefore completed. Published studies that describe mineralogical analyses from CO2 sequestration field and natural analogue sites and laboratory studies were also reviewed to identify specific carbonate minerals that are important to CO2 sequestration reactions and therefore require thermodynamic data. The results of the literature review indicated that an extensive thermodynamic database exists for CO2 and CH4 gases, carbonate aqueous species, and carbonate minerals. Values of ΔfG298° and/or log Kr,298° are available for essentially all of these compounds. However, log Kr,T° or heat capacity values at temperatures above 298 K exist for less than

  17. X-ray computerized tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wellington, S.L.; Vinegar, H.J.

    1987-08-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) is a new radiological imaging technique that measures density and atomic composition inside opaque objects. A revolutionary advance in medical radiology since 1972, CT has only recently been applied in petrophysics and reservoir engineering. This paper discusses several petrophysical applications, including three-dimensional (3D) measurement of density and porosity; rock mechanics studies; correlation of core logs with well logs; characterization of mud invasion, fractures, and disturbed core; and quantification of complex mineralogies and sand/shale ratios. Reservoir engineering applications presented include fundamental studies of CO/sub 2/ displacement in cores, focussing on viscous fingering, gravity segregation, miscibility, and mobility control.

  18. Multi-Database Searching in Forensic Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Perdue, Robert W.

    Traditional library skills have been augmented since the introduction of online computerized database services. Because of the complexity of the field, forensic psychology can benefit enormously from the application of comprehensive bibliographic search strategies. The study reported here demonstrated the bibliographic results obtained when a…

  19. Entanglement thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schliemann, John

    2014-09-01

    We investigate further the relationship between the entanglement spectrum of a composite many-body system and the energy spectrum of a subsystem making use of concepts of canonical thermodynamics. In many important cases the entanglement Hamiltonian is, in the limit of strong coupling between subsystems, proportional to the energy Hamiltonian of the subsystem. The proportionality factor is an appropriately defined coupling parameter, suggesting to interpret the latter as a inverse temperature. We identify a condition on the entanglement Hamiltonian which rigorously guarantees this interpretation to hold and removes any ambiguity in the definition of the entanglement Hamiltonian regarding contributions proportional to the unit operator. Illustrations of our findings are provided by spin ladders of arbitrary spin length, and by bilayer quantum Hall systems at total filling factor ν = 2. Within mean-field description, the latter system realizes an entanglement spectrum of free fermions with just two levels of equal modulus where the analogies to canonical thermodynamics are particularly close.

  20. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  1. A First Life with Computerized Business Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thavikulwat, Precha

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses the theoretical lens, origins, and environment of his work on computerized business simulations. Key ideas that inform his work include the two dimensions (control and interaction) of computerized simulation, the two ways of representing a natural process (phenotypical and genotypical) in a simulation, which he defines as a…

  2. The Computerization of East Asian Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Douglas W.

    1984-01-01

    Describes two methods for the computerization of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean (CJK) input and output--Research Libraries Group's Sinoterm and OCLC's Asiagraphics. East Asian vernacular computerization efforts, system development, character sets, terminal design and keyboards, and member library use of CJK records are highlighted. Six references…

  3. Computerized Management of Physical Plant Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkey, Earl W.; Kleinpeter, Joseph

    Outlining the major areas to be considered when deciding whether or not to computerize physical plant services in higher education institutions, the author points out the shortcomings of manual record keeping systems. He gives five factors to consider when deciding to computerize: (1) time and money, (2) extent of operation, (3) current and future…

  4. Cassel Psych Center Computerized Biofeedback Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Cassel Psych Center, a computerized biofeedback clinic, where the "well" patient is a major concern, and where biofeedback instruments are used with computers to form a Computerized-Biofeedback Clinical Support System. The Center's activities are designed to parallel the services of the pathologist in a medical setting. (PAS)

  5. Resources for Improving Computerized Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated review of human factors literature that discusses computerized environments. Topics discussed include the application of office automation practices to educational environments; video display terminal (VDT) workstations; health and safety hazards; planning educational facilities; ergonomics in computerized offices; and…

  6. Protecting Privacy in Computerized Medical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report analyzes the implications of computerized medical information and the challenges it brings to individual privacy. The report examines the nature of the privacy interest in health care information and the current state of the law protecting that information; the nature of proposals to computerize health care information and the…

  7. Computerized Classification Testing with the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    If classification in a limited number of categories is the purpose of testing, computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with algorithms based on sequential statistical testing perform better than estimation-based CATs (e.g., Eggen & Straetmans, 2000). In these computerized classification tests (CCTs), the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) (Wald,…

  8. Computerization of the Student Neurophysiology Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Beverly

    1985-01-01

    Describes how a traditional neurophysiology laboratory has been computerized and how students work with digitizing on-line data. Points out advantages of computerization, including the speed, accuracy, and reliability in the acquisition, reduction, and analysis of data. Also describes four generic computer programs tailored to the particular…

  9. The Evaluation of SISMAKOM (Computerized SDI Project).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Science, Penang (Malaysia).

    A survey of 88 users of SISMAKOM, a computerized selective dissemination of information (SDI) and document delivery service provided by the Universiti Sains Malaysia and four other Malaysian universities, was conducted in August 1982 in order to collect data about SISMAKOM and to assess the value of a computerized SDI service in a developing…

  10. Computerized Adaptive Testing under Nonparametric IRT Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xueli; Douglas, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Nonparametric item response models have been developed as alternatives to the relatively inflexible parametric item response models. An open question is whether it is possible and practical to administer computerized adaptive testing with nonparametric models. This paper explores the possibility of computerized adaptive testing when using…

  11. Descriptive thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, David; Huntsman, Steven

    2006-06-01

    Thermodynamics (in concert with its sister discipline, statistical physics) can be regarded as a data reduction scheme based on partitioning a total system into a subsystem and a bath that weakly interact with each other. Whereas conventionally, the systems investigated require this form of data reduction in order to facilitate prediction, a different problem also occurs, in the context of communication networks, markets, etc. Such “empirically accessible” systems typically overwhelm observers with the sort of information that in the case of (say) a gas is effectively unobtainable. What is required for such complex interacting systems is not prediction (this may be impossible when humans besides the observer are responsible for the interactions) but rather, description as a route to understanding. Still, the need for a thermodynamical data reduction scheme remains. In this paper, we show how an empirical temperature can be computed for finite, empirically accessible systems, and further outline how this construction allows the age-old science of thermodynamics to be fruitfully applied to them.

  12. A computerized obstetric medical record.

    PubMed

    Stead, W W; Brame, R G; Hammond, W E; Jelovsek, F R; Estes, E H; Parker, R T

    1977-04-01

    Duke University has utilized computerized obstetric medical records since 1971. System evolution is described. Deficiencies in the current system appear to evolve from the computer/human interface rather than from basic system design. Critical elements in system success are physician acceptance of the appearance of data collection sheets and printed notes and continual rapid response in programing modification to allow for physician individuality and changes in medical practice. The limiting factor in the potential usefulness of such a system is the rate of incomplete data collection. It is suggested that if the physician were to enter data directly into the computer through a terminal, data collection would be more accurate and complete. PMID:854253

  13. Reflecting on the ethical administration of computerized medical records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collmann, Jeff R.

    1995-05-01

    This presentation examines the ethical issues raised by computerized image management and communication systems (IMAC), the ethical principals that should guide development of policies, procedures and practices for IMACS systems, and who should be involved in developing a hospital's approach to these issues. The ready access of computerized records creates special hazards of which hospitals must beware. Hospitals must maintain confidentiality of patient's records while making records available to authorized users as efficiently as possible. The general conditions of contemporary health care undermine protecting the confidentiality of patient record. Patients may not provide health care institutions with information about themselves under conditions of informed consent. The field of information science must design sophisticated systems of computer security that stratify access, create audit trails on data changes and system use, safeguard patient data from corruption, and protect the databases from outside invasion. Radiology professionals must both work with information science experts in their own hospitals to create institutional safeguards and include the adequacy of security measures as a criterion for evaluating PACS systems. New policies and procedures on maintaining computerized patient records must be developed that obligate all members of the health care staff, not just care givers. Patients must be informed about the existence of computerized medical records, the rules and practices that govern their dissemination and given the opportunity to give or withhold consent for their use. Departmental and hospital policies on confidentiality should be reviewed to determine if revisions are necessary to manage computer-based records. Well developed discussions of the ethical principles and administrative policies on confidentiality and informed consent and of the risks posed by computer-based patient records systems should be included in initial and continuing

  14. Stirling engines. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning fuel consumption, engine design and testing, computerized simulation, and lubrication systems relative to the Stirling cycle engine. Solar energy conversion research, thermodynamic efficiency, economics, and utilization for power generation and automobile engines are included. Materials used in Stirling engines are briefly evaluated. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support... operational computerized support enforcement system, which meets Federal requirements under § 302.85(a)(1)...

  16. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support... operational computerized support enforcement system, which meets Federal requirements under § 302.85(a)(1)...

  17. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support... operational computerized support enforcement system, which meets Federal requirements under § 302.85(a)(1)...

  18. HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Katya Le Blanc

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures in nuclear power plant control rooms. It is beyond the scope of this paper to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper provides a review of HRA as applied to traditional paper-based procedures, followed by a discussion of what specific factors should additionally be considered in HRAs for computerized procedures. Performance shaping factors and failure modes unique to computerized procedures are highlighted. Since there is no definitive guide to HRA for paper-based procedures, this paper also serves to clarify the existing guidance on paper-based procedures before delving into the unique aspects of computerized procedures.

  19. Computerized tomography using video recorded fluoroscopic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kak, A. C.; Jakowatz, C. V., Jr.; Baily, N. A.; Keller, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A computerized tomographic imaging system is examined which employs video-recorded fluoroscopic images as input data. By hooking the video recorder to a digital computer through a suitable interface, such a system permits very rapid construction of tomograms.

  20. Computerized cash management: the new frontier.

    PubMed

    Grimmelman, F J

    1979-01-01

    Because cash management in a hospital is more complicated today than it was ten years ago, the finanical manager needs a computerized cash management system to help assess cash resources and control cash demands. PMID:10242146

  1. Graphical Models and Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Russell G.; Mislevy, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Considers computerized adaptive testing from the perspective of graphical modeling (GM). GM provides methods for making inferences about multifaceted skills and knowledge and for extracting data from complex performances. Provides examples from language-proficiency assessment. (SLD)

  2. Computerized Bus Routing in San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caswell, Peter J.; Jungherr, J. Anton

    1979-01-01

    A computerized routing and scheduling system for the San Francisco Public Schools includes the batch processing of bus route assignments and schedules for all schools and the online terminal processing of daily changes. (Author/MLF)

  3. Natural thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annila, Arto

    2016-02-01

    The principle of increasing entropy is derived from statistical physics of open systems assuming that quanta of actions, as undividable basic build blocks, embody everything. According to this tenet, all systems evolve from one state to another either by acquiring quanta from their surroundings or by discarding quanta to the surroundings in order to attain energetic balance in least time. These natural processes result in ubiquitous scale-free patterns: skewed distributions that accumulate in a sigmoid manner and hence span log-log scales mostly as straight lines. Moreover, the equation for least-time motions reveals that evolution is by nature a non-deterministic process. Although the obtained insight in thermodynamics from the notion of quanta in motion yields nothing new, it accentuates that contemporary comprehension is impaired when modeling evolution as a computable process by imposing conservation of energy and thereby ignoring that quantum of actions are the carriers of energy from the system to its surroundings.

  4. Scientific Communication of Geochemical Data and the Use of Computer Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Bas, M. J.; Durham, J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a scheme in the United Kingdom that coordinates geochemistry publications with a computerized geochemistry database. The database comprises not only data published in the journals but also the remainder of the pertinent data set. The discussion covers the database design; collection, storage and retrieval of data; and plans for future…

  5. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Clote, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs). However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner’99 and Turner’04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  6. The Research on Computerized Adaptive Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Peng; Cong, Xiao

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, computerized adaptive testing is becoming the focus of the field of modern educational evaluation. In this form of the test, the response relationship between the examinee with the item by IRT modelling, then use the computer to estimates the ability level of the examinees and real-time select item. Computerized adaptive test development process were reviewed in the paper, and discuss the latest research results and pointed out that the current problems and future trends.

  7. Computerized Mental Status Testing in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, J.R.; Hesse, B.W.; Turner, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    To assist in the evaluation of the hundreds of thousands of geriatric veterans that will inundate the VA health care system through the latter part of this century and the early part of the next, the authors are applying a computerized mental status screening instrument. The authors have computerized a cognitive and emotive screening instrument aimed primarily at the early detection of dementia and depression, specially adapted to elderly patients.

  8. Advances in thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Sieniutycz, S. ); Salamon, P. )

    1990-01-01

    This book covers: nonequilibrium thermodynamics for solar energy applications; finite-time thermodynamics as applied to solar power conversion; thermodynamics and economics; exergy analysis; and an analysis of cumulative exergy consumption and exergy losses.

  9. Computerized Dental Injection Fear Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, L.J.; Leroux, B.G.; Ruff, P.A.; Coldwell, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    One in four adults reports a clinically significant fear of dental injections, leading many to avoid dental care. While systematic desensitization is the most common therapeutic method for treating specific phobias such as fear of dental injections, lack of access to trained therapists, as well as dentists’ lack of training and time in providing such a therapy, means that most fearful individuals are not able to receive the therapy needed to be able to receive necessary dental treatment. Computer Assisted Relaxation Learning (CARL) is a self-paced computerized treatment based on systematic desensitization for dental injection fear. This multicenter, block-randomized, dentist-blind, parallel-group study conducted in 8 sites in the United States compared CARL with an informational pamphlet in reducing fear of dental injections. Participants completing CARL reported significantly greater reduction in self-reported general and injection-specific dental anxiety measures compared with control individuals (p < .001). Twice as many CARL participants (35.3%) as controls (17.6%) opted to receive a dental injection after the intervention, although this was not statistically significant. CARL, therefore, led to significant changes in self-reported fear in study participants, but no significant differences in the proportion of participants having a dental injection (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00609648). PMID:23690352

  10. Computerized provider order entry systems.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems are designed to replace a hospital's paper-based ordering system. They allow users to electronically write the full range of orders, maintain an online medication administration record, and review changes made to an order by successive personnel. They also offer safety alerts that are triggered when an unsafe order (such as for a duplicate drug therapy) is entered, as well as clinical decision support to guide caregivers to less expensive alternatives or to choices that better fit established hospital protocols. CPOE systems can, when correctly configured, markedly increase efficiency and improve patient safety and patient care. However, facilities need to recognize that currently available CPOE systems require a tremendous amount of time and effort to be spent in customization before their safety and clinical support features can be effectively implemented. What's more, even after they've been customized, the systems may still allow certain unsafe orders to be entered. Thus, CPOE systems are not currently a quick or easy remedy for medical errors. ECRI's Evaluation of CPOE systems--conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP)--discusses these and other related issues. It also examines and compares CPOE systems from three suppliers: Eclipsys Corp., IDX Systems Corp., and Siemens Medical Solutions Health Services Corp. Our testing focuses primarily on the systems' interfacing capabilities, patient safeguards, and ease of use. PMID:11696968

  11. Computerized Guides to Journal Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rada, Roy; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Designed to characterize journals as part of the selection process for journals to be included in an information retrieval database, two studies used bibliometric techniques to examine patterns of publishing and topic patterns and coverage, and a third developed a rule-based system to evaluate the qualities of a journal. (CLB)

  12. Assessing the effectiveness of a computerized blood order "consultation" system.

    PubMed

    Lepage, E F; Gardner, R M; Laub, R M; Jacobson, J T

    1991-01-01

    To optimize blood ordering and accurately assess transfusion practice, in 1987, an "on line" computerized, knowledge-based, blood order critiquing system was integrated into the HELP Hospital Information System (HIS) at LDS Hospital. Evaluations of the computerized ordering system demonstrated its benefits and limitations on transfusion practice. Based on this experience, a second generation blood ordering system using a consultation mode was developed. A pilot test of this blood order consultant system, using historical data in the HELP system's database, was performed. This pilot test demonstrated that the consultation system provided accurate recommendations for red blood cell (RBC) and platelet orders. Comparing the appropriateness of blood orders with the recommendations made by the director of the blood bank, the orders recommended by the computer "consultant" agreed 95.5% of the time. The computer consultation system also recommended fewer RBC units for transfusion. Preliminary results obtained using the consultant approach suggest that we may be able to simplify blood ordering practice and also reduce the number of units of blood products ordered. Based on these findings we are now preparing to compare the "critiquing" and "consultation" approaches using a clinical trial. PMID:1807617

  13. Electronic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Martha E.

    1985-01-01

    Presents examples of bibliographic, full-text, and numeric databases. Also discusses how to access these databases online, aids to online retrieval, and several issues and trends (including copyright and downloading, transborder data flow, use of optical disc/videodisc technology, and changing roles in database generation and processing). (JN)

  14. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  15. Thermodynamic interpolation

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, D E

    1998-10-01

    A method for constructing bicubic interpolation polynomials for the pressure P and internal energy E that are thermodynamically consistent at the mesh ponts and continuous across mesh boundaries is presented. The slope boundary conditions for the pressure and energy are derived from finite differences of the data and from Maxwell's consistency relation. Monotonicity of the sound speed and the specific heat is obtained by a bilinear interpolation of the slopes of the tabulated data. Monotonicity of the functions near steep gradients may be achieved by mesh refinement or by using a non-consistent bilinear to the data. Mesh refinement is very efficient for uniform-linear or uniform-logarithmic spaced data because a direct table lookup can be used. The direct method was compared to binary search and was 37 percent faster for logarithmic-spaced data and 106 percent faster for linear-spaced data. This improvement in speed is very important in the radiation-transport opacity-lookup part of the calculation. Interpolation in P-E space, with mesh refinement, can be made simple, robust, and conserve energy. In the final analysis the interpolation of the free energy and entropy (Maiden and Cook) remains a competitor.

  16. Computerized Adaptive Personality Testing: A Review and Illustration With the MMPI-2 Computerized Adaptive Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbey, Johnathan D.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    2007-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing in personality assessment can improve efficiency by significantly reducing the number of items administered to answer an assessment question. Two approaches have been explored for adaptive testing in computerized personality assessment: item response theory and the countdown method. In this article, the authors…

  17. A Computerized Implementation of a Flexilevel Test and Its Comparison with a Bayesian Computerized Adaptive Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeAyala, R. J.; Koch, William R.

    A computerized flexilevel test was implemented and its ability estimates were compared with those of a Bayesian estimation based computerized adaptive test (CAT) as well as with known true ability estimates. Results showed that when the flexilevel test was terminated according to Lord's criterion, its ability estimates were highly and…

  18. CD-ROM-aided Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, Hideo

    Dai Nippon Printing Company which has been developing a processing technology of characters, graphs and images for a long time, launched “DNP Multi-media Conversion System” by applying CTS (Computerized Typesetting System) technology. Media conversion of the bulky database into CD-ROM using this System is explained. Data input method to CD-ROM and system operation are also described. The examples are as follows. (1)Sanshusha Publishing “CD-WORD”, (2)Iwanami Shoten Publishers “Kojien CD-ROM ed.”(3)Nippon Shuppan Hanbai “CD-NOCS”.

  19. Ceramic Technology Project database: September 1990 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-06-01

    Data generated within the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP) represent a valuable resource for both research and industry. The CTP database was created to provide easy access to this information in electronic and hardcopy forms by using a computerized database and by issuing periodic hardcopy reports on the database contents. This report is the sixth in a series of semiannual database summaries and covers recent additions to the database, including joined brazed specimen test data. It covers 1 SiC, 34 SiN, 10 whisker-reinforced SiN, 2 zirconia-toughened aluminas, 8 zirconias, and 34 joints.

  20. The Evolution of a Computerized Medical Information System

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, W. Ed; Stead, W. W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the eighteen year history leading to the development of a computerized medical information system and discusses the factors which influenced its philosophy, design and implementation. This system, now called TMR, began as a single-user, tape-oriented minicomputer package and now exists as a multi-user, multi-database, multi-computer system capable of supporting a full range of users in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. The paper discusses why we did what we did, what worked, and what didn't work. Current projects are emphasized including networking and the integration of inpatient and outpatient functions into a single system. A theme of the paper is how hardware and software technological advancements, increasing sophistication of our users, our increasing experience, and just plain luck contributed to the success of TMR.

  1. Development of computerized scenarios for wildlife exposure to priority substances

    SciTech Connect

    Brownlee, L.J.; McPherson, S.M.; Norton, M.R.; Ward, D.R.; Lloyd, K.M.

    1995-12-31

    A computerized model has been developed to estimate wildlife exposure in the Canadian environment to substances through inhalation and ingestion of food, water and soil. This Windows application was developed in Visual Basic using Microsoft Access databases and designed to make the evaluation process consistent, transparent and efficient. Bird, mammal, amphibian and reptile species were selected on the basis of food guild, body size, habitat and distribution in Canada. Intake rates were estimated using allometric equations or measured intake rates when available. Ingestion rates were estimated from free-living metabolic rates and dietary composition. With the information, the authors will develop the exposure scenarios required for assessments of risk to wildlife from priority substances listed in the Canadian Environmental Protection Act.

  2. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  3. Implementing computerized tracking at a community health center: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Moran, W. P.; Wofford, J. L.; Hamrick, V.; Myers, B. T.; Cooper, J.; Doby, J.; FitzGerald, K.; Spence, C.; Velez, R.

    1993-01-01

    A computerized tracking system for both preventive care and chronic disease tracking was implemented at a community health center, using a PC based local area network interfaced with a mainframe scheduling and billing system. Initial database construction used downloads of historical billing data, but ongoing database maintenance is accomplished by using an optical mark-sense scanner to construct both billing and clinical tracking files from custom-designed encounter forms. In this way, expanded clinical data is collected with an actual reduction in manually keyed data, reducing the ongoing cost of the system. PMID:8130450

  4. Riding a Trojan horse: computerized psychiatric treatment planning using managed care principles.

    PubMed

    Rosenquist, P B; Colenda, C C; Briggs, J; Hardison, P; Jane, J

    1996-01-01

    Efforts to curtail health care costs have triggered new emphasis on resource management and accountability, entailing explicit documentation of the rationale for treatment and the resulting outcome of care. This article discusses the development of a computerized psychiatric treatment planning database that embodies principles and language of managed care, including specific admission criteria, severity ratings, and time frames for completion of interventions. The program is designed to balance goals of clinical utility, usefulness of the database as a tool for utilization review, quality improvement, and health services research, while providing an interface that is acceptable to clinicians. PMID:10162555

  5. Thermodynamics. II - The extended thermodynamic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    The algebraic theory of thermodynamics developed in a previous paper is extended to include the algebraic structure that arises from the introduction of a physical body into the theory. The extension is based on very general definitions of both the thermodynamic states of a body and subsystems of that body. The algebraic analysis, which includes bodies in nonuniform states, shows that the set of all thermodynamic states of a body has the same algebraic structure as the set of thermodynamic states and that composite systems are induced by the algebraic structure of thermodynamic states. The analysis also justifies a variational treatment of thermodynamic bodies in uniform as well as nonuniform states. The variational calculation includes all conventional methods of calculation as special cases and helps to illuminate the origin and interpretation of the electrochemical potential.

  6. Statistical databases

    SciTech Connect

    Kogalovskii, M.R.

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents a review of problems related to statistical database systems, which are wide-spread in various fields of activity. Statistical databases (SDB) are referred to as databases that consist of data and are used for statistical analysis. Topics under consideration are: SDB peculiarities, properties of data models adequate for SDB requirements, metadata functions, null-value problems, SDB compromise protection problems, stored data compression techniques, and statistical data representation means. Also examined is whether the present Database Management Systems (DBMS) satisfy the SDB requirements. Some actual research directions in SDB systems are considered.

  7. The Construction and Uses of CATIA, a Computerized Mathematics Testbank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Charles R.; Marosz, Wanda A.

    1977-01-01

    Described is the construction of a computerized test bank to generate and score tests in college algebra, trigonometry, and intermediate algebra; including a discussion of uses, advantages and disadvantages of computerized testing. (JLH)

  8. Measuring Thermodynamic Length

    SciTech Connect

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2007-09-07

    Thermodynamic length is a metric distance between equilibrium thermodynamic states. Among other interesting properties, this metric asymptotically bounds the dissipation induced by a finite time transformation of a thermodynamic system. It is also connected to the Jensen-Shannon divergence, Fisher information, and Rao's entropy differential metric. Therefore, thermodynamic length is of central interestin understanding matter out of equilibrium. In this Letter, we will consider how to denethermodynamic length for a small system described by equilibrium statistical mechanics and how to measure thermodynamic length within a computer simulation. Surprisingly, Bennett's classic acceptance ratio method for measuring free energy differences also measures thermodynamic length.

  9. A Computerized Adaptive Edition of the Differential Aptitude Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, James R.

    An overview of the development of a computerized version of the Differential Aptitude Tests (DAT) is presented. It describes the previously existing printed version of the DAT, design of the computerized adaptive edition, calibration of the test items for use in the computerized version, and two field studies that compared the Adaptive and…

  10. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  11. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  12. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  13. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  14. Database Manager

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    It is normal practice today for organizations to store large quantities of records of related information as computer-based files or databases. Purposeful information is retrieved by performing queries on the data sets. The purpose of DATABASE MANAGER is to communicate to students the method by which the computer performs these queries. This…

  15. Maize databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is a succinct overview of maize data held in the species-specific database MaizeGDB (the Maize Genomics and Genetics Database), and selected multi-species data repositories, such as Gramene/Ensembl Plants, Phytozome, UniProt and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ...

  16. NATIONAL ARCHIVE OF COMPUTERIZED DATA ON AGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Archive of Computerized Data on Aging (NACDA), located within ICPSR, is funded by the National Institute on Aging. NACDA's mission is to advance research on aging by helping researchers to profit from the under-exploited potential of a broad range of datasets. NACDA ...

  17. The Computerized Adaptive Testing System Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, James R.; Sympson, J. B.

    The Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) project is a joint Armed Services coordinated effort to develop and evaluate a system for automated, adaptive administration of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB). The CAT is a system for administering personnel tests that differs from conventional test administration in two major…

  18. 36 CFR 1120.52 - Computerized records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... additional programming of the computer, thus producing information not previously in being, is not required... from the computer which permits copying the printout, the material will be made available at the per... information from computerized records frequently involves a minimum computer time cost of approximately...

  19. MMI Preparatory School Computerized Model Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Nancy

    This booklet provides a detailed description of the computerization of the library of MMI Preparatory School, a private, non-sectarian college preparatory school in Pennsylvania for students in grades 7 through 12. Each of the following functions is investigated: (1) catalog card production; (2) online reference services; (3) circulation; (4) word…

  20. Calibrator Blocks For Computerized Tomography (CT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, H. Peter

    1990-01-01

    Sets of calibrator blocks developed for use with industrial computerized tomography (CT) systems. Set of blocks (or number of stacked sets of blocks) placed on object table of CT system and scanned in usual way. Blocks include holes of known size, shape, and location. Appearance of holes in output image of CT system used to verify operation of system.

  1. Individual Differences in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, JinGyu

    Research on the major computerized adaptive testing (CAT) strategies is reviewed, and some findings are reported that examine effects of examinee demographic and psychological characteristics on CAT strategies. In fixed branching strategies, all examinees respond to a common routing test, the score of which is used to assign examinees to a…

  2. Computerized Symbol Processing for Handicapped Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osguthorpe, Russell T.; And Others

    The paper describes the development of a computerized symbol processing system which allows nonspeaking severely handicapped persons to create communication electronically. Two pilot studies investigated the use of Rebus and Bliss Symbols with either an Apple Graphics Tablet or the Power Pad, a peripheral which allowed users to activate the…

  3. Issues in Computerized Communication: Components and Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Gregory Reed

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the growth of computerized communications. Attributes this growth to rapid growth of the computer industry, price reductions on computer equipment, and university installation of departmental computers. Describes the Internet, USENET, and electronic mail. Concludes that individuals must be trained to use, understand, and participate in…

  4. Item Selection in Computerized Classification Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Several alternatives for item selection algorithms based on item response theory in computerized classification testing (CCT) have been suggested, with no conclusive evidence on the substantial superiority of a single method. It is argued that the lack of sizable effect is because some of the methods actually assess items very similarly through…

  5. Principles for Creating a Computerized Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyllonen, Patrick C.

    1991-01-01

    The experience of developing a set of comprehensive aptitude batteries for computer administration for the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory's Learning Abilities Measurement Program resulted in the formulation of nine principles for creation of a computerized test battery. These principles are discussed in the context of research on…

  6. Computerized Mastery Testing with Nonequivalent Testlets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Kathleen; Lewis, Charles

    1992-01-01

    A procedure is introduced for determining the effect of testlet nonequivalence on operating characteristics of a testlet-based computerized mastery test (CMT). The procedure, which involves estimating the CMT decision rule twice with testlet likelihoods treated as equivalent or nonequivalent, is demonstrated with testlet pools from the Architect…

  7. An Introduction to the Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Jian-quan; Miao, Dan-min; Zhu, Xia; Gong, Jing-jing

    2007-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has unsurpassable advantages over traditional testing. It has become the mainstream in large scale examinations in modern society. This paper gives a brief introduction to CAT including differences between traditional testing and CAT, the principles of CAT, psychometric theory and computer algorithms of CAT, the…

  8. Computerized system for measuring cerebral metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    McGlone, J.S.; Hibbard, L.S.; Hawkins, R.A.; Kasturi, R.

    1987-09-01

    A computerized stereotactic measurement system for evaluating rat brain metabolism was developed to utilize the large amount of data generated by quantitative autoradiography. Conventional methods of measurement only analyze a small percent of these data because these methods are limited by instrument design and the subjectiveness of the investigator. However, a computerized system allows digital images to be analyzed by placing data at their appropriate three-dimensional stereotactic coordinates. The system automatically registers experimental data to a standard three-dimensional image using alignment, scaling, and matching operations. Metabolic activity in different neuronal structures is then measured by generating digital masks and superimposing them on to experimental data. Several experimental data sets were evaluated and it was noticed that the structures measured by the computerized system, had in general, lower metabolic activity than manual measurements had indicated. This was expected because the computerized system measured the structure over its volume while the manual readings were taken from the most active metabolic area of a particular structure.

  9. Evaluating Content Alignment in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.; Kingsbury, G. Gage; Webb, Norman L.

    2015-01-01

    The alignment between a test and the content domain it measures represents key evidence for the validation of test score inferences. Although procedures have been developed for evaluating the content alignment of linear tests, these procedures are not readily applicable to computerized adaptive tests (CATs), which require large item pools and do…

  10. MU's Early Space-Planning Computerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shader, Scott; Vaughn, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the development of the University of Missouri-Columbia's Space Planning and Management office (SPAM) and the computerization of the school's space-planning archives. Discusses SPAM's software selection for standardization as well as its manual development, placing the school's buildings and floor plans on the Web, and its space-modeling…

  11. Special Education Curriculum (Computerized IEP Catalog).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland Independent School District, TX.

    This special education curriculum, developed by the Garland (Texas) Independent School District, outlines the basic tools for preparing an Individual Educational Plan (IEP) for each handicapped student. The curricular information is organized and coded to facilitate computerized printing of the IEP. The document begins with a list of 13…

  12. The Four Generations of Computerized Educational Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunderson, C. Victor; And Others

    Educational measurement is undergoing a revolution due to the rapid dissemination of information-processing technology. The recent growth in computing resources and their widespread dissemination in daily life have brought about irreversible changes in educational measurement. Recent developments in computerized measurement are summarized by…

  13. Nursing Research Using Computerized Data Bases

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Kathleen A.

    1981-01-01

    Because of the implementation of large computerized information systems, the analyses of patient care data important to clinical nursing research is possible. Simultaneously, the heralding of computer technology in clinical practice areas has necessitated new research ideas to be pursued. This paper will describe a taxonomy of research data available on hospital information systems that may be used for clinical nursing research.

  14. Computerized Numerical Control Test Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide contains 285 test items for use in teaching a course in computerized numerical control. All test items were reviewed, revised, and validated by incumbent workers and subject matter instructors. Items are provided for assessing student achievement in such aspects of programming and planning, setting up, and operating machines with…

  15. Computerized Adaptive Mastery Tests as Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Theodore W.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of expert systems and computerized adaptive tests describes two versions of EXSPRT, a new approach that combines uncertain inference in expert systems with sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) stopping rules. Results of two studies comparing EXSPRT to adaptive mastery testing based on item response theory and SPRT approaches are…

  16. Computerized Inspection Of Gear-Tooth Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, R. F.; Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, Y.; Kuan, C.

    1994-01-01

    Method of manufacturing gears with precisely shaped teeth involves computerized inspection of gear-tooth surfaces followed by adjustments of machine-tool settings to minimize deviations between real and theoretical versions of surfaces. Thus, iterated cycles of cutting gear teeth, inspection, and adjustments help increase and/or maintain precision of subsequently manufactured gears.

  17. Termination Criteria for Computerized Classification Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Computerized classification testing (CCT) is an approach to designing tests with intelligent algorithms, similar to adaptive testing, but specifically designed for the purpose of classifying examinees into categories such as "pass" and "fail." Like adaptive testing for point estimation of ability, the key component is the termination criterion,…

  18. Computerized management information systems and organizational structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zannetos, Z. S.; Sertel, M. R.

    1970-01-01

    The computerized management of information systems and organizational structures is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) critical factors favoring centralization and decentralization of organizations, (2) classification of organizations by relative structure, (3) attempts to measure change in organization structure, and (4) impact of information technology developments on organizational structure changes.

  19. Computerized Enrollment Driven Financial Forecasting Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarvella, John R.

    An interactive, computerized model developed for Old Dominion University utilizes university historical data, demographic characteristics, projected selected economic variables and population figures by various age groups and planning districts to forecast enrollment, financial projections, and future fiscal conditions of the institution. The…

  20. Computerized Financial Reporting Based on GAAP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikkanen, Stan; Liljeberg, Burt

    1983-01-01

    Describes the statewide computerized system developed in Minnesota following the 1976 enactment of the Uniform Financial Accounting and Reporting Standards (UFARS) law. UFARS includes provisions for an advisory council responsible for recommending accounting and reporting procedures, and seven data processing centers to serve all 560 Minnesota…

  1. Computerized Grading of Anatomy Laboratory Practical Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krippendorf, Beth B.; Bolender, David L.; Kolesari, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the…

  2. Computerized versus paper-and-pencil testing methods for a nursing certification examination: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vrabel, Mark

    2004-01-01

    In conjunction with the decision of the Oncology Nursing Certification Corporation (ONCC) to computerize its examinations, the literature was reviewed to identify comparative studies of computerized versus paper-and-pencil testing methods and to determine the relative advantages of each. Data sources included journal articles and newsletter features identified via the ERIC, CINAHL, and PubMed databases or through frequent citation in the literature. The majority of studies found test scores to be independent of delivery mode. Several advantages of computerized testing were identified, including scheduling convenience, instant scoring capability, and enhanced security. One disadvantage may be an increase in testing anxiety for those without previous experience, although results in this area were mixed. Finally, studies and surveys often indicate an acceptance and preference for linear computer-based testing (CBT) by examinees. PMID:15520572

  3. Genome databases

    SciTech Connect

    Courteau, J.

    1991-10-11

    Since the Genome Project began several years ago, a plethora of databases have been developed or are in the works. They range from the massive Genome Data Base at Johns Hopkins University, the central repository of all gene mapping information, to small databases focusing on single chromosomes or organisms. Some are publicly available, others are essentially private electronic lab notebooks. Still others limit access to a consortium of researchers working on, say, a single human chromosome. An increasing number incorporate sophisticated search and analytical software, while others operate as little more than data lists. In consultation with numerous experts in the field, a list has been compiled of some key genome-related databases. The list was not limited to map and sequence databases but also included the tools investigators use to interpret and elucidate genetic data, such as protein sequence and protein structure databases. Because a major goal of the Genome Project is to map and sequence the genomes of several experimental animals, including E. coli, yeast, fruit fly, nematode, and mouse, the available databases for those organisms are listed as well. The author also includes several databases that are still under development - including some ambitious efforts that go beyond data compilation to create what are being called electronic research communities, enabling many users, rather than just one or a few curators, to add or edit the data and tag it as raw or confirmed.

  4. Computerized Risk and Bioaccumulation System (Version 1. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Winsor, M.; Pelletier, J.; Randall, R.; Bertling, J.

    1991-11-01

    The Computerized Risk And Bioaccumulation System (CRABS, Version 1.0) is an expert system that predicts tissue residues of fifteen neutral organic pollutants in sediment-dwelling organisms and the human cancer risk from consumption of the contaminated shellfish. Bioaccumulation from bedded sediment can be predicted from the thermodynamic partitioning, first-order kinetic, or toxicokinetic model. All the models can predict steady-state tissue residues while the two kinetic models can predict non-steady-state uptake or elimination. CRABS then predicts the lifetime human cancer risk from consumption of clams and other non-mobile sediment-dwelling organisms containing the predicted (or measured) tissue residue. The linearized multistage model is used to predict cancer risk for a single pollutant from a single species diet. The program guides the user in estimating shellfish consumption rates if no site-specific rates are available. CRABS is designed to promote thorough documentation of the assumptions and data as well as to error check the entered values.

  5. A technique to evaluate the performance of computerized ECG analysis systems.

    PubMed

    Teppner, U; Lobodzinski, S; Neubert, D; Laks, M M

    1987-10-01

    No objective method to test computerized ECG systems has been available. Until now, tests have been conducted separately for instrumentation and algorithms. Hence, to facilitate objective verification and testing of modern computerized ECG equipment, a dedicated high resolution, low noise instrument (an "electronic test patient") has been developed. The purpose of this communication is to describe this new instrument and its electrocardiographic database. The instrument is designed not to cause any disturbances to the original ECG signals in the frequency range from 0 to 1 kHz. The input channels accommodating standard 12-lead and 3-lead Frank systems are sampled simultaneously at 10 kHz each with 90 dB dynamic range. The overall RMS noise figure of the instrument is 1 microV. The integral part of the instrument is a high resolution, high bandwidth minidatabase consisting of selected A-type and B-type verified electrocardiograms such as infarctions, ventricular hypertrophies, atrial fibrillations, etc. The minidatabase was collected with the aid of a computerized ECG system, which has a program for searching for specific electrocardiographic diagnosis. Each database record consists of simultaneous electrocardiographic signals of all standard leads and Frank leads, and a validated diagnostic report. A system under test is typically connected via its patient cable to the analog output of the instrument. The testing is performed with reference to the validated ECG from the database. In that way, our minidatabase is compatible with any electrocardiographic system. The only similar database assembled for testing purposes is that of the CSE group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3694104

  6. Computerized Workstation for Tsunami Hazard Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentiev-Jr, Mikhail; Marchuk, Andrey; Romanenko, Alexey; Simonov, Konstantin; Titov, Vasiliy

    2010-05-01

    We present general structure and functionality of the proposed Computerized Workstation for Tsunami Hazard Monitoring (CWTHM). The tool allows interactive monitoring of hazard, tsunami risk assessment, and mitigation - at all stages, from the period of strong tsunamigenic earthquake preparation to inundation of the defended coastal areas. CWTHM is a software-hardware complex with a set of software applications, optimized to achieve best performance on hardware platforms in use. The complex is calibrated for selected tsunami source zone(s) and coastal zone(s) to be defended. The number of zones (both source and coastal) is determined, or restricted, by available hardware resources. The presented complex performs monitoring of selected tsunami source zone via the Internet. The authors developed original algorithms, which enable detection of the preparation zone of the strong underwater earthquake automatically. For the so-determined zone the event time, magnitude and spatial location of tsunami source are evaluated by means of energy of the seismic precursors (foreshocks) analysis. All the above parameters are updated after each foreshock. Once preparing event is detected, several scenarios are forecasted for wave amplitude parameters as well as the inundation zone. Estimations include the lowest and the highest wave amplitudes and the least and the most inundation zone. In addition to that, the most probable case is calculated. In case of multiple defended coastal zones, forecasts and estimates can be done in parallel. Each time the simulated model wave reaches deep ocean buoys or tidal gauge, expected values of wave parameters and inundation zones are updated with historical events information and pre-calculated scenarios. The Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) software package is used for mathematical simulation. The authors suggest code acceleration for deep water wave propagation. As a result, performance is 15 times faster compared to MOST, original version

  7. BIOMARKERS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This database was developed by assembling and evaluating the literature relevant to human biomarkers. It catalogues and evaluates the usefulness of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and effect which may be relevant for a longitudinal cohort study. In addition to describing ...

  8. A Computational Framework for Mineralogical Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chust, Thomas Christian; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd; Bunge, Hans-Peter

    2013-04-01

    Determining the compositional, thermodynamic and mechanical properties of the polycrystalline aggregates in the mantle is an essential tool for geodynamic and seismological applications. We have developed an efficient, object-oriented, extensible software framework to facilitate such computations: Taking a database of thermodynamic model parameters for different minerals, a stable phase assemblage can be determined using Gibbs energy minimization at any given pressure and temperature. The program also computes densities, elastic moduli, heat capacities and thermal expansivities to name a few possibilities. These outputs can be transferred to control parameters of the mass and energy balance equations of a mantle convection model or of the propagation equation for seismic waves.

  9. Thermodynamics: Frontiers and Foundations.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-07-27

    Version 00 Dr. J.D. Lewins has now released the following new book for free distribution: Thermodynamics: Frontiers and Foundations, Preface by Sir Alan Cottrell Introduction 1. Four-Square Foundations: The Laws of Thermodynamics 2. Maximum Entropy and Minimum Energy: The Master Functions and Equations 3. Ideal Gases and their Applications 4. Real Fluids and Some Applications 5. Van der Waals: A Model for Real Fluids 6. Surface Tension: Bubbles and Drops 7. Inert and Reactive Mixtures;more » An introduction to Chemical Thermodynamics 8. Radiation Thermodynamics: Solar Power Potential 9. Outposts of the Empire 10. A Glimpse into Statistical Thermodynamics Envoi« less

  10. Thermodynamics: Frontiers and Foundations.

    SciTech Connect

    JEFFERY,; LEWINS, D.

    2009-07-27

    Version 00 Dr. J.D. Lewins has now released the following new book for free distribution: Thermodynamics: Frontiers and Foundations, Preface by Sir Alan Cottrell Introduction 1. Four-Square Foundations: The Laws of Thermodynamics 2. Maximum Entropy and Minimum Energy: The Master Functions and Equations 3. Ideal Gases and their Applications 4. Real Fluids and Some Applications 5. Van der Waals: A Model for Real Fluids 6. Surface Tension: Bubbles and Drops 7. Inert and Reactive Mixtures; An introduction to Chemical Thermodynamics 8. Radiation Thermodynamics: Solar Power Potential 9. Outposts of the Empire 10. A Glimpse into Statistical Thermodynamics Envoi

  11. The NASA/LRC Computerized Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, W. Kirk; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. Sue; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1990-01-01

    A new testing package, including apparatus and tasks for the behavioral study of a number of species in a variety of experiments is presented. The package is described with respect to the kinds of comparative psychological investigations for which it is best suited. The preliminary data generated within this new testing paradigm demonstrate that the NASA/LRC Computerized Test System provides a flexible yet powerful environment for the investigation of behavioral and psychological processes.

  12. Computerized tomography in evaluation of hepatic neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, R.F.; Resende, C.; Tishler, J.M.A.; Aldrete, J.S.; Shin, M.S.; Rubin, E.; Rahn, N.H.

    1984-08-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen in 212 patients with histologically documented liver neoplasms seen during a 30-month period. The CT findings in cavernous hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia were specific, and permitted accurate diagnosis of this lesion before biopsy. The CT appearance of all other lesions was variable. CT is useful in providing an accurate evaluation of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic extent of the neoplasm.

  13. Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, D.; White, D. )

    1992-02-24

    This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well. The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes and fluid losses before the changes in flow would normally be apparent.

  14. Computerized implant-dentistry: Advances toward automation

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Minkle; Anand, Vishal; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Jain, Nikil; Gupta, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in the field of implantology such as three-dimensional imaging, implant-planning software, computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, computer-guided, and navigated implant surgery have led to the computerization of implant-dentistry. This three-dimensional computer-generated implant-planning and surgery has not only enabled accurate preoperative evaluation of the anatomic limitations but has also facilitated preoperative planning of implant positions along with virtual implant placement and subsequently transferring the virtual treatment plans onto the surgical phase via static (guided) or dynamic (navigated) systems aided by CAD/CAM technology. Computerized-implant-dentistry being highly predictable and minimally invasive in nature has also allowed implant placement in patients with medical comorbidities (e.g. radiation therapy, blood dyscrasias), in patients with complex problems following a significant alteration of the bony anatomy as a result of benign or malignant pathology of the jaws or trauma and in patients with other physical and emotional problems. With significant achievements accomplished in the field of computerized implant-dentistry, attempts are now been made toward complete automation of implant-dentistry. PMID:25810585

  15. Experiment Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanschoren, Joaquin; Blockeel, Hendrik

    Next to running machine learning algorithms based on inductive queries, much can be learned by immediately querying the combined results of many prior studies. Indeed, all around the globe, thousands of machine learning experiments are being executed on a daily basis, generating a constant stream of empirical information on machine learning techniques. While the information contained in these experiments might have many uses beyond their original intent, results are typically described very concisely in papers and discarded afterwards. If we properly store and organize these results in central databases, they can be immediately reused for further analysis, thus boosting future research. In this chapter, we propose the use of experiment databases: databases designed to collect all the necessary details of these experiments, and to intelligently organize them in online repositories to enable fast and thorough analysis of a myriad of collected results. They constitute an additional, queriable source of empirical meta-data based on principled descriptions of algorithm executions, without reimplementing the algorithms in an inductive database. As such, they engender a very dynamic, collaborative approach to experimentation, in which experiments can be freely shared, linked together, and immediately reused by researchers all over the world. They can be set up for personal use, to share results within a lab or to create open, community-wide repositories. Here, we provide a high-level overview of their design, and use an existing experiment database to answer various interesting research questions about machine learning algorithms and to verify a number of recent studies.

  16. Computerizing Internal Information in a Special Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawaldo, Rich; Schlueter, Betsy

    Modeled on public databases such as Lockheed and SDC, the information system described in this report was utilized in the creation of in-house databases in the Mobay Chemical Corporation's special library in Pittsburgh. Using IBM's Storage and Information Retrieval System (STAIRS), Mobay created two databases: one to hold product information, the…

  17. Solubility Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  18. Thermodynamics of firms' growth

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano, Eduardo; Hernando, Alberto; Hernando, Ricardo; Plastino, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of firms' growth and firms' sizes is a topic under intense scrutiny. In this paper, we show that a thermodynamic model based on the maximum entropy principle, with dynamical prior information, can be constructed that adequately describes the dynamics and distribution of firms' growth. Our theoretical framework is tested against a comprehensive database of Spanish firms, which covers, to a very large extent, Spain's economic activity, with a total of 1 155 142 firms evolving along a full decade. We show that the empirical exponent of Pareto's law, a rule often observed in the rank distribution of large-size firms, is explained by the capacity of economic system for creating/destroying firms, and that can be used to measure the health of a capitalist-based economy. Indeed, our model predicts that when the exponent is larger than 1, creation of firms is favoured; when it is smaller than 1, destruction of firms is favoured instead; and when it equals 1 (matching Zipf's law), the system is in a full macroeconomic equilibrium, entailing ‘free’ creation and/or destruction of firms. For medium and smaller firm sizes, the dynamical regime changes, the whole distribution can no longer be fitted to a single simple analytical form and numerical prediction is required. Our model constitutes the basis for a full predictive framework regarding the economic evolution of an ensemble of firms. Such a structure can be potentially used to develop simulations and test hypothetical scenarios, such as economic crisis or the response to specific policy measures. PMID:26510828

  19. Thermodynamics of firms' growth.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Eduardo; Hernando, Alberto; Fernández Bariviera, Aurelio; Hernando, Ricardo; Plastino, Angelo

    2015-11-01

    The distribution of firms' growth and firms' sizes is a topic under intense scrutiny. In this paper, we show that a thermodynamic model based on the maximum entropy principle, with dynamical prior information, can be constructed that adequately describes the dynamics and distribution of firms' growth. Our theoretical framework is tested against a comprehensive database of Spanish firms, which covers, to a very large extent, Spain's economic activity, with a total of 1,155,142 firms evolving along a full decade. We show that the empirical exponent of Pareto's law, a rule often observed in the rank distribution of large-size firms, is explained by the capacity of economic system for creating/destroying firms, and that can be used to measure the health of a capitalist-based economy. Indeed, our model predicts that when the exponent is larger than 1, creation of firms is favoured; when it is smaller than 1, destruction of firms is favoured instead; and when it equals 1 (matching Zipf's law), the system is in a full macroeconomic equilibrium, entailing 'free' creation and/or destruction of firms. For medium and smaller firm sizes, the dynamical regime changes, the whole distribution can no longer be fitted to a single simple analytical form and numerical prediction is required. Our model constitutes the basis for a full predictive framework regarding the economic evolution of an ensemble of firms. Such a structure can be potentially used to develop simulations and test hypothetical scenarios, such as economic crisis or the response to specific policy measures. PMID:26510828

  20. AB INITIO AND CALPHAD THERMODYNAMICS OF MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, P A

    2004-04-14

    Ab initio electronic structure methods can supplement CALPHAD in two major ways for subsequent applications to stability in complex alloys. The first one is rather immediate and concerns the direct input of ab initio energetics in CALPHAD databases. The other way, more involved, is the assessment of ab initio thermodynamics {acute a} la CALPHAD. It will be shown how these results can be used within CALPHAD to predict the equilibrium properties of multi-component alloys.

  1. Computerized decision support for concurrent utilization review using the HELP system.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, B D; Gardner, R M; Hedrick, G; Gould, P

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Development and evaluation of computerized concurrent utilization review (UR) support taking advantage of a clinically rich computerized patient database. DESIGN: The Automated Support System for Utilization Review (ASSURE) applies the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP) Day of Care criteria to computerized patient data in the HELP hospital information system. This paper reports the development, verification, and validation of ASSURE. MEASUREMENTS: Implementation correctness was verified by measuring agreement with a nurse reviewer, using separate sample sets for all 20 criteria for a total of 560 current inpatients. Usefulness in detecting inappropriate days of care was validated by two nurse reviewers who were crossed with manual and computer-assisted review methods in a blocked design for 168 current inpatients. Agreement with reviewers, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were measured. RESULTS: Agreement was very good for satisfaction of criteria, and good for appropriateness of day of care. A patient day identified by ASSURE as potentially inappropriate would be twice as likely to be judged inappropriate by a reviewer as a randomly selected patient day. Review of the 10% of patient days identified as potentially inappropriate by ASSURE would identify approximately 21% of the inappropriate days of care. CONCLUSION: ASSURE is a clinically useful tool for screening adult acute care patients for inappropriate days of care, and promises to make a major contribution to reducing health care costs. The prognosis for successful routine clinical use is good. PMID:7719820

  2. Development of computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Li, Feng; Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Nie, Yongkang; Doi, Kunio

    2006-03-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Several clinical trials indicated clearly that pharmacologic therapy for osteoporosis is effective for persons with vertebral fractures for preventing subsequent fractures. It is, therefore, important to diagnose vertebral fractures early. Although most vertebral fractures are asymptomatic, they can often be detected on lateral chest radiographs which may be obtained for other purposes. However, investigators have reported that vertebral fractures which were visible on lateral chest radiographs were underdiagnosed or underreported. Therefore, our purpose in this study was to develop a computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs and to assist radiologists' image interpretation. Our computerized scheme is based on the detection of upper and lower edges of vertebrae on lateral chest images. A curved rectangular area which included a number of visible vertebrae was identified. This area was then straightened such that the upper and lower edges of the vertebrae were oriented horizontally. For detection of vertebral edges, line components were enhanced, and a multiple thresholding technique followed by image feature analysis was applied to the line enhanced image. Finally, vertebral heights determined from the detected vertebral edges were used for characterizing the shape of the vertebrae and for distinguishing fractured from normal vertebrae. Our preliminary results indicated that all of the severely fractured vertebrae in a small database were detected correctly by our computerized method.

  3. Computerized adaptive control weld skate with CCTV weld guidance project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes progress of the automatic computerized weld skate development portion of the Computerized Weld Skate with Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) Arc Guidance Project. The main goal of the project is to develop an automatic welding skate demonstration model equipped with CCTV weld guidance. The three main goals of the overall project are to: (1) develop a demonstration model computerized weld skate system, (2) develop a demonstration model automatic CCTV guidance system, and (3) integrate the two systems into a demonstration model of computerized weld skate with CCTV weld guidance for welding contoured parts.

  4. National Geochronological Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Revised by Sloan, Jan; Henry, Christopher D.; Hopkins, Melanie; Ludington, Steve; Original database by Zartman, Robert E.; Bush, Charles A.; Abston, Carl

    2003-01-01

    The National Geochronological Data Base (NGDB) was established by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to collect and organize published isotopic (also known as radiometric) ages of rocks in the United States. The NGDB (originally known as the Radioactive Age Data Base, RADB) was started in 1974. A committee appointed by the Director of the USGS was given the mission to investigate the feasibility of compiling the published radiometric ages for the United States into a computerized data bank for ready access by the user community. A successful pilot program, which was conducted in 1975 and 1976 for the State of Wyoming, led to a decision to proceed with the compilation of the entire United States. For each dated rock sample reported in published literature, a record containing information on sample location, rock description, analytical data, age, interpretation, and literature citation was constructed and included in the NGDB. The NGDB was originally constructed and maintained on a mainframe computer, and later converted to a Helix Express relational database maintained on an Apple Macintosh desktop computer. The NGDB and a program to search the data files were published and distributed on Compact Disc-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) in standard ISO 9660 format as USGS Digital Data Series DDS-14 (Zartman and others, 1995). As of May 1994, the NGDB consisted of more than 18,000 records containing over 30,000 individual ages, which is believed to represent approximately one-half the number of ages published for the United States through 1991. Because the organizational unit responsible for maintaining the database was abolished in 1996, and because we wanted to provide the data in more usable formats, we have reformatted the data, checked and edited the information in some records, and provided this online version of the NGDB. This report describes the changes made to the data and formats, and provides instructions for the use of the database in geographic

  5. Use of computerized test batteries for quantifying neurobehavioral outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Letz, R

    1991-01-01

    Neurobehavioral testing provides for noninvasive assessment of the functional integrity of the nervous system. Neurobehavioral tests have been used as quantitative outcome measures in a number of epidemiologic investigations of the potential effects on the nervous system from exposure to organic solvents, heavy metals, and pesticides. Because of the functional complexity of the nervous system, sets of tests assessing a range of functions have been used, with inconsistency from one study to another. Although there has been recent progress in standardizing a core set of tests for use in occupational epidemiology, major consensus on testing methods has not emerged. Standardization of test methods is essential to provide a consistent database for risk analysis. Automation of data collection provides not only standardization, but also improved time efficiency, of data collection and analysis. The computerized Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES) has been developed to address the need for standardized, efficient data acquisition of a range of neurobehavioral variables. Examples of application of NES in epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to solvents are summarized. The need for use of NES as a tool for surveillance and in prospective epidemiologic investigations is emphasized. PMID:2050061

  6. The GraVent DDT database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeck, Lorenz R.; Katzy, Peter; Hasslberger, Josef; Kink, Andreas; Sattelmayer, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    An open-access online platform containing data from experiments on deflagration-to-detonation transition conducted at the Institute of Thermodynamics, Technical University of Munich, has been developed and is accessible at http://www.td.mw.tum.de/ddt. The database provides researchers working on explosion dynamics with data for theoretical analyses and for the validation of numerical simulations.

  7. Modern management of childhood diabetes: a role for computerized devices?

    PubMed

    Chiarelli, F; Di Ricco, L; Catino, M; Sabatino, G; Verrotti, A

    1998-08-01

    Technology is increasingly relevant in everyday life and it can be very interesting to apply it also in the field of diabetes as it can be one way of ensuring better care. In the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, the intensively treated patients were seen fortnightly in hospital and contacted even more frequently by telephone during the day as well as at night. For these reasons, health reforms are undergoing a radical change in an attempt to reduce the spiraling costs of health care provision. Therefore, it can be useful to use information technology (IT) in diabetes care. The European Federation for Medical Informatics recently established some Special Issues to advance IT initiatives that may be able to address the problem of adjusting the insulin dose and controlling blood glucose (BG) levels, as well as assisting in the provision of modern-day diabetes care. The Special Issues can be classified under the following headings: databases, algorithms, decision support, models and education. It can be useful to develop a prototype computer system that can be applied to different areas of clinical diabetes care; computerized out-patients' clinical databases that store patients' clinical and biochemical data; statistical and graphical analysis programs that help the clinician; dietary analysis programs which examine food composition and dietary exchanges and help devise meal plans; hand-held insulin dosage adjustment computers that advise patients on a day-by-day or even meal-by-meal basis; expert systems and question and answer programs for patients' education, and finally games for children. These systems have the potential to be useful tools in many aspects of diabetes care but their utilization by the vast majority of the health care community has been extremely limited. Nonetheless, computers cannot substitute for the pediatric diabetes team, which remains the major determinant for better care of diabetes in children and adolescents. PMID:9745768

  8. Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

  9. Teaching consultation psychiatry through computerized case simulation.

    PubMed

    Jachna, J S; Powsner, S M; McIntyre, P J; Byck, R

    1993-03-01

    The PsyConsult Adventure Simulation program presents a case simulation of consultation in a general hospital. Exploring this computerized case helps trainees prepare for the complexities of consultation that they will face on the hospital wards. The simulation provides a distinctive approach, modeling the process of an actual consultation and allowing trainees to explore on their own initiative. It presents general techniques of psychiatric consultation as well as specifics of diagnosis and treatment. The program demonstrates the feasibility of using case simulation with a personal computer system as a supplement to bedside teaching of consultation psychiatry. PMID:24443195

  10. Computerized certification of digital ultrasonic instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, M. W.

    1987-09-01

    A computerized inspection system is being set up at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to enable certification of the Krautkramer Branson ultrasonic instrumentation used extensively in Y-12 production operations. The system takes the data required to certify the linearity and frequency response of the receiver and to certify the correct operation of the pulsers, gates, and computer interface. A subset of the program will be able to verify correct instrumentation in the field by using the actual computer and instrumentation being used for production ultrasonic weld inspections. The system can reduce the certification time from approximately one week to less than an hour.

  11. Thermodynamics and combustion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, Frank J.

    1986-01-01

    Modeling fluid phase phenomena blends the conservation equations of continuum mechanics with the property equations of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic contribution becomes especially important when the phenomena involve chemical reactions as they do in combustion systems. The successful study of combustion processes requires (1) the availability of accurate thermodynamic properties for both the reactants and the products of reaction and (2) the computational capabilities to use the properties. A discussion is given of some aspects of the problem of estimating accurate thermodynamic properties both for reactants and products of reaction. Also, some examples of the use of thermodynamic properties for modeling chemically reacting systems are presented. These examples include one-dimensional flow systems and the internal combustion engine.

  12. Thermodynamic estimation: Ionic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, Leslie

    2013-10-15

    Thermodynamics establishes equilibrium relations among thermodynamic parameters (“properties”) and delineates the effects of variation of the thermodynamic functions (typically temperature and pressure) on those parameters. However, classical thermodynamics does not provide values for the necessary thermodynamic properties, which must be established by extra-thermodynamic means such as experiment, theoretical calculation, or empirical estimation. While many values may be found in the numerous collected tables in the literature, these are necessarily incomplete because either the experimental measurements have not been made or the materials may be hypothetical. The current paper presents a number of simple and relible estimation methods for thermodynamic properties, principally for ionic materials. The results may also be used as a check for obvious errors in published values. The estimation methods described are typically based on addition of properties of individual ions, or sums of properties of neutral ion groups (such as “double” salts, in the Simple Salt Approximation), or based upon correlations such as with formula unit volumes (Volume-Based Thermodynamics). - Graphical abstract: Thermodynamic properties of ionic materials may be readily estimated by summation of the properties of individual ions, by summation of the properties of ‘double salts’, and by correlation with formula volume. Such estimates may fill gaps in the literature, and may also be used as checks of published values. This simplicity arises from exploitation of the fact that repulsive energy terms are of short range and very similar across materials, while coulombic interactions provide a very large component of the attractive energy in ionic systems. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Estimation methods for thermodynamic properties of ionic materials are introduced. • Methods are based on summation of single ions, multiple salts, and correlations. • Heat capacity, entropy

  13. Computerized medication administration records decrease medication occurrences.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A L; Hill, J J; Wilson, R G; Nipper, K; Kwon, I W

    1997-04-01

    Studies have demonstrated that medication errors occur at a number of locations in the continuum between ordering of drug therapy and administration of the medication. Computer management of patient medication profiles offers the opportunity to enhance communication between pharmacists and nurses, and to decrease medication errors and delays in delivery of therapy. A number of authors have postulated that computerization of medication profiles would enhance medication delivery accuracy and timeliness, but no study has demonstrated this improvement. We report the results of a retrospective analysis undertaken to assess the improvements resulting from sharing a computerized medication record. We used a broader definition of medication occurrences that includes the more traditional definition, and averted errors, delays in delivery of medications and information, and disagreements between pharmacy and nursing medication profiles. We compared medication occurrences reported through an existing internal system between two periods; the first when separate pharmacy and nursing medication records were used, and the second period when a shared medication record was used by pharmacy and nursing. Average medication occurrences per admission decreased from 0.1084 to 0.0658 (p < 0.01). Medication occurrences per dose decreased from 0.0005 to 0.0003 (p < 0.01). The use of a shared medication record by pharmacy and nursing led to a statistically significant decrease in medication occurrences. Information shared between the two professions allowed timely resolution of discrepancies in medication orders, leading to better execution of drug therapy, decreased medication occurrences, and increased efficiency. PMID:10166241

  14. Computerized interpretation of solitary pulmonary nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Mitani, Masanobu; Natori, Hiroshi

    1998-04-01

    In physicians' interpretation, morphologic characteristics of pulmonary nodules are not only important signs for the discrimination, but also important features for the diagnosis with a reasonable degree of confidence. This paper describes about the computerized interpretation system which is developed to analyze the relation between the measuring values and the morphologic characteristics, and to make clear the logic of physicians' diagnosis. We think that the four basic morphologic characteristics of the discriminative diagnosis between benign and malignant nodules exist which are: (1) the density; (2) the homogeneity; (3) the definition; and (4) the convergence. To obtain each grade of the parameters, we developed an interpretation system. On the other hand, to obtain digital feature values, we used our computer aided diagnosis system. Interpretation experiments were performed by using 15 benign and 19 malignant cases of chest x-ray CT images. As the result of a statistical analysis, some digital features have the significant differences between benign and malignant nodules, and the morphological characteristics have also differences. Therefore the computerized system is feasible to help physicians' interpretation to distinct between malignant and benign nodules by showing digital feature values as some references.

  15. A computerized multichannel platelet aggregometer system.

    PubMed

    Kuzara, D; Zoltan, B J; Greathouse, S L; Jordan, C W; Kohler, C A

    1986-08-01

    Commercially available instrumentation for conducting platelet aggregation studies in clinical and research laboratories consists of one-, two-, or four-channel aggregometers used in conjunction with strip chart recorders. These instruments have limited utility in large-scale drug screening and evaluation of the mode of action of drugs or in the clinical diagnosis of platelet disorders. A new instrument, a computerized multichannel aggregometer system (CMPAS) has been developed to collect, display, and analyze platelet aggregation data. The system is comprised of a 24-channel Born-type aggregometer, interfaced to a Rockwell AIM-65 microcomputer through an analogue-to-digital converter and an Epson dot-matrix printer. Each channel is individually calibrated, and aggregation data can be collected on up to 24 different platelet-rich plasma samples simultaneously. Conversational programs written in BASIC prompt the user for the addition of agonists and inhibitors. The tracings for each channel are displayed simultaneously, and a program automatically analyzes the data to generate the following parameters: baseline optical density, maximum aggregation response, positive and negative slopes, time to peak aggregation, and percentage response. Computerized multichannel aggregometer system data outputs are comparable to data generated by a standard Chronolog aggregometer unit. The advantages of the system include multichannel capability, simultaneous display of all channels allowing relative comparisons between control and experimental groups, and time savings and improved efficiency in conducting and analyzing aggregation experiments. PMID:3755779

  16. Database Tools for Evaluating Thermophysical Property Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowley, Richard L.; Wilding, W. Vincent; Oscarson, John L.; Yang, Yan

    2007-06-01

    Most thermophysical-property databases (TPD) provide low-level quality control checks. This manuscript focuses on additional, higher-level data evaluations made possible by the breadth of data stored in the database. For example, thermodynamic equations relate the critical point, vapor-pressure curve, enthalpy of vaporization, liquid density, and liquid and vapor heat capacities to each other. Thermodynamic consistency among these properties can be used to guide selection of the best data sets. Even more broadly, molecular structure-based trends in properties can be identified within the database, and the properties of structurally related compounds can be effectively used to discriminate among available datasets. Automated property predictions can be used in conjunction with the TPD to guide the selection of the most accurate data. These and other high-level consistency tools will be illustrated based on evaluation and quality control work associated with the DIPPR® 801 TPD project for pure chemicals.

  17. Using "Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature" on CD-Rom To Teach Database Searching to High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Joanne F.

    The lack of opportunity for high school sophomores to learn database searching was addressed by the implementation of a computerized magazine article search program. "Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature" on CD-ROM was used to train students in database searching during the time they were assigned to the library to do research papers for…

  18. Computerized Adaptive Assessment of Cognitive Abilities among Disabled Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engdahl, Brian

    This study examined computerized adaptive testing and cognitive ability testing of adults with cognitive disabilities. Adult subjects (N=250) were given computerized tests on language usage and space relations in one of three administration conditions: paper and pencil, fixed length computer adaptive, and variable length computer adaptive.…

  19. Kinds of Arguments Emerging While Exploring in a Computerized Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Ilana

    2004-01-01

    In this paper there is a description of a case in which mathematical argumentation emerge and develop between 7th grade students working in an interactive computerized environment without a deliberate mentoring. The computerized environment has its influence on the characteristics of this argumentation which include mathematical regularities based…

  20. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... operational computerized support enforcement system, which meets Federal requirements under § 302.85(a)(1) of... October 1, 2000, each State must have in effect an operational computerized support enforcement system... plans to use and how they will interface with the base system; (3) Provide documentation that...

  1. The 24-Hour Job Machine: Computerized Applicant Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedman, Lisa W.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of computerized job applicant systems is described and compared to that of computerized banking systems; the characteristics of such systems in the future, especially for minimizing data entry and maximizing accessibility, are then outlined and illustrated with the Carnegie-Mellon University system. (MSE)

  2. Real-Data Simulation of Computerized Adaptive Bayesian Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, W. Paul

    1993-01-01

    Investigated model for reducing time for administration of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) using real-data simulation of Bayesian scaling in computerized adaptive administration. Findings from simulation study using data from 127 undergraduates are strongly supportive of use of Bayesian scaled computerized adaptive administration of MBTI.…

  3. The Reality, Direction, and Future of Computerized Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Sharing information in digital form by using a computer is a growing phenomenon. Many universities are making their applications available on computer. More than one hundred and thirty-six universities have developed computerized applications on their own or through a commercial vendor. Universities developed computerized applications in order to…

  4. 11 CFR 9033.12 - Production of computerized information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... magnetic media, such as magnetic tapes or magnetic diskettes, containing the computerized information at the times specified in 11 CFR 9038.1(b)(1): (1) Information required by law to be maintained regarding.... The computerized magnetic media shall be prepared and delivered at the committee's expense and...

  5. MCATL: A Language for Authoring Computerized Adaptive Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, C. David

    The specification of a computerized adaptive test, like the specification of computer-assisted instruction, is easier and can be done by personnel who are not proficient in computer programming if an authoring language is provided. The Minnesota Computerized Adaptive Testing Language (MCATL) is an authoring language specifically designed for…

  6. Computerized Ability Testing, 1972-1975. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    Three and one-half years of research on computerized ability testing are summarized. The original objectives of the research were: (1) to develop and implement the stratified computer-based ability test; (2) to compare, on psychometric criteria, the various approaches to computer-based ability testing, including the stratified computerized test,…

  7. Differential Experiences of Men and Women in Computerized Offices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutek, Barbara A.; Bikson, Tora K.

    1985-01-01

    Presents data from a multiple-instrument, multisite, two-wave study of office computerized procedures in order to determine if they differentially affect men and women employees. Preliminary analysis supports hypothesis that men benefit more in terms of career enhancement, but women are generally satisfied with computerized offices. (SA)

  8. 11 CFR 9033.12 - Production of computerized information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the times specified in 11 CFR 9038.1(b)(1): (1) Information required by law to be maintained regarding... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production of computerized information. 9033.12...: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND ELIGIBILITY FOR PAYMENTS § 9033.12 Production of computerized...

  9. Computerized techniques pave the way for drug-drug interaction prediction and interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Safdari, Reza; Ferdousi, Reza; Aziziheris, Kamal; Niakan-Kalhori, Sharareh R.; Omidi, Yadollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Health care industry also patients penalized by medical errors that are inevitable but highly preventable. Vast majority of medical errors are related to adverse drug reactions, while drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are the main cause of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). DDIs and ADRs have mainly been reported by haphazard case studies. Experimental in vivo and in vitro researches also reveals DDI pairs. Laboratory and experimental researches are valuable but also expensive and in some cases researchers may suffer from limitations. Methods: In the current investigation, the latest published works were studied to analyze the trend and pattern of the DDI modelling and the impacts of machine learning methods. Applications of computerized techniques were also investigated for the prediction and interpretation of DDIs. Results: Computerized data-mining in pharmaceutical sciences and related databases provide new key transformative paradigms that can revolutionize the treatment of diseases and hence medical care. Given that various aspects of drug discovery and pharmacotherapy are closely related to the clinical and molecular/biological information, the scientifically sound databases (e.g., DDIs, ADRs) can be of importance for the success of pharmacotherapy modalities. Conclusion: A better understanding of DDIs not only provides a robust means for designing more effective medicines but also grantees patient safety. PMID:27525223

  10. Thermodynamics: A Stirling effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Jordan M.; Parrondo, Juan M. R.

    2012-02-01

    The realization of a single-particle Stirling engine pushes thermodynamics into stochastic territory where fluctuations dominate, and points towards a better understanding of energy transduction at the microscale.

  11. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Reynier, Yvan; Yazami, Rachid; Fultz, Brent T.

    2009-09-29

    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  12. The Thermodynamics of Portfolios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, E. W.; Sladkowski, J.

    2001-02-01

    We propose a new method of valuation of portfolios and their respective investing strategies. To this end we define a canonical ensemble of portfolios that allows to use the formalism of thermodynamics.

  13. Thermodynamics and Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, William L.; Reid, David S.

    1993-01-01

    The heat content of a food at a given temperature can be described by the thermodynamic property of enthalpy. Presents a method to construct a simple calorimeter for measuring the enthalpy changes of different foods during freezing. (MDH)

  14. Computerized nursing staffing: a software evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Irene Mari; Gaidzinski, Raquel Rapone; Fugulin, Fernanda Maria Togeiro; Peres, Heloísa Helena Ciqueto; Lima, Antônio Fernandes Costa; Castilho, Valéria; Mira, Vera Lúcia; Massarollo, Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

    2011-12-01

    The complexity involved in operationalizing the method for nursing staffing, in view of the uncountable variable related to identifying the workload, the effective working time of the staff, and the Technical Security Index (TSI) revealed the need to develop a software program named: Computerized Nursing Staffing (DIPE, in Portuguese acronyms). This exploratory, descriptive study was performed with the objective to evaluate the technical quality and functional performance of DIPE. Participants were eighteen evaluators, ten of whom where nurse faculty or nurse hospital unit managers, and eight health informatics experts. The software evaluation was performed according to norm NBR ISO/IEC 9126-1, considering the features functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, and maintainability. The software evaluation reached positive results and agreement among the evaluators for all the evaluated features. The reported suggestions are important for proposing further improving and enhancing the DIPE. PMID:22282068

  15. Economic Evaluation of Computerized Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortin, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    This completed effort involved a technical and economic study of the capabilities of computer programs in the area of structural analysis. The applicability of the programs to NASA projects and to other users was studied. The applications in other industries was explored including both research and development and applied areas. The costs of several alternative analysis programs were compared. A literature search covered applicable technical literature including journals, trade publications and books. In addition to the literature search, several commercial companies that have developed computerized structural analysis programs were contacted and their technical brochures reviewed. These programs include SDRC I-DEAS, MSC/NASTRAN, SCADA, SUPERSAP, NISA/DISPLAY, STAAD-III, MICAS, GTSTRUDL, and STARS. These programs were briefly reviewed as applicable to NASA projects.

  16. Computerized system for translating a torch head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, W. A., Jr.; Ives, R. E.; Bruce, M. M., Jr.; Pryor, P. P., Jr.; Gard, L. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The system provides a constant travel speed along a contoured workpiece. It has a driven skate characterized by an elongated bed, with a pair of independently pivoted trucks connected to the bed for support. The trucks are mounted on a contoured track of arbitrary configuration in a mutually spaced relation. An axially extensible torch head manipulator arm is mounted on the bed of the carriage and projects perpendicular from the midportion. The torch head is mounted at its distal end. A real-time computerized control drive subsystem is used to advance the skate along the track of a variable rate for maintaining a constant speed for the torch head tip, and to position the torch axis relative to a preset angle to the workpiece.

  17. Computerized bone analysis of hand radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietka, Ewa; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Hall, Theodore R.; Huang, H. K.

    1992-06-01

    A computerized approach to the problem of skeletal maturity is presented. The analysis of a computed radiography (CR) hand image results in obtaining features, that can be used to assess the skeletal age of pediatric patients. It is performed on a standard left hand radiograph. First, epiphyseal regions of interest (EROI) are located. Then, within each EROI the distals, middles, and proximals are separated. This serves as a basis to locate the extremities of epiphyses and metaphyses. Next, the diameters of epiphyses and metaphyses are calculated. Finally, an epiphyseal diameter and metaphyseal diameter ratio is calculated. A pilot study indicated that these features are sensitive to the changes of the anatomical structure of a growing hand and can be used in the skeletal age assessment.

  18. Implementing a computerized operating room management system.

    PubMed

    Choy, M

    1991-01-01

    The Queen's Medical Center implemented a computerized operating room management system in 1987 that includes surgery scheduling, intraoperative recording, and resource tracking. In addition to the important functional components, the system provides management with a better tool for decision-making. The purpose of this article is to describe this implementation. Background is provided to identify the manual system's deficiencies followed by the anticipated benefits of the computer system. The paper concentrates on Queen's implementation experiences in coding the surgical procedure information, confronting staff anxiety, managing the changing roles of the staff and providing adequate resources. Minimum requirements for a successful implementation include designating an effective project leader, assigning system responsibilities to the user, relieving all operational responsibilities from key members of the project team and providing adequate resources to support the system. PMID:1760543

  19. Computerized tomography in acute and chronic pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmar, J.A.; Matthews, C.C.; Bishop, L.A.

    1984-11-01

    Modern imaging techniques have revolutionized the diagnostic evaluation of pancreatitis, primarily demonstrating its complications. Computerized tomography (CT) is a more sensitive method than ultrasonography and pancreatic ductography. A chart review revealed 214 patients at our hospital with a discharge diagnosis of pancreatitis. Sixty patients had CT for evaluation of possible complications. Only five scans were normal. Of 37 cases of acute pancreatitis, 92% demonstrated localized or diffuse enlargement, and 65% showed loss of pancreatic outline. Other frequent findings included thickening of perirenal fascia (49%), ileus (43%), edema of mesentery (35%), and inflammatory exudate (32%). Abscess and pseudocyst were each detected in 8% of cases. In chronic pancreatitis 65% of patients showed localized or diffuse pancreatic enlargement. Atrophy of the gland (30%), calcification (30%), pseudocyst (26%), and dilated pancreatic ducts (17%) were also seen. CT is effective in evaluating pancreatitis and its complications. 14 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  20. A COMPUTERIZED OPERATOR SUPPORT SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Ken Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. A prototype COSS was developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the Human System Simulation Laboratory.

  1. The Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, M. P.; Yucker, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    A computerized anatomical man (CAM) model, representing the most detailed and anatomically correct geometrical model of the human body yet prepared, has been developed for use in analyzing radiation dose distribution in man. This model of a 50-percentile standing USAF man comprises some 1100 unique geometric surfaces and some 2450 solid regions. Internal body geometry such as organs, voids, bones, and bone marrow are explicitly modeled. A computer program called CAMERA has also been developed for performing analyses with the model. Such analyses include tracing rays through the CAM geometry, placing results on magnetic tape in various forms, collapsing areal density data from ray tracing information to areal density distributions, preparing cross section views, etc. Numerous computer drawn cross sections through the CAM model are presented.

  2. Stackfile Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deVarvalho, Robert; Desai, Shailen D.; Haines, Bruce J.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Gilmer, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This software provides storage retrieval and analysis functionality for managing satellite altimetry data. It improves the efficiency and analysis capabilities of existing database software with improved flexibility and documentation. It offers flexibility in the type of data that can be stored. There is efficient retrieval either across the spatial domain or the time domain. Built-in analysis tools are provided for frequently performed altimetry tasks. This software package is used for storing and manipulating satellite measurement data. It was developed with a focus on handling the requirements of repeat-track altimetry missions such as Topex and Jason. It was, however, designed to work with a wide variety of satellite measurement data [e.g., Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment -- GRACE). The software consists of several command-line tools for importing, retrieving, and analyzing satellite measurement data.

  3. Thermodynamics of Bioreactions.

    PubMed

    Held, Christoph; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2016-06-01

    Thermodynamic principles have been applied to enzyme-catalyzed reactions since the beginning of the 1930s in an attempt to understand metabolic pathways. Currently, thermodynamics is also applied to the design and analysis of biotechnological processes. The key thermodynamic quantity is the Gibbs energy of reaction, which must be negative for a reaction to occur spontaneously. However, the application of thermodynamic feasibility studies sometimes yields positive Gibbs energies of reaction even for reactions that are known to occur spontaneously, such as glycolysis. This article reviews the application of thermodynamics in enzyme-catalyzed reactions. It summarizes the basic thermodynamic relationships used for describing the Gibbs energy of reaction and also refers to the nonuniform application of these relationships in the literature. The review summarizes state-of-the-art approaches that describe the influence of temperature, pH, electrolytes, solvents, and concentrations of reacting agents on the Gibbs energy of reaction and, therefore, on the feasibility and yield of biological reactions. PMID:27276551

  4. Database Marketplace 2002: The Database Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Robinson, William

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the database industry over the past year, including new companies and services, company closures, popular database formats, popular access methods, and changes in existing products and services. Lists 33 firms and their database services; 33 firms and their database products; and 61 company profiles. (LRW)

  5. Using bibliographic databases in technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, G. David

    1987-01-01

    When technology developed for a specific purpose is used in another application, the process is called technology transfer--the application of an existing technology to a new use or user for purposes other than those for which the technology was originally intended. Using Bibliographical Databases in Technology Transfer deals with demand-pull transfer, technology transfer that arises from need recognition, and is a guide for conducting demand-pull technology transfer studies. It can be used by a researcher as a self-teaching manual or by an instructor as a classroom text. A major problem of technology transfer is finding applicable technology to transfer. Described in detail is the solution to this problem, the use of computerized, bibliographic databases, which currently contain virtually all documented technology of the past 15 years. A general framework for locating technology is described. NASA technology organizations and private technology transfer firms are listed for consultation.

  6. A corrosion database system for exposure tests

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kato, Chuichi; Nogami, Atsushi; Matsuoka, Ai

    1997-12-31

    A computerized corrosion database system for exposure tests has been designed and developed. This system was developed to help researchers carry out each experimental procedure in exposure tests. The system includes a function to manage not only the experimental data but also the timetable of exposure tests and the environmental factors of exposure sites. An easily used graphical user interface (GUI) and graph plot software are provided for users to help analyze exposure test results from various viewpoints. The data accumulated in this system are measurements of past exposure tests and exposure tests in progress. The analyses of past exposure tests using the present database system resulted in several ideas on atmospheric corrosion different from the conventional ideas on atmospheric corrosion. If the data of exposure tests in progress are compared with past data, the relationships between atmospheric corrosion and environmental factors will be more clarified.

  7. Interactive searching of facial image databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Robert A.; Shepherd, John W.; Shepherd, Jean

    1995-09-01

    A set of psychological facial descriptors has been devised to enable computerized searching of criminal photograph albums. The descriptors have been used to encode image databased of up to twelve thousand images. Using a system called FACES, the databases are searched by translating a witness' verbal description into corresponding facial descriptors. Trials of FACES have shown that this coding scheme is more productive and efficient than searching traditional photograph albums. An alternative method of searching the encoded database using a genetic algorithm is currenly being tested. The genetic search method does not require the witness to verbalize a description of the target but merely to indicate a degree of similarity between the target and a limited selection of images from the database. The major drawback of FACES is that is requires a manual encoding of images. Research is being undertaken to automate the process, however, it will require an algorithm which can predict human descriptive values. Alternatives to human derived coding schemes exist using statistical classifications of images. Since databases encoded using statistical classifiers do not have an obvious direct mapping to human derived descriptors, a search method which does not require the entry of human descriptors is required. A genetic search algorithm is being tested for such a purpose.

  8. GREEDI---The computerization of the DOE/DOD environmental data bank

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C R; Kephart, E M

    1988-01-01

    One of the major responsibilities of Sandia National Laboratories is to develop shock and vibration specifications for system mechanical, electrical, and pyrotechnic components. The data required to generate these specifications are collected from finite element analyses, from laboratory simulation experiments with hardware, and from environmental tests. The production of the component specifications requires the analysis, comparison, and continual updating of these data. Sandia National Laboratories has also maintained the DOE/DOD Environmental Data Bank for over 25 years to assist in its shock and vibration efforts as well as to maintain data for several other types of environments. A means of facilitating shared access to engineering analysis data and providing an integrated environment to perform shock and vibration data analysis tasks was required. An interactive computer code and database system named GREEDI (a Graphical Resource for an Engineering Environmental Database Implementation) was developed and implemented. This transformed the DOE/DOD Environmental Data Bank from a card index system into an easily accessed computerized engineering database tool that can manage data in digitized form. GREEDI was created by interconnecting the SPEEDI (Sandia Partitioned Engineering Environmental Database Implementation) code, and the GRAFAID code, an interactive X-Y data analysis tool. An overview of the GREEDI software system is presented. 10 refs.

  9. Proposed computerized protocol for epidemiological study of patients undergoing microsurgery of the larynx

    PubMed Central

    Catani, Guilherme Simas do Amaral; Carvalho, Bettina; Filho, Jorge Massaaki Ido; Filho, Evaldo Dacheux de Macedo; Pinto, José Simão de Paula; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Stahlke, Henrique Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The merging of medicine with information technology facilitates the retrieval of stored data, aiding the conduct of research with greater scientific rigor. Studies in the field of otorhinolaryngology, specifically in the area of laryngology and voice, are of fundamental importance, since 70% of the economically active need their voice to work. Objective: To create a computerized protocol of the diseases of the larynx, apply and validate it, and use it to evaluate patients undergoing laryngoscopic microsurgery of the larynx. Method: We created a database of ENT diseases through a literature review of textbooks and scientific articles. Next, we computerized the data and incorporated it into the SINPE©, creating a master protocol (ENT diseases) and a specific protocol (laryngeal diseases). Data were collected prospectively from patients undergoing laryngeal microsurgery in the ENT Hospital of Paraná. The collected data were analyzed with graphs through the SINPE© Analyzer module. Results: We evaluated 245 patients aged 9–79 years, and determined that 36.61% (93 patients) underwent surgery for the presence of polyps on the vocal folds, 12.6% (32) underwent surgery for papillomatosis, and 11.83% (29) underwent surgery for intracordal cysts. Conclusions: The creation of an electronic database of clinical ENT diseases was feasible. We were also able to implement and validate the protocol. The database may be released to physicians involved in clinical data collection and retrieval of information to conduct scientific research in an organized manner. The most common laryngeal disorders identified were polyps, papilloma, and intracordal cysts. PMID:25991956

  10. Computerized Point of Sale = Faster Service + Better Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannell, Dorothy V.

    1991-01-01

    Describes selecting and installing a computerized point of sale for a district food service program; the equipment needed and preferred; and the training of trainers, managers, and cashiers. Also discusses the direct benefits and side benefits of the system. (MLF)

  11. Improving Efficiency and Quality in a Computerized ICU

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Karen E.; Sittig, Dean F.; Gardner, Reed M.; Pryor, T. Allan; Budd, Marge

    1988-01-01

    Ongoing efforts have been made to improve the efficiency and quality of care available in ICU's at LDS Hospital. ICU's have been computerized, and patient data collection, storage and presentation have been improved. Nurse care plans and charting have been computerized, and effects of these changes have been evaluated. Work sampling studies showed a decrease in direct patient care (49.1% to 43.2%) and an increase in nurse charting (18.2% to 24.2%) after implementation of computerized nurse charting. These changes were accounted for by a decrease in patient severity of illness. Implementation of the computerized nurse charting system had no significant impact on daily ICU nursing activities. Time savings are not automatic, but could be realized through management practices designed to maximize benefits of the nurse charting system and to make best use of available nursing resources.

  12. Survey of methods for improving operator acceptance of computerized aids

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, P. R.; Kisner, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    The success of current attempts to improve the operational performance and safety of nuclear power plants by installing computerized operational aids in the control rooms is dependent, in part, on the operator's attitude toward the aid. Utility experience with process computer systems indicates that problems may already exist with operator acceptance of computerized aids. The growth of the role that computers have in nuclear power plants makes user acceptance of computer technology an important issue for the nuclear industry. The purpose of this report is to draw from the literature factors related to user acceptance of computerized equipment that may also be applicable to the acceptance of computerized aids used in the nuclear power plant control room.

  13. Computerized tomographic evaluation of aortic prosthetic graft complications

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, D.; Kalmar, J.A.

    1985-03-01

    Computerized tomography has been found to be an accurate and sensitive method of diagnosing complications of synthetic aortic grafts. Complications in this series of four cases included aortoesophageal fistula, aortoduodenal fistula, pseudoaneurysm, and retroperitoneal hematoma. 6 references, 5 figures.

  14. Geometric Computerized Proofs = Drawing Package + Symbolic Computation Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Witold A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper advocates the use of symbolic computation packages as another aid in teaching geometry. The need for such packages and their use in computerized proofs are demonstrated by a problem in high school planar geometry. (LZ)

  15. Thermodynamics of Biological Processes

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Hernan G.; Kondev, Jane; Orme, Nigel; Theriot, Julie A.; Phillips, Rob

    2012-01-01

    There is a long and rich tradition of using ideas from both equilibrium thermodynamics and its microscopic partner theory of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this chapter, we provide some background on the origins of the seemingly unreasonable effectiveness of ideas from both thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in biology. After making a description of these foundational issues, we turn to a series of case studies primarily focused on binding that are intended to illustrate the broad biological reach of equilibrium thinking in biology. These case studies include ligand-gated ion channels, thermodynamic models of transcription, and recent applications to the problem of bacterial chemotaxis. As part of the description of these case studies, we explore a number of different uses of the famed Monod–Wyman–Changeux (MWC) model as a generic tool for providing a mathematical characterization of two-state systems. These case studies should provide a template for tailoring equilibrium ideas to other problems of biological interest. PMID:21333788

  16. Thermodynamics of Nonadditive Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latella, Ivan; Pérez-Madrid, Agustín; Campa, Alessandro; Casetti, Lapo; Ruffo, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    The usual formulation of thermodynamics is based on the additivity of macroscopic systems. However, there are numerous examples of macroscopic systems that are not additive, due to the long-range character of the interaction among the constituents. We present here an approach in which nonadditive systems can be described within a purely thermodynamics formalism. The basic concept is to consider a large ensemble of replicas of the system where the standard formulation of thermodynamics can be naturally applied and the properties of a single system can be consequently inferred. After presenting the approach, we show its implementation in systems where the interaction decays as 1 /rα in the interparticle distance r , with α smaller than the embedding dimension d , and in the Thirring model for gravitational systems.

  17. EROS Main Image File: A Picture Perfect Database for Landsat Imagery and Aerial Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Robert F.

    1984-01-01

    Describes Earth Resources Observation System online database, which provides access to computerized images of Earth obtained via satellite. Highlights include retrieval system and commands, types of images, search strategies, other online functions, and interpretation of accessions. Satellite information, sources and samples of accessions, and…

  18. On Using On-Line Data-Bases for Help in Technical Translating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brace, Gerald

    1981-01-01

    Illustrates with two examples the use of online databases for help in translating technical words that cannot be readily found in the literature or in dictionaries. Description of search methods shows how computerized documentation can provide pinpoint access to a vast body of literature. (MES)

  19. Mid-America Computerized Ionospheric Tomography Experiment (MACE '93)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronschnabl, G. R.; Bust, G. S.; Cook, J. A.; Vasicek, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    A computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) experiment utilizing an array of nine Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS) receivers deployed along a north-south line from South Dakota to south Texas (spanning over 2000 km) is currently underway. The Mid-America Computerized Ionospheric Tomography Experiment (MACE '93) began collecting data from three receivers deployed in Texas on June 1, 1993. This "short communiqué" presents preliminary results from the experiment.

  20. Thermodynamics of Nitinol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNichols, J. L., Jr.; Cory, J. S.

    1987-02-01

    A self-consistent macroscopic thermodynamics is developed for the calculation of work, heat, and dissipation for thermodynamic paths of the shape memory alloy, Nitinol. The thermodynamic system analyzed is a Nitinol helix for which extensive force-length-temperature (FLT) equation of state measurements have been made. The Nitinol system exhibits significant hysteresis and is determined to be a nonequilibrium thermostatic system. A set of equations of state are provided which correlate all reversible and irreversible Nitinol thermodynamic paths to both the set of helix (FLT) thermodynamic state variables and to new ``history'' state variables. It is shown that these equations predict observed cyclic behaviors not previously interpreted. In the absence of calorimetric measurements for the Nitinol helix system, a physical assumption is made that reversible paths are of constant phase. This assumption is used to estimate the reversible path thermal and mechanical heat capacities for the Nitinol system. With the state equations and the estimated reversible path heat capacities, the nonequilibrium thermostatic formalism is employed to derive expressions for the heat flow for any Nitinol thermodynamic path. It is shown that predicted calorimetric quantities are in good qualitative agreement with measurements. It is also shown that the calorimetric quantities are sensitive to state equation coefficients, which in turn are sensitive to cold-working or ``conditioning'' of the material. The large heat of transformation, ˜2.4 cal/g, an estimated isentropic temperature change of 22 °C and the large dimensional changes associated with the shape memory effect, imply that Nitinol may be useful for many applications, including use as a working medium for low-grade thermal-energy conversion (i.e., heat engines).

  1. Thermodynamics of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanov, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    The 21st century has brought a lot of new results related to graphene. Apparently, graphene has been characterized from all points of view except surface science and, especially, surface thermodynamics. This report aims to close this gap. Since graphene is the first real two-dimensional solid, a general formulation of the thermodynamics of two-dimensional solid bodies is given. The two-dimensional chemical potential tensor coupled with stress tensor is introduced, and fundamental equations are derived for energy, free energy, grand thermodynamic potential (in the classical and hybrid forms), enthalpy, and Gibbs energy. The fundamentals of linear boundary phenomena are formulated with explaining the concept of a dividing line, the mechanical and thermodynamic line tensions, line energy and other linear properties with necessary thermodynamic equations. The one-dimensional analogs of the Gibbs adsorption equation and Shuttleworth-Herring relation are presented. The general thermodynamic relationships are illustrated with calculations based on molecular theory. To make the reader sensible of the harmony of chemical and van der Waals forces in graphene, the remake of the classical graphite theory is presented with additional variable combinations of graphene sheets. The calculation of the line energy of graphene is exhibited including contributions both from chemical bonds and van der Waals forces (expectedly, the latter are considerably smaller than the former). The problem of graphene holes originating from migrating vacancies is discussed on the basis of the Gibbs-Curie principle. An important aspect of line tension is the planar sheet/nanotube transition where line tension acts as a driving force. Using the bending stiffness of graphene, the possible radius range is estimated for achiral (zigzag and armchair) nanotubes.

  2. Viscoplasticity: A thermodynamic formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Chaboche, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    A thermodynamic foundation using the concept of internal state variables is given for a general theory of viscoplasticity, as it applies to initially isotropic materials. Three fundamental internal state variables are admitted. They are: a tensor valued back stress for kinematic effects, and the scalar valued drag and yield strengths for isotropic effects. All three are considered to phenomenologically evolve according to competitive processes between strain hardening, strain induced dynamic recovery, and time induced static recovery. Within this phenomenological framework, a thermodynamically admissible set of evolution equations is put forth. This theory allows each of the three fundamental internal variables to be composed as a sum of independently evolving constituents.

  3. Thermodynamics of lattice OCD

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, H.

    1985-01-01

    The thermodynamic consequences of QCD are explored in the framework of lattice gauge theory. Attention is focused upon the nature of the chiral symmetry restoration transition at finite temperature and at finite baryon density, and possible strategies for identifying relevant thermodynamic phases are discussed. Some numerical results are presented on the chiral symmetry restoration in the SU(2) gauge theory at high baryon density. The results suggest that with T approx. = 110 MeV there is a second order restoration transition at the critical baryon density n/sub B//sup c/ approx. = 0.62 fm/sup -3/.

  4. Computerized electroencephalographic mapping in hypomagnesian spasmophilic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Popoviciu, L; Bagathai, I; Hobai, S; Buksa, C; Tudosie, M; Delast-Popoviciu, R

    1989-01-01

    Out of 397 patients presenting hypomagnesaemia there were selected for this study only 107 cases with neurotic and neuromuscular clinical picture (sometimes with short and simple loss of consciousness) without any sign of organic cerebral lesion. The dosing of the seric and erythrocytic magnesium was performed by means of a colorimetric method of Mann and Yoe, modified by the authors. In all the cases, the EEG and EMG changes were studied by simultaneous recording of the EEG and EMG before, during and after hyperpnoea. In these 107 selected cases (divided into three groups: children, adolescents and adults) the computerized electroencephalographic maps (CEM) were carried out by an original method, transcribing the primary data of Hjorth's NSD parameters (Amplitudes and Frequencies) into a Romanian M-118 microcomputer, by a technique with analog-digital conversion. The CEM (in white-black and in colour cartography) were performed for various epochs, including the sequential ones (second by second, all along the EEG discharges during and after hyperpnoea). By these methods, we analyzed the dynamic fluctuation and temporo-spatial cortical distribution of the sinusoidal slow waves generated by the reticulate neuronal hypersynchrony. The CEM showed some differences in the three groups of hypomagnesemic syndromes selected. PMID:2675300

  5. Language Networks Associated with Computerized Semantic Indices

    PubMed Central

    Pakhomov, Serguei V. S.; Jones, David T.; Knopman, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Tests of generative semantic verbal fluency are widely used to study organization and representation of concepts in the human brain. Previous studies demonstrated that clustering and switching behavior during verbal fluency tasks is supported by multiple brain mechanisms associated with semantic memory and executive control. Previous work relied on manual assessments of semantic relatedness between words and grouping of words into semantic clusters. We investigated a computational linguistic approach to measuring the strength of semantic relatedness between words based on latent semantic analysis of word co-occurrences in a subset of a large online encyclopedia. We computed semantic clustering indices and compared them to brain network connectivity measures obtained with task-free fMRI in a sample consisting of healthy participants and those differentially affected by cognitive impairment. We found that semantic clustering indices were associated with brain network connectivity in distinct areas including fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal and fusiform gyrus regions. This study shows that computerized semantic indices complement traditional assessments of verbal fluency to provide a more complete account of the relationship between brain and verbal behavior involved organization and retrieval of lexical information from memory. PMID:25315785

  6. Computerized assessment of dental student writing skills.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Joseph M; Elliot, Norbert; Biber, Cheryl L; Sanders, R Michael

    2005-02-01

    This study tested the feasibility of using computer-based tools for the assessment of written materials produced by dental students. Written assignments produced by three consecutive incoming dental school classes (240 students) were assessed, and the performance among and between classes was analyzed. Computerized assessment of documents produced by students in the context of their regular coursework proved to be an efficient and effective mechanism for assessing performance. Student performance, assessed as a byproduct of this research, was disappointing. The performance of all classes fell below the eleventh grade level, with some students producing written material at a level of sophistication generally expected from middle school children. Existing technology shows promise as a vehicle for enhancing the assessment of dental students' written communication skills. The ease of use and minimal training necessary to apply this technology can help mitigate the time-intensive nature of writing assessment. If this assessment information is then used to enhance instruction--a process inherently available through software such as WebCT--the distance between assessment and instruction may be more readily bridged through an increase in the use of technology. PMID:15689614

  7. Clinicians' Response to Computerized Detection of Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Beatriz H.S.C.; Christenson, John C.; Evans, R. Scott; Gardner, Reed M.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To analyze whether computer-generated reminders about infections could influence clinicians' practice patterns and consequently improve the detection and management of nosocomial infections. Design: The conclusions produced by an expert system developed to detect and manage infections were presented to the attending clinicians in a pediatric hospital to determine whether this information could improve detection and management. Clinician interventions were compared before and after the implementation of the system. Measurements: The responses of the clinicians (staff physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) to the reminders were determined by review of paper medical charts. Main outcome measures were the number of suggestions to treat and manage infections that were followed before and after the implementation of compiss (Computerized Pediatric Infection Surveillance System). The clinicians' opinions about the system were assessed by means of a paper questionnaire distributed following the experiment. Results: The results failed to show a statistical difference between the clinicians' treatment strategies before and after implementation of the system (P > 0.33 for clinicians working in the emergency room and P > 0.45 for clinicians working in the pediatric intensive care unit). The questionnaire results showed that the respondents appreciated the information presented by the system. Conclusion: The computer-generated reminders about infections were unable to influence the practice patterns of clinicians. The methodologic problems that may have contributed to this negative result are discussed. PMID:11230380

  8. Computerized Techniques for Calibrating Pressure Balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, D. I.

    1994-01-01

    Pressure balances are generally calibrated by the cross-floating technique, where the forces acting on two similar devices in hydrostatic equilibrium are compared. It is a skilled and time-consuming process which has not previously lent itself to significant automation; computers have mostly been used only to calculate results after measurements have been taken. The objective of the present work was to develop real-time computerized measurement techniques to ease the calibration task, which would fully integrate into a single package with versatile software for calculating and displaying results. The calibration process is now conducted by studying graphical computer displays which derive their inputs from differential-pressure transducers and capacitance or optical displacement sensors. The mass imbalance between oil-operated pressure balances is calculated by interpolating between changes in piston rate-of-fall. Differential-pressure transducers are used to estimate mass imbalances between gas-operated balances, and a quick in situ method for determining their sensitivity has been developed. The new techniques have been successfully applied to a variety of pressure balance designs and substantial reductions in calibration times have been achieved. Reduced levels of scatter have revealed small systematic differences between gauge and absolute modes of operation.

  9. Facilitating medication incident analysis through computerization.

    PubMed

    Pankoski, D G; Dinel, B A

    1988-05-01

    A computer program to facilitate medication incident analysis is described. This program was developed to provide the hospital's Medication Quality Assurance Committee with more meaningful data on medication incidents in an easily accessible database as well as enhanced data storage. The menu-driven program was developed on an Olivetti M-24 SP microcomputer using Lotus 1-2-3 and Harvard Business Graphics software. The structured format of the database contains specific information from each individual medication incident report. On a monthly basis, macro commands are used to extract criteria-based data from the database and present this information in a tabular format. In addition, annual data tables are complied to provide year-to-date data summaries. The database and tables are copied and stored on a computer diskette each month. This computer program has provided the Medication Quality Assurance Committee with an improved system for medication incident data analysis. The major benefit of this computer program over the previous manual system is the more timely identification of medication-related practices requiring closer monitoring and/or revision to improve patient care. PMID:10287638

  10. Overlap in Bibliographic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, William W.; Wilson, Concepcion S.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the topic of Fuzzy Set Theory to determine the overlap of coverage in bibliographic databases. Highlights include examples of comparisons of database coverage; frequency distribution of the degree of overlap; records with maximum overlap; records unique to one database; intra-database duplicates; and overlap in the top ten databases.…

  11. Black Hole Thermodynamics in an Undergraduate Thermodynamics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Barry R.; McLeod, Robert J.

    1980-01-01

    An analogy, which has been drawn between black hole physics and thermodynamics, is mathematically broadened in this article. Equations similar to the standard partial differential relations of thermodynamics are found for black holes. The results can be used to supplement an undergraduate thermodynamics course. (Author/SK)

  12. Normalized mean shapes and reference index values for computerized quantitative assessment indices of chest wall deformities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho Chul; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Seong Keon; Nam, Ki Chang; Park, Hyung Joo; Kim, Min Gi; Song, Jae-Jun; Choi, Hyuk

    2015-11-01

    We previously proposed a computerized index (eccentricity index [EI]) for chest-wall deformity measurements, such as pectus excavatum. We sought to define mean shapes based on normal chest walls and to propose for computerized index reference values of that are used in the quantitative analysis of the severity of chest-wall deformities. A total of 584 patients were classified into 18 groups, and a database of their chest-wall computed tomography (CT) scan images was constructed. The boundaries of the chest wall were extracted by using a segmentation algorithm, and the mean shapes were subsequently developed. The reference index values were calculated from the developed mean shapes. Reference index values for the EI were compared with a conventional index, the Haller index (HI). A close association has been shown between the two indices in multiple subjects (r = 0.974, P < 0.001). The newly developed mean shapes and reference index values supply both reliability and objectivity to the diagnosis, analysis, and treatment of chest-wall deformities. They promise to be highly useful in clinical settings.

  13. Developing a Computerized Aging Management System for Concrete Structures in Finnish Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Neshawy, F.; Piironen, J.; Sistonen, E.; Vesikari, E.; Tuomisto, M.; Hradil, P.; Ferreira, M.

    2013-07-01

    Finland has four nuclear reactors units in two power plants. The first unit started operation in 1977 and in the early 1980's all four units were in use. During the last few years the aging management of the Nuclear Power Plant's (NPP) concrete structures has grown an important issue because the existing structures are reaching the end of their licensed operating lifetime (about 40 years). Therefore the nuclear power companies are developing aging management systems to avoid premature degradation of NPP facilities and to be able to extend their operating lifetime. This paper is about the development of a computerized ageing management system for the nuclear power plants concrete structures. The computerized ageing management system is built upon central database and implementation applications. It will assist the personnel of power companies to implement the aging management activities at different phases of the lifetime of a power plant. It will provide systematic methods for planning, surveillance, inspection, monitoring, condition assessment, maintenance and repair of structures.

  14. Development and trial operation of a site-wide computerized material accounting system at Kurchatov Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Roumiantsev, A.N.; Ostroumov, Y.A.; Yevstropov, A.V.

    1997-11-01

    Since August 1994 Kurchatov Institute in cooperation with several US Department of Energy Laboratories has been developing a site-wide computerized material accounting system for nuclear materials. In 1994 a prototype system was put into trial operation at two Kurchatov facilities. Evaluation of this prototype led to the development of a new computerized material accounting system named KI-MACS, which has been operational since 1996. This system is a site-wide local secure computer network with centralized database capable of dealing with strictly confidential data and performing near-real time accountancy. It utilizes a Microsoft Windows NT operating system with SQL Server and Visual Basic, and has a `star`-like network architecture. KI-MACS is capable of dealing with materials in itemized and bulk form, and can perform statistical evaluations of measurements and material balance. KI-MACS is fully integrated with bar code equipment, electronic scales, gamma-ray spectrometers and an Active Well Coincidence Counter, thus providing almost on-line evaluation and utilization of results of measurements, item identification and accounting. At present KI-MACS is being used in Physical Inventory Taking at the Kurchatov Central Storage Facility, and by the end of 1997 will be installed at twelve Kurchatov nuclear facilities.

  15. Thermodynamics of convective circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D. K.; Renno, N. O.

    2003-04-01

    The heat engine framework has proven successful for studies of atmospheric phenomena ranging from small to large scales. At large scales, the heat engine framework provides estimates of convective available potential energy, convective velocities, and fractional area covered by convection. At the smaller end of the spectrum, the framework provides estimates of the intensity of convective vortices such as dust devils and waterspouts. The heat engine framework sheds light on the basic physics of planetary atmospheres. In particular, it allows the calculation of their thermodynamic efficiency. Indeed, this is a fundamental number for atmospheric circulations because it quantifies the amount of heat that is converted into kinetic energy. As such, it is a valuable number not only for comparison of models with nature, but also for the intercomparison of models. In the present study, we generalize the heat engine framework to large-scale circulations, both open (e.g., the Hadley circulation) and closed (e.g., the general circulation) and apply it to an idealized global climate model to ascertain the thermodynamic efficiency of model circulations, both global and regional. Our results show that the thermodynamic efficiency is sensitive to model resolution and provides a baseline for minimum model resolution in climate studies. The value of the thermodynamic efficiency of convective circulations in nature is controversial. It has been suggested that both nature and numerical models are extremely irreversible. We show that both the global and the Hadley circulation of the idealized model are, to a first approximation, reversible.

  16. Program Computes Thermodynamic Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1994-01-01

    PAC91 is latest in PAC (Properties and Coefficients) series. Two principal features are to provide means of (1) generating theoretical thermodynamic functions from molecular constants and (2) least-squares fitting of these functions to empirical equations. PAC91 written in FORTRAN 77 to be machine-independent.

  17. Thermodynamics of Resource Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauserman, W. B.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates the overall economic efficiency of a closed resource cycle. Uses elementary thermodynamic definitions of overall thermal efficiency for determining an economically quantifiable basis. Selects aluminum for investigation and includes a value-entropy diagram for a closed aluminum cycle. (MVL)

  18. Thermodynamics of Dilute Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancso, Gabor; Fenby, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses principles and definitions related to the thermodynamics of dilute solutions. Topics considered include dilute solution, Gibbs-Duhem equation, reference systems (pure gases and gaseous mixtures, liquid mixtures, dilute solutions), real dilute solutions (focusing on solute and solvent), terminology, standard states, and reference systems.…

  19. Thermodynamics with Design Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cilento, E. V.; Sears, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how basic thermodynamics concepts are integrated with design problems. Includes course goals, instructional strategies, and major advantages/disadvantages of the integrated design approach. Advantages include making subject more concrete, emphasizing interrelation of variables, and reinforcing concepts by use in design analysis; whereas…

  20. Focus on stochastic thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Broeck, Christian; Sasa, Shin-ichi; Seifert, Udo

    2016-02-01

    We introduce the thirty papers collected in this ‘focus on’ issue. The contributions explore conceptual issues within and around stochastic thermodynamics, use this framework for the theoretical modeling and experimental investigation of specific systems, and provide further perspectives on and for this active field.

  1. On Teaching Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debbasch, F.

    2011-01-01

    The logical structure of classical thermodynamics is presented in a modern, geometrical manner. The first and second law receive clear, operatively oriented statements and the Gibbs free energy extremum principle is fully discussed. Applications relevant to chemistry, such as phase transitions, dilute solutions theory and, in particular, the law…

  2. The EXOSAT database system. Available databases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, C.

    1991-02-01

    This User's Guide describes the databases that are currently available by remote login to the EXOSAT/ESTEC site of the EXOSAT database system. This includes where ever possible the following: brief descriptions of each observatory, telescope and instrument references to more complete observatory descriptions a list of the contents of each database and how it was generated, parameter descriptions.

  3. Comparison of Ablation Predictions for Carbonaceous Materials Using CEA and JANAF-Based Species Thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.

    2011-01-01

    In most previous work at NASA Ames Research Center, ablation predictions for carbonaceous materials were obtained using a species thermodynamics database developed by Aerotherm Corporation. This database is derived mostly from the JANAF thermochemical tables. However, the CEA thermodynamics database, also used by NASA, is considered more up to date. In this work, the FIAT code was modified to use CEA-based curve fits for species thermodynamics, then analyses using both the JANAF and CEA thermodynamics were performed for carbon and carbon phenolic materials over a range of test conditions. The ablation predictions are comparable at lower heat fluxes where the dominant mechanism is carbon oxidation. However, the predictions begin to diverge in the sublimation regime, with the CEA model predicting lower recession. The disagreement is more significant for carbon phenolic than for carbon, and this difference is attributed to hydrocarbon species that may contribute to the ablation rate.

  4. Fluctuating Thermodynamics for Biological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Sihyun

    Because biomolecular processes are largely under thermodynamic control, dynamic extension of thermodynamics is necessary to uncover the mechanisms and driving factors of fluctuating processes. The fluctuating thermodynamics technology presented in this talk offers a practical means for the thermodynamic characterization of conformational dynamics in biomolecules. The use of fluctuating thermodynamics has the potential to provide a comprehensive picture of fluctuating phenomena in diverse biological processes. Through the application of fluctuating thermodynamics, we provide a thermodynamic perspective on the misfolding and aggregation of the various proteins associated with human diseases. In this talk, I will present the detailed concepts and applications of the fluctuating thermodynamics technology for elucidating biological processes. This work was supported by Samsung Science and Technology Foundation under Project Number SSTF-BA1401-13.

  5. An information model based weld schedule database

    SciTech Connect

    Kleban, S.D.; Knorovsky, G.A.; Hicken, G.K.; Gershanok, G.A.

    1997-08-01

    As part of a computerized system (SmartWeld) developed at Sandia National Laboratories to facilitate agile manufacturing of welded assemblies, a weld schedule database (WSDB) was also developed. SmartWeld`s overall goals are to shorten the design-to-product time frame and to promote right-the-first-time weldment design and manufacture by providing welding process selection guidance to component designers. The associated WSDB evolved into a substantial subproject by itself. At first, it was thought that the database would store perhaps 50 parameters about a weld schedule. This was a woeful underestimate: the current WSDB has over 500 parameters defined in 73 tables. This includes data bout the weld, the piece parts involved, the piece part geometry, and great detail about the schedule and intervals involved in performing the weld. This complex database was built using information modeling techniques. Information modeling is a process that creates a model of objects and their roles for a given domain (i.e. welding). The Natural-Language Information Analysis methodology (NIAM) technique was used, which is characterized by: (1) elementary facts being stated in natural language by the welding expert, (2) determinism (the resulting model is provably repeatable, i.e. it gives the same answer every time), and (3) extensibility (the model can be added to without changing existing structure). The information model produced a highly normalized relational schema that was translated to Oracle{trademark} Relational Database Management Systems for implementation.

  6. Computerized microscopic image analysis of follicular lymphoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertel, Olcay; Kong, Jun; Lozanski, Gerard; Catalyurek, Umit; Saltz, Joel H.; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2008-03-01

    Follicular Lymphoma (FL) is a cancer arising from the lymphatic system. Originating from follicle center B cells, FL is mainly comprised of centrocytes (usually middle-to-small sized cells) and centroblasts (relatively large malignant cells). According to the World Health Organization's recommendations, there are three histological grades of FL characterized by the number of centroblasts per high-power field (hpf) of area 0.159 mm2. In current practice, these cells are manually counted from ten representative fields of follicles after visual examination of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides by pathologists. Several studies clearly demonstrate the poor reproducibility of this grading system with very low inter-reader agreement. In this study, we are developing a computerized system to assist pathologists with this process. A hybrid approach that combines information from several slides with different stains has been developed. Thus, follicles are first detected from digitized microscopy images with immunohistochemistry (IHC) stains, (i.e., CD10 and CD20). The average sensitivity and specificity of the follicle detection tested on 30 images at 2×, 4× and 8× magnifications are 85.5+/-9.8% and 92.5+/-4.0%, respectively. Since the centroblasts detection is carried out in the H&E-stained slides, the follicles in the IHC-stained images are mapped to H&E-stained counterparts. To evaluate the centroblast differentiation capabilities of the system, 11 hpf images have been marked by an experienced pathologist who identified 41 centroblast cells and 53 non-centroblast cells. A non-supervised clustering process differentiates the centroblast cells from noncentroblast cells, resulting in 92.68% sensitivity and 90.57% specificity.

  7. A Computerized Test of Design Fluency.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Wyma, John M; Herron, Timothy J; Yund, E William

    2016-01-01

    Tests of design fluency (DF) assess a participant's ability to generate geometric patterns and are thought to measure executive functions involving the non-dominant frontal lobe. Here, we describe the properties of a rapidly administered computerized design-fluency (C-DF) test that measures response times, and is automatically scored. In Experiment 1, we found that the number of unique patterns produced over 90 s by 180 control participants (ages 18 to 82 years) correlated with age, education, and daily computer-use. Each line in the continuous 4-line patterns required approximately 1.0 s to draw. The rate of pattern production and the incidence of repeated patterns both increased over the 90 s test. Unique pattern z-scores (corrected for age and computer-use) correlated with the results of other neuropsychological tests performed on the same day. Experiment 2 analyzed C-DF test-retest reliability in 55 participants in three test sessions at weekly intervals and found high z-score intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC = 0.79). Z-scores in the first session did not differ significantly from those of Experiment 1, but performance improved significantly over repeated tests. Experiment 3 investigated the performance of Experiment 2 participants when instructed to simulate malingering. Z-scores were significantly reduced and pattern repetitions increased, but there was considerable overlap with the performance of the control population. Experiment 4 examined performance in veteran patients tested more than one year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients with mild TBI performed within the normal range, but patients with severe TBI showed reduced z-scores. The C-DF test reliably measures visuospatial pattern generation ability and reveals performance deficits in patients with severe TBI. PMID:27138985

  8. A Computerized Test of Design Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2016-01-01

    Tests of design fluency (DF) assess a participant’s ability to generate geometric patterns and are thought to measure executive functions involving the non-dominant frontal lobe. Here, we describe the properties of a rapidly administered computerized design-fluency (C-DF) test that measures response times, and is automatically scored. In Experiment 1, we found that the number of unique patterns produced over 90 s by 180 control participants (ages 18 to 82 years) correlated with age, education, and daily computer-use. Each line in the continuous 4-line patterns required approximately 1.0 s to draw. The rate of pattern production and the incidence of repeated patterns both increased over the 90 s test. Unique pattern z-scores (corrected for age and computer-use) correlated with the results of other neuropsychological tests performed on the same day. Experiment 2 analyzed C-DF test-retest reliability in 55 participants in three test sessions at weekly intervals and found high z-score intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC = 0.79). Z-scores in the first session did not differ significantly from those of Experiment 1, but performance improved significantly over repeated tests. Experiment 3 investigated the performance of Experiment 2 participants when instructed to simulate malingering. Z-scores were significantly reduced and pattern repetitions increased, but there was considerable overlap with the performance of the control population. Experiment 4 examined performance in veteran patients tested more than one year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients with mild TBI performed within the normal range, but patients with severe TBI showed reduced z-scores. The C-DF test reliably measures visuospatial pattern generation ability and reveals performance deficits in patients with severe TBI. PMID:27138985

  9. Trace element speciation in combustion processes - review and compilations of thermodynamic data

    SciTech Connect

    Karin Lundholm; Anders Nordin; Rainer Backman

    2007-12-15

    Chemical equilibrium calculations are often used to determine the fate of trace metals in combustion processes and to study the effects of different process variables and varying fuel compositions. This paper compares thermodynamic data on compounds containing the trace elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb from different database sources. The results showed significant differences in Gibbs free energy (G) values between existing databases in both number of compounds included in the databases and thermodynamic data. The differences also significantly affected the outcome of the equilibrium calculations. 24 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. A Method of Retrospective Computerized System Validation for Drug Manufacturing Software Considering Modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masakazu; Fukue, Yoshinori

    This paper proposes a Retrospective Computerized System Validation (RCSV) method for Drug Manufacturing Software (DMSW) that relates to drug production considering software modification. Because DMSW that is used for quality management and facility control affects big impact to quality of drugs, regulatory agency required proofs of adequacy for DMSW's functions and performance based on developed documents and test results. Especially, the work that explains adequacy for previously developed DMSW based on existing documents and operational records is called RCSV. When modifying RCSV conducted DMSW, it was difficult to secure consistency between developed documents and test results for modified DMSW parts and existing documents and operational records for non-modified DMSW parts. This made conducting RCSV difficult. In this paper, we proposed (a) definition of documents architecture, (b) definition of descriptive items and levels in the documents, (c) management of design information using database, (d) exhaustive testing, and (e) integrated RCSV procedure. As a result, we could conduct adequate RCSV securing consistency.

  11. Computerized prescriber order entry in the outpatient oncology setting: from evidence to meaningful use

    PubMed Central

    Kukreti, V.; Cosby, R.; Cheung, A.; Lankshear, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy is an effective treatment in the fight against many cancers. Medication errors in oncology can be particularly serious given the narrow therapeutic window of antineoplastic drugs and their high toxicities. Computerized prescriber order entry (cpoe) has consistently been shown to reduce medication errors and adverse drug events in various settings, but its use in the oncology setting has not been well established. To gain a better understanding of the meaningful use of cpoe systems in the outpatient chemotherapy setting, we undertook a systematic review of systemic therapy cpoe. Methods A province-wide expert panel consisting of clinical experts, health information professionals, and specialists in human factors design provided guidance in the development of the research questions, search terms, databases, and inclusion criteria. The systematic review was undertaken by a core team consisting of a medical oncologist, nurse, pharmacist, and methodologist. The medline, embase, cinahl, and compendex databases were searched for relevant evidence. Results The database searches resulted in 5642 hits, of which 9 met the inclusion criteria and were retained. In the oncology setting, cpoe systems generally reduce chemotherapy medication errors; however, specific types of errors increase with the use of cpoe. These systems affect practice both positively and negatively with respect to time, workload, and productivity. Conclusions Despite the paucity of oncology-specific research, cpoe should be used in outpatient chemotherapy delivery to reduce chemotherapy-related medication errors. Adoption by clinicians will be enhanced by cpoe processes that complement current practice and workflow processes. PMID:25089110

  12. Database application of digital medical X-rays and labs: computerization, storage, retrieval, interpretation, and distribution.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Myron; Tabriziani, Hossein; Heetebry, Irene

    2005-08-01

    Stenter lets the health care worker order an X-ray that is produced as a computer image rather than on flat film. The health care provider can be in any location with the correct equipment, and view the digital image. The dimensions of this discussion are extensive. The cost savings because of reduced media and storage cost is substantial. Health care quality can be improved because of the ability to obtain consultation via telemedicine and the enhanced ability to track medical problems over time via trends. The major downside is the limited cost imbursement system to pay for technology. Unfortunately, this may impact on the improved quality of care. In simple terms someone needs to pay for the technology and the quality of health care needs to be maintained or improved. The real cost to the health care systems needs to be correctly calculated and inappropriate charging kept to a minimum. Specific costs need to be kept in mind and the first is the cost for new staff or staff training. The number of health care providers that are able to read the X-ray can be enlarged remembering that only American Board Certified Radiologists are allowed to give the final recommendation. How do we view the cost of missing something? It could be argued that this risk will be reduced because of improved technology for obtaining the digital X-ray and improved enhancement software. One way to view this situation is to include technology, management, and organization. The cost and benefits occur through the interplay of all three dimensions. The development of digital imaging hardware and artificial intelligence software will demand change in the management and organization. The organization will require changes in its design to accommodate the technology as to support and resources. Management will evolve to include methods for control and monitoring this technology. Business processes and standard operating procedures will change to integrate the technology into the organization in the most effective and efficient manner. PMID:16178330

  13. A technical approach for determining the importance of information in computerized alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fortney, D.S.; Lim, J.J.

    1994-06-10

    Computerized alarm and access control systems must be treated as special entities rather than as generic automated information systems. This distinction arises due to the real-time control and monitoring functions performed by these systems at classified facilities and the degree of centralization of a site`s safeguards system information in the associated databases. As an added requirement for these systems, DOE safeguards and security classification policy is to protect information whose dissemination has the potential for significantly increasing the probability of successful adversary action against the facility, or lowering adversary resources needed for a successful attack. Thus at issue is just how valuable would specific alarm system information be to an adversary with a higher order objective. We have developed and applied a technical approach for determining the importance of information contained in computerized alarm and access control systems. The methodology is based on vulnerability assessment rather than blanket classification rules. This method uses a system architecture diagram to guide the analysis and to develop adversary defeat methods for each node and link. These defeat methods are evaluated with respect to required adversary resources, technical difficulty, and detection capability. Then they are incorporated into site vulnerability assessments to determine the significance of alarm system information in the context of a facility attack. This methodology was successfully applied to the Argus alarm, access control, and assessment system developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Lab. Argus is software-driven, contains interrelated databases, shares host computers, and communicates with field processors and alarms through a common network. The evaluation results provided insights into the importance of alarm system information while the methodology itself provided a framework for addressing associated information protection issues.

  14. Computerized mass detection for digital breast tomosynthesis directly from the projection images

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, I.; Nishikawa, R.M.; Giger, M.L.; Wu, T.; Rafferty, E.A.; Moore, R.; Kopans, D.B.

    2006-02-15

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has recently emerged as a new and promising three-dimensional modality in breast imaging. In DBT, the breast volume is reconstructed from 11 projection images, taken at source angles equally spaced over an arc of 50 degrees. Reconstruction algorithms for this modality are not fully optimized yet. Because computerized lesion detection in the reconstructed breast volume will be affected by the reconstruction technique, we are developing a novel mass detection algorithm that operates instead on the set of raw projection images. Mass detection is done in three stages. First, lesion candidates are obtained for each projection image separately, using a mass detection algorithm that was initially developed for screen-film mammography. Second, the locations of a lesion candidate are backprojected into the breast volume. In this feature volume, voxel intensities are a combined measure of detection frequency (e.g., the number of projections in which a given lesion candidate was detected), and a measure of the angular range over which a given lesion was detected. Third, features are extracted after reprojecting the three-dimensional (3-D) locations of lesion candidates into projection images. Features are combined using linear discriminant analysis. The database used to test the algorithm consisted of 21 mass cases (13 malignant, 8 benign) and 15 cases without mass lesions. Based on this database, the algorithm yielded a sensitivity of 90% at 1.5 false positives per breast volume. Algorithm performance is positively biased because this dataset was used for development, training, and testing, and because the number of algorithm parameters was approximately the same as the number of patient cases. Our results indicate that computerized mass detection in the sequence of projection images for DBT may be effective despite the higher noise level in those images.

  15. Microbial surface thermodynamics and applications.

    PubMed

    Strevett, Keith A; Chen, Gang

    2003-06-01

    Microbial surface thermodynamics is the reflection of microbial physicochemical and biological characteristics and it bridges micro-scale structures with macro-scale biological functions. Microbial surface thermodynamics is theoretically based on colloid surface thermodynamics using the classical theory of colloidal stability, Derjauin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. An extended DLVO theory is applied to for the hydration forces not considered in the classical DLVO theory. Herein, a review of current application of microbial surface thermodynamic theory is presented. Microbial surface thermodynamic theory is the fundamental theory in interpreting microbial hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity, microbial attachment, and microbial biofilm development. PMID:12837508

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, G. E.; Shriner, J. F. Jr.

    2008-04-04

    Although random matrix theory had its initial application to neutron resonances, there is a relative scarcity of suitable nuclear data. The primary reason for this is the sensitivity of the standard measures used to evaluate spectra--the spectra must be essential pure (no state with a different symmetry) and complete (no states missing). Additional measures that are less sensitive to these experimental limitations are of significant value. The standard measure for long range order is the {delta}{sub 3} statistic. In the original paper that introduced this statistic, Dyson and Mehta also attempted to evaluate spectra with thermodynamic variables obtained from the circular orthogonal ensemble. We consider the thermodynamic 'internal energy' and evaluate its sensitivity to experimental limitations such as missing and spurious levels. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that the internal energy is less sensitive to mistakes than is {delta}{sub 3}, and thus the internal energy can serve as a addition to the tool kit for evaluating experimental spectra.

  17. Perspective on quantum thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millen, James; Xuereb, André

    2016-01-01

    Classical thermodynamics is unrivalled in its range of applications and relevance to everyday life. It enables a description of complex systems, made up of microscopic particles, in terms of a small number of macroscopic quantities, such as work and entropy. As systems get ever smaller, fluctuations of these quantities become increasingly relevant, prompting the development of stochastic thermodynamics. Recently we have seen a surge of interest in exploring the quantum regime, where the origin of fluctuations is quantum rather than thermal. Many questions, such as the role of entanglement and the emergence of thermalisation, lie wide open. Answering these questions may lead to the development of quantum heat engines and refrigerators, as well as to vitally needed simple descriptions of quantum many-body systems.

  18. Dynamically tunable transformation thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Meca, Carlos; Barceló, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the introduction of transformation thermodynamics has provided a way to design thermal media that alter the flow of heat according to any spatial deformation, enabling the construction of novel devices such as thermal cloaks or concentrators. However, in its current version, this technique only allows static deformations of space. Here, we develop a space–time theory of transformation thermodynamics that incorporates the possibility of performing time-varying deformations. This extra freedom greatly widens the range of achievable effects, providing an additional degree of control for heat management applications. As an example, we design a reconfigurable thermal cloak that can be opened and closed dynamically, therefore being able to gradually adjust the temperature distribution of a given region.

  19. Thermodynamics of nuclear transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ching-Hao; Mehta, Pankaj; Elbaum, Michael

    Molecular transport across the nuclear envelope is important for eukaryotes for gene expression and signaling. Experimental studies have revealed that nuclear transport is inherently a nonequilibrium process and actively consumes energy. In this work we present a thermodynamics theory of nuclear transport for a major class of nuclear transporters that are mediated by the small GTPase Ran. We identify the molecular elements responsible for powering nuclear transport, which we term the ``Ran battery'' and find that the efficiency of transport, measured by the cargo nuclear localization ratio, is limited by competition between cargo molecules and RanGTP to bind transport receptors, as well as the amount of NTF2 (i.e. RanGDP carrier) available to circulate the energy flow. This picture complements our current understanding of nuclear transport by providing a comprehensive thermodynamics framework to decipher the underlying biochemical machinery. Pm and CHW were supported by a Simons Investigator in the Mathematical Modeling in Living Systems grant (to PM).

  20. Statistical Thermodynamics of Biomembranes

    PubMed Central

    Devireddy, Ram V.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of the major issues involved in the statistical thermodynamic treatment of phospholipid membranes at the atomistic level is summarized: thermodynamic ensembles, initial configuration (or the physical system being modeled), force field representation as well as the representation of long-range interactions. This is followed by a description of the various ways that the simulated ensembles can be analyzed: area of the lipid, mass density profiles, radial distribution functions (RDFs), water orientation profile, Deuteurium order parameter, free energy profiles and void (pore) formation; with particular focus on the results obtained from our recent molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of phospholipids interacting with dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO), a commonly used cryoprotective agent (CPA). PMID:19460363

  1. Canonical fluid thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    The space-time integral of the thermodynamic pressure plays the role of the thermodynamic potential for compressible, adiabatic flow in the sense that the pressure integral for stable flow is less than for all slightly different flows. This stability criterion can be converted into a variational minimum principle by requiring the molar free-enthalpy and the temperature, which are the arguments of the pressure function, to be generalized velocities, that is, the proper-time derivatives of scalar spare-time functions which are generalized coordinates in the canonical formalism. In a fluid context, proper-time differentiation must be expressed in terms of three independent quantities that specify the fluid velocity. This can be done in several ways, all of which lead to different variants (canonical transformations) of the same constraint-free action integral whose Euler-Lagrange equations are just the well-known equations of motion for adiabatic compressible flow.

  2. Contact symmetries and Hamiltonian thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bravetti, A.; Lopez-Monsalvo, C.S.; Nettel, F.

    2015-10-15

    It has been shown that contact geometry is the proper framework underlying classical thermodynamics and that thermodynamic fluctuations are captured by an additional metric structure related to Fisher’s Information Matrix. In this work we analyse several unaddressed aspects about the application of contact and metric geometry to thermodynamics. We consider here the Thermodynamic Phase Space and start by investigating the role of gauge transformations and Legendre symmetries for metric contact manifolds and their significance in thermodynamics. Then we present a novel mathematical characterization of first order phase transitions as equilibrium processes on the Thermodynamic Phase Space for which the Legendre symmetry is broken. Moreover, we use contact Hamiltonian dynamics to represent thermodynamic processes in a way that resembles the classical Hamiltonian formulation of conservative mechanics and we show that the relevant Hamiltonian coincides with the irreversible entropy production along thermodynamic processes. Therefore, we use such property to give a geometric definition of thermodynamically admissible fluctuations according to the Second Law of thermodynamics. Finally, we show that the length of a curve describing a thermodynamic process measures its entropy production.

  3. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of nucleation.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, M; Sagis, L M C

    2014-12-14

    We present a novel approach to nucleation processes based on the GENERIC framework (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling). Solely based on the GENERIC structure of time-evolution equations and thermodynamic consistency arguments of exchange processes between a metastable phase and a nucleating phase, we derive the fundamental dynamics for this phenomenon, based on continuous Fokker-Planck equations. We are readily able to treat non-isothermal nucleation even when the nucleating cores cannot be attributed intensive thermodynamic properties. In addition, we capture the dynamics of the time-dependent metastable phase being continuously expelled from the nucleating phase, and keep rigorous track of the volume corrections to the dynamics. Within our framework the definition of a thermodynamic nuclei temperature is manifest. For the special case of nucleation of a gas phase towards its vapor-liquid coexistence, we illustrate that our approach is capable of reproducing recent literature results obtained by more microscopic considerations for the suppression of the nucleation rate due to nonisothermal effects. PMID:25494727

  4. The discovery of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberger, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Based on the idea that a scientific journal is also an "agora" (Greek: market place) for the exchange of ideas and scientific concepts, the history of thermodynamics between 1800 and 1910 as documented in the Philosophical Magazine Archives is uncovered. Famous scientists such as Joule, Thomson (Lord Kelvin), Clausius, Maxwell or Boltzmann shared this forum. Not always in the most friendly manner. It is interesting to find out, how difficult it was to describe in a scientific (mathematical) language a phenomenon like "heat", to see, how long it took to arrive at one of the fundamental principles in physics: entropy. Scientific progress started from the simple rule of Boyle and Mariotte dating from the late eighteenth century and arrived in the twentieth century with the concept of probabilities. Thermodynamics was the driving intellectual force behind the industrial revolution, behind the enormous social changes caused by this revolution. The history of thermodynamics is a fascinating story, which also gives insights into the mechanism that seem to govern science.

  5. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, M.; Sagis, L. M. C.

    2014-12-14

    We present a novel approach to nucleation processes based on the GENERIC framework (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling). Solely based on the GENERIC structure of time-evolution equations and thermodynamic consistency arguments of exchange processes between a metastable phase and a nucleating phase, we derive the fundamental dynamics for this phenomenon, based on continuous Fokker-Planck equations. We are readily able to treat non-isothermal nucleation even when the nucleating cores cannot be attributed intensive thermodynamic properties. In addition, we capture the dynamics of the time-dependent metastable phase being continuously expelled from the nucleating phase, and keep rigorous track of the volume corrections to the dynamics. Within our framework the definition of a thermodynamic nuclei temperature is manifest. For the special case of nucleation of a gas phase towards its vapor-liquid coexistence, we illustrate that our approach is capable of reproducing recent literature results obtained by more microscopic considerations for the suppression of the nucleation rate due to nonisothermal effects.

  6. Databases: Beyond the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Robert

    This presented paper offers an elementary description of database characteristics and then provides a survey of databases that may be useful to the teacher and researcher in Slavic and East European languages and literatures. The survey focuses on commercial databases that are available, usable, and needed. Individual databases discussed include:…

  7. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  8. HNET - A National Computerized Health Network

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Mark; Hamilton, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The HNET system demonstrated conceptually and technically a national text (and limited bit mapped graphics) computer network for use between innovative members of the health care industry. The HNET configuration of a leased high speed national packet switching network connecting any number of mainframe, mini, and micro computers was unique in it's relatively low capital costs and freedom from obsolescence. With multiple simultaneous conferences, databases, bulletin boards, calendars, and advanced electronic mail and surveys, it is marketable to innovative hospitals, clinics, physicians, health care associations and societies, nurses, multisite research projects libraries, etc.. Electronic publishing and education capabilities along with integrated voice and video transmission are identified as future enhancements.

  9. A complete database of international chess players and chess performance ratings for varied longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Howard, Robert W

    2006-11-01

    Chess is an oft-used study domain in psychology and artificial intelligence because it is well defined, its performance rating systems allow ea sy identification o f experts and their development, andchess playing is a complex intellectual task However, usable computerized chess data have been very limited. The present article has two aims. The first is to highlight the methodological value of chess data and how researchers can use them to address questions in quite different areas. The second is to present a computerized database of all international chess players and official performance ratings beginning from the inaugural 1970 international rating list. The database has millions of records and gives complete longitudinal official performance data for over 60,000 players from 1970 to the present. Like a time series of population censuses, these data can be used for many different research and teaching purposes. Three quite different studies, conducted by the author using the database, are described. PMID:17393842

  10. [Relevance of the hemovigilance regional database for the shared medical file identity server].

    PubMed

    Doly, A; Fressy, P; Garraud, O

    2008-11-01

    The French Health Products Safety Agency coordinates the national initiative of computerization of blood products traceability within regional blood banks and public and private hospitals. The Auvergne-Loire Regional French Blood Service, based in Saint-Etienne, together with a number of public hospitals set up a transfusion data network named EDITAL. After four years of progressive implementation and experimentation, a software enabling standardized data exchange has built up a regional nominative database, endorsed by the Traceability Computerization National Committee in 2004. This database now provides secured web access to a regional transfusion history enabling biologists and all hospital and family practitioners to take in charge the patient follow-up. By running independently from the softwares of its partners, EDITAL database provides reference for the regional identity server. PMID:18938099

  11. Integration of test methodology, material database, and material selection/deselection strategies for a chemical-material compatibility database system

    SciTech Connect

    Shuely, W.J.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of chemical exposure on the degradation of material properties is important to material evaluation and selection for both commercial and military products. Described here are a set of enhancements to a traditional chemical-material compatibility database that were required to support the early selection of chemically resistant materials in a concurrent engineering environment. This initial phase in the development of an integrated chemical-material compatibility system included: organization of tests into a comprehensive scheme, test selection for the initial screening tests in the scheme, the increased standardization of test procedures and reports required to support database queries, and the control of data set flow from the test laboratory directly to the database. Emphasized here is the design of modular database files based on material, chemical, and test specification descriptors that are indexed to the resulting test properties database module. ASTM Committee E49 formats were employed where available. The polymeric material documentation has been implemented by development of a menu-driven laboratory database version of ASTM Guide for the Identification of Polymers (Excludes Thermoset Elastomers) in Computerized Material Property Databases (E 1308-92). Examples are provided from the screening test found in the initial section of the test method scheme. One is able to execute a rapid paperless transfer of predictive and experimental screening results to the chemical-material compatibility database, query the results to eliminate a substantial fraction of materials and rank a more limited set of candidate materials to provide a useful ``deselection`` capability.

  12. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  13. Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  14. Evaluation of the reliability of computerized profile cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, José Tarcísio Lima; Telles, Carlos de Souza

    2002-01-01

    The use of computers as an auxiliary instrument for case evaluation and procedures in health sciences is not new, and their advantages are well known. A growing number of orthodontists are using computerized systems for cephalometric analysis. Thus, this study evaluated the reliability of both computerized and manual methods used for creating profile cephalograms. Fifty profile radiographs were selected from the files of the Post-Graduate Course in Orthodontics at the Dental School of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The good quality of the material was the only necessary requirement for selection. Results were submitted to the interclass correlation coefficient and a reliable similarity between cephalometric data obtained through both evaluated methods was found. However, the clinical utilization of computerized cephalometric analysis is not absolutely reliable. PMID:12428597

  15. THE VALIDITY OF HUMAN AND COMPUTERIZED WRITING ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring

    2005-09-01

    This paper summarizes an experiment designed to assess the validity of essay grading between holistic and analytic human graders and a computerized grader based on latent semantic analysis. The validity of the grade was gauged by the extent to which the student’s knowledge of the topic correlated with the grader’s expert knowledge. To assess knowledge, Pathfinder networks were generated by the student essay writers, the holistic and analytic graders, and the computerized grader. It was found that the computer generated grades more closely matched the definition of valid grading than did human generated grades.

  16. Computerized assessment of preference for severely handicapped individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Dattilo, J

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to demonstrate the application of a computerized assessment procedure for determining the preferences of persons with severe handicaps. A computer program was designed to interpret subjects' microswitch activations to produce three distinct types of events (visual, auditory, and tactile). A combination of a multiple baseline design across subjects with a multiple treatment design involving three separate conditions was used. The data obtained from the computerized assessment procedure revealed idiosyncratic preference patterns for the three subjects. Results of the investigation demonstrated that the preferences of severely handicapped individuals can be systematically assessed and analyzed. PMID:2948940

  17. Documentation of Nursing Practice Using a Computerized Medical Information System

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Carol

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses a definition of the content of the computerized nursing data base developed by the Nursing Department for the Clinical Center Medical Information System at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. The author describes the theoretical framework for the content and presents a model to describe the organization of the nursing data components in relation to the process of nursing care delivery. Nursing documentation requirements of Nurse Practice Acts, American Nurses Association Standards of Practice and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals are also addressed as they relate to this data base. The advantages and disadvantages of such an approach to computerized documentation are discussed.

  18. US and foreign alloy cross-reference database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, John M.; Morgan, Steven H.

    1991-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center and other NASA installations have a continuing requirement for materials data from other countries involved with the development of joint international Spacelab experiments and other hardware. This need includes collecting data for common alloys to ascertain composition, physical properties, specifications, and designations. This data is scattered throughout a large number of specification statements, standards, handbooks, and other technical literature which make a manual search both tedious and often limited in extent. In recognition of this problem, a computerized database of information on alloys was developed along with the software necessary to provide the desired functions to access this data. The intention was to produce an initial database covering aluminum alloys, along with the program to provide a user-interface to the data, and then later to extend and refine the database to include other nonferrous and ferrous alloys.

  19. Thermodynamics of Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doak, Jeff W.

    One challenge facing society is the responsible use of our energy resources. Increasing the efficiency of energy generation provides one path to solving this challenge. One commonality among most current energy generation methods is that waste heat is generated during the generation process. Thermoelectrics can provide a solution to increasing the efficiency of power generation and automotive systems by converting waste heat directly to electricity. The current barrier to implementation of thermoelectric systems is the low efficiencies of underlying thermoelectric materials. The efficiency of a thermoelectric material depends on the electronic and thermal transport properties of the material; a good thermoelectric material should be an electronic conductor and a thermal insulator, traits which generally oppose one another. The thermal properties of a thermoelectric material can be improved by forming nanoscale precipitates with the material which scatter phonons, reducing the thermal conductivity. The electronic properties of a thermoelectric material can be improved by doping the material to increase the electronic conductivity or by alloying the material to favorably alter its band structure. The ability of these chemical modifications to affect the thermoelectric efficiency of material are ultimately governed by the chemical thermodynamics of the system. PbTe is a prototypical thermoelectric material: Alloying PbTe with PbS (or other materials) creates nanostructures which scatter phonons and reduce the lattice thermal conductivity. Doping PbTe with Na increases the hole concentration, increasing the electronic conductivity. In this work, we investigate the thermodynamics of PbTe and similar systems using first principles to understand the underlying mechanisms controlling the formation of nanostructures and the amount of doping allowed in these systems. In this work we: 1) investigate the thermodynamics of pseudo-binary alloys of IV--VI systems to identify the

  20. NASA Glenn Coefficients for Calculating Thermodynamic Properties of Individual Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBride, Bonnie J.; Zehe, Michael J.; Gordon, Sanford

    2002-01-01

    This report documents the library of thermodynamic data used with the NASA Glenn computer program CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications). This library, containing data for over 2000 solid, liquid, and gaseous chemical species for temperatures ranging from 200 to 20,000 K, is available for use with other computer codes as well. The data are expressed as least-squares coefficients to a seven-term functional form for C((sup o)(sub p)) (T) / R with integration constants for H (sup o) (T) / RT and S(sup o) (T) / R. The NASA Glenn computer program PAC (Properties and Coefficients) was used to calculate thermodynamic functions and to generate the least-squares coefficients. PAC input was taken from a variety of sources. A complete listing of the database is given along with a summary of thermodynamic properties at 0 and 298.15 K.

  1. Computational Thermodynamics Aided High-Entropy Alloy Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Shuanglin; Cao, Weisheng

    2012-07-01

    Thermodynamic calculation is used to shed light on the design and development of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) in this article. A thermodynamic database for the Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni was developed, and phase diagrams of this system were calculated. The calculated results, such as primary solidified phases, which are fractions of stable phases at a given alloy composition, explain the published experimental observations fairly well for both as-cast and homogenized alloys. These calculations also confirm the effect of each element on the face-centered cubic (fcc)/body-centered cubic (bcc) structure transition as published in the literature. The role of thermodynamic calculation in aiding effective design of HEAs is clearly demonstrated by this work.

  2. Dynamics versus thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdichevsky, V. L.

    1991-05-01

    An effort is made to characterize the ways in which the approaches of statistical mechanics and thermodynamics can be useful in the study of the dynamic behavior of structures. This meditation proceeds through consideration of such wide-ranging and deliberately provocative questions as: 'What are to be considered values in a stress-distribution function?' and 'How many degrees-of-freedom has a beam?'; it then gives attention to the hierarchy of vibrations, the interaction of the mechanism of dissipation with invisible degrees of freedom, and a plausible view of vibrations for the case of small dissipation.

  3. Stochastic thermodynamics of resetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Jaco; Goldt, Sebastian; Seifert, Udo

    2016-03-01

    Stochastic dynamics with random resetting leads to a non-equilibrium steady state. Here, we consider the thermodynamics of resetting by deriving the first and second law for resetting processes far from equilibrium. We identify the contributions to the entropy production of the system which arise due to resetting and show that they correspond to the rate with which information is either erased or created. Using Landauer's principle, we derive a bound on the amount of work that is required to maintain a resetting process. We discuss different regimes of resetting, including a Maxwell demon scenario where heat is extracted from a bath at constant temperature.

  4. Interfacial solvation thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Ben-Amotz, Dor

    2016-10-19

    Previous studies have reached conflicting conclusions regarding the interplay of cavity formation, polarizability, desolvation, and surface capillary waves in driving the interfacial adsorptions of ions and molecules at air-water interfaces. Here we revisit these questions by combining exact potential distribution results with linear response theory and other physically motivated approximations. The results highlight both exact and approximate compensation relations pertaining to direct (solute-solvent) and indirect (solvent-solvent) contributions to adsorption thermodynamics, of relevance to solvation at air-water interfaces, as well as a broader class of processes linked to the mean force potential between ions, molecules, nanoparticles, proteins, and biological assemblies. PMID:27545849

  5. Engineering geological mapping in Wallonia (Belgium) : present state and recent computerized approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvoie, S.; Radu, J.-P.; Ruthy, I.; Charlier, R.

    2012-04-01

    An engineering geological map can be defined as a geological map with a generalized representation of all the components of a geological environment which are strongly required for spatial planning, design, construction and maintenance of civil engineering buildings. In Wallonia (Belgium) 24 engineering geological maps have been developed between the 70s and the 90s at 1/5,000 or 1/10,000 scale covering some areas of the most industrialized and urbanized cities (Liège, Charleroi and Mons). They were based on soil and subsoil data point (boring, drilling, penetration test, geophysical test, outcrop…). Some displayed data present the depth (with isoheights) or the thickness (with isopachs) of the different subsoil layers up to about 50 m depth. Information about geomechanical properties of each subsoil layer, useful for engineers and urban planners, is also synthesized. However, these maps were built up only on paper and progressively needed to be updated with new soil and subsoil data. The Public Service of Wallonia and the University of Liège have recently initiated a study to evaluate the feasibility to develop engineering geological mapping with a computerized approach. Numerous and various data (about soil and subsoil) are stored into a georelational database (the geotechnical database - using Access, Microsoft®). All the data are geographically referenced. The database is linked to a GIS project (using ArcGIS, ESRI®). Both the database and GIS project consist of a powerful tool for spatial data management and analysis. This approach involves a methodology using interpolation methods to update the previous maps and to extent the coverage to new areas. The location (x, y, z) of each subsoil layer is then computed from data point. The geomechanical data of these layers are synthesized in an explanatory booklet joined to maps.

  6. Thermodynamics of iron at extreme pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Surendra K.; Eriksson, Gunnar

    2015-09-01

    A thermodynamic database on all iron phases (BCC, FCC, HCP and melt) has been created using thermochemical and equations of state data from experiments and theory. The database permits the calculation of the phase diagram of iron to physical conditions of the Earth's core (pressure of 365 GPa and temperature of 6453 K). If the inner core were all iron, its upper temperature would be 6453 (500) K. The average heat capacity of a pure iron HCP inner core is calculated as 29.4 J/mol/K with an entropy of 92 J/mol/K and a gruneisen parameter of 1.81.

  7. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    SciTech Connect

    Crooks, Gavin E.

    2011-07-12

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa.

  8. 45 CFR 307.13 - Security and confidentiality for computerized support enforcement systems in operation after...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security and confidentiality for computerized...), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.13 Security and confidentiality for computerized support enforcement systems...

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the "Cool Teens" CD-ROM Computerized Program for Adolescent Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuthrich, Viviana M.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Cunningham, Michael J.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Schniering, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Computerized cognitive behavioral interventions for anxiety disorders in adults have been shown to be efficacious, but limited data are available on the use of computerized interventions with young persons. Adolescents in particular are difficult to engage in treatment and may be especially suited to computerized technologies. This…

  10. The Value of a Computerised Learner Information Database System To Foster Development and Accountability through Information Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, S. E.; Foxcroft, C. D.; Watson, A. S. R.; Seymour, B. B.; Streicher, M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the structure and functioning of a computerized database of student information within an admissions testing program (the University of Port Elizabeth's Admissions and Placement Assessment Programme). Discusses how it could serve as a model to foster development and accountability through information sharing. (EV)

  11. A Comparison of Computer-Based Bibliographic Database Searching vs. Manual Bibliographic Searching. Final CARE Grant Report #5964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Eileen E.; Rockman, Ilene F.

    The purpose of this study was to improve upon previous research investigations by analyzing the elements of cost effectiveness, precision, recall, citation overlap, and hours searching in a comparison between computerized database searching and manual searching, using the setting of an academic library environment with a diverse group of students…

  12. Predictive thermodynamics for condensed phases.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Leslie; Jenkins, H Donald Brooke

    2005-10-01

    Thermodynamic information is central to assessment of the stability and reactivity of materials. However, because of both the demanding nature of experimental thermodynamics and the virtually unlimited number of conceivable compounds, experimental data is often unavailable or, for hypothetical materials, necessarily impossible to obtain. We describe simple procedures for thermodynamic prediction for condensed phases, both ionic and organic covalent, principally via formula unit volumes (or density); our volume-based approach (VBT) provides a new thermodynamic tool for such assessment. These methods, being independent of detailed knowledge of crystal structures, are applicable to liquids and amorphous materials as well as to crystalline solids. Examples of their use are provided. PMID:16172676

  13. Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Indonesia Junior High School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Bor-Chen; Daud, Muslem; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a curriculum-based multidimensional computerized adaptive test that was developed for Indonesia junior high school Biology. In adherence to the Indonesian curriculum of different Biology dimensions, 300 items was constructed, and then tested to 2238 students. A multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model was…

  14. Deriving Stopping Rules for Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Boughton, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Multidimensional computerized adaptive testing (MCAT) is able to provide a vector of ability estimates for each examinee, which could be used to provide a more informative profile of an examinee's performance. The current literature on MCAT focuses on the fixed-length tests, which can generate less accurate results for those examinees whose…

  15. When Cognitive Diagnosis Meets Computerized Adaptive Testing: CD-CAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a mode of testing which enables more efficient and accurate recovery of one or more latent traits. Traditionally, CAT is built upon Item Response Theory (IRT) models that assume unidimensionality. However, the problem of how to build CAT upon latent class models (LCM) has not been investigated until recently,…

  16. A Computerized System for Workplace Design for Visually Impaired Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J-G; Hou, C-A

    1991-01-01

    VITAL (Vision Impaired Task and Assignment Lexicon) is an integrated computerized system that performs workplace design tasks for visually impaired workers. VITAL consists of three modules: ergonomics consultation, disability index, and work measurement. Evaluation indicated that VITAL could be used as a tool to help nonprofessional vocational…

  17. Computerized Profiling of Grammatical Performance and Conversational Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Steven H.; Fey, Marc E.

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes ways in which the computer can assist language clinicians in performing highly informative linguistic analyses that are useful in the development and evaluation of intervention programs. Two modules from the software package, Computerized Profiling, are described and two cases illustrating clinical application of computers are…

  18. PLATO IV: First Year Report, Computerized Training System, Project ABACUS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, Lawrence R.

    This report covers the PLATO IV activities during calendar year 1973 at the Computerized Training System. The work reported herein is supported by a program sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) to evaluate the PLATO IV system for use in training, oriented to the needs of the Armed Services. The report presents a synopsis of…

  19. The Computerized Comprehensibility System. Maintainer's Guide. Technical Report No. 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieras, David E.

    This report is a guide for the maintainer or developer of the computerized comprehensibility system (CCS), a system that uses techniques and results from artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology to critique the comprehensibility of a technical document. The purpose of this report is to allow the qualified programmer to rapidly understand…

  20. A Preliminary Instructional Model for a Computerized Training System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimberlin, D. A.

    A preliminary instructional model suitable for lesson preparation for a Computerized Training System is described. Topics discussed include general course architecture, general course structure, and the training decision process. Guidelines for the design of the model are presented and information is provided on the adaptation of the model to…

  1. The Development of the Attitude Towards Computerized Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brooke; Caputi, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Test equivalence can be evaluated in terms of four aspects: psychometric, behavioral, experiential, and individual differences (i.e., relativity of equivalence) (Honaker, 1988). This study examined the psychometric properties of the Attitude Towards Computerized Assessment Scale (ATCAS) designed to assess one of these criteria, namely,…

  2. COMPUTERIZED FGD BYPRODUCT PRODUCTION AND MARKETING SYSTEM: USERS MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The users manual describes a computerized system--consisting of a number of integrated programs, models, and data bases--that has been developed to compare the costs of power plant strategies designed to meet clean air regulations. It describes the data bases, programs, and proce...

  3. Computerized Classification Testing under the Generalized Graded Unfolding Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Liu, Chen-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The generalized graded unfolding model (GGUM) has been recently developed to describe item responses to Likert items (agree-disagree) in attitude measurement. In this study, the authors (a) developed two item selection methods in computerized classification testing under the GGUM, the current estimate/ability confidence interval method and the cut…

  4. Bilingual Computerized Speech Recognition Screening for Depression Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo; Carter, Colby; Blanes, Erika

    2007-01-01

    The Voice-Interactive Depression Assessment System (VIDAS) is a computerized speech recognition application for screening depression based on the Center for Epidemiological Studies--Depression scale in English and Spanish. Study 1 included 50 English and 47 Spanish speakers. Study 2 involved 108 English and 109 Spanish speakers. Participants…

  5. The Computerization of the National Library in Paris.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerin, Christian; Bernard, Annick

    1986-01-01

    Describes the organization and automation plan of the Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris, France) that was begun in 1981. Highlights include the method of moving toward computerization; technical choices; the choosing procedure (pre-qualification, bench-mark test); short term and pilot operations; and preparation for the implementation of the…

  6. Cognitive Workload of Computerized Nursing Process in Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    Dal Sasso, Grace Marcon; Barra, Daniela Couto Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to measure the cognitive workload to complete printed nursing process versus computerized nursing process from International Classification Practice of Nursing in intensive care units. It is a quantitative, before-and-after quasi-experimental design, with a sample of 30 participants. Workload was assessed using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task-Load Index. Six cognitive categories were measured. The "temporal demand" was the largest contributor to the cognitive workload, and the role of the nursing process in the "performance" category has excelled that of computerized nursing process. It was concluded that computerized nursing process contributes to lower cognitive workload of nurses for being a support system for decision making based on the International Classification Practice of Nursing. The computerized nursing process as a logical structure of the data, information, diagnoses, interventions and results become a reliable option for health improvement of healthcare, because it can enhance nurse safe decision making, with the intent to reduce damage and adverse events to patients in intensive care. PMID:26061562

  7. Guidelines for the Development of Computerized Student Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armes, Nancy, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to provide guidelines for the development of computerized student information systems, this report raises policy issues and questions to be resolved at the campus level and describes a variety of computer-generated reports and records that can assist in educational decision making and planning. Introductory material discusses the…

  8. The Nominal Response Model in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Ayala, R. J.

    One important and promising application of item response theory (IRT) is computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The implementation of a nominal response model-based CAT (NRCAT) was studied. Item pool characteristics for the NRCAT as well as the comparative performance of the NRCAT and a CAT based on the three-parameter logistic (3PL) model were…

  9. Computerized Adaptive Testing: From Inquiry to Operation [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    This book documents the research, development, and implementation efforts that allowed the U.S. Department of Defense to initiate the Computerized Adaptive Testing Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery Program for enlistment testing. Traces the history of this program over 30 years. (SLD)

  10. Unesco Integrated Documentation Network; Computerized Documentation System (CDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Dept. of Documentation, Libraries, and Archives.

    Intended for use by the Computerized Documentation System (CDS), the Unesco version of ISIS (Integrated Set of Information Systems)--originally developed by the International Labour Organization--was developed in 1975 and named CDS/ISIS. This system has a comprehensive collection of programs for input, management, and output, running in batch or…

  11. The Validity of a Computerized Measure of Reading Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomplun, Mark; Frey, Sharon; Becker, Douglas; Hughes, Kay

    This paper describes the investigation of a computerized measure of reading rate as measured by the new Nelson-Denny Reading Test CD-ROM (1993). This study addressed three aspects of validity: (1) score comparability between reading rate measured by the computer version and the paper-and-pencil version; (2) concurrent validity with reading…

  12. Constraining Item Exposure in Computerized Adaptive Testing with Shadow Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2004-01-01

    Item-exposure control in computerized adaptive testing is implemented by imposing item-ineligibility constraints on the assembly process of the shadow tests. The method resembles Sympson and Hetter's (1985) method of item-exposure control in that the decisions to impose the constraints are probabilistic. The method does not, however, require…

  13. Oakton Community College Computerized Vocational Information System, 1974-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, James E.

    The Computerized Vocational Information System (CVIS) at Oakton Community College (OCC) is an integrated set of guidance systems designed to help students expand their awareness of the various career and educational opportunities available to them. Terminals are available for student use every weekday from 8:30 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. The Career…

  14. 21 CFR 884.2800 - Computerized Labor Monitoring System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: “Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computerized Labor Monitoring System. 884.2800 Section 884.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  15. AFB's Computerized Travel Aid: Two Years of Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uslan, Mark M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Progress on the computerized travel aid, an electronic device, using elements of the Polaroid Sonar Camera and a microprocessor, for visually handicapped persons is reviewed, and research on the effectiveness of various models noted. Recommended modifications touch on aspects of mounting, beam shape, and audible outputs. (CL)

  16. Computerized Scheduling in Vancouver Schools. A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durward, M. Lynne

    This study examined computerized scheduling in 16 Vancouver secondary schools by analyzing (1) the results of a questionnaire to the principals of the schools, (2) class size balancing by computer, and (3) the effect of additional simulate runs on the number of student conflicts and the "date of smooth operation." A simulate run is defined as…

  17. Computerized Adaptive Testing, Anxiety Levels, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritts, Barbara E.; Marszalek, Jacob M.

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the amount of test anxiety experienced on a computerized adaptive test (CAT) to a paper-and-pencil test (P&P), as well as the state test anxiety experienced between males and females. Ninety-four middle school CAT examinees were compared to 65 middle school P&P examinees on their responses to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory…

  18. SCAN (Systems Coding Analysis): Computerized Analysis of Reading Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, S. Alan; Bednarik, John

    Analysis of behaviorally expressed instructional objectives, materials, and criterion test items in reading has generated a finite list of operations and conditions that cover almost all possible reading activities and behaviors. The list has been organized into a short, simple Code Key. A 15-cell computerized syntax has been designed to carry the…

  19. Dimensions of Computerized Rasch Applications in ESL Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Harold S.

    The most appropriate statistical model for the small-scale (n<100) studies common in language testing research is the Rasch one-parameter logistic model. The Rasch model provides a wide range of options for conducting research, refining existing examinations, and developing tailored (computerized adaptive) language tests. Three investigations…

  20. The Development and Evaluation of a Computerized Adaptive Testing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de-la-Torre, Roberto; Vispoel, Walter P.

    The development and preliminary evaluation of the Computerized Adaptive Testing System (CATSYS), a new testing package for IBM-compatible microcomputers, are described. CATSYS can be used to administer and score operational adaptive tests or to conduct on-line computer simulation studies. The package incorporates several innovative features,…

  1. Computerized Adaptive Testing System Design: Preliminary Design Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croll, Paul R.

    A functional design model for a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) system was developed and presented through a series of hierarchy plus input-process-output (HIPO) diagrams. System functions were translated into system structure: specifically, into 34 software components. Implementation of the design in a physical system was addressed through…

  2. A Computerized Library and Evaluation System for Integral Neutron Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Viktor E.; And Others

    A computerized library of references to integral neutron experiments has been developed at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at Livermore. This library serves as a data base for the systematic retrieval of documents describing diverse critical and bulk nuclear experiments. The evaluation and reduction of the physical parameters of the experiments…

  3. Item Selection Criteria with Practical Constraints for Computerized Classification Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chuan-Ju

    2011-01-01

    This study compares four item selection criteria for a two-category computerized classification testing: (1) Fisher information (FI), (2) Kullback-Leibler information (KLI), (3) weighted log-odds ratio (WLOR), and (4) mutual information (MI), with respect to the efficiency and accuracy of classification decision using the sequential probability…

  4. An Application of Computerized Instructional Television in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Bryce

    Computerized instructional television was used to teach undergraduate students about 100,000 or more extant fungi through an interactive, self testing, teaching program. Students did not find this sophisticated hardware an adequate substitute for the lecture experience and ultimately gave their professor a strong vote of confidence. (Author/JEG)

  5. A Comparison of Computerized Job Matching Systems. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botterbusch, Karl F.

    This publication describes and compares 15 nationally available computerized job matching systems. The first section discusses job matching systems in general and provides an outline and a summary comparison table of the systems. The second section, which makes up the major part of the document, contains descriptions of 15 systems. For each…

  6. Multiple Maximum Exposure Rates in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramon Barrada, Juan; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Olea, Julio

    2009-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing is subject to security problems, as the item bank content remains operative over long periods and administration time is flexible for examinees. Spreading the content of a part of the item bank could lead to an overestimation of the examinees' trait level. The most common way of reducing this risk is to impose a…

  7. Balancing Flexible Constraints and Measurement Precision in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Eric L.; Galindo, Jennifer L.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2012-01-01

    Managing test specifications--both multiple nonstatistical constraints and flexibly defined constraints--has become an important part of designing item selection procedures for computerized adaptive tests (CATs) in achievement testing. This study compared the effectiveness of three procedures: constrained CAT, flexible modified constrained CAT,…

  8. "catR": An R Package for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is an active current research field in psychometrics and educational measurement. However, there is very little software available to handle such adaptive tasks. The R package "catR" was developed to perform adaptive testing with as much flexibility as possible, in an attempt to provide a developmental and…

  9. A Framework for the Development of Computerized Adaptive Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.; Weiss, David J.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has been conducted over the past 40 years on technical aspects of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), such as item selection algorithms, item exposure controls, and termination criteria. However, there is little literature providing practical guidance on the development of a CAT. This paper seeks to collate some…

  10. Duplicated laboratory tests: evaluation of a computerized alert intervention abstract.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Sharon A; Papa, Linda; Norris, Anne E; Chase, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Redundant testing contributes to reductions in healthcare system efficiency. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine if the use of a computerized alert would reduce the number and cost of duplicated Acute Hepatitis Profile (AHP) laboratory tests and (2) assess what patient, test, and system factors were associated with duplication. This study used a quasi-experimental pre- and post-test design to determine the proportion of duplication of the AHP test before and after implementation of a computerized alert intervention. The AHP test was duplicated if the test was requested again within 15 days of the initial test being performed and the result present in the medical record. The intervention consisted of a computerized alert (pop-up window) that indicated to the clinician that the test had recently been ordered. A total of 674 AHP tests were performed in the pre-intervention period and 692 in the postintervention group. In the pre-intervention period, 53 (7.9%) were duplicated and in postintervention, 18 (2.6%) were duplicated (p<.001). The implementation of the alert was shown to significantly reduce associated costs of duplicated AHP tests (p≤.001). Implementation of computerized alerts may be useful in reducing duplicate laboratory tests and improving healthcare system efficiency. PMID:22963261

  11. Monkeys Exhibit Prospective Memory in a Computerized Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) involves forming intentions, retaining those intentions, and later executing those intended responses at the appropriate time. Few studies have investigated this capacity in animals. Monkeys performed a computerized task that assessed their ability to remember to make a particular response if they observed a PM cue embedded…

  12. Who Can Afford a Computerized Bookstore? Almost Anyone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Charles

    1982-01-01

    The decision to computerize operations in the DeAnza Community College bookstore was followed by a number of decisions about financing options (purchase, lease/purchase, lease, timesharing). A timesharing agreement was reached with a local bank, with no capital outlay and at a cost equivalent to an accountant's position. (MSE)

  13. Automatic Data Processing System and Procedures, Computerized Academic Counseling System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagorski, Henry J.; And Others

    The Computerized Academic Counseling System (CACS) designed by the System Development Corporation is reviewed. Aspects of the system, constructed to assist counselors in guiding undergraduates in the selection of academic majors, which are discussed include: problem definition, system analysis, design rationale, methodology, measurement…

  14. 45 CFR 302.85 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mandatory computerized support enforcement system. 302.85 Section 302.85 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STATE...

  15. Modern Sequential Analysis and Its Applications to Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartroff, Jay; Finkelman, Matthew; Lai, Tze Leung

    2008-01-01

    After a brief review of recent advances in sequential analysis involving sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests, we discuss their use in psychometric testing and extend the asymptotic optimality theory of these sequential tests to the case of sequentially generated experiments, of particular interest in computerized adaptive testing. We…

  16. 21 CFR 884.2800 - Computerized Labor Monitoring System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Computerized Labor Monitoring System. 884.2800 Section 884.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... a monitor and ultrasound transducers. Ultrasound transducers are placed on the maternal abdomen...

  17. 21 CFR 884.2800 - Computerized Labor Monitoring System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Computerized Labor Monitoring System. 884.2800 Section 884.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... a monitor and ultrasound transducers. Ultrasound transducers are placed on the maternal abdomen...

  18. 21 CFR 884.2800 - Computerized Labor Monitoring System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computerized Labor Monitoring System. 884.2800 Section 884.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... a monitor and ultrasound transducers. Ultrasound transducers are placed on the maternal abdomen...

  19. 21 CFR 884.2800 - Computerized Labor Monitoring System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Computerized Labor Monitoring System. 884.2800 Section 884.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... a monitor and ultrasound transducers. Ultrasound transducers are placed on the maternal abdomen...

  20. Multistage Computerized Adaptive Testing with Uniform Item Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Michael C.; Flora, David B.; Thissen, David

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a computerized adaptive test (CAT) based on the uniform item exposure multi-form structure (uMFS). The uMFS is a specialization of the multi-form structure (MFS) idea described by Armstrong, Jones, Berliner, and Pashley (1998). In an MFS CAT, the examinee first responds to a small fixed block of items. The items comprising…

  1. Discovering Visual Scanning Patterns in a Computerized Cancellation Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ho-Chuan; Wang, Tsui-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an attention sequential mining mechanism for investigating the sequential patterns of children's visual scanning process in a computerized cancellation test. Participants had to locate and cancel the target amongst other non-targets in a structured form, and a random form with Chinese stimuli. Twenty-three…

  2. Computerized Systems for Collecting Real-Time Observational Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahng, SungWoo; Iwata, Brian

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 15 developers of computerized real-time observation systems found many systems have incorporated laptop or handheld computers as well as bar-code scanners. Most systems used IBM-compatible software, and ranged from free to complete systems costing more than $1,500. Data analysis programs were included with most programs. (Author/CR)

  3. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... following payment options (listed in order of preference): (1) Automated clearinghouse (ACH) debits/credits...) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters at... companies (RCs). (b) A customer is required to have funds available on deposit with the Postal...

  4. Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT): Program Listing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Baldwin; And Others

    This program listing is a supplement to the Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). The driver textfile program allows access to major subprograms of the CAT project. The test administration textfile program gives examinees a prescribed set of subtests. The parameter management textfile program establishes a file containing…

  5. A Report on Project CVIS (Computerized Vocational Information System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willowbrook High School, Villa Park, IL. Computerized Vocational Information System Project.

    The Computerized Vocational Information System (CVIS) team, has designed a system utilizing a computer as a tool to help students explore occupations in the light of their own student records. This system aims at teaching a decision-making process in a way that interests students and allows counselors more time for counseling functions. The…

  6. Computerized Mastery Testing Using Fuzzy Set Decision Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yi; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A new computerized mastery test is described that builds on the Lewis and Sheehan procedure (sequential testlets) (1990), but uses fuzzy set decision theory to determine stopping rules and the Rasch model to calibrate items and estimate abilities. Differences between fuzzy set and Bayesian methods are illustrated through an example. (SLD)

  7. Cross-Validation of the Computerized Adaptive Screening Test (CAST).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pliske, Rebecca M.; And Others

    The Computerized Adaptive Screening Test (CAST) was developed to provide an estimate at recruiting stations of prospects' Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) scores. The CAST was designed to replace the paper-and-pencil Enlistment Screening Test (EST). The initial validation study of CAST indicated that CAST predicts AFQT at least as accurately…

  8. Using a Computerized Text-Editor in Freshman Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Lisa

    To determine how useful a computerized text editor would be in helping students to revise their papers, an interactive text manipulation system (Wylbur) was made available to two classes of freshman composition students at the University of California, Los Angeles. Since the course received no advance publicity, students did not know when they…

  9. A Computerized Test of Self-Control Predicts Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerger, Marguerite L.; Mace, F. Charles

    2006-01-01

    We assessed choices on a computerized test of self-control (CTSC) for a group of children with features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a group of controls. Thirty boys participated in the study. Fifteen of the children had been rated by their parents as hyperactive and inattentive, and 15 were age- and gender-matched…

  10. Item Overexposure in Computerized Classification Tests Using Sequential Item Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Computerized classification tests (CCTs) often use sequential item selection which administers items according to maximizing psychometric information at a cut point demarcating passing and failing scores. This paper illustrates why this method of item selection leads to the overexposure of a significant number of items, and the performances of…

  11. Computerized energy analysis for the Mars operations support building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, C. S.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed computerized building load simulation of the Operations Support Building at the Mars Deep Space Station, Goldstone, California is described. Five energy conservation suggestions were investigated prior to implementation. The results showed that cost savings of about 16 percent of present energy costs are possible.

  12. Computerized Literature Searching: An Orientation for the Search Requestor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano, Emily

    Developed to orient the information seeker to the computerized literature search process, this guide provides background information that will help the user facilitate the search interview and the formation of a search topic, enabling him or her to focus on personal search needs and not on the fundamentals of online searching. Major purposes for…

  13. Initial clinical experience with computerized tomography of the body.

    PubMed

    Stephens, D H; Sheedy, P F; Hattery, R R; Hartman, G W

    1976-04-01

    Computerized tomography of the body, now possible with an instrument that can complete a scan rapidly enough to permit patients to suspend respiration, adds an important new dimension to radiologic diagnosis. Cross-sectional antomy is uniquely reconstructed to provide accurate diagnostic information for various disorders throughout the body. PMID:772746

  14. COMPUTERIZED SHAWNEE LIME/LIMESTONE SCRUBBING MODEL USERS MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual gives a general description of a computerized model for estimating design and cost of lime or limestone scrubber systems for flue gas desulfurization (FGD). It supplements PB80-123037 by extending the number of scrubber options which can be evaluated. It includes spray...

  15. COMPUTERIZED LABORATORY NOTEBOOK CONCEPT FOR GENETIC TOXICOLOGY EXPERIMENTATION AND TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe a microcomputer system utilizing the Computerized Laboratory Notebook (CLN) concept developed in our laboratory for the purpose of automating the Battery of Leukocyte Tests (BLT). The BLT was designed to evaluate blood specimens for toxic, immunotoxic, and genotoxic e...

  16. Application of the Bifactor Model to Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong Gi

    2011-01-01

    Most computerized adaptive tests (CAT) have been studied under the framework of unidimensional item response theory. However, many psychological variables are multidimensional and might benefit from using a multidimensional approach to CAT. In addition, a number of psychological variables (e.g., quality of life, depression) can be conceptualized…

  17. Thermodynamics of geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, P.S.Z.

    1981-03-01

    A model to predict the thermodynamic properties of geothermal brines, based on a minimum amount of experimental data on a few key systems, is tested. Volumetric properties of aqueous sodium chloride, taken from the literature, are represented by a parametric equation over the range 0 to 300{sup 0}C and 1 bar to 1 kbar. Density measurements at 20 bar needed to complete the volumetric description also are presented. The pressure dependence of activity and thermal properties, derived from the volumetric equation, can be used to complete an equation of state for sodium chloride solutions. A flow calorimeter, used to obtain heat capacity data at high temperatures and pressures, is described. Heat capacity measurements, from 30 to 200{sup 0}C and 1 bar to 200 bar, are used to derive values for the activity coefficient and other thermodynamic properties of sodium sulfate solutions as a function of temperature. Literature data on the solubility of gypsum in mixed electrolyte solutions have been used to evaluate model parameters for calculating gypsum solubility in seawater and natural brines. Predictions of strontium and barium sulfate solubility in seawater also are given.

  18. Dissipative work in thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mário G.; Ferreira, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This work explores the concept of dissipative work and shows that such a kind of work is an invariant non-negative quantity. This feature is then used to get a new insight into adiabatic irreversible processes; for instance, why the final temperature in any adiabatic irreversible process is always higher than that attained in a reversible process having the same initial state and equal final pressure or volume. Based on the concept of identical processes, numerical simulations of adiabatic irreversible compression and expansion were performed, enabling a better understanding of differences between configuration and dissipative work. The positive nature of the dissipative work was used to discuss the case where the dissipated energy ends up in the surroundings, while the invariance of such work under a system-surroundings interchange enabled the resulting modification in thermodynamical quantities to be determined. The ideas presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students with a background in thermodynamics, but they may also be of interest to graduate students and teachers.

  19. Thermodynamics of Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Pablo; Pigolotti, Simone

    2015-10-01

    Information processing at the molecular scale is limited by thermal fluctuations. This can cause undesired consequences in copying information since thermal noise can lead to errors that can compromise the functionality of the copy. For example, a high error rate during DNA duplication can lead to cell death. Given the importance of accurate copying at the molecular scale, it is fundamental to understand its thermodynamic features. In this paper, we derive a universal expression for the copy error as a function of entropy production and work dissipated by the system during wrong incorporations. Its derivation is based on the second law of thermodynamics; hence, its validity is independent of the details of the molecular machinery, be it any polymerase or artificial copying device. Using this expression, we find that information can be copied in three different regimes. In two of them, work is dissipated to either increase or decrease the error. In the third regime, the protocol extracts work while correcting errors, reminiscent of a Maxwell demon. As a case study, we apply our framework to study a copy protocol assisted by kinetic proofreading, and show that it can operate in any of these three regimes. We finally show that, for any effective proofreading scheme, error reduction is limited by the chemical driving of the proofreading reaction.

  20. Thermodynamics of diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matuszak, Daniel

    Diffusion is the migration of molecules in the reference frame of a system's center of mass and it is a physical process that occurs in all chemical and biological systems. Diffusion generally involves intermolecular interactions that lead to clustering, adsorption, and phase transitions; as such, it is difficult to describe theoretically on a molecular level in systems containing both intermolecular repulsions and attractions. This work describes a simple thermodynamic approach that accounts for intermolecular attractions and repulsions (much like how the van der Waals equation does) to model and help provide an understanding of diffusion. The approach is an extension of the equilibrium Lattice Density Functional Theory of Aranovich and Donohue; it was developed with Mason and Lonsdale's guidelines on how to construct and test a transport theory. In the framework of lattice fluids, this new approach gives (a) correct equilibrium limits, (b) Fickian behavior for non-interacting systems, (c) correct departures from Fickian behavior in non-ideal systems, (d) the correct Maxwell-Stefan formulation, (e) symmetry behavior upon re-labeling species, (f) reasonable non-equilibrium phase behavior, (g) agreement with Molecular Dynamics simulations, (h) agreement with the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, (i) a vanishing diffusive flux at the critical point, and (j) other qualitatively-correct behaviors when applied to problems in porous membranes and in packed beds.

  1. Thermodynamics. [algebraic structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental structure of thermodynamics is purely algebraic, in the sense of atopological, and it is also independent of partitions, composite systems, the zeroth law, and entropy. The algebraic structure requires the notion of heat, but not the first law. It contains a precise definition of entropy and identifies it as a purely mathematical concept. It also permits the construction of an entropy function from heat measurements alone when appropriate conditions are satisfied. Topology is required only for a discussion of the continuity of thermodynamic properties, and then the weak topology is the relevant topology. The integrability of the differential form of the first law can be examined independently of Caratheodory's theorem and his inaccessibility axiom. Criteria are established by which one can determine when an integrating factor can be made intensive and the pseudopotential extensive and also an entropy. Finally, a realization of the first law is constructed which is suitable for all systems whether they are solids or fluids, whether they do or do not exhibit chemical reactions, and whether electromagnetic fields are or are not present.

  2. ThermoBuild: Online Method Made Available for Accessing NASA Glenn Thermodynamic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBride, Bonnie; Zehe, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The new Web site program "ThermoBuild" allows users to easily access and use the NASA Glenn Thermodynamic Database of over 2000 solid, liquid, and gaseous species. A convenient periodic table allows users to "build" the molecules of interest and designate the temperature range over which thermodynamic functions are to be displayed. ThermoBuild also allows users to build custom databases for use with NASA's Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA) program or other programs that require the NASA format for thermodynamic properties. The NASA Glenn Research Center has long been a leader in the compilation and dissemination of up-to-date thermodynamic data, primarily for use with the NASA CEA program, but increasingly for use with other computer programs.

  3. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  4. THE ECOTOX DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The database provides chemical-specific toxicity information for aquatic life, terrestrial plants, and terrestrial wildlife. ECOTOX is a comprehensive ecotoxicology database and is therefore essential for providing and suppoirting high quality models needed to estimate population...

  5. Network II Database

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-11-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network II Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database.

  6. Household Products Database: Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Types of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product Recalls Help Glossary Contact Us More ... holders. Information is extracted from Consumer Product Information Database ©2001-2015 by DeLima Associates. All rights reserved. ...

  7. Semiautomated computerized system for fracture assessment of spinal x-ray films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jill C.; Heyano, Scott L.; Yaffe, Laurence G.; von Ingersleben, Gabriel; Chestnut, Charles H., III

    1996-04-01

    This report describes a computerized system for assisting with the image analysis of digitized spine x-ray films. It was developed for vertebral height assessment (morphometry), a procedure widely used in research and clinical trials of spinal osteoporosis. Good image presentation is important for effective, interactive analysis of x-ray images, and was achieved by using a 12-bit color map for the image display. This provides virtually instantaneous updating of image display parameters even with large (4 - 10 MB) image files. The software has both semi-automated and automated features, and is integrated with a relational database for the storage and retrieval of images and textual information. It contains an on-line tutorial and facilities for later review and editing of the analyzed data. An active contour model for obtaining additional indices of vertebral fracture has been incorporated, and is undergoing further development. We discuss the organization of the analysis software, the database and on-line tutorial, and present some of the details of the implementation of the active contour model.

  8. Biochemical Thermodynamics under near Physiological Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendez, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The recommendations for nomenclature and tables in Biochemical Thermodynamics approved by IUBMB and IUPAC in 1994 can be easily introduced after the chemical thermodynamic formalism. Substitution of the usual standard thermodynamic properties by the transformed ones in the thermodynamic equations, and the use of appropriate thermodynamic tables…

  9. MPlus Database system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-20

    The MPlus Database program was developed to keep track of mail received. This system was developed by TRESP for the Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Operations. The MPlus Database program is a PC application, written in dBase III+'' and compiled with Clipper'' into an executable file. The files you need to run the MPLus Database program can be installed on a Bernoulli, or a hard drive. This paper discusses the use of this database.

  10. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  11. Computerized Adaptive Testing Simulations Using Real Test Taker Responses. Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiang Bo; Pan, WeiQin; Harris, Vincent

    A considerable amount of data on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has been conducted using simulated data. However, most researchers would agree that simulations may not fully reflect the reality of examinee performance on a test. This study used maximum likelihood procedures to investigate the accuracy and efficiency of examinee ability…

  12. Mission and Assets Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, John; Zendejas, Silvino; Gutheinz, Sandy; Borden, Chester; Wang, Yeou-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Mission and Assets Database (MADB) Version 1.0 is an SQL database system with a Web user interface to centralize information. The database stores flight project support resource requirements, view periods, antenna information, schedule, and forecast results for use in mid-range and long-term planning of Deep Space Network (DSN) assets.

  13. Plant and Crop Databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Databases have become an integral part of all aspects of biological research, including basic and applied plant biology. The importance of databases continues to increase as the volume of data from direct and indirect genomics approaches expands. What is not always obvious to users of databases is t...

  14. Thermodynamics of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Frank D.

    2010-04-01

    Applications of elementary thermodynamic principles to the dynamics of the Earth lead to robust, quantitative conclusions about the tectonic effects that arise from convection. The grand pattern of motion conveys deep heat to the surface, generating mechanical energy with a thermodynamic efficiency corresponding to that of a Carnot engine operating over the adiabatic temperature gradient between the heat source and sink. Referred to the total heat flux derived from the Earth's silicate mantle, the efficiency is 24% and the power generated, 7.7 × 1012 W, causes all the material deformation apparent as plate tectonics and the consequent geological processes. About 3.5% of this is released in seismic zones but little more than 0.2% as seismic waves. Even major earthquakes are only localized hiccups in this motion. Complications that arise from mineral phase transitions can be used to illuminate details of the motion. There are two superimposed patterns of convection, plate subduction and deep mantle plumes, driven by sources of buoyancy, negative and positive respectively, at the top and bottom of the mantle. The patterns of motion are controlled by the viscosity contrasts (>104 : 1) at these boundaries and are self-selected as the least dissipative mechanisms of heat transfer for convection in a body with very strong viscosity variation. Both are subjects of the thermodynamic efficiency argument. Convection also drives the motion in the fluid outer core that generates the geomagnetic field, although in that case there is an important energy contribution by compositional separation, as light solute is rejected by the solidifying inner core and mixed into the outer core, a process referred to as compositional convection. Uncertainty persists over the core energy balance because thermal conduction is a drain on core energy that has been a subject of diverse estimates, with attendant debate over the need for radiogenic heat in the core. The geophysical approach to

  15. Computerized segmentation of pulmonary nodules depicted in CT examinations using freehand sketches

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Yongqian; Wang, Qiuping; Xu, Guiping; Ma, Hongxia; Deng, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Pu, Jiantao; Guo, Youmin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To aid a consistent segmentation of pulmonary nodules, the authors describe a novel computerized scheme that utilizes a freehand sketching technique and an improved break-and-repair strategy. Methods: This developed scheme consists of two primary parts. The first part is freehand sketch analysis, where the freehand sketching not only serves a natural way of specifying the location of a nodule, but also provides a mechanism for inferring adaptive information (e.g., the mass center, the density, and the size) in regard to the nodule. The second part is an improved break-and-repair strategy. The improvement avoids the time-consuming ray-triangle intersections using spherical bins and replaces the original global implicit surface reconstruction with a local implicit surface fitting and blending scheme. The performance of this scheme, including accuracy and consistence, was assessed using 50 CT examinations in the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC). For each of these examinations, a single nodule was selected under the aid of a publically available tool to assure these nodules were diverse in size, location, and density. Two radiologists were asked to use the developed tool to segment these nodules twice at different times (at least three months apart). A Hausdorff distance based method was used to assess the discrepancies (agreements) between the computerized results and the results by the four radiologists in the LIDC as well as the inter- and intrareader agreements in freehand sketching. Results: The maximum and mean discrepancies in boundary outlines between the computerized scheme and the radiologists were 2.73 ± 1.32 mm and 1.01 ± 0.47 mm, respectively. When the nodules were classified (binned) into different size ranges, the maximum errors ranged from 1.91 to 4.13 mm; but smaller nodules had larger percentage discrepancies in term of size. Under the aid of the developed scheme, the inter- and intrareader variability in averaged maximum discrepancy

  16. Thermodynamics from Car to Kitchen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    The historical background to the laws of thermodynamics is explained using examples we can all observe in the world around us, focusing on motorised transport, refrigeration and solar heating. This is not to be considered as an academic article. The purpose is to improve understanding of thermodynamics rather than impart new knowledge, and for…

  17. Thermodynamics--A Practical Subject.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Hugh G.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a simplified, synoptic overview of the area of thermodynamics, enumerating and explaining the four basic laws, and introducing the mathematics involved in a stepwise fashion. Discusses such basic tools of thermodynamics as enthalpy, entropy, Helmholtz free energy, and Gibbs free energy, and their uses in problem solving. (JM)

  18. Comments to Irreversibility in Thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of irreversibility in thermodynamics was revisited and analyzed on the microscopic, stochastic, and macroscopic levels of description. It was demonstrated that Newtonian dynamics can be represented in the Reynolds form, a new phenomenological force with non-Lipschitz properties was introduced, and additional non- Lipschitz thermodynamical forces were incorporated into macroscopic models of transport phenomena.

  19. Ceramic Technology Project database: September 1990 summary report. [SiC, SiN, whisker-reinforced SiN, ZrO-toughened aluminas, zirconias, joints

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-06-01

    Data generated within the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP) represent a valuable resource for both research and industry. The CTP database was created to provide easy access to this information in electronic and hardcopy forms by using a computerized database and by issuing periodic hardcopy reports on the database contents. This report is the sixth in a series of semiannual database summaries and covers recent additions to the database, including joined brazed specimen test data. It covers 1 SiC, 34 SiN, 10 whisker-reinforced SiN, 2 zirconia-toughened aluminas, 8 zirconias, and 34 joints.

  20. Thermodynamics of Protein Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Kenneth L.; Barz, Bogdan; Bachmann, Michael; Strodel, Birgit

    Amyloid protein aggregation characterizes many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Creutz- feldt-Jakob disease. Evidence suggests that amyloid aggregates may share similar aggregation pathways, implying simulation of full-length amyloid proteins is not necessary for understanding amyloid formation. In this study we simulate GNNQQNY, the N-terminal prion-determining domain of the yeast protein Sup35 to investigate the thermodynamics of structural transitions during aggregation. We use a coarse-grained model with replica-exchange molecular dynamics to investigate the association of 3-, 6-, and 12-chain GNNQQNY systems and we determine the aggregation pathway by studying aggregation states of GN- NQQNY. We find that the aggregation of the hydrophilic GNNQQNY sequence is mainly driven by H-bond formation, leading to the formation of /3-sheets from the very beginning of the assembly process. Condensation (aggregation) and ordering take place simultaneously, which is underpinned by the occurrence of a single heat capacity peak only.

  1. Thermodynamics and cement science

    SciTech Connect

    Damidot, D.; Lothenbach, B.; Herfort, D.; Glasser, F.P.

    2011-07-15

    Thermodynamics applied to cement science has proved to be very valuable. One of the most striking findings has been the extent to which the hydrate phases, with one conspicuous exception, achieve equilibrium. The important exception is the persistence of amorphous C-S-H which is metastable with respect to crystalline calcium silicate hydrates. Nevertheless C-S-H can be included in the scope of calculations. As a consequence, from comparison of calculation and experiment, it appears that kinetics is not necessarily an insuperable barrier to engineering the phase composition of a hydrated Portland cement. Also the sensitivity of the mineralogy of the AFm and AFt phase compositions to the presence of calcite and to temperature has been reported. This knowledge gives a powerful incentive to develop links between the mineralogy and engineering properties of hydrated cement paste and, of course, anticipates improvements in its performance leading to decreasing the environmental impacts of cement production.

  2. Modern problems of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    The role of energy and methods of its saving for the development of human society and life are analyzed. The importance of future use of space energy flows and energy of water and air oceans is emphasized. The authors consider the idea of the unit for production of electric energy and pure substances using sodium chloride which reserves are limitless on the planet. Looking retrospectively at the development of power engineering from the elementary fire to modern electric power station, we see that the used method of heat production, namely by direct interaction of fuel and oxidizer, is the simplest. However, it may be possible to combust coal, i.e., carbon in salt melt, for instance, sodium chloride that would be more rational and efficient. If the stated problems are solved positively, we would master all energy properties of the substance; and this is the main problem of thermodynamics being one of the sciences on energy.

  3. Extensive quantities in thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannaerts, Sebastiaan H.

    2014-05-01

    A literature survey shows little consistency in the definitions of the term ‘extensive quantity’ (a.k.a. extensive property) as used in thermodynamics. A majority assumes that extensive quantities are those that are proportional to mass. Taking the mathematical meaning of proportional and taking the ‘mass’ to be that of the system or subsystem, it is shown that the proportionality assumption is only correct for a few extensive quantities under condition of constant composition. A large subset of extensive quantities are completely independent of mass; for most systems extensive quantities are not proportional to mass, but mass is the (extensive) constant of proportionality. The definition by IUPAC, based on the additivity of extensive quantities, is the preferred baseline for discussing this subject. It is noted however, that two types of additivity need to be distinguished and that a few intensive quantities are also additive. This paper leaves several interesting questions open to further scrutiny.

  4. Thermodynamics of Glass Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradt, Reinhard

    First, a model based on linear algebra is described by which the thermodynamic properties of industrial multi-component glasses and glass melts can be accurately predicted from their chemical composition. The model is applied to calculate the heat content of glass melts at high temperatures, the standard heat of formation of glasses from the elements, and the vapor pressures of individual oxides above the melt. An E-fiber glass composition is depicted as an example. Second, the role of individual raw materials in the melting process of E-glass is addressed, with a special focus on the decomposition kinetics and energetic situation of alkaline earth carriers. Finally, the heat of the batch-to-melt conversion is calculated. A simplified reaction path model comprising heat turnover, content of residual solid matter, and an approach to batch viscosity is outlined.

  5. Chemical and process thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    The book is intended mainly to be used as a text for undergraduate chemical engineering studies. Presented is a unified and up-to-date treatment of the major chemical and engineering applications of thermodynamics. Special features include a four chapter sequence on phase equilibrium which begins with simple concepts discussions. More difficult concepts are introduced gradually. Partial molar properties and infinite dilution activity coefficients appear toward the end of the sequence. Solution behavior, including activity coefficients via UNIVAC, is covered. Chapter 14 discusses heat exchange, separation processes, and second law analysis of chemical processes. Chapter 12 provides a firm foundation for chemical equilibrium, and Chapter 13 includes complex chemical equilibrium and free energy minimization. A selection of end-of-chapter problems is included to help the student apply principles and concepts in practical situations.

  6. Thermodynamics of feldspathoid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, Richard O.; Ghiorso, Mark S.

    We have developed models for the thermody-namic properties of nephelines, kalsilites, and leucites in the simple system NaAlSiO4-KAlSiO4-Ca0.5AlSiO4-SiO2-H2O that are consistent with all known constraints on subsolidus equilibria and thermodynamic properties, and have integrated them into the existing MELTS software package. The model for nepheline is formulated for the simplifying assumptions that (1) a molecular mixing-type approximation describes changes in the configurational entropy associated with the coupled exchange substitutions □Si?NaAl and □Ca? Na2 and that (2) Na+ and K+ display long-range non-convergent ordering between a large cation and the three small cation sites in the Na4Al4Si4O16 formula unit. Notable features of the model include the prediction that the mineral tetrakalsilite (``panunzite'', sensu stricto) results from anti-ordering of Na and K between the large cation and the three small cation sites in the nepheline structure at high temperatures, an average dT/dP slope of about 55°/kbar for the reaction over the temperature and pressure ranges 800-1050 °C and 500-5000 bars, roughly symmetric (i.e. quadratic) solution behavior of the K-Na substitution along joins between fully ordered components in nepheline, and large positive Gibbs energies for the nepheline reciprocal reactions and and for the leucite reciprocal reaction

  7. Thermodynamic similarity of physical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccariello, Salvino

    2016-02-01

    Two different physical systems A and B are said to be thermodynamically similar if one of the thermodynamic potentials of system A is proportional to the corresponding potential of B after expressing the state variables of system A in terms of those of B by a transformation reversible throughout the state variables' domain. The thermodynamic similarity has a transitive nature so that physical systems divide into classes of thermodynamically similar systems that have similar phase diagrams. Considering the simplest physical systems, one finds that a class of thermodynamically similar systems is formed by the ideal classical gas, the Fermi and the Bose ideal quantum gases, whatever the dimensions of the confining spaces, and the one dimensional hard rod gas. Another class is formed by the physical systems characterized by interactions that coincide by a scaling of the distance and the coupling constant.

  8. Visualization of multidimensional database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung

    2008-01-01

    The concept of multidimensional databases has been extensively researched and wildly used in actual database application. It plays an important role in contemporary information technology, but due to the complexity of its inner structure, the database design is a complicated process and users are having a hard time fully understanding and using the database. An effective visualization tool for higher dimensional information system helps database designers and users alike. Most visualization techniques focus on displaying dimensional data using spreadsheets and charts. This may be sufficient for the databases having three or fewer dimensions but for higher dimensions, various combinations of projection operations are needed and a full grasp of total database architecture is very difficult. This study reviews existing visualization techniques for multidimensional database and then proposes an alternate approach to visualize a database of any dimension by adopting the tool proposed by Kiviat for software engineering processes. In this diagramming method, each dimension is represented by one branch of concentric spikes. This paper documents a C++ based visualization tool with extensive use of OpenGL graphics library and GUI functions. Detailed examples of actual databases demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness in visualizing multidimensional databases.

  9. Thermodynamic properties of gaseous ruthenium species.

    PubMed

    Miradji, Faoulat; Souvi, Sidi; Cantrel, Laurent; Louis, Florent; Vallet, Valérie

    2015-05-21

    The review of thermodynamic data of ruthenium oxides reveals large uncertainties in some of the standard enthalpies of formation, motivating the use of high-level relativistic correlated quantum chemical methods to reduce the level of discrepancies. The reaction energies leading to the formation of ruthenium oxides RuO, RuO2, RuO3, and RuO4 have been calculated for a series of reactions. The combination of different quantum chemical methods has been investigated [DFT, CASSCF, MRCI, CASPT2, CCSD(T)] in order to predict the geometrical parameters, the energetics including electronic correlation and spin-orbit coupling. The most suitable method for ruthenium compounds is the use of TPSSh-5%HF for geometry optimization, followed by CCSD(T) with complete basis set (CBS) extrapolations for the calculation of the total electronic energies. SO-CASSCF seems to be accurate enough to estimate spin-orbit coupling contributions to the ground-state electronic energies. This methodology yields very accurate standard enthalpies of formations of all species, which are either in excellent agreement with the most reliable experimental data or provide an improved estimate for the others. These new data will be implemented in the thermodynamical databases that are used by the ASTEC code (accident source term evaluation code) to build models of ruthenium chemistry behavior in severe nuclear accident conditions. The paper also discusses the nature of the chemical bonds both from molecular orbital and topological view points. PMID:25905631

  10. EquilTheTA: Thermodynamic and transport properties of complex equilibrium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Colonna, G.; D'Angola, A.

    2012-11-27

    EquilTheTA (EQUILibrium for plasma THErmodynamics and Transport Applications) is a web-based software which calculates chemical equilibrium product concentrations from any set of reactants and determines thermodynamic and transport properties for the product mixture in wide temperature and pressure ranges. The program calculates chemical equilibrium by using a hierarchical approach, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients starting from recent and accurate databases of atomic and molecular energy levels and collision integrals. In the calculations, Debye length and cut-off are consistently updated and virial corrections (up to third order) can be considered. Transport coefficients are calculated by using high order approximations of the Chapman-Enskog method.

  11. M4FT-15LL0806062-LLNL Thermodynamic and Sorption Data FY15 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zavarin, M.; Wolery, T. J.

    2015-08-31

    This progress report (Milestone Number M4FT-15LL0806062) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within Work Package Number FT-15LL080606. The focus of this research is the thermodynamic modeling of Engineered Barrier System (EBS) materials and properties and development of thermodynamic databases and models to evaluate the stability of EBS materials and their interactions with fluids at various physicochemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. The development and implementation of equilibrium thermodynamic models are intended to describe chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion.

  12. SUPCRTBL: A revised and extended thermodynamic dataset and software package of SUPCRT92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Kurt; Zhang, Yilun; Lu, Peng; Chen, Yanyan; Zhang, Guanru; Dalkilic, Mehmet; Zhu, Chen

    2016-05-01

    The computer-enabled thermodynamic database associated with SUPCRT92 (Johnson et al., 1992) enables the calculation of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of minerals, gases, aqueous species, and reactions for a wide range of temperatures and pressures. However, new data on the thermodynamic properties of both aqueous species and minerals have become available since the database's initial release in 1992 and its subsequent updates. In light of these developments, we have expanded SUPCRT92's thermodynamic dataset and have modified the accompanying computer code for thermodynamic calculations by using newly available properties. The modifications in our new version include: (1) updating the standard state thermodynamic properties for mineral end-members with properties from Holland and Powell (2011) to improve the study of metamorphic petrology and economic geology; (2) adding As-acid, As-metal aqueous species, and As-bearing minerals to improve the study of environmental geology; (3) updating properties for Al-bearing species, SiO2° (aq) and HSiO3- , boehmite, gibbsite, and dawsonite for modeling geological carbon sequestration. The new thermodynamic dataset and the modified SUPCRT92 program were implemented in a software package called SUPCRTBL, which is available online at

  13. SUPCRTBL: A revised and extended thermodynamic dataset and software package of SUPCRT92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Kurt; Zhang, Yilun; Lu, Peng; Chen, Yanyan; Zhang, Guanru; Dalkilic, Mehmet; Zhu, Chen

    2016-05-01

    The computer-enabled thermodynamic database associated with SUPCRT92 (Johnson et al., 1992) enables the calculation of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of minerals, gases, aqueous species, and reactions for a wide range of temperatures and pressures. However, new data on the thermodynamic properties of both aqueous species and minerals have become available since the database's initial release in 1992 and its subsequent updates. In light of these developments, we have expanded SUPCRT92's thermodynamic dataset and have modified the accompanying computer code for thermodynamic calculations by using newly available properties. The modifications in our new version include: (1) updating the standard state thermodynamic properties for mineral end-members with properties from Holland and Powell (2011) to improve the study of metamorphic petrology and economic geology; (2) adding As-acid, As-metal aqueous species, and As-bearing minerals to improve the study of environmental geology; (3) updating properties for Al-bearing species, SiO2° (aq) and HSiO3-, boehmite, gibbsite, and dawsonite for modeling geological carbon sequestration. The new thermodynamic dataset and the modified SUPCRT92 program were implemented in a software package called SUPCRTBL, which is available online at

  14. An Introduction to Database Structure and Database Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detweiler, Karen

    1984-01-01

    Enumerates principal management objectives of database management systems (data independence, quality, security, multiuser access, central control) and criteria for comparison (response time, size, flexibility, other features). Conventional database management systems, relational databases, and database machines used for backend processing are…

  15. Thermodynamic modeling of lead distribution among matte, slag, and liquid copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degterov, Sergei A.; Pelton, Arthur D.

    1999-12-01

    Recently, a thermodynamic database was developed for the calculation of equilibria involved in the production of copper. The present study is concerned with the further development of the thermodynamic models and the database of model parameters for the matte, slag, and blister copper phases with a view to including Pb in the database and permitting calculations in the seven-component system Pb-Cu-Ca-Fe-Si-O-S. Thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data available in the literature are reviewed, critically assessed, and optimized with the modified quasi-chemical model. When used with the Gibbs energy minimization software and other databases of the FACT thermodynamic computing system, the database developed in the present study can be used for the calculation of matte-slag-copper-gas phase equilibria during copper smelting and converting. The distribution of lead among these phases can be computed. For example, the distribution of lead among matte, silica-saturated slag, and copper has been calculated at metal saturation, or under fixed partial pressure of SO2, and has been compared with the available experimental data. The Pb distributions among the equilibrium phases have been calculated under various conditions, which are difficult to study experimentally, such as at magnetite saturation or under various oxygen partial pressures and iron to silica ratios in the slag.

  16. Computerized symbolic manipulation in nonlinear finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.; Andersen, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of using computerized symbolic manipulation in the development of nonlinear finite elements is discussed. Three tasks which can be efficiently performed using computerized symbolic manipulation are identified: (1) generation of algebraic expressions for the stiffness coefficients of nonlinear finite elements, (2) generation of FORTRAN source code for numerical evaluation of stiffness coefficients, and (3) checking the correctness of the FORTRAN statements for the arrays of coefficients. The symbolic and algebraic manipulation system MACSYMA is used in the present study. Two sample MACSYMA programs are presented for the development of the nonlinear stiffness coefficients of two-dimensional, shear-flexible, doubly-curved deep shell elements. The first program is for displacement models and the second program is for mixed models with discontinuous stress-resultant fields at interelement boundaries.

  17. Computerized clinical guidelines: current status & principles for future research.

    PubMed

    Kondylakis, Haridimos; Tsiknakis, Manolis

    2012-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that the adoption of computerized clinical guidelines would improve the quality of the provided health care, their influence in the daily practice is limited. In this paper we provide insights on the core topics related to computer interpretable clinical guidelines and we present shortly the main approaches in the area. Then we discuss the current limitations, and we present three simple principles that according to our view should be adopted to enhance the penetration of computerized clinical guidelines in the health care organizations. The overall goal of this paper is not only to give readers a quick overview of the works in the area, but also to provide necessary insights for the practical understanding of the issues involved and draw directions for future research and development activities. PMID:22874227

  18. Transformations and algorithms in a computerized brain atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Thurfjell, L. . Centre for Image Analysis); Bohm, C. . Dept. of Physics); Eriksson, L. . Dept. of Neuroradiology Karolinska Institute/Hospital, Stockholm . Dept of Clinical Neurophysiology)

    1993-08-01

    The computerized brain atlas constructed at the Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, has been further developed. This atlas was designed to be employed in different fields of neuro imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MR). The main objectives with the atlas is to aid the interpretation of functional images by introducing anatomical information, to serve as a tool in the merging of data from different imaging modalities and to facilitate the comparisons of data from different individuals by allowing for anatomical standardization of individual data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the algorithms and transformations used in the implementation of the atlas software.

  19. An integrated computerized triage system in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Aronsky, Dominik; Jones, Ian; Raines, Bill; Hemphill, Robin; Mayberry, Scott R; Luther, Melissa A; Slusser, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) triage is a fast-paced process that prioritizes the allocation of limited health care resources to patients in greatest need. This paper describes the experiences with an integrated, computerized triage application. The system exchanges information with other information systems, including the ED patient tracking board, the longitudinal electronic medical record, the computerized provider order entry, and the medi-cation reconciliation application. The application includes decision support capabilities such as assessing the patients acuity level, age-dependent alerts for vital signs, and clinical reminders. The browser-based system utilizes the institutions controlled vocabulary, improves data completeness and quality, such as compliance with capturing required data elements and screening questions, initiates clinical processes, such as pneumococcal vaccination ordering, and reminders to start clinical pathways, issues alerts for clinical trial eligibility, and facilitates various reporting needs. The system has supported the triage documentation of >140,000 pediatric and adult patients. PMID:18999190

  20. Soft x-ray holographic computerized tomography imaging: experimental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuxuan; Jiang, Shiping; Zhang, Xinyi

    2003-03-01

    A high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) imaging technology has been developed, which is a combination of x-ray holography and computerized tomography (CT) technology called holographic computerized tomography (HCT). The theory and experimental techniques on biological specimens with the use of synchrotron radiation are discussed. Projections at different angles are reconstructed with the numerical method of in-line holography, and then the reconstructed data with a higher lateral resolution are used to restore the 3D image by the CT technique. With this method, the degradation caused by the diffraction of x rays is canceled, and 3D images with high resolution of micrometer magnitude in both the lateral and the longitudinal directions are obtained.

  1. Computerized Neurocognitive Test Performance in Schizophrenia: A Lifespan Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Farzin; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Richard, Jan; Calkins, Monica E.; Moberg, Paul J.; Bilker, Waren; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Computerized neurocognitive batteries based on advanced behavioral neuroscience methods are increasingly used in large-scale clinical and genomic studies. Favorable construct validity in younger schizophrenia patients has been reported, but not in older patients. New variables afforded by computerized assessments were used to clarify age-associated cognitive impairment across the lifespan. Methods 624 patients with schizophrenia and 624 healthy comparison (HC) subjects aged 16–75 completed a 1–2 hour computerized neurocognitive battery (CNB) that assessed abstraction and mental flexibility, attention, working memory, recognition memory (verbal, facial, spatial), language, visuospatial and emotion processing. Linear mixed effects models tested for group differences in accuracy, response time, and efficiency scores. Contrasts were stratified by age. Results 91% of older (45+) and 94% of younger (<45) groups provided “good” data quality. After controlling for parental education and project, there were significant three-way interactions for diagnosis x domain x age group on all three outcome variables. Patients performed worse than HC across all neurocognitive domains, except in the oldest group of 60+ patients. Age-stratified analyses did not show differences between younger (16–45) and older patients (45–60, 60+), except for the attention domain. Older patients’ reduced working memory efficiency was due to worse speed, not accuracy. Older patients were quicker than younger patients in processing emotions. Conclusions Computerized assessments are feasible in large cohorts of schizophrenia patients. There is stable and generalized neurocognitive dysfunction across the lifespan in schizophrenia, albeit with fewer differences in some domains between older patients and HC after age 60. Speed-accuracy tradeoff strategies suggest deceleration of some frontal networks and improvements in speed of emotional processing. PMID:22183011

  2. Computerized Tomography: Its Role in Interstitial Brachytherapy of Pelvic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. Pradeep; Taylor, Judith; Jones, E.O.; McAnulty, Bruce

    1986-01-01

    The advantages of computerized tomography (CT) in the treatment planning of external beam radiation therapy have been shown in several studies. The authors extended the use of CT to the interstitial brachytherapy treatment planning of pelvic malignancies. CT was found to be invaluable in localizing pelvic tumors, selecting implant techniques, and checking the accuracy of the implant. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:3950985

  3. Computerized series solution of relativistic equations of motion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broucke, R.

    1971-01-01

    A method of solution of the equations of planetary motion is described. It consists of the use of numerical general perturbations in orbital elements and in rectangular coordinates. The solution is expanded in Fourier series in the mean anomaly with the aid of harmonic analysis and computerized series manipulation techniques. A detailed application to the relativistic motion of the planet Mercury is described both for Schwarzschild and isotropic coordinates.

  4. Managing people problems in changing to computerized text processing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, T.R.

    1980-01-01

    Change is always both a promise and a threat. Changing to a computerized text processing system is, from a management viewpoint, mostly a promise; but from an employee viewpoint, mostly a threat. A variety of people problems arise from such a changeover because of the perceived threats involved. Most of these problems can be expected, so that, by proper management, their effects can be reduced or eliminated.

  5. Computing Thermodynamic And Transport Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, B.; Gordon, Sanford

    1993-01-01

    CET89 calculates compositions in chemical equilibrium and properties of mixtures of any chemical system for which thermodynamic data available. Provides following options: obtains chemical-equilibrium compositions and corresponding thermodynamic mixture properties for assigned thermodynamic states; calculates dilute-gas transport properties of complex chemical mixtures; obtains Chapman-Jouguet detonation properties for gaseous mixtures; calculates properties of incident and reflected shocks in terms of assigned velocities; and calculates theoretical performance of rocket for both equilibrium and frozen compositions during expansion. Rocket performance based on optional models of finite or infinite area combustor.

  6. Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

    2007-11-16

    The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

  7. The Thermodynamic Properties of Cubanite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, E. L.; Lauretta, D. S.; Keller, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    CuFe2S3 exists in two polymorphs, a low-temperature orthorhombic form (cubanite) and a high-temperature cubic form (isocubanite). Cubanite has been identified in the CI-chondrite and Stardust collections. However, the thermodynamic properties of cubanite have neither been measured nor estimated. Our derivation of a thermodynamic model for cubanite allows constraints to be placed on the formation conditions. This data, along with the temperature constraint afforded by the crystal structure, can be used to assess the environments in which cubanite formation is (or is not) thermodynamically favored.

  8. Stochastic thermodynamics of information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso Barato, Andre

    2015-03-01

    We consider two recent advancements on theoretical aspects of thermodynamics of information processing. First we show that the theory of stochastic thermodynamics can be generalized to include information reservoirs. These reservoirs can be seen as a sequence of bits which has its Shannon entropy changed due to the interaction with the system. Second we discuss bipartite systems, which provide a convenient description of Maxwell's demon. Analyzing a special class of bipartite systems we show that they can be used to study cellular information processing, allowing for the definition of an entropic rate that quantifies how much a cell learns about a fluctuating external environment and that is bounded by the thermodynamic entropy production.

  9. Thermodynamic Metrics and Optimal Paths

    SciTech Connect

    Sivak, David; Crooks, Gavin

    2012-05-08

    A fundamental problem in modern thermodynamics is how a molecular-scale machine performs useful work, while operating away from thermal equilibrium without excessive dissipation. To this end, we derive a friction tensor that induces a Riemannian manifold on the space of thermodynamic states. Within the linear-response regime, this metric structure controls the dissipation of finite-time transformations, and bestows optimal protocols with many useful properties. We discuss the connection to the existing thermodynamic length formalism, and demonstrate the utility of this metric by solving for optimal control parameter protocols in a simple nonequilibrium model.

  10. Additional usage possibilities for the computerized Hess screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svede, Aiga; Dzenis, Janis

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to work out a method how to use the computerized Hess screen in proximal vergence measurements. Proximal vergence or vergence due to knowledge of nearness is one of four independent components making up the total vergence response. Proximal vergence is expressed as a ratio - proximal convergence/test distance (PC/T). The computerized Hess screen is usually used to detect and to measure an ocular misalignment in patients with paralytic strabismus in different directions of gaze. The computerized Hess screen can be used to assess PC/T ratio in different directions of gaze, providing the open-loop disparity vergence and accommodation systems and assuming that tonic vergence is stable. The fusional system loop is opned using red/green filter goggles, objects with different size and color, a completely darkened room, and vertical dissociation (using a prism). The accommodation system loop is opened using pinhole. The test was performed on 16 neurologically and binocularly normal subjects (14 women, 2 men; average 24 y., 20-38 y.) Average PC/T ratio in a primary position for the whole group was 2.8pd/D with a standard deviation +/-0.8 pd/D, which correlates with results in literature obtained by other methods.

  11. A method of pharmacoepidemiologic analysis that uses computerized Medicaid.

    PubMed

    Gerstman, B B; Lundin, F E; Stadel, B V; Faich, G A

    1990-01-01

    A method of pharmacoepidemiologic data analysis that utilizes computerized Medicaid data is presented. A cohort design in which Medicaid enrollees receiving drugs that are normally used to treat similar underlying conditions is described. A period of time in which Medicaid service transactions are evident is required before an individual is eligible for selection into a cohort. Selection of study subjects and descriptions of cohorts are based on Medicaid service histories occurring during the preliminary, prerequisite period. Time at risk is considered to begin after a prescription for a study drug is dispensed and continues until either a refill is dispensed, a prescription for an alternative drug within the same therapeutic class is dispensed, or a predetermined number of days has passed. Subjects are followed forward in time and relevant health care transactions that are suggestive of suspected adverse drug reactions are noted. Incidence densities associated with sequentially ranked prescriptions within sequential courses of therapy are compared. Methods to increase the accuracy of case ascertainment are briefly discussed. Separate validation studies may be used to evaluate the validity of computerized case ascertainment methods and to compensate for misclassification of outcome. The proposed method is intended to provide timely estimates of risk for selected outcomes. For outcomes that cannot be accurately ascertained from computerized data, this method may be useful in determining the feasibility of more customized studies. PMID:2254776

  12. Computerized analysis of sonograms for the detection of breast lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drukker, Karen; Giger, Maryellen L.; Horsch, Karla; Vyborny, Carl J.

    2002-05-01

    With a renewed interest in using non-ionizing radiation for the screening of high risk women, there is a clear role for a computerized detection aid in ultrasound. Thus, we are developing a computerized detection method for the localization of lesions on breast ultrasound images. The computerized detection scheme utilizes two methods. Firstly, a radial gradient index analysis is used to distinguish potential lesions from normal parenchyma. Secondly, an image skewness analysis is performed to identify posterior acoustic shadowing. We analyzed 400 cases (757 images) consisting of complex cysts, solid benign lesions, and malignant lesions. The detection method yielded an overall sensitivity of 95% by image, and 99% by case at a false-positive rate of 0.94 per image. In 51% of all images, only the lesion itself was detected, while in 5% of the images only the shadowing was identified. For malignant lesions these numbers were 37% and 9%, respectively. In summary, we have developed a computer detection method for lesions on ultrasound images of the breast, which may ultimately aid in breast cancer screening.

  13. The evolution of computerized treatment planning for brachytherapy: American contributions

    PubMed Central

    Rivard, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To outline the evolution of computerized brachytherapy treatment planning in the United States through a review of technological developments and clinical practice refinements. Material and methods A literature review was performed and interviews were conducted with six participants in the development of computerized treatment planning for brachytherapy. Results Computerized brachytherapy treatment planning software was initially developed in the Physics Departments of New York's Memorial Hospital (by Nelson, Meurk and Balter), and Houston's M. D. Anderson Hospital (by Stovall and Shalek). These public-domain programs could be used by institutions with adequate computational resources; other clinics had access to them via Memorial's and Anderson's teletype-based computational services. Commercial brachytherapy treatment planning programs designed to run on smaller computers (Prowess, ROCS, MMS), were developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These systems brought interactive dosimetry into the clinic and surgical theatre. Conclusions Brachytherapy treatment planning has evolved from systems of rigid implant rules to individualized pre- and intra-operative treatment plans, and post-operative dosimetric assessments. Brachytherapy dose distributions were initially calculated on public domain programs on large regionally located computers. With the progression of computer miniaturization and increase in processor speeds, proprietary software was commercially developed for microcomputers that offered increased functionality and integration with clinical practice. PMID:25097560

  14. Computerized Adaptive Diagnosis and Testing of Mental Health Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Robert D; Weiss, David J; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David

    2016-03-28

    In this review we explore recent developments in computerized adaptive diagnostic screening and computerized adaptive testing for the presence and severity of mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, and mania. The statistical methodology is unique in that it is based on multidimensional item response theory (severity) and random forests (diagnosis) instead of traditional mental health measurement based on classical test theory (a simple total score) or unidimensional item response theory. We show that the information contained in large item banks consisting of hundreds of symptom items can be efficiently calibrated using multidimensional item response theory, and the information contained in these large item banks can be precisely extracted using adaptive administration of a small set of items for each individual. In terms of diagnosis, computerized adaptive diagnostic screening can accurately track an hour-long face-to-face clinician diagnostic interview for major depressive disorder (as an example) in less than a minute using an average of four questions with unprecedented high sensitivity and specificity. Directions for future research and applications are discussed. PMID:26651865

  15. 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

  16. ITS-90 Thermocouple Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 60 NIST ITS-90 Thermocouple Database (Web, free access)   Web version of Standard Reference Database 60 and NIST Monograph 175. The database gives temperature -- electromotive force (emf) reference functions and tables for the letter-designated thermocouple types B, E, J, K, N, R, S and T. These reference functions have been adopted as standards by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

  17. Opening CEM vendor databases

    SciTech Connect

    Long, A.; Patel, D.

    1995-12-31

    CEM database performance requirements (i.e., voluminous data storage, rapid response times) often conflict with the concept of an open, accessible database. Utilities would like to use their CEM data for more purposes than simply submitting environmental reports. But in most cases, other uses are inhibited because today`s sophisticated CEM systems incorporate databases that have forsaken openness and accessibility in favor of performance. Several options are available for CEM vendors wishing to move in the direction of open, accessible CEM databases.

  18. Databases for Microbiologists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Databases play an increasingly important role in biology. They archive, store, maintain, and share information on genes, genomes, expression data, protein sequences and structures, metabolites and reactions, interactions, and pathways. All these data are critically important to microbiologists. Furthermore, microbiology has its own databases that deal with model microorganisms, microbial diversity, physiology, and pathogenesis. Thousands of biological databases are currently available, and it becomes increasingly difficult to keep up with their development. The purpose of this minireview is to provide a brief survey of current databases that are of interest to microbiologists. PMID:26013493

  19. Veterans Administration Databases

    Cancer.gov

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  20. Backing up DMF Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A complete backup of the Cray Data Migration Facility (DMF) databases should include the data migration databases, all media specific process' (MSP's) databases, and the journal file. The backup should be able to accomplished without impacting users or stopping DMF. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center undertook the task of finding an effective and efficient way to backup all DMF databases. This has been accomplished by taking advantage of new features introduced in DMF 2.0 and adding a minor modification to the dmdaemon. This paper discusses the investigation and the changes necessary to implement these enhancements.

  1. Vibration syndrome diagnosis using a cooling test verified by computerized photoplethysmography.

    PubMed

    Dyszkiewicz, Andrzej; Tendera, Michał

    2006-04-01

    This study addresses the problem of vibration syndrome diagnosis by means of a cooling test verified by photoplethysmography. Measurement was taken on a small area on the fingertip plexus in which many arterio-venous anastomoses are present. In the opinion of many authors, flow disorders in this area are more typical for developing vibration syndrome than changes in the micro vessels. The study group comprised 128 subjects (58 women aged 40.9 +/- 5.4 years and 70 men aged 38.7 +/- 8.8 years) exposed to vibration. The control group consisted of 41 people (20 women aged 39.6 +/- 7.3 years and 21 men aged 39.3 +/- 6.4 years) who were not exposed to vibration. The patients were examined by a questionnaire and then a vibration perception threshold test and a cooling test were performed. The cooling test was verified both visually and using the computer method. Measurement data (S1, S2 and A) for each patient were obtained from averaging three pulse graphs. We departed from an average of 60 graphs (and more), the standard established in the literature, because of the cooling test specification, which causes huge thermodynamic parameter changeability in the plexus mass of the small finger under pulse waves coming one after another. A longer measurement time will reflect the thermal drift of the tested area in a direction to compensate for the reduced temperature. In the control group, all subjects showed an increase in planimetric indicators during the cooling test verified by computerized photoplethysmography. In the study group visual verification of the cooling test was positive in eight cases (6.2%) and the vibration perception threshold test was positive in seven cases (5.5%), but in computerized photoplethysmography the planimetric indicators decreased after cooling in 87 (67.4%) cases. Computer photoplethysmography is highly specific and shows greater sensitivity in detecting preclinical forms of vascular-type vibration syndrome when compared with palesthesiometry

  2. Thermodynamics of the hot BIon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grignani, Gianluca; Harmark, Troels; Marini, Andrea; Obers, Niels A.; Orselli, Marta

    2011-10-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of the recently obtained finite temperature BIon solution of [G. Grignani, T. Harmark, A. Marini, N.A. Obers, M. Orselli, Heating up the BIon, arXiv:1012.1494 [hep-th

  3. Thermodynamic efficiency of solar concentrators.

    PubMed

    Shatz, Narkis; Bortz, John; Winston, Roland

    2010-04-26

    The optical thermodynamic efficiency is a comprehensive metric that takes into account all loss mechanisms associated with transferring flux from the source to the target phase space, which may include losses due to inadequate design, non-ideal materials, fabrication errors, and less than maximal concentration. We discuss consequences of Fermat's principle of geometrical optics and review étendue dilution and optical loss mechanisms associated with nonimaging concentrators. We develop an expression for the optical thermodynamic efficiency which combines the first and second laws of thermodynamics. As such, this metric is a gold standard for evaluating the performance of nonimaging concentrators. We provide examples illustrating the use of this new metric for concentrating photovoltaic systems for solar power applications, and in particular show how skewness mismatch limits the attainable optical thermodynamic efficiency. PMID:20607882

  4. Thermodynamic efficiency of solar concentrators.

    PubMed

    Shatz, Narkis; Bortz, John; Winston, Roland

    2010-04-26

    The optical thermodynamic efficiency is a comprehensive metric that takes into account all loss mechanisms associated with transferring flux from the source to the target phase space, which may include losses due to inadequate design, non-ideal materials, fabrication errors, and less than maximal concentration. We discuss consequences of Fermat's principle of geometrical optics and review étendue dilution and optical loss mechanisms associated with nonimaging concentrators. We develop an expression for the optical thermodynamic efficiency which combines the first and second laws of thermodynamics. As such, this metric is a gold standard for evaluating the performance of nonimaging concentrators. We provide examples illustrating the use of this new metric for concentrating photovoltaic systems for solar power applications, and in particular show how skewness mismatch limits the attainable optical thermodynamic efficiency. PMID:20588573

  5. Thermodynamic Properties of HCFC-124

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Masato; Watanabe, Naohiro

    Thermodynamic properties of HCFC-124, such as saturated densities, vapor pressures and PVT properties, were measured and the critical parameters were determined through those experimental results. The correlations for vapor pressure, saturated liquid density and PVT properties deduced from those experimental results were compared with the measured data and also with the estimates of the other correlations published in literatures. The thermodynamic functions, such as enthalpy, entropy, heat capacity, etc., can reasonably be calculated from the correlation equations in this paper.

  6. Thermodynamics of nonsingular bouncing universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Pedro C.; Pavón, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Homogeneous and isotropic, nonsingular, bouncing world models are designed to evade the initial singularity at the beginning of the cosmic expansion. Here, we study the thermodynamics of the subset of these models governed by general relativity. Considering the entropy of matter and radiation and considering the entropy of the apparent horizon to be proportional to its area, we argue that these models do not respect the generalized second law of thermodynamics, also away from the bounce.

  7. JTHERGAS: Thermodynamic Estimation from 2D Graphical Representations of Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Blurock, Edward; Warth, V.; Grandmougin, X.; Bounaceur, R.; Glaude, P.A.; Battin-Leclerc, F.

    2013-01-01

    JTHERGAS is a versatile calculator (implemented in JAVA) to estimate thermodynamic information from two dimensional graphical representations of molecules and radicals involving covalent bonds based on the Benson additivity method. The versatility of JTHERGAS stems from its inherent philosophy that all the fundamental data used in the calculation should be visible, to see exactly where the final values came from, and modifiable, to account for new data that can appear in the literature. The main use of this method is within automatic combustion mechanism generation systems where fast estimation of a large number and variety of chemical species is needed. The implementation strategy is based on meta-atom definitions and substructure analysis allowing a highly extensible database without modification of the core algorithms. Several interfaces for the database and the calculations are provided from terminal line commands, to graphical interfaces to web-services. The first order estimation of thermodynamics is based summing up the contributions of each heavy atom bonding description. Second order corrections due to steric hindrance and ring strain are made. Automatic estimate of contributions due to internal, external and optical symmetries are also made. The thermodynamical data for radicals is calculated by taking the difference due to the lost of a hydrogen radical taking into account changes in symmetry, spin, rotations, vibrations and steric hindrances. The software is public domain and is based on standard libraries such as CDK and CML. PMID:23761949

  8. JTHERGAS: Thermodynamic Estimation from 2D Graphical Representations of Molecules.

    PubMed

    Blurock, Edward; Warth, V; Grandmougin, X; Bounaceur, R; Glaude, P A; Battin-Leclerc, F

    2012-07-01

    JTHERGAS is a versatile calculator (implemented in JAVA) to estimate thermodynamic information from two dimensional graphical representations of molecules and radicals involving covalent bonds based on the Benson additivity method. The versatility of JTHERGAS stems from its inherent philosophy that all the fundamental data used in the calculation should be visible, to see exactly where the final values came from, and modifiable, to account for new data that can appear in the literature. The main use of this method is within automatic combustion mechanism generation systems where fast estimation of a large number and variety of chemical species is needed. The implementation strategy is based on meta-atom definitions and substructure analysis allowing a highly extensible database without modification of the core algorithms. Several interfaces for the database and the calculations are provided from terminal line commands, to graphical interfaces to web-services. The first order estimation of thermodynamics is based summing up the contributions of each heavy atom bonding description. Second order corrections due to steric hindrance and ring strain are made. Automatic estimate of contributions due to internal, external and optical symmetries are also made. The thermodynamical data for radicals is calculated by taking the difference due to the lost of a hydrogen radical taking into account changes in symmetry, spin, rotations, vibrations and steric hindrances. The software is public domain and is based on standard libraries such as CDK and CML. PMID:23761949

  9. THERMODYNAMICS OF MATERIALS: FROM AB INITIO TO PHENOMENOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, P A

    2004-09-24

    Quantum mechanical-based (or ab initio) methods are used to predict the stability properties of materials although their application is limited to relatively simple systems in terms of structures and number of alloy components. However thermodynamics of complex multi-component alloys requires a more versatile approach afforded within the CALPHAD formalism. Despite its success, the lack of experimental data very often prevents the design of robust thermodynamic databases. After a brief survey of ab initio methodologies and CALPHAD, it will be shown how ab initio electronic structure methods can supplement in two ways CALPHAD for subsequent applications. The first one is rather immediate and concerns the direct input of ab initio energetics in CALPHAD databases. The other way, more involved, is the assessment of ab initio thermodynamics '{acute a} la CALPHAD'. It will be shown how these results can be used within CALPHAD to predict the equilibrium properties of multi-component alloys. Finally, comments will be made on challenges and future prospects.

  10. Simulating Metabolism with Statistical Thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, William R.

    2014-08-04

    Kinetic probabilities of state are usually based on empirical measurements, while thermodynamic state probabilities are based on the assumption that chemical species are distributed to according to a multinomial Boltzmann distribution. While the use of kinetic simulations is desirable, obtaining all the mass action rate constants necessary to carry out kinetic simulations is an overwhelming challenge. Here, the kinetic probability of a state is compared in depth to the thermodynamic probability of a state for sets of coupled reactions. The entropic and energetic contributions to thermodynamic stable states are described and compared to entropic and energetic contributions of kinetic steady states. It is shown that many kinetic steady states are possible for a system of coupled reactions depending on the relative values of the mass action rate constants, but only one of these corresponds to a thermodynamically stable state. Furthermore, the thermodynamic stable state corresponds to a minimum free energy state. The use of thermodynamic simulations of state to model metabolic processes is attractive, since metabolite levels and energy requirements of pathways can be evaluated using only standard free energies of formation as parameters in the probability distribution. In chemical physics, the assumption of a Boltzmann distribution is the basis of transition state theory for modeling transitory species. Application to stable species, such as those found in metabolic processes, is a less severe assumption that would enable the use of simulations of state.

  11. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  12. CDS - Database Administrator's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J. P.

    This guide aims to instruct the CDS database administrator in: o The CDS file system. o The CDS index files. o The procedure for assimilating a new CDS tape into the database. It is assumed that the administrator has read SUN/79.

  13. Database Searching by Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Stephen E.

    Managers and executives need the easy and quick access to business and management information that online databases can provide, but many have difficulty articulating their search needs to an intermediary. One possible solution would be to encourage managers and their immediate support staff members to search textual databases directly as they now…

  14. Morchella MLST database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Welcome to the Morchella MLST database. This dedicated database was set up at the CBS-KNAW Biodiversity Center by Vincent Robert in February 2012, using BioloMICS software (Robert et al., 2011), to facilitate DNA sequence-based identifications of Morchella species via the Internet. The current datab...

  15. First Look: TRADEMARKSCAN Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Anne Conway; Davidson, Alan B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes database produced by Thomson and Thomson and available on Dialog which contains over 700,000 records representing all active federal trademark registrations and applications for registrations filed in United States Patent and Trademark Office. A typical record, special features, database applications, learning to use TRADEMARKSCAN, and…

  16. HIV Structural Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  17. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  18. Assignment to database industy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Kohichiroh

    Various kinds of databases are considered to be essential part in future large sized systems. Information provision only by databases is also considered to be growing as the market becomes mature. This paper discusses how such circumstances have been built and will be developed from now on.

  19. Dictionary as Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Derrick

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of dictionaries as databases focuses on the digitizing of The Oxford English dictionary (OED) and the use of Standard Generalized Mark-Up Language (SGML). Topics include the creation of a consortium to digitize the OED, document structure, relational databases, text forms, sequence, and discourse. (LRW)

  20. A Quality System Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, William H.; Turner, Anne M.; Gifford, Luther; Stites, William

    2010-01-01

    A quality system database (QSD), and software to administer the database, were developed to support recording of administrative nonconformance activities that involve requirements for documentation of corrective and/or preventive actions, which can include ISO 9000 internal quality audits and customer complaints.