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Sample records for con disgenesia gonadal

  1. Relationship of gonadal activity and chemotherapy-induced gonadal damage

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkees, S.A.; Crawford, J.D.

    1988-04-08

    The authors tested the hypothesis that chemotherapy-induced gonadal damage is proportional to the degree of gonadal activity during treatment. Thirty studies that evaluated gonadal function after cyclophosphamide therapy for renal disease or combination chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease or acute lymphocytic leukemia provided data for analysis. Data were stratified according to sex, illness, chemotherapeutic regimen and dose, and pubertal stage at the time of treatment. Chemotherapy-induced damage was more likely to occur in patients who were treated when sexually mature compared with those who were treated when prepubertal. Males were significantly more frequently affected than females when treated for renal disease of Hodgkin's disease. Chemotherapy-induced damage was also more likely to occur when patients were treated with large doses of alkylating agents. These data suggest that chemotherapy-induced damage is proportional to gonadal activity. Further efforts are needed to test whether induced gonadal quiescence during chemotherapy will reduce the strikingly high incidence of gonadal failure following chemotherapy.

  2. Gonadal dysgenesis in del (18p) syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Telvi, L.; Ion, A.; Fouquet, F.

    1995-07-17

    We report on a girl with syndromal gonadal dysgenesis and a de novo del (18p). Genetic factors controlling gonadal development are located not only on the X chromosome, but also on autosomes. The present case suggests that one of these genes is situated on 18p. We conclude that patients with del (18p) syndrome should be evaluated for gonadal dysgenesis. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Mutation of Gonadal soma-derived factor induces medaka XY gonads to undergo ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takuto; Saino, Kentaro; Matsuda, Masaru

    2015-11-01

    Gonochoristic species have a bipotential gonad that develops into a testis or an ovary. In species whose sex is determined by a genetic factor, the expression of a sex-determining gene is the first cue that directs the development of a bipotential gonad. Subsequent expression of downstream genes induces the gonad to develop into a testis or an ovary. The TGF-ß family member Gonadal soma-derived factor (Gsdf) is thought to be an important gene for gonadal development in teleost fish, and it is expressed at higher levels in the testis than in the ovary from early to mature stages. However, there is little functional information about the gene. In this study, we targeted the Gsdf coding region in the medaka fish Oryzias latipes using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and studied the phenotypes of the Gsdf mutant medaka. Although normal and heterozygous XY gonads developed into a testis, all XY gonads with a homozygous mutation in Gsdf developed into an ovary at early developmental stages. However, two-thirds of Gsdf mutant XY gonads developed into testes in the adult stages. These results demonstrate that although a gonad can develop into a complete testis in the absence of Gsdf, Gsdf function is critical for directing the bipotential gonad at early developmental stages. Therefore, Gsdf is an endogenous inducer of testicular development similar to a master sex-determining gene. PMID:26408909

  4. Cryoconservation of avian gonads in Canada.

    PubMed

    Silversides, F G; Robertson, M C; Liu, J

    2013-10-01

    Avian genetic resources have declined dramatically over the past half century as the cost of maintaining populations has exceeded the perceived benefit of keeping them. Despite the early importance of poultry in the development of cryopreservation techniques, very little avian germplasm has been conserved. Cryopreservation and recovery of avian gonads preserve the W chromosome and overcome problems of freezing and recovering semen or conserving and manipulating embryonic cells, and the use of vitrification procedures for preserving gonads minimizes cellular damage. On the basis of research demonstrating the biological possibility of cryopreserving and transplanting avian gonads, 5,125 testicles and 2,667 ovaries from 10 populations of Japanese quail, 9 populations of chickens, and 1 population of Chilean tinamou were cryopreserved and sent to the Canadian Animal Genetic Resources program for long-term storage. These gonads represent 20 of the 33 distinct avian populations currently maintained at Canadian public institutions of agricultural research. PMID:24046407

  5. Gonadal sex chromosome complement in individuals with sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Bridge, J.A.; Sanger, W.G.; Seemayer, T.

    1994-09-01

    Gonadal abnormalities are characteristically seen in patients with sex chromosomal aneuploidy. Morphologically these abnormalities can be variable and are hypothesized to be dependent on the sex chromosomal consititution of the gonad (independent of the chromosomal complement of other tissues, such as peripheral blood lymphocytes). In this study, the gonadal sex chromosome complement was evaluated for potential mosaicism and correlated with the histopathology from 5 patients with known sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders. FISH techniques using X and Y chromosome specific probes were performed on nuclei extracted from paraffin embedded tissue. Gonadal tissue obtained from case 1 (a true hemaphroditic newborn) consisted of ovotestes and epididymis (left side) and ovary with fallopian tube (right side). Cytogenetic and FISH studies performed on blood, ovotestes and ovary revealed an XX complement. Cytogenetic analysis of blood from case 2, a 4-year-old with suspected Turner syndrome revealed 45,X/46,X,del(Y)(q11.21). FISH analysis of the resected gonads (histologically = immature testes) confirmed an X/XY mosaic complement. Histologically, the gonadal tissue was testicular. Severe autolysis prohibited successful analysis in the 2 remaining cases. In summary, molecular cytogenetic evaluation of gonadal tissue from individuals with sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders did not reveal tissue-specific anomalies which could account for differences observed pathologically.

  6. Methods for the Study of Gonadal Development.

    PubMed

    Piprek, Rafal P

    2016-01-01

    Current knowledge on gonadal development and sex determination is the product of many decades of research involving a variety of scientific methods from different biological disciplines such as histology, genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology. The earliest embryological investigations, followed by the invention of microscopy and staining methods, were based on histological examinations. The most robust development of histological staining techniques occurred in the second half of the nineteenth century and resulted in structural descriptions of gonadogenesis. These first studies on gonadal development were conducted on domesticated animals; however, currently the mouse is the most extensively studied species. The next key point in the study of gonadogenesis was the advancement of methods allowing for the in vitro culture of fetal gonads. For instance, this led to the description of the origin of cell lines forming the gonads. Protein detection using antibodies and immunolabeling methods and the use of reporter genes were also invaluable for developmental studies, enabling the visualization of the formation of gonadal structure. Recently, genetic and molecular biology techniques, especially gene expression analysis, have revolutionized studies on gonadogenesis and have provided insight into the molecular mechanisms that govern this process. The successive invention of new methods is reflected in the progress of research on gonadal development. PMID:27300186

  7. Gonads and the evolution of hormonal phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Rosvall, Kimberly A; Bergeon Burns, Christine M; Jayaratna, Sonya P; Dossey, Emma K; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2016-08-01

    Hormones are dynamic signaling molecules that influence gene activity and phenotype, and they are thus thought to play a central role in phenotypic evolution. In vertebrates, many fitness-related traits are mediated by the hormone testosterone (T), but the mechanisms by which T levels evolve are unclear. Here, we summarize a series of studies that advance our understanding of these mechanisms by comparing males from two subspecies of dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) that differ in aggression, body size, and ornamentation. We first review our research demonstrating population differences in the time-course of T production, as well as findings that point to the gonad as a major source of this variation. In a common garden, the subspecies do not differ in pituitary output of luteinizing hormone, but males from the more androgenized subspecies have greater gonadal gene expression for specific steroidogenic enzymes, and they may be less sensitive to feedback along the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Furthermore, we present new data from a common garden study demonstrating that the populations do not differ in gonadal sensitivity to gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (i.e., GnIH receptor mRNA abundance), but the more androgenized subspecies expresses less gonadal mRNA for glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor, suggesting altered cross-talk between the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal and -adrenal axes as another mechanism by which these subspecies have diverged in T production. These findings highlight the diversity of mechanisms that may generate functional variation in T and influence hormone-mediated phenotypic evolution. PMID:27252189

  8. Exogenous estradiol alters gonadal growth and timing of temperature sex determination in gonads of sea turtle.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; Marmolejo-Valencia, Alejandro; Merchant-Larios, Horacio

    2015-12-01

    Temperature sex determining species offer a model for investigating how environmental cues become integrated to the regulation of patterning genes and growth, among bipotential gonads. Manipulation of steroid hormones has revealed the important role of aromatase in the regulation of the estrogen levels involved in temperature-dependent sex determination. Estradiol treatment counteracts the effect of male-promoting temperature, but the resulting ovarian developmental pattern differs from that manifested with the female-promoting temperature. Hypoplastic gonads have been reported among estradiol-treated turtles; however the estradiol effect on gonadal size has not been examined. Here we focused on the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea, which develops hypoplastic gonads with estradiol treatment. We studied the effect of estradiol on cell proliferation and on candidate genes involved in ovarian pattern. We found this effect is organ specific, causing a dramatic reduction in gonadal cell proliferation during the temperature-sensitive period. Although the incipient gonads resembled tiny ovaries, remodeling of the medullary cords and down-regulation of testicular factor Sox9 were considerably delayed. Contrastingly, with ovarian promoting temperature as a cue, exogenous estradiol induced the up-regulation of the ovary factor FoxL2, prior to the expression of aromatase. The strong expression of estrogen receptor alpha at the time of treatment suggests that it mediates estradiol effects. Overall results indicate that estradiol levels required for gonadal growth and to establish the female genetic network are delicately regulated by temperature. PMID:26465360

  9. Induced Autoimmunity against Gonadal Proteins Affects Gonadal Development in Juvenile Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Presslauer, Christopher; Nagasawa, Kazue; Dahle, Dalia; Babiak, Joanna; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.; Babiak, Igor

    2014-01-01

    A method to mitigate or possibly eliminate reproduction in farmed fish is highly demanded. The existing approaches have certain applicative limitations. So far, no immunization strategies affecting gonadal development in juvenile animals have been developed. We hypothesized that autoimmune mechanisms, occurring spontaneously in a number of diseases, could be induced by targeted immunization. We have asked whether the immunization against specific targets in a juvenile zebrafish gonad will produce an autoimmune response, and, consequently, disturbance in gonadal development. Gonadal soma-derived factor (Gsdf), growth differentiation factor (Gdf9), and lymphocyte antigen 75 (Cd205/Ly75), all essential for early gonad development, were targeted with 5 immunization tests. Zebrafish (n = 329) were injected at 6 weeks post fertilization, a booster injection was applied 15 days later, and fish were sampled at 30 days. We localized transcripts encoding targeted proteins by in situ hybridization, quantified expression of immune-, apoptosis-, and gonad-related genes with quantitative real-time PCR, and performed gonadal histology and whole-mount immunohistochemistry for Bcl2-interacting-killer (Bik) pro-apoptotic protein. The treatments resulted in an autoimmune reaction, gonad developmental retardation, intensive apoptosis, cell atresia, and disturbed transcript production. Testes were remarkably underdeveloped after anti-Gsdf treatments. Anti-Gdf9 treatments promoted apoptosis in testes and abnormal development of ovaries. Anti-Cd205 treatment stimulated a strong immune response in both sexes, resulting in oocyte atresia and strong apoptosis in supporting somatic cells. The effect of immunization was FSH-independent. Furthermore, immunization against germ cell proteins disturbed somatic supporting cell development. This is the first report to demonstrate that targeted autoimmunity can disturb gonadal development in a juvenile fish. It shows a straightforward potential

  10. ANALYSIS OF CHICKEN EMBRYONIC GONAD ESTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have sequenced 11,842 cDNA clones from the embryonic gonad cDNA library to generate 10,294 sequences. The EST data described in this paper have been submitted to the NCBI dbEST under accession numbers CV852525 CV862818. The unique sequences of the EST data resulted in a total of 4,384 sequences w...

  11. Laser capture microdissection of gonads from juvenile zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type of investigation. Furthermore, the lack of a genetic sex marker in juvenile zebrafish prevents pooling gonads from several individuals. The aim of this study was to establish a method to isolate the gonads from individual juvenile zebrafish allowing future investigations of gonadal gene expression during sex determination and differentiation. Methods The laser capture microdissection technique enables isolation of specific cells and tissues and thereby removes the noise of gene expression from other cells or tissues in the gene expression profile. A protocol developed for laser microdissection of human gonocytes was adjusted and optimised to isolate juvenile zebrafish gonads. Results The juvenile zebrafish gonad is not morphologically distinguishable when using dehydrated cryosections on membrane slides and a specific staining method is necessary to identify the gonads. The protocol setup in this study allows staining, identification, isolation and subsequent RNA purification and amplification of gonads from individual juvenile zebrafish thereby enabling gonadal gene expression profiling. Conclusion The study presents a protocol for isolation of individual juvenile zebrafish gonads, which will enable future investigations of gonadal gene expression during the critical period of sex differentiation. Furthermore, the presented staining method is applicable to other species as it is directed towards alkaline phosphatase that is expressed in gonocytes and embryonic stem cells, which is conserved among vertebrate species. PMID:19747405

  12. REDUCING GONAD IRRADIATION IN PEDIATRIC DIAGNOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Harry A.; Webber, Milo; O'Loughlin, Bernard J.

    1959-01-01

    The greatest danger of carcinogenesis and of genetic damage through diagnostic radiologic procedures is in children, whose smaller bodies are more vulnerable and who have a longer life span in which this damage can be realized. Film badges placed on the gonad area during radiologic studies indicated widely varying degrees of gonad irradiation from similar procedures. These results emphasize the importance of technique in protecting children from unnecessary exposure. Such exposure can be reduced by greater beam filtration, use of higher tube potentials, careful beam collimation and centering, closer coning and shielding of the gonads. A new film tested reduced exposure time by 50 per cent. Further reduction was obtained by high-speed screens. A most important measure is avoidance of unnecessary, repetitious and undiagnostic studies. Fluoroscopy should be avoided if possible. If not, the operator must dark-adapt his eyes, use the smallest possible current, the narrowest beam, and the shortest exposure time. Image intensification promotes these aims. Modern equipment, properly shielded, assures against unsuspected exposure. PMID:13618739

  13. The gonadal function in obese adolescents: review.

    PubMed

    Condorelli, Rosita A; Calogero, Aldo E; Vicari, Enzo; Mongioi', Laura; Favilla, Vincenzo; Morgia, Giuseppe; Cimino, Sebastiano; Russo, Giorgio; La Vignera, Sandro

    2014-12-01

    This review deals with the relationship between obesity in male adolescents and gonadal function. The article is structured in two main paragraphs; the first one is about population studies that have assessed puberty timing and its mode of onset in relation with body weight to evaluate if and how the latter can influence the gonadal function in this phase of life. These studies analyze issues such as increased BMI and early onset of male puberty, gender differences, secular trend toward early onset of puberty in males, effects of a different body composition on male puberty and consequences of a different stage of childhood obesity on the onset of male puberty. The second paragraph examines the possible mechanisms through which, obesity may alter the timing of puberty in young males, including the role of SHBG, leptin, insulin resistance, ghrelin, GH-IGF-1 axis, AR polymorphisms, primary testicular dysfunction, retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4) and liver function abnormalities. However, despite the numerous studies in the literature, the etiology of gonadal disfunction in obese adolescents on puberty remains uncertain. PMID:24923899

  14. Gonadal transcriptome analysis of wild contaminated female European eels during artificial gonad maturation.

    PubMed

    Baillon, Lucie; Oses, Jennifer; Pierron, Fabien; Bureau du Colombier, Sarah; Caron, Antoine; Normandeau, Eric; Lambert, Patrick; Couture, Patrice; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Dufour, Sylvie; Bernatchez, Louis; Baudrimont, Magalie

    2015-11-01

    Since the early 1980s, the population of European eels (Anguilla anguilla) has dramatically declined. Nowadays, the European eel is listed on the red list of threatened species (IUCN Red List) and is considered as critically endangered of extinction. Pollution is one of the putative causes for the collapse of this species. Among their possible effects, contaminants gradually accumulated in eels during their somatic growth phase (yellow eel stage) would be remobilized during their reproductive migration leading to potential toxic events in gonads. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of organic and inorganic contaminants on the gonad development of wild female silver eels. Female silver eels from two sites with differing contamination levels were artificially matured. Transcriptomic analyses by means of a 1000 candidate gene cDNA microarray were performed on gonads after 11weeks of maturation to get insight into the mechanisms of toxicity of contaminants. The transcription levels of several genes, that were associated to the gonadosomatic index (GSI), were involved in mitotic cell division but also in gametogenesis. Genes associated to contaminants were mainly involved in the mechanisms of protection against oxidative stress, in DNA repair, in the purinergic signaling pathway and in steroidogenesis, suggesting an impairment of gonad development in eels from the polluted site. This was in agreement with the fact that eels from the reference site showed a higher gonad growth in comparison to contaminated fish. PMID:26159298

  15. Neuropeptides in the Gonads: From Evolution to Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Nicolette L.; Bentley, George E.

    2010-01-01

    Vertebrate gonads are the sites of synthesis and binding of many peptides that were initially classified as neuropeptides. These gonadal neuropeptide systems are neither well understood in isolation, nor in their interactions with other neuropeptide systems. Further, our knowledge of the control of these gonadal neuropeptides by peripheral hormones that bind to the gonads, and which themselves are under regulation by true neuropeptide systems from the hypothalamus, is relatively meager. This review discusses the existence of a variety of neuropeptides and their receptors which have been discovered in vertebrate gonads, and the possible way in which such systems could have evolved. We then focus on two key neuropeptides for regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis: gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). Comparative studies have provided us with a degree of understanding as to how a gonadal GnRH system might have evolved, and they have been responsible for the discovery of GnIH and its gonadal counterpart. We attempt to highlight what is known about these two key gonadal neuropeptides, how their actions differ from their hypothalamic counterparts, and how we might learn from comparative studies of them and other gonadal neuropeptides in terms of pharmacology, reproductive physiology and evolutionary biology. PMID:21607065

  16. Effects of centrifugation on gonadal and adrenocortical steroids in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakihana, R.; Butte, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Many endocrine systems are sensitive to external changes in the environment. Both the pituitary adrenal and pituitary gonadal systems are affected by stress including centrifugation stress. The effect of centrifugation on the pituitary gonadal and pituitary adrenocortical systems was examined by measuring the gonadal and adrenal steroids in the plasma and brain following different duration and intensity of centrifugation stress in rats. Two studies were completed and the results are presented. The second study was carried out to describe the developmental changes of brain, plasma and testicular testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in Sprague Dawley rats so that the effect of centrifugation stress on the pituitary gonadal syatem could be better evaluated in future studies.

  17. Dissecting the Role of Hedgehog Pathway in Murine Gonadal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsoum, Ivraym Boshra

    2009-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is one of the universal pathways involved in animal development. This dissertation focuses on Hh role in the mammalian gonad development, which is a central part of mammalian sexual development and identity. The central dogma of mammalian sex development is that genetic sex determines the gonadal sex, which in turn…

  18. Cell-autonomous sex determination outside of the gonad

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Arthur P.; Chen, Xuqi; Link, Jenny C.; Itoh, Yuichiro; Reue, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The classic model of sex determination in mammals states that the sex of the individual is determined by the type of gonad that develops, which in turn determines the gonadal hormonal milieu that creates sex differences outside of the gonads. However, XX and XY cells are intrinsically different because of the cell-autonomous sex-biasing action of X and Y genes. Recent studies of mice, in which sex chromosome complement is independent of gonadal sex, reveal that sex chromosome complement has strong effects contributing to sex differences in phenotypes such as metabolism. Adult mice with two X chromosomes (relative to mice with one X chromosome) show dramatically greater increases in body weight and adiposity after gonadectomy, irrespective of their gonadal sex. When fed a high fat diet, XX mice develop striking hyperinsulinemia and fatty liver, relative to XY mice. The sex chromosome effects are modulated by the presence of gonadal hormones, indicating an interaction of the sex-biasing effects of gonadal hormones and sex chromosome genes. Other cell-autonomous sex chromosome effects are detected in mice in many phenotypes. Birds (relative to eutherian mammals) are expected to show more widespread cell-autonomous sex determination in non-gonadal tissues, because of ineffective sex chromosome dosage compensation mechanisms. PMID:23361913

  19. Pure gonadal dysgenesis (46 XX type) with a familial pattern

    PubMed Central

    Kohmanaee, Shahin; Dalili, Setila; Rad, Afagh Hassanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    46, XX gonadal dysgenesis without the phenotype of Turner's syndrome is described as “pure”. Although, previous investigations obtained that commonly gonadal dysgenesis did not cause breast development as a result of low levels of circulating estradiol. However, in this study, we aimed to report a familial pure gonadal dysgenesis with and without normal secondary sexual characteristics. In this study, we reported three siblings with pure gonadal dysgenesis with and without normal secondary sexual characteristics. The elder two sisters had a normal female phenotype and the youngest had amenorrhea with no breast development (B1) and pubic hair. In addition, it seems that the absence of pubic hair occurred due to delayed constitutional puberty. According to results, it seems that clinicians should consider different presentations for pure gonadal dysgenesis with familial pattern. PMID:26430655

  20. Pure gonadal dysgenesis (46 XX type) with a familial pattern.

    PubMed

    Kohmanaee, Shahin; Dalili, Setila; Rad, Afagh Hassanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    46, XX gonadal dysgenesis without the phenotype of Turner's syndrome is described as "pure". Although, previous investigations obtained that commonly gonadal dysgenesis did not cause breast development as a result of low levels of circulating estradiol. However, in this study, we aimed to report a familial pure gonadal dysgenesis with and without normal secondary sexual characteristics. In this study, we reported three siblings with pure gonadal dysgenesis with and without normal secondary sexual characteristics. The elder two sisters had a normal female phenotype and the youngest had amenorrhea with no breast development (B1) and pubic hair. In addition, it seems that the absence of pubic hair occurred due to delayed constitutional puberty. According to results, it seems that clinicians should consider different presentations for pure gonadal dysgenesis with familial pattern. PMID:26430655

  1. Characterization of early gonadal development in smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and effects of ethinyl estradiol on gonadal differentiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Teleosts vary widely in patterns of gonadal sex differentiation, which might lead to differences in how gonadal development is affected by the presence of estrogenic compounds. This makes it difficult to apply our knowledge of model species such as medaka and fathead minnow to o...

  2. Gonadal damage from chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Howell, S; Shalet, S

    1998-12-01

    Treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy is associated with significant gonadal damage in men and women. Alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide and procarbazine are the most common agents implicated. The vast majority of men receiving procarbazine-containing regimens for the treatment of lymphomas become permanently infertile. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy for testicular cancer results in temporary azoospermia in most men, with a recovery of spermatogenesis in about 50% after 2 years and in 80% after 5 years. There is also evidence of Leydig cell impairment in a proportion of these men, although the clinical significance of this is not clear. The germinal epithelium is very sensitive to radiation-induced damage, with changes to spermatogonia occurring following as little as 0.1 Gy and permanent infertility after fractionated doses of 2 Gy and above. Cytotoxic-induced premature ovarian failure is age- and drug-dependent and ensues in approximately half of women treated with procarbazine-containing chemotherapy for lymphomas. High-dose chemotherapy, total body irradiation, and irradiation at an ovarian dose above 6 Gy usually result in permanent ovarian failure. The course of ovarian function after chemotherapy is variable, and late recovery occurs in some patients. Several methods of preserving gonadal function during potentially sterilizing treatment have been considered. Currently, sperm banking remains the only proven method in men, although hormonal manipulation to enhance the recovery of spermatogenesis and cryopreservation of testicular germ cells are possibilities for the future. Transposition of the ovaries to allow better shielding during radiotherapy is of use in some women, and the prospect of cryopreservation and reimplantation of ovarian tissue is promising. PMID:9922915

  3. Angiotensin II receptors in the gonads

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilera, G.; Millan, M.A.; Harwood, J.P.

    1989-05-01

    The presence of components of the renin-angiotensin system in ovaries and testes suggests that angiotensin II (AII) is involved in gonadal function, and thus we sought to characterize receptors for AII in rat and primate gonads. In the testes, autoradiographic studies showed receptors in the interstitium in all species. In rat interstitial cells fractionated by Percoll gradient, AII receptors coincided with hCG receptors indicating that AII receptors are located on the Leydig cells. In Leydig cells and membranes from rat and rhesus monkey prepuberal testes, AII receptors were specific for AII analogues and of high affinity (Kd=nM). During development, AII receptor content in rat testes decreases with age parallel to a fall in the ratio of interstitial to tubular tissue. In the ovary, the distribution of AII receptors was dependent on the stage of development, being high in the germinal epithelium and stromal tissue between five and 15 days, and becoming localized in secondary follicles in 20-and 40-day-old rats. No binding was found in primordial or primary follicles. In rhesus monkey ovary, AII receptors were higher in stromal tissue and lower in granulosa and luteal cells of the follicles. Characterization of the binding in rat and monkey ovarian membranes showed a single class of sites with a Kd in the nmol/L range and specificity similar to that of the adrenal glomerulosa and testicular AII receptors. Receptors for AII were also present in membrane fractions from PMSG/hCG primed rat ovaries. Infusion of AII (25 ng/min) or captopril (1.4 micrograms/min) during the PMSG/hCG induction period had no effect on ovarian weight or AII receptor concentration in the ovaries.

  4. The genetics of XX gonadal dysgenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Aittomaeki, K. )

    1994-05-01

    In a nationwide population-based study of women born between 1950 and 1976, 75 patients with XX gonadal dysgenesis (XXGD) were identified in Finland. Patients were ascertained through hospital records and the registers of chromosome laboratories. In one family 4 daughters were affected; in six families 2 daughters were affected; and 57 cases were isolated. In one additional family the two affected females were in successive generations. Population records were utilized to trace ancestors of patients back to the beginning of the 19th century, in most cases. Consanguinity was detected in 8 (12%) of 66 families. When females only are considered, the segregation analyses yield a proportion of .23 affected. The relatively large number of affected individuals identified (incidence 1 in 8,300 live-born girls) implies a high gene frequency in the Finnish population. The geographic distribution was highly uneven, with most families originating in the sparsely populated north-central part of Finland. These findings support the existence of an autosomal recessive (XXGD) gene (locus designation [open quotes]ODG1[close quotes]) that is highly enriched in Finland. The multiplex families already identified will make it possible to map the ODG1 gene by a random search for linkage by using polymorphic markers. Linkage-disequilibrium analysis in the sporadic patients will then be used to test for genetic homogeneity versus heterogeneity. 27 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Management of 46, XY partial gonadal dysgenesis--revisited.

    PubMed

    Crone, Julia; Amann, Gabriele; Gheradini, Rainer; Kirchlechner, Veronika; Fékété, Claire-Nihoul

    2002-06-28

    46, XY partial gonadal dysgenesis is a rare condition characterized by a varying degree of testicular dysgenesis, ambiguous genitalia, and usually absence of regression of Müllerian structures. The management of patients with these disorders warrants revisiting, owing to recent molecular biological findings and to reports on the long-term outcome of individuals with ambiguous genitalia. We report on a patient with 46, XY chromosomes, presence of the "sex-determining region of Y chromosome" (SRY) gene, scrotal gonads, fallopain tubes, uterus, vagina, and ambiguous genitalia with a penisoid, perineal hypospadia and sinus urogenitalis. Gonadal biopsy revealed virtually normal testicular tissue in both gonads. Removal of the gonads during surgery for a cystic adnex tumor revealed clear signs of partial gonadal dysgenesis. The decision to raise the child as a male was made by parents and physicians caring for the patient. Administration of testosterone, removal of the uterus and adnexes, in addition to repair of the hypospadia permitted an almost normal penis to be formed with normal male micturition. In the management of affected patients it has to be considered that establishing the diagnosis may be extremely tricky, even with the use of gonadal biopsies. The decision on sex assignment may be even more difficult, since future gender identity, limitations of genital reconstructive surgery and the potential for development of gonadal tumors have to be taken into consideration. While in the past, female sex assignment was commonly recommended for such patients, raising them in a male gender role is now considered. Parents should be involved in the decision that is ultimately based on extensive analysis of the individual case. PMID:12422582

  6. Variations of Gonadal Veins: Embryological Prospective and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Raman; Aggarwal, Navita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: An adequate knowledge of anomalies of gonadal veins will help the radiologists and surgeons in recognition and protection of these veins which play major roles in thermo-regulation that is essential for the efficient functioning of testis on which the survival of the human species depends. Aim: The aim of this work is to present an analysis of the anatomical variations of gonadal veins. An effort has also been made to explicate the possible embryological model of development of such variants and to present the variable clinical aspects concerning them. Materials and Methods: Gonadal veins in 60 dissection room cadavers were examined for variations from the classic anatomic description. Result: In the present study, out of 60 cases, male: female ratio was 2:1(40:20) in which no variation was found in ovarian veins. In the 18 (45%) cases, testicular veins showed variations which consist of duplication and atypical drainage. Discussion: Variations of drainage of gonadal vein are due to error of embryological development in venous shift and alteration in anastomotic channel of post-cardinal, supra-cardinal and sub cardinal veins. Conclusion: The gonadal veins present numeric variations as well as variations in its site of drainage, which attributed to the various pathological conditions as varicocele and pelvic congestion syndrome, leading to infertility in patients. Hence, in -depth knowledge of these developmental anomalies of gonadal veins is important. PMID:25859438

  7. Cell-Specific mRNA Profiling of the Caenorhabditis elegans Somatic Gonadal Precursor Cells Identifies Suites of Sex-Biased and Gonad-Enriched Transcripts.

    PubMed

    Kroetz, Mary B; Zarkower, David

    2015-12-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans somatic gonad differs greatly between the two sexes in its pattern of cell divisions, migration, and differentiation. Despite decades of study, the genetic pathways directing early gonadal development and establishing sexual dimorphism in the gonad remain largely unknown. To help define the genetic networks that regulate gonadal development, we employed cell-specific RNA-seq. We identified transcripts present in the somatic gonadal precursor cells and their daughter cells of each sex at the onset of sexual differentiation. We identified several hundred gonad-enriched transcripts, including the majority of known regulators of early gonadal development, and transgenic reporter analysis confirmed the effectiveness of this approach. Before the division of the somatic gonad precursors, few sex-biased gonadal transcripts were detectable; less than 6 hr later, after their division, we identified more than 250 sex-biased transcripts, of which about a third were enriched in the somatic gonad compared to the whole animal. This indicates that a robust sex-biased developmental program, some of it gonad-specific, initiates in the somatic gonadal precursor cells around the time of their first division. About 10% of male-biased transcripts had orthologs with male-biased expression in the early mouse gonad, suggesting possible conservation of gonad sex differentiation. Cell-specific analysis also identified approximately 70 previously unannotated mRNA isoforms that are enriched in the somatic gonad. Our data illustrate the power of cell-specific transcriptome analysis and suggest that early sex differentiation in the gonad is controlled by a relatively small suite of differentially expressed genes, even after dimorphism has become apparent. PMID:26497144

  8. Cell-Specific mRNA Profiling of the Caenorhabditis elegans Somatic Gonadal Precursor Cells Identifies Suites of Sex-Biased and Gonad-Enriched Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Kroetz, Mary B.; Zarkower, David

    2015-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans somatic gonad differs greatly between the two sexes in its pattern of cell divisions, migration, and differentiation. Despite decades of study, the genetic pathways directing early gonadal development and establishing sexual dimorphism in the gonad remain largely unknown. To help define the genetic networks that regulate gonadal development, we employed cell-specific RNA-seq. We identified transcripts present in the somatic gonadal precursor cells and their daughter cells of each sex at the onset of sexual differentiation. We identified several hundred gonad-enriched transcripts, including the majority of known regulators of early gonadal development, and transgenic reporter analysis confirmed the effectiveness of this approach. Before the division of the somatic gonad precursors, few sex-biased gonadal transcripts were detectable; less than 6 hr later, after their division, we identified more than 250 sex-biased transcripts, of which about a third were enriched in the somatic gonad compared to the whole animal. This indicates that a robust sex-biased developmental program, some of it gonad-specific, initiates in the somatic gonadal precursor cells around the time of their first division. About 10% of male-biased transcripts had orthologs with male-biased expression in the early mouse gonad, suggesting possible conservation of gonad sex differentiation. Cell-specific analysis also identified approximately 70 previously unannotated mRNA isoforms that are enriched in the somatic gonad. Our data illustrate the power of cell-specific transcriptome analysis and suggest that early sex differentiation in the gonad is controlled by a relatively small suite of differentially expressed genes, even after dimorphism has become apparent. PMID:26497144

  9. Identification of X monosomy cells from a gonad of mixed gonadal dysgenesis with a 46,XY karyotype: case report.

    PubMed

    Nishina-Uchida, Noriko; Fukuzawa, Ryuji; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Morison, Ian M

    2015-04-01

    Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is a disorder of sexual development that typically has a mosaic 45,X/46,XY karyotype. A 1-year-old infant with 46,XY identified by peripheral blood karyotype demonstrated clinical manifestations and gonadal pathologic features of MGD. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for X and Y chromosomes and immunofluorescence for SRY along with testicular and ovarian lineage markers SOX9 and FOXL2, respectively, were performed on paraffin sections from the gonad to ascertain the somatic mosaic state for 45,X monosomy and 46,XY cells. The gonad consisted of cells with X and XY signals, which were further quantified in comparison with a normal control testis by a digital image analysis program. The average percentages of 45,X cells of this patient's gonad and a control testis were 39.0% and 5.7%, respectively (χ2 test, P < 0.001). SRY expression was absent in approximately 10% of precursor granulosa cells (FOXL2 positive) and precursor Sertoli/granulosa cells (both SOX9 and FOXL2 positive) within gonadoblastomas, confirming the involvement of 45,X cells. A combination of analysis of FISH and immunofluorescence for SRY in the gonadal tissue could identify 45,X cells in MGD with 46,XY. PMID:25860218

  10. Migratory ability of gonadal germ cells (GGCs) isolated from Ciconia boyciana and Geronticus eremita embryos into the gonad of developing chicken embryos

    PubMed Central

    NAKAJIMA, Yuki; FUKUDA, Haruka; ONUMA, Manabu; MURATA, Koichi; UEDA, Miya; SUNAGA, Emi; SHIRAISHI, Toshirou; TAJIMA, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    We conducted experiments to evaluate the ability of gonadal germ cells (GGCs), isolated from the embryonic gonads of Ciconia boyciana or Geronticus eremita, to migrate into the gonads of developing chicken embryos. Fluorescently labeled GGCs, isolated by the PBS (−) method, were transferred into the dorsal aorta of 2-day-old chicken embryos. Five days after transfer, fluorescent GGCs were detected in the gonads of recipient embryos. Our results indicate that GGCs from Ciconia boyciana and Geronticus eremita are capable of migrating into the gonads of developing chicken embryos. PMID:26922915

  11. GONAD MORPHOGENESIS IN VERTEBRATES: DIVERGENT MEANS TO A CONVERGENT END

    PubMed Central

    DeFalco, Tony; Capel, Blanche

    2015-01-01

    A critical element of successful sexual reproduction is the generation of sexually dimorphic adult reproductive organs, the testis and ovary, which produce functional gametes. The examination of different vertebrate species shows that the adult gonad is remarkably similar in its morphology across different phylogenetic classes. Surprisingly, however, the cellular and molecular programs employed to create similar organs are not evolutionarily conserved. We highlight the mechanisms used by different vertebrate model systems to generate the somatic architecture necessary to support gametogenesis. In addition, we examine the different vertebrate patterns of germ cell migration from their site of origin to colonize the gonad, and highlight their roles in sex-specific morphogenesis. We also discuss the plasticity of the adult gonad and consider how different genetic and environmental conditions can induce transitions between testis and ovary morphology. PMID:19807280

  12. Nutrient restriction induces failure of reproductive function and molecular changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in postpubertal gilts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dongsheng; Zhuo, Yong; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Wu, De

    2014-07-01

    People on a diet to lose weight may be at risk of reproductive failure. To investigate the effects of nutrient restriction on reproductive function and the underlying mechanism, changes of reproductive traits, hormone secretions and gene expressions in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis were examined in postpubertal gilts at anestrus induced by nutrient restriction. Gilts having experienced two estrus cycles were fed a normal (CON, 2.86 kg/d) or nutrient restricted (NR, 1 kg/d) food regimens to expect anestrus. NR gilts experienced another three estrus cycles, but did not express estrus symptoms at the anticipated fourth estrus. Blood samples were collected at 5 days' interval for consecutive three times for measurement of hormone concentrations at the 23th day of the fourth estrus cycle. Individual progesterone concentrations of NR gilts from three consecutive blood samples were below 1.0 ng/mL versus 2.0 ng/mL in CON gilts, which was considered anestrus. NR gilts had impaired development of reproductive tract characterized by absence of large follicles (diameter ≥ 6 mm), decreased number of corepus lutea and atrophy of uterus and ovary tissues. Circulating concentrations of IGF-I, kisspeptin, estradiol, progesterone and leptin were significantly lower in NR gilts than that in CON gilts. Nutrient restriction down-regulated gene expressions of kiss-1, G-protein coupled protein 54, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, estrogen receptor α, progesterone receptor, leptin receptor, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and insulin-like growth factor I in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis of gilts. Collectively, nutrient restriction resulted in impairment of reproductive function and changes of hormone secretions and gene expressions in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, which shed light on the underlying mechanism by which nutrient restriction influenced reproductive function. PMID:24728609

  13. [Gonadal function after treatment for a childhood or adolescent cancer].

    PubMed

    Rousset-Jablonski, Christine; Giscard d'Estaing, Sandrine; Bernier, Valérie; Lornage, Jacqueline; Thomas-Teinturier, Cécile; Aubier, Françoise; Faure-Conter, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Due to high cure rate in childhood and adolescent cancer, fertility preservation is a major concern. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery may alter gonadal function, and uterine cavity in women. In women, combined toxicity affecting both endocrine function and ovulation are observed leading to premature ovarian insufficiency. In men, spermatogenesis is frequently affected whereas endocrine function is almost always preserved. The current article focuses on investigations concerning gonadal function after treatment for a cancer during childhood or adolescence and treatment of subsequent infertility or hypogonadism. Nevertheless, those therapeutic are still limited and pretherapeutic preservation of fertility is preferred when possible. PMID:25890827

  14. Gonadal vein leiomyosarcoma: A case report with radiological findings

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzono, Tomoko; Chan, Cyrus Yin-Ho; Chan, May Yuk-May

    2015-01-01

    Summary A 56 year old postmenopausal lady presented with a rapidly enlarging pelvis mass. Clinical and ultrasonographic features were compatible with a rapidly enlarging fibroid with possible sarcomatous changes, and hence, computated tomography (CT) scan was performed to further delineate the nature and extent of the disease. However, CT scan revealed a huge tumour arising from the retroperitoneal space along the course of the left gonadal vein with typical radiological features of a gonadal vein leiomyosarcoma which were described in previous literatures. With joint collaboration with the surgeons, radical surgery with optimal debulking was subsequently performed for the patient and the diagnosis was confirmed intra-operatively and histologically. PMID:26361567

  15. Gonadal dysgenesis and somatic stigmata in patients with 45,X/46,Xr(X) ring chromosome.

    PubMed

    Portuondo, J A; Barral, A; Neyro, J L; Camarero, M C; Roman, M D; Uribarren, A

    1984-08-01

    Two cases of gonadal dysgenesis and stigmata of Turner's syndrome with ring chromosome X are described. Their features support the idea that ring chromosome X should be considered as a deletion in the genetic sense, affecting both the gonadal and statural determinants. Without knowing the cytogenetic findings, these patients are usually labeled as having Turner's syndrome. Furthermore, endocrine data and histologic examination of the gonads are indistinguishable from those of individuals with 45,X or 46XX gonadal dysgenesis. PMID:6152802

  16. COMPARATIVE HISTOPATHOLOGY OF GONADAL NEOPLASMS IN MARINE BIVALVE MOLLUSCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative histology of gonadal neoplasms in 14 marine bivalve species or hybrids from 5 countries described in the literature and/or archived in the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals (RTLA), Washington, DC, USA, revealed 3 basic histotypes. undreds of cases were of germ cell ...

  17. Metamorphosis and Gonad Maturation in the Horn Fly Haematobia irritans

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Alicia L; Forneris, Natalia S.; Filiberti, Adrián; Argaraña, Carlos E.; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis A.

    2011-01-01

    The bloodsucking horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most damaging pests of pasture cattle in many areas of the world. Both male and female imagoes spend their adult stage on the host, while immature stages develop in dung. Our goal was to determine if the progress of H. irritans gonad maturation can be correlated with eye and cuticle pigmentation events that occur during development of the imago within the puparium. The progression of germline cell divisions in immature gonads was analyzed from the beginning of the third larval instar (48 hours after egg hatch) until imago ecdysis. In the developing male larval gonad, meiosis began 72 hours after egg hatch, whereas in females oogonia were premeiotic at 72 hours. Meiosis was not detected in females until the mid-pharate adult stage, 120 hours after puparium formation. Therefore, gonad maturation in females appears to be delayed 144 hours with respect to that in males. In the stages within the puparium, the timing of germline cell division events was correlated with the progress of pigmentation of the eyes and cuticle as external markers. PMID:22957976

  18. AMPK: a master energy regulator for gonadal function

    PubMed Central

    Bertoldo, Michael J.; Faure, Melanie; Dupont, Joëlle; Froment, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    From C. elegans to mammals (including humans), nutrition and energy metabolism significantly influence reproduction. At the cellular level, some detectors of energy status indicate whether energy reserves are abundant (obesity), or poor (diet restriction). One of these detectors is AMPK (5′ AMP-activated protein kinase), a protein kinase activated by ATP deficiency but also by several natural substances such as polyphenols or synthetic molecules like metformin, used in the treatment of insulin resistance. AMPK is expressed in muscle and liver, but also in the ovary and testis. This review focuses on the main effects of AMPK identified in gonadal cells. We describe the role of AMPK in gonadal steroidogenesis, in proliferation and survival of somatic gonadal cells and in the maturation of oocytes or spermatozoa. We discuss also the role of AMPK in germ and somatic cell interactions within the cumulus-oocyte complex and in the blood testis barrier. Finally, the interface in the gonad between AMPK and modification of metabolism is reported and discussion about the role of AMPK on fertility, in regards to the treatment of infertility associated with insulin resistance (male obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome). PMID:26236179

  19. AMPK: a master energy regulator for gonadal function.

    PubMed

    Bertoldo, Michael J; Faure, Melanie; Dupont, Joëlle; Froment, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    From C. elegans to mammals (including humans), nutrition and energy metabolism significantly influence reproduction. At the cellular level, some detectors of energy status indicate whether energy reserves are abundant (obesity), or poor (diet restriction). One of these detectors is AMPK (5' AMP-activated protein kinase), a protein kinase activated by ATP deficiency but also by several natural substances such as polyphenols or synthetic molecules like metformin, used in the treatment of insulin resistance. AMPK is expressed in muscle and liver, but also in the ovary and testis. This review focuses on the main effects of AMPK identified in gonadal cells. We describe the role of AMPK in gonadal steroidogenesis, in proliferation and survival of somatic gonadal cells and in the maturation of oocytes or spermatozoa. We discuss also the role of AMPK in germ and somatic cell interactions within the cumulus-oocyte complex and in the blood testis barrier. Finally, the interface in the gonad between AMPK and modification of metabolism is reported and discussion about the role of AMPK on fertility, in regards to the treatment of infertility associated with insulin resistance (male obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome). PMID:26236179

  20. [Mixed gonadal dysgenesis. Apropos of a series of 21 cases].

    PubMed

    Lalau Keraly, J; Chaussain, J L; Job, J C

    1985-03-01

    Twenty-one cases of mixed gonadal dysgenesis referred at age 1 to 16 years are studied. External genitalia were in most cases of types III-IV, with a small penis and posterior hypospadias, asymmetrical genital folds containing an externalized testis on one side. The internal genitalia varied according to the degree of dysgenesis of the gonads, and included an uterus and/or a vagina in 18 among the 21 cases. A chromosomal mosaicism XO/XY or XX/XY was found in 11 patients, the other 10 having a normal 46 XY caryotype. Pubertal follow-up was obtained in 10 cases, and showed always a male sexual development, without possibility to exactly evaluate the function of the testis. Choosing the sex assignment is relatively easy in newborns or infants with mixed gonadal dysgenesis. It relies more on anatomy (size of corpora cavernosa, feasibility of urethroplasty or vaginoplasty) than on the results of hormonal measurements. The presence of an Y chromosome is not by itself an argument to choose the male sex. In most cases, the choice of the female sex is the easiest and relies on strong clinical arguments, but it leads unavoidably to suppress both the testis and the dysgenetic gonad. PMID:4004479

  1. Gonad establishment during asexual reproduction in the annelid Pristina leidyi.

    PubMed

    Özpolat, B Duygu; Bely, Alexandra E

    2015-09-01

    Animals that can reproduce by both asexual agametic reproduction and sexual reproduction must transmit or re-establish their germ line post-embryonically. Although such a dual reproductive mode has evolved repeatedly among animals, how asexually produced individuals establish their germ line remains poorly understood in most groups. We investigated germ line development in the annelid Pristina leidyi, a species that typically reproduces asexually by paratomic fission, intercalating a new tail and head in the middle of the body followed by splitting. We found that in fissioning individuals, gonads occur in anterior segments in the anterior-most individual as well as in new heads forming within fission zones. Homologs of the germ line/multipotency genes piwi, vasa, and nanos are expressed in the gonads, as well as in proliferative tissues including the posterior growth zone, fission zone, and regeneration blastema. In fissioning animals, certain cells on the ventral nerve cord express a homolog of piwi, are abundant near fission zones, and sometimes make contact with gonads. Such cells are typically undetectable near the blastema and posterior growth zone. Time-lapse imaging provides direct evidence that cells on the ventral nerve cord migrate preferentially towards fission zones. Our findings indicate that gonads form routinely in fissioning individuals, that a population of piwi-positive cells on the ventral nerve cord is associated with fission and gonads, and that cells resembling these piwi-positive cells migrate along the ventral nerve cord. We suggest that the piwi-positive ventral cells are germ cells that transmit the germ line across asexually produced individuals via migration along the ventral nerve cord. PMID:26134407

  2. Estrous cycle phase and gonadal hormones influence conditioned fear extinction

    PubMed Central

    Milad, Mohammed R; Igoe, Sarah A; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer; Novales, Juan E

    2009-01-01

    Gonadal hormones modulate fear acquisition, but less is known about the influence of gonadal hormones on fear extinction. We assessed sex differences and the influence of gonadal hormone fluctuations and exogenous manipulations of estrogen and progesterone on acquisition, extinction learning and extinction recall in a 3-day auditory fear conditioning and extinction protocol. Experiments were conducted on males and naturally cycling female rats. Regarding female rats, significant differences in fear extinction were observed between subgroups of females, depending on their phase of the estrous cycle. Extinction that took place during the proestrus (high estrogen/progesterone) phase was more fully consolidated, as evidenced by low freezing during a recall test. This suggests that estrogen and/or progesterone facilitate extinction. In support of this, injection of both estrogen and progesterone prior to extinction learning in female rats during the metestrus phase of the cycle (low estrogen/progesterone) facilitated extinction consolidation, and blockade of estrogen and progesterone receptors during the proestrus phase impaired extinction consolidation. When comparing male to female rats without consideration of the estrous cycle phase, no significant sex differences were observed. When accounting for cycle phase in females, sex differences were observed only during extinction recall. Female rats that underwent extinction during the metestrus phase showed significantly higher freezing during the recall test relative to males. Collectively, these data suggest that gonadal hormones influence extinction behavior possibly by influencing the function of brain regions involved in the consolidation of fear extinction. Moreover, the elevated fear observed in female relative to male rats during extinction recall suggests that gonadal hormones may in part play a role in the higher prevalence of anxiety disorders in women. PMID:19761818

  3. Germ cells and ova in dysgenetic gonads of a 46-XY female dizygotic twin.

    PubMed

    Cussen, L J; MacMahon, R A

    1979-04-01

    The frequency of germ cell neoplasms in girls with 46-XY gonadal dysgenesis suggests that germ cells may persist in the dysgenetic gonads for many years. A phenotypic female infant with a karyotype of 46-XY in blood, skin, and gonads had a few ova in primordial follicles and numerous germ cells in her dysgenetic gonads at the age of 3 months. At 3 years and 10 months of age her gonads contained no primordial follicle and the only remaining germ cells were in a gonadoblastoma. We propose that germ cells are lost from dysgenetic gonads much more rapidly than from normal gonads, but that the rate of loss in patients with a karyotype of 46-XY may be less than the rate of loss in patients with a karyotype of 45-XO. PMID:433851

  4. Gonadal steroid hormones and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Handa, Robert J; Weiser, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis represents a complex neuroendocrine feedback loop controlling the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones. Central to its function is the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) where neurons expressing corticotropin releasing factor reside. These HPA motor neurons are a primary site of integration leading to graded endocrine responses to physical and psychological stressors. An important regulatory factor that must be considered, prior to generating an appropriate response is the animal's reproductive status. Thus, PVN neurons express androgen and estrogen receptors and receive input from sites that also express these receptors. Consequently, changes in reproduction and gonadal steroid levels modulate the stress response and this underlies sex differences in HPA axis function. This review examines the make up of the HPA axis and hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the interactions between the two that should be considered when exploring normal and pathological responses to environmental stressors. PMID:24246855

  5. Physiology of the Hypothalamic Pituitary Gonadal Axis in the Male.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Patricia Freitas; Corradi, Renato B; Greene, Loren Wissner

    2016-05-01

    Testosterone synthesis and male fertility are the results of the perfect coordination of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. A negative feedback finely controls the secretion of hormones at the 3 levels. Congenital or acquired disturbance at any level leads to an impairment of reproductive function and the clinical syndrome of hypogonadism. In some cases, this condition is reversible. Once the diagnosis is made, testosterone replacement therapy is the standard therapy; however, novel therapies may improve spermatogenesis while elevating testosterone levels. PMID:27132572

  6. Kallmann syndrome 1 gene is expressed in the marsupial gonad.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanqiu; Yu, Hongshi; Shaw, Geoff; Pask, Andrew J; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2011-03-01

    Kallmann syndrome is characterized by hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and anosmia. The syndrome can be caused by mutations in several genes, but the X-linked form is caused by mutation in the Kallmann syndrome 1 (KAL1). KAL1 plays a critical role in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal migration that is essential for the normal development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Interestingly, KAL1 appears to be missing from the rodent X, and no orthologue has been detected as yet. We investigated KAL1 during development and in adults of an Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Marsupial KAL1 maps to an autosome within a group of genes that was added as a block to the X chromosome in eutherian evolution. KAL1 expression was widespread in embryonic and adult tissues. In the adult testis, tammar KAL1 mRNA and protein were detected in the germ cells at specific stages of differentiation. In the adult testis, the protein encoded by KAL1, anosmin-1, was restricted to the round spermatids and elongated spermatids. In the adult ovary, anosmin-1 was not only detected in the oocytes but was also localized in the granulosa cells throughout folliculogenesis. This is the first examination of KAL1 mRNA and protein localization in adult mammalian gonads. The protein localization suggests that KAL1 participates in gametogenesis not only through the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by activation of GnRH neuronal migration, but also directly within the gonads themselves. Because KAL1 is autosomal in marsupials but is X-linked in eutherians, its conserved involvement in gametogenesis supports the hypothesis that reproduction-related genes were actively recruited to the eutherian X chromosome. PMID:21123819

  7. GPCRs Direct Germline Development and Somatic Gonad Function in Planarians

    PubMed Central

    Saberi, Amir; Beets, Isabel; Schoofs, Liliane; Newmark, Phillip A.

    2016-01-01

    Planarians display remarkable plasticity in maintenance of their germline, with the ability to develop or dismantle reproductive tissues in response to systemic and environmental cues. Here, we investigated the role of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in this dynamic germline regulation. By genome-enabled receptor mining, we identified 566 putative planarian GPCRs and classified them into conserved and phylum-specific subfamilies. We performed a functional screen to identify NPYR-1 as the cognate receptor for NPY-8, a neuropeptide required for sexual maturation and germ cell differentiation. Similar to NPY-8, knockdown of this receptor results in loss of differentiated germ cells and sexual maturity. NPYR-1 is expressed in neuroendocrine cells of the central nervous system and can be activated specifically by NPY-8 in cell-based assays. Additionally, we screened the complement of GPCRs with expression enriched in sexually reproducing planarians, and identified an orphan chemoreceptor family member, ophis, that controls differentiation of germline stem cells (GSCs). ophis is expressed in somatic cells of male and female gonads, as well as in accessory reproductive tissues. We have previously shown that somatic gonadal cells are required for male GSC specification and maintenance in planarians. However, ophis is not essential for GSC specification or maintenance and, therefore, defines a secondary role for planarian gonadal niche cells in promoting GSC differentiation. Our studies uncover the complement of planarian GPCRs and reveal previously unappreciated roles for these receptors in systemic and local (i.e., niche) regulation of germ cell development. PMID:27163480

  8. Primary gonadal damage following treatment of brain tumors in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S.R.; Shalet, S.M.; Campbell, R.H.; Deakin, D.P.

    1983-10-01

    Gonadal function was studied in two groups of children previously treated for medulloblastoma with surgery followed by postoperative craniospinal irradiation. In group 1 but not in group 2, the children also received adjuvant chemotherapy for one to two years. All children in group 1 received a nitrosourea (BCNU or CCNU), plus vincristine in four and procarbazine in three patients. The nine children in group 1 showed clinical and biochemical evidence of gonadal damage with elevated serum FSH concentrations and, in the boys, small testes for their stage of pubertal development. In group 2 (n . 8), each child had completed pubertal development normally, the boys had adult sized testes and the girls regular menses. Gonadotropin values were normal in all eight children. We conclude that nitrosoureas were responsible for the gonadal damage in the children in group 1, with procarbazine also contributing to the damage in the three children who received this drug. In view of the limited proved value of adjuvant chemotherapy with nitrosoureas in the treatment of medulloblastoma, recognition of this serious complication of cytotoxic drug therapy may necessitate reassessing in which subgroups of children with medulloblastoma the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy outweigh the complications.

  9. The Curious World of Gonadal Development in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The distinct sex phenotypes of male and female hinge on the development of the fetal gonads as testes or ovaries, in turn, regulated by the molecular genetic machinery of sex determination. Here, I discuss five aspects of mammalian gonadal development that distinguish it from other examples of organogenesis, and continue to surprise and fascinate. Let's face it: males and females are very different animals-so much so, that for any species there are really two developmental biologies, not one. Humans have been intrigued by the differences between men and women since the beginning of recorded history, and presumably long before. As a developmental biologist, it is especially fascinating to ask how the differences between the sexes arise. Finding the answers involves a stimulating mix of molecular genetics, cell biology, and developmental anatomy. Since our sex phenotype depends critically on the formation of testes or ovaries in the embryo, research efforts focus largely on the genetic control of sex determination and the organogenesis of the gonads. After half a lifetime, I am still busy delving into these issues. In this chapter, I attempt to rationalize this enduring fascination by describing five aspects of sex development that continue to captivate. PMID:26970639

  10. GPCRs Direct Germline Development and Somatic Gonad Function in Planarians.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Amir; Jamal, Ayana; Beets, Isabel; Schoofs, Liliane; Newmark, Phillip A

    2016-05-01

    Planarians display remarkable plasticity in maintenance of their germline, with the ability to develop or dismantle reproductive tissues in response to systemic and environmental cues. Here, we investigated the role of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in this dynamic germline regulation. By genome-enabled receptor mining, we identified 566 putative planarian GPCRs and classified them into conserved and phylum-specific subfamilies. We performed a functional screen to identify NPYR-1 as the cognate receptor for NPY-8, a neuropeptide required for sexual maturation and germ cell differentiation. Similar to NPY-8, knockdown of this receptor results in loss of differentiated germ cells and sexual maturity. NPYR-1 is expressed in neuroendocrine cells of the central nervous system and can be activated specifically by NPY-8 in cell-based assays. Additionally, we screened the complement of GPCRs with expression enriched in sexually reproducing planarians, and identified an orphan chemoreceptor family member, ophis, that controls differentiation of germline stem cells (GSCs). ophis is expressed in somatic cells of male and female gonads, as well as in accessory reproductive tissues. We have previously shown that somatic gonadal cells are required for male GSC specification and maintenance in planarians. However, ophis is not essential for GSC specification or maintenance and, therefore, defines a secondary role for planarian gonadal niche cells in promoting GSC differentiation. Our studies uncover the complement of planarian GPCRs and reveal previously unappreciated roles for these receptors in systemic and local (i.e., niche) regulation of germ cell development. PMID:27163480

  11. [Pure gonad dysgenesia or Swyer sindrome. A case report having tumoral development: melanoma].

    PubMed

    Russo, D; Blanco, M; Falke, G; Rocca Rivarola, M; Séller, R; Puigdevall, J C; Bergada, C

    2006-10-01

    A 14 year old girl having 10-days lumbar pain, polaquiuria and moderate pain to palpation is reported. Blood and urine analysis were normal. Abdominal ultrasound scan showed cavity free and solid, rounded, heterogeneous, intrapelvic mass compressing bladder and uterus. Magnetic resonance image was performed showing right gonad compromise with extensive liver and sacro-lumbar spine invasion. Tumoral markers were ruled out. During surgery, primary tumor mass localizad in the right gonad was completely excised. Melanotic peritoneal and hepatic disemination were observed. The patient had left streak gonad and infantile uterus (2 x 3 cm). As gonad dysgenesia was suspected, high resolution cromosomic study was performed and resulted in cariotype 46 XY. Microscopy of the resected gonad showed primary gonad melanoma. Chemotherapy was instituted with no tumor response and the patient died two month later. PMID:17352116

  12. Meiotic wave adds extra asymmetry to the development of female chicken gonads.

    PubMed

    de Melo Bernardo, Ana; Heeren, A Marijne; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Fernandes, Maria Gomes; He, Nannan; Anjie, Stafford; Noce, Toshiaki; Ramos, Ester Silveira; de Sousa Lopes, Susana M Chuva

    2015-10-01

    Development of female gonads in the chicken is asymmetric. This asymmetry affects gene expression, morphology, and germ cell development; consequently only the left ovary develops into a functional organ, whereas the right ovary remains vestigial. In males, on the other hand, both gonads develop into functional testes. Here, we revisited the development of asymmetric traits in female (and male) chicken gonads between Hamburger Hamilton stage 16 (HH16) and hatching. At HH16, primordial germ cells migrated preferentially to the left gonad, accumulating in the left coelomic hinge between the gut mesentery and developing gonad in both males and females. Using the meiotic markers SYCP3 and phosphorylated H2AFX, we identified a previously undescribed, pronounced asymmetryc meiotic progression in the germ cells located in the central, lateral, and extreme cortical regions of the left female gonad from HH38 until hatching. Moreover, we observed that--in contrast to the current view--medullary germ cells are not apoptotic, but remain arrested in pre-leptotene until hatching. In addition to the systematic analysis of the asymmetric distribution of germ cells in female chicken gonads, we propose an updated model suggesting that the localization of germ cells--in the left or right gonad; in the cortex or medulla of the left gonad; and in the central part or the extremities of the left cortex--has direct consequences for their development and participation in adult reproduction. PMID:26096940

  13. Gonadal Transcriptome Analysis in Sterile Double Haploid Japanese Flounder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guixing; Jiang, Hongbo; Wang, Yufen; Sun, Zhaohui; Jiang, Xiufeng; Yu, Qinghai; Liu, Haijin

    2015-01-01

    Sterility is a serious problem that can affect all bionts. In teleosts, double haploids (DHs) induced by mitogynogenesis are often sterile. This sterility severely restricts the further application of DHs for production of clones, genetic analysis, and breeding. However, sterile DH individuals are good source materials for investigation of the molecular mechanisms of gonad development, especially for studies into the role of genes that are indispensable for fish reproduction. Here, we used the Illumina sequencing platform to analyze the transcriptome of sterile female DH Japanese flounder in order to identify major genes that cause sterility and to provide a molecular basis for an intensive study of gonadal development in teleosts. Through sequencing, assembly, and annotation, we obtained 52,474 contigs and found that 60.7% of these shared homologies with existing sequences. A total of 1225 differentially expressed unigenes were found, including 492 upregulated and 733 downregulated genes. Gene Ontology and KEGG analyses showed that genes showing significant upregulation, such as CYP11A1, CYP11B2, CYP17, CYP21, HSD3β, bcl2l1, and PRLR, principally correlated with sterol metabolic process, steroid biosynthetic process, and the Jak-stat signaling pathway. The significantly downregulated genes were primarily associated with immune response, antigen processing and presentation, cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction, and protein digestion and absorption. Using a co-expression network analysis, we conducted a comprehensive comparison of gene expression in the gonads of fertile and sterile female DH Japanese flounder. Identification of genes showing significantly different expression will provide further insights into DH reproductive dysfunction and oocyte maturation processes in teleosts. PMID:26580217

  14. A rare case report of 46XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Rakesh; Datta, Saumik; Thukral, Anubhav; Chakraborty, Partha; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old person, reared as female presented with complaints of genital ambiguity and primary amenorrhoea along with lack of secondary sexual characters, but without short stature and Turner's stigmata. She was taking steroids after being misdiagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Karyotype analysis revealed 46XY karyotype. There was no evidence of hypocortisolemia (cortisol 9.08 μg/dl, adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] 82.5 pg/ml) or elevated level of 17-OH-progesterone (0.16 ng/ml). Pooled luteinizing hormone (LH) was 11.79 mIU/ml and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was 66.37 mIU/ml. Serum estradiol level was 25 pg/ml (21-251). Basal and 72 h post beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels of androstenedione and testosterone levels were done (basal testosterone of 652 ng/dl and basal androstenedione of 1.17 ng/ml; 72 h post hCG testosterone of 896 ng/dl and androstenedione of 1.34 ng/ml). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pelvis (with ultrasonogrphy [USG] correlation) revealed uterus didelphys with obstructed right moiety and bilateral ovarian-like structures. Right sided gonads and adjacent tubal structures were visualized laparoscopically and removed. Left sided gonads were not visualized and Mullerian remnants were adhered to sigmoid colon. Histopathological examination revealed presence of testicular tissue showing atrophic seminiferous tubules with hyperplasia of Leydig cells. No ovarian tissue was seen. Based on these results a diagnosis of 46XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) was made, which is rare and is difficult to distinguish from 46XY ovotesticular disorder of sexual differentiation (OT-DSD). The patient was managed with a multidisciplinary approach and fertility issues discussed with the patient's caregivers. PMID:24251183

  15. A rare case report of 46XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Arora, Rakesh; Datta, Saumik; Thukral, Anubhav; Chakraborty, Partha; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2013-10-01

    A 16-year-old person, reared as female presented with complaints of genital ambiguity and primary amenorrhoea along with lack of secondary sexual characters, but without short stature and Turner's stigmata. She was taking steroids after being misdiagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Karyotype analysis revealed 46XY karyotype. There was no evidence of hypocortisolemia (cortisol 9.08 μg/dl, adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] 82.5 pg/ml) or elevated level of 17-OH-progesterone (0.16 ng/ml). Pooled luteinizing hormone (LH) was 11.79 mIU/ml and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was 66.37 mIU/ml. Serum estradiol level was 25 pg/ml (21-251). Basal and 72 h post beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels of androstenedione and testosterone levels were done (basal testosterone of 652 ng/dl and basal androstenedione of 1.17 ng/ml; 72 h post hCG testosterone of 896 ng/dl and androstenedione of 1.34 ng/ml). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pelvis (with ultrasonogrphy [USG] correlation) revealed uterus didelphys with obstructed right moiety and bilateral ovarian-like structures. Right sided gonads and adjacent tubal structures were visualized laparoscopically and removed. Left sided gonads were not visualized and Mullerian remnants were adhered to sigmoid colon. Histopathological examination revealed presence of testicular tissue showing atrophic seminiferous tubules with hyperplasia of Leydig cells. No ovarian tissue was seen. Based on these results a diagnosis of 46XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) was made, which is rare and is difficult to distinguish from 46XY ovotesticular disorder of sexual differentiation (OT-DSD). The patient was managed with a multidisciplinary approach and fertility issues discussed with the patient's caregivers. PMID:24251183

  16. Multiscale mathematical modeling of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Clément, Frédérique

    2016-07-01

    Although the fields of systems and integrative biology are in full expansion, few teams are involved worldwide into the study of reproductive function from the mathematical modeling viewpoint. This may be due to the fact that the reproductive function is not compulsory for individual organism survival, even if it is for species survival. Alternatively, the complexity of reproductive physiology may be discouraging. Indeed, the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis involves not only several organs and tissues but also intricate time (from the neuronal millisecond timescale to circannual rhythmicity) and space (from molecules to organs) scales. Yet, mathematical modeling, and especially multiscale modeling, can renew our approaches of the molecular, cellular, and physiological processes underlying the control of reproductive functions. In turn, the remarkable dynamic features exhibited by the HPG axis raise intriguing and challenging questions to modelers and applied mathematicians. In this article, we draw a panoramic review of some mathematical models designed in the framework of the female HPG, with a special focus on the gonadal and central control of follicular development. On the gonadal side, the modeling of follicular development calls to the generic formalism of structured cell populations, that allows one to make mechanistic links between the control of cell fate (proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis) and that of the follicle fate (ovulation or degeneration) or to investigate how the functional interactions between the oocyte and its surrounding cells shape the follicle morphogenesis. On the central, mainly hypothalamic side, models based on dynamical systems with multiple timescales allow one to represent within a single framework both the pulsatile and surge patterns of the neurohormone GnRH. Beyond their interest in basic research investigations, mathematical models can also be at the source of useful tools to study the encoding and decoding of

  17. Hypothesis: gonadal temperature influences sex-specific imprinting

    PubMed Central

    Donti, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Various explanations have been advanced for the evolution of genomic imprinting, the most popular of these being the parental conflict hypothesis. However, while this theory may explain why there has been selection for imprinting certain genes, it does not explain how the maternal and paternal genomes can be distinguished from each other. Here, we hypothesize that the temperature at which male and female gonads are physiologically exposed could be, at least for some loci, the primary factor leading to the different imprinting between the sexes. PMID:25202325

  18. Characterization of gonadal transcriptomes from the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Hu, Yulong; Huang, Meng; Wang, Weiji; Guan, Jiantao; Kong, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying sexual reproduction and sex ratio determination remains unclear in turbot, a flatfish of great commercial value. And there is limited information in the turbot database regarding genes related to the reproductive system. Here, we conducted high-throughput transcriptome profiling of turbot gonad tissues to better understand their reproductive functions and to supply essential gene sequence information for marker-assisted selection programs in the turbot industry. In this study, two gonad libraries representing sex differences in Scophthalmus maximus yielded 453 818 high-quality reads that were assembled into 24 611 contigs and 33 713 singletons by using 454 pyrosequencing, 13 936 contigs and singletons (CS) of which were annotated using BLASTx. GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analyses revealed that various biological functions and processes were associated with many of the annotated CS. Expression analyses showed that 510 genes were differentially expressed in males versus females; 80% of these genes were annotated. In addition, 6484 and 6036 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in male and female libraries, respectively. This transcriptome resource will serve as the foundation for cDNA or SNP microarray construction, gene expression characterization, and sex-specific linkage mapping in turbot. PMID:26745327

  19. On the development of extragonadal and gonadal human germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Heeren, A. Marijne; He, Nannan; de Souza, Aline F.; Goercharn-Ramlal, Angelique; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Roost, Matthias S.; Gomes Fernandes, Maria M.; van der Westerlaken, Lucette A. J.; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human germ cells originate in an extragonadal location and have to migrate to colonize the gonadal primordia at around seven weeks of gestation (W7, or five weeks post conception). Many germ cells are lost along the way and should enter apoptosis, but some escape and can give rise to extragonadal germ cell tumors. Due to the common somatic origin of gonads and adrenal cortex, we investigated whether ectopic germ cells were present in the human adrenals. Germ cells expressing DDX4 and/or POU5F1 were present in male and female human adrenals in the first and second trimester. However, in contrast to what has been described in mice, where ‘adrenal’ and ‘ovarian’ germ cells seem to enter meiosis in synchrony, we were unable to observe meiotic entry in human ‘adrenal’ germ cells until W22. By contrast, ‘ovarian’ germ cells at W22 showed a pronounced asynchronous meiotic entry. Interestingly, we observed that immature POU5F1+ germ cells in both first and second trimester ovaries still expressed the neural crest marker TUBB3, reminiscent of their migratory phase. Our findings highlight species-specific differences in early gametogenesis between mice and humans. We report the presence of a population of ectopic germ cells in the human adrenals during development. PMID:26834021

  20. Male gonadal axis function in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Pablo R; Knoblovits, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have lower serum testosterone levels and a higher prevalence of hypogonadism than non-diabetic patients, independently of the metabolic control of disease. The mechanisms underlying a decrease in testosterone might be related to age, obesity and insulin resistance, often present in patients with type 2 diabetes. The increase in estrogens due to higher aromatase enzyme activity in increased adipose tissue might exert negative-feedback inhibition centrally. Insulin stimulates gonadal axis activity at all three levels and therefore insulin resistance might account for the lower testosterone production. Leptin exerts a central stimulatory effect but inhibits testicular testosterone secretion. Thus, resistance to leptin in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes determines lower central effects of leptin with lower gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and, on the other hand, hyperleptinemia secondary to leptin resistance inhibits testosterone secretion at the testicular level. However, lower testosterone levels in patients with diabetes are observed independently of age, weight and body mass index, which leads to the assumption that hyperglycemia per se might play a role in the decrease in testosterone. Several studies have shown that an overload of glucose results in decreased serum testosterone levels. The aim of this review is to assess changes in the male gonadal axis that occur in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27071157

  1. Role of the prion protein family in the gonads

    PubMed Central

    Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Pailhoux, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The prion-gene family comprises four members named PRNP (PRPc), PRND (Doppel), PRNT (PRT), and SPRN (Shadoo). According to species, PRND is located 16–52 kb downstream from the PRNP locus, whereas SPRN is located on another chromosome. The fourth prion-family gene, PRNT, belongs to the same genomic cluster as PRNP and PRND in humans and bovidae. PRNT and PRND possibly resulted from a duplication event of PRND and PRNP, respectively, that occurred early during eutherian species divergence. Although most of the studies concerning the prion-family has been done on PRPc and its involvement in transmissible neurodegenerative disorders, different works report some potential roles of these proteins in the reproductive function of both sexes. Among them, a clear role of PRND, that encodes for the Doppel protein, in male fertility has been demonstrated through gene targeting studies in mice. In other species, Doppel seems to play a role in testis and ovary development but its cellular localization is variable according to the gonadal developmental stage and to the mammalian species considered. For the other three genes, their roles in reproductive function appear ill-defined and/or controversial. The present review aimed to synthesize all the available data on these prion-family members and their relations with reproductive processes, mainly in the gonad of both sexes. PMID:25364761

  2. Decision Processes During Development of Molecular Biomarkers for Gonadal Phenotypic Sex

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molecular biomarkers for determination of gonadal phenotypic sex in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), will serve as a case study. The medaka has unique features that aid in the development of appropriate molecular biomarkers of gonad phenotype, a) genetic sex can be determin...

  3. Terminology of Gonadal Anomalies in Fish and Amphibians Resulting from Chemical Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews the terms that have been used to describe various types of gonadal deformities and lesions in amphibians and fish, identifies the body of literature that has reported effects on gonad morphology/histology, and suggests a standardized set of terms and definition...

  4. Correspondence between Gonadal Steroid Hormone Concentrations and Secondary Sexual Characteristics Assessed by Clinicians, Adolescents, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Bin; Hillman, Jennifer; Biro, Frank M.; Ding, Lili; Dorn, Lorah D.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual maturation is staged using Tanner criteria assessed by clinicians, parents, or adolescents. The physiology of sexual maturation is driven by gonadal hormones. We investigate Tanner stage progression as a function of increasing gonadal hormone concentration and compare performances of different raters. Fifty-six boys (mean age,…

  5. Pure gonadal dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome) due to microdeletion in the SRY gene: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Gül Yesiltepe; Kırmızıbekmez, Heves; Aydın, Hatip; Çetiner, Handan; Moralıoğlu, Serdar; Celayir, Ayşenur Cerrah

    2015-01-01

    46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome) is a rare cause of disorder of sexual development. This syndrome is caused by a defect in the determination of sex during embryogenesis and is characterised with female external genitalia, normal or rudimentary uterus, and streak gonads, despite the presence of the 46,XY karyotype. Most of the studied cases presented with leak of secondary sex characteristics and primary amenorrhea during adolescence. Laboratory findings reveal hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Herein we present the case of a female with a 46,XY karyotype who was admitted with delayed puberty and detected to have a microdeletion in the SRY gene and diagnosed to have Swyer syndrome. We highlight the importance of karyotype analysis in patients with delayed puberty and primary amenorrhea. Once the diagnosis of 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is established, early laparoscopic removal of the dysgenetic gonads is crucial to prevent the development of gonadal malignancy. PMID:25153220

  6. Expression profiles for six zebrafish genes during gonadal sex differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Anne; Morthorst, Jane E; Andersen, Ole; Rasmussen, Lene J; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2008-01-01

    Background The mechanism of sex determination in zebrafish is largely unknown and neither sex chromosomes nor a sex-determining gene have been identified. This indicates that sex determination in zebrafish is mediated by genetic signals from autosomal genes. The aim of this study was to determine the precise timing of expression of six genes previously suggested to be associated with sex differentiation in zebrafish. The current study investigates the expression of all six genes in the same individual fish with extensive sampling dates during sex determination and -differentiation. Results In the present study, we have used quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the expression of ar, sox9a, dmrt1, fig alpha, cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b during the expected sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation period. The expression of the genes expected to be high in males (ar, sox9a and dmrt1a) and high in females (fig alpha and cyp19a1a) was segregated in two groups with more than 10 times difference in expression levels. All of the investigated genes showed peaks in expression levels during the time of sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation. Expression of all genes was investigated on cDNA from the same fish allowing comparison of the high and low expressers of genes that are expected to be highest expressed in either males or females. There were 78% high or low expressers of all three "male" genes (ar, sox9a and dmrt1) in the investigated period and 81% were high or low expressers of both "female" genes (fig alpha and cyp19a1a). When comparing all five genes with expected sex related expression 56% show expression expected for either male or female. Furthermore, the expression of all genes was investigated in different tissue of adult male and female zebrafish. Conclusion In zebrafish, the first significant peak in gene expression during the investigated period (2–40 dph) was dmrt1 at 10 dph which indicates involvement of this gene in the early gonadal sex

  7. A brief history of the pathology of the gonads.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert H

    2005-02-01

    Our understanding of gonadal pathology has reached its current state as a result of the contributions of numerous outstanding investigators. Knowledge of testicular tumor pathology dates back to the great British workers Percival Pott and Sir Astley Cooper but the single greatest early stride was made with the description in 1906 by the French urologist Maurice Chevassu of the seminoma. The seminal 1946 paper of Nathan B Friedman and Robert A Moore, which segregated out as a distinct entity embryonal carcinoma, is, however, the foundation for the current classification of testicular tumors. In that year Pierre Masson described the distinctive neoplasm, the spermatocytic seminoma. The 1950s saw the publication of an important paper by Frank J Dixon and Dr Moore and they also wrote the first series fascicle on testicular tumors. In this same timeframe, and thereafter, Robert E Scully made significant contributions to testicular pathology, writing the first English language paper on spermatocytic seminoma, describing several subtypes of sex cord tumor, and also the distinctive lesion of intersex, the gonadoblastoma, as well as playing a major role in 1980 in formulating the current classification of premalignant lesions of the testis. The current classification of testicular tumors was arrived at in the early 1970s when the World Health Organization, under the leadership of Dr FK Mostofi, who himself made notable contributions to testicular pathology, devised what is fundamentally the current classification of neoplasms of the male gonad. Although comments on ovarian pathology were made by such legendary figures of earlier times as Giovanni Battista Morgagni and Matthew Baillie, it is only in the mid to later years of the 19th century that contributions, mostly in Europe, began to move knowledge of ovarian pathology to its current state. Thomas Hodgkin, Richard Bright, and Sir James Paget all wrote extensively on ovarian neoplasms. In 1870, Heinrich Waldeyer, and

  8. Male gonadal function in coeliac disease: III. Pituitary regulation.

    PubMed

    Farthing, M J; Rees, L H; Dawson, A M

    1983-12-01

    Pituitary regulation of gonadal function was investigated in 39 consecutive men with treated and untreated coeliac disease and in an intestinal disease control group of 19 men with Crohn's disease of similar age and general nutritional status. Basal serum FSH concentration was increased in 10 of the coeliacs (26%) compared to only two of 19 men with Crohn's disease (11%). This abnormality was observed with equal frequency in both treated and untreated coeliacs, and was not associated with oligospermia. Serum LH concentration was increased in eight of 15 untreated coeliacs (53%) with sub-total villous atrophy, an abnormality which unlike the elevation of serum FSH, appears to return towards normal after gluten withdrawal. Serum LH was high in coeliacs despite marked elevation of the free testosterone index. Exaggerated responses of FSH and LH to LHRH were found in 89% and 45% respectively, of coeliacs with sub-total villous atrophy. However, exaggerated responses of LH alone were found more frequently in coeliacs than in men with Crohn's disease (P less than 0.02) and unlike the exaggerated FSH responses, LH responses were closely related to jejunal morphology. Exaggerated responses of FSH and LH in coeliacs were commonly found when basal gonadotrophin concentrations were normal. The occurrence of exaggerated gonadotrophin responses could not be related to plasma concentration of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, oestradiol or the free testosterone index. Serum prolactin was modestly raised in 25% of untreated and partially treated coeliacs and in the same proportion of men with Crohn's disease. Elevated serum prolactin concentrations never exceeded 809 mU/l and were not associated with impotence or infertility. This study provides further evidence that in men with coeliac disease there is a derangement of pituitary regulation of gonadal function. This would seem to be part of a wider disturbance of central regulatory mechanisms of endocrine function in coeliac

  9. Gonads in Histiostoma mites (Acariformes: Astigmata): structure and development.

    PubMed

    Witaliński, Wojciech; Rożej-Pabijan, Elżbieta; Podkowa, Dagmara

    2014-07-01

    The development of male and female gonads in arrhenotokous and thelytokous species of Histiostoma was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All instars were examined: larvae, protonymphs, facultative heteromorphic deutonymphs (=hypopi), tritonymphs, and adults. In testis primordium, spermatogonia surrounding a testicular central cell (TCC) with a gradually enlarging, branched nucleus are present already at the larval stage. Spermatogonia and the TCC are connected via narrow, tubular intercellular bridges revealing that the TCC is a germline cell. Spermatocytes appear at the protonymphal stage. At the heteromorphic deutonymph stage, the testis primordium is similar to that of the protonymph, but in the tritonymph it is much larger and composed as in the adult: spermatids as well as sperm cells are present. The latter are congregated ventrally in the testis at the entrance of the deferent duct. In the larval ovary, an eccentrically located ovarian nutritive cell (ONC) is surrounded by oogonia which are connected with the ONC via tubular intercellular bridges. In later stages, the ovary grows and oocytes appear in the protonymph. Meiotic synaptonemal complexes in oocytes occur from the tritonymph stage. At about the time of the final molting, tubular intercellular bridges transform into peculiar diaphragm-crossed bridges known only in Histiostoma mites. In the adult female, growing oocytes at the end of previtellogenesis lose intercellular bridges and move ventro-laterally to the ovarian periphery towards the oviduct entrance. Vitellogenesis occurs in oviducts. Germinal cells in both the testis and ovary are embedded in a few somatic stroma cells which may be well discernible already in the larval ovary; in the testis, somatic stroma cells are evident not earlier than the end of the tritonymphal stage. The ovary has a thin wall of flat somatic cells, whereas the testis is covered by a basal lamina only. The obtained results suggest that gonads in

  10. Early Gonadal Differentiation of the Protogynous Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Kyu; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Woo Sik; Baek, Hea Ja; Kwon, Joon Yeong

    2015-01-01

    Red spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara is a popular aquaculture species in many Asian countries. This species is a protogynous hermaphrodite that first differentiates into female and changes to male later. Due to this reproductive characteristic, stable supply of male and female gametes is a key to the success of seed production in this species. Thus, understanding early gonadal differentiation is required to develop effective sex control techniques. Red spotted grouper were reared in indoor tanks and sampled every 5 days from 40 days post-hatch (DPH) to 130 DPH. Changes of gonadal tissues were examined and analyzed by means of histology. A pair of gonadal primordium has already existed underneath the kidney in the posterior part of the body cavity at 38 DPH when this study began. Gonadal primordia of 38, 40 DPH consisted of germ cells surrounded by a few somatic cells. The blood vessel was observed in the gonadal primordium at 45 DPH. The number of somatic cells and size of gonadal primordium increased age-dependently up to 60 DPH. Formation of ovarian cavity was obvious by two protuberant aggregations of somatic cells at 65 DPH. Completed ovarian cavity and oogonia were first observed in the gonad of one fish sample at 105 DPH. Based on these histological observations, it can be suggested that induction of primary male differentiation could be more successfully applied at around 60 DPH in this species. PMID:26973972

  11. Fertility, gonadal and sexual function in survivors of testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Huddart, R A; Norman, A; Moynihan, C; Horwich, A; Parker, C; Nicholls, E; Dearnaley, D P

    2005-07-25

    concerns about fathering children. In total, 207 (30%) patients reported attempting conception of whom 159 (77%) were successful and a further 10 patients were successful after infertility treatment with an overall success rate of 82%. There was a lower overall success rate after chemotherapy (C 71%; CRT 67% compared to S 85% (P = 0.028)). Elevated FSH levels were associated with reduced fertility (normal FSH 91% vs elevated 68% P < 0.001). In summary, gonadal dysfunction is common in patients with a history of testicular cancer even when managed by orchidectomy alone. Treatment with chemotherapy in particular can result in additional impairment. Gonadal dysfunction reduces quality of life and has an adverse effect on patient health. Most patients retain their fertility, but the risk of infertility is likely to be increased by chemotherapy. Screening for gonadal dysfunction should be considered in the follow-up of testicular cancer survivors. PMID:15999104

  12. IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PRESENCE OF TRANSFORMING GENES IN GONADAL TUMORS IN TWO BIVALVE MOLLUSK SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were initiated on oncogene activation in two bivalve species with high frequencies of histologically identifiable gonadal neoplasms. athological assessments identified epizootic seminomas and dysgerminomas in softshell clams (Mya arenaria) from three Maine estuarine sites...

  13. BENZO(A)PYRENE CONCENTRATIONS IN SOMATIC AND GONAD TISSUES OF BAY MUSSELS, 'MYTILUS EDULIS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purposes of the present study were to measure benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in the somatic and gonadal tissues of mytilus edulis and determine whether or not variations in those two tissue compartments could be related to seasonal fluctuations.

  14. Fertility preservation and management of gonadal failure associated with lymphoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Howell, Simon J; Shalet, Stephen M

    2002-09-01

    Treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy is associated with significant gonadal damage in men and women. The likelihood of gonadal failure following cytotoxic chemotherapy is dependent on the drug and dose, and in women there is also an effect of age at treatment. Irradiation of the testes or ovaries, either directly or indirectly, is also a significant cause of gonadal dysfunction, and the potential to recover from damage is clearly related to the radiation dose received. Several methods of preserving gonadal function during potentially sterilizing treatment have been considered. At present, sperm banking remains the only proven method in men, although hormonal manipulation to enhance recovery of spermatogenesis and cryopreservation of testicular germ cells are possibilities for the future. Transposition of the ovaries to allow better shielding during radiotherapy is of use in some women, and the prospect of cryopreservation and reimplanation of ovarian tissue appears to be promising. PMID:12162920

  15. GONADAL STEROIDS REGULATED THE EXPRESSION OF GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN IN THE ADULT MALE RAT HIPPOCAMPUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study demonstrates that gonadal steroids (estradiol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone) can inhibit the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and it MRNA in the adult male rat brain. esticular hormones may influence the activity of astrocytes in the intact and lesion...

  16. Anatomical, hormonal and histological descriptions of captive Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) with intersex gonads.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Karen; Hurvitz, Avshalom; Din, Svetlana Yom; Goldberg, Doron; Pearlson, Oren; Degani, Gad; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2006-09-15

    Sturgeons are known throughout the world as the source of black caviar. Their declining populations in their native habitats, mainly the Caspian Sea, due to over-fishing for meat and caviar production, destruction of their spawning grounds and water pollution, have led to their introduction into aquaculture in areas with suitable conditions, including Israel. Recently, we noticed an unusual phenomenon in these normally gonochoristic species. Several 5-year-old female sturgeons were found to have one or more testicular sections in each of their two gonads, forming an intersexual gender. Further examination of other fish from the same age group revealed 14% fish with intersex gonads among a population of 5000 fish that had been pre-selected as females. This phenomenon has not been found however in other age groups of Russian sturgeons, cultured at the same facility. Sturgeons are a generally gonochoristic species, and hermaphroditism is only very infrequently observed under natural or normal breeding conditions. Moreover, these rare cases have all been from polluted habitats. The present work is the first description of fish containing intersex gonads in Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii). We describe the phenomenon anatomically and histologically, and examine plasma steroid levels and pituitary gonadotropin gene expression by comparing fish with intersex gonads with normal females and males of the same age group. Intersex gonads were typical female ovaries with one or more white testicular components embedded in each. The testis components were not uniform in size or location among the two gonads of each fish or among different fish, and they showed marked differences in distribution. The ovarian component of the intersex gonad was at the pre-vitellogenic stage as in normal females, and the testis component contained spermatids and mature spermatozoa as in normal males of the same age. However, in terms of estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone plasma levels

  17. Gonadal hormone regulation of the emotion circuitry in humans.

    PubMed

    van Wingen, G A; Ossewaarde, L; Bäckström, T; Hermans, E J; Fernández, G

    2011-09-15

    Gonadal hormones are known to influence the regulation of emotional responses and affective states. Whereas fluctuations in progesterone and estradiol are associated with increased vulnerability for mood disorders, testosterone is mainly associated with social dominance, aggressive, and antisocial behavior. Here, we review recent functional neuroimaging studies that have started to elucidate how these hormones modulate the neural circuitry that is important for emotion regulation, which includes the amygdala and the medial prefrontal (mPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The amygdala is thought to generate emotional responses, and the prefrontal brain regions to regulate those responses. Overall, studies that have investigated women during different phases of the menstrual cycle suggest that progesterone and estradiol may have opposing actions on the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In addition, the influence of exogenous progesterone appears to be dose-dependent. Endogenous testosterone concentrations are generally positively correlated to amygdala and OFC responses, and exogenous testosterone increases amygdala reactivity. Whereas the administration of progesterone increases amygdala reactivity and its connectivity with the mPFC, testosterone administration increases amygdala reactivity but decreases its connectivity with the OFC. We propose that this opposing influence on amygdala-prefrontal coupling may contribute to the divergent effects of progesterone and testosterone on emotion regulation and behavioral inhibition, respectively, which may promote the differential vulnerability to various psychiatric disorders between women and men. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuroactive Steroids: Focus on Human Brain. PMID:21540080

  18. Gonadal function and reproductive health in women with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Yalamanchi, Swaytha; Dobs, Adrian; Greenblatt, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Most HIV infections among women occur early in reproductive life, which highlights the importance of understanding the impact of HIV on reproductive functions, and also the potential implications of reproductive function and aging on the course of HIV disease. HIV infection may influence reproductive biology via multiple mechanisms including: potential directs effects on HIV on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes, implications of HIV-related immune dysfunction on reproductive biology, effects of antiretroviral treatments on reproductive functions and the impact of treatment related immune reconstitution on reproductive health. Ovarian function is a crucial component of reproductive biology in women, but standard assessment methods are of limited applicability to women with some chronic diseases, such as HIV. New antiretroviral treatments have the potential to increase the ease of conception planning, and to improve fertility. Drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral medications and hormonal contraceptives are potentially significant and merit careful provider attention. While HIV infection is not a major cause of infertility, high level viremia and low CD4 lymphocyte counts are associated with reduced fertility rates. Conception and pregnancy can now be achieved without transmission of HIV to sexual partner or new born, but complications of pregnancy may be more common in HIV infected women than uninfected women. PMID:25169564

  19. Starfish gonadotropic hormone: Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptides.

    PubMed

    Mita, Masatoshi

    2016-05-01

    Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) of starfish Patiria (= Asterina) pectinifera is the first identified invertebrate gonadotropin to trigger final gamete maturation. Recently, chemical structures of RGP were identified in several species of starfish. Three kinds of RGP molecules are found in the class Asteroidea. The chemical structure of P. pectinifera RGP (PpeRGP) is conserved among starfish of the order Valvatida beyond species. In contrast, the chemical structures of RGP identified in Asterias amurensis and Aphelasterias japonica of the order Forcipulatida are quite different from that of PpeRGP. The chemical structure of RGP in A. amurensis (AamRGP) is exactly the same as that in Asterias rubens (the order Forcipulatida), Astropecten scoparius (the order Paxillosida), Astropecten polyacanthus (the order Paxillosida), and Echinaster luzonicus (the order Spinulosida). The chemical structure of Coscinasterias acutispina RGP (the order Forcipulatida) is consistent with that of A. japonica RGP (AjaRGP). In cross-experiments using P. pectinifera, A. amurensis, and A. japonica ovaries, AamRGP and AjaRGP can induce each species of ovaries. Neither AamRGP nor AjaRGP induce oocyte maturation and ovulation in the ovary of P. pectinifera, although the PpeRGP is active in ovaries of A. amurensis and A. japonica. This suggests that the AamRGP and AjaRGP partly act species specificity. PMID:27102940

  20. Modeling the brain-pituitary-gonad axis in salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jonghan; Hayton, William L.; Schultz, Irv R.

    2006-08-24

    To better understand the complexity of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis (BPG) in fish, we developed a biologically based pharmacodynamic model capable of accurately predicting the normal functioning of the BPG axis in salmon. This first-generation model consisted of a set of 13 equations whose formulation was guided by published values for plasma concentrations of pituitary- (FSH, LH) and ovary- (estradiol, 17a,20b-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one) derived hormones measured in Coho salmon over an annual spawning period. In addition, the model incorporated pertinent features of previously published mammalian models and indirect response pharmacodynamic models. Model-based equations include a description of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) synthesis and release from the hypothalamus, which is controlled by environmental variables such as photoperiod and water temperature. GnRH stimulated the biosynthesis of mRNA for FSH and LH, which were also influenced by estradiol concentration in plasma. The level of estradiol in the plasma was regulated by the oocytes, which moved along a maturation progression. Estradiol was synthesized at a basal rate and as oocytes matured, stimulation of its biosynthesis occurred. The BPG model can be integrated with toxico-genomic, -proteomic data, allowing linkage between molecular based biomarkers and reproduction in fish.

  1. Germ Cell Nuclear Factor Regulates Gametogenesis in Developing Gonads

    PubMed Central

    Sabour, Davood; Xu, Xueping; Chung, Arthur C. K.; Le Menuet, Damien; Ko, Kinarm; Tapia, Natalia; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Gentile, Luca; Greber, Boris; Hübner, Karin; Sebastiano, Vittorio; Wu, Guangming; Schöler, Hans R.; Cooney, Austin J.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of germ cell nuclear factor (GCNF; Nr6a1), an orphan member of the nuclear receptor gene family of transcription factors, during gastrulation and neurulation is critical for normal embryogenesis in mice. Gcnf represses the expression of the POU-domain transcription factor Oct4 (Pou5f1) during mouse post-implantation development. Although Gcnf expression is not critical for the embryonic segregation of the germ cell lineage, we found that sexually dimorphic expression of Gcnf in germ cells correlates with the expression of pluripotency-associated genes, such as Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog, as well as the early meiotic marker gene Stra8. To elucidate the role of Gcnf during mouse germ cell differentiation, we generated an ex vivo Gcnf-knockdown model in combination with a regulated CreLox mutation of Gcnf. Lack of Gcnf impairs normal spermatogenesis and oogenesis in vivo, as well as the derivation of germ cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in vitro. Inactivation of the Gcnf gene in vivo leads to loss of repression of Oct4 expression in both male and female gonads. PMID:25140725

  2. Detection of gonadal carcinoma in situ in childhood and implications for management.

    PubMed

    MacMahon, R A; Cussen, L J

    1991-09-01

    Cells with the characteristic features of carcinoma in situ (CIS) were detected in histological sections of the gonads of three of seven children with clinical syndromes associated with a high risk of gonadal neoplasia. It is suggested that early detection of these cells may be useful in resolving problems of management, including gonadectomy and decisions about sex of rearing. Early detection of CIS cells may have a place in the management of the undescended testis. PMID:1877934

  3. Clinical Features of 32 Patients with XO/XY Gonadal Dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian-Fa; Tian, Qin-Jie; Xue, Wei; Deng, Yan; Zheng, Ting-Ping; Sun, Ai-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Objective To summarize the clinical features of XO/XY gonadal dysgenesis. Method We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of patients with XO/XY gonadal dysgenesis admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2008 to May 2015. Results Totally 32 patients with XO/XY gonadal dysgenesis were included. The social gender was female in all subjects and the age 6 to 33 years. Patients presented mainly with primary amenorrhea or short stature,and usually had specific somatic signs of Turner's syndrome. The breast development of 27 patients (84.38%) was less than level 3. The armpit hair was sparse or absent in 28 patients (87.5%) and the pubic hair was sparse or absent in 26 patients (81.25%).Other findings include naive vulva (n=18,56.25%)) and enlarged clitoris (n=5,15.63%). The average level of follicle stimulating hormone was (78.56±35.62) mIU/ml,the luteinizing hormone level was (20.23±11.35) mIU/ml,the estradiol level was (9.94±8.21) pg/ml,and the testosterone level was (0.24±0.18) ng/ml. All patients received prophylactic gonadectomy. The histopathology results showed a variety of gonads,and gonadal malignancy were observed in 4 patients.Conclusions Patients with XO/XY gonadal dysgenesis manifest primary amenorrhea or short stature,poorly developed secondary sexual characteristics,and elevated gonadotropin level. The gonads have increased risk of gonadal malignancy. PMID:27594153

  4. Are sex steroids essential for gonadal differentiation of the ornate frog, Microhyla ornata?

    PubMed

    Mali, P V; Gramapurohit, N P

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge about sensitivities and responses of amphibian larvae to sex steroids and the chemicals alike is the first step towards understanding and assessing the effect of diverse chemicals that interfere with gonadal development and other endocrine functions. Herein, we used Microhyla ornata to determine the role of sex steroids on its gonad differentiation and sex ratio. Our results show that the exposure to increasing concentrations of estradiol-17β throughout larval development did not affect gonad differentiation resulting in 1:1 sex ratio at metamorphosis. But, females emerging from estradiol-17β treatment had larger ovaries with larger sized follicles. Further, testes of some males contained lumens, the number of which was dose dependent. Similarly, exposure to testosterone propionate had negligible effects on gonad differentiation. However, the mean diameter of the largest follicles was smaller in treated ovaries. Treatment of tadpoles with tamoxifen had no effect on gonad differentiation and ovary development while testicular development was accelerated at the highest concentration. Similarly, treatment of tadpoles with cyproterone acetate had little effect on gonad differentiation as well as development, hence the sex ratios at the end of metamorphosis. Further, in tadpoles exposed to increasing concentrations of formestane, gonad differentiation was normal resulting in 1:1 sex ratio. Thus, in M. ornata, both estradiol and testosterone are essential for the development of ovaries and testes respectively but, they are not critical to gonadal differentiation. Hence, the effects of sex steroids and other endocrine disrupting chemicals could be species-specific; different species may have differential sensitivities to such chemicals. PMID:27181751

  5. Gonadal malignancy in 202 female patients with disorders of sex development containing Y-chromosome material.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian-Fa; Xue, Wei; Deng, Yan; Tian, Qin-Jie; Sun, Ai-Jun

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine risks for gonadal malignancy in a large sample of adult female patients with disorders of sex development (DSD). A retrospective-observational study was conducted from July 1992 to March 2015 and 202 women with DSD were enrolled. Tumor risks for different types of DSD were measured. We found that the patients' total gonadal-malignancy risk was 18.3% (37/202). Tumors included gonadoblastoma (n = 11), seminoma (n = 8), dysgerminoma (n = 5), choriocarcinoma (n = 1), sertoli cell tumors (n = 11), and leydig cell tumors (n = 1). The incidence of gonadal malignancy in patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), pure 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis, 45 X/46 XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis, 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase deficiency and partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) were 27.1% (13/48), 22.4% (15/67), 10.9% (5/46), 10% (2/20) and 9.5% (2/21), respectively. Our results suggest that the incidence of gonadal malignancy increases with age for female patients with Y-chromosome material. Upon diagnoses, immediate, prophylactic gonadectomies should be considered for adult female patients with DSD containing Y chromosome material if they cannot receive regular follow-ups. PMID:26608236

  6. Differential expression of genes for aromatase and estrogen receptor during the gonadal development in chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, O; Kikuchi, H; Kikuchi, T; Mizuno, S

    1998-04-01

    In birds, differentiation of embryonic gonads is not as strictly determined by the genetic sex as it is in mammals, and can be influenced by early manipulation with a sex steroid hormone. Thus administration of an aromatase inhibitor induces testis development in the genetic female, and administration of estrogen induces a left ovotestis in the genetic male embryo. Another feature of avian gonadogenesis is that only the left ovary develops in most species. Molecular mechanisms underlying these features at the level of gene expression have not been elucidated. In this paper, we present evidence that a gene for aromatase cytochrome P-450, an enzyme required for the last step in the synthesis of estradiol-17beta, is expressed in medullae of the left and right gonads of a female chicken embryo, but not in those of a male chicken embryo, and that an estrogen receptor gene is expressed only in epithelium (and cortex later, in the female) of the left, not the right, gonad of both sexes, but the expression in the male left gonad is temporary and restricted to an early stage of development. Differential expression of these two genes serves well to explain the above features of gonadal development in birds. Furthermore, in ovo administration of estradiol-17beta from the 5th to the 14th day of incubation does not cause expression of the estrogen receptor gene in the right gonad of chicken embryos of either sex, suggesting that the absence of expression of the estrogen receptor gene in the right gonad is not the result of down-regulation, but may be regarded as an important cause of the unilateral ovarian development. PMID:9584834

  7. Meiotic germ cells antagonize mesonephric cell migration and testis cord formation in mouse gonads

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Humphrey H.-C.; DiNapoli, Leo; Capel, Blanche

    2014-01-01

    Summary The developmental fate of primordial germ cells in the mammalian gonad depends on their environment. In the XY gonad, Sry induces a cascade of molecular and cellular events leading to the organization of testis cords. Germ cells are sequestered inside testis cords by 12.5 dpc where they arrest in mitosis. If the testis pathway is not initiated, germ cells spontaneously enter meiosis by 13.5 dpc, and the gonad follows the ovarian fate. We have previously shown that some testis-specific events, such as mesonephric cell migration, can be experimentally induced into XX gonads prior to 12.5 dpc. However, after that time, XX gonads are resistant to the induction of cell migration. In current experiments, we provide evidence that this effect is dependent on XX germ cells rather than on XX somatic cells. We show that, although mesonephric cell migration cannot be induced into normal XX gonads at 14.5 dpc, it can be induced into XX gonads depleted of germ cells. We also show that when 14.5 dpc XX somatic cells are recombined with XY somatic cells, testis cord structures form normally; however, when XX germ cells are recombined with XY somatic cells, cord structures are disrupted. Sandwich culture experiments suggest that the inhibitory effect of XX germ cells is mediated through short-range interactions rather than through a long-range diffusible factor. The developmental stage at which XX germ cells show a disruptive effect on the male pathway is the stage at which meiosis is normally initiated, based on the immunodetection of meiotic markers. We suggest that at the stage when germ cells commit to meiosis, they reinforce ovarian fate by antagonizing the testis pathway. PMID:14561636

  8. Embryonic testicular regression sequence: A part of the clinical spectrum of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Marcantonio, S.M.; Fechner, P.Y.; Migeon, C.J.; Perlman, E.J.; Berkovitz, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on a group of 9 subjects who had a 46,XY karyotype, ambiguous genitalia, abnormalities of sexual duct formation, and lack of gonadal tissue on one or both sides. This is sometimes referred to as {open_quotes}embryonic testicular regression.{close_quotes} Previous investigators have suggested that this condition results from loss of testes at a critical stage in development. The authors examined the possibility that embryonic testicular regression is part of the clinical spectrum of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. Four subjects totally lacked gonadal tissue, three of them having ambiguous genitalia, and one a micropenis. The development of incongruous sexual ducts (presence of Muellerian ducts in the subject with micropenis, and absence of Muellerian and Wolffian ducts in two subjects with ambiguous genitalia) suggests that the embryonic gonads were intrinsically functionally abnormal before their disappearance. Five subjects had unilateral gonadal tissue, ambiguous genitalia, and a mix of Wolffian and Muellerian structures. The development of incongruous sexual ducts in 3 of them, the presence of ambiguous external genitalia in 5, and the presence of abnormal gonadal histology in 2 patients all indicate an underlying abnormality of gonadal differentiation in these subjects. The occurrence of testicular regression in several subjects in the family of one patient suggests a genetic basis for the condition. The presence of multiple congenital anomalies in other subjects in the study suggests either a mutation in a single gene that functions in several developmental pathways, or a defect of multiple genes that might be the result of a chromosome deletion. The sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene was sequenced in five subjects and was normal in all of them, suggesting that the underlying genetic abnormality in these subjects is located in one of several genes that function subsequent to SRY in the early stages of testis differentiation. 37 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Discovery and identification of candidate sex-related genes based on transcriptome sequencing of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) gonads.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yadong; Xia, Yongtao; Shao, Changwei; Han, Lei; Chen, Xuejie; Yu, Mengjun; Sha, Zhenxia

    2016-07-01

    As the Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) is an important food and is the main source of caviar, it is necessary to discover the genes associated with its sex differentiation. However, the complicated life and maturity cycles of the Russian sturgeon restrict the accurate identification of sex in early development. To generate a first look at specific sex-related genes, we sequenced the transcriptome of gonads in different development stages (1, 2, and 5 yr old stages) with next-generation RNA sequencing. We generated >60 million raw reads, and the filtered reads were assembled into 263,341 contigs, which produced 38,505 unigenes. Genes involved in signal transduction mechanisms were the most abundant, suggesting that development of sturgeon gonads is under control of signal transduction mechanisms. Differentially expressed gene analysis suggests that more genes for protein synthesis, cytochrome c oxidase subunits, and ribosomal proteins were expressed in female gonads than in male. Meanwhile, male gonads expressed more transposable element transposase, reverse transcriptase, and transposase-related genes than female. In total, 342, 782, and 7,845 genes were detected in intersex, male, and female transcriptomes, respectively. The female gonad expressed more genes than the male gonad, and more genes were involved in female gonadal development. Genes (sox9, foxl2) are differentially expressed in different sexes and may be important sex-related genes in Russian sturgeon. Sox9 genes are responsible for the development of male gonads and foxl2 for female gonads. PMID:27199458

  10. Germ cells are essential for sexual dimorphism in the medaka gonad

    PubMed Central

    Kurokawa, Hiromi; Saito, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shuhei; Katoh-Fukui, Yuko; Ohta, Kohei; Baba, Takashi; Morohashi, Ken-ichiro; Tanaka, Minoru

    2007-01-01

    To further elucidate the roles of germ cells in the sex differentiation of gonads, we have used the medaka, a teleost fish, to generate mutants that lack germ cells from the onset of gonadogenesis by the morpholino-mediated knockdown of cxcr4. The resulting germ-cell-deficient medaka show female-to-male sex reversal of their secondary sex characteristics, accompanied by increased levels of androgen and reduced levels of estrogen. A failure to maintain granulosa cells or estrogen-producing cells also occurs at early stages of sex differentiation in the cxcr4 morphants, before the initiation of gonadal morphogenesis. In contrast, androgen-producing cells are unaffected in germ-cell-deficient medaka of either sex. In addition, a single tube-like gonad that expresses male-specific genes is formed in these mutants irrespective of the genetic sex. Significantly, each of these mutant phenotypes occurs in a somatic cell-autonomous manner, suggesting that gonadal somatic cells are predisposed toward male development in the absence of germ cells. This highlights the importance of germ cells in the sexual dimorphism of the gonads. PMID:17940041

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of Red Swamp Crawfish Procambarus clarkii Reveals Genes Involved in Gonadal Development

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hucheng; Xing, Zhijun; Lu, Wei; Qian, Zhaojun; Yu, Hongwei; Li, Jiale

    2014-01-01

    Background The red swamp crawfish, Procambarus clarkii, has become one of the most economically important cultured species in China. Currently, little is known about the gonadal development of this species. Isolation and characterization of genes are an initial step towards understanding gonadal development of P. clarkii. Results Using the 454 pyrosequencing technology, we obtained a total of 1,134,993 high quality sequence reads from the crawfish testis and ovary libraries. We aimed to identify different genes with a potential role in gonad development. The assembly formed into 22,652 isotigs, distributed by GO analysis across 55 categories in the three ontologies, ‘molecular function’, ‘cellular component’, and ‘biological processes’. Comparative transcript analysis showed that 1,720 isotigs in the ovary were up-regulated and 2138 isotigs were down-regulated. Several gonad development related genes, such as vitellogenin, cyclin B, cyclin-dependent kinases 2, Dmc1 and ubiquitin were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR verified the expression profiles of 14 differentially expressed genes, and confirmed the reliability of the 454 pyrosequencing. Conclusions Our findings provide an archive for future research on gonadal development at a molecular level in P. clarkii and other crustacean. This data will be helpful to develop new ideas for artificial regulation of the reproductive process in crawfish aquaculture. PMID:25118947

  12. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis in 45,X Turner syndrome with SRY gene

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Yeop; Yang, Sohyoung; Jeong, Eun-Hwan; Lee, Ho-Chang; Lee, Yong-Moon; Han, Heon-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Turner syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder in girls. Various phenotypic features show depending upon karyotype from normal female through ambiguous genitalia to male. Usually, Turner girls containing 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, or sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene may have mixed gonadal dysgenesis with various external sexual differentiation. We experienced a short statured 45,X Turner girl with normal external genitalia. Because SRY gene was positive, laparoscopic gonadectomy was performed. The dysgenetic gonads revealed bilateral ovotesticular tissues. The authors report a mixed gonadal dysgenesis case found in clinical 45,X Turner patient with positive SRY gene. Screening for SRY gene should be done even the karyotype is 45,X monosomy and external genitalia is normal. PMID:26817010

  13. The impact of adipose tissue-derived factors on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis.

    PubMed

    Tsatsanis, Christos; Dermitzaki, Eirini; Avgoustinaki, Pavlina; Malliaraki, Niki; Mytaras, Vasilis; Margioris, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue produces factors, including adipokines, cytokines and chemokines which, when released, systemically exert endocrine effects on multiple tissues thereby affecting their physiology. Adipokines also affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis both centrally, at the hypothalamic-pituitary level, and peripherally acting on the gonads themselves. Among the adipokines, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, chemerin and the peptide kisspeptin have pleiotropic actions on the HPG axis affecting male and female fertility. Furthermore, adipokines and adipose tissue-produced factors readily affect the immune system resulting in inflammation, which in turn impact the HPG axis, thus evidencing a link between metabolic inflammation and fertility. In this review we provide an overview of the existing extensive bibliography on the crosstalk between adipose tissue-derived factors and the HPG axis, with particular focus on the impact of obesity and the metabolic syndrome on gonadal function and fertility. PMID:26859602

  14. Proteomic dataset of Paracentrotus lividus gonads of different sexes and at different maturation stages.

    PubMed

    Ghisaura, Stefania; Loi, Barbara; Biosa, Grazia; Baroli, Maura; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Roggio, Tonina; Uzzau, Sergio; Anedda, Roberto; Addis, Maria Filippa

    2016-09-01

    We report the proteomic dataset of gonads from wild Paracentrotus lividus related to the research article entitled "Proteomic changes occurring along gonad maturation in the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus" [1]. Gonads of three individuals per sex in the recovery, pre-mature, mature, and spent stages were analyzed using a shotgun proteomics approach based on filter-aided sample preparation followed by tandem mass spectrometry, protein identification carried out using Sequest-HT as the search engine within the Proteome Discoverer informatics platform, and label-free differential analysis. The dataset has been deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD004200. PMID:27508229

  15. Recovery of gonadal development in tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes after exposure to 17β-estradiol during early life stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Peng; Liu, Bin; Meng, Zhen; Liu, Xinfu; Jia, Yudong; Yang, Zhi; Lei, Jilin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) exposure on gonadal development in the tiger puff er (Takifugu rubripes), which has a genetic sex determination system of male homogametic XY-XX. Tiger puff er larvae were exposed to 1, 10 and 100 μg/L E2 from 15 to 100 days post-hatch (dph) and then maintained in clean seawater until 400 dph. Changes in sex ratio, gonadal structure and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were monitored at 100, 160, 270 and 400 dph. Sex-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used to analyze the genetic sex of samples, except those at 100 dph. Exposure had a positive effect on the conversion of genetically male gonads into phenotypically female gonads at 100 dph. However, gonads from 60% of genetic XY males in the 1-μg/L E2 group and 100% in the 10-μg/L E2 group developed intersexual gonads at 160 dph; gonads of all genetic XY males in the two treatment groups reverted to testis by 270 dph. While 38%, 57% and 44% of gonads of XY fish in the 100-μg/L E2 group reverted to intersexual gonads at 160, 270 and 400 dph, respectively, none reverted to testis after E2 treatment. In addition, E2 exposure inhibited gonadal growth of both genetic sexes, as indicated by the clear dose-dependent decrease in GSI at 270 and 400 dph. The results showed that exposure to E2 during the early life stages of tiger puff er disrupted gonadal development, but that fish recovered after migration to clean seawater. The study suggests the potential use of tiger puff er as a valuable indicator species to evaluate the effects of environmental estrogens on marine fish, thereby protecting valuable fishery resources.

  16. Sex differences in diurnal rhythms of food intake in mice caused by gonadal hormones and complement of sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuqi; Wang, Lixin; Loh, Dawn H; Colwell, Christopher S; Taché, Yvette; Reue, Karen; Arnold, Arthur P

    2015-09-01

    We measured diurnal rhythms of food intake, as well as body weight and composition, while varying three major classes of sex-biasing factors: activational and organizational effects of gonadal hormones, and sex chromosome complement (SCC). Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice, comprising XX and XY gonadal males and XX and XY gonadal females, were either gonad-intact or gonadectomized (GDX) as adults (2.5months); food intake was measured second-by-second for 7days starting 5weeks later, and body weight and composition were measured for 22weeks thereafter. Gonadal males weighed more than females. GDX increased body weight/fat of gonadal females, but increased body fat and reduced body weight of males. After GDX, XX mice had greater body weight and more fat than XY mice. In gonad-intact mice, males had greater total food intake and more meals than females during the dark phase, but females had more food intake and meals and larger meals than males during the light phase. GDX reduced overall food intake irrespective of gonad type or SCC, and eliminated differences in feeding between groups with different gonads. Diurnal phase of feeding was influenced by all three sex-biasing variables. Gonad-intact females had earlier onset and acrophase (peak) of feeding relative to males. GDX caused a phase-advance of feeding, especially in XX mice, leading to an earlier onset of feeding in GDX XX vs. XY mice, but earlier acrophase in GDX males relative to females. Gonadal hormones and SCC interact in the control of diurnal rhythms of food intake. PMID:26226656

  17. Determination of gonad doses during robotic stereotactic radiosurgery for various tumor sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zorlu, Faruk; Dugel, Gozde; Ozyigit, Gokhan; Hurmuz, Pervin; Cengiz, Mustafa; Yildiz, Ferah; Akyol, Fadil; Gurkaynak, Murat

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The authors evaluated the absorbed dose received by the gonads during robotic stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for the treatment of different tumor localizations. Methods: The authors measured the gonad doses during the treatment of head and neck, thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic tumors in both RANDO phantom and actual patients. The computerized tomography images were transferred to the treatment planning system. The contours of tumor and critical organs were delineated on each slice, and treatment plans were generated. Measurements for gonad doses were taken from the geometric projection of the ovary onto the skin for female patients, and from the scrotal skin for male patients by attaching films and Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). SRS was delivered with CyberKnife (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). Results: The median gonadal doses with TLD and film dosimeter in actual patients were 0.19 Gy (range, 0.035-2.71 Gy) and 0.34 Gy (range, 0.066-3.18 Gy), respectively. In the RANDO phantom, the median ovarian doses with TLD and film dosimeter were 0.08 Gy (range, 0.03-0.159 Gy) and 0.05 Gy (range, 0.015-0.13 Gy), respectively. In the RANDO phantom, the median testicular doses with TLD and film dosimeter were 0.134 Gy (range 0.056-1.97 Gy) and 0.306 Gy (range, 0.065-2.25 Gy). Conclusions: Gonad doses are below sterility threshold in robotic SRS for different tumor localizations. However, particular attention should be given to gonads during robotic SRS for pelvic tumors.

  18. Gonad differentiation in zebrafish is regulated by the canonical Wnt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Rajini; Jiang, Junhui; Wang, Xingang; Bártfai, Richárd; Kwan, Hsiao Yuen; Christoffels, Alan; Orbán, László

    2014-02-01

    Zebrafish males undergo a "juvenile ovary-to-testis" gonadal transformation process. Several genes, including nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A (nr5a) and anti-Müllerian hormone (amh), and pathways such as Tp53-mediated germ-cell apoptosis have been implicated in zebrafish testis formation. However, our knowledge of the regulation of this complex process is incomplete, and much remains to be investigated about the molecular pathways and network of genes that control it. Using a microarray-based analysis of transforming zebrafish male gonads, we demonstrated that their transcriptomes undergo transition from an ovary-like pattern to an ovotestis to a testis-like profile. Microarray results also validated the previous histological and immunohistochemical observation that there is high variation in the duration and extent of commitment to the juvenile ovary phase among individuals. Interestingly, global gene expression profiling of diverging zebrafish juvenile ovaries and transforming ovotestes revealed that some members of the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway were differentially expressed between these two phases. To investigate whether Wnt/beta-catenin signaling plays a role in zebrafish gonad differentiation, we used the Tg (hsp70l:dkk1b-GFP)w32 line to inhibit Wnt/beta-catenin signaling during gonad differentiation. Activation of dkk1b-GFP expression by heat shock resulted in an increased proportion of males and corresponding decrease in gonadal aromatase gene (cyp19a1a) expression. The Wnt target gene, lymphocyte enhancer binding factor 1 (lef1), was also down-regulated in the process. Together, these results provide the first functional evidence that, similarly to mammals, Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is a "pro-female" pathway that regulates gonad differentiation in zebrafish. PMID:24174574

  19. Agriculture Alters Gonadal Form and Function in the Toad Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Krista A.; Bortnick, Lauriel J.; Campbell, Chelsey M.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Guillette, Louis J.; St. Mary, Colette M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many agricultural contaminants disrupt endocrine systems of wildlife. However, evidence of endocrine disruption in wild amphibians living in agricultural areas has been controversial. Typically, studies on the effects of pollutants on wildlife attempt to compare polluted with unpolluted sites. Objectives We took a novel approach to address this question by explicitly quantifying the relationship between gonadal abnormalities and habitats characterized by differing degrees of agricultural activity. Methods We quantified the occurrence of gonadal abnormalities and measures of gonadal function in at least 20 giant toads (Bufo marinus) from each of five sites that occur along a gradient of increasing agricultural land use from 0 to 97%. Results The number of abnormalities and frequency of intersex gonads increased with agriculture in a dose-dependent fashion. These gonadal abnormalities were associated with altered gonadal function. Testosterone, but not 17β-estradiol, concentrations were altered and secondary sexual traits were either feminized (increased skin mottling) or demasculinized (reduced forearm width and nuptial pad number) in intersex toads. Based on the end points we examined, female morphology and physiology did not differ across sites. However, males from agricultural areas had hormone concentrations and secondary sexual traits that were intermediate between intersex toads and non-agricultural male toads. Skin coloration at the most agricultural site was not sexually dimorphic; males had female coloration. Conclusions Steroid hormone concentrations and secondary sexual traits correlate with reproductive activity and success, so affected toads likely have reduced reproductive success. These reproductive abnormalities could certainly contribute to amphibian population declines occurring in areas exposed to agricultural contaminants. PMID:19057706

  20. Neuroscientists as Cartographers: Mapping the Crossroads of Gonadal Hormones, Memory and Age Using Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.; Acosta, Jazmin I.; Talboom, Joshua S.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive function is multidimensional and complex, and research in multiple species indicates it is considerably impacted by age and gonadal hormone milieu. One domain of cognitive function particularly susceptible to age-related decrements is spatial memory. Gonadal hormones can alter spatial memory, and they are potent modulators of brain microstructure and function in many of the same brain areas affected by aging. In this paper, we review decades of animal and human literature to support a tertiary model representing interactions between gonadal hormones, spatial cognition and age given that: 1) gonadal hormones change with age, 2) age impacts spatial learning and memory, and 3) gonadal hormones impact spatial learning and memory. While much has been discovered regarding these individual tenets, the compass for future aging research points toward clarifying the interactions that exist between these three points, and understanding mediating variables. Indeed, identifying and aligning the various components of the complex interactions between these tenets, including evaluations using basic science, systems, and clinical perspectives, is the optimal approach to attempt to converge the many findings that may currently appear contradictory. In fact, as discoveries are being made it is becoming clear that the findings across studies that appear contradictory are not contradictory at all. Rather, there are mediating variables that are influencing outcome and affecting the extent, and even the direction, of the effects that gonadal hormones have on cognition during aging. These mediating variables are just starting to be understood. By aligning basic scientific discoveries with clinical interpretations, we can maximize the opportunities for discoveries and subsequent interventions to allow individuals to “optimize their aging” and find their own map to cognitive health as aging ensues. PMID:20877209

  1. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, Amira; Justine, Jean-Lou; Neifar, Lassad

    2016-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147-165 μm), the gubernaculum (63-93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97-2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided. PMID:26956219

  2. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  3. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  4. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  5. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  6. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. Specific area gonad shielding covers an... that may cause genetic mutations during many medical x-ray procedures in which the gonads lie within...

  7. Global DNA methylation in gonads of adult zebrafish Danio rerio under bisphenol A exposure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Zhang, Yingying; Tao, Shiyu; Guan, Yongjing; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Zaizhao

    2016-08-01

    Altered DNA methylation is pervasively associated with changes in gene expression and signal transduction after exposure to a wide range of endocrine disrupting chemicals. As a weak estrogenic chemical, bisphenol A (BPA) has been extensively studied for reproductive toxicity. In order to explore the effects of BPA on epigenetic modification in gonads of zebrafish Danio rerio, we measured the global DNA methylation together with the gene expression of DNA methyltransferase (dnmts), glycine N-methyltransferase (gnmt), and ten-eleven translocation (tets) in gonads of D. rerio under BPA exposure by ELISA and quantitative real-time PCR method, respectively. The global level of DNA methylation was significantly decreased in ovaries after exposed to BPA for 7 days, and testes following 35-day exposure. Moreover, the global level of DNA methylation was also significantly reduced in testes after exposed to 15μg/L BPA for 7 days. Besides the alteration of the global level of DNA methylation, varying degrees of transcriptional changes of dnmts, gnmt and tets were detected in gonads of D. rerio under BPA exposure. The present study suggested that BPA might cause the global DNA demethylation in gonads of zebrafish by regulating the transcriptional changes of the DNA methylation/demethylation-associated genes (dnmts, gnmt, and tets). PMID:27101439

  8. Gonadal thermoluminiscence dosimetry in cranial computed tomography with the EMI scanner.

    PubMed

    Gyldensted, C

    1977-12-14

    A cranial computed tomographic examination (CT) consisting of four scans with the water bag equipped Mark I EMI scanner will expose the adult male gonads to a radiation dose of approximately 2 milliröntgen (mR). PMID:593543

  9. Adaptive Responses to Prochloraz Exposure in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Gonadal Axis of Fathead Minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic mathematical model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict doseresponse and time-course ...

  10. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in somatic and gonad tissues of bay mussels, mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Mix, M.C.; Hemingway, S.J.; Schaffer, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of Benzo(a)pyrene(PAP) were measured in somatic and gonadal tissues of M. edulis in Yaquina Bay, Oregon over several months to determine whether or not changes in levels in these tissues could account for winter-spring fluctuations in BAP concentrations. The period of high January-February concentrations was of special interest.

  11. A heterozygous mutation in the desert hedgehog gene in patients with mixed gonadal dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Canto, P; Vilchis, F; Söderlund, D; Reyes, E; Méndez, J P

    2005-11-01

    Aetiology of mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) has not been completely elucidated. Molecular analyses have failed to demonstrate the presence of mutations in sex-determining region on Y chromosome (SRY); it has been suggested that these individuals may bear mutations in other genes involved in the testis-determining pathway. Desert hedgehog's (DHH) importance regarding male sex differentiation has been demonstrated in various studies we describe here, for the first time, two cases of MGD in which a monoallelic single base deletion in DHH is associated with the disorder. Genomic DNA was isolated from paraffin-embedded gonad tissue from 10 unrelated patients with MGD and three controls; in addition to, DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes in 100 controls. Coding sequence abnormalities in DHH were assessed by exon-specific PCR, single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and direct sequencing. In two patients, a heterozygous 1086delG in exon 3 was found. Comparing previously described mutations in DHH to the one observed in this study, we can affirm that the phenotypic spectrum of patients with gonadal dysgenesis due to mutations in DHH is variable. This study continues to demonstrate the importance that DHH has in mammalian male sexual differentiation, providing extended evidence that DHH constitutes a key gene in gonadal differentiation. PMID:16390857

  12. Opposite influence of light and blindness on pituitary-gonadal function.

    PubMed

    Bellastella, Antonio; De Bellis, Annamaria; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Esposito, Katherine

    2014-01-13

    Some environmental factors may influence the pituitary-gonadal function. Among these, light plays an important role in animals and in humans. The effect of light on the endocrine system is mediated by the pineal gland, through the modulation of melatonin secretion. In fact, melatonin secretion is stimulated by darkness and suppressed by light, thus its circadian rhythm peaks at night. Light plays a favorable action on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis likely inhibiting melatonin secretion, while the exogenous melatonin administration does not seem to impair the hormonal secretions of this axis. The basal and rhythmic pituitary-gonadal hormone secretions are regulated by a central clock gene and some independent clock genes in the peripheral tissues. Light is able to induce the expression of some of these genes, thus playing an important role in regulating the hormonal secretions of pituitary-gonadal axis and the sexual and reproductive function in animals and humans. The lack of light stimulus in blind subjects induces increase in plasma melatonin concentrations with a free-running rhythm of secretion, which impairs the hormonal secretions of pituitary-gonadal axis, causing disorders of reproductive processes in both sexes. PMID:24454307

  13. Reproductive cycle and gonad development of the Northern Argentinean Mesodesma mactroides (Bivalvia: Mesodesmatidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Marko; Alfaya, José E. F.; Lepore, Mauro L.; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E.; Laudien, Jürgen

    2009-09-01

    The reproductive cycle and gonad development of the yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides was studied over a period of 24 months (January 2005-December 2006) at the Argentinean sandy beach Santa Teresita. Histological examination of gonadal tissue revealed that sex ratios did not significantly deviate from the proportion of 1:1 and no case of hermaphroditism was found. The reproductive cycle of M. mactroides followed an annual cyclicality, which was significantly correlated to monthly mean sea surface temperatures (SST). Oocytes showed highest abundance in winter, indicating a process of gonadal development and sexual maturation. The mean oocyte size decreased significantly during spring. Modal oocyte sizes decreased significantly during winter and late spring of each year, suggesting spawning events. The condition index was not useful in describing the annual reproductive cycle of M. mactroides. Ash-free, shell-free dry mass was chosen to detect the condition of the specimens, and this significantly correlated with monthly mean SST and the gametogenic cycle. Annual recruitment patterns during summer-autumn indicated a 3-month-long planktonic phase of M. mactroides. The reproduction cycle and gonad development of M. mactroides showed only weak differences between data from the present study and those collected 40 years ago.

  14. Adaptive Response in Female Modeling of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal Axis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course ...

  15. Histological Description of Gonadal Development of Females and Males of Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 (Decapoda: Portunidae).

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Saucedo, Liliana; Ramírez-Santiago, Cecilia; Pérez, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of male and female germ cells during gonadal development and the gonadal maturity scale of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. A total of 20 specimens were collected monthly from June to November 2012, in two areas off the coast of the Gulf of Mexico: the San Andrés Lagoon and Alvarado Lagoon. The gonads were removed and processed following the standard technique of hematoxylin and eosin staining. An important event in oogenesis (pre-vitellogenesis) was the appearance of a perinuclear vesicle in the cytoplasm and the accumulation of yolk granules. Later, vitellogenesis began and there was an accumulation of nutritive droplets and fragmentation of the perinuclear vesicle. During spermatogenesis, the accumulation of two fluids was observed that were involved in the formation of the spermatophore and the delay of spermiogenesis. Based on the histological features of gonad maturity, five stages were described (inactive, early gametogenesis, development, maturity, and resorption), in females and males. This proposal can be useful for the study of reproductive seasonality of this species. PMID:25826069

  16. Biogenic acidification reduces sea urchin gonad growth and increases susceptibility of aquaculture to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Mos, Benjamin; Byrne, Maria; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2016-02-01

    Decreasing oceanic pH (ocean acidification) has emphasised the influence of carbonate chemistry on growth of calcifying marine organisms. However, calcifiers can also change carbonate chemistry of surrounding seawater through respiration and calcification, a potential limitation for aquaculture. This study examined how seawater exchange rate and stocking density of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla that were reproductively mature affected carbonate system parameters of their culture water, which in turn influenced growth, gonad production and gonad condition. Growth, relative spine length, gonad production and consumption rates were reduced by up to 67% by increased density (9-43 individuals.m(-2)) and reduced exchange rates (3.0-0.3 exchanges.hr(-1)), but survival and food conversion efficiency were unaffected. Analysis of the influence of seawater parameters indicated that reduced pH and calcite saturation state (ΩCa) were the primary factors limiting gonad production and growth. Uptake of bicarbonate and release of respiratory CO2 by T. gratilla changed the carbonate chemistry of surrounding water. Importantly total alkalinity (AT) was reduced, likely due to calcification by the urchins. Low AT limits the capacity of culture water to buffer against acidification. Direct management to counter biogenic acidification will be required to maintain productivity and reproductive output of marine calcifiers, especially as the ocean carbonate system is altered by climate driven ocean acidification. PMID:26595392

  17. Experiment K-7-19: Pineal Physiology After Spaceflight: Relation to Rat Gonadal Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, D. C.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

    1994-01-01

    The function of pineal exposed to microgravity and spaceflight is studied. It is found that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanisms of the response noted.

  18. Gonadal (ovarian) dysgenesis in 46,XX individuals: Frequency of the autosomal recessive form

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, C.M.; Boughman, J.A.; Rivas, M.

    1996-06-28

    Gonadal (ovarian) dysgenesis with normal chromosomes (46,XX) clearly is a heterogeneous condition. In some forms, the defect is restricted to the gonads, whereas other affected females show neurosensory hearing loss (Perrault syndrome). In another form, brothers may have germ cell aplasia. Nongenetic causes exist as well. To elucidate the proportion of XX gonadal (ovarian) dysgenesis due to autosomal recessive genes, we analyzed published (N = 17) and unpublished (N = 8) families having at least two female offspring. Analysis was restricted to cases in whom ovarian failure was documented by the presence of streak ovaries (published cases) or elevated gonadotropins (unpublished cases). We reasoned that the closer to that segregation ratio expected for an autosomal recessive trait (0.25), the lower the frequency of nongenetic forms. Segregation analysis utilized standard correction for single ascertainment, with only females included in the preliminary analysis. The segregation ratio estimate was 0.16. Our results suggest that many 46,XX females with gonadal (ovarian) dysgenesis represent a disorder segregating as an autosomal recessive trait, placing sisters of these cases at a 25% risk for this disorder. 32 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The Recreational Drug Ecstasy Disrupts the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Reproductive Axis in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Walker, Deena M.; Reveron, Maria E.; Duvauchelle, Christine L.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive function involves an interaction of three regulatory levels: hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonad. The primary drive upon this system comes from hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory cells, which receive afferent inputs from other neurotransmitter systems in the central nervous system to result in the proper coordination of reproduction and the environment. Here, we hypothesized that the recreational drug ±-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; “ecstasy”), which acts through several of the neurotransmitter systems that affect GnRH neurons, suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) reproductive axis of male rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered saline or MDMA or saline either once (acute) or for 20 days (chronic), and were euthanized 7 days following last administration. We quantified hypothalamic GnRH mRNA, serum luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations, and serum testosterone levels, as indices of hypothalamic, pituitary, and gonadal functions, respectively. The results indicate that the hypothalamic and gonadal levels of the HPG axis are significantly altered by MDMA, with GnRH mRNA and serum testosterone levels suppressed in rats administered MDMA compared to saline. Furthermore, our finding that hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels are suppressed in the context of low testosterone concentrations suggests that the central GnRH neurosecretory system may be a primary target of inhibitory regulation by MDMA usage. PMID:18309234

  20. Longitudinal gonadal steroid excretion in free-living male and female meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Moss, A M; Clutton-Brock, T H; Monfort, S L

    2001-05-01

    Slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) are small, diurnal, cooperatively breeding mongooses of the family Herpestidae. A prerequisite to fully understanding the mating system of meerkats is the development of a normative reproductive-endocrine database. This study examined longitudinal gonadal steroid excretion in all adult and juvenile individuals of both sexes within a social group of free-living meerkats sampled across an entire breeding season. The specific objectives of this study were to (1) validate noninvasive (fecal and urinary) gonadal steroid hormone monitoring techniques in male (testosterone) and female (estrogens, progestagens) meerkats; (2) test the feasibility of using these noninvasive methods under field conditions; (3) characterize the endocrine correlates associated with the female reproductive cycle, including estrus, gestation, and postpartum estrus; (4) examine longitudinal androgen excretion in males; and (5) determine whether social status (i.e., dominant versus subordinate) affected gonadal steroid excretion. In females, the results demonstrated the physiological validity of noninvasive monitoring in meerkats by corresponding excretory hormone concentrations to major reproductive events (i.e., estrous, pregnancy, parturition). Hormone excretory patterns during estrous intervals suggested possible mechanisms whereby reproductive suppression may operate in female meerkats. In males, androgen excretion did not correspond to changes in reproductive and aggressive behaviors, suggesting that dominance, and hence breeding access to females, was not regulated strictly by gonadal steroid production. The consistency in androgen excretion among male meerkats indicated that reproductive suppression may be mediated by behavioral (i.e., intermale aggression) rather than physiological (i.e., depressed spermatogenesis) mechanisms. PMID:11316421

  1. Leptin Genes in Blunt Snout Bream: Cloning, Phylogeny and Expression Correlated to Gonads Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Honghao; Zeng, Cong; Yi, Shaokui; Wan, Shiming; Chen, Boxiang; Gao, Zexia

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the leptin related genes expression patterns and their possible function during the gonadal development in fish, the cDNA and genomic sequences of leptin, leptin receptor (leptinR), and leptin receptor overlapping transcript like-1 (leprotl1) were cloned and their expression levels were quantified in the different gonadal development stages of Megalobrama amblycephala. The results showed that the full length cDNA sequences of leptin, leptinR and leprotl1 were 953, 3432 and 1676 bp, coding 168, 1082, and 131 amino acid polypeptides, and the genomic sequences were 1836, 28,528 and 5480 bp, which respectively had 3, 15 and 4 exons, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that three genes were relatively conserved in fish species. Quantitative real-time PCR results showed that the three genes were ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues during the different gonadal development stages. The leptin and leptinR took part in the onset of puberty, especially in female M. amblycephala, by increasing the expression levels in brain during the stage I to III of ovary. The expression levels of leptin and leptinR had significant differences between male and female in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis tissues (p < 0.05). The leptinR had the same variation tendency with leptin, but the opposite changes of expression levels were found in leprotl1, which may resist the expression of leptinR for inhibiting the function of leptin in target organ. These findings revealed details about the possible role of these genes in regulating gonadal maturation in fish species. PMID:26593912

  2. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  3. Gonadal Transcriptome Alterations in Response to Dietary Energy Intake: Sensing the Reproductive Environment

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bronwen; Pearson, Michele; Brenneman, Randall; Golden, Erin; Wood, William; Prabhu, Vinayakumar; Becker, Kevin G.; Mattson, Mark P.; Maudsley, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive capacity and nutritional input are tightly linked and animals' specific responses to alterations in their physical environment and food availability are crucial to ensuring sustainability of that species. We have assessed how alterations in dietary energy intake (both reductions and excess), as well as in food availability, via intermittent fasting (IF), affect the gonadal transcriptome of both male and female rats. Starting at four months of age, male and female rats were subjected to a 20% or 40% caloric restriction (CR) dietary regime, every other day feeding (IF) or a high fat-high glucose (HFG) diet for six months. The transcriptional activity of the gonadal response to these variations in dietary energy intake was assessed at the individual gene level as well as at the parametric functional level. At the individual gene level, the females showed a higher degree of coherency in gonadal gene alterations to CR than the males. The gonadal transcriptional and hormonal response to IF was also significantly different between the male and female rats. The number of genes significantly regulated by IF in male animals was almost 5 times greater than in the females. These IF males also showed the highest testosterone to estrogen ratio in their plasma. Our data show that at the level of gonadal gene responses, the male rats on the IF regime adapt to their environment in a manner that is expected to increase the probability of eventual fertilization of females that the males predict are likely to be sub-fertile due to their perception of a food deficient environment. PMID:19127293

  4. Leptin Genes in Blunt Snout Bream: Cloning, Phylogeny and Expression Correlated to Gonads Development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Honghao; Zeng, Cong; Yi, Shaokui; Wan, Shiming; Chen, Boxiang; Gao, Zexia

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the leptin related genes expression patterns and their possible function during the gonadal development in fish, the cDNA and genomic sequences of leptin, leptin receptor (leptinR), and leptin receptor overlapping transcript like-1 (leprotl1) were cloned and their expression levels were quantified in the different gonadal development stages of Megalobrama amblycephala. The results showed that the full length cDNA sequences of leptin, leptinR and leprotl1 were 953, 3432 and 1676 bp, coding 168, 1082, and 131 amino acid polypeptides, and the genomic sequences were 1836, 28,528 and 5480 bp, which respectively had 3, 15 and 4 exons, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that three genes were relatively conserved in fish species. Quantitative real-time PCR results showed that the three genes were ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues during the different gonadal development stages. The leptin and leptinR took part in the onset of puberty, especially in female M. amblycephala, by increasing the expression levels in brain during the stage I to III of ovary. The expression levels of leptin and leptinR had significant differences between male and female in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis tissues (p < 0.05). The leptinR had the same variation tendency with leptin, but the opposite changes of expression levels were found in leprotl1, which may resist the expression of leptinR for inhibiting the function of leptin in target organ. These findings revealed details about the possible role of these genes in regulating gonadal maturation in fish species. PMID:26593912

  5. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Shirane, T.

    1982-10-10

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males.

  6. Molecular characterization of the gonadal kisspeptin system: Cloning, tissue distribution, gene expression analysis and localization in sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria).

    PubMed

    Fairgrieve, Marian R; Shibata, Yasushi; Smith, Elizabeth K; Hayman, Edward S; Luckenbach, J Adam

    2016-01-01

    The kisspeptin system plays pivotal roles in the regulation of vertebrate reproduction. Classically, kisspeptin produced in the brain stimulates brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling, which in turn activates the pituitary-gonad axis. Expression of the kisspeptin system has also been documented in peripheral tissues, including gonads of mammals and fishes. However, the fish gonadal kisspeptin system remained uncharacterized. Herein we report identification and characterization of four kisspeptin system mRNAs (kisspeptin 1 (kiss1), kiss2, and G protein-coupled receptor 54-1 (gpr54-1) and gpr54-2) in sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria. Sablefish predicted protein sequences were highly similar to those of other marine teleosts, but less so to freshwater teleosts. Tissue distribution analyses revealed that all four kisspeptin-system transcripts were expressed in both brain and gonad. However, kiss2 was the predominant transcript in the gonads and the only transcript detected in ovulated eggs. Ontogenetic analysis of kiss2 expression in juvenile sablefish gonads demonstrated that levels were low during sex differentiation but increased with fish size and gonadal development. Dramatic increases in kiss2 mRNA occurred during primary oocyte growth, while levels remained relatively low in testes. In situ hybridization revealed that kiss2 mRNA was localized to cytoplasm of perinucleolus stage oocytes, suggesting it could play a local role in oogenesis or could be synthesized and stored within oocytes as maternal mRNA. This represents the first study to focus on the gonadal kisspeptin system in fishes and provides important tools for further investigation of both the gonadal and brain kisspeptin systems in sablefish. PMID:26386183

  7. Report of a kindred with x-linked (or autosomal dominant sex-limited) 46, XY partial gonadal dysgenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fechner, P.Y.; Marcantonio, S.M.; Ogata, T.; Rosales, T.O.; Smith, K.D.; Goodfellow, P.N.; Migeon, C.J.; Berkovitz, G.D. )

    1993-05-01

    The condition termed 46, XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is characterized by the lack of testicular determination with resulting streak gonads, normal Mullerian structures, and female external genitalia. In the partial form, there is incomplete testicular determination with a wide range in the degree of ambiguous genitalia and sexual duct development. The authors evaluated a kindred in which a partial form of 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis occurred in four subjects from two generations. Pedigree analysis indicated an X-linked or possibly an autosomal sex-limited mode of inheritance. All affected subjects were ascertained because of ambiguous genitalia with minimal virilization. At 10 days of age, the proband had a subnormal plasma level of testosterone, and at 4 months, there was no rise in plasma T after stimulation with hCG. At laparotomy, a dysgenetic gonad was found on the right side, but no gonad was found on the left side. A vas deferens was present on the right, indicating the presence of functional leydig cells early in fetal life. In the other affected subjects, gonadal tissue was also limited to one side of the abdomen and showed poorly developed seminiferous tubules. The sex-determining region Y gene, which encodes the testis-determining factor, was present and unaltered in the genomic DNA of all affected subjects. Duplication of the distal short arm of the X-chromosome has been associated with 46, XY complete gonadal dysgenesis in some patients. In the authors studies, Southern blot analysis revealed that sequences of the distal short arm of the X-chromosome were present in single copy, excluding a large duplication in this area of the X. Several kindreds with familial 46, XY complete gonadal dysgenesis have been reported; five of them had evidence of an X-linked mode of inheritance. The authors study of a kindred with 46, XY partial gonadal dysgenesis further supports the role of an X chromosome gene in testicular determination. 44 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147–165 μm), the gubernaculum (63–93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97–2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided. PMID:26956219

  9. Gonadal transcriptome analysis of male and female olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhaofei; You, Feng; Wang, Lijuan; Weng, Shenda; Wu, Zhihao; Hu, Jinwei; Zou, Yuxia; Tan, Xungang; Zhang, Peijun

    2014-01-01

    Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is an important commercially cultured marine flatfish in China, Korea, and Japan, of which female grows faster than male. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of flounder sex determination and development, we used RNA-seq technology to investigate transcriptomes of flounder gonads. This produced 22,253,217 and 19,777,841 qualified reads from ovary and testes, which were jointly assembled into 97,233 contigs. Among them, 23,223 contigs were mapped to known genes, of which 2,193 were predicted to be differentially expressed in ovary and 887 in testes. According to annotation information, several sex-related biological pathways including ovarian steroidogenesis and estrogen signaling pathways were firstly found in flounder. The dimorphic expression of overall sex-related genes provides further insights into sex determination and gonadal development. Our study also provides an archive for further studies of molecular mechanism of fish sex determination. PMID:25121093

  10. Mixed Germ Cell Tumour in a Case of Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis (Swyer Syndrome) - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    M, Venugopal; Mathews, Anitha; James, Francis V

    2016-01-01

    Swyer syndrome or pure gonadal dysgenesis 46, XY is a medical condition associated with 46 XY karyotype and primary amenorrhea in a phenotypic female. In this syndrome, there is an abnormality in testicular differentiation. Patients with disorders in sexual differentiation have an increased risk for development of genital malignancies. A 14-year-old female admitted with abdominal pain was diagnosed to have Swyer syndrome and a pelvic tumor after clinical and laboratory investigations. She underwent surgery, and the histology report revealed a mixed germ cell tumor in a dysgenetic gonad. She recurred three months later and was successfully treated with chemotherapy and a second surgery to remove the differentiated teratoma. The early diagnosis of patients with Swyer syndrome is important because of the increased risk for the development of malignancy. Early surgical treatment is required. Recurrent and metastatic disease respond well to chemotherapy. PMID:26918227

  11. Pdgfr-α mediates testis cord organization and fetal Leydig cell development in the XY gonad

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Jennifer; Tilmann, Christopher; Capel, Blanche

    2003-01-01

    During testis development, the rapid morphological changes initiated by Sry require the coordinate integration of many signaling pathways. Based on the established role of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family of ligands and receptors in migration, proliferation, and differentiation of cells in various organ systems, we have investigated the role of PDGF in testis organogenesis. Analysis of expression patterns and characterization of the gonad phenotype in Pdgfr-α−/− embryos identified PDGFR-α as a critical mediator of signaling in the early testis at multiple steps of testis development. Pdgfr-α−/− XY gonads displayed disruptions in the organization of the vasculature and in the partitioning of interstitial and testis cord compartments. Closer examination revealed severe reductions in characteristic XY proliferation, mesonephric cell migration, and fetal Leydig cell differentiation. This work identifies PDGF signaling through the α receptor as an important event downstream of Sry in testis organogenesis and Leydig cell differentiation. PMID:12651897

  12. Effects of tributyltin on metamorphosis and gonadal differentiation of Xenopus laevis at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huahong; Zhu, Pan; Guo, Suzhen

    2014-05-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a well known endocrine disruptor, has high teratogenicity to embryos of amphibian (Xenopus tropicalis). An amphibian metamorphosis assay (AMA) and a complete AMA (CAMA) were conducted for TBT. In AMA, the body weight, the snout-to-vent length and the hind limb length of X. laevis tadpoles were decreased in tributyltin chloride (TBTCl; 12.5-200 ng/L) treatment groups after 7 days exposure. TBT greatly retarded the development of tadpoles, decreased the number of follicle and induced thyroid follicle cell hyperplasia after 19 days exposure. In CAMA, 10 and 100 ng/L TBTCl led to various malformations of gonad, including intersex, segmental aplasia and multiple ovary cavities of X. laevis following exposure from stages 46 to stage 66. The sex ratio was male-biased in TBT treatment groups. These results suggest that TBT delayed the metamorphosis, inhibited the growth of tadpoles and disrupted the gonadal differentiation of X. laevis at environmentally relevant concentrations. PMID:22903176

  13. Gonadal Development, Spawning and Plasma Sex Steroid Levels of the Indoor Cultured Grunt, Hapalogenys nitens

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee Woong; Cho, Jae-Kwon; Son, Maeng-Hyun; Park, Jong Youn; Hong, Chang Gi; Chung, Jae Seung; Chung, Ee-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonadal development and changes in hormones in plasma level of the indoor cultured grunt (Hapalogenys nitens) were investigated by histological study from August 2011 to October 2012. The GSI showed similar trends with gonad developmental stages during the culture periods. Changes in plasma level of estradiol-17β of female H. nitens reached the highest value before the spawning period, and seasonal changes in plasma level of estradiol-17β were similar in trends of oocyte developments and GSI changes. Testosterone levels of male H. nitens reached the highest value before and after the spent stage. Ovarian developmental stages of H. nitens could be classified into early growing stage, late growing stage, mature stage, ripe and spawning stage, recovery and resting stage. The testicular developmental stages could be divided into growing stage, mature stage, ripe and spent stage, and recovery and resting stage. PMID:25949208

  14. From Incidentaloma to Suspicion of Malignancy: The Diverse Clinical Presentation of Gonadal Schistosomiasis mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Laiana do Carmo; de Oliveira, Marbele Guimarães; Castro Pereira, Fábio Meira; de Bessa Júnior, José

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is the second most widespread parasitic disease in the world, second only to malaria. The usual places the Schistosoma mansoni can be found in are the rectal and sigmoidal venules, as well as other segments of the large intestine of men. It may also be present in other ectopic topographies. Gonadal schistosomiasis is an unusual presentation of Schistosomiasis mansoni and its different clinical signs and symptoms disrupt correct diagnosis and culminate in surgical treatment that is, in most cases, unnecessary. In this study, we report four cases of gonadal Schistosomiasis mansoni, two in the ovary and two in the testicles. These cases were clinically investigated as a bacterial infection, a benign neoplasm, and a suspected cancer, whilst one of them was an incidentaloma. PMID:24392230

  15. Gonad development in Drash and Frasier syndromes depends on WT1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Jaubert, Francis; Vasiliu, Vorel; Patey-Mariaud de Serre, Natacha; Auber, Frédéric; Jeanpierre, Cecile; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Nihoul-Fékété, Claire; Fellous, Marc

    2003-01-01

    The study of the gonads of 8 cases of Drash syndrome (6 ambiguous males, 2 females) and of 2 Frasier syndrome shows that WT1 mutations gives a dysgenetic testis which is the cause of the genital ambiguity observed at birth. By contrast the same mutations have no effect on ovary development giving normal females. However intron mutations in KTS with isoforms imbalance of WT1 proteins cause streak gonads with a female phenotype in XY patients. In consequence WT1 mutations are the cause of a spectrum of male genital malformations associated with glomerulonephritis and tumors. The absence of WT1 protein detection in sertoli cells shown by immunohistochemistry for 3 cases suggests an imprinting effect of the normal WT1 allele promotor rather than a low level of protein production. A caryotype is mandatory for a correct diagnosis. PMID:15357247

  16. [The function of the hypophyseal-gonadal system in different variants of glomerulonephritis in children].

    PubMed

    Korovina, N A; Gavriushova, L P; Ametov, A S; Tvorogova, T M; Mumladze, E B; Toritsina, L K

    1990-01-01

    A total of 28 children with different varieties of glomerulonephritis were examined for the pituitary-gonadal system (PGS). The examination included measurements of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, prolactin, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone. To define standards of the content of the hormones under study, 45 children of the control group were examined. The relationship was analyzed between the content of hormones and the disease activity and gravity. The most active phase of glomerulonephritis was characterized by maximal alterations in the content of pituitary and gonadal hormones. The content of the latter ones appeared to be considerably changed in patients with the mixed pattern of glomerulonephritis, attesting to profound functional derangements in the PGS. The intensity of those derangements was determined by the severity of the pathological process. PMID:2259596

  17. 46 XX pure gonadal dysgenesis: an infrequent cause of primary amenorrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Pertusa, Salvador; Palacios, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Amenorrhoea can be primary or secondary. Primary amenorrhoea is a relatively common problem among teenage girls. They usually consult their paediatrician or family doctor. This condition is present in patients with normal secondary sexual characteristics but no menarche by 16 years of age, or patients who have not had menstrual flow by age 14 and are lacking normal secondary sexual characteristics. Gonadal dysgenesis is an infrequent cause for primary amenorrhoea. In this paper, the case of a 16-year-old girl whose mother consulted their family doctor because of worries about her daughter’s lack of menarche is presented. A blood test showed elevated levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) and low levels of oestradiol. An abdominal ultrasound was abnormal. A diagnostic laparoscopy with biopsy of both gonads was performed. Replacement hormonal therapy was applied resulting in normal menstruations after few months. An early diagnosis is extremely important. PMID:21686785

  18. EFFECTS OF INCUBATION TEMPERATURE AND ESTROGEN EXPOSURE ON AROMATASE ACTIVITY IN THE BRAIN AND GONADS OF EMBRYONIC ALLIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During embryogenesis, incubation temperature and the hormonal environment influence gonadal differentiation of some reptiles, including all crocodilians. Current evidence suggests that aromatase, the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, has a role in sexual differentiatio...

  19. Identification of Gender-specific Transcripts by Microarray in Gonad Tissue of Larval and Juvenile Xenopus tropicalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibian model species Xenopus tropicalis is currently being utilized by EPA in the development of a standardized in vivo reproductive toxicity assay. Perturbations to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis from exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds during larval develop...

  20. Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of the process of gonadal sex differentiation in the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Ribas, L; Robledo, D; Gómez-Tato, A; Viñas, A; Martínez, P; Piferrer, F

    2016-02-15

    The turbot is a flatfish with a ZW/ZZ sex determination system but with a still unknown sex determining gene(s), and with a marked sexual growth dimorphism in favor of females. To better understand sexual development in turbot we sampled young turbot encompassing the whole process of gonadal differentiation and conducted a comprehensive transcriptomic study on its sex differentiation using a validated custom oligomicroarray. Also, the expression profiles of 18 canonical reproduction-related genes were studied along gonad development. The expression levels of gonadal aromatase cyp19a1a alone at three months of age allowed the accurate and early identification of sex before the first signs of histological differentiation. A total of 56 differentially expressed genes (DEG) that had not previously been related to sex differentiation in fish were identified within the first three months of age, of which 44 were associated with ovarian differentiation (e.g., cd98, gpd1 and cry2), and 12 with testicular differentiation (e.g., ace, capn8 and nxph1). To identify putative sex determining genes, ∼4.000 DEG in juvenile gonads were mapped and their positions compared with that of previously identified sex- and growth-related quantitative trait loci (QTL). Although no genes mapped to the previously identified sex-related QTLs, two genes (foxl2 and 17βhsd) of the canonical reproduction-related genes mapped to growth-QTLs in linkage group (LG) 15 and LG6, respectively, suggesting that these genes are related to the growth dimorphism in this species. PMID:26586209

  1. [Effects of cadmium on metamorphism and gonad differentiation in Rana chensinensis].

    PubMed

    Huang, Min-Yi; Wang, Hong-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Hui

    2010-06-01

    200 tadpoles of Rana chensinensis at stage 26 - 27 were exposed to 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 or 0.4 mg/L Cd2+ in tap water respectively until they're fully metamorphic after which the heteromorphic young frogs in different treatments were anatomized, females and males were identified through gonad observation, and the female ratio was calculated. Localization of estrogen receptors (ER) in liver cells was investigated in different treatments using immunocytochemistry. The results showed that Cd2+ might induce limb abnormality, however, there was little correlation between abnormality rate and cadmium concentration in lower Cd2+ levels except for a higher limb abnormality ratio in the 0.4 mg/L group. On the other hand, Cd2+ could affect gonad differentiation. Compared to the control group, the proportion of female population increased in the 0.05 mg/L group and decreased in the 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/L ones. The sex rate in the 0.2 mg/L group is significantly different from that in the control group. Hermaphrodite gonads appeared in the two treatments with 0.2 mg/L and 0.4 mg/L of Cd2+. Additionally, ER expression was positive in both cytoplasm and nucleolus of liver cells in Cd2+ treated groups. But, there was no linear relationship between ER expressions levels and the concentration of Cd2+. These results suggested that cadmium can influence tadpole metamorphosis and gonad development by affecting the secretion of sex hormone. PMID:20672415

  2. XO-gonadal dysgenesis in the mare (report of two cases).

    PubMed

    Hughes, J P; Kennedy, P C

    1975-04-01

    TWo cases of XO-gonadal dysgenesis in the mare are presented. Case No 1 was a pure 63, XO, while Case No 2 was a mosaic with a preponderance of XX cells. The clinical picture was one of phenotypically normal female mares with small uteri and infantile ovaries. The ovaries lacked germ cells, and consisted of stroma only. This study emphasizes the importance of chromosome analysis in providing information concerning the mechanisms involved is some cases of equine infertility. PMID:1140189

  3. Gonadal sex differentiation and effects of dietary methyltestosterone treatment in sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria).

    PubMed

    Luckenbach, J Adam; Fairgrieve, William T

    2016-02-01

    Methods for sex control are needed to establish monosex aquaculture of sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria). Here we conducted the first characterization of sex differentiation by histology and hormonal sex reversal experiment in sablefish. Ovarian differentiation was first discernible at ~80 mm fork length (FL) and characterized by development of lamellar structures and onset of meiosis. Testes exhibited a dual-lobe appearance over much of their length and remained non-meiotic until males were ≥520 mm FL (2 years post-fertilization). Juveniles with undifferentiated gonads were provided diets containing 0 (control), 5 or 50 mg 17α-methyltestosterone (MT)/kg for 2 months. Following treatment, controls possessed either ovaries or non-meiotic testes, whereas MT-treated fish exhibited meiotic testes (60% of the fish), intersex gonads (~30%), or gonads that appeared sterile (~10%). A genetic sex marker revealed that all intersex fish were genetic females, although other females appeared to be completely sex reversed (i.e., neomales). One year after treatment, MT-treated fish possessed non-meiotic testes similar to control males or intersex gonads with reduced ovarian features, presumably due to atresia following MT withdrawal. Milt collected from neomales and genetic males 3 years post-treatment permitted sperm motility analyses; however, neomale sperm were virtually immotile. These results demonstrated that sablefish are differentiated gonochorists and that MT treatment from 76 to 196 mm FL induced permanent masculinization of a portion of the genetic females, but acquisition of sperm motility was impaired. Earlier administration of MT may be necessary to sex reverse a higher proportion of genetic females and reduce negative effects on fertility. PMID:26400269

  4. Global DNA Methylation Changes in Nile Tilapia Gonads during High Temperature-Induced Masculinization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Li, Ning

    2016-01-01

    In some fish species, high or low temperature can switch the sex determination mechanisms and induce fish sex reversal when the gonads are undifferentiated. During this high or low temperature-induced sex reversal, the expressions of many genes are altered. However, genome-wide DNA methylation changes in fish gonads after high or low temperature treatment are unclear. Herein, we compared the global DNA methylation changes in the gonads from control females (CF), control males (CM), high temperature-treated females (TF), and high temperature-induced males (IM) from the F8 family of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. The DNA methylation level in CF was higher than that in CM for various chromosomes. Both females and males showed an increase in methylation levels on various chromosomes after high-temperature induction. We identified 64,438 (CF/CM), 63,437 (TF/IM), 98,675 (TF/CF), 235,270 (IM/CM) and 119,958 (IM/CF) differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in Nile tilapia gonads, representing approximately 0.70% (CF/CM), 0.69% (TF/IM), 1.07% (TF/CF), 2.56% (IM/CM), and 1.30% (IM/CF)of the length of the genome. A total of 89 and 65 genes that exhibited DMRs in their gene bodies and promoters were mapped to the Nile tilapia genome. Furthermore, more than half of the genes with DMRs in the gene body in CF/CM were also included in the IM/CM, TF/CF, TF/IM, and IM/CF groups. Additionally, many important pathways, including neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids were identified. This study provided an important foundation to investigate the molecular mechanism of high temperature-induced sex reversal in fish species. PMID:27486872

  5. [Gonadal dysgenesis--possible variation of clinical, hormonal, cytogenetic and histologic findings].

    PubMed

    Schwanitz, G; Tietze, H U; Zerres, K; Schaaff, A

    1983-01-01

    Errors of gonadal differentiation are influencing the sex differentiation on the whole in man. Since the methods in clinical cytogenetics improved, an exact chromosome investigation became possible, which enables the necessary therapy, the appropriate medical and psychological care, and the genetic counselling. Regarding our own observations, general surveys on the frequencies of the different syndromes and on the occurrence of the single clinical symptoms are given. PMID:6656171

  6. Social cues elicit sexual behavior in subordinate Damaraland mole-rats independent of gonadal status.

    PubMed

    Carter, Sara N; Goldman, Bruce D; Goldman, Sharry L; Freeman, David A

    2014-01-01

    Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis) are among a small number of eusocial mammals. Eusociality is a social system where only a few individuals within a colony engage in direct reproduction, while remaining subordinate members are non-breeders and support reproductive efforts of breeding individuals. Inbreeding avoidance precludes mating between subordinate siblings and between offspring and parents. Interestingly, non-breeders readily attempt to mate with unrelated opposite-sex individuals. This is unusual since the non-breeding females do not attain puberty while in their natal colony. Based on this finding, the present study investigated the role of the gonads in the regulation of mating behaviors in this species and identified the mechanism of inbreeding avoidance. Gonadal-intact and gonadectomized non-breeders from different colonies were removed from their colonies and tested for the expression of sexual behavior. Results indicated that gonadal status had only minor effects on the expression of sexual behavior in either males or females. In a second experiment, sexual behaviors were absent between opposite-sex siblings so long as they had frequent contact with each other; however, following 5 weeks of separation, sexual behavior between these siblings was robustly expressed. Thus, Damaraland mole-rats avoid establishing mating relationships with familiar individuals but will readily mate with unfamiliar individuals of the opposite sex, with genetic relatedness apparently playing little role. The initiation of sexual behavior in Damaraland mole-rats does not require the presence of the gonads, but does require that the members of the pair have not been in contact with one another for at least several weeks. PMID:24246377

  7. Brain nonapeptide and gonadal steroid responses to deprivation of heterosexual contact in the black molly

    PubMed Central

    Kulczykowska, Ewa; Kalamarz-Kubiak, Hanna; Nietrzeba, Marta; Gozdowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fish may respond to different social situations with changes in both physiology and behaviour. A unique feature of fish is that social interactions between males and females strongly affect the sexual characteristics of individuals. Here we provide the first insight into the endocrine background of two phenomena that occur in mono-sex groups of the black molly (Poecilia sphenops): masculinization in females and same-sex sexual behaviour, manifested by gonopodial displays towards same-sex tank mates and copulation attempts in males. In socially controlled situations, brain neurohormones impact phenotypic sex determination and sexual behaviour. Among these hormones are the nonapeptides arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT), counterparts of the well-known mammalian arginine vasopressin and oxytocin, respectively. To reveal potential hormone interactions, we measured the concentrations of bioactive AVT and IT in the brain, along with those of the sex steroids 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in the gonads, of females, masculinized females, males displaying same-sex sexual behaviour and those who did not. These data were supplemented by morphological and histological analyses of the gonads. Correlations between brain nonapeptides and gonadal steroids strongly suggest a cross talk between hormonal systems. In the black molly, the masculinization process was associated with the production of brain AVT and gonadal steroids, whereas same-sex sexual behaviour involves both brain nonapeptides, but neither of the sex steroids. This study extends current knowledge of endocrine control of phenotypic sex and sexual behaviour in fish and for the first time links brain nonapeptides with the occurrence of male-male sexual behaviour in lower vertebrates. PMID:25527645

  8. Trophic ecology of the sea urchin Spatangus purpureus elucidated from gonad fatty acids composition analysis.

    PubMed

    Barberá, C; Fernández-Jover, D; López Jiménez, J A; González Silvera, D; Hinz, H; Moranta, J

    2011-05-01

    Irregular sea urchins such as the spatangoid Spatangus purpureus are important bioturbators that contribute to natural biogenic disturbance and the functioning of biogeochemical cycles in soft sediments. In the coastal waters of the Balearic Islands S. purpureus occurs in soft red algal beds, and can reach high densities. The diet of S. purpureus is unknown and it is particularly difficult to analyze the stomach contents of this group; therefore, we analyzed the fatty acid (FA) composition of the gonads and potential food resources in order to assess the trophic relationships of this species. The FA profiles of the gonads of S. purpureus agree well with the FA composition of the potential trophic resources (algae and sediment) and reveals changes between localities with different available resources. Three polyunsaturated FAs mainly contributes in the composition in the S. purpureus gonads: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3) and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6), both abundant in the macroalgal material, and palmitoleic acid (C16:1n-7), which is characteristic of sediment samples. Trophic markers of bacterial input and carnivorous feeding were significantly more abundant in sea urchins caught on bottoms with less vegetation. The current study demonstrates that the FA content of S. purpureus gonads is a useful marker of diet, as differences in the profiles reflected the variations in detritus composition. The results of this study show that this species has omnivorous feeding behavior; however, viewed in conjunction with available abundance data the results suggest that phytodetritus found within algal beds is an important carbon source for this species. PMID:21334740

  9. Environmentally Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Altered SRY Genomic Binding During Gonadal Sex Determination

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Michael K.; Bhandari, Ramji K.; Haque, M. Muksitul; Nilsson, Eric E.

    2016-01-01

    A critical transcription factor required for mammalian male sex determination is SRY (sex determining region on the Y chromosome). The expression of SRY in precursor Sertoli cells is one of the initial events in testis development. The current study was designed to determine the impact of environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance on SRY binding during gonadal sex determination in the male. The agricultural fungicide vinclozolin and vehicle control (DMSO) exposed gestating females (F0 generation) during gonadal sex determination promoted the transgenerational inheritance of differential DNA methylation in sperm of the F3 generation (great grand-offspring). The fetal gonads in F3 generation males were used to identify potential alterations in SRY binding sites in the developing Sertoli cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with an SRY antibody followed by genome-wide promoter tiling array (ChIP-Chip) was used to identify alterations in SRY binding. A total of 81 adjacent oligonucleotide sites and 173 single oligo SRY binding sites were identified to be altered transgenerationally in the Sertoli cell vinclozolin lineage F3 generation males. Observations demonstrate the majority of the previously identified normal SRY binding sites were not altered and the altered SRY binding sites were novel and new additional sites. The chromosomal locations, gene associations and potentially modified cellular pathways were investigated. In summary, environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of germline epimutations appears to alter the cellular differentiation and development of the precursor Sertoli cell SRY binding during gonadal sex determination that influence the developmental origins of adult onset testis disease. PMID:27175298

  10. Global DNA Methylation Changes in Nile Tilapia Gonads during High Temperature-Induced Masculinization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Xue; Wang, Yi-Ya; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Hui; Li, Ning; Ji, Xiang Shan

    2016-01-01

    In some fish species, high or low temperature can switch the sex determination mechanisms and induce fish sex reversal when the gonads are undifferentiated. During this high or low temperature-induced sex reversal, the expressions of many genes are altered. However, genome-wide DNA methylation changes in fish gonads after high or low temperature treatment are unclear. Herein, we compared the global DNA methylation changes in the gonads from control females (CF), control males (CM), high temperature-treated females (TF), and high temperature-induced males (IM) from the F8 family of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. The DNA methylation level in CF was higher than that in CM for various chromosomes. Both females and males showed an increase in methylation levels on various chromosomes after high-temperature induction. We identified 64,438 (CF/CM), 63,437 (TF/IM), 98,675 (TF/CF), 235,270 (IM/CM) and 119,958 (IM/CF) differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in Nile tilapia gonads, representing approximately 0.70% (CF/CM), 0.69% (TF/IM), 1.07% (TF/CF), 2.56% (IM/CM), and 1.30% (IM/CF)of the length of the genome. A total of 89 and 65 genes that exhibited DMRs in their gene bodies and promoters were mapped to the Nile tilapia genome. Furthermore, more than half of the genes with DMRs in the gene body in CF/CM were also included in the IM/CM, TF/CF, TF/IM, and IM/CF groups. Additionally, many important pathways, including neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids were identified. This study provided an important foundation to investigate the molecular mechanism of high temperature-induced sex reversal in fish species. PMID:27486872

  11. The ecological and physiological bases of variation in the phenology of gonad growth in an urban and desert songbird.

    PubMed

    Davies, Scott; Lane, Samuel; Meddle, Simone L; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Deviche, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Birds often adjust to urban areas by advancing the timing (phenology) of vernal gonad growth. However, the ecological and physiological bases of this adjustment are unclear. We tested whether the habitat-related disparity in gonad growth phenology of male Abert's towhees, Melozone aberti, is due to greater food availability in urban areas of Phoenix, Arizona USA or, alternatively, a habitat-related difference in the phenology of key food types. To better understand the physiological mechanism underlying variation in gonad growth phenology, we compared the activity of the reproductive system at all levels of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. We found no habitat-associated difference in food availability (ground arthropod biomass), but, in contrast to the seasonal growth of leaves on desert trees, the leaf foliage of urban trees was already developed at the beginning of our study. Multiple estimates of energetic status did not significantly differ between the non-urban and urban towhees during three years that differed in the habitat-related disparity in gonad growth and winter precipitation levels. Thus, our results provide no support for the hypothesis that greater food abundance in urban areas of Phoenix drives the habitat-related disparity in gonad growth phenology in Abert's towhees. By contrast, they suggest that differences in the predictability and magnitude of change in food availability between urban and desert areas of Phoenix contribute to the observed habitat-related disparity in gonad growth. Endocrine responsiveness of the gonads may contribute to this phenomenon as desert - but not urban - towhees had a marked plasma testosterone response to GnRH challenge. PMID:26972152

  12. Late effects on gonadal function of cyclophosphamide, total-body irradiation, and marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, J.E.; Buckner, C.D.; Leonard, J.M.; Sullivan, K.M.; Witherspoon, R.P.; Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Thomas, E.D.

    1983-09-01

    One hundred thirty-seven patients had gonadal function evaluated 1-11 years after marrow transplantation. All 15 women less than age 26 and three of nine older than age 26 who were treated with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide recovered normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Five have had five pregnancies resulting in three live births, one spontaneous abortion, and one elective abortion. Three of 38 women who were prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1200 rad total-body irradiation had normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Two had pregnancies resulting in one spontaneous and one elective abortion. Of 31 men prepared with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, 30 had normal luteinizing hormone levels, 20 had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 10 of 15 had spermatogenesis. Four have fathered five normal children. Thirty-six of 41 men prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1750 rad total-body irradiation had normal luteinizing hormone levels, ten had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 2 of 32 studied had spermatogenesis. One has fathered two normal children. It was concluded that cyclophosphamide does not prevent return of normal gonadal function in younger women and in most men. Total-body irradiation prevents return of normal gonadal function in the majority of patients.

  13. Nutrient composition and antioxidant activity of gonads of sea urchin Stomopneustes variolaris.

    PubMed

    Archana, Ayyagari; Babu, K Ramesh

    2016-04-15

    The study investigated, for the first time, proximate nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of gonads from the sea urchin, Stomopneustes variolaris, inhabiting the coastal area of Visakhapatnam (India). Moisture, ash, proteins, lipids and carbohydrate content were 77.53%±0.80, 3.76%±0.25, 12.10%±0.41, 4.98%±0.36 and 1.63%±0.18, respectively, based on dry weight. The gonads were rich in essential amino acids (ca. 32.1% of total amino acids) with the most predominant being phenylalanine, lysine and valine. The essential to non-essential amino acid ratio was 0.5. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) constituted 22.01%±2.2 of total fatty acids. The ω6:ω3 ratio was 0.94. Total phenol content of the gonad was 9.90±0.01 mg GAE/g and the IC50 of the extract, using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, was 57.81 μg/ml. PMID:26616993

  14. An Unusual Presentation of 46,XY Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis: Spontaneous Breast Development and Menstruation.

    PubMed

    Çatlı, Gönül; Alparslan, Caner; Can, P Şule; Akbay, Sinem; Kelekçi, Sefa; Atik, Tahir; Özyılmaz, Berk; Dündar, Bumin N

    2015-06-01

    46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome) is characterized by normal female genitalia at birth. It usually first becomes apparent in adolescence with delayed puberty and amenorrhea. Rarely, patients can present with spontaneous breast development and/or menstruation. A fifteen-year-old girl presented to our clinic with the complaint of primary amenorrhea. On physical examination, her external genitals were completely female. Breast development and pubic hair were compatible with Tanner stage V. Hormonal evaluation revealed a hypergonadotropic state despite a normal estrogen level. Chromosome analysis revealed a 46,XY karyotype. Pelvic ultrasonography showed small gonads and a normal sized uterus for age. SRY gene expression was confirmed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Direct sequencing on genomic DNA did not reveal a mutation in the SRY, SF1 and WT1 genes. After the diagnosis of Swyer syndrome was made, the patient started to have spontaneous menstrual cycles and therefore failed to attend her follow-up visits. After nine months, the patient underwent diagnostic laparoscopy. Frozen examination of multiple biopsies from gonad tissues revealed gonadoblastoma. With this report, we emphasize the importance of performing karyotype analysis, which is diagnostic for Swyer syndrome, in all cases with primary or secondary amenorrhea even in the presence of normal breast development. We also suggest that normal pubertal development in patients with Swyer syndrome may be associated with the presence of a hormonally active tumor. PMID:26316442

  15. Male gonadal function in survivors of childhood Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ben Arush, M W; Solt, I; Lightman, A; Linn, S; Kuten, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of therapy on long-term gonadal function of young people cured of childhood lymphomas and to assess whether a prepubertal state during the treatment protects the gonads from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy late effects. Clinical evaluation, semen analysis, and endocrine status were studied in 20 survivors of childhood lymphomas. Five patients received Inverted Y radiotherapy, 2320 cGy (1550-4000); all 20 received chemotherapy as follows: MOPP/ABVD protocol, 9 patients; COMP protocol, 5 patients; MOPP protocol, 3 patients; other protocols, 3 patients. Semen analysis results were as follows: normal values, 4/20 patients; oligospermia, 8/20 patients; azoospermia, 8/20 patients; FSH above normal level, 10/20 patients; 4/5 who received Inverted Y irradiation were azoospermic and 1 was severely oligospermic. Treatment damage to the testis involves tubular germinal elements. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy combinations that included nitrogen mustard or cyclophosphamide were associated with high rates of oligospermia and azoospermia. MOPP/ABVD combination did not have a significant better outcome of sperm counts compared to MOPP alone. Age at chemotherapy did not correlate with the sperm count; hence a prepubertal state did not protect the gonad from the late effects of treatment. PMID:10779990

  16. Abnormal ovarian DNA methylation programming during gonad maturation in wild contaminated fish.

    PubMed

    Pierron, Fabien; Bureau du Colombier, Sarah; Moffett, Audrey; Caron, Antoine; Peluhet, Laurent; Daffe, Guillemine; Lambert, Patrick; Elie, Pierre; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Dufour, Sylvie; Couture, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie

    2014-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that pollutants may cause diseases via epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation participate in the regulation of gene transcription. Surprisingly, epigenetics research is still limited in ecotoxicology. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exposure to contaminants experienced by wild female fish (Anguilla anguilla) throughout their juvenile phase can affect the DNA methylation status of their oocytes during gonad maturation. Thus, fish were sampled in two locations presenting a low or a high contamination level. Then, fish were transferred to the laboratory and artificially matured. Before hormonal treatment, the DNA methylation levels of the genes encoding for the aromatase and the receptor of the follicle stimulating hormone were higher in contaminated fish than in fish from the clean site. For the hormone receptor, this hypermethylation was positively correlated with the contamination level of fish and was associated with a decrease in its transcription level. In addition, whereas gonad growth was associated with an increase in DNA methylation in fish from the clean site, no changes were observed in contaminated fish in response to hormonal treatment. Finally, a higher gonad growth was observed in fish from the reference site in comparison to contaminated fish. PMID:25203663

  17. Histopathological and biological studies of the effect of cadmium on Rhinella arenarum gonads.

    PubMed

    Medina, Marcela Fátima; Cosci, Aldo; Cisint, Susana; Crespo, Claudia A; Ramos, Inés; Iruzubieta Villagra, Ana L; Fernández, Silvia Nélida

    2012-12-01

    This study was to determine the lethal dose 50 (LD(50)) of CdCl(2) in adult Rhinella arenarum and analyzed the effect of two sublethal doses (0.5 and 5 mg/kg) of the xenobiotic in gonads. The 48 h LD(50) were 50.0 and 49.8 mg/kg for males and females respectively. Alterations in the ovary were evidenced by nuclear pleomorphism and cytoplasmic vacuolization of the oocytes at the early stages of development with the highest dose and an increase in the population of atretic oocytes. In the interstitial tissue we noticed congestion, edema and fibroblast proliferation. The nuclear maturation of the oocytes was affected by the xenobiotic in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In males, treatment with 5 mg/kg of cadmium (Cd) caused a decrease in the concentration, viability and straight progressive motility of sperm while there was an increase in immotile sperm. Testis histopathology revealed dilated seminiferous tubules, disappearance of cysts, tissue disorganization and leukocyte infiltration. Numerous germ cells showed hydropic tumefaction or signs of focal necrosis. The Cd content in animals intoxicated gonads with the highest sublethal dose was significantly higher than in the control. Results indicate that R. arenarum gonads are target for the xenobiotic, compromising the formation of gametes competent for fertilization, the effective CdCl(2) dose being 5 mg/kg. PMID:22998998

  18. Involvement of Antizyme Characterized from the Small Abalone Haliotis diversicolor in Gonadal Development

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Wen-Gang; Chen, Xiao; Shen, Ming-Hui; Li, Xiang-Min; Wang, Rong-Xia; Ke, Cai-Huan

    2015-01-01

    The small abalone Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important mollusk that is widely cultivated in Southern China. Gonad precocity may affect the aquaculture of small abalone. Polyamines, which are small cationic molecules essential for cellular proliferation, may affect gonadal development. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and antizyme (AZ) are essential elements of a feedback circuit that regulates cellular polyamines. This paper presents the molecular cloning and characterization of AZ from small abalone. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of H. diversicolor AZ (HdiODCAZ) consisted of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and conformed to the +1 frameshift property of the frame. Thin Layer chromatography (TLC) analysis suggested that the expressed protein encoded by +1 ORF2 was the functional AZ that targets ODC to 26S proteasome degradation. The result demonstrated that the expression level of AZ was higher than that of ODC in the ovary of small abalone. In addition, the expression profiles of ODC and AZ at the different development stages of the ovary indicated that these two genes might be involved in the gonadal development of small abalone. PMID:26313647

  19. Regulation of meiotic entry and gonadal sex differentiation in the human: normal and disrupted signaling.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Anne; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2014-08-01

    Meiosis is a unique type of cell division that is performed only by germ cells to form haploid gametes. The switch from mitosis to meiosis exhibits a distinct sex-specific difference in timing, with female germ cells entering meiosis during fetal development and male germ cells at puberty when spermatogenesis is initiated. During early fetal development, bipotential primordial germ cells migrate to the forming gonad where they remain sexually indifferent until the sex-specific differentiation of germ cells is initiated by cues from the somatic cells. This irreversible step in gonadal sex differentiation involves the initiation of meiosis in fetal ovaries and prevention of meiosis in the germ cells of fetal testes. During the last decade, major advances in the understanding of meiosis regulation have been accomplished, with the discovery of retinoic acid as an inducer of meiosis being the most prominent finding. Knowledge about the molecular mechanisms regulating meiosis signaling has mainly been established by studies in rodents, while this has not yet been extensively investigated in humans. In this review, the current knowledge about the regulation of meiosis signaling is summarized and placed in the context of fetal gonad development and germ cell differentiation, with emphasis on results obtained in humans. Furthermore, the consequences of dysregulated meiosis signaling in humans are briefly discussed in the context of selected pathologies, including testicular germ cell cancer and some forms of male infertility. PMID:25372763

  20. Toying with fate: Redirecting the differentiation of adrenocortical progenitor cells into gonadal-like tissue

    PubMed Central

    Röhrig, Theresa; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Ziegler, Ricarda; Cochran, Rebecca S.; Schrade, Anja; Schillebeeckx, Maximiliaan; Mitra, Robi D.; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Cell fate decisions are integral to zonation and remodeling of the adrenal cortex. Animal models exhibiting ectopic differentiation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal cortex can shed light on the molecular mechanisms regulating steroidogenic cell fate. In one such model, prepubertal gonadectomy (GDX) of mice triggers the formation of adrenocortical neoplasms that resemble luteinized ovarian stroma. Transcriptomic analysis and genome-wide DNA methylation mapping have identified genetic and epi-genetic markers of GDX-induced adrenocortical neoplasia. Members of the GATA transcription factor family have emerged as key regulators of cell fate in this model. Expression of Gata4 is pivotal for the accumulation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal glands of gonadectomized mice, whereas expression of Gata6 limits the spontaneous and GDX-induced differentiation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal cortex. Additionally, Gata6 is essential for proper development of the adrenal X-zone, a layer analogous to the fetal zone of the human adrenal cortex. The relevance of these observations to developmental signaling pathways in the adrenal cortex, to other animal models of altered adrenocortical cell fate, and to human diseases is discussed. PMID:25498963

  1. Effects of warm acclimation on physiology and gonad development in the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Natalí J; Sewell, Mary A

    2016-08-01

    The physiology of the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus was evaluated through feeding, respiration, growth and gonad growth in adult animals acclimated for 90days at 18°C (annual mean temperature) and 24°C (ambient summer temperature (21°C) +3°C). Measured parameters with representative rates of assimilation efficiency were used to calculate scope for growth (SfG) for each treatment. All physiological parameters were negatively affected at 24°C, showing a decrease in feeding rate which coincided with negative growth and gonad development at the end of the acclimation period, and a decrease in respiration rate suggesting metabolic depression. Histology of gonad samples after the acclimation period also showed no gametic material in animals acclimated at 24°C. All animals acclimated at 24°C had negative growth, differing from the calculated SfG which indicated that the animals had sufficient energy for production. The results suggest that calculated SfG in echinoderms should be used together with actual measurements of growth in individuals as, by itself, SfG may underestimate the actual effect of ocean warming when animals are exposed to stressful conditions. Overall, considering the total loss of reproductive output observed in E. chloroticus at higher temperatures, an increase in seawater temperature could dramatically influence the persistence of northern populations of this species, leading to flow-on effects in the subtidal ecosystem. PMID:27043875

  2. Gonadal Hormone Modulation of Mu, Kappa, and Delta Opioid Antinociception in Male and Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Stoffel, Erin C.; Ulibarri, Catherine M.; Folk, John E.; Rice, Kenner C.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that sex differences in morphine antinociception in rodents might be attributed to the activational effects of gonadal hormones. The present study determined whether hormonal modulation of opioid antinociception in adult rats extends to opioids other than the prototypic mu agonist morphine. Male and female rats were sham-gonadectomized (sham-GDX) or gonadectomized (GDX) and replaced with no hormone, estradiol (E2, females), progesterone (P4, females), E2+P4 (females), or testosterone (males). Approximately 28 days later, nociception was evaluated on the 50°C hot plate and warm water tail withdrawal tests before and after subcutaneous administration of hydromorphone, buprenorphine, U50,488, or SNC 80. In sham-GDX (gonadally intact) rats, the mu agonists and U50,488 were less effective in females than in males in at least one nociceptive test, and the delta agonist SNC 80 was less effective in males than in females. In males, gonadectomy tended to decrease, and testosterone tended to increase antinociception produced by 3 of the 4 agonists. In females, gonadectomy and hormone treatment had more variable effects, although E2 tended to decrease mu opioid antinociception. The present results suggest that activational effects of gonadal hormones are relatively modest and somewhat inconsistent on antinociception produced by various opioid agonists in the adult rat. Perspective: This study demonstrates that reproductive hormones such as testosterone in males and estradiol in females do not consistently modulate sensitivity to the analgesic effects of opioids in the adult organism. PMID:15820914

  3. Prey resources before spawning influence gonadal investment of female, but not male, white crappie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, D.B.; Thomas, S.E.; Stein, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, an outdoor pool experiment was used to evaluate the effect of prey resources during 4 months before spawning on the gonadal investments of male and female white crappie Pomoxis annularis, a popular freshwater sportfish that exhibits erratic recruitment. Fish were assigned one of three feeding treatments: starved, fed once every 5 days (intermediate) or fed daily (high). All measurements of male testes (i.e. wet mass, energy density and spermatocrit) were similar across treatments. Conversely, high-fed females produced larger ovaries than those of intermediate-fed and starved fish, and invested more energy in their ovaries than starved fish. Compared to pre-experiment fish, starved and intermediate-fed females appeared to increase their ovary size by relying on liver energy stores (‘capital’ spawning). Conversely, high-fed females increased liver and gonad mass, implying an ‘income’-spawning strategy (where gonads are built from recently acquired energy). Fecundity did not differ among treatments, but high-fed fish built larger eggs than those starved. Females rarely ‘skipped’ spawning opportunities when prey resources were low, as only 8% of starved females and 8% of intermediate-fed females lacked vitellogenic eggs. These results suggest that limited prey resources during the months before spawning can limit ovary production, which, in turn, can limit reproductive success of white crappies.

  4. Gonadotrophic cells and gonadal sex differentiation in medaka: Characterization of several northern and southern strains.

    PubMed

    Horie, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Tohru

    2015-07-01

    Gonadotropins play an important role in gametogenesis and reproduction in vertebrates. Their localization in the pituitary during gonadal sex differentiation has been studied mainly in southern (Oryzias latipes) strains of medaka fish, with that in northern medaka (O. sakaizumii) remaining poorly understood. Hence, in this study, we characterized gonadal differentiation and gonadotrophic cells during sex differentiation in two northern strains (HNI and Kaga) and two southern strains (Hd-rR and d-rR/Tokyo). All strains exhibited similar sex differentiation at hatching, such as (1) sex difference in germ cell number (XX > XY), and (2) the transition of XX germ cells into meiosis, and (3) presence of glycoprotein-α (Gpa)-positive cells. However, follicle-stimulating hormone-β (Fshb)-positive cells were first detected in the pituitary 1 day post-hatching in HNI. Exposure to high-temperature conditions and to cortisol in a dose dependent manner resulted in the localization of Fshb cells in the pituitary at hatching. This study demonstrates differences in gonadotropin subunit expression between northern and southern strains of medaka, and suggests that Fsh is not involved in early gonadal sex differentiation, such as the sex difference in germ cell number, and that high-temperature induce Fshb expression via cortisol production in medaka. PMID:25866156

  5. An Unusual Presentation of 46,XY Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis: Spontaneous Breast Development and Menstruation

    PubMed Central

    Çatlı, Gönül; Alparslan, Caner; Can, P. Şule; Akbay, Sinem; Kelekçi, Sefa; Atik, Tahir; Özyılmaz, Berk; Dündar, Bumin N.

    2015-01-01

    46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome) is characterized by normal female genitalia at birth. It usually first becomes apparent in adolescence with delayed puberty and amenorrhea. Rarely, patients can present with spontaneous breast development and/or menstruation. A fifteen-year-old girl presented to our clinic with the complaint of primary amenorrhea. On physical examination, her external genitals were completely female. Breast development and pubic hair were compatible with Tanner stage V. Hormonal evaluation revealed a hypergonadotropic state despite a normal estrogen level. Chromosome analysis revealed a 46,XY karyotype. Pelvic ultrasonography showed small gonads and a normal sized uterus for age. SRY gene expression was confirmed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Direct sequencing on genomic DNA did not reveal a mutation in the SRY, SF1 and WT1 genes. After the diagnosis of Swyer syndrome was made, the patient started to have spontaneous menstrual cycles and therefore failed to attend her follow-up visits. After nine months, the patient underwent diagnostic laparoscopy. Frozen examination of multiple biopsies from gonad tissues revealed gonadoblastoma. With this report, we emphasize the importance of performing karyotype analysis, which is diagnostic for Swyer syndrome, in all cases with primary or secondary amenorrhea even in the presence of normal breast development. We also suggest that normal pubertal development in patients with Swyer syndrome may be associated with the presence of a hormonally active tumor. PMID:26316442

  6. Sex, stress, and mood disorders: at the intersection of adrenal and gonadal hormones.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Guasti, A; Fiedler, J L; Herrera, L; Handa, R J

    2012-07-01

    The risk for neuropsychiatric illnesses has a strong sex bias, and for major depressive disorder (MDD), females show a more than 2-fold greater risk compared to males. Such mood disorders are commonly associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, sex differences in the incidence of MDD may be related with the levels of gonadal steroid hormone in adulthood or during early development as well as with the sex differences in HPA axis function. In rodents, organizational and activational effects of gonadal steroid hormones have been described for the regulation of HPA axis function and, if consistent with humans, this may underlie the increased risk of mood disorders in women. Other developmental factors, such as prenatal stress and prenatal overexposure to glucocorticoids can also impact behaviors and neuroendocrine responses to stress in adulthood and these effects are also reported to occur with sex differences. Similarly, in humans, the clinical benefits of antidepressants are associated with the normalization of the dysregulated HPA axis, and genetic polymorphisms have been found in some genes involved in controlling the stress response. This review examines some potential factors contributing to the sex difference in the risk of affective disorders with a focus on adrenal and gonadal hormones as potential modulators. Genetic and environmental factors that contribute to individual risk for affective disorders are also described. Ultimately, future treatment strategies for depression should consider all of these biological elements in their design. PMID:22581646

  7. Sex, Stress, and Mood Disorders: At the Intersection of Adrenal and Gonadal Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Guasti, A.; Fiedler, J. L.; Herrera, L.; Handa, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    The risk for neuropsychiatric illnesses has a strong sex bias, and for major depressive disorder (MDD), females show a more than 2-fold greater risk compared to males. Such mood disorders are commonly associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, sex differences in the incidence of MDD may be related with the levels of gonadal steroid hormone in adulthood or during early development as well as with the sex differences in HPA axis function. In rodents, organizational and activational effects of gonadal steroid hormones have been described for the regulation of HPA axis function and, if consistent with humans, this may underlie the increased risk of mood disorders in women. Other developmental factors, such as prenatal stress and prenatal overexposure to glucocorticoids can also impact behaviors and neuroendocrine responses to stress in adulthood and these effects are also reported to occur with sex differences. Similarly, in humans, the clinical benefits of antidepressants are associated with the normalization of the dysregulated HPA axis, and genetic polymorphisms have been found in some genes involved in controlling the stress response. This review examines some potential factors contributing to the sex difference in the risk of affective disorders with a focus on adrenal and gonadal hormones as potential modulators. Genetic and environmental factors that contribute to individual risk for affective disorders are also described. Ultimately, future treatment strategies for depression should consider all of these biological elements in their design. PMID:22581646

  8. Perfluorooctane sulfonate exposure causes gonadal developmental toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans through ROS-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoying; Li, Qingqing; Shi, Jue; Shi, Liulin; Li, Buqing; Xu, An; Zhao, Guoping; Wu, Lijun

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a common persistent organic pollutant, has been reported to show potential developmental toxicity in many animal studies. However, little was known about its effects on reproductive tissues, especially in the germ line. In the present study, Caenorhabditis elegans was used as an in vivo experimental model to study the developmental toxicity caused by PFOS exposure, especially in the gonads. Our results showed that PFOS exposure significantly retarded gonadal development, as shown by the increased number of worms that remained in the larval stages after hatched L1-stage larvae were exposed to PFOS for 72 h. Investigation of germ line proliferation following PFOS exposure showed that the number of total germ cells reduced in a dose-dependent manner when L1-stage larvae were exposed to 0-25.0 μM PFOS. PFOS exposure induced transient mitotic cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the germ line. Quantification of DNA damage in proliferating germ cells and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) showed that distinct foci of HUS-1:GFP and ROS significantly increased in the PFOS-treated groups, whereas the decrease in mitotic germ cell number and the enhanced apoptosis induced by PFOS exposure were effectively rescued upon addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and mannitol (MNT). These results suggested that ROS-induced DNA damage might play a pivotal role in the impairment of gonadal development indicated by the reduction in total germ cells, transient mitotic cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. PMID:27108369

  9. Evolutionary Changes in Sensitivity to Hormonally Induced Gonadal Sex Reversal in a Frog Species.

    PubMed

    Miura, Ikuo; Ohtani, Hiromi; Ogata, Mitsuaki; Ezaz, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese frog Glandirana rugosa is unique in that it shows geographic variation in sex chromosome differentiation and heterogametic sex determination. To elucidate the cause of interpopulation differences in gonadal sex differentiation, we investigated hormonally induced sex reversal and the expression patterns of genes associated with sex determination during early tadpole development. We found that sex reversal was easily induced in XX females and XY males of 2 forms (West-Japan and East-Japan) of G. rugosa with the ancestral homomorphic sex chromosomes under male heterogametic sex determination. During sex reversal, expression of CYP19 and/or FOXL2 was dependent on the phenotypic sex of the gonad. In contrast, sex reversal was not induced in ZW females of a population with a heteromorphic ZW sex chromosome system or in XX females or XY males in a population with a heteromorphic XY sex chromosome system. The latter 2 populations are evolutionarily derived forms. These results indicate an evolutionary direction for the gonadal sex differentiation mechanism. The original system was highly sensitive to sex hormones and allowed almost complete sex reversal. From this ancestral form, a new system evolved that was resistant to hormones and showed a change in the heterogametic sex and the sex chromosome differentiation mechanism. PMID:27160089

  10. Influence of gonadal hormones on odours emitted by male meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus).

    PubMed

    Ferkin, M H; Gorman, M R; Zucker, I

    1992-08-01

    Free-living male meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) emit odours that are attractive to females at the beginning, but not at the end, of the breeding season. The effect of gonadal hormones on female-attractant cues was examined in males born and reared in long (14 h light day-1) and short (10 h light day-1) photoperiods that simulate daylengths in the breeding and nonbreeding seasons, respectively. Gonadectomy affected the attractant properties of odours emitted by long photoperiod, but not short photoperiod, males. Long photoperiod females preferred odours of intact rather than those of gonadectomized long photoperiod males, and odours of gonadectomized long photoperiod males rather than those of intact short photoperiod males. Females did not show a preference between the odours of intact and castrated short photoperiod males. Gonadal hormone replacement in males affected female responses to the odours emitted by long photoperiod, but not short photoperiod, gonadectomized males. Long photoperiod females did not display a preference between odours of intact long photoperiod males and gonadectomized long photoperiod males treated with testosterone or oestradiol. We conclude that in spring and summer gonadal hormones increase attractiveness of male odours; this effect may require aromatization of testosterone to oestradiol. Substrates that control attractiveness of odour cues in male voles appear to be unresponsive to androgens during the nonbreeding season. PMID:1404090

  11. Gonadal disorder in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827) as a biomarker of environmental stress in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Tancioni, Lorenzo; Caprioli, Riccardo; Al-Khafaji, Ayad Hantoosh Dawood; Mancini, Laura; Boglione, Clara; Ciccotti, Eleonora; Cataudella, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada) as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas. PMID:25664693

  12. A case of 46, XY DSD presenting as a crossed ectopic gonad with a contralateral sliding inguinal hernia.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Shinji; Watanabe, Masato; Yoshino, Kaoru

    2012-12-01

    A three-month-old boy was referred to our facility for the treatment of a right impalpable testis, left inguinal hernia, and penoscrotal hypospadias with asymmetric external genitalia. The left gonad was palpated in the left scrotum. The chromosomal study revealed a normal male 46, XY karyotype. Operative findings showed that the right streak gonad, uterus, and fallopian tubes were in the wall of the left hernia sac, forming a sliding hernia. Laparoscopy confirmed that the right gonadal vessels had crossed to the left internal inguinal ring. Herniorrhaphy was done and the right streak gonad, uterus, and fallopian tubes were excised. An exploration of the left gonad revealed an ovotestis. The ovary was removed, and a left testicular biopsy was simultaneously performed. A one-stage hypospadias repair using Koyanagi procedure was also performed. The pathological findings showed an ovarian stroma in the right gonad and left ovary. Only Sertoli cells were detected in the biopsied specimen from the left testis. PMID:23217900

  13. Gonadal Disorder in the Thinlip Grey Mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827) as a Biomarker of Environmental Stress in Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Tancioni, Lorenzo; Caprioli, Riccardo; Dawood Al-Khafaji, Ayad Hantoosh; Mancini, Laura; Boglione, Clara; Ciccotti, Eleonora; Cataudella, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada) as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas. PMID:25664693

  14. Effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol at different water temperatures on zebrafish sex differentiation and gonad development.

    PubMed

    Luzio, Ana; Santos, Dércia; Fontaínhas-Fernandes, António A; Monteiro, Sandra M; Coimbra, Ana M

    2016-05-01

    In the current climate change scenario, studies combining effects of water contaminants with environmental parameters, such as temperature, are essential to predict potentially harmful impacts on aquatic organisms. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), sex determination seems to have a polygenic genetic basis, which can be secondarily influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of the EDC 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), a potent synthetic estrogen, on zebrafish sex differentiation and gonad development at different water temperatures. Therefore, zebrafish raised at three distinct water temperatures (23, 28 or 33±0.5°C), were exposed to 4ng/L of EE2, from 2hours to 60days post-fertilization (dpf). Subsequently, a quantitative (stereological) assessment of zebrafish gonads was performed, at 35 and 60dpf, to identify alterations on gonadal development and differentiation. The results show that low temperature delayed general growth of zebrafish, as well as gonad differentiation and maturation, while high temperature induced an opposite effect. Moreover, sex ratio was skewed toward males when zebrafish were exposed to the high temperature. In general, EE2 exposure promoted gonad maturation in both genders, independently of the temperature. However, at the high temperature condition, exposure to EE2 induced a delay in the male gonad development, with some individuals still showing differentiating gonads at 60dpf. The findings of this study support the notion that zebrafish has a genetic sex determination mechanism highly sensitive to environmental factors and show that it is essential to study the effects of water contaminants at different climate scenarios in order to understand potential future impacts on organisms. PMID:26897088

  15. Males and females gonad fatty acids of the sea urchins Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula (Echinodermata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Pita, Inés; García, Francisco J.; Pita, María-Luisa

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze male and female gonad fatty acids of two sea urchin species, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula, from the south coast of Spain. Additionally, we investigated possible differences between two locations. The ovaries of both species showed higher percentages of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3 and 18:4n-3 than testes and lower levels of 18:0, 22:1n-9, 20:4n-6 and 22:5n-3. In P. lividus but not in A. lixula, the level of 20:5n-3 was higher in testes than in ovaries. These differences between sexes probably indicate different requirements of males and females during gametogenesis although the presence of a large number of gametes in the mature gonad may also have influences on fatty acid composition. Significant differences in gonad fatty acid profiles where also found when individuals of P. lividus collected at a location of the Mediterranean region were compared with specimens collected at the Atlantic coast. The most remarkable changes were the lower levels of 14:0, 18:1n-7, 20:1n-9, 20:4n-6 and 22:4n-6 and the higher values of 20:1n-11, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 found in males and females of the Mediterranean specimens compared to those of the Atlantic coast. These differences probably reflect the differences in potential food sources at each location.

  16. Demasculinization and feminization of male gonads by atrazine: Consistent effects across vertebrate classes

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Tyrone B.; Anderson, Lloyd L.; Beasley, Val R.; de Solla, Shane R.; Iguchi, Taisen; Ingraham, Holly; Kestemont, Patrick; Kniewald, Jasna; Kniewald, Zlatko; Langlois, Valerie S.; Luque, Enrique H.; McCoy, Krista A.; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Oka, Tomohiro; Oliveira, Cleida A.; Orton, Frances; Ruby, Sylvia; Suzawa, Miyuki; Tavera-Mendoza, Luz E.; Trudeau, Vance L.; Victor-Costa, Anna Bolivar; Willingham, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant of ground water, surface water, and precipitation. Atrazine is also an endocrine disruptor that, among other effects, alters male reproductive tissues when animals are exposed during development. Here, we apply the nine so-called “Hill criteria” (Strength, Consistency, Specificity, Temporality, Biological Gradient, Plausibility, Coherence, Experiment, and Analogy) for establishing cause–effect relationships to examine the evidence for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes the gonads of male vertebrates. We present experimental evidence that the effects of atrazine on male development are consistent across all vertebrate classes examined and we present a state of the art summary of the mechanisms by which atrazine acts as an endocrine disruptor to produce these effects. Atrazine demasculinizes male gonads producing testicular lesions associated with reduced germ cell numbers in teleost fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, and induces partial and/or complete feminization in fish, amphibians, and reptiles. These effects are strong (statistically significant), consistent across vertebrate classes, and specific. Reductions in androgen levels and the induction of estrogen synthesis – demonstrated in fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals – represent plausible and coherent mechanisms that explain these effects. Biological gradients are observed in several of the cited studies, although threshold doses and patterns vary among species. Given that the effects on the male gonads described in all of these experimental studies occurred only after atrazine exposure, temporality is also met here. Thus the case for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes male vertebrates meets all nine of the “Hill criteria”. PMID:21419222

  17. SMARCE1 Promotes chicken embryonic gonad development by regulating ER α and AR expression.

    PubMed

    Gong, P; Yang, Y; Lei, W; Feng, Y; Li, S; Peng, X; Gong, Y

    2012-01-01

    SMARCE1 is one of some differentially expressed genes screened from a subtracted cDNA library between females and males during the period of sex differentiation. To understand the potential role of SMARCE1 in avian sex determination and differentiation, over-expression of SMARCE1 was performed in chicken embryos using the RCASBP.B retrovirus. Results showed that SMARCE1 expression was up-regulated in the infected embryonic gonads at the investigated stages (E6.5-E12.5) assessed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, whole mount in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. With the over-expression of SMARCE1, CYP19A1, FOXL2, ERα, and SOX9 expression was significantly up-regulated while AR expression was significantly decreased in the male and/or female chicken gonad. Nevertheless, DMRT1 and AMH expression was not changed after the over-expression of SMARCE1. It is proposed that it might be via the SMARCE1-FOXL2 pathway that CYP19A1 expression was activated, and DMRT1 expression may be independent of the SMARCE1-SOX9 pathway. Meanwhile, the SMARCE1-AR pathway might be antagonized by up-regulated expression of ERα via estrogen-ER/androgen-AR signaling. The results of HE staining showed that the ovarian cortex was thickened and both testis seminiferous cord and interstitial cells were increased with the over-expression of SMARCE1. In conclusion, SMARCE1 can promote chicken embryonic gonad development by regulating the ERα and AR expression. PMID:22584849

  18. Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

  19. Gonad morphology, oocyte development and spawning cycle of the calanoid copepod Acartia clausi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisfeld, Sonja M.; Niehoff, Barbara

    2007-09-01

    Information on gonad morphology and its relation to basic reproductive parameters such as clutch size and spawning frequency is lacking for Acartia clausi, a dominant calanoid copepod of the North Sea. To fill this gap, females of this species were sampled at Helgoland Roads from mid March to late May 2001. Gonad structure and oogenesis were studied using a combination of histology and whole-body-analysis. In addition, clutch size and spawning frequency were determined in incubation experiments, during which individual females were monitored at short intervals for 8 and 12 h, respectively. The histological analysis revealed that the ovary of A. clausi is w-shaped with two distinct tips pointing posteriorly. It is slightly different from that of other Acartia species and of other copepod taxa. From the ovary, two anterior diverticula extend into the head region, and two posterior diverticula extend to the genital opening in the abdomen. Developing oocytes change in shape and size, and in the appearance of the nucleus and the ooplasm. Based on these morphological characteristics, different oocyte development stages (OS) were identified. Mitotically dividing oogonia and young oocytes (OS 0) were restricted to the ovary, whereas vitellogenic oocytes (OS 1 4) were present in the diverticula. The development stage of the oocytes increased with distance to the ovary in both, anterior and posterior diverticula. Most advanced oocytes were situated ventrally, and their number varied between 1 and 18, at a median of 4. All oocyte development stages co-occur indicating that oogenesis in A. clausi is a continuous process. These morphological features reflect the reproductive traits of this species. In accordance with the low numbers of mature oocytes in the gonads, females usually produced small clutches of one to five eggs. Clutches were released throughout the entire observation period at intervals of 90 min (median) resulting in mean egg production rates of 18 28 eggs female

  20. Gonadal steroid hormone receptors and sex differences in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Handa, R J; Burgess, L H; Kerr, J E; O'Keefe, J A

    1994-12-01

    The rapid activation of stress-responsive neuroendocrine systems is a basic reaction of animals to perturbations in their environment. One well-established response is that of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In rats, corticosterone is the major adrenal steroid secreted and is released in direct response to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secreted from the anterior pituitary gland. ACTH in turn is regulated by the hypothalamic factor, corticotropin-releasing hormone. A sex difference exists in the response of the HPA axis to stress, with females reacting more robustly than males. It has been demonstrated that in both sexes, products of the HPA axis inhibit reproductive function. Conversely, the sex differences in HPA function are in part due to differences in the circulating gonadal steroid hormone milieu. It appears that testosterone can act to inhibit HPA function, whereas estrogen can enhance HPA function. One mechanism by which androgens and estrogens modulate stress responses is through the binding to their cognate receptors in the central nervous system. The distribution and regulation of androgen and estrogen receptors within the CNS suggest possible sites and mechanisms by which gonadal steroid hormones can influence stress responses. In the case of androgens, data suggest that the control of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus is mediated trans-synaptically. For estrogen, modulation of the HPA axis may be due to changes in glucocorticoid receptor-mediated negative feedback mechanisms. The results of a variety of studies suggest that gonadal steroid hormones, particularly testosterone, modulate HPA activity in an attempt to prevent the deleterious effects of HPA activation on reproductive function. PMID:7729815

  1. Subcutaneous and gonadal adipose tissue transcriptome differences in lean and obese female dogs.

    PubMed

    Grant, Ryan W; Vester Boler, Brittany M; Ridge, Tonya K; Graves, Thomas K; Swanson, Kelly S

    2013-12-01

    Canine obesity leads to shortened life span and increased disease incidence. Adipose tissue depots are known to have unique metabolic and gene expression profiles in rodents and humans, but few comparisons of depot gene expression have been performed in the dog. Using microarray technology, our objective was to identify differentially expressed genes and enriched functional pathways between subcutaneous and gonadal adipose of lean and obese dogs to better understand the pathogenesis of obesity in the dog. Because no depot × body weight status interactions were identified in the microarray data, depot differences were the primary focus. A total of 946 and 703 transcripts were differentially expressed (FDR P < 0.05) between gonadal and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese and lean dogs respectively. Of the adipose depot-specific differences in gene expression, 162 were present in both lean and obese dogs, with the majority (85%) expressed in the same direction. Both lean and obese dog gene lists had enrichment of the complement and coagulation cascade and systemic lupus erythematosus pathways. Obese dogs had enrichment of lysosome, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, renin-angiotensin system and hematopoietic cell lineage pathways. Lean dogs had enrichment of glutathione metabolism and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies. We have identified a core set of genes differentially expressed between subcutaneous and gonadal adipose tissue in dogs regardless of body weight. These genes contribute to depot-specific differences in immune function, extracellular matrix remodeling and lysosomal function and may contribute to the physiological differences noted between depots. PMID:23713485

  2. Analysis of protein expression in zebrafish during gonad differentiation by targeted proteomics.

    PubMed

    Groh, Ksenia J; Schönenberger, René; Eggen, Rik I L; Segner, Helmut; Suter, Marc J-F

    2013-11-01

    The molecular mechanisms governing sex determination and differentiation in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) are not fully understood. To gain more insights into the function of specific genes in these complex processes, the expression of multiple candidates needs to be assessed, preferably on the protein level. Here, we developed a targeted proteomics method based on selected reaction monitoring (SRM) to study the candidate sex-related proteins in zebrafish which were selected based on a global proteomics analysis of adult gonads and representational difference analysis of male and female DNA, as well as on published information on zebrafish and other vertebrates. We employed the developed SRM protocols to acquire time-resolved protein expression profiles during the gonad differentiation period in vas::EGFP transgenic zebrafish. Evidence on protein expression was obtained for the first time for several candidate genes previously studied only on the mRNA level or suggested by bioinformatic predictions. Tuba1b (tubulin alpha 1b), initially included in the study as one of the potential housekeeping proteins, was found to be preferentially expressed in the adult testis with nearly absent expression in the ovary. The revealed changes in protein expression patterns associated with gonad differentiation suggest that several of the examined proteins, especially Ilf2 and Ilf3 (interleukin enhancer-binding factors 2 and 3), Raldh3 (retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 3), Zgc:195027 (low density lipoprotein-related receptor protein 3) and Sept5a (septin 5a), may play a specific role in the sexual differentiation in zebrafish. PMID:23968773

  3. Dynamic regulation of alternative splicing and chromatin structure in Drosophila gonads revealed by RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Qiang; Chepelev, Iouri; Wei, Gang; Tarayrah, Lama; Cui, Kairong; Zhao, Keji; Chen, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Both transcription and post-transcriptional processes, such as alternative splicing, play crucial roles in controlling developmental programs in metazoans. Recently emerged RNA-seq method has brought our understandings of eukaryotic transcriptomes to a new level, because it can resolve both gene expression level and alternative splicing events simultaneously. To gain a better understanding of cellular differentiation in gonads, we analyzed mRNA profiles from Drosophila testes and ovaries using RNA-seq. We identified a set of genes that have sex-specific isoforms in wild-type (wt) gonads, including several transcription factors. We found that differentiation of sperms from undifferentiated germ cells induced a dramatic down-regulation of RNA splicing factors. Our data confirmed that RNA splicing events are significantly more frequent in the undifferentiated-cell enriched bag of marbles (bam) mutant testis, but down-regulated upon differentiation in wt testis. Consistent with this, we showed that genes required for meiosis and terminal differentiation in wt testis were mainly regulated at the transcriptional level, but not by alternative splicing. Unexpectedly, we observed an increase in expression of all families of chromatin remodeling factors and histone modifying enzymes in the undifferentiated cell-enriched bam testis. More interestingly, chromatin regulators and histone modifying enzymes with opposite enzymatic activities are co-enriched in undifferentiated cells in testis, suggesting these cells may possess dynamic chromatin architecture. Finally, our data revealed many new features of the Drosophila gonadal transcriptomes, and will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of how differential gene expression and splicing regulate gametogenesis in Drosophila. Our data provided a foundation for the systematic study of gene expression and alternative splicing in many interesting areas of germ cell biology in Drosophila, such as the molecular basis for sexual

  4. Detection of a parasitic amoeba (Order Dactylopodida) in the female gonads of oysters in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sühnel, Simone; Ivachuk, Celene da S; Schaefer, Ana L C; Pontinha, Vitor A; Martins, Maurício L; Figueras, Antonio; Meyer, Gary R; Jones, Simon R M; Stewart, Johnson C; Gurney-Smith, Helen J; Magalhães, Aimê R M; Bower, Susan M

    2014-07-01

    The impacts of oocyte parasites on the reproductive success of molluscs are largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the presence of gonad parasites in 6 species of marine bivalve molluscs native to southern Brazil. Cultured bivalves included the mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar (sometimes called C. brasiliana), the brown mussel Perna perna, the lion's paw scallop Nodipecten nodosus and the wing pearl oyster Pteria hirundo. Another species of mangrove oyster, C. rhizophorae, and the carib pointed venus clam Anomalocardia brasiliana (syn. A. flexuosa) were collected from the wild. Molluscs were collected in winter 2009 and summer 2010 for histopathological and molecular evaluation. An unknown ovarian parasite (UOP) was observed in histopathological sections of female gonads of C. gasar and C. rhizophorae. The UOP possessed features suggestive of amoebae, including an irregular outer membrane, frothy cytoplasm, a nucleus with a prominent central nucleolus and a closely associated basophilic parasome. PCR analysis was negative for Marteilioides chungmuensis, Perkinsus spp. and Paramoeba perurans. However, real-time PCR successfully amplified DNA from oyster gonads when using universal Paramoeba spp. primers. Also, conventional PCR amplified DNA using primers specific for Perkinsela amoebae-like organisms (syn. Perkinsiella), which are considered as endosymbionts of Parameoba spp., previously thought to be the parasome. Our results suggest that this UOP is a species of amoeba belonging to 1 of the 2 families of the order Dactylopodida, possibly related to Paramoeba spp. This study represents the first report of this type of organism in oysters. We found that C. gasar and C. rhizophorae were the most susceptible molluscs to these UOPs. PMID:24991850

  5. Ontogenic and morphological study of gonadal formation in genetically-modified sex reversal XYPOS mice

    PubMed Central

    UMEMURA, Yuria; MIYAMOTO, Ryosuke; HASHIMOTO, Rie; KINOSHITA, Kyoko; OMOTEHARA, Takuya; NAGAHARA, Daichi; HIRANO, Tetsushi; KUBOTA, Naoto; MINAMI, Kiichi; YANAI, Shogo; MASUDA, Natsumi; YUASA, Hideto; MANTANI, Youhei; MATSUO, Eiko; YOKOYAMA, Toshifumi; KITAGAWA, Hiroshi; HOSHI, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian sexual fate is determined by the presence or absence of sex determining region of the Y chromosome (Sry) in the “bipotential” gonads. Recent studies have demonstrated that both male and female sexual development are induced by distinct and active genetic pathways. Breeding the Y chromosome from Mus m. domesticus poschiavinus (POS) strains into C57BL/6J (B6J) mice (B6J-XYPOS) has been shown to induce sex reversal (75%: bilateral ovary, 25%: true hermaphrodites). However, our B6N-XYPOS mice, which were generated by backcrossing of B6J-XYPOS on an inbred B6N-XX, develop as males (36%: bilateral testis with fertility as well as bilateral ovary (34%), and the remainder develop as true hermaphrodites. Here, we investigated in detail the expressions of essential sex-related genes and histological features in B6N-XYPOS mice from the fetal period to adulthood. The onsets of both Sry and SRY-box 9 (Sox9) expressions as determined spatiotemporally by whole-mount immunohistochemistry in the B6N-XYPOS gonads occurred 2–3 tail somites later than those in B6N-XYB6 gonads, but earlier than those in B6J-XYPOS, respectively. It is possible that such a small difference in timing of the Sry expression underlies testicular development in our B6N-XYPOS. Our study is the first to histologically show the expression and ectopic localization of a female-related gene in the XYPOS testes and a male-related gene in the XYPOS ovaries. The results from these and previous experiments indicate that the interplay between genome variants, epigenetics and developmental gene regulation is crucial for testis development. PMID:26194606

  6. Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Colin-Flores, Rafael Francisco; Rosas, Carlos

    2009-02-01

    Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya is described in terms of histological, morphometric, oocytes growth, and somatic-oocyte relationship data obtained from octopus cultured at the UMDI-UNAM, in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico. This study is the first publication on gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya. A total of 83 O. maya specimens were used; their sizes ranged from 6.5 to 76 mm of total length (TL), 4 to 28 mm of dorsal mantle length (DML), 2.5 to 20 mm of ventral mantle length (VML), and 0.0180 to 7.2940 g of fixed body weight (fBW). Animals were weighed and measured only after preservation. A loss of 10% of living weight was estimated for juvenile octopuses after formalin preservation. The relation of length to weight (VML, DML, TL/fBW) pooled for both sexes had a strong positive correlation (r), as shown by a potential power function that was quite close to 1. Compound images were produced from numerous microscopic fields. The histological examination revealed that, 4 months after hatching, male octopus (24.5 mm DML and 7.2940 g fBW) were in gonad stages 2 (maturing) to 3 (mature), with spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the tubule wall and abundant spermatids and spermatozoa in the central lumen of the seminiferous tubules, suggesting the occurrence of different phases of gonad development at different maturity stages. In contrast, females (22.5 mm DML and 4.8210 g fBW) at the same time since hatching were immature (stage 1), with many oogonia, few oocytes, and germinal epithelium. This suggests that males reach maturity earlier than females, indicating a probable onset of maturity for males at around 4 months of culture or 8 g of wet body weight. Our results indicate the possibility that the size-at-weight can be recognized early with a degree of certainty that allows the sexes to be separated for culture purposes; but more detailed studies on reproduction in relation to endocrinology and nutrition are needed. PMID:19218496

  7. Tilapia larvae Aroclor 1254 exposure: effects on gonads and circulating thyroid hormones during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, A M; Reis-Henriques, M A

    2007-11-01

    Aroclor 1254 a polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) mixture, when administrated through the diet, was previously found to inhibit adult tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reproduction. Since fish larvae can be more sensitive to contaminants, the objectives of this study were to evaluate in adults the impact in gonad development and in thyroid function of Aroclor 1254 administrated at larvae stages. Aroclor 1254 exposed tilapia presented both ovary and testicular alterations and a decline in T4 plasma concentration while T3 remained unaltered. This work shows exposure to Aroclor 1254 during tilapia early life stages causes a disruption of the reproductive axis that enables reproduction. PMID:17943219

  8. Gonadal function after 12-Gy testicular irradiation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, L.A.; Craft, A.W.; Kernahan, J.; Evans, R.G.; Aynsley-Green, A. )

    1990-01-01

    Gonadal function was assessed in 15 boys with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who had received testicular irradiation. The dose to the testes was 12 Gy in 12, 15 Gy in 1, and 24 Gy in 2 cases. All of those who had received 12 or 15 Gy had normal Leydig cell function, although high levels of gonadotropins suggest subclinical Leydig cell damage. The 2 who had 24 Gy had Leydig cell failure. All who were old enough to produce a semen specimen were azoospermic.

  9. Influence of male gonadal hormones and familiarity on pregnancy interruption in prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Smale, L

    1988-08-01

    Pregnancy interruption (PI) was examined in female prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster, exposed to stimuli from males 7 to 12 days after pairing. Urine from unfamiliar males interrupted pregnancy when placed directly on the external nares of newly mated females, but urine from familiar stud males was without effect. Castration of males did not reduce the efficacy of unfamiliar male urine in interrupting pregnancy. The neuroendocrine system of female prairie voles responded selectively to male urine as a function of its familiarity; the efficacy of male stimuli leading to PI was not dependent on gonadal hormones. PMID:3061485

  10. Schistosome sex matters: a deep view into gonad-specific and pairing-dependent transcriptomes reveals a complex gender interplay

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhigang; Sessler, Florian; Holroyd, Nancy; Hahnel, Steffen; Quack, Thomas; Berriman, Matthew; Grevelding, Christoph G.

    2016-01-01

    As a key event for maintaining life cycles, reproduction is a central part of platyhelminth biology. In case of parasitic platyhelminths, reproductive processes can also contribute to pathology. One representative example is the trematode Schistosoma, which causes schistosomiasis, an infectious disease, whose pathology is associated with egg production. Among the outstanding features of schistosomes is their dioecious lifestyle and the pairing-dependent differentiation of the female gonads which finally leads to egg synthesis. To analyze the reproductive biology of Schistosoma mansoni in-depth we isolated complete ovaries and testes from paired and unpaired schistosomes for comparative RNA-seq analyses. Of >7,000 transcripts found in the gonads, 243 (testes) and 3,600 (ovaries) occurred pairing-dependently. Besides the detection of genes transcribed preferentially or specifically in the gonads of both genders, we uncovered pairing-induced processes within the gonads including stem cell-associated and neural functions. Comparisons to work on neuropeptidergic signaling in planarian showed interesting parallels but also remarkable differences and highlights the importance of the nervous system for flatworm gonad differentiation. Finally, we postulated first functional hints for 235 hypothetical genes. Together, these results elucidate key aspects of flatworm reproductive biology and will be relevant for basic as well as applied, exploitable research aspects. PMID:27499125

  11. Schistosome sex matters: a deep view into gonad-specific and pairing-dependent transcriptomes reveals a complex gender interplay.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhigang; Sessler, Florian; Holroyd, Nancy; Hahnel, Steffen; Quack, Thomas; Berriman, Matthew; Grevelding, Christoph G

    2016-01-01

    As a key event for maintaining life cycles, reproduction is a central part of platyhelminth biology. In case of parasitic platyhelminths, reproductive processes can also contribute to pathology. One representative example is the trematode Schistosoma, which causes schistosomiasis, an infectious disease, whose pathology is associated with egg production. Among the outstanding features of schistosomes is their dioecious lifestyle and the pairing-dependent differentiation of the female gonads which finally leads to egg synthesis. To analyze the reproductive biology of Schistosoma mansoni in-depth we isolated complete ovaries and testes from paired and unpaired schistosomes for comparative RNA-seq analyses. Of >7,000 transcripts found in the gonads, 243 (testes) and 3,600 (ovaries) occurred pairing-dependently. Besides the detection of genes transcribed preferentially or specifically in the gonads of both genders, we uncovered pairing-induced processes within the gonads including stem cell-associated and neural functions. Comparisons to work on neuropeptidergic signaling in planarian showed interesting parallels but also remarkable differences and highlights the importance of the nervous system for flatworm gonad differentiation. Finally, we postulated first functional hints for 235 hypothetical genes. Together, these results elucidate key aspects of flatworm reproductive biology and will be relevant for basic as well as applied, exploitable research aspects. PMID:27499125

  12. Sex and stress steroids in adolescence: Gonadal regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Green, Matthew R; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2016-08-01

    This review provides an overview of the current understanding of the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stressors. HPA function is influenced by both organizational (programming) and activational effects of gonadal hormones. Typically, in adult rats, estradiol increases and androgens decrease the HPA response to stressors, thereby contributing to sex differences in HPA function, and sensitivity of the HPA axis to gonadal steroids is in part determined by exposure to these hormones in early development. Although developmental differences in HPA function are well characterized, the extent to which gonadal steroids contribute to age differences in HPA function is not well understood. Deficits in the understanding of the relationships between the HPA and HPG axes are greatest for the adolescent period of development. The critical outstanding questions are, when do gonadal hormones begin to regulate HPA function in adolescence, and what mechanisms precipitate change in sensitivity of the HPA axis to the HPG axis at this stage of life. PMID:26851306

  13. Identification of gonadal soma-derived factor involvement in Monopterus albus (protogynous rice field eel) sex change.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yefei; Wang, Chunlei; Chen, Xiaowu; Guan, Guijun

    2016-07-01

    We studied molecular events and potential mechanisms underlying the process of female-to-male sex transformation in the rice field eel (Monopterus albus), a protogynous hermaphrodite fish in which the gonad is initially a female ovary and transforms into male testes. We cloned and identified a novel gonadal soma derived factor (GSDF), which encodes a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. gsdf expression was measured in gonads of female, intersex and male with reverse transcription-PCR and gsdf's role in sex transformation was studied with qPCR, histological analysis and dual-color in situ hybridization assays and compared to other sex-related genes. gsdf was correlated to Sertoli cell differentiation, indicating involvement in testicular differentiation and sex transformation from female to male in this species. A unique expression pattern reveals a potential role of gsdf essential for the sex transformation of rice field eels. PMID:27230579

  14. Biosynthesis of 3 beta-hydroxy-5,7-pregnadien-20-one by the horse fetal gonad.

    PubMed

    Tait, A D; Hodge, L C; Allen, W R

    1983-03-01

    The production of equilin and the other ring B-unsaturated estrogens by the pregnant mare is anomalous in that they are biosynthesised by a cholesterol-independent pathway. Fetal horse gonads were incubated with tritiated sodium acetate and radiochemically pure 3 beta-hydroxy-5,7-pregnadien-20-one and 3 beta-hydroxy-5,7-androstadien-17-one were isolated. A fetal gonad--placental system is proposed for equilin production, 3 beta-hydroxy-5,7-pregnadien-20-one being a precursor for 3 beta-hydroxy-5,7-androstadien-17-one in the fetal gonad and the latter being the precursor of equilin in the placenta. The nature of the possible precursor of 3 beta-hydroxy-5,7-pregnadien-20-one is discussed. PMID:6219005

  15. A case of swyer syndrome associated with advanced gonadal dysgerminoma involving long survival.

    PubMed

    Da Silva Rios, Salete; Monteiro, Isabella Christina Mazzaro; Braz Dos Santos, Larissa Gonçalves; Caldas, Natasha Garcia; Chen, Ana Carolina Rios; Chen, Juliana Rios; Silva, Helena Spindola Camargo

    2015-01-01

    Swyer syndrome is caused by abnormal sex differentiation during the embryonic period, resulting in incomplete intrauterine masculinization and undifferentiated gonads. The current case report describes a patient with Swyer syndrome associated with stage 3 gonadal dysgerminoma who has survived for 23 years. At age 18, this patient sought assistance for primary amenorrhea from the Gynecological Services Department of the University of Brasília Hospital. A physical examination revealed that the patient was at Tanner stage 4 with respect to axillary hair, breasts, and pubic hair; she presented with a eutrophic vagina and a small cervix. She was treated with a combination of estrogens and progestogens to induce cycling. Approximately 4 years later, a complex tumor was found and resected; a histopathological analysis revealed that this tumor was a right adnexal dysgerminoma with peritoneal affection. The patient was also subjected to chemotherapy. Her follow-up has continued to the present time, with no signs of tumor recurrence. In conclusion, this report describes an extremely rare case in which Swyer syndrome was associated with ovarian dysgerminoma; relative to similar patients, the described patient has survived for an unusually prolonged time. PMID:25960730

  16. Morphometics and Gonadal Development of the Hagfish Eptatretus cirrhatus in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Frederic H.; Beulig, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Hagfishes have been the target of commercial fisheries in many areas of the world, with the catch processed for leather and for human consumption. A fishery has been operating in New Zealand waters for the last six years, harvesting the bearded hagfish, Eptatretus cirrhatus. The fishery has thus far been unregulated. Based on samples collected dockside over a two-year period, this report expands the morphometric database for this species, provides information on the size and weight of the harvested animals, determines the sizes at the onset of gonadal development and the minimum sizes at sexual maturation for males and females, and indicates that E. cirrhatus, like most other hagfish species, has no specific breeding season. Although females appear in the population at smaller sizes, the sex ratio for mature animals is 1:1 and the sizes of the largest males and females are comparable. The changes observed in sex ratio as a function of TL suggest differences in the timing and rates of gonadal development in females versus males rather than protogyny. Based on the size of the eggs, the number of eggs per female, the proportion of the population that contains large eggs, and the number of postovulatory females, it is clear that E. cirrhatus, like other hagfish species, are potentially vulnerable to overexploitation. PMID:24250811

  17. A mutation in the nucleoporin-107 gene causes XX gonadal dysgenesis

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg-Shukron, Ariella; Renbaum, Paul; Kalifa, Rachel; Zeligson, Sharon; Ben-Neriah, Ziva; Dreifuss, Amatzia; Abu-Rayyan, Amal; Maatuk, Noa; Fardian, Nilly; Rekler, Dina; Kanaan, Moien; Samson, Abraham O.; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Gerlitz, Offer; Zangen, David

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian development and maintenance are poorly understood; however, diseases that affect these processes can offer insights into the underlying mechanisms. XX female gonadal dysgenesis (XX-GD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by underdeveloped, dysfunctional ovaries, with subsequent lack of spontaneous pubertal development, primary amenorrhea, uterine hypoplasia, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Here, we report an extended consanguineous family of Palestinian origin, in which 4 females exhibited XX-GD. Using homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing, we identified a recessive missense mutation in nucleoporin-107 (NUP107, c.1339G>A, p.D447N). This mutation segregated with the XX-GD phenotype and was not present in available databases or in 150 healthy ethnically matched controls. NUP107 is a component of the nuclear pore complex, and the NUP107-associated protein SEH1 is required for oogenesis in Drosophila. In Drosophila, Nup107 knockdown in somatic gonadal cells resulted in female sterility, whereas males were fully fertile. Transgenic rescue of Drosophila females bearing the Nup107D364N mutation, which corresponds to the human NUP107 (p.D447N), resulted in almost complete sterility, with a marked reduction in progeny, morphologically aberrant eggshells, and disintegrating egg chambers, indicating defective oogenesis. These results indicate a pivotal role for NUP107 in ovarian development and suggest that nucleoporin defects may play a role in milder and more common conditions such as premature ovarian failure. PMID:26485283

  18. Exogenous Testosterone, Aging, and Changes in Behavioral Response of Gonadally Intact Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Onaolapo, Olakunle J.; Onaolapo, Adejoke Y.; Omololu, Tope A.; Oludimu, Adedunke T.; Segun-Busari, Toluwalase; Omoleke, Taofeeq

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that aging significantly affects the influence of exogenous testosterone on neurobehavior in gonadally intact male mice. Groups of prepubertal and aged male mice received daily vehicle or testosterone propionate (TP; 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg intraperitoneal [i.p.]) for 21 days. Behaviors were assessed on days 1 and 21. Weight gain was significant in prepubertal mice. Locomotion and rearing increased in prepubertal mice after first dose and decreased after last dose of TP. Rearing was suppressed in aged mice throughout. Suppression of grooming occurred in both age groups at day 21. Significant increase in working memory in both age groups was seen in the radial-arm maze (at specific doses) and in prepubertal mice in the Y-maze. Elevated plus maze test showed mixed anxiolytic/anxiogenic effects. Aged mice had higher serum testosterone. In conclusion, age is an important determinant for the influence of exogenous testosterone on behavior in gonadally intact male mice. PMID:27158222

  19. Gonadal expression of Foxo1, but not Foxo3, is conserved in diverse Mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Tarnawa, Edward D; Baker, Michael D; Aloisio, Gina M; Carr, Bruce R; Castrillon, Diego H

    2013-04-01

    The Foxos are key effectors of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and regulate diverse physiologic processes. Two of these factors, Foxo1 and Foxo3, serve specific roles in reproduction in the mouse. Foxo3 is required for suppression of primordial follicle activation in females, while Foxo1 regulates spermatogonial stem cell maintenance in males. In the mouse ovary, Foxo1 is highly expressed in somatic cells (but not in oocytes), suggesting an important functional role for Foxo1 in these cells. Given that invertebrate model species such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster harbor a single ancestral Foxo homolog, these observations suggest that gene duplication conferred a selective advantage by permitting the Foxos to adopt distinct roles in oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Our objective was to determine if the remarkably specific expression patterns of Foxo1 and Foxo3 in mouse gonads (and, by inference, Foxo function) are conserved in diverse mammalian species. Western blotting was used to validate isoform-specific antibodies in rodents, companion animals, farm animals, nonhuman primates, and humans. Following validation of each antibody, immunohistochemistry was performed to ascertain Foxo1 and Foxo3 gonadal expression patterns. While Foxo1 expression in spermatogonia and granulosa cells was conserved in each species evaluated, Foxo3 expression in oocytes was not. Our findings suggest that Foxo3 is not uniquely required for primordial follicle maintenance in nonrodent species and that other Foxos, particularly Foxo1, may contribute to oocyte maintenance in a functionally redundant manner. PMID:23486915

  20. Stroke sensitivity in the aged: sex chromosome complement vs. gonadal hormones

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Louise D.; Mirza, Mehwish A.; Xu, Yan; Bentivegna, Kathryn; Steffens, Eleanor B.; Ritzel, Rodney; Liu, Fudong

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a sexually dimorphic disease. Elderly women not only have higher stroke incidence than age-matched men, but also have poorer recovery and higher morbidity and mortality after stroke. In older, post-menopausal women, gonadal hormone levels are similar to that of men. This suggests that tissue damage and functional outcomes are influenced by biologic sex (XX vs. XY) rather than the hormonal milieu at older ages. We employed the Four Core Genotype (FCG) mouse model to study the contribution of sex chromosome complement and gonadal hormones to stroke sensitivity in aged mice in which the testis determining gene (Sry) is removed from the Y chromosome, allowing for the generation of XX males and XY females. XXF, XXM, XYF, XYM and XYwt aged mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). XXF and XXM mice had significantly larger infarct volumes than XYF and XYM cohorts respectively. There was no significant difference in hormone levels among aged FCG mice. XXF/XXM mice also had more robust microglial activation and higher serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines than XYF/XYM cohort respectively. We concluded that the sex chromosome complement contributes to ischemic sensitivity in aged animals and leads to sex differences in innate immune responses. PMID:27405096

  1. Vitamin D and gonadal function in men: a potential inverse U-shaped association?

    PubMed

    Karras, S; Anagnostis, P; Kotsa, K; Goulis, D G

    2016-05-01

    Accumulating evidence from animal and human studies suggests that vitamin D, apart from its regulatory effects on musculoskeletal health, is involved in reproductive function in both genders. The basis of the interplay between vitamin D and reproduction lays on the presence of both vitamin D receptor (VDR) and 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) enzyme in reproductive organs. In males, VDR are present in testis, epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicles. In Sertoli cells, whose secretory activities are ion channel-dependent, vitamin D has been shown to stimulate calcium uptake through a nuclear receptor activity. Epidemiological studies support a positive association between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and sperm motility in both fertile and infertile men In addition, large multi-center, cross-sectional studies from Europe and USA have shown positive, linear association between 25(OH)D and androgen concentrations. On the contrary, there are studies that support an inverse U-shaped association, that is, men with both low and high 25(OH)D concentrations demonstrate poorer gonadal function compared with those with intermediate concentrations. Given the rapid increase in over-the-counter use of vitamin D supplements by men that anticipate advantageous health outcomes, the aim of the present commentary is to provide an overview of the studies that present either U-shaped or linear association between 25(OH)D concentrations and male gonadal function. PMID:26991835

  2. Sexual Precocity--Genetic Bases of Central Precocious Puberty and Autonomous Gonadal Activation.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Delanie Bulcão; Silveira, Letícia Ferreira Gontijo; Bessa, Danielle Souza; Brito, Vinicius Nahime; Latronico, Ana Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Precocious puberty has been classically defined as the onset of sexual secondary characteristics in girls younger than 8 years and in boys younger than 9 years. The discovery of potential factors which trigger human puberty is one of the central mysteries of reproductive biology. Several approaches, including mutational analysis of candidate genes, large-scale genome-wide association studies, and (more recently) whole-exome sequencing, have been performed in attempt to identify novel genetic factors that modulate the human hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in premature sexual development. In the last two decades, it has been well established that autonomous gonadal activation can be caused by somatic (GNAS) or germline (LHCGR)-activating mutations of genes that encode essential elements for signal transduction of G protein-coupled receptors, resulting in peripheral precocious puberty in McCune-Albright syndrome and testotoxicosis, respectively. More recently, dominant activating and inactivating mutations of excitatory (KISS1/KISS1R) and inhibitory (MKRN3) modulators of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion, respectively, were associated with central precocious puberty phenotype. Indeed, loss-of-function mutations of MKRN3, a maternal imprinted gene located at chromosome 15q, currently represent a frequent cause of central precocious puberty diagnosed in families from distinct geographic origins. Here, we review the known genetic defects in central and peripheral precocious puberty. PMID:26680572

  3. Devicyprin induced gonadal impairment in a freshwater food fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rajesh K; Yadav, Kamlesh K; Trivedi, Sunil P

    2008-03-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids are the recent major class of broad spectrum, photostable, organic insecticides used in agricultural, domestic and veterinary applications and now account for more than 30% of global insecticide use. Cypermethrin is metabolized and eliminated significantly more slowly by fish than by mammals or birds, which may explain this compound's high toxicity in fish compared to other organisms. The present communication deals with histoanatomical alterations in the gonads of a local fresh water food fish, Channa punctatus exposed to 0.033 ppm (96 hr LC50 X 1/10) concentration of a synthetic pyrethroid, devicyprin (cypermethrin 25%) in aquatic medium of aged tap water for 15, 30 and 45 days respectively. In testis, exposure dependent histological damage has been observed in terms of vacuolization, condensation of spermatogonic cells, distortion of tubular epithelium, shrinkage of interstitial cells and general inflammatory responses. Longest exposure of 45 days has resulted in peculiar starry-sky appearance of the testicular tissue. Gross histo-anatomy of ovarian tissue reveals epithelial lesions, inflammatory responses, stromal hemorrhage, increased interstitium and shrinkage of yolk vesicles towards periphery These findings are quite suggestive of reproductive impairments leading to delayed gonadal maturity and adversely affecting processes of sperm production and ovulation and thus, the fish production. PMID:18831372

  4. Gonadal Hormones and Voluntary Exercise Interact to Improve Discrimination Ability in a Set-Shift Task

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Rifken, Katharine M.; Toufexis, Donna J.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has been demonstrated to improve multiple facets of health, including cognitive function. Rodent studies have suggested that exercise has robust effects on the hippocampus, and on tasks that require the hippocampus. However, studies of the effects of exercise in humans often focus on the benefits to cognitive processes that engage areas outside of the hippocampus, such as executive function. Additionally, when exercise’s cognitive benefits are examined, consideration of both males and females, and gonadal hormones, is rarely made. Here we looked at the interaction of gonadal hormones and exercise in terms of the ability of male and female rats to learn to discriminate rewarded from unrewarded arms in a T-maze based on either brightness (white vs. black) or texture (rough vs. smooth), and then to set-shift (a measure of executive function), where this required discrimination based on the opposite dimension. Gonadectomized or intact males and females had access to running wheels for two weeks before being tested. Intact males and females given access to unlocked running wheels performed better at the initial discrimination (Set 1) compared to intact males and females with locked running wheels, but not at the set-shift (Set 2). No advantage of exercise was observed in gonadectomized rats. PMID:23978149

  5. Brain Hypoactivation, Autonomic Nervous System Dysregulation, and Gonadal Hormones in Depression: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Holsen, Laura M.; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Spaeth, Sarah B.; Ogden, Lauren A.; Klibanski, Anne; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Sloan, Richard P.; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2012-01-01

    The comorbidity of major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is among the 10th leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Thus, understanding the co-occurrence of these disorders will have major public health significance. MDD is associated with an abnormal stress response, manifested in brain circuitry deficits, gonadal dysfunction, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation. Contribution of the relationships between these systems to the pathophysiology of MDD is not well understood. The objective of this preliminary study was to investigate, in parallel, relationships between HPG-axis functioning, stress response circuitry activation, and parasympathetic reactivity in healthy controls and women with MDD. Using fMRI with pulse oximetry [from which we calculated the high frequency (HF) component of R-R interval variability (HF-RRV), a measure of parasympathetic modulation] and hormone data, we studied eight women with recurrent MDD in remission and six controls during a stress response paradigm. We demonstrated that hypoactivations of hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and subgenual ACC were associated with lower parasympathetic cardiac modulation in MDD women. Estradiol and progesterone attenuated group differences in the effect of HF-RRV on hypoactivation in the amygdala, hippocampus, ACC, and OFC in MDD women. Findings have implications for understanding the relationship between mood, arousal, heart regulation, and gonadal hormones, and may provide insights into MDD and CVD risk comorbidity. PMID:22395084

  6. Histopathological assessment of liver and gonad pathology in continental slope fish from the northeast Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Feist, S W; Stentiford, G D; Kent, M L; Ribeiro Santos, A; Lorance, P

    2015-05-01

    The deep-sea environment is a sink for a wide variety of contaminants including heavy metals and organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Life history traits of many deep-water fish species including longevity and high trophic position may predispose them to contaminant exposure and subsequent induction of pathological changes, including tumour formation. The lack of evidence for this hypothesis prompted this investigation in order to provide data on the presence of pathological changes in the liver and gonads of several deep-water fish species. Fish were obtained from the north east region of the Bay of Biscay (north east Atlantic Ocean) by trawling at depths between 700 and 1400 m. Liver and gonad samples were collected on board ship and fixed for histological processing and subsequent examination by light microscopy. Hepatocellular and nuclear pleomorphism and individual cases of ovotestis and foci of cellular alteration (FCA) were detected in black scabbardfish (Aphanopus carbo). Six cases of FCA were observed in orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) (n = 50) together with a single case of hepatocellular adenoma. A wide variety of inflammatory and degenerative lesions were found in all species examined. Deep-water fish display a range of pathologies similar to those seen in shelf-sea species used for international monitoring programmes including biological effects of contaminants. This study has confirmed the utility of health screening in deep-water fish for detecting evidence of prior exposure to contaminants and has also gained evidence of pathology potentially associated with exposure to algal toxins. PMID:25756900

  7. Hypoxia disrupts gene modulation along the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG)-liver axis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoying; Yu, Richard M K; Murphy, Margaret B; Lau, Karen; Wu, Rudolf S S

    2014-04-01

    Hypoxia alters sex hormone concentrations leading to reproductive impairment in fish; however the mechanisms underlying these effects remain largely unknown. Using zebrafish (Danio rerio), this study is the first to demonstrate that hypoxia causes endocrine disruption by simultaneously acting on multiple targets along the brain-pituitary-gonadal (BPG)-liver axis in fish. Alterations in the expression of key genes associated with reproductive endocrine pathways in the brain (sGnRH), pituitary (FSHβ and LHβ), gonads (FSH-R, LH-R, HMGR, StAR, CYP19A, CYP11A, CYP11β and 20β-HSD), and liver were correlated with significant reductions of estradiol in females and testosterone in males. Hypoxia also induced sex-specific and tissue-specific changes in the expression of estrogen, androgen, and membrane progestin receptors along the BPG axis, suggesting disruption of the feedback and synchronization of hormone signals. Furthermore, the hypoxia-induced upregulation of hepatic sex hormone-binding globulin suggests an increase in hormone transport and reduced bioavailability in blood, while upregulation of hepatic CYP3A65 and CYP1A in females suggests an increase in estrogen biotransformation and clearance. Given that the regulation of reproductive hormones and the BPG-liver axis are highly conserved, this study provides new insights into the hypoxia-induced endocrine disrupting mechanisms and reproductive impairment in other vertebrates. PMID:24580824

  8. Pulmonary, Gonadal, and Central Nervous System Status after Bone Marrow Transplantation for Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Mark C.; Hardy, Karen; Edwards, Sandie; Adamkiewicz, Thomas; Barkovich, James; Bernaudin, Francoise; Buchanan, George R.; Bunin, Nancy; Dickerhoff, Roswitha; Giller, Roger; Haut, Paul R.; Horan, John; Hsu, Lewis L.; Kamani, Naynesh; Levine, John E.; Margolis, David; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Patience, Melinda; Redding-Lallinger, Rupa; Roberts, Irene A. G.; Rogers, Zora R.; Sanders, Jean E.; Scott, J. Paul; Sullivan, Keith M.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a prospective, multicenter investigation of human-leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical sibling bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in children with severe sickle cell disease (SCD) between 1991 and 2000. To determine if children were protected from complications of SCD after successful BMT, we extended our initial study of BMT for SCD to conduct assessments of the central nervous system (CNS) and of pulmonary function 2 or more years after transplantation. In addition, the impact on gonadal function was studied. After BMT, patients with stroke who had stable engraftment of donor cells experienced no subsequent stroke events after BMT, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams demonstrated stable or improved appearance. However, 2 patients with graft rejection had a second stroke after BMT. After transplantation, most patients also had unchanged or improved pulmonary function. Among the 11 patients who had restrictive lung changes at baseline, 5 were improved and 6 had persistent restrictive disease after BMT. Of the 2 patients who had obstructive changes at baseline, 1 improved and 1 had worsened obstructive disease after BMT. There was, however, significant gonadal toxicity after BMT, particularly among female recipients. In summary, individuals who had stable donor engraftment did not experience sickle-related complications after BMT, and were protected from progressive CNS and pulmonary disease. PMID:19822218

  9. Metabolomic analysis of sex specific metabolites in gonads of the mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Cubero-Leon, Elena; Minier, Christophe; Rotchell, Jeanette M; Hill, Elizabeth M

    2012-06-01

    Marine mussels have been used as sentinel organisms to monitor exposure to a variety of chemical contaminants, including endocrine disrupting chemicals, in the aquatic environment. Although they are an important species for use in ecotoxicology investigations, information on their reproductive physiology and biochemistry is fragmentary. Mass spectrometry-based profiling techniques are increasingly being used to study how the metabolome of an organism changes as a result of tissue differentiation, disease or in response to environmental stressors. In this study, ultraperformance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOFMS) was used to investigate sex specific differences in the mussel metabolome in order to further investigate the reproductive physiology of this species. Using this method, a comparison of female and male mantle tissues containing mature gonad, revealed significant differences in glycerophosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) metabolites. A number of other unidentified metabolites, including those putatively identified as conjugated sterols, were also differentially expressed between male and female mantle/gonadal tissue. PMID:22475636

  10. Early segregation of germ and somatic lineages during gonadal regeneration in the annelid Enchytraeus japonensis.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Ryosuke; Sugio, Mutsumi; Kutsuna, Junko; Tochinai, Shin; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2006-05-23

    Although regeneration studies are useful for understanding how organs renew, little information is available about regeneration of reproductive organs and germ cells. We here describe the behavior of germ-cell precursors during regeneration of the oligochaete annelid worm Enchytraeus japonensis, which has the remarkable feature of undergoing asexual (by fission) and sexual reproduction . We first found that the gonad can regenerate from any body fragment yielded by fission during asexual reproduction. We then examined behavior of germ-cell lineage during this regenerative process, by using a homolog of the Piwi gene (Ej-piwi) as a marker. We found that in asexually growing animals, specialized cells expressing Ej-piwi are distributed widely in the body as single cells. These cells seem to serve as a reservoir of germ-cell precursors because during asexual propagation these cells migrate into the regenerating tissue, where they ultimately settle in the prospective gonads, and give rise to germ cells upon sexualization. These cells are distinct from the neoblasts, thought to be stem cells in other animals. This is the first report to directly show that the germ and somatic lineages are segregated in asexually growing animals and behave differently during regeneration. PMID:16713959

  11. Expression analysis of Sox9 genes during annual reproductive cycles in gonads and after nanodelivery of LHRH in Clarias batrachus.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Irfan Ahmad; Rather, Mohd Ashraf; Saha, Ratnadeep; Pathakota, Gireesh-Babu; Pavan-Kumar, Annam; Sharma, Rupam

    2016-06-01

    Transcription factor Sox9 plays a crucial role in determining the fate of several cell types and is a primary factor in regulation of gonadal development. Present study reports full-length cDNA sequence of Sox9a gene and partial coding sequence (cds) of Sox9b (two duplicate orthologs of Sox9 gene) from Clarias batrachus. The coding region of Sox9a gene encoded a peptide of 460 amino acids. The partial cds of Sox9b with the length of 558bp was amplified that codes for 186 amino acids. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that Sox9a and Sox9b mRNA expression was significantly higher in gonads and brain tissues. Furthermore Sox9a and Sox9b mRNA expression levels were high during preparatory and pre-spawning phases and decreased gradually with onset of spawning and post-spawning phases of reproductive cycles in gonads. Chitosan nanoconjugated sLHRH (CsLHRH) of particle size 133.0nm and zeta potential of 34.3mV were synthesized and evaluated against naked sLHRH (salmon luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone). The entrapment efficiency of CsLHRH was 63%. CsLHRH nanoparticles increased the expression level of Sox9 transcripts in gonads and steroid hormonal levels in blood of male and female. Thus, our findings clearly indicate that Sox9 genes play essential role during seasonal variation of gonads. Besides, the current study reports that sustained release delivery-system will be helpful for proper gonadal development of fish. To the best of our knowledge, till date no study has been reported on nanodelivery of sLHRH and their effect on reproductive gene expression in fish. PMID:27234545

  12. Morphology, sex steroid level and gene expression analysis in gonadal sex reversal of triploid female (XXX) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Xu, Gefeng; Huang, Tianqing; Jin, Xian; Cui, Cunhe; Li, Depeng; Sun, Cong; Han, Ying; Mu, Zhenbo

    2016-02-01

    In non-mammalian vertebrates, estrogens and expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 play critical roles in maintaining ovary differentiation and development, while dmrt1 and sox9 are male-specific genes in testicular differentiation and are highly conserved. In order to deeply understand the morphological change, sex steroids level and molecular mechanism of triploid female gonadal reversal in rainbow trout, we studied the ovary morphology, tendency of estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) levels and the relative expressions of dmrt1, cyp19a1, sox9 and foxl2 in juvenile and adult fish. Our results demonstrated that the development of triploid female gonads in rainbow trout went through arrested development, oocytes dedifferentiation, ovary reconstruction and sex reversal finally. During early gonadal development (154-334 days post-fertilization), the expressions of foxl2 and cyp19a1 increased linearly, while expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 were extremely suppressed, and E2 level was higher, while T level was lower. During the mid-to-late period of triploid female gonadal development (574-964 days post-fertilization), the expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 remained high and were very close to the quantity of diploid male genes, and T levels were even reaching diploid male plasma concentrations, while expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 were decreased, leading to decrease in E2 level. We realized that the development model of rainbow trout triploid female gonads was extremely rare, and the regulatory mechanism was very special. Genes involved in gonadal development and endogenous estrogens are pivotal factors in fish natural sex reversal. PMID:26373423

  13. Differential activity of stanniocalcin in male and female fresh water teleost Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede) during gonadal maturation.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sushant Kumar; Alim, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to analyze the differences in the activity of hormone stanniocalcin (STC) between male and female fishes of Mastacembelus armatus during their gonadal cycle. A large variation in nuclear diameter of cells of corpuscles of Stannius (CS) were recorded in relation to testicular cycle as well as ovarian cycle which indicates that the cellular activity varied with different phases of reproductive cycle in both male and female fish. Similar changes in nuclear diameter of CS cells were also observed after 17alpha-methyltestosterone administration in males and 17 β-estradiol administrations in females. A positive correlation was observed between plasma STC levels, gonadosomatic index (GSI) and the sex steroids in both sexes, suggesting that STC has a role in the processes involved in gonadal development. In addition females showed remarkable changes in plasma calcium level during gonadal cycle while no such change for males were observed. In females the plasma calcium level estimated during different phases of reproductive cycle indicates positive correlation between plasma level of calcium and gonad growth. Thus hyperactivity of CS cells was noted in both male and female fishes during gonadal cycle along with the differences in the activity of STC as well. In female it may act as hypocalcemic factor and bring the level of calcium to normal which increases during preparatory and pre spawning phases to fulfill the increased demand of calcium for vitellogenesis. However data of male fishes indicated that plasma STC concentration varied widely during gonadal cycle but showed no consistent relationship to plasma calcium level. PMID:25003342

  14. Endocrine disruption and altered gonadal development in white perch (Morone americana) from the lower Great Lakes region.

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Richard J; Balch, Gordon C; Kiparissis, Yiannis; Niimi, Arthur J; Sherry, Jim; Tinson, Cheryl; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2004-01-01

    High prevalences of gonadal intersex have been observed in wild fish populations in areas affected by domestic and industrial effluents. For this study, fish were collected in 1998 from the Cootes Paradise region of Hamilton Harbour in western Lake Ontario, Canada, to determine whether gonadal abnormalities, including intersex, were present in young of the year (YOY) fish. No gonadal abnormalities were observed in goldfish (Carassius auratus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), brown bullhead (Ictalurus ameiurus), pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus), and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). However, intersex gonads were observed in 8 of 16 male white perch (Morone americana) examined in this survey. Subsequently, in 1999 and 2000 white perch estimated to be YOY to approximately 2 years of age were collected from Cootes Paradise and from two other sites in the lower Great Lakes region. Gonadal intersex was observed in male white perch collected from the Bay of Quinte (22-44%) and Lake St. Clair (45%), although the prevalence and the extent of the intersex condition were lower relative to the 83% prevalence in white perch collected in Cootes Paradise. Intersex was not observed in hatchery-reared white perch or in white perch collected from an uncontaminated reference site (i.e., Deal Lake) in the United States. An analysis of plasma collected in the spring of 2002 from male adult white perch in Cootes Paradise revealed high concentrations of vitellogenin, ranging from 49 to 1,711 microg/mL. These observations indicate that male white perch are exposed to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting substances that may be responsible for the induction of gonadal intersex. PMID:15175179

  15. In Silico analysis of perturbed steroidogenesis and gonad growth in fathead minnows (P. promelas) exposed to 17α-ethynylestradiol.

    PubMed

    Hala, David; Petersen, Lene H; Martinović, Dalma; Huggett, Duane B

    2015-06-01

    The multi-factorial nature of adverse reproductive effects mediated by endocrine disrupting compounds (or EDCs) makes understanding the mechanistic basis of reproductive dysfunction a highly pertinent area of research. As a consequence, a main motivator for continued research is to integrate 'multi-leveled' complexity (i.e., from genes to phenotype) using mathematical methods capable of encapsulating properties of physiological relevance. In this study, an in silico stoichiometric model of piscine steroidogenesis was augmented with a 'biomass' reaction associating the underlying stoichiometry of steroidogenesis with a reaction representative of gonad growth. The ability of the in silico model to predict perturbed steroidogenesis and subsequent effects on gonad growth was tested by exposing reproductively active male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to 88 ng/L of the synthetic estrogen, 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). The in silico model was parameterized (or constrained) with experimentally quantified concentrations of selected steroid hormones (using mass spectrometry) and fold changes in gene expression (using RT-qPCR) for selected steroidogenic enzyme genes, in gonads of male and female fish. Once constrained, the optimization framework of flux balance analysis (FBA) was used to calculate an optimal flux through the biomass reaction (analogous to gonad growth) and associated steroidogenic flux distributions required to generate biomass. FBA successfully predicted effects of EE2 exposure on fathead minnow gonad growth (%gonadosomatic index or %GSI) and perturbed production of steroid hormones. Specifically, FBA accurately predicted no effects of exposure on male %GSI and a significant reduction for female %GSI. Furthermore, in silico simulations accurately identified disrupted reaction fluxes catalyzing productions of androgens (in male fish) and progestogens (in female fish), an observation which agreed with in vivo experimentation. The analyses

  16. Effect of Diets Supplemented with Different Sources of Astaxanthin on the Gonad of the Sea Urchin Anthocidaris crassispina

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Juan; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis and Chorella zofingiensis, and synthetic astaxanthin on the gonad of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina was studied. The basal diet was supplemented with H. pluvialis, C. zofingiensis, or synthetic astaxanthin, at two levels of astaxanthin (approximately 400 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg), to obtain the experimental diets HP1, HP2, CZ1, CZ2, AST1, and AST2, respectively, for two months of feeding experiment. The results showed that the concentrations of astaxanthin in the gonads of the sea urchins fed these experimental diets ranged from 0.15 to 3.01 mg/kg dry gonad weight. The higher astaxanthin levels (>2.90 mg/kg) were found in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diets HP1 (containing 380 mg/kg of astaxanthins, mostly mono- and diesters) and AST1 (containing 385 mg/kg of synthetic astaxanthin). The lowest astaxanthin level (0.15 mg/kg) was detected in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diet CZ2 (containing 98 mg/kg of astaxanthins, mostly diesters). Furthermore, the highest canthaxanthin level (7.48 mg/kg) was found in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diet CZ1 (containing 387 mg/kg of astaxanthins and 142 mg/kg of canthaxanthin), suggesting that astaxanthins, especially astaxanthin esters, might not be assimilated as easily as canthaxanthin by the sea urchins. Our results show that sea urchins fed diets containing astaxanthin pigments show higher incorporation of these known antioxidant constituents, with the resultant seafood products therefore being of potential higher nutritive value. PMID:23016124

  17. Disruption of apoptosis pathways involved in zebrafish gonad differentiation by 17α-ethinylestradiol and fadrozole exposures.

    PubMed

    Luzio, Ana; Matos, Manuela; Santos, Dércia; Fontaínhas-Fernandes, António A; Monteiro, Sandra M; Coimbra, Ana M

    2016-08-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) sex determination seems to involve genetic factors (GSD) but also environmental factors (ESD), such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are known to mimic endogenous hormones and disrupt gonad differentiation. Apoptosis has also been proposed to play a crucial role in zebrafish gonad differentiation. Nevertheless, the interactions between EDCs and apoptosis have received little attention. Thus, this study aimed to assess if and which apoptotic pathways are involved in zebrafish gonad differentiation and how EDCs may interfere with this process. With these purposes, zebrafish were exposed to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2, 4ng/L) and fadrozole (Fad, 50μg/L) from 2h to 35days post-fertilization (dpf). Afterwards, a gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR and a stereological analysis, based on systematic sampling and protein immunohistochemistry, were performed. The death receptors (FAS; TRADD), anti-apoptotic (BCL-2; MDM2), pro-apoptotic (CASP-2 and -6) and cell proliferation (BIRC5/survivin; JUN) genes and proteins were evaluated. In general, apoptosis was inhibited in females through the involvement of anti-apoptotic pathways, while in males apoptosis seemed to be crucial to the failure of the "juvenile ovary" development and the induction of testes transformation. The JUN protein was shown to be necessary in juvenile ovaries, while the BIRC5 protein seemed to be involved in zebrafish spermatogenesis. Both EDCs, EE2 and Fad, increased the apoptosis stimulus in zebrafish gonad. It was noticed that the few females that were resistant to Fad-induced sex reversal had increased anti-apoptotic factor levels, while males exposed to EE2 showed increased pro-apoptotic genes/proteins and were more advanced in gonad differentiation. Overall, our findings show that apoptosis pathways are involved in zebrafish gonad differentiation and that EDCs can disrupt this process. PMID:27337697

  18. Regulation of gonadal sex ratios and pubertal development by the thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharma, Prakash; Patino, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    We examined associations between thyroid condition, gonadal sex and pubertal development in zebrafish. Seventy-two-hour postfertilization larvae were reared in untreated medium or in the presence of goitrogens (sodium perchlorate, 0.82 mM; methimazole, 0.15 and 0.3 mM) or thyroxine (1 and 10 nM) for 30 days. Thyrocyte height, gonadal sex and gonadal development were histologically determined at 45 and 60 days postfertilization (dpf). Thyrocyte hypertrophy, an index of hypothyroidism, was observed at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Similarly, gonadal sex ratios were biased toward ovaries relative to control animals at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated fish but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Gonadal sex ratios were biased toward testes at 45 and 60 dpf in thyroxine-treated fish. Spermatogenesis was delayed in testes from goitrogen-treated fish at 60 dpf relative to control values, but was unaffected in testes from thyroxine-treated individuals. Oogenesis seemed to be nonspecifically delayed in all treatments relative to control at 60 dpf. This study confirmed the previously reported association between hypothyroid condition and ovarian-skewed ratios, and hyperthyroid condition and testicular-skewed ratios, and also showed that male pubertal development is specifically delayed by experimental hypothyroidism. The simultaneous recovery from the hypothyroid and ovary-inducing effects of methimazole by 60 dpf (27 days post-treatment) suggests that the ovary-skewing effect of goitrogens is reversible when thyroid conditions return to basal levels before developmental commitment of gonadal sex. Conversely, the masculinizing effect of hyperthyroidism seems to be stable and perhaps permanent.

  19. vasa is expressed in somatic cells of the embryonic gonad in a sex-specific manner in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Renault, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Vasa is a DEAD box helicase expressed in the Drosophila germline at all stages of development. vasa homologs are found widely in animals and vasa has become the gene of choice in identifying germ cells. I now show that Drosophila vasa expression is not restricted to the germline but is also expressed in a somatic lineage, the embryonic somatic gonadal precursor cells. This expression is sexually dimorphic, being maintained specifically in males, and is regulated post-transcriptionally. Although somatic Vasa expression is not required for gonad coalescence, these data support the notion that Vasa is not solely a germline factor. PMID:23213382

  20. Expression of dmrt1 and vtg genes during gonad formation, differentiation and early maturation in cultured Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii.

    PubMed

    Fajkowska, M; Rzepkowska, M; Adamek, D; Ostaszewska, T; Szczepkowski, M

    2016-08-01

    Expression of the dmrt1 and vtg genes was described using the real-time PCR (rt-PCR) method from 25 to 1600 days post-hatch (dph) in cultured Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii. The level of dmrt1 transcription in gonads in subsequent studied periods increased exponentially while vtg expression increased in gonads and livers of A. gueldenstaedtii examined, but in later stages of development. Both dmrt1 and vtg genes showed elevated expression in intersex individuals probably caused by dietary exposure to phyto-oestrogens. PMID:27239004

  1. GONAD: A Novel CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing Method that Does Not Require Ex Vivo Handling of Embryos.

    PubMed

    Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Takahashi, Gou; Wada, Kenta; Miura, Hiromi; Sato, Masahiro; Ohtsuka, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic technologies used for creating a desired genomic change in animals involve three critical steps: isolation of fertilized eggs, microinjection of transgenic DNA into them and their subsequent transfer to recipient females. These ex vivo steps have been widely used for over 3 decades and they were also readily adapted for the latest genome editing technologies such as ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9 systems. We recently developed a method called GONAD (Genome editing via Oviductal Nucleic Acids Delivery) that does not require all the three critical steps of transgenesis and therefore relieves the bottlenecks of widely used animal transgenic technologies. Here we provide protocols for the GONAD system. PMID:26724720

  2. Endogenous control of sexual size dimorphism: Gonadal androgens have neither direct nor indirect effect on male growth in a Madagascar ground gecko (Paroedura picta).

    PubMed

    Kubička, Lukáš; Starostová, Zuzana; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2015-12-01

    Changes in the effect of gonadal androgens on male growth are considered as a possible mechanism allowing shifts in magnitude and even direction of sexual size dimorphism in vertebrates, particularly squamate reptiles. Positive effects of gonadal androgens on male growth were found in several male-larger species of lizards. Contrastingly, we document that in the male-larger Madagascar ground gecko (Paroedura picta) gonadal androgens do not affect male growth under constant thermal conditions. However, the absence of a thermal gradient might prevent the potential indirect effect of gonadal androgens on growth via the influence of circulating hormones on an individual's thermoregulation and hence metabolic rate. In order to study this, we monitored the growth and body temperature of socially isolated sham-operated and castrated males of the same species in a thermal gradient. We also compared the oxygen consumption and activity between the treatment groups in the open field to test the effect of gonadal hormones on these traits potentially affecting growth. Even under a thermal gradient we found no effect of gonadal androgens on growth rate or final body dimensions. Castration also did not significantly affect oxygen consumption or activity in the open field test. Together with our previous findings, we can exclude both the direct effect of male gonadal androgens on the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism via the influence on the growth axis, and the indirect influence of gonadal androgens acting on the ontogeny of SSD through the effect on thermoregulation, metabolic rate and activity. PMID:26431613

  3. Gonadal mixed germ cell tumor combined with a large hemangiomatous lesion in a patient with Turner's syndrome and 45,X/46,X, +mar karyotype.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y; Sasaki, Y; Tachibana, K; Maesaka, H; Imaizumi, K; Nishihira, H; Nishi, T

    1994-11-01

    In this report, we describe bilateral gonadal tumors with characteristic histopathological findings in a patient with Turner's syndrome who had 45,X/46,X, +mar mosaicism. The left gonad contained a gonadoblastoma and a remnant of streak gonad. The right gonad was entirely replaced by a 15x11x7-cm solid and cystic tumor, which was revealed to be a combination of a mixed germ cell tumor and a cavernous hemangiomatous lesion. The latter occupied approximately half of the entire tumor volume, and there was an incomplete boundary between it and the mixed germ cell tumor lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Turner's syndrome with a combination of a mixed germ cell tumor and a hemangiomatous lesion in the gonad. PMID:7979900

  4. Utility of OCT3/4, TSPY and β-Catenin as Biological Markers for Gonadoblastoma Formation and Malignant Germ Cell Tumor Development in Dysgenetic Gonads

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Icela; Garibay, Nayely; Pena-Yolanda, Rocio; Contreras, Alejandra; Raya, Atlantida; Dominguez, Carolina; Romero, Mirna; Aristi, Gerardo; Queipo, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gonadoblastoma (GB) is regarded as an in situ form of germ cell tumor in dysgenetic gonads, and 30% of patients with GB develop a dysgerminoma/seminoma tumor. OBJECTIVE: Determine whether OCT3/4 and β-catenin are expressed in dysgenetic gonads before GB development and whether TSPY participates in the OCT3/4-β-catenin pathways in the malignant invasive behavior. METHODS: dysgenetic gonads of Disorders of sex differentiation (DSD) patients with mixed gonadal dysgenesis were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence for comparison with GB and dysgerminoma/seminoma. RESULTS: Our results suggest that the development of GB is secondary to the interaction of OCT3/4 and TSPY, that β-catenin does not participate in this process. CONCLUSIONS: The use of this biological markers detects the potential high risk gonads. PMID:23396295

  5. Life history strategies in zooplankton communities: The significance of female gonad morphology and maturation types for the reproductive biology of marine calanoid copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehoff, Barbara

    2007-07-01

    The present review addresses the reproductive strategies of marine calanoid copepods, as affected by their physiological preconditioning, and aims to enhance understanding of their adaptations to specific environmental conditions. Knowledge about oocyte development and internal gonad structure, especially in relation to feeding conditions, is essential for a complete understanding of the reproductive strategies of the copepods. Therefore, the foci of the review are to identify general patterns in oocyte and gonad development in calanoid copepod species from marine ecosystems worldwide and to elucidate the significance of gonad structures for reproductive strategies. Oogenesis is similar in all copepod species. During maturation, the morphology of the oocytes changes distinctly and, according to oocyte size and appearance of ooplasm and nucleus, five oocyte developmental stages are distinguished. In contrast, the gonad structure and its changes during the spawning cycle differ considerably among species, and these differences are related to specific reproductive traits. Four gonad morphology types can be distinguished: the Calanus-type, found in species from all over the world with distinctly different life history traits, is apparently most common in calanoid copepods. In this gonad type, most oocyte developmental stages are present simultaneously, and usually many oocytes mature synchronously, all of which are released in one clutch. The gonad structure allows frequent spawning and large clutches, hence, high egg production rates. This may be a preconditioning for exploiting seasonally high food supply. However, the Calanus-type was also found in species producing eggs at lower rates. In the diverticula of Pseudocalanus-type gonads, only two oocyte developmental stages are present and usually fewer oocytes mature synchronously. Accordingly, the egg production rate is generally lower as compared to the Calanus-type, and apparently only this gonad-type is

  6. Gonadal soma-derived factor (gsdf), a TGF-beta superfamily gene, induces testis differentiation in the teleost fish Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Hiroyo; Ijiri, Shigeho; Kobayashi, Tohru; Izumi, Hikari; Kuramochi, Yuki; Wang, De-Shou; Mizuno, Shouta; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2015-11-01

    The Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, is a gonochoristic teleost fish with an XX/XY genetic system and is an excellent model for gonadal sex differentiation. In the present study, we screened novel genes that were expressed predominantly in either XY or XX undifferentiated gonads during the critical period for differentiation of gonads into ovaries or testes using microarray screening. We focused on one of the isolated 12 candidate genes, #9475, which was an ortholog of gsdf (gonadal soma-derived factor), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. #9475/gsdf showed sexual dimorphism in expression in XY gonads before any other testis differentiation-related genes identified in this species thus far. We also overexpressed the #9475/gsdf gene in XX tilapia, and XX tilapia bearing the #9475/gsdf gene showed normal testis development, which suggests that #9475/gsdf plays an important role in male determination and/or differentiation in tilapia. PMID:26265450

  7. Establishment and characterization of a gonad cell line from half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis pseudomale.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ai; Chen, Song-Lin; Gao, Feng-Tao; Li, Hai-Long; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Na; Sha, Zhen-Xia

    2015-06-01

    A new cell line was established from half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis pseudomale gonad (CSPMG). Primary culture was initiated from gonad tissues pieces, and the CSPMG cells were cultured at 24 °C in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/F12 medium (1:1) (pH7.0), supplemented with 20 % fetal bovine serum, basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I, 2-mercaptoethanol, penicillin and streptomycin. The cultured CSPMG cells, in fibroblast shape, proliferated to 100 % confluency 10 days later and had been subcultured to passage 109. Chromosome analyses indicated that the CSPMG cells exhibited chromosomal aneuploidy with a modal chromosome number of 42, which displayed the normal diploid karyotype of half-smooth tongue sole (2n = 42t, NF = 42). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed CSPMG cells could express gonad somatic cell functional genes Sox9a, Wt1a and weakly germ cell marker gene Vasa, but not male specific gene Dmrt1. Transfection experiment demonstrated that CSPMG cells transfected with pEGFP-N3 plasmid and small RNA could express green and red fluorescence signals with high transfection efficiency. In conclusion, a continuous CSPMG cell line has been established successfully. The cell line might serve as a valuable tool for studies on the mechanism of sex determination, sex reversal and gonad development in flatfish. PMID:25724869

  8. Gonadal Morphology and Gametogenesis in Japanese Red Coral Corallium japonicum (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) Collected off Cape Ashizuri, Japan.

    PubMed

    Sekida, Satoko; Iwasaki, Nozomu; Okuda, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    Colonies of the Japanese red coral Corallium japonicum Kishinouye, 1903 collected off Cape Ashizuri, Japan were gonochoric and produced gonads in siphonozooids annually, mainly during the spring season. Polyp anatomy, gonadal morphology and gametogenesis in this species were revealed by light and electron microscopy. A siphonozooid had a pharynx with a prominent siphonoglyph and eight mesenteries: two sulcal, two asulcal, and four lateral. A rudimentary retractor was found on one side of each mesoglea of these mesenteries. The retractor arrangement in the siphonozooid was reverse of what was described in the autozooids of octocorals. Gonads initiated as small protrusions on the mesenteries, except in the asulcal ones, and even at an incipient stage they were covered with a sac-shaped thin layer of mesoglea, which was continuous with the mesoglea of mesenteries. Gastrodermis enveloped the complete outer surface of the thin layer of mesoglea throughout gametogenesis in both oocytes and sperm cysts. Oocytes produced many microvilli on their cortical surfaces beneath the thin layer of mesoglea concomitantly with the accumulation of lipid globules in the cells, whereas in sperm cysts spermatocytes and spermatids increased in number without microvilli production, followed by synchronous spermiogenesis involving remarkable changes in the shape and position of organelles. Based on the comparison of patterns in gonadal development between octocorals including C. japonicum, hexacorals and scyphozoans, octocoral and stauromedusa species may be characterized by the fact that gametogenesis never occurs in the matrix of mesoglea, but rather exclusively within the thin sac of mesoglea surrounded by gastrodermis. PMID:27268987

  9. Subchronic effects of cadmium on the gonads, expressions of steroid hormones and sex-related genes in tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yongju; Shan, Dan; Zhong, Huan; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Wenzhi; Cao, Jinling; Guo, Zhongbao; Xiao, Jun; He, Fulin; Huang, Yifan; Li, Jian; Huang, Heming; Xu, Pao

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem which affects fish health and aquaculture. In the present study, we examined the bioaccumulation of Cd in the gonads of tilapia via dissolved and dietary routes. We evaluated the subchronic effects of Cd on the histology of gonads, steroid hormone levels and sex-related gene expressions in tilapia. In addition, we also studied maternal transfer of Cd. Our results indicated that Cd was accumulated significantly in both ovary and testis from both exposure routes. Histopathological analysis showed that Cd induced ovary and testis injuries. Estradiol levels were significantly increased in dissolved Cd exposed female fish. In addition, the Cd exposure displayed different effects on gene expressions in gonads. In females, the estrogen receptor (ERα) was stimulated in dissolved Cd-exposed fish at 70.32 and 143.78 μg/L for 30 days and in fish at 143.78 μg/L for 60 days. Vitellogenin expression was significantly down-regulated in the ovary of dissolved Cd-exposed fish. In testis, GR expression was elevated after 60 days of dissolved Cd and dietary exposure. Furthermore, Cd level was significantly higher in the eggs than that in the fry. Our results demonstrated that both dissolved and dietary Cd exposures affected gonad development by altering steroid hormone levels and sex-related gene expressions in tilapia. PMID:26471182

  10. Relationship between gonad maturation and heavy metal accumulation in the clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) from the Volta estuary, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adjei-Boateng, D; Obirikorang, K A; Amisah, S; Madkour, H A; Otchere, F A

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between gonadal development and the concentrations of four heavy metals Mn, Zn, Fe and Hg in the tissues of the clam Galatea paradoxa was evaluated at the Volta estuary, Ghana, over an 18-month period. Metal concentrations in the clam tissues were highly variable over the sampling period and seemed to be influenced by the reproductive cycle of the clam. Mn concentrations varied over a wide range from 49 to 867 μg/g and exhibited a significant positive correlation with gonadal development (p = 0.0146, r(2) = 0.3190). Zn and Fe concentrations ranged from 13 to 59 μg/g and 79 to 484 μg/g, respectively and both revealed negative relationships between gonad development and metal accumulation (Zn (p = 0.0554, r(2) = 0.0554) and Fe (p = 0.1040, r(2) = 0.1567)). Hg concentrations ranged from 0.026 to 0.059 μg/g over the sampling period and exhibited a slight positive relationship between gonadal development and metal accumulation (p = 0.0861, r(2) = 0.1730). PMID:21947544

  11. Adaptive Response in Female Fathead Minnows Exposed to an Aromatase Inhibitor: Computational Modeling of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course ...

  12. [A rare case of gonadal dysgenesis with 45, X-46, X ring X mosaic--case report].

    PubMed

    Albert, P J; Gille, J; Schmid, M

    1986-07-01

    This paper presents a case of gonadal dysgenesia with an uncommon structural X-chromosome abnormality (45, X-46, X, ring X mosaicism). The ring chromosome was not derived from an Y-chromosome as excluded by Q-banded analysis. The phenotypic expression of this abnormality caused typical Turner stigmata such as short stature, dysmorphic feature, streak ovaries with hypergonadotropic condition. PMID:3758629

  13. GONADAL EFFECTS OF FETAL EXPOSURE TO THE AZO DYE CONGO RED IN MICE: INFERTILITY IN FEMALE BUT NOT MALE OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study describes the relationship between gonadal genesis and fertility in male and female mice exposed in utero to the diazo dye Congo red (CR). aternal CR treatment inhibited testicular and ovarian function in the offspring after oral administration of I or 0.5 g/kg/...

  14. Predicting Adaptive Response to Fadrozole Exposure: Computational Model of the Fathead Minnow Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic mathematical model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course (...

  15. Predicting Adaptive Response to Fadrozole Exposure:Computational Model of the Fathead MinnowsHypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic mathematical model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict doseresponse and time-course (...

  16. RNAi-Mediated Gene Silencing in a Gonad Organ Culture to Study Sex Determination Mechanisms in Sea Turtle

    PubMed Central

    Sifuentes-Romero, Itzel; Merchant-Larios, Horacio; Milton, Sarah L.; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; García-Gasca, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    The autosomal Sry-related gene, Sox9, encodes a transcription factor, which performs an important role in testis differentiation in mammals. In several reptiles, Sox9 is differentially expressed in gonads, showing a significant upregulation during the thermo-sensitive period (TSP) at the male-promoting temperature, consistent with the idea that SOX9 plays a central role in the male pathway. However, in spite of numerous studies, it remains unclear how SOX9 functions during this event. In the present work, we developed an RNAi-based method for silencing Sox9 in an in vitro gonad culture system for the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea. Gonads were dissected as soon as the embryos entered the TSP and were maintained in organ culture. Transfection of siRNA resulted in the decrease of both Sox9 mRNA and protein. Furthermore, we found coordinated expression patterns for Sox9 and the anti-Müllerian hormone gene, Amh, suggesting that SOX9 could directly or indirectly regulate Amh expression, as it occurs in mammals. These results demonstrate an in vitro method to knockdown endogenous genes in gonads from a sea turtle, which represents a novel approach to investigate the roles of important genes involved in sex determination or differentiation pathways in species with temperature-dependent sex determination. PMID:24705165

  17. Arylsulfatase of sea urchin sperm--distribution of arylsulfatase in the gonads and gametes of echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Moriya, T; Hoshi, M

    1979-01-01

    1. Fairly high activities of arylsulfatase are found in the sperm and mature testes of all the sea urchins studied; Strongylocentrotus intermedius, Strongylocentrotus nudus, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and Anthocidaris crassispina, whereas the activities in the ovaries and eggs of these animals are low. 2. Neither the sand dollar, Clypeaster japonicus nor the starfishes, Asterias amurensis and Asterina pectinifera prove to have considerable activities of the enzyme in their gonads and gametes. 3. Most of the activity of arylsulfatase in the sperm of S. intermedius is found in the seminal plasma, but the significant activity is bound to the spermatozoa. 4. Part, if not all, of the spermatozoa-borne arylsulfatase is suggested to exist on the surface of spermatozoa or in the acrosome or both. 5. The ubiquitous distribution of sperm arylsulfatase in sea urchins on the contrary to its absence in starfish or sand dollar is discussed in connection with the penetration of sperm through egg investments. PMID:318308

  18. Promotion of haematopoietic activity in embryonic stem cells by the aorta-gonad-mesonephros microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Krassowska, Anna; Gordon-Keylock, Sabrina; Samuel, Kay; Gilchrist, Derek; Dzierzak, Elaine; Oostendorp, Robert; Forrester, Lesley M. . E-mail: l.forrester@ed.ac.uk; Ansell, John D.

    2006-11-01

    We investigated whether the in vitro differentiation of ES cells into haematopoietic progenitors could be enhanced by exposure to the aorta-gonadal-mesonephros (AGM) microenvironment that is involved in the generation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) during embryonic development. We established a co-culture system that combines the requirements for primary organ culture and differentiating ES cells and showed that exposure of differentiating ES cells to the primary AGM region results in a significant increase in the number of ES-derived haematopoietic progenitors. Co-culture of ES cells on the AM20-1B4 stromal cell line derived from the AGM region also increases haematopoietic activity. We conclude that factors promoting the haematopoietic activity of differentiating ES cells present in primary AGM explants are partially retained in the AM20.1B4 stromal cell line and that these factors are likely to be different to those required for adult HSC maintenance.

  19. Assessment of gonadal follicle size in the invading bivalve Limnoperna fortunei (Mytilidae).

    PubMed

    Guimarey, Pilar; Darrigran, Gustavo; Damborenea, Cristina; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E

    2011-08-01

    Limnoperna fortunei is an invasive gonochoristic and byssate freshwater bivalve originary from Southeast Asia. It shows great adaptive-reproductive ability, so knowledge of the gonadal cycle is an important factor for the prevention and control of this bioinvasion. This species is highly damaging to natural and human environments. We analyzed the distribution and maturity state of reproductive follicles in the mantle of both male and females. Male results are not shown but, in general, they followed the same pattern as that of females. Routine histological techniques included serial longitudinal sections and transversal sections in three body regions (anterior, middle and psoterior). Oocytes with conspicuous nucleoli were measured on both types of sections to estimate the maturity stage in the different regions. ANOVA indicates that there were no significant differences in maturity ratio between the studied regions, so that a small number of sections would render precise results to assess maturity. PMID:22128591

  20. Experiment K-6-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Kaddis, F.; Markley, C.; Krasnov, I.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. It was recognized as early as 1685 (cited in Kitay and Altschule, 1954) that the pineal of humans calcified with age. However, little can be found in the literature relating calcification and pineal function. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, researchers examined pineal calcium content following the spaceflight. Researchers concluded that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanism of the responses noted.

  1. DMRT1 protects male gonadal cells from retinoid-dependent sexual transdifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Minkina, Anna; Matson, Clinton K; Lindeman, Robin E; Ghyselinck, Norbert B; Bardwell, Vivian J; Zarkower, David

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian sex determination initiates in the fetal gonad with specification of bipotential precursor cells into male Sertoli cells or female granulosa cells. This choice was long presumed to be irreversible, but genetic analysis in the mouse recently revealed that sexual fates must be maintained throughout life. Somatic cells in the testis or ovary, even in adults, can be induced to transdifferentiate to their opposite-sex equivalents by loss of a single transcription factor, DMRT1 in the testis or FOXL2 in the ovary. Here, we investigate what mechanism DMRT1 prevents from triggering transdifferentiation. We find that DMRT1 blocks testicular retinoic acid (RA) signaling from activating genes normally involved in female sex determination and ovarian development and show that inappropriate activation of these genes can drive sexual transdifferentiation. By preventing activation of potential feminizing genes, DMRT1 allows Sertoli cells to participate in RA signaling, which is essential for reproduction, without being sexually reprogrammed. PMID:24856513

  2. DETECTION OF THE WOLBACHIA-ENCODED DNA BINDING PROTEIN, HU beta, IN MOSQUITO GONADS

    PubMed Central

    BECKMANN, JOHN F.; MARKOWSKI, TODD W.; WITTHUHN, BRUCE A.; FALLON, ANN M.

    2013-01-01

    Wolbachia are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause cytoplasmic incompatibility in mosquitoes. In an incompatible cross, eggs of uninfected females fail to hatch when fertilized by sperm from infected males. We used polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry to identify Wolbachia proteins in infected mosquito gonads. These included surface proteins with masses of 25 and 18 kDa and the DNA binding protein, HU beta. Using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, we showed that the HU gene is transcribed in Wolbachia-infected Culex pipiens and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. We sequenced HU genes from four Wolbachia strains and compared deduced protein sequences with additional homologs from the databases. Among the Rickettsiales, Wolbachia HU has distinct N- and C-terminal basic/acidic amino acid motifs as well as a pair of conserved, cysteine residues. PMID:23287400

  3. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into gonad and adrenal steroidogenic cells

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Takashi; Imamichi, Yoshitaka; Miyamoto, Kaoru; Umezawa, Akihiro; Taniguchi, Takanobu

    2014-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy is necessary for patients with adrenal and gonadal failure. Steroid hormone treatment is also employed in aging people for sex hormone deficiency. These patients undergo such therapies, which have associated risks, for their entire life. Stem cells represent an innovative tool for tissue regeneration and the possibility of solving these problems. Among various stem cell types, mesenchymal stem cells have the potential to differentiate into steroidogenic cells both in vivo and in vitro. In particular, they can effectively be differentiated into steroidogenic cells by expressing nuclear receptor 5A subfamily proteins (steroidogenic factor-1 and liver receptor homolog-1) with the aid of cAMP. This approach will provide a source of cells for future regenerative medicine for the treatment of diseases caused by steroidogenesis deficiencies. It can also represent a useful tool for studying the molecular mechanisms of steroidogenesis and its related diseases. PMID:24772247

  4. Sex differences in anxiety disorders: Interactions between fear, stress, and gonadal hormones.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Lisa Y; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Women are more vulnerable to stress- and fear-based disorders, such as anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing literature on this topic, the neural basis of these sex differences remains unclear, and the findings appear inconsistent. The neurobiological mechanisms of fear and stress in learning and memory processes have been extensively studied, and the crosstalk between these systems is beginning to explain the disproportionate incidence and differences in symptomatology and remission within these psychopathologies. In this review, we discuss the intersect between stress and fear mechanisms and their modulation by gonadal hormones and discuss the relevance of this information to sex differences in anxiety and fear-based disorders. Understanding these converging influences is imperative to the development of more effective, individualized treatments that take sex and hormones into account. PMID:25888456

  5. Mechanisms of arsenic disruption on gonadal, adrenal and thyroid endocrine systems in humans: A review.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Jie; Xiang, Ping; Luo, Jun; Hong, Huachang; Lin, Hongjun; Li, Hong-Bo; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-10-01

    Due to its toxicity as a carcinogen and wide distribution in the environment, arsenic (As) exposure in humans is of public concern globally. Many studies have manifested that As exposure induces cancers besides pathological effects in humans. Animal studies showed that chronic As exposure induces serious neurological effects. Based on recent studies, researchers proposed that As, including arsenate (AsV) and arsenite (AsIII), is also an endocrine disruptor. This review discusses the mechanisms of As toxicity on three endocrine systems including gonadal, adrenal and thyroid endocrine systems. Arsenic methylation and oxidative stress are responsible for As-induced disorders of endocrine systems, however, strong binding of AsIII to thiols also play an important role. Some studies showed AsV toxicity on endocrine systems, but mechanistic investigation is lacking. Research is needed to look into their toxicity mechanisms to help cure the illnesses caused by As-induced endocrine system disorders. PMID:27502899

  6. Radiation Dose to the Thyroid and Gonads in Patients Undergoing Cardiac CT Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Behroozi, Hamid; Davoodi, Mohammad; Aghasi, Shahriar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present data show a global increase in the rate of cardiovascular disease. Cardiac CT angiography has developed as a fast and non-invasive cardiac imaging modality following the introduction of multi-slice computed tomogaraphy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure the radiation dose to the thyroid and pelvis regions in patients undergoing cardiac CT angiography using the Care Dose 4D method of 64-slice scanner. Patients and Methods: Eighty-one patients (41 males and 40 females) who were diagnosed with suspected coronary artery disease and were referred to Golestan Hospital, Imaging Department were recruited. Inclusion criteria were based on the protocol of multi-slice CT coronary angiography. The radiation dose to the thyroid and pelvis regions was measured using thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Results: The mean radiation dose to the thyroid in male and female subjects was 0.32 mSv and 0.41 mSv, respectively (P = 0.032) (total mean, 0.36 mSv). The mean radiation dose to the pelvis in male and female subjects was 81 μSv and 112 μSv, respectively (P = 0.026) (total mean, 96.5 μSv), Conclusions: The total mean radiation dose to the thyroid and gonads was 0.36 mSv, and 96.5 μSv, respectively for the subjects. These values were high for one organ in a single study. Gender can affect the radiation dose to the thyroid and gonads. This can be attributed to the anatomical characteristic differences of the male and female subjects. PMID:26060556

  7. Histochemical identification of primordial germ cells and differentiation of the gonads in homozygous tetraploid mouse embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, M H

    1991-01-01

    This study was undertaken to establish whether primordial germ cells are differentiated by homozygous tetraploid mouse embryos produced by the technique of electrofusion, and to study the morphological features of their gonads. Tetraploid embryos were transferred to the oviducts of pseudopregnant recipients, and these were autopsied either on day 11 or days 15 or 16 of gestation. In the developmentally less advanced group, embryos in which cytogenetic analysis of their extraembryonic membranes confirmed that they had a tetraploid chromosome constitution were analysed histochemically in order to demonstrate the presence of intracellular alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity. This enabled the presence or absence of germ cells to be established. Out of a total of 9 early limb-bud stage embryos studied, all contained primordial germ cells. The latter were mostly located in association with the hindgut, though some germ cells were still present at the base of the allantois. The sex ratio in this group was close to unity. In the 2nd group in which recipients were autopsied on either day 15 or 16 of gestation, a total of 7 healthy tetraploid embryos were recovered. All displayed the characteristic craniofacial features seen in tetraploid embryos. Four of these embryos had a normal postcranial axial morphology, and their crown-rump lengths were only slightly less (81-91%) than those of developmentally matched control diploid embryos. Three of the tetraploid embryos had an abnormal postcranial axis associated with a body wall closure defect involving the anterior abdominal and lower thoracic region. In all 7 of these embryos, gonadal differentiation was consistent with their developmental age. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:1817135

  8. Neither male gonadal androgens nor female reproductive costs drive development of sexual size dimorphism in lizards.

    PubMed

    Starostová, Zuzana; Kubička, Lukáš; Golinski, Alison; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2013-05-15

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is an extensively studied phenomenon in animals, including reptiles, but the proximate mechanism of its development is poorly understood. The most pervasive candidates are: (1) androgen-mediated control of growth, i.e. a positive effect of gonadal androgens (testosterone) on male growth in male-larger species, and a negative effect in female-larger species; and (2) sex-specific differences in energy allocation to growth, e.g. sex with larger reproductive costs should result in smaller body size. We tested these hypotheses in adults of the male-larger lizard Paroedura picta by conducting castrations with and without testosterone implants in males and manipulating reproductive status in females. Castration or testosterone replacement had no significant effect on final body length in males. High investment to reproduction had no significant effect on final body length in intact females. Interestingly, ovariectomized females and females with testosterone implants grew to larger body size than intact females. We did not find support for either of the above hypotheses and suggest that previously reported effects of gonadal androgens on growth in male lizards could be a consequence of altered behaviour or social status in manipulated individuals. Exogenous testosterone in females led to decreased size of ovaries; its effect on body size may be caused by interference with normal ovarian function. We suggest that ovarian factors, perhaps estrogens, not reproductive costs, can modify growth in female lizards and may thus contribute to the development of SSD. This hypothesis is largely supported by published results on the effect of testosterone treatment or ovariectomy on body size in female squamates. PMID:23393279

  9. Sequencing and De Novo Assembly of the Gonadal Transcriptome of the Endangered Chinese Sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hao; Zhang, Shuhuan; Wei, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    Background The Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is endangered through anthropogenic activities including over-fishing, damming, shipping, and pollution. Controlled reproduction has been adopted and successfully conducted for conservation. However, little information is available on the reproductive regulation of the species. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly of the gonad tissue to create a comprehensive dataset for A. sinensis. Results The Illumina sequencing platform was adopted to obtain 47,333,701 and 47,229,705 high quality reads from testis and ovary cDNA libraries generated from three-year-old A. sinensis. We identified 86,027 unigenes of which 30,268 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 28,281 were annotated in the Swiss-prot database. Among the annotated unigenes, 26,152 and 7,734 unigenes, respectively, were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups. In addition, 12,557 unigenes were mapped to 231 pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. A total of 1,896 unigenes, potentially differentially expressed between the two gonad types, were found, with 1,894 predicted to be up-regulated in ovary and only two in testis. Fifty-five potential gametogenesis-related genes were screened in the transcriptome and 34 genes with significant matches were found. Besides, more paralogs of 11 genes in three gene families (sox, apolipoprotein and cyclin) were found in A. sinensis compared to their orthologs in the diploid Danio rerio. In addition, 12,151 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. Conclusions This study provides the first de novo transcriptome analysis currently available for A. sinensis. The transcriptomic data represents the fundamental resource for future research on the mechanism of early gametogenesis in sturgeons. The SSRs identified in this work will be valuable for assessment of genetic diversity of wild fish and genealogy

  10. Daily Rhythms of the Expression of Key Genes Involved in Steroidogenesis and Gonadal Function in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Di Rosa, Viviana; López-Olmeda, Jose Fernando; Burguillo, Ana; Frigato, Elena; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Piferrer, Francesc; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    Fish present daily and seasonal rhythms in spawning and plasmatic levels of steroids that control reproduction. However, the existence of the rhythms of expression of the genes that underlie the endocrine mechanisms responsible for processes such as steroidogenesis and reproduction in fish have still been poorly explored to date. Here we investigated the daily pattern of the expression of key genes involved in sex steroid production that ultimately set the sex ratio in fish. Adult zebrafish were maintained under a 12:12 h light-dark cycle at a constant temperature of 27°C and were sampled every 4 h during a 24-hour cycle. The expression of key genes in the gonads and brains of female and male individuals were analyzed. In gonads, the expression of aromatase (cyp19a1a, ovarian aromatase) and the antimüllerian hormone (amh, testis) was rhythmic, with almost opposite acrophases: ZT 5:13 h (in the light phase) and ZT 15:39 h (at night), respectively. The expression of foxl2 (forkhead box L2) was also rhythmic in the ovary (acrophase located at ZT 5:02 h) and the expression of dmrt1 (doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 1) was rhythmic in testes (acrophase at ZT 18:36 h). In the brain, cyp19a1b (brain aromatase) and cyp11b (11beta-hydroxylase) presented daily differences, especially in males, where the expression peaked at night. These results provide the first evidence for marked time-of-the-day-dependent differences in the expression of the genes involved in sex ratio control, which should be considered when investigating processes such as reproduction, sex differentiation and steroidogenesis in fish. PMID:27322588

  11. The Study of Gonadal Hormonal Abnormalities and Sexual Dysfunction in HIV Positive Females: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Kallikadavil, Abithraj; Shivaswamy, Rajendraprasad; Menon, Vineetha Bharathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Every endocrine gland has been reported to be affected at varying rates in HIV. HIV is a highly stigmatized chronic disease with a substantial co-occurrence of mental and sexual health problems; however the sexual health problems in women have not been extensively studied. Aim To study the gonadal hormonal abnormalities and sexual dysfunction in HIV positive female patients and its possible association. Materials and Methods This descriptive/exploratory study was conducted in the Department of General Medicine at a tertiary care hospital from September 2013 to August 2015. The study group included 50 diagnosed HIV-positive patients. They were also subjected to specific questions regarding sexual dysfunction by female counselors using female sexual function index. Visits of the subjects were scheduled independent of the menstrual cycle. Hormonal levels (free testosterone, FSH, LH) were measured. Results Out of 50 patients, 26 patients in our study had sexual dysfunction (52%). Patients with age group between 30-39 years had the maximum sexual dysfunction compared to the other groups (<0.001). Patients with a CD4 count between 200 and 499 had the maximum sexual dysfunction (<0.02). Mean duration of HIV in the study was 30 months in sexual dysfunction group which was significant (p<0.005). Hormonal levels were found to be in normal range. All the study patients reported desire, arousal and lubrication problems whereas orgasm and satisfaction problems were noted in 60% patients with pain reported in 52%. Conclusion We identified that although the hormonal levels were in the normal range, they were comparatively in the lower range in the dysfunction group than the non-dysfunctional group. Both free testosterone and FSH levels were low indicating involvement of the pituitary rather than the gonads. We also conclude that duration of HIV and also level of CD4 count is related to sexual dysfunction. PMID:27190860

  12. Combined effects of androgen anabolic steroids and physical activity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Hengevoss, Jonas; Piechotta, Marion; Müller, Dennis; Hanft, Fabian; Parr, Maria Kristina; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Diel, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    Analysing effects of pharmaceutical substances and training on feedback mechanisms of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis may be helpful to quantify the benefit of strategies preventing loss of muscle mass, and in the fight against doping. In this study we analysed combined effects of anabolic steroids and training on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Therefore intact male Wistar rats were dose-dependently treated with metandienone, estradienedione and the selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) S-1. In serum cortisol, testosterone, 17β-estradiol (E2), prolactin, inhibin B, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and thyroxine (T4) concentrations were determined. Six human volunteers were single treated with 1-androstenedione. In addition abusing and clean body builders were analysed. Serum concentrations of inhibin B, IGF-1, cortisol, prolactin, T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), testosterone and LH were determined. In rats, administration of metandienone, estradienedione and S-1 resulted in an increase of muscle fiber diameter. Metandienone and estradienedione but not S-1 administration significantly decreases LH and inhibin B serum concentration. Administration of estradienedione resulted in an increase of E2 and S-1 in an increase of cortisol. Single administration of 1-androstenedione in humans decreased cortisol and inhibin B serum concentrations. LH was not affected. In abusing body builders a significantly decrease of LH, TSH and inhibin B and an increase of prolactin, IGF-1 and T4 was detected. In clean body builders only T4 and TSH were affected. PMID:25797375

  13. Daily Rhythms of the Expression of Key Genes Involved in Steroidogenesis and Gonadal Function in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Di Rosa, Viviana; López-Olmeda, Jose Fernando; Burguillo, Ana; Frigato, Elena; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Piferrer, Francesc; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    Fish present daily and seasonal rhythms in spawning and plasmatic levels of steroids that control reproduction. However, the existence of the rhythms of expression of the genes that underlie the endocrine mechanisms responsible for processes such as steroidogenesis and reproduction in fish have still been poorly explored to date. Here we investigated the daily pattern of the expression of key genes involved in sex steroid production that ultimately set the sex ratio in fish. Adult zebrafish were maintained under a 12:12 h light-dark cycle at a constant temperature of 27°C and were sampled every 4 h during a 24-hour cycle. The expression of key genes in the gonads and brains of female and male individuals were analyzed. In gonads, the expression of aromatase (cyp19a1a, ovarian aromatase) and the antimüllerian hormone (amh, testis) was rhythmic, with almost opposite acrophases: ZT 5:13 h (in the light phase) and ZT 15:39 h (at night), respectively. The expression of foxl2 (forkhead box L2) was also rhythmic in the ovary (acrophase located at ZT 5:02 h) and the expression of dmrt1 (doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 1) was rhythmic in testes (acrophase at ZT 18:36 h). In the brain, cyp19a1b (brain aromatase) and cyp11b (11beta-hydroxylase) presented daily differences, especially in males, where the expression peaked at night. These results provide the first evidence for marked time-of-the-day-dependent differences in the expression of the genes involved in sex ratio control, which should be considered when investigating processes such as reproduction, sex differentiation and steroidogenesis in fish. PMID:27322588

  14. Gonadal status and reproductive function following treatment for Hodgkin's disease in childhood: The Stanford experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ortin, T.T.; Shostak, C.A.; Donaldson, S.S. )

    1990-10-01

    To ascertain the impact of therapy on gonadal function and reproductive outcome among children treated for Hodgkin's disease, we reviewed the experience at Stanford University Medical Center during the years 1965-1986. There were 240 children 15 years of age or younger, 92 girls and 148 boys; with median follow-up of 9 years, maximum follow-up was 26 years. Of this cohort, data on gonadal function were available on 20 boys, 5 of whom were considered prepubescent; they had no clinical evidence of sexual maturation and were less than 13 years of age. Evaluation of the boys included testicular biopsy, semen analyses and the ability to procreate. Serum gonadotropin hormone levels (FSH, LH) were studied in 11 boys who also had semen analyses. Sexual maturation was attained in all boys without the need for androgen replacement. Among the eight boys treated with radiation alone, four were able to father a child (3 following 40-45 Gy pelvic radiation dose, 1 without pelvic radiation) from 3-19 years following treatment. Three others who received 30-44 Gy pelvic radiation were oligospermic when tested at 10 to 15 years post-treatment. Semen analyses in 10 of 12 (83%) boys who had been treated with six cycles of MOPP with or without pelvic radiation revealed absolute azoospermia with no evidence of recovery as along as 11 years of follow-up. Following prolonged azoospermia, 2 of the 12 boys (17%) had recovery of fertility, with normalization of sperm count and/or ability to procreate at 12 and 15 years following treatment. There was no correlation with serum gonadotropin levels and sterility. Data on menstrual history, pregnancy and offspring were available in 86 (92%) of the girls. Seventy-five of the 86 girls (87%) have normal menstrual function. However, none of the females who underwent pelvic radiation without prior oophoropexy has maintained ovarian function.

  15. Molecular Analysis of the P-M Gonadal Dysgenesis Cline in Eastern Australian Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Boussy, I. A.; Healy, M. J.; Oakeshott, J. G.; Kidwell, M. G.

    1988-01-01

    The latitudinal cline in P-M gonadal dysgenesis potential in eastern Australia has been shown to comprise three regions which are, from north to south respectively, P, Q, and M, with the P-to-Q and Q-to-M transitions occurring over relatively short distances. The P element complements of 30 lines from different regions of the cline were determined by molecular techniques. The total amount of P element-hybridizing DNA was high in all lines, and it did not correlate in any obvious way with the P-M phenotypes of individual lines. The number of potentially full-sized P elements per genome was high in lines from the P regions, but variable or low among lines from the Q and M regions, and thus declined overall from north to south. A particular P element deletion-derivative, the KP element, occurred in all the tested lines. The number of KP elements was low in lines from the P region, much higher in lines from the Q region, and highest among lines from the M region, thus forming a cline reciprocal to that of the full-sized P elements. Another transposable element, hobo, which has been described as causing dysgenic traits similar to those of P-M hybrid dysgenesis, was shown to be present in all lines and to vary among them in number, but not in any latitudinal pattern. The P-M cline in gonadal dysgenesis potential can be inferred to be based on underlying clinal patterns of genomic P element complements. P activity of a line was positively correlated with the number of full-sized P elements in the line, and negatively correlated with the number of KP elements. Among Q and M lines, regulatory ability was not correlated with numbers of KP elements. PMID:2842226

  16. Effects of dispersal status on pituitary and gonadal function in the male spotted hyena.

    PubMed

    Holekamp, Kay E; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2003-12-01

    Male spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) reach puberty at 24 months of age and then usually emigrate from their natal clans one to 52 months later. Recent work has shown that reproductive success is very low among adult males still residing in their natal groups, and it is similarly low among recent or "short-term" immigrants. Long-term immigrants father the vast majority of cubs born. Here we inquired whether these differences in reproductive success might be associated with variation among males in pituitary or gonadal function. In one free-living hyena population in Kenya, we compared baseline levels of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) among adult natal males, short-term immigrants, and long-term immigrants, and we also compared their pituitary and gonadal responses to GnRH challenge. Mean basal plasma LH values did not differ among groups, but mean basal T concentrations in long-term immigrants were higher than those in either natal males or short-term immigrants. Similarly, pituitary response to GnRH challenge did not vary significantly among groups, but testicular response to challenge was greater in long-term immigrants than in natal males or short-term immigrants. Thus adult natal and immigrant males exhibited similar pituitary function but testicular function was attenuated among adult males that had not yet left their natal groups and also among males attempting to become established in new social groups. This suggests that, like the act of emigration itself, the process of social integration during immigration may have important physiological consequences for male mammals transferring between groups. PMID:14644632

  17. Measuring Faecal Epi-Androsterone as an Indicator of Gonadal Activity in Spotted Hyenas (Crocuta crocuta)

    PubMed Central

    Pribbenow, Susanne; East, Marion L.; Ganswindt, Andre; Tordiffe, Adrian S. W.; Hofer, Heribert; Dehnhard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassays (EIA) that measure faecal testosterone metabolites (fTM) are useful tools to monitor gonadal activity. The aim of this study was to validate an “in-house” epiandrosterone EIA to monitor fTM in spotted hyenas. FTM were characterised in a male and a female hyena that each received an injection of 3H-testosterone. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses revealed a cluster of highly polar enzyme-hydrolysable hormone metabolite conjugates. We performed hydrolysis using β-glucuronidase to deconjugate metabolites and improve sensitivity of the assay. Because β-glucuronidase from Helix pomatia has been reported to bias testosterone measurements in some species, we compared the enzymatic activity of the commonly used β-glucuronidase extracted from H. pomatia with the same enzyme from Escherichia coli. Our results showed that β-glucuronidases from both sources produced similar results from spotted hyena faeces. We therefore hydrolysed samples with H. pomatia enzymes. HPLC analyses also demonstrated that following hydrolysis the epiandrosterone EIA measured significant amounts of immunoreactive metabolites corresponding to radiolabelled metabolites in both sexes. Additionally, HPLC and GC-MS analyses confirmed the presence of epiandrosterone in faeces of spotted hyenas. The biological relevance of the epiandrosterone EIA was validated by demonstrating (1) a significant increase in fTM levels in response to a testosterone injection within 16 h, (2) no biological responsiveness to an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection and (3) significant differences in fTM levels between juvenile males and adult immigrant males in a free-ranging wild population. Our results clearly demonstrate that the epiandrosterone EIA is a reliable non-invasive method to monitor gonadal activity in spotted hyenas. PMID:26107516

  18. Measuring Faecal Epi-Androsterone as an Indicator of Gonadal Activity in Spotted Hyenas (Crocuta crocuta).

    PubMed

    Pribbenow, Susanne; East, Marion L; Ganswindt, Andre; Tordiffe, Adrian S W; Hofer, Heribert; Dehnhard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassays (EIA) that measure faecal testosterone metabolites (fTM) are useful tools to monitor gonadal activity. The aim of this study was to validate an "in-house" epiandrosterone EIA to monitor fTM in spotted hyenas. FTM were characterised in a male and a female hyena that each received an injection of 3H-testosterone. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses revealed a cluster of highly polar enzyme-hydrolysable hormone metabolite conjugates. We performed hydrolysis using β-glucuronidase to deconjugate metabolites and improve sensitivity of the assay. Because β-glucuronidase from Helix pomatia has been reported to bias testosterone measurements in some species, we compared the enzymatic activity of the commonly used β-glucuronidase extracted from H. pomatia with the same enzyme from Escherichia coli. Our results showed that β-glucuronidases from both sources produced similar results from spotted hyena faeces. We therefore hydrolysed samples with H. pomatia enzymes. HPLC analyses also demonstrated that following hydrolysis the epiandrosterone EIA measured significant amounts of immunoreactive metabolites corresponding to radiolabelled metabolites in both sexes. Additionally, HPLC and GC-MS analyses confirmed the presence of epiandrosterone in faeces of spotted hyenas. The biological relevance of the epiandrosterone EIA was validated by demonstrating (1) a significant increase in fTM levels in response to a testosterone injection within 16 h, (2) no biological responsiveness to an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection and (3) significant differences in fTM levels between juvenile males and adult immigrant males in a free-ranging wild population. Our results clearly demonstrate that the epiandrosterone EIA is a reliable non-invasive method to monitor gonadal activity in spotted hyenas. PMID:26107516

  19. Mechanism of action of endosulfan as disruptor of gonadal steroidogenesis in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus.

    PubMed

    Da Cuña, Rodrigo H; Rey Vázquez, Graciela; Dorelle, Luciana; Rodríguez, Enrique M; Guimarães Moreira, Renata; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L

    2016-09-01

    The organochlorine pesticide endosulfan (ES) is used in several countries as a wide spectrum insecticide on crops with high commercial value. Due to its high toxicity to non-target animals, its persistence in the environment and its ability to act as an endocrine disrupting compound in fish, ES use is currently banned or restricted in many other countries. Previous studies on the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus have shown that waterborne exposure to ES can lead to both decreased pituitary FSH content and histological alterations of testes. As gonadotropin-stimulated sex steroids release from gonads was inhibited by ES in vitro, the aim of the present study was to elucidate possible mechanisms of disruption of ES on gonadal steroidogenesis in C. dimerus, as well as compare the action of the active ingredient (AI) with that of currently used commercial formulations (CF). Testis and ovary fragments were incubated with ES (AI or CF) and/or steroidogenesis activators or precursors. Testosterone and estradiol levels were measured in the incubation media. By itself, ES did not affect hormone levels. Co-incubation with LH and the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin caused a decrease of the stimulated sex steroids release. When co-incubated with precursors dehydroandrostenedione and 17αhydroxyprogesterone, ES did not affect the increase caused by their addition alone. No differences were observed between the AI and CFs, suggesting that the effect on steroidogenesis disruption is mainly caused by the AI. Results indicate that action of ES takes place downstream of LH-receptor activation and upstream of the studied steroidogenic enzymes. PMID:27235598

  20. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  1. Gonadal Mosaicism Induced by Chemical Treatment of Sperm in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lindsley, Dan L; Hardy, Robert W; Ripoll, Pedro; Lindsley, Dart

    2016-01-01

    Accurate interpretation of forward genetic screens of chromosomes exposed in mature spermatozoa to a mutagenic chemical requires understanding-incomplete to date-of how exposed chromosomes and their replicas proceed through early development stages from the fertilized ovum to establishment of the germline of the treated male's offspring. We describe a model for early embryonic development and establishment of the germline of Drosophila melanogaster and a model-validating experiment. Our model proposes that, barring repair, DNA strands modified by treatment with alkylating agents are stable and mutagenic. Each replication of an alkylated strand can result in misreplication and a mutant-bearing daughter nucleus. Daughter nuclei thenceforth replicate faithfully and their descendants comprise the embryonic syncytium. Of the 256 nuclei present after the eighth division, several migrate into the polar plasm at the posterior end of the embryo to found the germline. Based upon distribution of descendants of the alkylated strands, the misreplication rate, and the number of nuclei selected as germline progenitors, the frequency of gonadal mosaicism is predictable. Experimentally, we tracked chromosomes 2 and 3 from EMS-treated sperm through a number of generations, to characterize autosomal recessive lethal mutations and infer gonadal genetic content of the sons of treated males. Over 50% of 106 sons bore germlines that were singly, doubly, or triply mosaic for chromosome 2 or chromosome 3. These findings were consistent with our model, assuming a rate of misreplication between 0.65 and 0.80 at each replication of an alkylated strand. Crossing treated males to mismatch-repair-deficient females had no apparent effect on mutation rate. PMID:26163187

  2. Identification, expression, and regulation of anti-Müllerian hormone type-II receptor in the embryonic chicken gonad.

    PubMed

    Cutting, Andrew D; Ayers, Katie; Davidson, Nadia; Oshlack, Alicia; Doran, Tim; Sinclair, Andrew H; Tizard, Mark; Smith, Craig A

    2014-05-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) signaling is required for proper development of the urogenital system in vertebrates. In male mammals, AMH is responsible for regressing the Müllerian ducts, which otherwise develop into the fallopian tubes, oviducts, and upper vagina of the female reproductive tract. This role is highly conserved across higher vertebrates. However, AMH is required for testis development in fish species that lack Müllerian ducts, implying that AMH signaling has broader roles in other vertebrates. AMH signals through two serine/threonine kinase receptors. The primary AMH receptor, AMH receptor type-II (AMHR2), recruits the type I receptor, which transduces the signal intracellularly. To enhance our understanding of AMH signaling and the potential role of AMH in gonadal sex differentiation, we cloned chicken AMHR2 cDNA and examined its expression profile during gonadal sex differentiation. AMHR2 is expressed in the gonads and Müllerian ducts of both sexes but is more strongly expressed in males after the onset of gonadal sex differentiation. In the testes, the AMHR2 protein colocalizes with AMH, within Sertoli cells of the testis cords. AMHR2 protein expression is up-regulated in female embryos treated with the estrogen synthesis inhibitor fadrozole. Conversely, knockdown of the key testis gene DMRT1 leads to disruption of AMHR2 expression in the developing seminiferous cords of males. These results indicate that AMHR2 is developmentally regulated during testicular differentiation in the chicken embryo. AMH signaling may be important for gonadal differentiation in addition to Müllerian duct regression in birds. PMID:24621923

  3. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal development in adult common carp from contaminated and reference sites in Lake Mead, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Draugelis-Dale, R.; Barry, C.E.; Scott, Foott J.; Wainscott, M.R.; Gross, T.S.; Covay, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that exposure to sublethal concentrations of contaminants alters the gonadal condition of feral common carp Cyprinus carpio. Adult common carp in Lake Mead, Nevada, were collected from a contaminated site (Las Vegas Bay) that receives municipal and industrial effluent and from a reference site (Overton Arm) with a relatively low level of contamination. Fish were sampled seven times over a 1-year period extending over two separate spawning seasons. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal and germ cell development were determined. In males, the pattern of seasonal changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was similar between the sites and showed no clear association with site-specific seasonal temperature profiles. However, Las Vegas Bay males had consistently lower GSI values and, on one of the sampling dates, a lower proportion of sperm relative to other germ cell stages (determined histologically). Further, Las Vegas Bay males had a higher incidence of gonadal macrophage aggregates, which are putative tissue biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fishes. In females, seasonal GSI profiles, the frequency of fish with postovulatory follicles (an index of spawning activity), and the timing of new follicle recruitment all showed differences between sites, but these differences generally matched differences in water temperature profile. Also, the peak size-frequency of full-grown follicles did not differ between sites, and estimates of fecundity for the second spawning season indicated that females from the reference site unexpectedly produced a lower number of gametes, Overall, site differences in gonadal condition were observed in carp of both sexes but they seemed to be associated with site differences in contaminant levels only in males. The apparent lack of association between contaminant level and gonadal condition in female carp from mildly mesotrophic Lake Mead may indicate a lack of contaminant effects in

  4. Transcription of key genes regulating gonadal steroidogenesis in control and ketoconazole- or vinclozolin-exposed fathead minnows

    SciTech Connect

    Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Blake, Lindsey S.; Brodin, Jeffrey; Greene, Katie J.; Knoebl, Iris; Miracle, Ann L.; Martinovic, Dalma; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated changes in the expression of steroidogenesis-related genes in male fathead minnows exposed to ketoconazole (KTC) or vinclozolin (VZ) for 21 days. The aim was to evaluate links between molecular changes and higher level outcomes after exposure to endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) with different modes of action. To aid our analysis and interpretation of EAC-related effects, we first examined variation in the relative abundance of steroidogenesis-related gene transcripts in the gonads of male and female fathead minnows as a function of age, gonad development, and spawning status, independent of EAC exposure. Gonadal expression of several genes varied with age and/or gonadal somatic index in either males or females. However, with the exception of aromatase, steroidogenesis-related gene expression did not vary with spawning status. Following the baseline experiments, expression of the selected genes in male fathead minnows exposed to KTC or VZ was evaluated in the context of effects observed at higher levels of organization. Exposure to KTC elicited changes in gene transcription that were consistent with an apparent compensatory response to the chemical's anticipated direct inhibition of steroidogenic enzyme activity. Exposure to VZ, an antiandrogen expected to indirectly impact steroidogenesis, increased pituitary expression of follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit as well as testis expression of 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and luteinizing hormone receptor transcripts. Results of this study contribute to ongoing research aimed at understanding responses of the teleost hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to different types of EACs and how changes in molecular endpoints translate into apical outcomes reflective of either adverse effect or compensation.

  5. Dose-dependent compensation responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis of zebrafish exposed to the fungicide prochloraz.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yao; Giesy, John P; Wang, Jianghua; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-03-01

    Compensation responses and adaptability of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis have been reported in fish exposed to model chemicals, however due to its importance in predictive toxicology further study was needed to elucidate details of the integrated responses to model chemicals. Transcriptional profiles of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2) in plasma were measured in male and female zebrafish that had been exposed to one of seven concentrations of the fungicide, prochloraz: low (1, 3 or 10μg/L), medium (30 or 100μg/L) or high concentrations (300 or 1000μg/L) for 4 days. In zebrafish exposed to the low and medium concentrations of prochloraz, compensation responses of the HPG axis through transcription, occurred in brain (up-regulation of gnrh, gnrhr and lhβ) and both brain and gonad (up-regulation of steroidogenic genes), respectively. Concentrations of E2 in plasma and expression of estrogen receptor 1 (er1) and vitellogenins (vtgs) in liver did not change. This result suggested that compensatory responses were successful in maintaining homeostasis. In zebrafish exposed to the two greatest concentrations, compensatory responses occurred in brain, gonad and liver through up-regulation of er2β, but it failed to maintain concentration of E2 in blood plasma and expression of er1 and vtgs in liver. Collectedly, the results observed in this study allowed characterization of dose-dependent compensatory responses along the HPG axis and liver and identified key linkages between compensatory responses occurring in brain, gonad and liver after exposure to prochloraz. PMID:25625521

  6. Ligula intestinalis infection is associated with alterations of both brain and gonad aromatase expression in roach (Rutilus rutilus).

    PubMed

    Boulange-Lecomte, C; Geraudie, P; Forget-Leray, J; Gerbron, M; Minier, C

    2011-09-01

    The tapeworm Ligula intestinalis commonly infests roach (Rutilus rutilus) and is responsible for the inhibition of gonad development. In order to better understand the effect of the plerocercoid on fish physiology, and to discriminate parasitization effects from those of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC), Cyp19b and Cyp19a aromatase expression was investigated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in brain and gonads of ligulosed roach, caught from a reference site. Data were compared to reproductive and endocrine endpoints previously reported in a larger cohort study (including the sampled population of the present one), such as gonadosomatic index, Fulton index, gonadal histology, plasma sex steroid levels and brain aromatase activity. A decrease in Cyp19b expression in the brain of infected fish was demonstrated, in agreement with the reduction of aromatase activity previously described. In contrast, Cyp19a expression in the gonads appeared to be enhanced in ligulosed fish, in accordance with the presence of immature but differentiated sexual tissues. Together these results show that: (1) L. intestinalis infestation results in an alteration of aromatase expression which, in particular, may have profound effects on the fish brain; and (2) L. intestinalis infection must be considered as a major confounding factor in ecotoxicological studies using aromatase expression as an EDC biomarker. Moreover, the concordance between activity and expression--investigated for the first time in the same population--gives a functional relevance to the transcript aromatase dosage in the brain. Finally, quantitative PCR was confirmed as a sensitive approach, enabling aromatase status to be defined in the poorly developed gonads of ligulosed individuals. PMID:21062527

  7. Phenotypic correlations of somatic and gonad traits of sea urchins Glyptocidaris crenularis in two sampled periods: first insight into its breeding and aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shibin; Tian, Xiaofei; Zhao, Chong; Zhou, Haisen; Zhang, Weijie; Feng, Wenping; Chang, Yaqing

    2014-03-01

    Prior knowledge of the correlations among commercially important traits in Glyptocidaris crenularis can be used to guide development of breeding and aquaculture programs for this species. We evaluated the phenotypic correlations between somatic and gonadal traits in G. crenularis during two sample periods (October 2010 and April 2011). The coefficients of variation (CV%) for body weight (BW), redness ( a*), yellowness ( b*), gonad wet weight (GW), and gonad index (GI) were >20% in both periods, while those of other traits were very low. GW was significantly correlated with somatic traits (diameter, height, and body weight) in both periods, although the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.473 to 0.636 ( P <0.01). Gonad moisture content (GC), a*, and lightness ( L*) were not significantly correlated with somatic traits ( P >0.05). The color trait b* was negatively correlated with somatic traits (test diameter, test height, and body weight) during the period when the gonads were well developed (April 2011, P <0.05). We observed little difference in the nature of the phenotypic correlations between the two sample periods. The high variation in the somatic and gonad weight traits in G. crenularis suggests there is considerable potential for selective breeding. However, our results suggest that gonad quality traits cannot be selected indirectly by selecting for body weight. Our study provides an insight into the method for improving the breeding and aquaculture of G. crenulari.

  8. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  9. Vitellogenin, sex steroid levels and gonadal biomarkers in wild Solea solea and Solea senegalensis from NW Mediterranean fishing grounds.

    PubMed

    Solé, M; Mañanós, E; Blázquez, M

    2016-06-01

    Specimens of Solea solea and Solea senegalenesis at different developmental stages were obtained from seven fishing grounds along the NW Mediterranean. Gonad development in males was classified into five stages, from early spermatogenesis to recovery, while four stages were considered in females, from growth to maturation. Vitellogenin (VTG) and sex steroid levels including an estrogen (estradiol, E2), two androgens (testosterone, T and 11-ketotestosterone, 11KT) and a progestin (17,20β-dihydroxy pregn-4-en-3-one, 17,20β-P or maturation inducing steroid, MIS) were analysed in plasma. Their levels were more clearly related to the developmental stage of the gonads than to the sampling site characteristics. In addition, enzyme activities in gonads, such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) were gender-dependent and higher in males than in females. Gonadal glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was enhanced in the most anthropogenic impacted sites. VTG was absent in males and very low or undetectable in immature females, while mature females exhibited high VTG levels, clearly related to the gonado-somatic index. Sex steroid levels (ng/ml) varied in males and females regardless of the species. E2 levels in females ranged from 0.22 to 6.98 while in males ranged from 0.11 to 0.27. T varied from 0.12 to 0.93 in females and from 0.56 to 1.36 in males, while 11KT in females fluctuated from 0.03 to 0.57 and from 0.26 to 6.42 in males. Similarly, MIS in females ranged from 0.75 to 3.71 and from 1.12 to 5.61 in males. The lack of endocrine disturbances was confirmed by histological examination of the gonads. This study informs on basal sex hormone levels and enzyme activities during gonadal maturation of wild Solea spp. that can be useful in the identification and further remediation of possible pollution events. PMID:27088613

  10. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis with Turner`s phenotype and mosaic karyotype

    SciTech Connect

    Tarim, O.; Lieber, E. |

    1994-09-01

    A 14 8/12-year-old white female patient was evaluated for short stature and amenorrhea. The past and family history were unremarkable. The physical examination revealed a short girl (131.4 cm; height age: 9) with a weight of 39.5kg (weight age: 11-6/12). The blood pressure was in the normal range in all four extremities and the peripheral pulses were positive. She had stigmata of Turner`s syndrome including short neck and slight webbing, cubitus valgus, and shield chest. There was no heart murmur. The only pubertal sign was pubic hair of Tanner stage II. The chromosome study showed a mosaic pattern. A total of 67 cultured lymphocytes from peripheral blood were analyzed which revealed 13 cells with 45,XO; 14 with 46,XY,r(Y); 39 with 46,XY. The patient had a normal vagina and hypoplastic uterus by sonogram. The diagnosis of mixed gonadal dysgenesis was confirmed by exploratory laparotomy and bilateral gonadectomy. The histologic examination of the gonads showed a testicle on the left and a streak ovary on right. The karyotype of the testicular tissue revealed 45,XO in 32 out of 40 and 46,XY in the remaining 8 cells. Pre-operative hormonal evaluation showed elevated gonadotropin levels of FSH 73.5 and LH 12.5 mIU/ml, low estradiol level of 5 pg/ml, normal testosterone level of 18 and DHEA-S of 181 mcg/dl, and normal thyroid function test with T4 of 6 mcg/dl and TSH of 4.2 mIU/ml. Her bone age was 12 years. The patient was also found to have subnormal growth hormone (GH) secretion by overnight GH study (1.55 ng/ml), clonidine stimulation test (7.3ng/ml), and insulin stimulation test (9.2 ng/ml). She responded well to human synthetic GH treatment with a growth velocity of 11.5 cm in two years. Replacement of sex hormones will be initiated after the completion of growth.

  11. Uptake of benzo(a)pyrene by gonadal tissue of flatfish (family pleuronectidae) and its effects on subsequent egg development

    SciTech Connect

    Hose, J.E.; Hannah, J.B.; Landolt, M.L.; Miller, B.S.; Felton, S.P.; Iwaoka, W.T.

    1981-06-01

    Accumulation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) by sexually mature flatfish gonad, its transfer to developing gametes, and its subsequent effects on developing embryos were studied. Thin-layer chromatography revealed both unmetabolized BaP and polar metabolites in the ovary, wolffian ducts, oocytes, and semen of English sole 24 h after ip injection with 200 ..mu..Ci 1/sup 3/H)BaP. Concentrations of BaP and its metabolites were 3 to 11 times higher in oocytes and semen than in gonadal tissue. Fertilized eggs from flathead sole that had been fed 4.0 mg BaP 5 h before spawning demonstrated a significantly lower (p <0.001) hatching success (11.9%) than eggs from control fish (56.6%). Morphological abnormalities were found in only 1.6% of control embryos but in 5.6% of embryos from treated females.

  12. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J.; Chandler, Jane N.; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  13. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana).

    PubMed

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J; Chandler, Jane N; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-05-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production. PMID:27080552

  14. Histochemical and immunohistochemical studies of the gonads and paramesonephric ducts of male and female hatchlings of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Sarı, F; Kaska, Y

    2016-08-01

    The sex of neonatal sea turtles is difficult to determine, because neonates lack heteromorphic sex chromosomes and dimorphic external characteristics; internal dimorphic morphology is defined at hatching. We used histochemical staining and made measurements in the gonads and paramesonephric ducts (PD) of both sexes to determine structural differences in female and male loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) hatchlings. We detected differences in the gonads and PD between the sexes including the amounts of mucopolysaccharides, collagen and elastic fibers. We determined that the thickness of the gonadal cortex and the diameter of the PD lumen are reliable sex-specific characteristics. We also assessed immunolocalization of aromatase, an enzyme complex that converts androgens to estrogens, and found differences in the localization and intensity of aromatase immunostaining in the gonads and PD of female and male hatchlings. Comprehensive studies of the sexual differences of sea turtles are important for conservation programs. PMID:27437606

  15. A time-course analysis of effects of the steroidogenesis inhibitor ketoconazole on components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of fathead minnows (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to evaluate temporal effects of the model steroidogenesis inhibitor ketoconazole (KTC) on aspects of reproductive endocrine function controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Ketoconazo...

  16. Influence of seasonal and environmental patterns on the lipid content and fatty acid profiles in gonads of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Siliani, Silvia; Melis, Riccardo; Loi, Barbara; Guala, Ivan; Baroli, Maura; Sanna, Roberta; Uzzau, Sergio; Roggio, Tonina; Addis, Maria Filippa; Anedda, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    The influence of seasonal and environmental patterns on the lipid fraction of Paracentrotus lividus gonads was investigated. For this purpose, sea urchins were collected monthly over a year from two Sardinian coastal areas. Total lipids in gonads follow an annual cyclical trend, described by a sine wave curve, that it is more influenced by season than by growing area. The lowest lipid content in gonads corresponds to a high percentage of mature reproductive stages (i.e. winter season), independently of sampling area. A variation in total lipid content follows a change in photoperiod, while it is related to sea surface temperature. Multivariate analysis on fatty acid profiles of gonads, detected by gas chromatography, clusters the collected specimens mainly according to the sampling area, secondly according to the sites within the same sampling area and finally according to season. PMID:26713559

  17. A Time-course Analysis of Effects of the Steroidogenesis Inhibitor Ketoconazole on Components of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal Axis of Fathead Minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to evaluate temporal effects of the model steroidogenesis inhibitor ketoconazole (KTC) on aspects of reproductive endocrine function controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Ketoconaz...

  18. A Time-course Analysis of Effects of the Steroidogenesis Inhibitor Ketoconazole on Components of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal Axis of Fathead Minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to evaluate temporal effects of the model steroidogenesis inhibitor ketoconazole (KTC) on aspects of reproductive endocrine function controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Ketoconazo...

  19. Transcriptional regulatory dynamics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its peripheral pathways as impacted by the 3-beta HSD inhibitor Trilostane in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To identify transcription factors (TFs), members of hypothalamic-pituitary- gonadal axis (HPG-axis), TF networks and signaling pathways underlying generalized effects of 3-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B) inhibition, reproductively mature zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exp...

  20. Sex-Biased miRNAs in Gonad and Their Potential Roles for Testis Development in Yellow Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Jing; Wu, Junjie; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Shuting; Ma, Wenge; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Weimin; Gui, Jian-Fang; Mei, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Recently, YY super-male yellow catfish had been created by hormonal-induced sex reversal and sex-linked markers, which provides a promising research model for fish sex differentiation and gonad development, especially for testis development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been revealed to play crucial roles in the gene regulation and gonad development in vertebrates. In this study, three small RNA libraries constructed from gonad tissues of XX female, XY male and YY super-male yellow catfish were sequenced. The sequencing data generated a total of 384 conserved miRNAs and 113 potential novel miRNAs, among which 23, 30 and 14 miRNAs were specifically detected in XX ovary, XY testis, and YY testis, respectively. We observed relative lower expression of several miR-200 family members, including miR-141 and miR-429 in YY testis compared with XY testis. Histological analysis indicated a higher degree of testis maturity in YY super-males compared with XY males, as shown by larger spermatogenic cyst, more spermatids and fewer spermatocytes in the spermatogenic cyst. Moreover, five miR-200 family members were significantly up-regulated in testis when treated by 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), high dose of which will impair testis development and cell proliferation. The down-regulation of miR-141 and 429 coincides with the progression of testis development in both yellow catfish and human. At last, the expression pattern of nine arbitrarily selected miRNAs detected by quantitative RT-PCR was consistent with the Solexa sequencing results. Our study provides a comprehensive miRNA transcriptome analysis for gonad of yellow catfish with different sex genotypes, and identifies a number of sex-biased miRNAs, some of that are potentially involved in testis development and spermatogenesis. PMID:25229553

  1. Ultrastructural changes and programmed cell death of trophocytes in the gonad of Isohypsibius granulifer granulifer Thulin, 1928 (Tardigrada, Eutardigrada, Isohypsibiidae).

    PubMed

    Poprawa, Izabela; Hyra, Marta; Kszuk-Jendrysik, Michalina; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena Maria

    2015-03-01

    The studies on the fates of the trophocytes, the apoptosis and autophagy in the gonad of Isohypsibius granulifer granulifer have been described using transmission electron microscope, light and fluorescent microscopes. The results presented here are the first that are connected with the cell death of nurse cells in the gonad of tardigrades. However, here we complete the results presented by Węglarska (1987). The reproductive system of I. g. granulifer contains a single sack-like hermaphroditic gonad and a single gonoduct. The gonad is composed of three parts: a germarium filled with proliferating germ cells (oogonia); a vitellarium that has clusters of female germ cells (the region of oocytes development); and a male part filled with male germ cells in which the sperm cells develop. The trophocytes (nurse cells) show distinct alterations during all of the stages of oogenesis: previtello-, vitello- and choriogenesis. During previtellogenesis the female germ cells situated in the vitellarium are connected by cytoplasmic bridges, and form clusters of cells. No ultrastructural differences appear among the germ cells in a cluster during this stage of oogenesis. In early vitellogenesis, the cells in each cluster start to grow and numerous organelles gradually accumulate in their cytoplasm. However, at the beginning of the middle of vitellogenesis, one cell in each cluster starts to grow in order to differentiate into oocyte, while the remaining cells are trophocytes. Eventually, the cytoplasmic bridges between the oocyte and trophocytes disappear. Autophagosomes also appear in the cytoplasm of nurse cells together with many degenerating organelles. The cytoplasm starts to shrink, which causes the degeneration of the cytoplasmic bridges between trophocytes. Apoptosis begins when the cytoplasm of these cells is full of autophagosomes/autolysosomes and causes their death. PMID:25543879

  2. Effects of 17 α-methyltestosterone on transcriptome, gonadal histology and sex steroid hormones in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiancao; Liu, Shaozhen; Zhang, Yingying; Yang, Yanping; Yuan, Cong; Chen, Shu; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-09-01

    The 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic androgen, is known for its interference effects on the endocrine system. Aiming to investigate the transcriptome profiling of gonads induced by MT and to understand the molecular mechanism by which MT causes adverse effects in fish, transcriptome profiling of gonads, gonadal histology and the sex steroid hormones in response to MT were analyzed in Gobiocypris rarus. Eight libraries, 4 from the ovary and 4 from the testis, were constructed and sequenced and then a total number of clean reads per sample ranging from 7.03 to 9.99 million were obtained. In females, a total of 191 transcripts were differentially regulated by MT, consisting of 102 up-regulated transcripts and 89 down-regulated transcripts. In males, 268 differentially expressed genes with 108 up-regulated and 160 down-regulated were detected upon MT exposure. Testosterone serves as the major sex steroid hormone content in G. rarus of both sexes. The concentrations of 17β-estradiol, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone were significantly increased in females and decreased in males after MT exposure. Interestingly, MT caused a decreased number of vitellogenic oocytes in the ovary and spermatozoa in the testis. After MT exposure, four differentially expressed genes (ndufa4, slc1a3a, caskin-2 and rpt3) were found in G. rarus of both sexes. Overall, we suggest that MT seemed to affect genes involved in pathways related to physiological processes in the gonads of G. rarus. These processes include the electron transfer of Complex IV, endothelial cell activation, axon growth and guidance, and proteasome assembly and glutamate transport metabolic. PMID:26070167

  3. In Vivo Administration of Scallop GnRH-Like Peptide Influences on Gonad Development in the Yesso Scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis

    PubMed Central

    Nagasawa, Kazue; Oouchi, Hitoshi; Itoh, Naoki; Takahashi, Keisuke G.; Osada, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Existing research on the role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in bivalve reproduction is inadequate, even though a few bivalve GnRH orthologs have been cloned. The objective of this paper was to elucidate the in vivo effect of GnRH administration in Yesso scallop reproduction. We performed in vivo administration of scallop GnRH (py-GnRH) synthetic peptide into the developing gonad, and analyzed its effect on gonad development for 6 weeks during the reproductive season. The resulting sex ratio in the GnRH administered (GnRH(+)) group might be male biased, whereas the control (GnRH(-)) group had an equal sex ratio throughout the experiment. The gonad index (GI) of males in the GnRH(+) group increased from week 2 to 24.8% at week 6. By contrast the GI of the GnRH(-) group peaked in week 4 at 16.6%. No significant difference was seen in female GI between the GnRH(+) and GnRH(-) groups at any sampling point. Oocyte diameter in the GnRH(+) group remained constant (about 42–45 μm) throughout the experiment, while in the GnRH(-) group it increased from 45 to 68 μm i.e. normal oocyte growth. The number of spermatogonia in the germinal acini of males in the GnRH(+) group increased from week 4 to 6. Hermaphrodites appeared in the GnRH(+) group in weeks 2 and 4. Their gonads contained many apoptotic cells including oocytes. In conclusion, this study suggests that py-GnRH administration could have a potential to accelerate spermatogenesis and cause an inhibitory effect on oocyte growth in scallops. PMID:26030928

  4. Loss of DNase II function in the gonad is associated with a higher expression of antimicrobial genes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsiang; Lai, Huey-Jen; Lin, Tai-Wei; Chen, Chang-Shi; Lo, Szecheng J

    2015-08-15

    Three waves of apoptosis shape the development of Caenorhabditis elegans. Although the exact roles of the three DNase II genes (nuc-1, crn-6 and crn-7), which are known to mediate degradation of apoptotic DNA, in the embryonic and larval phases of apoptosis have been characterized, the DNase II acting in the third wave of germ cell apoptosis remains undetermined. In the present study, we performed in vitro and in vivo assays on various mutant nematodes to demonstrate that NUC-1 and CRN-7, but not CRN-6, function in germ cell apoptosis. In addition, in situ DNA-break detection and anti-phosphorylated ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) staining illustrated the sequential and spatially regulated actions of NUC-1 and CRN-7, at the pachytene zone of the gonad and at the loop respectively. In line with the notion that UV-induced DNA fragment accumulation in the gonad activates innate immunity responses, we also found that loss of NUC-1 and CRN-7 lead to up-regulation of antimicrobial genes (abf-2, spp-1, nlp-29, cnc-2, and lys-7). Our observations suggest that an incomplete digestion of DNA fragments resulting from the absence of NUC-1 or CRN-7 in the gonad could induce the ERK signalling, consequently activating antimicrobial gene expression. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate for the first time that nuc-1 and crn-7 play a role in degrading apoptotic DNA in distinct sites of the gonad, and act as negative regulators of innate immunity in C. elegans. PMID:26251453

  5. Laparoscopic inferior mesenteric to gonadal vein end-to-side bypass: a new attempt for nutcracker syndrome treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Liu, Ning; Chen, Shuqiu; Liu, Jin; Sha, Guozhu; Zhu, Weidong; Xu, Bin

    2015-08-01

    The nutcracker syndrome (NCS) is because of the compression of the left renal vein when it passes between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. The treatment of NCS is controversial, and conservative, endovascular stent implantation, open surgical, and laparoscopic treatments have been previously described. In this study, we present a new method of conducting end-to-side anastomosis between the inferior mesenteric and left gonadal vein. The proposed method was proven feasible for treating NCS. PMID:26072721

  6. On gonadic maturation and reproductive strategy in deep-sea benthic octopus Graneledone macrotyla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Ángel; Sieiro, María Pilar; Roura, Álvaro; Portela, Julio M.; del Río, José Luís

    2013-09-01

    The new information reported in this paper is based on five maturing and mature females of the large-tuberculate octopus Graneledone macrotyla. These specimens were caught in bottom trawl surveys ATLANTIS 2009 (February 24 to April 1, 2009) and ATLANTIS 2010 (March 9 to April 5, 2010) carried out off the Argentinean Economic Exclusive Zone. Capture depth ranged from 475 to 921 m and sea bottom temperature between 2.8 and 3.1 °C. Development of the complex ovary, oviducts, and oviducal glands during gonadic maturation is described. The absence of spermathecae in the oviducal glands and the presence of fertilized eggs inside the ovary suggested that fertilization took place within the ovary. Histological techniques showed the presence of four types of oocytes. Maturing oocyte size-frequency distribution was polymodal. Fluorescence reaction showed that atresia occurred in both early and later oocyte maturation stages. Atresia affected 48-55 % of the initial number of oocytes. The maximum observed potential fecundity was estimated at 250-300 eggs. G. macrotyla showed a group-synchronous ovulation pattern, regulative atresia, and a batching spawning pattern with a few egg batches spawned intermittently over an extended period of spawning.

  7. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells express functional pituitary and gonadal sex hormone receptors: Therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Poniewierska-Baran, Agata; Schneider, Gabriela; Sun, Wenyue; Abdelbaset-Ismail, Ahmed; Barr, Frederic G; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2016-05-01

    Evidence has accumulated that sex hormones play an important role in several types of cancer. Because they are also involved in skeletal muscle development and regeneration, we were therefore interested in their potential involvement in the pathogenesis of human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a skeletal muscle tumor. In the present study, we employed eight RMS cell lines (three fusion positive and five fusion negative RMS cell lines) and mRNA samples obtained from RMS patients. The expression of sex hormone receptors was evaluated by RT-PCR and their functionality by chemotaxis, adhesion and direct cell proliferation assays. We report here for the first time that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors are expressed in established human RMS cell lines as well as in primary tumor samples isolated from RMS patients. We also report that human RMS cell lines responded both to pituitary and gonadal sex hormone stimulation by enhanced proliferation, chemotaxis, cell adhesion and phosphorylation of MAPKp42/44 and AKT. In summary, our results indicate that sex hormones are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of RMS, and therefore, their therapeutic application should be avoided in patients that have been diagnosed with RMS. PMID:26983595

  8. Influence of gonadal hormones on the behavioral effects of intermittent hypoxia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Richelle; Magalang, Ulysses J.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive upper airway obstruction resulting in cyclic intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep in affected individuals. OSA occurs more frequently in postmenopausal than premenopausal women and the severity of OSA increases after menopause. Gonadal hormones can influence brain and behavior; testosterone and estrogens in particular can enhance spatial learning and memory. We hypothesized that estrogens may protect mice from IH-induced hippocampal morphological and behavioral changes. To test this hypothesis we exposed intact or gonadectomized male and female mice to room air or IH [15 cycles/h, 8 h/day, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) nadir of 5%] for a total of 30 days. During the final 4 days of IH, mice were tested for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. After cessation of IH exposure mice were tested on the Barnes maze and passive avoidance tests to assess learning and memory. Ovariectomy paired with IH treatment, impaired spatial learning and memory compared to all other female groups. Intact male mice receiving IH treatment also had impaired learning and memory compared with intact or castrated male mice exposed to room air. Learning and memory changes were mirrored by changes in basilar dendritic length of the CA1 region of the hippocampus. These data suggest that estrogens provide protection against IH-induced deficits, whereas androgens partially exacerbate IH-induced deficits on learning and memory. PMID:25552660

  9. CACN-1 is required in the Caenorhabditis elegans somatic gonad for proper oocyte development.

    PubMed

    Cecchetelli, Alyssa D; Hugunin, Julie; Tannoury, Hiba; Cram, Erin J

    2016-06-01

    CACN-1/Cactin is a conserved protein identified in a genome-wide screen for genes that regulate distal tip cell migration in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In addition to possessing distal tip cells that migrate past their correct stopping point, animals depleted of cacn-1 are sterile. In this study, we show that CACN-1 is needed in the soma for proper germ line development and maturation. When CACN-1 is depleted, sheath cells are absent and/or abnormal. When sheath cells are absent, hermaphrodites produce sperm, but do not switch appropriately to oocyte production. When sheath cells are abnormal, some oocytes develop but are not successfully ovulated and undergo endomitotic reduplication (Emo). Our previous proteomic studies show that CACN-1 interacts with a network of splicing factors. Here, these interactors were screened using RNAi. Depletion of many of these factors led to missing or abnormal sheath cells and germ line defects, particularly absent and/or Emo oocytes. These results suggest CACN-1 is part of a protein network that influences somatic gonad development and function through alternative splicing or post-transcriptional gene regulation. PMID:27046631

  10. Age-related changes in gonadal and serotonergic axes of broiler breeder roosters.

    PubMed

    Avital-Cohen, N; Heiblum, R; Argov-Argaman, N; Rosenstrauch, A; Chaiseha, Y; Mobarkey, N; Rozenboim, I

    2013-04-01

    Fertility of domestic roosters decreases at ≈ 50 wk of age. In a previous study on aging white leghorn roosters, low fertility was accompanied by low levels of both hypothalamic vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary prolactin (PRL) mRNA expression; however, their role in aging broiler breeder rooster reproduction is still unclear. In this study we compared reproductive activities of young (35-wk-old) and aging (73-wk-old) broiler breeder roosters. Weekly semen volume; concentration and ejaculation grade; and concentrations of plasma testosterone, estradiol, and PRL were examined. Every other week, 10 roosters from each group were euthanized, their testes weighed, and hypothalamus and pituitary removed to determine mRNA expression of hypothalamic GnRH-I, pituitary FSH, pituitary LH, hypothalamic VIP, and pituitary PRL. Aging roosters had significantly lower testis weight and semen volume, sperm concentration, ejaculation grade and plasma testosterone and low hypothalamic GnRH-I, pituitary FSH, and pituitary LH mRNA expression than young roosters (P ≤ 0.05). Aging roosters had higher concentrations of plasma estradiol and PRL and higher hypothalamic VIP and pituitary PRL mRNA expression than young roosters (P ≤ 0.05). We suggest that PRL, which is known to inhibit the gonadal axis, and its releasing factor, VIP, play an important role in the reproductive failure associated with age in broiler breeder roosters. PMID:23411011

  11. A relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide from the starfish Aphelasterias japonica.

    PubMed

    Mita, Masatoshi; Katayama, Hidekazu

    2016-04-01

    Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) in starfish is the first identified invertebrate gonadotropin responsible for final gamete maturation. In this study, a new ortholog RGP was identified from Aphelasterias japonica. The DNA sequence encoding A. japonica RGP (AjaRGP) consists of 342 base pairs with an open reading frame encoding a peptide of 113 amino acids (aa), including a signal peptide (26aa), B-chain (20aa), C-peptide (42aa), and A-chain (25aa). AjaRGP is a heterodimeric peptide with disulfide cross-linkages. Comparing with Asterias amurensis RGP (AamRGP) and Patiria (=Asterina) pectinifera RGP (PpeRGP), the amino acid identity levels of AjaRGP with respect to AamRGP and PpeRGP are 84% and 58% for the A-chain and 90% and 68% for the B-chain, respectively. This suggests that AjaRGP is closer to AmaRGP rather than PpeRGP. Although chemical synthetic AjaRGP can induce gamete spawning and oocyte maturation in ovarian fragments of A. japonica, the ovary of P. pectinifera fails to respond to AjaRGP. This suggests that AjaRGP acts species-specifically. PMID:26944483

  12. A new relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide identified in the starfish Asterias amurensis.

    PubMed

    Mita, Masatoshi; Daiya, Misaki; Haraguchi, Shogo; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2015-10-01

    Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) of starfish Asterina pectinifera was the first invertebrate gonadotropin to have its chemical structure identified. However, it is unclear whether gonadotropic hormones in other species starfish are relaxin-like peptides. Thus, this study tried to identify the molecular structure of gonadotropic hormone in Asterias amurensis. As a result, we identified A. amurensis gonadotropic hormone as the RGP (AamRGP). The DNA sequence encoding AamRGP consisted of 330 base pairs with an open reading frame encoding a peptide of 109 amino acids (aa), including a signal peptide (26 aa), B-chain (20 aa), C-peptide (38 aa) and A-chain (25 aa). Comparing with A. pectinifera RGP (ApeRGP), the amino acid identity levels between AmaRGP and ApeRGP were 58% for the A-chain and 73% for the B-chain. Furthermore, chemical synthetic AamRGP induced gamete spawning and oocyte maturation in ovarian fragments of A. amurensis. In contrast, the ovary of A. pectinifera failed to respond to the AamRGP. This suggested that AamRGP is a new relaxin-like peptide. PMID:26163025

  13. Endothelium and NOTCH specify and amplify aorta-gonad-mesonephros-derived hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hadland, Brandon K; Varnum-Finney, Barbara; Poulos, Michael G; Moon, Randall T; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Bernstein, Irwin D

    2015-05-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) first emerge during embryonic development within vessels such as the dorsal aorta of the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region, suggesting that signals from the vascular microenvironment are critical for HSC development. Here, we demonstrated that AGM-derived endothelial cells (ECs) engineered to constitutively express AKT (AGM AKT-ECs) can provide an in vitro niche that recapitulates embryonic HSC specification and amplification. Specifically, nonengrafting embryonic precursors, including the VE-cadherin-expressing population that lacks hematopoietic surface markers, cocultured with AGM AKT-ECs specified into long-term, adult-engrafting HSCs, establishing that a vascular niche is sufficient to induce the endothelial-to-HSC transition in vitro. Subsequent to hematopoietic induction, coculture with AGM AKT-ECs also substantially increased the numbers of HSCs derived from VE-cadherin⁺CD45⁺ AGM hematopoietic cells, consistent with a role in supporting further HSC maturation and self-renewal. We also identified conditions that included NOTCH activation with an immobilized NOTCH ligand that were sufficient to amplify AGM-derived HSCs following their specification in the absence of AGM AKT-ECs. Together, these studies begin to define the critical niche components and resident signals required for HSC induction and self-renewal ex vivo, and thus provide insight for development of defined in vitro systems targeted toward HSC generation for therapeutic applications. PMID:25866967

  14. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells express functional pituitary and gonadal sex hormone receptors: Therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    PONIEWIERSKA-BARAN, AGATA; SCHNEIDER, GABRIELA; SUN, WENYUE; ABDELBASET-ISMAIL, AHMED; BARR, FREDERIC G.; RATAJCZAK, MARIUSZ Z.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that sex hormones play an important role in several types of cancer. Because they are also involved in skeletal muscle development and regeneration, we were therefore interested in their potential involvement in the pathogenesis of human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a skeletal muscle tumor. In the present study, we employed eight RMS cell lines (three fusion positive and five fusion negative RMS cell lines) and mRNA samples obtained from RMS patients. The expression of sex hormone receptors was evaluated by RT-PCR and their functionality by chemotaxis, adhesion and direct cell proliferation assays. We report here for the first time that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors are expressed in established human RMS cell lines as well as in primary tumor samples isolated from RMS patients. We also report that human RMS cell lines responded both to pituitary and gonadal sex hormone stimulation by enhanced proliferation, chemotaxis, cell adhesion and phosphorylation of MAPKp42/44 and AKT. In summary, our results indicate that sex hormones are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of RMS, and therefore, their therapeutic application should be avoided in patients that have been diagnosed with RMS. PMID:26983595

  15. Managing of Procambarus clarkii by X-ray sterilisation of males: Cytological damage to gonads.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Federica; Aquiloni, Laura; Peruzza, Luca; Manfrin, Chiara; Simi, Sara; Marson, Lorena; Edomi, Paolo; Giulianini, Piero G

    2015-10-01

    Procambarus clarkii is an invasive alien species spreading worldwide. It is therefore mandatory to find new methods to manage this species since traditional techniques are not sufficient for this purpose. The present study investigates gonad damage induced by different doses of ionising irradiation: 20, 40 and 60 Gy. Testis were analysed after 10 and 30 days by means of light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Control unirradiated testes present an acinar structure with a well-defined germinative cells maturation from the distal proliferative zone to the proximal stalk of the lobes whilst, in irradiated testes, induced apoptosis of germinative and accessory cells and a high level of vacuolisation inside the acini were identified, progressively increasing in accordance to Gy dosage and time after exposure. We determined the dose of 40 Gy as the best compromise: it causes an extensive damage to germinative tissues without affecting crayfish vitality, differing from 60 Gy. From an applicative point of view, this dose reduces the efforts, in terms of cost and time, for the application of SMRT. PMID:26093477

  16. Pineal physiology in microgravity - Relation to rat gonadal function aboard Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Markley, Carol L.; Soliman, Magdi R. I.; Kaddis, Farida; Krasnov, Igor'

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from an analysis of pineal glands obtained for five male rats flown aboard an orbiting satellite for their melatonin, serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIA), and calcium content. Plasma 5-HT and 5-HIAA were measured. These parameters were compared to indicators of gonadal function: plasma testosterone concentration and spermatogonia development. Plasma melotonin was found to be low at the time of euthanasia and was not different among the experimental groups. Pineal calcium of flight animals was not different from ground controls. Pineal 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the flight group were significantly higher than those in ground controls. These findings suggest a possible increase in pineal 5-HT turnover in flight animals which may result in increased melatonin secretion. It is argued that the alteration of pinal 5-HT turnover and its expected effects on melatonin secretion may partially explain the lower plasma testosterone levels and 4-11 percent fewer spermatogonia cells observed in flight animals.

  17. The screening of everyday life chemicals in validated assays targeting the pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Tinwell, H; Colombel, S; Blanck, O; Bars, R

    2013-07-01

    Ten structurally diverse chemicals (vitamins C, B9, B6, B3, sucrose, caffeine, gingerol, xanthan gum, paracetamol, ibuprofen) deemed intrinsic to modern life but not considered as endocrine active, were tested in vitro using the human estrogen receptor transcriptional activation (hERTa) and the H295R steroidogenesis assays. All were inactive in the hERTa assay but paracetamol, gingerol, caffeine and vitamin C affected steroidogenesis in vitro from 250, 25, 500 and 750 μM respectively. One molecule, caffeine, was further tested in rat pubertal assays at the tumorigenic dose-level and at dose-levels relevant for human consumption. In females pubertal parameters (vaginal opening, estrus cycle), ovarian weight and Fsh and prolactin transcript levels were affected. In males, plasma progesterone levels and prostate and seminal vesicle weights were affected. Although the current regulatory focus is synthetic chemicals that can cause adverse effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, our data infer that the range of natural chemicals with the potential to affect this axis may be extensive and is probably overlooked. Thus, to avoid regulation of an overwhelming number of chemicals, a weight of evidence approach, combining hazard identification and characterization with exposure considerations, is needed to identify those chemicals of real regulatory concern. PMID:23590819

  18. Haemoglobin polymorphism in Gadus morhua: Genotypic differences in maturing age and within-season gonad maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mork, J.; Giskeödegård, R.; Sundnes, G.

    1983-09-01

    276 specimens of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) were caught during spawning in a restricted area of the Trondheimsfjord, Norway, in April and May 1979. Genotypes at the polymorphic haemoglobin locus Hbl differed significantly with respect to mean age at maturation (in males) and mean gonadic development stage (in females). There was no indication of population mixing in the genotypic composition at Hbl or at any of the 4 polymorphic tissue enzyme loci investigated ( LDH-3, IDH-1, PGM, and PGI-1. The findings obtained were considered with regard to temperature-related differences in the functional properties of Hbl molecules, and genotypic differences in growth, age at maturation, and fishing mortality. At the present stage of investigation, the natural selection pattern seems directional and strong. However, the Hbl allele frequencies observed in cod from the examined areas reveal no detectable changes over a period of two decades (˜ 4 generations). The current pattern of commercial exploitation causes, through size selection, a modification of the rate of erosion of the inferior allele, but additional factors must be in force, which play a role in its current abundance in an evolutionary perspective. The observed Hbl genotypic differences in the exact within-season time for spawning might be one such factor. A potential sexual difference in genotypic fitness might be another, but this has yet to be confirmed. The apparent existence of considerable natural and artificial selection forces acting upon cod haemoglobin genotypes makes Hbl allele frequencies unreliable for use in population structure analyses.

  19. Incidence patterns and trends of gonadal and extragonadal germ cell tumors in Germany, 1998–2008

    PubMed Central

    Rusner, Carsten; Trabert, Britton; Katalinic, Alexander; Kieschke, Joachim; Emrich, Katharina; Stang, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background Gonadal (GGCT) and extragonal germ cell tumors [GCT (EGCT)] are thought to originate from primordial germ cells. In contrast to well reported population-based data of GGCTs in males, analyses of GGCTs in females and EGCTs in both sexes remain limited. Methods In a pooling project of nine population-based cancer registries in Germany of the years 1998–2008, 16,883 GCTs and their topographical sites were identified using ICD-O morphology and topography for those aged 15 years and older. We estimated age-specific and age-standardized incidence rates. Results Among males, the incidence of testicular GCTs increased over time. In contrast, there was no increase in the incidence of EGCTs. Among females, rates of ovarian GCTs were stable, while rates of EGCTs declined over time. The most frequent extragonadal sites were mediastinum among males and placenta among females. Conclusions Our results underline different incidence trends and distinct age-specific incidence patterns of GGCTs and EGCTs, as reported recently by several population-based registries. The differences suggest that GGCTs and EGCTs may have different etiologies. PMID:23683844

  20. Acute iron overload leads to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis abnormalities in female rats.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Emilly M; Marques, Vinicius B; Nunes, Dieli de O; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Podratz, Priscila L; Merlo, Eduardo; dos Santos, Leonardo; Graceli, Jones B

    2016-01-01

    Iron plays a critical role in a mammal's physiological processes. However, iron tissue deposits have been shown to act as endocrine disrupters. Studies that evaluate the effect of acute iron overload on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis health are particularly sparse. This study demonstrates that acute iron overload leads to HPG axis abnormalities, including iron accumulation and impairment in reproductive tract morphology. Female rats were treated with iron-dextran (Fe rats) to assess their HPG morphophysiology. The increasing serum iron levels due to iron-dextran treatment were positively correlated with higher iron accumulation in the HPG axis and uterus of Fe rats than in control rats. An increase in the production of superoxide anions was observed in the pituitary, uterus and ovary of Fe rats. Morphophysiological reproductive tract abnormalities, such as abnormal ovarian follicular development and the reduction of serum estrogen levels, were observed in Fe rats. In addition, a significant negative correlation was obtained between ovary superoxide anion and serum estrogen levels. Together, these data provide in vivo evidence that acute iron overload is toxic for the HPG axis, a finding that may be associated with the subsequent development of the risk of reproductive dysfunction. PMID:26536400

  1. Inhibitory effects of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 on the aorta-gonad-mapharsen hematopoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtsu, Naoki; Nobuhisa, Ikuo; Mochita, Miyuki; Taga, Tetsuya . E-mail: taga@kaiju.medic.kumamoto-u.ac.jp

    2007-01-01

    Definitive hematopoiesis starts in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region of the mouse embryo. Our previous studies revealed that STAT3, a gp130 downstream transcription factor, is required for AGM hematopoiesis and that homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) phosphorylates serine-727 of STAT3. HIPK2 is a serine/threonine kinase known to be involved in transcriptional repression and apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the role of HIPK2 in hematopoiesis in mouse embryo. HIPK2 transcripts were found in fetal hematopoietic tissues such as the mouse AGM region and fetal liver. In cultured AGM cells, HIPK2 protein was detected in adherent cells. Functional analyses of HIPK2 were carried out by introducing wild-type and mutant HIPK2 constructs into AGM cultures. Production of CD45{sup +} hematopoietic cells was suppressed by forced expression of HIPK2 in AGM cultures. This suppression required the kinase domain and nuclear localization signals of HIPK2, but the kinase activity was dispensable. HIPK2-overexpressing AGM-derived nonadherent cells did not form cobblestone-like colonies in cultures with stromal cells. Furthermore, overexpression of HIPK2 in AGM cultures impeded the expansion of CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup +} cells, which exhibit the immature hematopoietic progenitor phenotype. These data indicate that HIPK2 plays a negative regulatory role in AGM hematopoiesis in the mouse embryo.

  2. Experimentally induced hyperthyroidism influences oxidant and antioxidant status and impairs male gonadal functions in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Asker, M E; Hassan, W A; El-Kashlan, A M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to study the effect of hyperthyroidism on male gonadal functions and oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers in testis of adult rats. Induction of hyperthyroidism by L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 μg kg(-1) body weight) treatment once daily for 3 or 8 weeks caused a decrease in body weight gain as well as in absolute genital sex organs weight. The epididymal sperm counts and their motility were significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner following L-T4 treatment. Significant decline in serum levels of luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone along with significant increase in serum estradiol level was observed in hyperthyroid rats compared with euthyroid ones. Significant increase in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentration associated with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and catalase activity was also noticed following hyperthyroidism induction. Both reduced glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity were increased in hyperthyroid rats compared with control rats. Marked histopathological alterations were observed in testicular section of hyperthyroid rats. These results provide evidence that hypermetabolic state induced by excess level of thyroid hormones may be a causative factor for the impairment of testicular physiology as a consequence of oxidative stress. PMID:25220112

  3. Immune function, sex ratios, and gonadal histopathology in double-crested cormorant chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Burull, E.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Sileo, L.; Dale, T.; Allen, P.D.; Stromborg, K.L.; Larson, J.X.; Fry, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    There is evidence that environmental contaminants may be associated with endocrine and reproductive system abnormalities in colonial water birds. Little information is available on immune system response in chicks. Two double-crested cormorant (Phalocrocrozax auritus) colonies were monitored in 1993 for a comparative immune function study. Higher concentrations of organochlorines occurred in one colony. Parameters measured included: CBC, T and B-cell function, heterophil phagocytosis, lymphoid organ size and histopathology, and selected serum hormone analysis. Significant differences at the contaminated site included marked dysplasia and hypertrophy of thyroid gland, higher T3, lower cortisol, lower eosinophil counts, and increase phagocytosis at the contaminated site. Gonads of 101 deformed (cross-bill) chicks, siblings, and normal control chicks collected in 1992 and 1993 were examined microscopically because a sex-ration skewed towards females had been noted. Cross-billed chicks aged 12 to 15 days had disorganized or delayed follicular development which normalized by 20 days of age. Cross-billed or otherwise abnormal chicks aged 18 to 23 days had hypertrophic seminiferous tubules, a decreased interstitium, and decreased evidence of active Leydig cells.

  4. In utero exposure to the oestrogen mimic diethylstilbestrol disrupts gonadal development in a viviparous reptile.

    PubMed

    Parsley, Laura M; Wapstra, Erik; Jones, Susan M

    2015-09-01

    The ubiquitous presence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment is of major concern. Studies on oviparous reptiles have significantly advanced knowledge in this field; however, 30% of reptilian species are viviparous (live-bearing), a parity mode in which both yolk and a placenta support embryonic development, thus exposure to EDCs may occur via multiple routes. In this first study of endocrine disruption in a viviparous lizard (Niveoscincus metallicus), we aimed to identify effects of the oestrogen mimic diethylstilbestrol (DES) on gonadal development. At the initiation of sexual differentiation, pregnant N. metallicus were treated with a single dose of DES at 100 or 10µgkg(--1), a vehicle solvent or received no treatment. There was no dose-response effect, but the testes of male neonates born to DES-exposed mothers showed reduced organisation of seminiferous tubules and a lack of germ cells compared with those from control groups. The ovaries of female neonates born to DES-exposed mothers exhibited phenotypic abnormalities of ovarian structure, oocytes and follicles compared with controls. The results indicate that, in viviparous lizards, maternal exposure to oestrogenic EDCs during gestation may have profound consequences for offspring reproductive fitness. PMID:24718097

  5. Effect of amlodipine, a calcium channel antagonist, on gonadal steroid of male Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Onwuka, FC; wuanyanwu, KC Patrick-I; Nnodu, CK; Erhabor, O

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of prolonged intake of calcium-channel blocker amlodipine, an antihypertensive drug on gonadal steroid hormone (testosterone) of male albino rats. Three different concentrations of amlodipine (0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to three different groups (B, C, and D) of experimental male Wistar albino rats (n = 8) for six weeks. Group A rats were fed normal diet without amlodipine (n = 8) served as the control. The administration of amlodipine significantly reduced testosterone level in the following order, group A (0.22 ± 0.01) > B (0.18 ± 0.01) > C (0.14 ± 0.01) > D (0.10 ± 0.01). The reduction in testosterone levels corresponded with an increase in the concentration of amlodipine administered to male Wistar albino rats. The observation in this study reveals that long-term treatment of male Wistar rats with calcium-channel blocker and antihypertensive (amlodipine) produces a significant reduction in the level of testosterone a hormone associated with decreased ability of men to enjoy sex and to develop good quality erections. There is the need for a large scale study to investigate the potential effect of long-term antihypertensive therapy with amlodipine on sexual dysfunction in men.

  6. Gonadal dysfunction in men with chronic kidney disease: clinical features, prognostic implications and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Pedro; Carrero, Juan J; Díez, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    Gonadal dysfunction is a frequent finding in men with chronic kidney disease and with end-stage renal disease. Testosterone deficiency, usually accompanied by elevation of serum gonadotropin concentrations, is present in 26-66% of men with different degrees of renal failure. Uremia-associated hypogonadism is multifactorial in its origin, and rarely improves with initiation of dialysis, although it usually normalizes after renal transplantation. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that testosterone may have important clinical implications with regards to kidney disease progression, derangements in sexual drive, libido and erectile dysfunction, development of anemia, impairment of muscle mass and strength, and also progression of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Additionally, low testosterone levels in hemodialysis patients have been associated with increased mortality risk in some studies. Currently, we count with available therapeutic options in the management of uremic hypogonadism, from optimal delivery of dialysis and adequate nutritional intake, to hormone replacement therapy with different testosterone preparations. Other potential options for treatment include the use of antiestrogens, dopamine agonists, erythropoiesis-stimulating factors, vitamins, essential trace elements, chorionic gonadotropin and renal transplantation. Potential adverse effects of androgen replacement therapy in patients with kidney disease comprise, however, erythrocytosis, prostate and breast cancer growth, reduced fertility, gynecomastia, obstructive sleep apnea and fluid retention. Androgen preparations should be used with caution with stringent monitoring in uremic men. Although there are encouraging data suggesting plausible benefits from testosterone replacement therapy, further studies are needed with regards to safety and effectiveness of this therapy. PMID:21748720

  7. Divergence along the gonadal steroidogenic pathway: Implications for hormone-mediated phenotypic evolution.

    PubMed

    Rosvall, Kimberly A; Bergeon Burns, Christine M; Jayaratna, Sonya P; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2016-08-01

    Across a range of taxa, hormones regulate suites of traits that influence survival and reproductive success; however, the mechanisms by which hormone-mediated traits evolve are still unclear. We hypothesized that phenotypic divergence might follow from differential regulation of genes encoding key steps in hormone biosynthesis and thus the rate of hormone production. We tested this hypothesis in relation to the steroid hormone testosterone by comparing two subspecies of junco (Junco hyemalis) in the wild and in captivity. These subspecies have diverged over the last 10-15kyears in multiple testosterone-mediated traits, including aggression, ornamentation, and body size. We show that variation in gonadal gene expression along the steroid biosynthetic pathway predicts phenotypic divergence within and among subspecies, and that the more androgenized subspecies exhibits a more prolonged time-course of elevated testosterone following exogenous stimulation. Our results point to specific genes that fulfill key conditions for phenotypic evolution because they vary functionally in their expression among individuals and between populations, and they map onto population variation in phenotype in a common garden. Our findings therefore build an important bridge between hormones, genes, and phenotypic evolution. PMID:27206546

  8. Gonadal Hormones Rapidly Enhance Spatial Memory and Increase Hippocampal Spine Density in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Jacome, Luis F; Barateli, Ketti; Buitrago, Dina; Lema, Franklin; Frankfurt, Maya; Luine, Victoria N

    2016-04-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) rapidly, within minutes, activates behaviors and cognition by binding to membrane estrogen receptors, activating cell signaling cascades and increasing dendritic spines. In female rodents, E2 enhances spatial memory within 2-4 hours, and spine density is increased in the CA1 area of the hippocampus within 30-60 minutes. Although chronic gonadal hormone treatments in male rats alter cognition and spines/spine synapses and acute hormone effects occur in hippocampal slices, effects of acute, in vivo hormone administration in males are unknown. Therefore, we assessed rapid effects of E2 (20 μg/kg) and testosterone (T) (750 μg/kg) on spatial memory using the object placement task and on hippocampal spine density using Golgi impregnation. Orchidectomized rats received hormones immediately after the training trial and were tested for retention 2 hours later. Vehicle-injected orchidectomized males spent equal time exploring objects in the old and new locations, but E2- or T-treated subjects spent more time exploring objects at the new location, suggesting enhanced memory. Both hormones also increased spine density in CA1, but not the dentate gyrus, by 20%-40% at 30 minutes and 2 hours after injections. This report is the first, to our knowledge, to show E2 and T enhancements of memory and spine density within such a short time frame in male rats. PMID:26844375

  9. Mutagenicity of Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate in mammalian gonad and bone marrow tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Salamone, M.F.; Katz, M.

    1981-04-01

    The mutagenic and clastogenic (chromosome breaking) effects of the flame retardant Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (Tris-BP) were investigated in two mammalian in vivo assays, the bone marrow micronucleus test and the abnormal sperm head assay. Two potency of Tris-BP was determined in the Salmonella-mammalian microsome assay. Tris-BP was mutagenic in all three assays, in both mammalian tests, nearly toxic doses were required in B6C3F mice for positive mutagenic and clastogenic results. In the micronucleus test, Tris-BP was a weak clastogen, whereas in the abnormal sperm head assay, Tris-BP was observed to be strongly mutagenic. The abnormal sperm head data might imply genetic damage to germ tissue. The data suggested a means for possibly monitoring Tris-BP exposure. Thus besides being a strong mutagen on bacterial systems, Tris-BP was also a weak clastogen as detected in bone marrow cells and was a mutagen to gonad tissue.

  10. Anticoagulant Activity and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide from Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) Gonad.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Yang, Jingfeng; Song, Shuang; Zhou, Dayong; Qiao, Weizhou; Zhu, Ce; Liu, Shuyin; Zhu, Beiwei

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed at characterizing the structure and the anticoagulant activity of a polysaccharide fraction (AGP33) isolated from the gonads of Haliotis discus hannai Ino. AGP33 was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis and purified by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The backbone fraction of AGP33 (BAGP33), which appeared to contain of mannose, glucose and galactose, was prepared by partial acid hydrolysis. According to methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the backbone of AGP33 was identified as mainly consisting of 1→3-linked, 1→4-linked, and 1→6-linked monosaccharides. AGP33 is a sulfated polysaccharide with sulfates occur at 3-O- and 4-O-positions. It prolonged thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) compared to a saline control solution in a dosage-dependent manner. AGP33 exhibited an extension (p < 0.01) of APTT compared to the saline group at concentrations higher than 5 μg/mL. AGP33 exhibited higher anticoagulant activity than its desulfated product (AGP33-des) and BAGP33. The results showed that polysaccharide with higher molecular weight and sulfate content demonstrated greater anticoagulant activity. PMID:27338320

  11. Neuroactive gonadal drugs for neuroprotection in male and female models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Litim, Nadhir; Morissette, Marc; Di Paolo, Thérèse

    2016-08-01

    The existence of sex differences in Parkinson's disease (PD) incidence is well documented with greater prevalence and earlier age at onset in men than in women. These reported sex differences could be related to estrogen exposure. In PD animal models, estrogen is well documented to be neuroprotective against dopaminergic neuron loss induced by neurotoxins. Using the 1-methyl 4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model, we showed that several compounds are neuroprotective on dopaminergic neurons including estrogen, the selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) agonist PPT as well as the G protein-coupled membrane estrogen receptor (GPER1) specific agonist G1. Accumulating evidence suggests that GPER1 could be implicated in the neuroprotective effects of estrogen, raloxifene and G1 in collaboration with ERα. We recently reported that the 5α-reductase inhibitor Dutasteride is also neuroprotective and could bring an alternative to estrogens for therapy in male. Additional studies are needed to optimize therapies with these gonadal drugs into safe personalized treatments according to sex for treatment of PD. PMID:26708712

  12. Gonadal development of larval male Xenopus laevis exposed to atrazine in outdoor microcosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jooste, A.M.; Du Preez, L.H.; Carr, J.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Gross, T.S.; Kendall, R.J.; Smith, E.E.; Van Der Kraak, G. L.; Solomon, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    The potential effects of atrazine on gonadal development in metamorphs and subadults of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) were studied under conditions of natural photoperiod and temperatures in outdoor microcosms from August 2002 to June 2003 in South Africa. Triplicate 1100 L microcosms for each nominal concentration of 0.0, 1, 10, and 25 ??g of atrazine/L were used. Measured atrazine concentrations varied <25% throughout the study, and no atrazine was detected in the control microcosms. Tadpoles developed well at all concentrations. On the basis of histological examination of testes of recently metamorphosed stage 66 frogs, 57% of the individuals in the reference group exhibited testicular oocytes as compared with 57, 59, and 39% of the 1, 10, and 25 ??g/L atrazine groups, respectively. The average prevalence of testicular oocytes for all of the treatments including the controls was 54% in a single testis, while, in 35% of individuals, testicular oocytes were observed in both testes. The number of testicular oocytes per individual ranged from 0 to 58 with means of 9.5, 9.8, 8.5, and 11.1 for the 0.0, 1, 10, and 25 ??g of atrazine/L groups, respectively. Ten months after metamorphosis, another subset of juveniles was examined, and the maximum number of testicular oocytes observed was five in one animal. The presence of testicular oocytes was not related to exposure to atrazine and may be a natural phenomenon during ontogeny. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  13. The influence of gonadal hormones on conditioned fear extinction in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Milad, M R; Zeidan, M A; Contero, A; Pitman, R K; Klibanski, A; Rauch, S L; Goldstein, J M

    2010-07-14

    Recent rodent studies suggest that gonadal hormones influence extinction of conditioned fear. Here we investigated sex differences in, and the influence of estradiol and progesterone on, fear extinction in healthy humans. Men and women underwent a two-day paradigm in which fear conditioning and extinction learning took place on day 1 and extinction recall was tested on day 2. Visual cues were used as the conditioned stimuli and a mild electric shock was used as the unconditioned stimulus. Skin conductance was recorded throughout the experiment and used to measure conditioned responses (CRs). Blood samples were obtained from all women to measure estradiol and progesterone levels. We found that higher estradiol during extinction learning enhanced subsequent extinction recall but had no effects on fear acquisition or extinction learning itself. Sex differences were only observed during acquisition, with men exhibiting significantly higher CRs. After dividing women into low- and high-estradiol groups, men showed comparable extinction recall to high-estradiol women, and both of these groups showed higher extinction recall than low-estradiol women. Therefore, sex differences in extinction memory emerged only after taking into account women's estradiol levels. Lower estradiol may impair extinction consolidation in women. These findings could have practical applications in the treatment of anxiety disorders through cognitive and behavioral therapies. PMID:20412837

  14. Sex differences, gonadal hormones and the fear extinction network: implications for anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Lebron-Milad, Kelimer; Milad, Mohammed R

    2012-01-01

    Convergent data from rodents and human studies have led to the development of models describing the neural mechanisms of fear extinction. Key components of the now well-characterized fear extinction network include the amygdala, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortical regions. These models are fueling novel hypotheses that are currently being tested with much refined experimental tools to examine the interactions within this network. Lagging far behind, however, is the examination of sex differences in this network and how sex hormones influence the functional activity and reactivity of these brain regions in the context of fear inhibition. Indeed, there is a large body of literature suggesting that sex hormones, such as estrogen, do modulate neural plasticity within the fear extinction network, especially in the hippocampus.After a brief overview of the fear extinction network, we summarize what is currently known about sex differences in fear extinction and the influence of gonadal hormones on the fear extinction network. We then go on to propose possible mechanisms by which sex hormones, such as estrogen, may influence neural plasticity within the fear extinction network. We end with a discussion of how knowledge to be gained from developing this line of research may have significant ramifications towards the etiology, epidemiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:22738383

  15. Sex differences, gonadal hormones and the fear extinction network: implications for anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Convergent data from rodents and human studies have led to the development of models describing the neural mechanisms of fear extinction. Key components of the now well-characterized fear extinction network include the amygdala, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortical regions. These models are fueling novel hypotheses that are currently being tested with much refined experimental tools to examine the interactions within this network. Lagging far behind, however, is the examination of sex differences in this network and how sex hormones influence the functional activity and reactivity of these brain regions in the context of fear inhibition. Indeed, there is a large body of literature suggesting that sex hormones, such as estrogen, do modulate neural plasticity within the fear extinction network, especially in the hippocampus. After a brief overview of the fear extinction network, we summarize what is currently known about sex differences in fear extinction and the influence of gonadal hormones on the fear extinction network. We then go on to propose possible mechanisms by which sex hormones, such as estrogen, may influence neural plasticity within the fear extinction network. We end with a discussion of how knowledge to be gained from developing this line of research may have significant ramifications towards the etiology, epidemiology and treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:22738383

  16. The influence of gonadal hormones on conditioned fear extinction in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Milad, Mohammed R; Zeidan, Mohamed A.; Contero, Angelica; Pitman, Roger K.; Klibanski, Anne; Rauch, Scott L.; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent rodent studies suggest that gonadal hormones influence extinction of conditioned fear. Here we investigated sex differences in, and the influence of estradiol and progesterone on, fear extinction in healthy humans. Men and women underwent a two-day paradigm in which fear conditioning and extinction learning took place on day 1 and extinction recall was tested on day 2. Visual cues were used as the conditioned stimuli and a mild electric shock was used as the unconditioned stimulus. Skin conductance was recorded throughout the experiment and used to measure conditioned responses (CRs). Blood samples were obtained from all women to measure estradiol and progesterone levels. We found that higher estradiol during extinction learning enhanced subsequent extinction recall but had no effects on fear acquisition or extinction learning itself. Sex differences were only observed during acquisition, with men exhibiting significantly higher CRs. After dividing women into low- and high-estradiol groups, men showed comparable extinction recall to high-estradiol women, and both of these groups showed higher extinction recall than low-estradiol women. Therefore, sex differences in extinction memory emerged only after taking into account women's estradiol levels. Lower estradiol may impair extinction consolidation in women. These findings could have practical applications in the treatment of anxiety disorders through cognitive and behavioral therapies. PMID:20412837

  17. High-density aggregations of rodlet cells in the gonads of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides, a deep-water marine flatfish.

    PubMed

    Rideout, R M; Smith, S A; Morgan, M J

    2015-05-01

    Large aggregations of rodlet cells in the gonads of male and female Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides are reported for the first time. These rodlet cells were not arranged epithelially but rather were found throughout the connective tissue between oocytes (females) or within lymphatic spaces between testicular lobules (males). The reason for large aggregations of rodlet cells in the gonads and not other tissues of this species is uncertain. PMID:25943150

  18. GONAD: Genome-editing via Oviductal Nucleic Acids Delivery system: a novel microinjection independent genome engineering method in mice.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Gou; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Wada, Kenta; Miura, Hiromi; Sato, Masahiro; Ohtsuka, Masato

    2015-01-01

    Microinjection is considered the gold standard technique for delivery of nucleic acids (NAs; transgenes or genome editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas9 systems) into embryos, for creating genetically modified organisms. It requires sophisticated equipment as well as well-trained and highly skilled personnel to perform the micro-injection technique. Here, we describe a novel and simple microinjection-independent technique, called Genome-editing via Oviductal Nucleic Acids Delivery (GONAD). Using GONAD, we show that NAs (e.g., eGFP mRNA or Cas9 mRNA/sgRNAs) can be effectively delivered to pre-implantation embryos within the intact mouse oviduct by a simple electroporation method, and result in the desired genetic modification in the embryos. Thus GONAD can bypass many complex steps in transgenic technology such as isolation of zygotes, microinjection of NAs into them, and their subsequent transfer to pseudo-pregnant animals. Furthermore, this method can potentially be used for genome editing in species other than mice. PMID:26096991

  19. Novel de novo heterozygous FGFR1 mutation in two siblings with Hartsfield syndrome: a case of gonadal mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Dhamija, Radhika; Kirmani, Salman; Wang, Xiangling; Ferber, Matthew J; Wieben, Eric D; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica

    2014-09-01

    Hartsfield syndrome has been recently reported to be associated with mutations in FGFR1 however, to this date; no familial cases have been reported. In this report, we describe two siblings with Hartsfield syndrome and a novel de novo FGFR1 mutation suggesting gonadal mosaicism. The proband presented at our institution at age 6 years with a clinical diagnosis of Hartsfield syndrome and requesting further genetic evaluation. Previous studies included a normal karyotype, oligonucleotide array, and single gene testing for nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly (SHH, SIX3, ZIC2, TGIF). At the age of 6 years, exome sequencing was performed and a de novo novel missense variant was identified in FGFR1 (coding for fibroblast growth factor-1) on chromosome 8p12: c.1880G>C (p.R627T). Subsequently, a younger sibling was born with the same phenotype (holoprosencephaly, ectrodactyly of bilateral hands and feet and bilateral cleft lip and palate). Targeted sequencing of FGFR1 revealed the identical variant that was previously identified in the proband. To our knowledge this observation is the first documentation of familial recurrence of Hartsfield syndrome. As both parents were negative for the sequence variant in FGFR1 gene by testing peripheral blood samples, this suggests gonadal mosaicism. The frequency of gonadal mosaicism in Hartsfield syndrome is not known however given our case, this possibility should be taken in to consideration for recurrence risk estimation in children of clinically unaffected parents. PMID:24888332

  20. Endocrine correlates of hibernation-independent gonadal recrudescence and the limited late-winter breeding season in woodchucks, Marmota monax.

    PubMed

    Concannon, P W; Baldwin, B; Roberts, P; Tennant, B

    1990-01-01

    Woodchucks (Marmota monax) normally experience gonadal recrudescence towards the end of a 4-5 month hibernation, emerge in late winter, immediately breed in a short 3-week breeding season, and have regressed gonads before the next hibernation. Our studies of wild and captive animals show that fertile females give birth to single litters after a 32-day gestation and their breeding season is terminated by a reactivation of the corpora lutea of pregnancy for 1-3 months immediately postpartum. In nonbred females the breeding season is likewise terminated by spontaneous luteinization of the ovaries for 1-3 months shortly after the vernal equinox. Tests regress and testosterone declines during and after the breeding season. Circannual reproductive cycles persist in the absence of hibernation and are shortened to 9-10 months after 3-5 years of a 12L:12D photoperiod. Unique aspects of this species that merit endocrine investigation include descent/retraction of testes, transient luteolysis at parturition, superactivation of postpartum corpora lutea, regulation of the pituitary-gonadal axis by an annual endogenous metabolic cycle entrained to the annual change in photoperiod, and the hormonal basis of hibernation. PMID:1974795

  1. GONAD: Genome-editing via Oviductal Nucleic Acids Delivery system: a novel microinjection independent genome engineering method in mice

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Gou; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Wada, Kenta; Miura, Hiromi; Sato, Masahiro; Ohtsuka, Masato

    2015-01-01

    Microinjection is considered the gold standard technique for delivery of nucleic acids (NAs; transgenes or genome editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas9 systems) into embryos, for creating genetically modified organisms. It requires sophisticated equipment as wel as well-trained and highly skilled personnel to perform the micro-injection technique. Here, we describe a novel and simple microinjection-independent technique, called Genome-editing via Oviductal Nucleic Acids Delivery (GONAD). Using GONAD, we show that NAs (e.g., eGFP mRNA or Cas9 mRNA/sgRNAs) can be effectively delivered to pre-implantation embryos within the intact mouse oviduct by a simple electroporation method, and result in the desired genetic modification in the embryos. Thus GONAD can bypass many complex steps in transgenic technology such as isolation of zygotes, microinjection of NAs into them, and their subsequent transfer to pseudo-pregnant animals. Furthermore, this method can potentially be used for genome editing in species other than mice. PMID:26096991

  2. The effect of epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs on sexual, reproductive and gonadal health of adults with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Sherifa A

    2016-06-01

    Epilepsy is a common chronic medical illness. Hyposexuality is the most frequent abnormality in men and women with epilepsy. In men with epilepsy, hypoandrogenimia, hypogonadism and sperm abnormalities are common. Testicular atrophy was also infrequently reported. In women with epilepsy, hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries (PCOs) and PCO syndrome are frequent. Decreased serum free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone levels, free androgen index and free testosterone/leutinizing hormone (LH) ratio and increased sex hormone binding globulin, estradiol, prolactin, LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and LH/FSH ratio are common with epilepsy. Disturbance of central and/or peripheral control of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and alteration of central neurotrasmitters (GABA, glutamate and serotonin) by epileptic discharges or antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), direct gonadal toxicity by AEDs and pcyshicatric/psychosocial factors are all incriminated in sexual, reproductive and gonadal abnormalities associated with epilepsy. Patients may benefit from multidisplinary evaluation, tight seizure control, change the AED, androgen therapy, genital vasodilators, L-carnitine supplementation and psychotherapy. PMID:26934627

  3. Molecular identification and expression of the Foxl2 gene during gonadal sex differentiation in northern snakehead Channa argus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Wei, Kai-Jian; Ji, Wei; Gardner, Jonathan P A; Yang, Rui-Bin; Chen, Kun-Ci

    2015-12-01

    Channa argus is one of the most commercially important fish species in China. Studies show that males of C. argus grow faster than females at the same age. In order to explore the sex differentiation mechanism of C. argus, we isolated the full length of the sex-related gene Foxl2 cDNA and analysed its expression patterns during gonadal sex differentiation. Alignment of known Foxl2 amino acid sequences from vertebrates confirmed the conservation of the Foxl2 open reading frame, especially the forkhead domain and C-terminal region. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that Foxl2 is predominantly expressed in brain, pituitary, gill and ovary, with its highest level in ovary but low levels in testis and other tissues, reflecting a potential role for Foxl2 in the brain-pituitary-gonad axis in C. argus. Our ontogenetic stage data showed that C. argus Foxl2 expression was significantly upregulated from 1 to 11 days posthatching (dph) and that the initiation of expression preceded the first anatomical ovarian differentiation (27 dph), suggesting that Foxl2 might play a potential role in early gonadal sex differentiation in C. argus. In addition, the Foxl2 protein was primarily located in granulosa cells surrounding the oocytes of mature C. argus, implying that Foxl2 may have a basic function in granulosa cell differentiation and the maintenance of oocytes. PMID:26159319

  4. Conservation and expression of PIWI-interacting RNA pathway genes in male and female adult gonad of amniotes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Shu Ly; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Kortschak, R Daniel; Jacob, Reuben; Ricciardelli, Carmela; Oehler, Martin K; Grützner, Frank

    2013-12-01

    The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for germline development and transposable element repression. Key elements of this pathway are members of the piRNA-binding PIWI/Argonaute protein family and associated factors (e.g., VASA, MAELSTROM, and TUDOR domain proteins). PIWI-interacting RNAs have been identified in mouse testis and oocytes, but information about the expression of the different piRNA pathway genes, in particular in the mammalian ovary, remains incomplete. We investigated the evolution and expression of piRNA pathway genes in gonads of amniote species (chicken, platypus, and mouse). Database searches confirm a high level of conservation and revealed lineage-specific gain and loss of Piwi genes in vertebrates. Expression analysis in mammals shows that orthologs of Piwi-like (Piwil) genes, Mael (Maelstrom), Mvh (mouse vasa homolog), and Tdrd1 (Tudor domain-containing protein 1) are expressed in platypus adult testis. In contrast to mouse, Piwil4 is expressed in platypus and human adult testis. We found evidence for Mael and Piwil2 expression in mouse Sertoli cells. Importantly, we show mRNA expression of Piwil2, Piwil4, and Mael in oocytes and supporting cells of human, mouse, and platypus ovary. We found no Piwil1 expression in mouse and chicken ovary. The conservation of gene expression in somatic parts of the gonad and germ cells of species that diverged over 800 million yr ago indicates an important role in adult male and female gonad. PMID:24108303

  5. The para-aortic ridge plays a key role in the formation of the renal, adrenal and gonadal vascular systems

    PubMed Central

    Isogai, Sumio; Horiguchi, Mayuko; Hitomi, Jiro

    2010-01-01

    Renal, adrenal, gonadal, ureteral and inferior phrenic arteries vary in their level of origin and in their calibre, number and precise anatomical relationship to other structures. Studies of the origin and early development of these arteries have evoked sharp disputes. The ladder theory of Felix, which states that ‘All the mesonephric arteries may persist; from them are formed the phrenic, suprarenal, renal and internal spermatic arteries’ has been generally quoted in the anatomical textbooks without rigorous verification for 100 years. In this study, we re-examined this theory by performing micro-injection of dye and resin into rat (Rattus norvegicus) embryos. Our results revealed that most of the mesonephric arteries had degenerated before the metanephros started its ascent. The definitive renal, adrenal, gonadal, ureteral and inferior phrenic arteries appeared as new branches from the gonadal artery and/or directly from the abdominal aorta to the para-aortic ridge. Coincidental to this, the anatomical architecture of the inter-renal vascular cage, which consists of the interlobar and arcuate arteries and their collateral veins, was completed within the developing metanephros. We demonstrated that the delicate renal vascular cage switched from the primary renal artery to the definitive renal artery and that the route of venous drainage changed from the posterior cardinal vein to the inferior (caudal) vena cava. PMID:20579173

  6. Gonadal function, fertility, and reproductive medicine in childhood and adolescent cancer patients: a national survey of Japanese pediatric endocrinologists.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Yorifuji, Tohru; Horikawa, Reiko; Takahashi, Ikuko; Nagasaki, Keisuke; Ishiguro, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Ito, Junko; Oba, Mari; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Fujisaki, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masashi; Shimizu, Chikako; Kato, Tomoyasu; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Sago, Haruhiko; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Okada, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Nao; Yokoya, Susumu; Ogata, Tsutomu; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of pediatric cancer patients survive, and treatment-related infertility represents one of the most important issues for these patients. While official guidelines in Japan recommend long-term follow-up of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), their gonadal function and fertility have not been clarified. To address this issue, we organized a working panel to compile evidence from long-term survivors who received treatments for cancer during childhood or adolescence. In collaboration with members of the CCS Committee of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology (JSPE), we conducted a questionnaire survey regarding reproductive function in pediatric cancer patients. A cross-sectional survey was sent to 178 JSPE-certified councilors who were asked to self-evaluate the medical examinations they had performed. A total of 151 responses were obtained, revealing that 143 endocrinologists were involved in the care of CCSs. A quarter of the respondents reported having experienced issues during gonadal or reproductive examinations. Several survivors did not remember or fully understand the explanation regarding gonadal damage, and faced physical and psychological distress when discussing the risk of becoming infertile. Pediatric endocrinologists had anxieties regarding their patients' infertility and the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, and delivery problems. Only a limited number of endocrinologists had experience with managing childbirth and fertility preservation. Many councilors mentioned the necessity for inter-disciplinary communication among healthcare providers. Both endocrinologists and oncologists should set and follow a uniform clinical guideline that includes management of fertility of CCSs. PMID:27212796

  7. Gonadal function, fertility, and reproductive medicine in childhood and adolescent cancer patients: a national survey of Japanese pediatric endocrinologists

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Yorifuji, Tohru; Horikawa, Reiko; Takahashi, Ikuko; Nagasaki, Keisuke; Ishiguro, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Ito, Junko; Oba, Mari; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Fujisaki, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masashi; Shimizu, Chikako; Kato, Tomoyasu; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Sago, Haruhiko; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Okada, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Nao; Yokoya, Susumu; Ogata, Tsutomu; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. An increasing number of pediatric cancer patients survive, and treatment-related infertility represents one of the most important issues for these patients. While official guidelines in Japan recommend long-term follow-up of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), their gonadal function and fertility have not been clarified. To address this issue, we organized a working panel to compile evidence from long-term survivors who received treatments for cancer during childhood or adolescence. In collaboration with members of the CCS Committee of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology (JSPE), we conducted a questionnaire survey regarding reproductive function in pediatric cancer patients. A cross-sectional survey was sent to 178 JSPE-certified councilors who were asked to self-evaluate the medical examinations they had performed. A total of 151 responses were obtained, revealing that 143 endocrinologists were involved in the care of CCSs. A quarter of the respondents reported having experienced issues during gonadal or reproductive examinations. Several survivors did not remember or fully understand the explanation regarding gonadal damage, and faced physical and psychological distress when discussing the risk of becoming infertile. Pediatric endocrinologists had anxieties regarding their patients’ infertility and the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, and delivery problems. Only a limited number of endocrinologists had experience with managing childbirth and fertility preservation. Many councilors mentioned the necessity for inter-disciplinary communication among healthcare providers. Both endocrinologists and oncologists should set and follow a uniform clinical guideline that includes management of fertility of CCSs. PMID:27212796

  8. Development of the gonads in the triploid (ZZW and ZZZ) fowl, Gallus domesticus, and comparison with normal diploid males (ZZ) and females (ZW).

    PubMed

    Lin, M; Thorne, M H; Martin, I C; Sheldon, B L; Jones, R C

    1995-01-01

    Gonadal development in fowls aged from 1 day to more than 4.5 years was studied in 63 ZZW and 16 ZZZ triploid crossbreds and compared with normal diploid males (ZZ) and females (ZW). In the ZZW fowl, the right gonad developed into a testis (although this occurred earlier in the ZZ genotype), and a structurally-abnormal excurrent duct system containing some malformed spermatids and spermatozoa was associated with the gonad of young adults. The left gonad was an ovotestes at hatching and no excurrent ducts were associated with it. The ovarian component was much less developed than that in the ZW genotype-it started to degenerate by 1 week of age, and most of the oocytes had disappeared by about 3 weeks of age. The seminiferous tubules developed in the medullary region, but only abnormal spermatozoa were produced. Leukocytes infiltrated both gonads at about 9 months of age and the seminiferous epithelium had degenerated in most fowls over 1 year old. In ZZZ fowl, gonadal and excurrent duct development was normal, but occurred earlier than in the ZZ genotype. However, meiosis and spermiogenesis were abnormal and malformed spermatozoa were produced. The heads of spermatozoa from the ducts deferens were about 1.4-times longer in the ZZZ genotype than in the ZZ genotype, indicating that the former may be producing some diploid spermatozoa. PMID:8848586

  9. Sexually dimorphic expression of Dmrt1 and γH2AX in germ stem cells during gonadal development in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Fujitani, Kazuko; Otomo, Asako; Wada, Mikako; Takamatsu, Nobuhiko; Ito, Michihiko

    2016-04-01

    In many animals, primordial germ cells (PGCs) migrate into developing gonads. There, they proliferate and differentiate into female and male germ stem cells (GSCs), oogonia and spermatogonia, respectively. Few studies have focused on the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of GSC sex determination. Here, we investigated the expression of the transcription factor Dmrt1 and a phosphorylated form of the histone variant H2AX (γH2AX) during gonadal development in Xenopus laevis. During early sexual differentiation, Dmrt1 was expressed in the GSCs of the ZW (female) and ZZ (male) gonads as well as somatic cells of the ZZ gonads. Notably, the PGCs and primary GSCs contained large, unstructured nuclei, whereas condensed, rounder nuclei appeared only in primary oogonia during tadpole development. After metamorphosis, Dmrt1 showed its expression in secondary spermatogonia, but not in secondary oogonia. Like Dmrt1, γH2AX was expressed in the nuclei of primary GSCs in early developing gonads. However, after metamorphosis, γH2AX expression continued in primary and secondary spermatogonia, but was barely detected in the condensed nuclei of primary oogonia. Taken together, these observations indicate that spermatogonia tend to retain PGC characteristics, compared to oogonia, which undergo substantial changes during gonadal differentiation in X. laevis. Our findings suggest that Dmrt1 and γH2AX may contribute to the maintenance of stem cell identity by controlling gene expression and epigenetic changes, respectively. PMID:27239441

  10. OVEX1, a novel chicken endogenous retrovirus with sex-specific and left-right asymmetrical expression in gonads

    PubMed Central

    Carré-Eusèbe, Danièle; Coudouel, Noëlline; Magre, Solange

    2009-01-01

    Background In chickens, as in most birds, female gonad morphogenesis is asymmetrical. Gonads appear first rather similarly, but only the left one undergoes full differentiation and gives rise to a functional ovary. The right gonad, in which the cortex does not develop, remains restricted to the medulla and finally regresses. Opportunity was taken of this left-right asymmetry to perform a suppression subtractive hybridization screening to select for transcripts preferentially expressed in the developing left ovary as compared to the right one, and thus identify genes that are potentially involved in the process of ovarian differentiation. Results One of these transcripts, named Ovex1 according to its expression profile, corresponds to an endogenous retrovirus that has not been previously characterized. It is transcribed as full-length and singly spliced mRNAs and contains three uninterrupted open reading frames coding potentially for proteins with homology to Gag and Pro-Pol retroviral polyproteins and a third protein showing only a weak similarity with Env glycoproteins. Ovex1 is severely degenerated; it is devoid of typical long terminal repeats and displays some evidence of recombination. An orthologous Ovex1 locus was identified in the genome of zebra finch, a member of a different bird order, and similar sequences were detected in turkey, guinea fowl, and duck DNA. The relationship between these sequences follows the bird phylogeny, suggesting vertical transmission of the endogenous retrovirus for more than 100 million years. Ovex1 is transcribed in chicken gonads with a sex-dependent and left-right asymmetrical pattern. It is first expressed in the cortex of the left indifferent gonads of both sexes. Expression is transient in the left testis and absent in the right one. In developing ovaries, Ovex1 transcription increases sharply in the left cortex and is weakly detected in the medulla. After folliculogenesis, Ovex1-expressing cells constitute the follicular

  11. Seasonal modulation of immunity by melatonin and gonadal steroids in a short day breeder goat Capra hircus.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Somenath; Singh, Amaresh K; Haldar, Chandana

    2014-11-01

    Role of melatonin in regulation of immunity and reproduction has never been studied in detail in goats. The aim of the present study was to explore hormonal regulation of immunity in goats with special reference to melatonin. Plasma of male and female goats (n = 18 per sex per season) was processed for hormonal (estrogen, testostrone, and melatonin) and cytokine (interleukin [IL-2], IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α) measurements during three seasons, i.e., summer, monsoon, and winter. To assess cell-mediated immune response, percent stimulation ratio of thymocytes was recorded during three seasons. To support and establish the modulation by hormones, Western blot analysis for expressions of melatonin receptors (MT1, MT2), androgen receptor, and estrogen receptor α and estimations of marker enzymes, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase for melatonin and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities for steroidogenesis were performed in thymus. All the hormones and cytokines were estimated by commercial kits. Biochemical, immunologic, and Western blot analyses were done by standardized protocols. We noted a significant increase in estrogen and testosterone levels (P < 0.05) in circulation during monsoon along with melatonin (P < 0.05) presenting a parallel relationship. Expressions of melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) in thymus of both the sexes were significantly high (P < 0.01) during winter. Estrogen receptor α expression in female thymus was significantly high during monsoon (P < 0.05). However, androgen receptor showed almost static expression pattern in male thymus during three seasons. Further, both arylalkylamineN-acetyltransferase and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme activities were significantly high (P < 0.05; P < 0.01, respectively) during monsoon. These results suggest that there may be a functional parallelism between gonadal steroids and melatonin as melatonin is progonadotrophic in goats. Cell-mediated immune parameters (percent stimulation

  12. Estrogenic environmental contaminants alter the mRNA abundance profiles of genes involved in gonadal differentiation of the American bullfrog

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Stephanie E.; Veldhoen, Nik; Helbing, Caren C.; Ramirez, Claire A.; Malpas, Janae M.; Propper, Catherine R.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife and human populations are exposed to anthropogenic mixtures of chemicals in the environment that may adversely influence normal reproductive function and development. We determined the effects of exposure to estrogenic chemicals and wastewater effluent (WWE) on developing gonads of the American bullfrog, Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana, a species whose widespread distribution make it an ideal model for environmental monitoring for endocrine effects of chemical contaminants. Premetamorphic bullfrog tadpoles were exposed to treatment vehicle, 17β-estradiol (E2; 10−9 M) or 4-tert-octylphenol (OP; 10−9 M, 10−8 M, and 10−7 M). Additionally, gonadal differentiation was evaluated in bullfrog tadpoles from a WWE-containing site versus those from a reference location receiving no WWE. In both studies, phenotypic sex, steroidogenic factor-1 (nr5a1), and aromatase (cyp19a1) mRNA levels using quantitative real-time PCR were determined. Exposure to E2 or OP did not alter sex ratios. In controls, both nr5a1 and cyp19a1 transcript levels exhibited sexual dimorphism, with males demonstrating higher levels of nr5a1 and females greater abundance of cyp19a1. However, E2 exposure increased cyp19a1 mRNA abundance in testes and decreased levels in ovaries, eliminating the sexual dimorphism observed in controls. E2-exposed males exhibited increased nr5a1 transcript levels in the testes compared to controls, while females demonstrated no E2 effect. OP treatment had no effect on female cyp19a1 mRNA abundance, but exposure to 10−7 M OP increased testicular transcript levels. Treatment with 10−9 and 10−8 M OP, but not 10−7 M, resulted in decreased abundance of nr5a1 transcript in both ovaries and testes. Animals from the field had sexually dimorphic gonadal levels of cyp19a1, but both sexes from the WWE site exhibited elevated cyp19a1 transcript abundance compared to the reference location. Individual chemical compounds and anthropogenic wastewater effluent dispersed

  13. Neuromedin B stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male rats.

    PubMed

    Boughton, C K; Patel, S A; Thompson, E L; Patterson, M; Curtis, A E; Amin, A; Chen, K; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Murphy, K G

    2013-11-10

    Neuromedin B (NMB) is a highly conserved bombesin-related peptide found in mammals. NMB mRNA is detected in the central nervous system (CNS) and is highly expressed in the rat hypothalamus, in particular the medial preoptic area and the arcuate nucleus. The mammalian bombesin family of receptors consists of three closely related G protein coupled receptors, BB1, BB2 and BB3. The BB1 receptor subtype has the highest affinity for NMB. NMB has well documented roles in the regulation of the thyroid axis and the stress axis in rats. However, there is little available data regarding the role of NMB in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. It is known that the NMB receptor is expressed in immortalised gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) releasing GT1-7 cells and murine forebrain GnRH neurons, and that anterior pituitary NMB-immunoreactivity is altered by changes in the sex steroid environment. The objective of these studies was thus to further investigate the effects of NMB on the HPG axis. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of NMB (10 nmol) to adult male rats significantly increased plasma luteinising hormone (LH) levels 30 min after injection (plasma LH ng/ml; saline 0.69±0.07, 10 nmol NMB 1.33±0.17, P<0.01). In vitro, NMB stimulated GnRH release from hypothalamic explants from male rats and from hypothalamic GT1-7 cells. NMB had no significant effect on LH release from anterior pituitary explants from male rats, or from pituitary LβT2 cells in vitro. These results suggest a previously unreported role for NMB in the stimulation of the HPG axis via hypothalamic GnRH. Further work is now required to determine the receptor mediating the effects of NMB on the reproductive axis and the physiological role of NMB in reproduction. PMID:24120470

  14. Influence of triphenyltin exposure on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis in male Sebastiscus marmoratus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingbin; Zhang, Jiliang; Zuo, Zhenghong; Chen, Yixin; Wang, Xinhong; Huang, Xin; Wang, Chonggang

    2011-08-01

    Both triphenyltin (TPT) and tributyltin (TBT) have been used as ingredients of antifouling biocides. However, far fewer studies addressing the reproductive toxicity of TPT on fishes are available than for TBT. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of TPT at environmentally relevant concentrations on testicular development in male rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus and to gain insight into its mechanism of action. After exposure for 48 days, the gonadosomatic index had decreased, and there was a reduced number of mature sperm and an abundance of the late stages of spermatocysts in the testes. Although the testosterone levels in the testes were elevated and the 17β-estradiol levels were decreased, spermatogenesis was suppressed. The activity of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (which is used as a Sertoli cell marker) was decreased after TPT exposure, and serious interstitial fibrosis was observed in the interlobular septa of the testes exposed to TPT. The increased expression of cGnRH-II (chicken-II type gonadotropin-releasing hormone) and sGnRH (salmon-type GnRH), and the decreased expression of LHβ (luteinizing hormone) in the fish brains were detected. The expression of FSHβ (follicle-stimulating hormone) was decreased at day 21, while was increased slightly at day 48. The changes of cGnRH-II, sGnRH, FSHβ and LHβ mRNA levels might have mainly resulted from the alteration of the sex steroids via feedback mechanisms. The decrease of the FSHβ mRNA might have been one of the reasons causing the dysfunction of Sertoli cells, which play a critical role during spermatogenesis. The results suggested that TPT could perturb the function of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis, and inhibiting the spermatogenesis. PMID:21641294

  15. Effect of Cyanotoxins on the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis in Male Adult Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huajun

    2014-01-01

    Background Microcystins LR (MC-LR) are hepatotoxic cyanotoxins that have been shown to induce reproductive toxicity, and Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis (HPG) is responsible for the control of reproductive functions. However, few studies have been performed to evaluate the effects of MC-LR on HPG axis. This study aimed to investigate the MC-LR-induced toxicity in the reproductive system of mouse and focus on the HPG axis. Methods Adult male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to various concentrations of MC-LR (0, 3.75, 7.50, 15.00 and 30.00 µg/kg body weight per day) for 1 to 14 days, and it was found that exposure to different concentrations of MC-LR significantly disturbed sperm production in the mice testes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. To elucidate the associated possible mechanisms, the serum levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were assessed. Meanwhile, PCR assays were employed to detect alterations in a series of genes involved in HPG axis, such as FSH, LH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and their complement receptors. Furthermore, the effect of MC-LR on the viability and testosterone production of Leydig cells were tested in vitro. Results: MC-LR significantly impaired the spermatogenesis of mice possibly through the direct or indirect inhibition of GnRH synthesis at the hypothalamic level, which resulted in reduction of serum levels of LH that lead to suppression of testosterone production in the testis of mice. Conclusions MC-LR may be a GnRH toxin that would disrupt the reproductive system of mice. PMID:25375936

  16. Effects of oophorectomy and hormone replacement therapy on pituitary-gonadal function.

    PubMed

    Castelo-Branco, C; Martínez de Osaba, M J; Vanrezc, J A; Fortuny, A; González-Merlo, J

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how oophorectomy and different hormone replacement therapy (HRT) regimens using low doses of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 2.5 mg/day) influence the pituitary-gonadal axis function. Ninety (90) women, who had had regular menses prior to surgery, completed a 1-year follow-up period. Patients were assigned to 5 groups. The first (n = 16) received 0.625 mg/day conjugated equine oestrogens (CEE) cyclically, the second (n = 20) 50 micrograms day transdermal oestradiol (E2) cyclically and the third (n = 15) 0.625 mg/day CEE continuously. These 3 groups also received 2.5 mg MPA sequentially for the last 12 days of HRT administration. The fourth group (n = 20) received 0.625 mg/day CEE and 2.5 mg/day of MPA continuously, while the fifth (n = 19) constituted a control group. After oophorectomy all patients showed increases in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, and decreases in those of E2, oestrone (E1), prolactin (PRL), sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), androstenedione (delta A4) and testosterone (T). No changes were detected in dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) levels. After HRT, decreases in FSH, LH and PRL levels and increases in those of E2, E1 and SHBG were observed, but no changes were seen in T, delta A4 or DHEA-S plasma levels. As the differences that were found cannot be attributed to the presence of ovaries, it is reasonable to assume that they were perhaps due to the treatment. All these changes, with the exception of a decrease in PRL levels, are therefore to be expected after HRT. PMID:8231902

  17. Meta-Analysis of Microarray Data of Rainbow Trout Fry Gonad Differentiation Modulated by Ethynylestradiol

    PubMed Central

    Depiereux, Sophie; Le Gac, Florence; De Meulder, Bertrand; Pierre, Michael; Helaers, Raphaël; Guiguen, Yann; Kestemont, Patrick; Depiereux, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Sex differentiation in fish is a highly labile process easily reversed by the use of exogenous hormonal treatment and has led to environmental concerns since low doses of estrogenic molecules can adversely impact fish reproduction. The goal of this study was to identify pathways altered by treatment with ethynylestradiol (EE2) in developing fish and to find new target genes to be tested further for their possible role in male-to-female sex transdifferentiation. To this end, we have successfully adapted a previously developed bioinformatics workflow to a meta-analysis of two datasets studying sex reversal following exposure to EE2 in juvenile rainbow trout. The meta-analysis consisted of retrieving the intersection of the top gene lists generated for both datasets, performed at different levels of stringency. The intersecting gene lists, enriched in true positive differentially expressed genes (DEGs), were subjected to over-representation analysis (ORA) which allowed identifying several statistically significant enriched pathways altered by EE2 treatment and several new candidate pathways, such as progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation and PPAR signalling. Moreover, several relevant key genes potentially implicated in the early transdifferentiation process were selected. Altogether, the results show that EE2 has a great effect on gene expression in juvenile rainbow trout. The feminization process seems to result from the altered transcription of genes implicated in normal female gonad differentiation, resulting in expression similar to that observed in normal females (i.e. the repression of key testicular markers cyp17a1, cyp11b, tbx1), as well as from other genes (including transcription factors) that respond specifically to the EE2 treatment. The results also showed that the bioinformatics workflow can be applied to different types of microarray platforms and could be generalized to (eco)toxicogenomics studies for environmental risk assessment purposes. PMID

  18. Gonad development in Midas cichlids and the evolution of sex change in fishes.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Ronald G

    2011-01-01

    Some fishes mature and function as one sex and later transform to the other sex in response to social interactions. Previous evidence suggested that a change in developmental timing may be involved in the evolution of adult sex change in fishes. The most recent support for this idea came from reports that sex in the Midas cichlid, Amphilophus citrinellus, was determined by social conditions experienced at the juvenile stage. Differentiation as a male was reported to be dependent on large body size relative to group-mates, and thought to be mediated through aggressive interactions. Here I demonstrate that socially controlled sex determination does not occur as was originally reported. Previously, I found that sex was not associated with body size in juveniles either in nature or in captivity. Similarly, I found no association between aggressive behavior and sex in juveniles. I later demonstrated that socially controlled sex determination does not typically occur in the Midas cichlid and closely related species and supported an alternative mechanism to explain large body size in adult males. Finally, in the current study I analyze gonad histology of fish from the same population used by the original authors and lay to rest the idea of socially controlled sex determination in this species. Recent observations of socially controlled sex determination in juveniles of species that typically change sex at the adult stage are examples of phenotypic plasticity, not genetic variation. Therefore, juvenile socially controlled sex determination does not support a theory that a change in developmental timing is involved in the evolution of adult sex change in fishes. PMID:21740508

  19. Gonadal steroids and affective symptoms during in vitro fertilization: implication for reproductive mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Miki; Aharonov, Inbar; Ben Avi, Irit; Schreiber, Shaul; Amit, Ami; Weizman, Abraham; Azem, Foad

    2011-07-01

    Gonadal steroids (GSs) have been associated with the onset of a number of reproductive-related mood disorders in women, in which fluctuating or unstable hormonal levels are postulated to act as the trigger for the destabilization of mood. There is, however, rather limited direct clinical evidence that can link rapidly changing GS levels with the induction of mood symptoms. We aimed to study the effect of controlled and rapid GS fluctuations on mood in an in vivo model. Women undergoing in vitro fertilization (n=108) were assessed for depression and anxiety levels on 3 time points: during a low estradiol and progesterone baseline, during a gonadotropin stimulated estradiol-dominant phase, and after embryo transfer, during a progesterone-dominant low estrogen phase. Plasma levels for estrogen and progesterone were drawn on these time points. Symptoms of depression and anxiety significantly increased from baseline to the high estradiol levels but were not correlated with estrogen. The sharp drop from high estradiol levels at the estradiol-dominant phase to low levels at the progesterone-dominant phase was significantly correlated with rising depression scores. The rise in progesterone levels from low levels at the estradiol-dominant phase to high levels at the progesterone-dominant phase was significantly and inversely correlated with depression scores. This study suggests that the mechanism underlying the role of estrogen in reproductive-related mood disorders involves an abrupt and precipitous drop in its plasma level that can precipitate negative mood states. This finding has implications on the treatment of GS-related mood disorders. PMID:21106297

  20. Comparative cryobiological traits and requirements for gametes and gonadal tissues collected from wildlife species.

    PubMed

    Comizzoli, P; Songsasen, N; Hagedorn, M; Wildt, D E

    2012-11-01

    A major challenge to retaining viability of frozen gametes and reproductive tissues is to understand and overcome species-specificities, especially because there is substantial diversity in cryobiological properties and requirements among cell types and tissues. Systematic studies can lead to successful post-thaw recovery, especially after determining: 1) membrane permeability to water and cryoprotectant, 2) cryoprotectant toxicity, 3) tolerance to osmotic changes, and 4) resistance to cooling and freezing temperatures. Although species-dependency ultimately dictates the ability of specific cells and tissues to survive freeze-thawing, there are commonalities between taxa that allow a protocol developed for one species to be useful information for another. This is the reason for performing comparative cryopreservation studies among diverse species. Our laboratory has compared cellular cryotolerance, especially in spermatozoa, in a diverse group of animals-from corals to elephants-for more than 30 yrs. Characterizing the biophysical traits of gametes and tissues is the most efficient way to develop successful storage and recovery protocols, but, such data are only available for a few laboratory, livestock, and fish species, with virtually all others (wild mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians) having gone unstudied. Nonetheless, when a rare animal unexpectedly dies, there is no time to understand the fundamentals of biophysics. In these emergencies, it is necessary to rely on experience and the best data from taxonomically-related species. Fortunately, there are some general similarities among most species, which, for example, allow adequate post-thaw viability. Regardless, there is a priority for more information on biophysical traits and freezing tolerance of distinctive biomaterials, especially for oocytes and gonadal tissues, and even for common, domesticated animals. Our colleague, Dr John Critser was a pioneer in cryobiology, earning that moniker because of

  1. Characterization of aspartate transcarbamylase activity from gonads of the soft shell clam, Mya arenaria.

    PubMed

    Etchian, Olivier Assoi; Pellerin, Jocelyne

    2003-04-01

    Aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase, EC 2.1.3.2) has been shown to be a good index of the reproductive cycle in marine molluscs. However, this enzyme has never been studied in the soft shell clam Mya arenaria. The characteristics of gonadal ATCase of the soft shell clam, Mya arenaria were therefore determined since we need powerful tools to assess the degree of effects of endocrine disruptors in this species at risk. Enzyme kinetic values observed at pH 8.3 were significantly lower than those measured at pH 9.4. The optimal conditions for the enzyme assays were reached in the presence of a 10 mM of substrate concentration and at pH 9.2 for 60 min at 37 degrees C. We have found that the enzyme was heat sensitive, markedly activated by DMSO and DMF, but no effect was observed with ethanol, ATP or CTP. However, clam ATCase activity was partly inhibited by the addition of CuSO(4) and PHMB to the medium, an inhibition that could be attributed to the presence of SH sites in cysteine residues localized in the catalytic site of this enzyme. All these results will be very useful in the near future to study the gametogenetic process of Mya arenaria, since little is known about the factors that control the physiological process of reproduction in this bivalve of ecological and economic importance. Studies of variations of the activity of aspartate transcarbamylase will also be useful as a potential biomarker to evaluate the disruption of gametogenesis in clams exposed to endocrine disruptors in situ. PMID:12670788

  2. Morphological abnormalities in gonads of the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras): Description of types and prevalence in the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rajasilta, Marjut; Elfving, Mikael; Hänninen, Jari; Laine, Päivi; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Paranko, Jorma

    2016-03-01

    Due to heavy anthropogenic influence and variation of the environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea, reproductive disorders are becoming a major environmental concern. We show here an increasing prevalence of gonadal malformations in the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras), a key species of the Baltic ecosystem and important in commercial fishery. During 1987-2014, the spawning herring population in the Archipelago Sea (AS) (North Baltic Sea, Finland) was monitored annually and analyzed for gross morphology of the gonads [total number (n) of analyzed fish = 38 284]. Four different types of malformations were repeatedly found and named as asymmetric, rudimentary, segmented, and branched gonads, but also hermaphroditic gonads and miscellaneous (unidentified) disorders were recorded. In 2013, additional samplings (n of fish analyzed = 541) showed similar malformations in herring from the Bothnian Sea. In some gonad types, histological examination revealed disintegration of seminiferous tubules and hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue. In 2014, the overall prevalence of malformations was still relatively low in the AS (frequency = 0-3.4 %; n = 750) and had apparently minimal effect on population recruitment. However, an increasing trend in the time-series (GLM; F = 32.65; p < 0.001) and a significantly higher prevalence in the Bothnian Sea (frequency = 0.7-5.0 %; n = 541; χ (2) = 6.24; p < 0.05) suggest that gonadal malformations may become a new threat for fish in the Baltic Sea. The observed gonad atrophies may be due to environmental endocrine disruption; however, also other explanations may exist and potential explanations are discussed. PMID:26446509

  3. Differential expression of estrogen receptor alpha in the embryonic adrenal-kidney-gonadal complex of the oviparous lizard, Calotes versicolor (Daud.).

    PubMed

    Inamdar, L S; Khodnapur, B S; Nindi, R S; Dasari, S; Seshagiri, P B

    2015-09-01

    Estrogen signalling is critical for ovarian differentiation in reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). To elucidate the involvement of estrogen in this process, adrenal-kidney-gonadal (AKG) expression of estrogen receptor (ERα) was studied at female-producing temperature (FPT) in the developing embryos of the lizard, Calotes versicolor which exhibits a distinct pattern of TSD. The eggs of this lizard were incubated at 31.5±0.5°C (100% FPT). The torso of embryos containing adrenal-kidney-gonadal complex (AKG) was collected during different stages of development and subjected to Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis. The ERα antibody recognized two protein bands with apparent molecular weight ∼55 and ∼45kDa in the total protein extracts of embryonic AKG complex of C. versicolor. The observed results suggest the occurrence of isoforms of ERα. The differential expression of two different protein isoforms may reveal their distinct role in cell proliferation during gonadal differentiation. This is the first report to reveal two isoforms of the ERα in a reptile during development. Immunohistochemical studies reveal a weak, but specific, cytoplasmic ERα immunostaining exclusively in the AKG during late thermo-sensitive period suggesting the responsiveness of AKG to estrogens before gonadal differentiation at FPT. Further, cytoplasmic as well as nuclear expression of ERα in the medulla and in oogonia of the cortex (faint activity) at gonadal differentiation stage suggests that the onset of gonadal estrogen activity coincides with sexual differentiation of gonad. Intensity and pattern of the immunoreactions of ERα in the medullary region at FPT suggest endogenous production of estrogen which may act in a paracrine fashion to induce neighboring cells into ovarian differentiation pathway. PMID:25127850

  4. Estimation of gonad volume, fecundity, and reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon using sonography and endoscopy with application to the endangered pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, J.L.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Annis, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Most species of sturgeon are declining in the Mississippi River Basin of North America including pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus F. and R.) and shovelnose sturgeons (S. platorynchus R.). Understanding the reproductive cycle of sturgeon in the Mississippi River Basin is important in evaluating the status and viability of sturgeon populations. We used non-invasive, non-lethal methods for examining internal reproductive organs of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. We used an ultrasound to measure egg diameter, fecundity, and gonad volume; endoscope was used to visually examine the gonad. We found the ultrasound to accurately measure the gonad volume, but it underestimated egg diameter by 52%. After correcting for the measurement error, the ultrasound accurately measured the gonad volume but it was higher than the true gonad volume for stages I and II. The ultrasound underestimated the fecundity of shovelnose sturgeon by 5%. The ultrasound fecundity was lower than the true fecundity for stage III and during August. Using the endoscope, we viewed seven different egg color categories. Using a model selection procedure, the presence of four egg categories correctly predicted the reproductive stage ± one reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon 95% of the time. For pallid sturgeon, the ultrasound overestimated the density of eggs by 49% and the endoscope was able to view eggs in 50% of the pallid sturgeon. Individually, the ultrasound and endoscope can be used to assess certain reproductive characteristics in sturgeon. The use of both methods at the same time can be complementary depending on the parameter measured. These methods can be used to track gonad characteristics, including measuring Gonadosomatic Index in individuals and/or populations through time, which can be very useful when associating gonad characteristics with environmental spawning triggers or with repeated examinations of individual fish throughout the reproductive cycle.

  5. Gonadal Identity in the Absence of Pro-Testis Factor SOX9 and Pro-Ovary Factor Beta-Catenin in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Barbara; Yao, Humphrey H-C

    2015-08-01

    Sex-reversal cases in humans and genetic models in mice have revealed that the fate of the bipotential gonad hinges upon the balance between pro-testis SOX9 and pro-ovary beta-catenin pathways. Our central query was: if SOX9 and beta-catenin define the gonad's identity, then what do the gonads become when both factors are absent? To answer this question, we developed mouse models that lack either Sox9, beta-catenin, or both in the somatic cells of the fetal gonads and examined the morphological outcomes and transcriptome profiles. In the absence of Sox9 and beta-catenin, both XX and XY gonads progressively lean toward the testis fate, indicating that expression of certain pro-testis genes requires the repression of the beta-catenin pathway, rather than a direct activation by SOX9. We also observed that XY double knockout gonads were more masculinized than their XX counterpart. To identify the genes responsible for the initial events of masculinization and to determine how the genetic context (XX vs. XY) affects this process, we compared the transcriptomes of Sox9/beta-catenin mutant gonads and found that early molecular changes underlying the XY-specific masculinization involve the expression of Sry and 21 SRY direct target genes, such as Sox8 and Cyp26b1. These results imply that when both Sox9 and beta-catenin are absent, Sry is capable of activating other pro-testis genes and drive testis differentiation. Our findings not only provide insight into the mechanism of sex determination, but also identify candidate genes that are potentially involved in disorders of sex development. PMID:26108792

  6. Waterborne cues from crabs induce thicker skeletons, smaller gonads and size-specific changes in growth rate in sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Selden, Rebecca; Johnson, Amy S; Ellers, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Indirect predator-induced effects on growth, morphology and reproduction have been extensively studied in marine invertebrates but usually without consideration of size-specific effects and not at all in post-metamorphic echinoids. Urchins are an unusually good system, in which, to study size effects because individuals of various ages within one species span four orders of magnitude in weight while retaining a nearly isometric morphology. We tracked growth of urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (0.013-161.385 g), in the presence or absence of waterborne cues from predatory Jonah crabs, Cancer borealis. We ran experiments at ambient temperatures, once for 4 weeks during summer and again, with a second set of urchins, for 22 weeks over winter. We used a scaled, cube-root transformation of weight for measuring size more precisely and for equalizing variance across sizes. Growth rate of the smallest urchins (summer: <17 mm diameter; winter: <7 mm diameter) decreased by 40-42% in response to crab cues. In contrast, growth rate of larger urchins was unaffected in the summer and increased in response to crab scent by 7% in the winter. At the end of the 22-week experiment, additional gonadal and skeletal variables were measured. Cue-exposed urchins developed heavier, thicker skeletons and smaller gonads, but no differences in spine length or jaw size. The differences depended on urchin size, suggesting that there are size-specific shifts in gonadal and somatic investment in urchins. PMID:24489404

  7. Systemic administration of diarylpropionitrile (DPN) or phytoestrogens does not affect anxiety-related behaviors in gonadally intact male rats

    PubMed Central

    Patisaul, Heather B.; Burke, Katherine T.; Hinkle, Ruth E.; Adewale, Heather L.; Shea, Damian

    2009-01-01

    The development of highly selective agonists for the two major subforms of the estrogen receptor (ERa and ERϐ) has produced new experimental methodologies for delineating the distinct functional role each plays in neurobehavioral biology. It has also been suggested that these compounds might have the potential to treat estrogen influenced behavioral disorders, such as anxiety and depression. Prior work has established that the ERϐ agonist, diarylpropionitrile (DPN) is anxiolytic in gonadectomized animals of both sexes, but whether or not this effect persists in gonadally intact individuals is unknown. Isoflavone phytoestrogens, also potent but less selective ERϐ agonists, have also been shown to influence anxiety in multiple species and are becoming more readily available to humans as health supplements. Here we determined the effects of 0.5, 1 or 2 mg/kg DPN, 1 mg/kg of the ERa agonist propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT), 3 or 20 mg/kg of the isoflavone equol (EQ) and 3 or 20 mg/kg of the isoflavone polyphenol resveratrol (RES) on anxiety behavior in the gonadally intact male rat using the light/dark box and the elevated plus maze. We first determined that DPN can be successfully administered either orally or by subcutaneous injection, although plasma DPN levels are significantly lower if given orally. Once injected, plasma levels peak rapidly and then decline to baseline levels within 3 hours of administration. For the behavioral studies, all compounds were injected and the animals were tested within 3 hours of treatment. None of the compounds, at any of the doses, significantly altered anxiety-related behavior. Plasma testosterone levels were also not significantly altered suggesting that these compounds do not interfere with endogenous androgen levels. The results suggest that the efficacy of ERϐ agonists may depend on gonadal status. Therefore the therapeutic potential of ERϐ selective agonists to treat mood disorders may be limited. PMID:19071129

  8. Intermittent fasting dietary restriction regimen negatively influences reproduction in young rats: a study of hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sushil; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional infertility is very common in societies where women fail to eat enough to match their energy expenditure and such females often present as clinical cases of anorexia nervosa. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that link energy balance and central regulation of reproduction are still not well understood. Peripheral hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and leptin, as well as neuropeptides like kisspeptin and neuropeptides Y (NPY) play a potential role in regulation of reproduction and energy balance with their primary target converging on the hypothalamic median eminence-arcuate region. The present study was aimed to explore the effects of negative energy state resulting from intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) regimen on complete hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in Wistar strain young female and male rats. Significant changes in body weight, blood glucose, estrous cyclicity and serum estradiol, testosterone and LH level indicated the negative role of IF-DR regimen on reproduction in these young animals. Further, it was elucidated whether serum level of metabolic hormone, leptin plays a mechanistic role in suppressing hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal (HPG) axis via energy regulators, kisspeptin and NPY in rats on IF-DR regimen. We also studied the effect of IF-DR regimen on structural remodeling of GnRH axon terminals in median eminence region of hypothalamus along with the glial cell marker, GFAP and neuronal plasticity marker, PSA-NCAM using immunostaining, Western blotting and RT-PCR. Together these data suggest that IF-DR regimen negatively influences reproduction in young animals due to its adverse effects on complete hypothalamus-hypophysial-gonadal axis and may explain underlying mechanism(s) to understand the clinical basis of nutritional infertility. PMID:23382817

  9. Endocrine-active compound evaluation: qualitative and quantitative histomorphological assessment of zebrafish gonads after bisphenol-A exposure.

    PubMed

    Molina, Ana M; Lora, Antonio J; Blanco, Alfonso; Monterde, José G; Ayala, Nahum; Moyano, Rosario

    2013-02-01

    There is great social concern about the risk involved from exposure to BPA as an endocrine disrupter in humans, as well as the possible repercussion of this chemical on the environment. In this study, the short-term effects of BPA at a gonadal level were assessed by means of different biomarkers in a model animal organism in vogue, the zebrafish (Danio rerio). For this purpose, 60 female zebrafish aged 16 weeks were used. These were exposed for 14 days in aquariums (following OECD Directive no.204) to BPA concentrations of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 μg/L, in addition to a control batch. After the exposure period, the zebrafish were sacrificed and samples taken for a histopathological study by light and electron microscopy and morphometric analysis. During the fourteen days of exposure, water samples were taken from the aquariums to analyze the BPA levels. The BPA concentration in the fish and the water was determined by LC-MS/MS. The gonads of the zebrafish exposed to the BPA had a normal external appearance and there were no variations in their size or body weight. An accumulation of BPA was produced in the zebrafish tissues, and this increased as the BPA concentration to which the fish were exposed did. In the histopathological and morphometric studies, multiple alterations were observed in the zebrafish ovaries, particularly highlighting the vacuolization of the follicular cytoplasm, a great degeneration of all the cell components, and an important increase in the percentage of atretic follicles as from concentrations of 100 and 1000 μg/L of BPA, verified by morphometry. These data indicate that morphological endpoints are sufficiently sensitive to individuate early effects of environmental concentration of BPA on gonads after two weeks of exposure. PMID:23219663

  10. Impaired gonadal and somatic development corroborate vulnerability differences to the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol among deeply diverged anuran lineages.

    PubMed

    Tamschick, Stephanie; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Ogielska, Maria; Lehmann, Andreas; Lymberakis, Petros; Hoffmann, Frauke; Lutz, Ilka; Schneider, Rudolf J; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Amphibians are undergoing a global decline. One poorly investigated reason could be the pollution of aquatic habitats by endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). We tested the susceptibility to the synthetically stabilized estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in three deeply diverged anuran species, differing in sex determination systems, types of gonadogenesis and larval ecologies. To understand whether data from the amphibian model Xenopus laevis (Pipidae) are analogous and applicable to only distantly related non-model amphibians, tadpoles of X. laevis, Hyla arborea (Hylidae) and Bufo viridis (Bufonidae) were simultaneously exposed to 50, 500 and 5000ng/L EE2 from hatching until completion of metamorphosis, using a flow-through-system under identical experimental conditions. Comparing molecularly established genetic with histologically assessed phenotypic sex in all species, we have recently shown that EE2 provoked numerous genetic-male-to-phenotypic-female sex reversals and mixed sex individuals, confirming overall its expected feminizing effect. In the present study, we focus on the influence of EE2 on gonadal and somatic development. Anatomy and histology revealed several species-specific effects. In both non-model species, H. arborea and B. viridis, high numbers of anatomically impaired gonads were observed. In H. arborea, exposed to 5000ng/L EE2, numerous underdeveloped gonads were detected. Whereas EE2 did not alter snout-to-vent length and body weight of X. laevis metamorphs, H. arborea showed a treatment-dependent decrease, while B. viridis exhibited an increase in body weight and snout-to-vent length. Apart from a concentration-dependent occurrence of yellowish skin color in several H. arborea, no organ-specific effects were detected. Since EE2 ubiquitously occurs in many aquatic ecosystems and affects sexual and somatic development, among EDCs, it may indeed contribute to amphibian decline. The inter-species variation in developmental EE2-effects

  11. An XRCC4 Splice Mutation Associated With Severe Short Stature, Gonadal Failure, and Early-Onset Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Christiaan; Mericq, Verónica; Andrew, Shayne F.; van Duyvenvoorde, Hermine A.; Verkaik, Nicole S.; Losekoot, Monique; Porollo, Aleksey; Garcia, Hernán; Kuang, Yi; Hanson, Dan; Clayton, Peter; van Gent, Dik C.; Wit, Jan M.; Hwa, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Context: Severe short stature can be caused by defects in numerous biological processes including defects in IGF-1 signaling, centromere function, cell cycle control, and DNA damage repair. Many syndromic causes of short stature are associated with medical comorbidities including hypogonadism and microcephaly. Objective: To identify an underlying genetic etiology in two siblings with severe short stature and gonadal failure. Design: Clinical phenotyping, genetic analysis, complemented by in vitro functional studies of the candidate gene. Setting: An academic pediatric endocrinology clinic. Patients or Other Participants: Two adult siblings (male patient [P1] and female patient 2 [P2]) presented with a history of severe postnatal growth failure (adult heights: P1, −6.8 SD score; P2, −4 SD score), microcephaly, primary gonadal failure, and early-onset metabolic syndrome in late adolescence. In addition, P2 developed a malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor at age 28. Intervention(s): Single nucleotide polymorphism microarray and exome sequencing. Results: Combined microarray analysis and whole exome sequencing of the two affected siblings and one unaffected sister identified a homozygous variant in XRCC4 as the probable candidate variant. Sanger sequencing and mRNA studies revealed a splice variant resulting in an in-frame deletion of 23 amino acids. Primary fibroblasts (P1) showed a DNA damage repair defect. Conclusions: In this study we have identified a novel pathogenic variant in XRCC4, a gene that plays a critical role in non-homologous end-joining DNA repair. This finding expands the spectrum of DNA damage repair syndromes to include XRCC4 deficiency causing severe postnatal growth failure, microcephaly, gonadal failure, metabolic syndrome, and possibly tumor predisposition. PMID:25742519

  12. Ontogenic and morphological study of gonadal formation in genetically-modified sex reversal XY(POS) mice.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Yuria; Miyamoto, Ryosuke; Hashimoto, Rie; Kinoshita, Kyoko; Omotehara, Takuya; Nagahara, Daichi; Hirano, Tetsushi; Kubota, Naoto; Minami, Kiichi; Yanai, Shogo; Masuda, Natsumi; Yuasa, Hideto; Mantani, Youhei; Matsuo, Eiko; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian sexual fate is determined by the presence or absence of sex determining region of the Y chromosome (Sry) in the "bipotential" gonads. Recent studies have demonstrated that both male and female sexual development are induced by distinct and active genetic pathways. Breeding the Y chromosome from Mus m. domesticus poschiavinus (POS) strains into C57BL/6J (B6J) mice (B6J-XY(POS)) has been shown to induce sex reversal (75%: bilateral ovary, 25%: true hermaphrodites). However, our B6N-XY(POS) mice, which were generated by backcrossing of B6J-XY(POS) on an inbred B6N-XX, develop as males (36%: bilateral testis with fertility as well as bilateral ovary (34%), and the remainder develop as true hermaphrodites. Here, we investigated in detail the expressions of essential sex-related genes and histological features in B6N-XY(POS) mice from the fetal period to adulthood. The onsets of both Sry and SRY-box 9 (Sox9) expressions as determined spatiotemporally by whole-mount immunohistochemistry in the B6N-XY(POS) gonads occurred 2-3 tail somites later than those in B6N-XY(B6) gonads, but earlier than those in B6J-XY(POS), respectively. It is possible that such a small difference in timing of the Sry expression underlies testicular development in our B6N-XY(POS). Our study is the first to histologically show the expression and ectopic localization of a female-related gene in the XY(POS) testes and a male-related gene in the XY(POS) ovaries. The results from these and previous experiments indicate that the interplay between genome variants, epigenetics and developmental gene regulation is crucial for testis development. PMID:26194606

  13. Intermittent Fasting Dietary Restriction Regimen Negatively Influences Reproduction in Young Rats: A Study of Hypothalamo-Hypophysial-Gonadal Axis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sushil; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional infertility is very common in societies where women fail to eat enough to match their energy expenditure and such females often present as clinical cases of anorexia nervosa. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that link energy balance and central regulation of reproduction are still not well understood. Peripheral hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and leptin, as well as neuropeptides like kisspeptin and neuropeptides Y (NPY) play a potential role in regulation of reproduction and energy balance with their primary target converging on the hypothalamic median eminence-arcuate region. The present study was aimed to explore the effects of negative energy state resulting from intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) regimen on complete hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in Wistar strain young female and male rats. Significant changes in body weight, blood glucose, estrous cyclicity and serum estradiol, testosterone and LH level indicated the negative role of IF-DR regimen on reproduction in these young animals. Further, it was elucidated whether serum level of metabolic hormone, leptin plays a mechanistic role in suppressing hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal (HPG) axis via energy regulators, kisspeptin and NPY in rats on IF-DR regimen. We also studied the effect of IF-DR regimen on structural remodeling of GnRH axon terminals in median eminence region of hypothalamus along with the glial cell marker, GFAP and neuronal plasticity marker, PSA-NCAM using immunostaining, Western blotting and RT-PCR. Together these data suggest that IF-DR regimen negatively influences reproduction in young animals due to its adverse effects on complete hypothalamus-hypophysial-gonadal axis and may explain underlying mechanism(s) to understand the clinical basis of nutritional infertility. PMID:23382817

  14. Alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in estrogen- and androgen-treated adult male leopard frog, Rana pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Pei-San; Kessler, Ann E; Jones, Jeremy T; Wahr, Kathleen B

    2005-01-01

    Background Gonadal steroids, in particular 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17 beta-estradiol (E2), have been shown to feed back on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis of the ranid frog. However, questions still remain on how DHT and E2 impact two of the less-studied components of the ranid HPG axis, the hypothalamus and the gonad, and if the feedback effects are consistently negative. Thus, the goal of the study was to examine the effects of DHT and E2 upon the HPG axis of the gonadally-intact, sexually mature male leopard frogs, Rana pipiens. Methods R. pipiens were implanted with silastic capsules containing either cholesterol (Ch, a control), DHT, or E2 for 10 or 30 days. At each time point, steroid-induced changes in hypothalamic GnRH and pituitary LH concentrations, circulating luteinizing hormone (LH), and testicular histology were examined. Results Frogs implanted with DHT or E2 for 10 days did not show significant alterations in the HPG axis. In contrast, frogs implanted with hormones for 30 days had significantly lower circulating LH (for both DHT and E2), decreased pituitary LH concentration (for E2 only), and disrupted spermatogenesis (for both DHT and E2). The disruption of spermatogenesis was qualitatively similar between DHT and E2, although the effects of E2 were consistently more potent. In both DHT and E2-treated animals, a marked loss of all pre-meiotic germ cells was observed, although the loss of secondary spermatogonia appeared to be the primary cause of disrupted spermatogenesis. Unexpectedly, the presence of post-meiotic germ cells was either unaffected or enhanced by DHT or E2 treatment. Conclusions Overall, these results showed that both DHT and E2 inhibited circulating LH and disrupted spermatogenesis progressively in a time-dependent manner, with the longer duration of treatment producing the more pronounced effects. Further, the feedback effects exerted by both steroid hormones upon the HPG axis were largely negative

  15. CD36 deficiency blunts effects of diet on regulatory T cells in murine gonadal adipose tissue and mesenteric lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Geys, Lotte; Vranckx, Christine; Lijnen, Henri Roger; Scroyen, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    The effect of cluster of differentiation (CD)36 on regulatory T cells (Treg) was investigated in gonadal (GN) adipose tissues and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of wild-type (WT) and CD36 deficient (CD36(-/-)) mice kept on standard fat (SFD, lean) or on high fat diet (HFD, obese). GN adipose tissue mass was smaller, but MLN size larger for obese CD36(-/-) versus obese WT mice. Overall, the reduction of Treg cells in GN adipose tissue and MLN after a HFD is much more prominent in WT than CD36(-/-) mice. Moreover, CD36(-/-) mice may be protected against obesity-related chronic inflammation. PMID:26344897

  16. Comparison of gonadal radiation doses from CT enterography and small-bowel follow-through in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Reid, Janet R; Pozzuto, Jessica; Morrison, Stuart; Obuchowski, Nancy; Davros, William

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. CT enterography is superior to small-bowel follow-through (SBFT) for diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is widely assumed that the radiation dose from CT enterography is greater than that from SBFT in the pediatric patient. This study was designed to compare gonadal doses from CT enterography and SBFT to verify the best imaging choice for IBD evaluation in children. This study also challenges the assumption that CT enterography imparts a higher radiation dose through comparison of calculated radiation doses from CT enterography and SBFT. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Patients 0-18 years old who underwent either CT enterography or SBFT over a 2-year period were included. The CT enterography group consisted of 39 boys and 51 girls, whereas the SBFT group consisted of 89 boys and 113 girls. CT enterography was performed at 120 kVp and approximately 132 mAs (range, 54-330 mAs) using weight-based protocols. SBFT used automated control of kilovoltage and tube current-exposure time product. Patient demographics and technical parameters were collected for CT enterography and SBFT, data were cross-paired between CT enterography and SBFT, and gonadal dose was calculated. RESULTS. Mean (± SD) CT enterography testis and ovarian doses were 0.93 ± 0.3 cGy (n = 39) and 0.64 ± 0.2 cGy (n = 51), respectively. Mean SBFT testis and ovarian doses were 2.3 ± 1.6 cGy (n = 89) and 1.49 ± 0.3 cGy (n = 113), respectively. Mean fluoroscopy time for SBFT was 2.6 ± 2 minutes. Gonadal dose for CT enterography was significantly lower than that for SBFT in boys and girls (p < 0.001). SBFT dose was lower in girls than boys (p < 0.001), whereas CT enterography dose was higher in boys than girls (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION. Gonadal dose for CT enterography was lower than that for SBFT for boys and girls of all sizes and age. Controlled exposure time made CT enterography dose more consistent, whereas the range of dose for SBFT was highly operator dependent and related to extent

  17. Caenorhabditis elegans Teneurin, ten-1, Is Required for Gonadal and Pharyngeal Basement Membrane Integrity and Acts Redundantly with Integrin ina-1 and Dystroglycan dgn-1

    PubMed Central

    Trzebiatowska, Agnieszka; Topf, Ulrike; Sauder, Ursula; Drabikowski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans teneurin ortholog, ten-1, plays an important role in gonad and pharynx development. We found that lack of TEN-1 does not affect germline proliferation but leads to local basement membrane deficiency and early gonad disruption. Teneurin is expressed in the somatic precursor cells of the gonad that appear to be crucial for gonad epithelialization and basement membrane integrity. Ten-1 null mutants also arrest as L1 larvae with malformed pharynges and disorganized pharyngeal basement membranes. The pleiotropic phenotype of ten-1 mutant worms is similar to defects found in basement membrane receptor mutants ina-1 and dgn-1 as well as in the mutants of the extracellular matrix component laminin, epi-1. We show that the ten-1 mutation is synthetic lethal with mutations of genes encoding basement membrane components and receptors due to pharyngeal or hypodermal defects. This indicates that TEN-1 could act redundantly with integrin INA-1, dystroglycan DGN-1, and laminin EPI-1 in C. elegans development. Moreover, ten-1 deletion sensitizes worms to loss of nidogen nid-1 causing a pharynx unattached phenotype in ten-1;nid-1 double mutants. We conclude that TEN-1 is important for basement membrane maintenance and/or adhesion in particular organs and affects the function of somatic gonad precursor cells. PMID:18632986

  18. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis in a patient with de novo tas(Y;19)(p11.3;q13.4) and 45,X mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Zafer; Parlak, Mesut; Altiok Clark, Ozden; Karaguzel, Gungor; Luleci, Guven; Bircan, Iffet; Berker-Karauzum, Sibel

    2013-09-01

    We report a patient with a de novo telomeric association between chromosomes 19 and Y in conjunction with mixed gonadal dysgenesis. The patient was first admitted to the clinic because of abnormal external genitalia. Laparoscopic evaluation revealed (1) a rudimentary uterus, one fallopian tube, and a small gonad resembling an ovary on the right side, and (2) an immature fallopian tube, a vas deferens, and a gonad resembling a testis on the left side. Conventional cytogenetic analysis performed on cultivated peripheral blood cells, and tissue obtained from the phallus and a gonadal structure which resembled a testis revealed two different cell lines with the 46,X,tas (Y;19)(p11.3;q13.4) and 45,X karyotype. Y chromosome microdeletion analysis showed that the patient did not have any genomic deletions in the AZFa, b, c, or SRY regions on the long arm of the Y chromosome. This is the first report of a patient with mixed gonadal dysgenesis that is accompanied by a telomeric association between chromosomes 19 and Y with 45,X mosaicism. PMID:23652939

  19. Gonadal dysgenesis without adrenal insufficiency in a 46, XY patient heterozygous for the nonsense C16X mutation: a case of SF1 haploinsufficiency.

    PubMed

    Mallet, Delphine; Bretones, Patricia; Michel-Calemard, Laurence; Dijoud, Frederique; David, Michel; Morel, Yves

    2004-10-01

    Targeted disruption of the orphan nuclear receptor SF1 results in the absence of adrenals and gonads, establishing that this transcription factor is implicated in gonadal determination and adrenal development. Four human SF1 gene mutations have been described to date: three (G35E, R92Q, R255L) were responsible for adrenal insufficiency associated with a gonadal dysgenesis in two 46, XY individuals, one (8 bp deletion in exon 6) resulted in gonadal dysgenesis without adrenal insufficiency. We identified a new heterozygous SF1 gene mutation, C16X, in a 46, XY patient showing gonadal dysgenesis with normal adrenal function: low basal levels of AMH and testosterone (T), weak T response to hCG, hypoplastic testes with abundant seminiferous tubules but rare germ cells. This mutation causes premature termination of translation and should abolish all SF1 activity. Therefore haploinsufficiency could explain the deleterious effect of this mutation in our patient suggesting that testis development is more SF1 dose-dependent than adrenal development. Although the same mechanism explains the deleterious effects of SF1 missense mutations, recent studies have demonstrated an additional dominant negative effect. These data suggest that heterozygous mutation impaired adrenal development only if the two mechanisms, gene dosage and dominant negative effects occur. PMID:15472171

  20. Testicular volume in relation to hormonal indices of gonadal function in community-dwelling elderly men.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, A M; Goemaere, S; El-Garem, Y; Van Pottelbergh, I; Comhaire, F H; Kaufman, J M

    2003-01-01

    Aging is accompanied by involutional changes in testicular function; limited data suggest a decrease in bilateral testicular volume (BTV). We studied BTV by ultrasonography in relation to serum gonadal hormones in 115 healthy elderly men (median age, 78 yr) and 42 young men (median age, 26.5 yr). Elderly men had a clearly smaller BTV (mean, 20.6 vs. 29.7 ml; P < 0.001), whereas serum inhibin B was slightly but significantly decreased (mean, 176.8 vs. 212.8 ng/liter; P = 0.04); lower values in the elderly were observed for bioavailable (Bio) testosterone (T), Bio 17 beta-estradiol, inhibin B/FSH (mean, 18 vs. 58 ng/mU; P < 0.001), and T/LH ratios. In the elderly and the young, respectively, BTV was associated with inhibin B (r = 0.53, P < 0.001; r = 0.41, P < 0.01), FSH (r = -0.53, P < 0.001; r = -0.48, P < 0.01), and inhibin B/FSH ratio. Only in the old men was BTV significantly associated with LH (r = -0.32; P < 0.001), Bio T (r = 0.26; P < 0.01), and T/LH (r = 0.48; P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, FSH, inhibin B, and Bio T were independently associated with BTV in the elderly (R(2) = 0.34). Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis indicated that BTV at a criterion value of 14.3 ml had a sensitivity of 46% and a specificity of 79% to predict low serum Bio T levels in the elderly. In conclusion, the moderately decreased BTV observed in elderly men, strongly associated with a decrease of the inhibin B/FSH ratio, is consistent with a reduced Sertoli cell mass, compensated by increased FSH stimulation resulting in only limited decrease of Sertoli cell function. Finding of a low testicular volume in elderly men can contribute to the diagnosis of hypogonadism, but this criterion has low sensitivity to detect decreased T production. PMID:12519849

  1. Predicting Treatment Response for Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Using Pre-treatment Adrenal and Gonadal Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Shenk, Chad E.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Kolko, David J.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Noll, Jennie G.; Bukstein, Oscar G.

    2016-01-01

    Variations in adrenal and gonadal hormone profiles have been linked to increased rates of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). These relationships suggest that certain hormone profiles may be related to how well children respond to psychological treatments for ODD and CD. The current study assessed whether pre-treatment profiles of adrenal and gonadal hormones predicted response to psychological treatment of ODD and CD. One hundred five children, 6 – 11 years old, participating in a randomized, clinical trial provided samples for cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione. Diagnostic interviews of ODD and CD were administered up to three years post-treatment to track treatment response. Group-based trajectory modeling identified two trajectories of treatment response: 1) a High-response trajectory where children demonstrated lower rates of an ODD or CD diagnosis throughout follow-up, and 2) a Low-response trajectory where children demonstrated higher rates of an ODD or CD diagnosis throughout follow-up. Hierarchical logistic regression predicting treatment response demonstrated that children with higher pre-treatment concentrations of testosterone were four times more likely to be in the Low-response trajectory. No other significant relationship existed between pre-treatment hormone profiles and treatment response. These results suggest that higher concentrations of testosterone are related to how well children diagnosed with ODD or CD respond to psychological treatment over the course of three years.

  2. Time course of endocrine changes in the hypophysis-gonad axis induced by hypobaric hypoxia in male rats.

    PubMed

    Farias, Jorge Gonzalo; Bustos-Obregón, Eduardo; Tapia, Pablo Jose; Gutierrez, Eduardo; Zepeda, Andrea; Juantok, Camila; Cruz, Gonzalo; Soto, Gustavo; Benites, Julio; Reyes, Juan Guillermo

    2008-02-01

    Chronic hypobaric hypoxia (CHH) induces a decrease in sperm output and spermatogenesis in male rats. The mechanisms that underlie these changes in testicular function are unknown and could involve changes in the hypophysis-gonad axis. We have tested the hypothesis that changes take place in the endocrine status (FSH, follicle stimulating hormone; LH, luteinizing hormone; testosterone) of rats subjected to CHH. Male Wistar rats were maintained under normobaric or hypobaric conditions (428 torr, 4,600 m). On days 0, 5, 15 and 30 post-exposure, 12 rats were anesthetized, their body weights were measured and blood samples were collected. The testicles were fixed in 4% formaldehyde and processed for histological analysis. In this time course, the FSH levels rose by day 5 post-exposure. On subsequent days, the FSH levels decreased in rats subjected to CHH with a tendency to remain higher than the normoxic group. The LH plasma levels decreased in rats exposed to CHH. Consistent with the decrease in LH levels, the plasma testosterone level decreased significantly after 30 days of CHH exposure. Integrated analysis of hormonal changes in rats subjected to CHH and the body dehydration that occurs in HH allows us to conclude that the effects of CHH on spermatogenesis may be partially related to changes in the hypophysis-gonad hormonal axis. PMID:17984574

  3. Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients with 46,XY Partial Gonadal Dysgenesis Reared as Males

    PubMed Central

    Marques-de-Faria, Antonia Paula; Fabbri, Helena Campos; Maciel-Guerra, Andréa Trevas

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. Studies on 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis (PGD) have focused on molecular, gonadal, genital, and hormone features; little is known about follow-up. Our aim was to analyze long-term outcomes of PGD. Methods. Retrospective longitudinal study conducted at a reference service in Brazil. Ten patients were first evaluated in the 1990s and followed up until the 2010s; follow-up ranged from 13.5 to 19.7 years. All were reared as males and had at least one scrotal testis; two bore NR5A1 mutations. Main outcomes were: associated conditions, pubertal development, and growth. Results. All patients had normal motor development but three presented cognitive impairment; five had various associated conditions. At the end of the prepubertal period, FSH was high or high-normal in 3/6 patients; LH was normal in all. At the last evaluation, FSH was high or high-normal in 8/10; LH was high or high-normal in 5/10; testosterone was decreased in one. Final height in nine cases ranged from −1.57 to 0.80 SDS. All had spontaneous puberty; only one needed androgen therapy. Conclusions. There is good prognosis for growth and spontaneous pubertal development but not for fertility. Though additional studies are required, screening for learning disabilities is advisable. PMID:25580123

  4. In vitro metabolism of radioactive progesterone and testosterone by the gonads of the protandrous Rhabdosargus sarba at various sexual phases

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, W.S.; Chan, S.T.

    1985-08-01

    The in vitro steroidogenic capacity of the gonadal tissue in the protandrous Rhabdosargus sarba was studied. Testicular and ovarian tissues from various sexual phases were used either separately or combined. With progesterone as precursor, high yield of 5 beta-reduced metabolites, and no 11-ketotestosterone or 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone were found. The production of 5 beta-pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one and 5 beta-pregnane-3,20-dione was very high in incubations with testicular tissue from intersexes or males and was low in those with ovarian tissue only. The production of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone was high in the female but was low in other sexual phases. With testosterone as precursor, 11-ketotestoterone and 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone were identified. 5 beta-Reductase activity was high in the male and relatively low in the female. 5 alpha-Reduced products, however, were absent. There was an increase in the production of androstenedione as the animal underwent sex reversal. The significance of this change in steroidogenesis in this protandrous fish is at present under investigation. Experimental results also indicated that in the intersexual gonad there may be interaction between the testicular component and the ovarian component in steroidgenesis.

  5. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P.

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John’s snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37–3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126–141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

  6. Evidence of sex reversal in the gonads of chicken embryos after oestrogen treatment as detected by expression of lutropin receptor.

    PubMed

    Akazome, Y; Mori, T

    1999-01-01

    In chicken embryos, there is a difference between the sexes in the onset of lutropin receptor mRNA expression in the gonads. The effects of oestrogen on lutropin receptor expression were studied to investigate the mechanism controlling this difference. Lutropin receptor mRNA expression was detected in the ovaries of sesame oil-treated control female embryos on day 12 of incubation, while no expression was found in the testes of the male controls. Oestradiol administration to genetically male embryos before sexual differentiation resulted in gonadal sex reversal which was characterized histologically by the proliferation of cortical cords and the presence of lacunae. Lutropin receptor expression was detected in the feminizing testis on day 12 of incubation. Administration of aromatase inhibitor (CGS 16949 A) to genetically female embryos before sexual differentiation inhibited the formation of cortical cords, although a relatively weak expression of lutropin receptor was detected. These results indicate that early expression of the lutropin receptor is regulated by oestrogen. PMID:10341717

  7. Sex-dependent effects of microcystin-LR on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis and gametogenesis of adult zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wanjing; Chen, Chuanyue; Chen, Liang; Wang, Li; Li, Jian; Chen, Yuanyuan; Jin, Jienan; Kawan, Atufa; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2016-03-01

    While microcystins (MCs) have been reported to exert reproductive toxicity on fish with a sex-dependent effect, the underlying mechanism has been rarely investigated. In the present study, zebrafish were exposed to 1, 5 and 20 μg/L MC-LR for 30 d. The gonad-somatic index declined in all treated males. 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels increased in serum from all treated females, while T, FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels changed in all treated males. Histomorphological observation showed that MC-LR exposure evidently retarded oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Transcriptional changes of 22 genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis exhibited sex-specific responses, and the relationship between gene transcriptions and gametogenesis was evaluated by principle component analysis (PCA). Major contributors to PC1 (gnrh2, gnrhr3, ar, lhr, hmgra, hmgrb and cyp19a) were positively correlated with the number of post-vitellogenic oocytes, while PC1 (gnrh2, lhβ, erβ, fshr, cyp11a and 17βhsd) were positively correlated with the number of spermatozoa. The protein levels of 17βHSD and CYP19a were affected in both females and males. In conclusion, this study first investigated the sex-dependent effects of microcystins on fish reproduction and revealed some important molecular biomarkers related to gametogenesis in zebrafish suffered from MC-LR.

  8. Sex-dependent effects of microcystin-LR on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis and gametogenesis of adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanjing; Chen, Chuanyue; Chen, Liang; Wang, Li; Li, Jian; Chen, Yuanyuan; Jin, Jienan; Kawan, Atufa; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2016-01-01

    While microcystins (MCs) have been reported to exert reproductive toxicity on fish with a sex-dependent effect, the underlying mechanism has been rarely investigated. In the present study, zebrafish were exposed to 1, 5 and 20 μg/L MC-LR for 30 d. The gonad-somatic index declined in all treated males. 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels increased in serum from all treated females, while T, FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels changed in all treated males. Histomorphological observation showed that MC-LR exposure evidently retarded oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Transcriptional changes of 22 genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis exhibited sex-specific responses, and the relationship between gene transcriptions and gametogenesis was evaluated by principle component analysis (PCA). Major contributors to PC1 (gnrh2, gnrhr3, ar, lhr, hmgra, hmgrb and cyp19a) were positively correlated with the number of post-vitellogenic oocytes, while PC1 (gnrh2, lhβ, erβ, fshr, cyp11a and 17βhsd) were positively correlated with the number of spermatozoa. The protein levels of 17βHSD and CYP19a were affected in both females and males. In conclusion, this study first investigated the sex-dependent effects of microcystins on fish reproduction and revealed some important molecular biomarkers related to gametogenesis in zebrafish suffered from MC-LR. PMID:26960901

  9. Cytogenetic toxicity and gonadal effects of 17 α-methyltestosterone in Astyanax bimaculatus (Characidae) and Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Rivero-Wendt, C L G; Miranda-Vilela, A L; Ferreira, M F N; Borges, A M; Grisolia, C K

    2013-01-01

    The synthetic hormone, 17-α-methyltestosterone (MT), is used in fish hatcheries to induce male monosex. Androgenic effects on various fish species have been reported; however, few studies have assessed possible genotoxic effects, although there are concerns about such effects in target and non-target species. We evaluated genotoxic and gonadal effects of MT in adult tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Astyanax bimaculatus (a common native non-target fish in Brazil). Fish were fed for 28 days with ration containing MT (60 mg/L), a normal dose used in fish farming. Evaluation of MT genotoxicity was carried out through micronucleus test, nuclear abnormality, and comet assay analyses on peripheral erythrocyte cells collected by cardiac puncture. There were no significant differences in micronucleus frequencies and DNA damage in both species; however, MT caused cytogenetic toxicity in the non-target species, A. bimaculatus, with significantly increased erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities. Histopathological analyses of the female gonads of O. niloticus revealed that MT significantly inhibited the development of mature oocytes, while in A. bimaculatus it provoked significant inhibition of spermatozoa production. We concluded that discharge of fish-hatcheries water onto the surface of aquatic ecosystems should be avoided due to risks to reproduction of native species. PMID:24085447

  10. Therapeutic Neuroendocrine Agonist and Antagonist Analogs of Hypothalamic Neuropeptides as Modulators of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis.

    PubMed

    Newton, Claire L; Anderson, Ross C; Millar, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive hormones play a role at all stages of life and affect most tissues of the body. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) synthesized in the hypothalamus stimulates the secretion of gonadotropins which in turn stimulate gonadal sex hormone production and gamete formation. This hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis has, therefore, been the target for the development of numerous drugs which regulate it at various points. These include sex steroid agonists and antagonists, inhibitors of sex steroid biosynthesis, and GnRH agonists and antagonists, which have found extensive applications in treating numerous conditions such as precocious puberty, delayed puberty, prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, endometriosis, uterine fibroids and also in in vitro fertilization protocols. The novel neuroendocrine peptides, kisspeptin (KP) and neurokinin B (NKB), were recently discovered as upstream regulators of GnRH, and inactivating mutations of KP and NKB ligands or receptors result in a failure to progress through puberty. Agonists and antagonists of KP and NKB are being developed as more subtle modulators of the HPG axis. These new drugs offer additional and alternative therapeutic options in pediatric and adult hormone-dependent diseases. PMID:26684214

  11. [Characteristics of crew communicative behavior and gonadal hormones excretion during long-term chamber isolation of international male crew].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Gushchin, V I; Larina, I M; Shved, D M; Pastushkova, L Kh; Vinokhodova, A G

    2012-01-01

    The peculiarities of psycho-physiological adaptation to the simulation of the extended autonomous manned Mission to Mars with limited resources and external communication were studied. Verbal communication of the crew of 6 male subjects, representing Russian and European Space Agency with Mission Control (MC) as well as physiological correlates of 105-days life and work in the chambers under sensory deprivation, confinement, monotony and high autonomy were observed. Psychological, physiological and biochemical (urinary cortisol and gonadal hormones) testing together with content-analysis of the crew communication with MC were made in parallel. Gained results confirmed to a considerable extent the preliminary hypothesis about the serious impact of such stressful factors as intragroup conflict, significant decrease of the variety and scope of communication with the outer world and social pressure on the verbal behavior and hormonal excretion of the future Martian crew. For the first time correlation between the metabolism of the gonadal hormones and the volume, content and creativity of the verbal human behavior during various stages of adaptation to the extended isolation in the chambers. PMID:23393787

  12. Preliminary findings of fecal gonadal hormone concentrations in six captive sea otters (Enhydra lutris) after deslorelin implantation.

    PubMed

    Larson, S; Belting, T; Rifenbury, K; Fisher, G; Boutelle, S M

    2013-01-01

    The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a popular exhibit animal in many zoos and aquariums worldwide. Captive sea otters from these populations are owned by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The USFWS has requested that these sea otters be prevented from breeding in order to save captive space for wild rescued animals. Sea otters are often housed in mixed sex groups, therefore a chemical contraceptive method or surgical removal of gonads must be used to prevent potential pregnancy. The contraceptive, Suprelorin® or deslorelin, has been used in many different species to effectively suppress reproduction but duration of effect may vary not only between species but also individuals. Here, we report the effects of one to several consecutive deslorelin implants on gonadal reproductive hormones found in fecal samples from six captive sea otters (two males and four females) compared to two control otters (one male and one female) housed at three zoological institutions. We documented the longitudinal hormone signatures of many stages of the contraceptive cycle including pretreatment (PT), stimulatory phase (S), effective contraception (EC), and hormone reversal (HR) that was characterized by a return to normal hormone levels. Deslorelin was found to be an effective contraceptive in sea otters and was found to be reversible documented by a live birth following treatment, however the duration of suppression in females was much longer than expected with a 6-month and a 1-year implant lasting between 3 and 4 years in females. PMID:22753108

  13. Sex-dependent effects of microcystin-LR on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis and gametogenesis of adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wanjing; Chen, Chuanyue; Chen, Liang; Wang, Li; Li, Jian; Chen, Yuanyuan; Jin, Jienan; Kawan, Atufa; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2016-01-01

    While microcystins (MCs) have been reported to exert reproductive toxicity on fish with a sex-dependent effect, the underlying mechanism has been rarely investigated. In the present study, zebrafish were exposed to 1, 5 and 20 μg/L MC-LR for 30 d. The gonad-somatic index declined in all treated males. 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels increased in serum from all treated females, while T, FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels changed in all treated males. Histomorphological observation showed that MC-LR exposure evidently retarded oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Transcriptional changes of 22 genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis exhibited sex-specific responses, and the relationship between gene transcriptions and gametogenesis was evaluated by principle component analysis (PCA). Major contributors to PC1 (gnrh2, gnrhr3, ar, lhr, hmgra, hmgrb and cyp19a) were positively correlated with the number of post-vitellogenic oocytes, while PC1 (gnrh2, lhβ, erβ, fshr, cyp11a and 17βhsd) were positively correlated with the number of spermatozoa. The protein levels of 17βHSD and CYP19a were affected in both females and males. In conclusion, this study first investigated the sex-dependent effects of microcystins on fish reproduction and revealed some important molecular biomarkers related to gametogenesis in zebrafish suffered from MC-LR. PMID:26960901

  14. In Vitro and Molecular Modeling Analysis of Two Mutant Desert Hedgehog Proteins Associated with 46,XY Gonadal Dysgenesis

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Josué Joram; Méndez, Juan Pablo; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Soriano-Ursúa, Marvin Antonio; Damian-Matsumura, Pablo; Benítez-Granados, Jesús; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee

    2013-01-01

    Mutations of Desert hedgehog (DHH) have been associated to 46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (PGD) and to mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD); however, there have been no functional studies of mutations described in DHH. To determine if mutations p.L162P and Δ1086delG yield functional impairment, we performed in vitro and in silico analysis of both DHH mutants. In complementary DNA of DHH, we performed site-directed mutagenesis, which was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Protein extracts were obtained from HEK293cells transfected with different constructs and analyzed by Western blot; besides, densitometric analysis of chemiluminescent signals was performed. In addition, the structure of the wt-DHH and its two mutant proteins was inferred using in silico protein molecular modeling. In the Western blot analysis, we observed the absence of signal for p.L162P in DHH-N and a diminished signal for Δ1086delG in DHH-C, when compared to wt-DHH. Protein modeling showed notable conformational changes for the side chains of p.L162P, while the secondary structure was drastically modified in Δ1086delG, when compared to wt-DHH. To our knowledge, this is the first study focused to determine by in vitro studies, the effect of two specific mutations in DHH associated with 46,XY PGD and MGD. Our results suggest that both mutations have a deleterious effect on the expression of the DHH mutant proteins. PMID:23786321

  15. Molecular cloning and analysis of gonadal expression of Foxl2 in the rice-field eel Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    We isolated the complete Foxl2 (Foxl2a) cDNA from the Monopterus albus ovary. An alignment of known Foxl2 amino-acid sequences confirmed the conservation of the Foxl2 open reading frame, especially the forkhead domain and C-terminal region. The expression of Foxl2 was detected in the brain, eyes, and gonads. A high level of Foxl2 expression in the ovary before sex reversal, but its transcripts decreased sharply when the gonad developed into the ovotestis and testis. The correlation between the Foxl2 expression and the process of sex development revealed the important function of Foxl2 during the sex reversal of M. albus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Foxl2 was expressed abundantly in granulosa cells and in the interstitial cells of the ovotestis and testis. These results suggest that Foxl2 plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of ovarian function. Foxl2 may be also involved in the early development of testis and the development of ocular structures of M. albus. PMID:25363394

  16. Methods to assess the effects of environmental chemicals on the brain-pituitary-gonad axis of the reproductive system

    SciTech Connect

    Magliulo-Cepriano, L.; Schreibman, M.P.

    1999-07-01

    In all vertebrates, the neuroendocrine system serves as the primary and essential link between the external and internal environments and a multitude of physiological systems, including the reproductive system. In response to changes in the environment and fluctuations in levels of circulating humoral agents, the neuroendocrine system is able to reverse, maintain or advance physiological events. Endocrine disrupting compounds are believed to wreak havoc on reproduction and development by interfering in the normal flow of information along the brain-pituitary-gonad axis. While the final effects of these compounds may be easily determined in a number of species, utilization of non-traditional research animals, such as some fishes in which the pattern of information flow along the brain-pituitary-gonad axis has been meticulously detailed and documented, will provide excellent and novel means of elucidating not only the final effects but the cytological, histological and systemic mechanisms of action of these endocrine disruptors. This report presents methods of assessing the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds on a variety of physiological and morphological parameters in fishes.

  17. Transfer and Detection of Freshly Isolated or Cultured Chicken (Gallus gallus) and Exotic Species’ Embryonic Gonadal Germ Stem Cells in Host Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Imus, Nastassja; Roe, Mandi; Charter, Suellen; Durrant, Barbara; Jensen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The management of captive avian breeding programs increasingly utilizes various artificial reproductive technologies, including in ova sexing of embryos to adjust population sex ratios. Currently, however, no attention has been given to the loss of genetic diversity following sex-selective incubation, even with respect to individuals from critically endangered species. This project evaluated the possibility of using xenotransfer of embryonic gonadal germline stem cells (GGCs) for future reintroduction of their germplasm into the gene pool. We examined and compared the host gonad colonization of freshly isolated and 3 day (3d) cultured donor GGCs from chicken and 13 species of exotic embryos. Following 3d-culture of GGCs, there was a significant increase in the percentage of stem cell marker (SSEA-1, -3, -4) positive cells. However, the percentage of positive host gonads with chicken donor-derived cells decreased from 68% (fresh) to 22% (3d), while the percentage of exotic species donor-cells positive host gonads decreased from 61% (fresh) to 49% (3d-cultured). Donor GGCs from both chicken and exotic species were localized within the caudal endoderm, including the region encompassing the gonadal ridge by 16 hours post-injection. Furthermore, donor-derived cells isolated from stage 36 host embryos were antigenic for anti SSEA-1, VASA/DDX4 and EMA-1 antibodies, presumably indicating maintenance of stem cell identity. This study demonstrates that GGCs from multiple species can migrate to the gonadal region and maintain presumed stemness following xenotransfer into a chicken host embryo, suggesting that germline stem cell migration is highly conserved in birds. PMID:24882096

  18. Toxic effects of male Perna viridis gonad exposed to BaP, DDT and their mixture: A metabolomic and proteomic study of the underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Song, Qinqin; Zheng, Pengfei; Qiu, Liguo; Jiang, Xiu; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane are typical persistent organic pollutants, and also the widespread environmental estrogens with known toxicity towards green mussels Perna viridis. In this study, the toxicological effects of BaP and DDT and their mixture were assessed in green mussel gonads using proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Metabolomics by NMR spectroscopy revealed that BaP did not show obvious metabolite changes in the gonad of male green mussel. DDT mainly caused some disturbance of osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by changing BCAAs, alanine, threonine, arginine, etc., unknown metabolite (3.53 ppm), glycine, homarine and ATP at different levels. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT mainly caused some disturbance in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by differentially altering branched chain amino acids, glutamate, alanine, arginine, unknown metabolite (3.53 ppm), glycine, 4-aminobutyrate, dimethylglycine, homarine and ATP. The results suggest that DDT alone may cause most of metabolites changes in the mixture exposed male mussel gonad, and the results also show that the male P. viridis gonad was more sensitive to DDT than BaP exposures. Proteomic study showed that BaP, DDT and their mixture may have different modes of action. Proteomic responses revealed that BaP induced signal transduction, oxidative stress, spermatogenesis, etc. in the male green mussel gonad; whereas DDT exposure altered proteins that were associated with signal transduction, oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, cellular organization, energy metabolism, etc. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT affected proteins related to cytoskeleton and cell structure, oxidative stress, cellular organization, etc. This research demonstrated that metabolomic and proteomic approaches could better elucidate the underlying mechanism of environmental pollutants gonad toxicity. PMID:26546779

  19. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Portunus trituberculatus Ovary and Testis by RNA-Seq: Identification of Genes Involved in Gonadal Development

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xian-liang; Liu, Ping; Jia, Fu-long; Li, Jian; Gao, Bao-Quan

    2015-01-01

    The swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus is a commercially important crab species in East Asia countries. Gonadal development is a physiological process of great significance to the reproduction as well as commercial seed production for P. trituberculatus. However, little is currently known about the molecular mechanisms governing the developmental processes of gonads in this species. To open avenues of molecular research on P. trituberculatus gonadal development, Illumina paired-end sequencing technology was employed to develop deep-coverage transcriptome sequencing data for its gonads. Illumina sequencing generated 58,429,148 and 70,474,978 high-quality reads from the ovary and testis cDNA library, respectively. All these reads were assembled into 54,960 unigenes with an average sequence length of 879 bp, of which 12,340 unigenes (22.45% of the total) matched sequences in GenBank non-redundant database. Based on our transcriptome analysis as well as published literature, a number of candidate genes potentially involved in the regulation of gonadal development of P. trituberculatus were identified, such as FAOMeT, mPRγ, PGMRC1, PGDS, PGER4, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSDs. Differential expression analysis generated 5,919 differentially expressed genes between ovary and testis, among which many genes related to gametogenesis and several genes previously reported to be critical in differentiation and development of gonads were found, including Foxl2, Wnt4, Fst, Fem-1 and Sox9. Furthermore, 28,534 SSRs and 111,646 high-quality SNPs were identified in this transcriptome dataset. This work represents the first transcriptome analysis of P. trituberculatus gonads using the next generation sequencing technology and provides a valuable dataset for understanding molecular mechanisms controlling development of gonads and facilitating future investigation of reproductive biology in this species. The molecular markers obtained in this study will provide a fundamental basis for

  20. Ovotesticular disorder of sex development with mosaic 45,X/46,X,idic(Y) (q11.23) karyotype and streak gonad.

    PubMed

    Tran, Christine N; Semins, Michelle J; Epstein, Jonathan I; Gearhart, John P

    2011-11-01

    An infant born at 38-weeks' gestation presented with ambiguous genitalia. Cytogenetic evaluation revealed an uncommon 45,X/46,X,idic(Y) mosaic karyotype. Pelvic ultrasonography, genitogram, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a long common urogenital sinus, vagina, cervix, unicornuate uterus, phallus, and bilateral intra-abdominal gonads resembling testes. The parents chose a male sex of rearing, and the infant underwent total abdominal hysterectomy, vaginectomy, bilateral gonadectomy, and first-stage hypospadias repair at 19 months of age. The histopathologic findings were consistent with ovotesticular disorder of sex development with a unique combination of testis and ovary on the left and testis and streak gonad on the right. PMID:21550644

  1. Emergence, Development, and Maturity of the Gonad of Two Species of Chitons “Sea Cockroach” (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) through the Early Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Abadia-Chanona, Quetzalli Yasú

    2013-01-01

    This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or “early life stages” were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aXb. A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length “TL”) were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r), close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods (“Pw” without gonad, “Pe” gonad emergence, and “Pf” gonadal sac formed) and four stages (“S0” gametocytogenesis, “S1” gametogenesis, “S2” mature, and “S3” spawning), respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13–14.32 mm, Pe 10.32–16.93 mm, Pf 12.99–25.01 mm, S0 16.08–24.34 mm (females) and 19.51–26.60 mm (males), S1 27.15–35.63 mm (females) and 23.45–32.27 mm (males), S2 24.48–40.24 mm (females) and 25.45–32.87 mm (males). Sexual differentiation (in S0) of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult) are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management. PMID:23936353

  2. Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) through the early life stages.

    PubMed

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Abadia-Chanona, Quetzalli Yasú

    2013-01-01

    This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aX(b) . A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length "TL") were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r), close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed) and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning), respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females) and 19.51-26.60 mm (males), S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females) and 23.45-32.27 mm (males), S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females) and 25.45-32.87 mm (males). Sexual differentiation (in S0) of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult) are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management. PMID:23936353

  3. Effect of breeding stage and photoperiod on gonadal and serotonergic axes in domestic ganders.

    PubMed

    Gumułka, Małgorzata; Rozenboim, Israel

    2015-11-01

    to spring-summer) resulted in earlier peripheral changes in T (0.9 vs. 1.8 ng/mL), LH (1.1 vs. 3.8 ng/mL), and PRL (296.1 vs. 161.2 ng/mL) concentrations than in short day, and this may be related to the advance in the timing of the sexual activity failure observed under natural light regimes. The lack of differences in gonadal and lactotrophic axis mRNA expression after LD treatment suggested a regulation based on the posttranslational mechanisms or modification of transcript or protein. PMID:26318228

  4. Life history strategies in zooplankton communities: The significance of female gonad morphology and maturation types for the reproductive biology of marine calanoid copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehoff, Barbara

    2007-07-01

    The present review addresses the reproductive strategies of marine calanoid copepods, as affected by their physiological preconditioning, and aims to enhance understanding of their adaptations to specific environmental conditions. Knowledge about oocyte development and internal gonad structure, especially in relation to feeding conditions, is essential for a complete understanding of the reproductive strategies of the copepods. Therefore, the foci of the review are to identify general patterns in oocyte and gonad development in calanoid copepod species from marine ecosystems worldwide and to elucidate the significance of gonad structures for reproductive strategies. Oogenesis is similar in all copepod species. During maturation, the morphology of the oocytes changes distinctly and, according to oocyte size and appearance of ooplasm and nucleus, five oocyte developmental stages are distinguished. In contrast, the gonad structure and its changes during the spawning cycle differ considerably among species, and these differences are related to specific reproductive traits. Four gonad morphology types can be distinguished: the Calanus-type, found in species from all over the world with distinctly different life history traits, is apparently most common in calanoid copepods. In this gonad type, most oocyte developmental stages are present simultaneously, and usually many oocytes mature synchronously, all of which are released in one clutch. The gonad structure allows frequent spawning and large clutches, hence, high egg production rates. This may be a preconditioning for exploiting seasonally high food supply. However, the Calanus-type was also found in species producing eggs at lower rates. In the diverticula of Pseudocalanus-type gonads, only two oocyte developmental stages are present and usually fewer oocytes mature synchronously. Accordingly, the egg production rate is generally lower as compared to the Calanus-type, and apparently only this gonad-type is

  5. Effect of maternal nutrition and days of gestation on pituitary gland and gonadal gene expression in cattle.

    PubMed

    Weller, M M D C A; Fortes, M R S; Marcondes, M I; Rotta, P P; Gionbeli, T R S; Valadares Filho, S C; Campos, M M; Silva, F F; Silva, W; Moore, S; Guimarães, S E F

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated effects of maternal overnutrition on gonadal development and pituitary-gonadal gene expression in cattle fetuses at mid- and late-gestation. Twenty-seven multiparous dry cows were fed either high (ad libitum, H) or moderate (M) intake of the same diet. Twelve cows from H (n=6) and M (n=6) intake carrying females fetuses were euthanized at 199 and 268d of gestation (DG; n=3 for H or M on each DG). Fifteen cows from H (n=6) and M intake (n=9) carrying male fetuses were euthanized at 139, 199, and 241 DG (n=2 for H and n=3 for M on each DG). Fetal gonads and pituitary gland were sampled for gene expression and histological analyses. Sex-specific responses to maternal intake were observed. Primordial and total follicle numbers were lower in fetal ovaries from H than in M intake cows. These results were the reverse for preantral and antral follicles. Volumetric proportion and diameter of seminiferous cord were lower in fetal testis of H than M intake cows. The expression level of FSHB was greater in pituitary gland of the female fetus from H compared with M intake cows, irrespective of DG, whereas LHB gene expression did not differ. In males, FSHB and LHB gene expression levels were similar between maternal intake groups. Fetal ovarian expression of P450 aromatase, StAR, BMPR2, TGFBR1, GDF9, FSHR, Bax, and CASP3 genes were higher in H than in M intake cows, irrespective of DG. Fetal testicular expression of StAR, HSD17B3, IGF1, IGF2, and IGF1R genes was higher in M than in H intake cows. The differences in gene expression for steroidogenesis, folliculogenesis, and apoptosis may explain the distinct pattern of follicular growth between offspring of M and H intake cows. By contrast, the lower volumetric proportion, diameter, and length of seminiferous cord may relate to decreased gene expression in fetal testis from H intake cows. In conclusion, maternal H intake seems to affect fetal ovarian follicular growth and number of follicles, which may

  6. Testicular pathology, gonadal and epididymal sperm reserves of Yankasa rams infected with experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma evansi

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Yunusa A.; Oniye, Sonnie J.; Rekwot, Peter I.; Okubanjo, Oluyinka O.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the pathological effects of trypanosomosis on the testes, gonadal, and epididymal sperm reserves of Yankasa rams for 98 days. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 Yankasa rams, aged between 24 and 30 months and weighed between 22 and 25 kg, were acclimatized for a period of 2-months in a clean fly proof house and were adequately fed and given water ad-libitum. Of the 16 rams, 12 that were clinically fit for the experiment at the end of the acclimatization period were randomly divided into four groups: Groups I, II, III, and IV, each having 3 rams. Groups I and II were each challenged singly with experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Federer strain) and Trypanosoma evansi (Sokoto strain), respectively, while Group III was challenged with mixed T. brucei brucei and T. evansi parasites (50% of each species in the infective inoculum) and Group IV was left as an uninfected control. Each infected ram received 2 mL of the infected blood containing 2×106 trypomastigotes via the jugular vein, while the control group received 2 mL each, normal saline. Results: All the infected rams developed clinical signs typical of trypanosomosis at varying pre-patent periods. The gross lesions observed in the infected rams in Group II were moderate and more severe in those of Groups I and III. Histological sections of the testes of infected rams (Groups I, II, and III) showed moderate (T. evansi-infected group) to severe (mixed and T. brucei brucei-infected groups) testicular degenerations with reduction in number of spermatogenic cell layers, degenerated seminiferous tubules, congested interlobular spaces, loss of tissue architecture with significant (p<0.01) depletion, and loss of gonadal and epididymal sperm reserves in Groups I and III in comparison to Group II and the control Group IV. No observable clinical signs and histopathological lesions were found in those rams of the control Group IV. Conclusion: The study concluded that

  7. Expression and localization of forkhead transcriptional factor 2 (Foxl2) in the gonads of protogynous wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Three-spot wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus, is a marine protogynous hermaphrodite fish. Individuals mature either as initial phase (IP) males or females. Appropriate social cues induce the sex change from IP female to terminal phase (TP) male. However, the molecular mechanisms behind such a sex change remain largely unknown. Recently, the forkhead transcription factor 2 (Foxl2) was identified as an essential regulator of vertebrate ovarian development/function/phenotype. Inspired by this information, we characterized the expression patterns of Foxl2 in the protogynous wrasse assuming Foxl2 as the female-specific marker in this species. Methods First, we clonedFoxl2 cDNA from ovary by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Next, we analysed expression pattern of Foxl2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in gonads of different sexual phases by real time quantitative PCR assay and flour fluorescence immunohistochemical method, respectively. Additionally, we studied the changes in Foxl2 expression pattern during aromatase inhibitor (AI)-induced sex change. Results The amino acid sequence (306 AA) of wrasse Foxl2, especially the forkhead domain, shows high identity with that of other reported teleost Foxl2s. Quite unexpectedly, no sexual dimorphism was observable between the testes and ovary in the expression pattern of Foxl2. In female phase fish, signals for Foxl2 protein were detectable in the granulosa cells, but not the theca cells. Transcript levels of Foxl2 in the testes of IP and TP males were identical to that in the ovaries of females and, further, Foxl2 protein was found to be localized in the interstitial cells including tubules and Leydig cells. Treatment with AI induced sex change in male gonads and an up-regulation was seen in the expression of Foxl2 in these gonads. Conclusions Unlike in other vertebrates, including teleosts, Foxl2 may have a different role in the naturally

  8. Chronic kisspeptin administration stimulated gonadal development in pre-pubertal male yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi; Perciformes) during the breeding and non-breeding season.

    PubMed

    Nocillado, Josephine N; Zohar, Yonathan; Biran, Jakob; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Elizur, Abigail

    2013-09-15

    The kisspeptin system is now accepted as a key regulator of vertebrate reproductive function, particularly the onset of puberty. In teleosts, the stimulatory effect of exogenous kisspeptins has been demonstrated mainly at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels of the reproductive axis, with very limited information pertaining to gonadal response. We determined the effect of chronic peripheral administration of the conserved kisspeptin decapeptides (YNLNSFGLRY or Kiss1-10; and FNFNPFGLRF or Kiss2-10) on gonadal development of pre-pubertal yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi), a Perciform teleost, during the breeding and non-breeding season. We utilized slow-release implants to chronically deliver the synthesized peptides, which were based on the yellowtail kingfish kiss1 and kiss2 cDNA sequences that we isolated. The expression level of kiss2r and gnrh1 in the brain or hypothalamus did not vary between treated and control groups. Pituitary expression of fshβ and lhβ was upregulated only with Kiss1-10 treatment regardless of the season. Based on histological evidence, gonadal development was stimulated in male fish with either Kiss1-10 or Kiss2-10, with Kiss2-10 being more effective during the non-breeding period. Overall, our results suggest that kisspeptins modulate the early gonadal development of male yellowtail kingfish, however that may vary with the breeding season. PMID:23791760

  9. GONADAL DEVELOPMENT AND ENDOCRINE RESPONSES IN JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) EXPOSED TO O,P'-DDT IN WATER OR THROUGH MATERNAL TRANSFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various isomers and metabolites of DDT disrupt endocrine systems and gonadal development in fish andxwildlife and o,p'-DDT has been shown to be a relatively potent estrogen agonist. In this study, we exposed Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to o,p'-DDT using two exposure protoco...

  10. Rapid Change of Microbiota Diversity in the Gut but Not the Hepatopancreas During Gonadal Development of the New Shrimp Model Neocaridina denticulata.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Man Kit; Yip, Ho Yin; Nong, Wenyan; Law, Patrick Tik Wan; Chu, Ka Hou; Kwan, Hoi Shan; Hui, Jerome Ho Lam

    2015-12-01

    During evolution of animals, their co-evolution with bacteria has generally been ignored. Recent studies have provided evidences that the symbiotic bacteria in the animal gut can either be essential or contributing to the plasticity of the host. The Crustacea includes crab, crayfish, lobster, and shrimp and represents the second largest subphylum on the planet. Although there are already studies investigating the intestinal bacterial communities in crustaceans, none of them has examined the microbiota in different parts of the digestive system during the gonad development of the host. Here, we utilized a new shrimp model Neocaridina denticulata and sequenced the 16S rRNA using the Ion Torrent platform to survey the bacterial populations colonizing the hepatopancreas, foregut, and intestine, including midgut and hindgut, of the early, mid, and late ovarian maturation stages of the shrimp. The predominant bacteria phylum was found to be Proteobacteria, with more than 80 % reads from the gut flora at the early gonad development belonged to a Coxiella-type bacterium. Distinct bacterial communities can be detected between the hepatopancreas and gut, although no significant difference could be revealed between the different regions of the gut investigated. Surprisingly, during the gonad development, bacterial diversity changed rapidly in the gut but not the hepatopancreas. This study provides the first evidence that microbiota modified differentially in specific regions of the digestive tract during gonadal development of crustaceans. PMID:26319409

  11. Specific Roles for 17ß-Estradiol versus Gonad Development in Nutrient Partitioning and Regulation of Nutrient- and Growth-Related Mechanisms During Sexual Maturation in Rainbow Trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of sex steroids to nutrient partitioning and energy balance during gonad development was studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Nineteen month old triploid (3N) female rainbow trout were fed a diet supplemented with 17ß-estradiol (E2) at 30 mg steroid/kg diet for a 1 month...

  12. Computational Modeling of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis to Predict Adaptive Responses in Female Fathead Minnows Exposed to an Aromatase Inhibitor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose response and time-course...

  13. Lipid content in hepatic and gonadal adipose tissue parallel aortic cholesterol accumulation in mice fed diets with different omega-6 PUFA to EPA plus DHA ratios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diets with low omega (u)-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ratios have been shown to decrease aortic cholesterol accumulation and have been suggested to promote weight loss. The involvement of the liver and gonadal adipose tissue (GAT...

  14. Effect of diet and temperature upon muscle metabolic capacities and biochemical composition of gonad and muscle in Argopecten purpuratus Lamarck 1819.

    PubMed

    Martínez; Brokordt; Aguilera; Soto; Guderley

    2000-04-26

    Recently spawned Argopecten purpuratus broodstock were conditioned at two temperatures and fed three different diets (microalgae, microalgae mixed with lipids and microalgae mixed with carbohydrates) to examine changes in the biochemical composition of gonad and muscle as well as muscle metabolic capacities. During one experiment, scallops were fed at 3% of their dry mass per day whereas during a second experiment, they were fed at 6% of their dry mass per day. During both experiments, total gonadal levels of lipids and protein increased markedly during conditioning with the two mixed diets at 16 degrees C. These increases were less pronounced at 20 degrees C. Carbohydrate gonadal levels only increased during the second experiment at both temperatures and with the three diets. Of the major biochemical components of the adductor muscle, carbohydrate levels changed most during conditioning. Whereas muscle protein levels increased slightly with gonadal maturation, carbohydrate levels dropped considerably. Despite the marked drop in the levels of glycolytic substrates, only the activities of octopine dehydrogenase in the adductor muscle of the scallops conditioned at 16 degrees C consistently decreased. Muscle levels of glycogen phosphorylase were higher in mature than in recently spawned (control) scallops, suggesting a role in the transfer of glucose equivalents from the adductor muscle to other tissues. PMID:10727686

  15. A Novel SRY Gene Mutation p.F109L in a 46,XY Female with Complete Gonadal Dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Andonova, Silvia; Robeva, Ralitsa; Sirakov, Milko; Mainhard, Karela; Tomova, Analia; Ledig, Susanne; Kumanov, Philip; Savov, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD) is a disorder of sexual development that can result from different mutations in genes associated with sex determination. Patients are phenotypically females, and the disease is often diagnosed in late adolescence because of delayed puberty. Here, we present the clinical and molecular data of a 46,XY female CGD patient with gonadoblastoma with dysgerminoma and incidentally found inherited thrombophilia. The clinical significance of the described de novo SRY gene mutation c.325T>C (p.F109L) is discussed. This case report supports the critical role of the HGM domain in the SRY gene and the need of a multidisciplinary approach for CGD patients. PMID:26871559

  16. Promoting effects of an extended photoperiod treatment on the condition of hair coats and gonadal function in Thoroughbred weanlings

    PubMed Central

    HARADA, Takehiro; NAMBO, Yasuo; ISHIMARU, Mutsuki; SATO, Fumio; NAGAOKA, Kentaro; WATANABE, Gen; TAYA, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of an extended photoperiod (EP) treatment (14.5 hr light, 9.5 hr dark) on Thoroughbred colts and fillies from December 25 at 7–9 months old to the following May at 12–14 months old on coat condition and gonadal functions were investigated. Coat condition was evaluated in April. The colts and fillies in the EP treatment group changed from winter to summer coats (molting of winter coats), whereas those in the control group did not. To determine the day of first ovulation, the plasma concentrations of progesterone were measured once a month in fillies. The day of first ovulation was advanced in the EP treatment fillies compared with the control fillies. The present study clearly demonstrated that the EP treatment advanced the molting of winter coats and advanced ovulation in fillies, even in weanlings. PMID:26858581

  17. Epiploic gonadal vein as a new bypass route for extrahepatic portal venous obstruction: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Tatsuaki; Shima, Yasuo; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Negoro, Yuji; Kozuki, Akihito; Iwata, Jun; Saisaka, Yuichi; Tokumaru, Teppei; Nakamura, Toshio; Morita, Sojiro

    2015-12-01

    A 61-year-old man was referred to our hospital to treat extrahepatic portal venous obstruction. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) was performed for the esophageal varices; however, the patient returned with massive hematemesis from gastric varices 6 months after treatment. Although the varices were treated with EIS, gastric devascularization and splenectomy concomitant with shunt surgery were required to treat uncontrollable, frequent diarrhea and abdominal distension. Because the splenic vein, left gastric vein, left portal vein, and inferior vena cava were inadequate for anastomosis, an epiploic gonadal vein bypass was performed. The bypass graft remains patent 7 months after surgery, and the patient is in good health without any clinical symptoms. We describe a new bypass route for extrahepatic portal venous obstruction. PMID:26943433

  18. Promoting effects of an extended photoperiod treatment on the condition of hair coats and gonadal function in Thoroughbred weanlings.

    PubMed

    Harada, Takehiro; Nambo, Yasuo; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Sato, Fumio; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The effects of an extended photoperiod (EP) treatment (14.5 hr light, 9.5 hr dark) on Thoroughbred colts and fillies from December 25 at 7-9 months old to the following May at 12-14 months old on coat condition and gonadal functions were investigated. Coat condition was evaluated in April. The colts and fillies in the EP treatment group changed from winter to summer coats (molting of winter coats), whereas those in the control group did not. To determine the day of first ovulation, the plasma concentrations of progesterone were measured once a month in fillies. The day of first ovulation was advanced in the EP treatment fillies compared with the control fillies. The present study clearly demonstrated that the EP treatment advanced the molting of winter coats and advanced ovulation in fillies, even in weanlings. PMID:26858581

  19. Absence of Y-specific DNA sequences in human 46,XX true hermaphrodites and in 45,X mixed gonadal dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Waibel, F; Scherer, G; Fraccaro, M; Hustinx, T W; Weissenbach, J; Wieland, J; Mayerová, A; Back, E; Wolf, U

    1987-08-01

    A search for Y-specific DNA sequences has been performed in a sample of seven 46,XX true hermaphrodites and one 45,X mixed gonadal dysgenesis case and compared with a sample of 11 XX males. Using six Y-specific DNA probes no hybridization signal was obtained in the hermaphrodite group; in contrast, all XX males gave a positive signal with at least one probe. This difference is statistically highly significant. We conclude that the aetiology of true hermaphroditism is different from that of the XX male syndrome. As all cases of the hermaphrodite group are positive for the serological sex-specific antigen (Sxs) it is concluded that this antigen can be present even in the absence of Y-specific DNA. PMID:3038732

  20. Sex and gonadal hormones in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease: what is relevant to the human condition?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Biologic sex and gonadal hormones matter in human aging and diseases of aging such as Alzheimer’s – and the importance of studying their influences relates directly to human health. The goal of this article is to review the literature to date on sex and hormones in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with an exclusive focus on interpreting the relevance of findings to the human condition. To this end, we highlight advances in AD and in sex and hormone biology, discuss what these advances mean for merging the two fields, review the current mouse model literature, raise major unresolved questions, and offer a research framework that incorporates human reproductive aging for future studies aimed at translational discoveries in this important area. Unraveling human relevant pathways in sex and hormone-based biology may ultimately pave the way to novel and urgently needed treatments for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23126652

  1. Equol Induces Gonadal Intersex in Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations: Comparison with 17β-Estradiol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Zhang, Shiyi; Zhou, Yuyin; Huang, Chong; Mu, Di; Giesy, John P; Hu, Jianying

    2016-07-19

    Equol is present in the aquatic environment via livestock waste and runoff discharge; however, it remains unclear whether it can induce gonadal intersex in fish at environmentally relevant concentrations. This study evaluated adverse effects of equol on gonadal development by exposing transgenic Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) from hatching for 100 days. Equol induced intersex incidence in male medaka in a dose-dependent manner, and the benchmark dose corresponding to 10% intersex incidence (BMD10) was 11.5 ng/L (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.8 ng/L, 19.8 ng/L), which was comparable to the required dose of 17β-estradiol (E2β) (9.0 ng/L, 95% CI: 6.6 ng/L, 11.0 ng/L). Equol exposure resulted in reduced plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) concentrations in male medaka at 1.3 ng/L, while reduced plasma 11-KT concentrations were observed at a relatively high concentration (6.4 ng/L) of E2β. Such antiandrogenic property could partly explain the comparable potency of equol with that of E2β to induce intersex at relatively low concentrations, although the binding affinity of equol to medaka estrogen receptor α (EC50 939.4 nM) was 230-fold lower than that (4.07 nM) of E2β. This study for the first time demonstrated that equol could induce intersex in medaka fish at environmentally relevant concentrations. PMID:27305592

  2. Cancer treatment and gonadal function: experimental and established strategies for fertility preservation in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard A; Mitchell, Rod T; Kelsey, Thomas W; Spears, Norah; Telfer, Evelyn E; Wallace, W Hamish B

    2015-07-01

    Preservation of gonadal function is an important priority for the long-term health of cancer survivors of both sexes and all ages at treatment. Loss of opportunity for fertility is a prime concern in both male and female cancer survivors, but endocrine effects of gonadal damage are likewise central to long-term health and wellbeing. Some fertility preservation techniques, such as semen and embryo cryopreservation, are established and successful in adults, and development of oocyte vitrification has greatly improved the potential to cryopreserve unfertilised oocytes. Despite being recommended for all pubertal male patients, sperm banking is not universally practised in paediatric oncology centres, and very few adolescent-friendly facilities exist. All approaches to fertility preservation have specific challenges in children and teenagers, including ethical, practical, and scientific issues. For young women, cryopreservation of ovarian cortical tissue with later replacement has resulted in at least 40 livebirths, but is still regarded as experimental in most countries. For prepubertal boys, testicular biopsy cryopreservation is offered in some centres, but how that tissue might be used in the future is unclear, and so far no evidence suggests that fertility can be restored. For both sexes, these approaches involve an invasive procedure and have an uncertain risk of tissue contamination in haematological and other malignancies. Decision making for all these approaches needs assessment of the individual's risk of fertility loss, and is made at a time of emotional distress. Development of this specialty needs better provision of information for patients and their medical teams, and improvements in service provision, to match technical and scientific advances. PMID:25873571

  3. Sexually dimorphic effects of NMDA receptor antagonism on brain-pituitary-gonad axis development in the platyfish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Katherine M.; Miller, Shelly A.; Sower, Stacia A.; Schreibman, Martin P.

    2002-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) is found in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of reproduction in several species of mammals and fishes. NMDAR is believed to affect reproductive development and function by regulating gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-producing cells. These pathways are likely to be sexually dimorphic, as are several other neurotransmitter systems involved in reproductive function. In this report, male and female platyfish received intraperitoneal injections of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 or 60 microg/g body wt. of the non-competitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801. Injections began at 6 weeks of age and continued thrice weekly until control animals reached puberty, as evidenced by anal fin maturation. The percent of pubescent animals was significantly affected by sex and treatment, with fewer MK-801-injected females in puberty than control females at each dose (P<0.001), and fewer pubescent females than males at 10, 20 and 40 microg/g (P<0.05). There were no MK-801-related effects in males. Histological analyses revealed typical immature gonads and pituitary glands in treated females, and typical mature morphology in control females and all males. Immunocytochemical distribution of the R1 subunit of the NMDAR within the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis was limited to GnRH-containing brain cells in all animals; however, NMDAR1 distribution was in an immature pattern in treated females and a mature pattern in all others. Neural concentrations of GnRH were unaffected by MK-801 treatment in both sexes. These data suggest that in the platyfish, NMDAR influence on reproductive development is sexually dimorphic and occurs at, or above, the level of GnRH-containing cells of the BPG axis.

  4. Event-related brain potentials to emotional images and gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia and paired controls

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, Julie; Mendrek, Adrianna; Germain, Martine; Hot, Pascal; Lavoie, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Prominent disturbances in the experience, expression, and emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia have been relatively well documented over the last few years. Furthermore, sex differences in behavior and brain activity, associated with the processing of various emotions, have been reported in the general population and in schizophrenia patients. Others proposed that sex differences should be rather attributed to testosterone, which may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Also, it had been suggested that estradiol may play a protective role in schizophrenia. Surprisingly, few studies investigating this pathology have focused on both brain substrates and gonadal steroid hormone levels, in emotional processing. In the present study, we investigated electrocortical responses related to emotional valence and arousal as well as gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia. Event-Related Potentials (ERP) were recorded during exposition to emotional pictures in 18 patients with schizophrenia and in 24 control participants paired on intelligence, manual dominance and socioeconomic status. Given their previous sensitivity to emotional and attention processes, the P200, N200 and the P300 were selected for analysis. More precisely, emotional valence generally affects early components (N200), which reflect early process of selective attention, whereas emotional arousal and valence both influences the P300 component, which is related to memory context updating, and stimulus categorization. Results showed that, in the control group, the amplitude of the N200 was significantly more lateralized over the right hemisphere, while there was no such lateralization in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with schizophrenia, significantly smaller anterior P300 amplitude was observed to the unpleasant, compared to the pleasant. That anterior P300 reduction was also correlated with negative symptoms. The N200 and P300 amplitudes were positively

  5. Conservation, sex-biased expression and functional annotation of microRNAs in the gonad of Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiujuan; Yuan, Lihong; Li, Linmiao; Jiang, Haiying; Chen, Jinping

    2016-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation and have crucial roles in regulating the expression of gametogenesis-related genes in animals. However, the mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the sturgeon has remained unclear. Identifying miRNAs and characterizing sex-biased miRNA expression is therefore critical for understanding the role of miRNAs during sexual differentiation in sturgeon. In this study, five different tissues from sturgeon before sex differentiation and the gonads were used for miRNA expression profiling. We screened 1037 miRNAs in miRBase 20.0 and an additional 103 sturgeon miRNAs using microarray and real-time PCR. We found that the sequences of 477 miRNAs out of a total of 1140 miRNAs were highly conserved (100%) among different fish species. From a total of 663 non-redundant miRNA probes, 481 miRNAs were detected in the gonads of both sexes. Of the 148 miRNAs that were identified to have sex-biased expression patterns between the testis and the ovary (P<0.01), 21 miRNAs (14.19%) were relatively highly expressed in the testis or the ovary with fold-changes >2. The microarray expression patterns of 13 randomly selected sex-biased miRNAs were validated using real-time PCR. Target gene prediction revealed a significant enrichment of functional groups (88 GO terms) and 18 KEGG pathways (P<0.05) and suggested that there are interactions between sex-biased miRNAs and 25 putative gametogenesis-related targets. Therefore, our miRNA expression analysis in juvenile A. schrenckii establishes a foundation for understanding and further investigating the role of miRNAs in sturgeon sex differentiation. PMID:27089517

  6. Gonadal hormones do not alter the development of antinociceptive tolerance to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Wakley, Alexa A; Wiley, Jenny L; Craft, Rebecca M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether sex differences in the development of antinociceptive tolerance to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are due to activational effects of gonadal hormones. Rats were sham-gonadectomized (sham-GDX) or gonadectomized (GDX). GDX females received no hormone replacement (GDX+0), estradiol (GDX+E2), progesterone (GDX+P4), or both (GDX+E2/P4). GDX male rats received no hormone (GDX+0) or testosterone (GDX+T). Two weeks later, antinociceptive potency of THC was determined (pre-chronic test) on the warm water tail withdrawal and paw pressure assays. Vehicle or a sex-specific THC dose (females, 5.7 mg/kg, males, 9.9 mg/kg) was administered twice-daily for 9 days, then the THC dose-effect curves were re-determined (post-chronic test). On the pre-chronic test (both assays), THC was more potent in sham-GDX females than males, and gonadectomy did not alter this sex difference. In GDX females, P4 significantly decreased THC’s antinociceptive potency, whereas E2 had no effect. In GDX males, T did not alter THC’s antinociceptive potency. After chronic THC treatment, THC’s antinociceptive potency was decreased more in sham-GDX females than males, on the tail withdrawal test; this sex difference in tolerance was not altered in GDX or hormone-treated groups. These results suggest that greater antinociceptive tolerance in females, which occurred despite females receiving 40% less THC than males, is not due to activational effects of gonadal hormones. PMID:25863271

  7. The impact of an aromatase inhibitor on body composition and gonadal hormone levels in women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Perera, S.; Vujevich, K.; Rastogi, P.; Lembersky, B.; Brufsky, A.; Vogel, V.; Greenspan, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have become the standard adjuvant therapy of postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. AIs induce a reduction of bioavailable estrogens by inhibiting aromatase, which would be expected to induce alterations in body composition, more extensive than induced by menopause. The objectives are to examine the impact of AIs on (1) DXA-scan derived body composition and (2) gonadal hormone levels. This is a sub-analysis of a 2-year double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of 82 women with nonmetastatic breast cancer, newly menopausal following chemotherapy, who were randomized to risedronate (35 mg once weekly) versus placebo, and stratified for their usage of AI versus no AI. Outcomes included DXA-scan derived body composition and gonadal hormone levels. As a group, total body mass increased in women over 24 months. Women on AIs gained a significant amount of lean body mass compared to baseline as well as to no-AI users (P < 0.05). Women not on an AI gained total body fat compared to baseline and AI users (P < 0.05). Free testosterone significantly increased and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) significantly decreased in women on AIs compared to no AIs at 24 months (P < 0.01) while total estradiol and testosterone levels remained stable. Independent of AI usage, chemotherapy-induced postmenopausal breast cancer patients demonstrated an increase of total body mass. AI users demonstrated maintenance of total body fat, an increase in lean body mass and free testosterone levels, and a decrease in SHBG levels compared to no-AI users. The mechanisms and implications of these changes need to be studied further. PMID:21046232

  8. The impact of an aromatase inhibitor on body composition and gonadal hormone levels in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    van Londen, G J; Perera, S; Vujevich, K; Rastogi, P; Lembersky, B; Brufsky, A; Vogel, V; Greenspan, S L

    2011-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have become the standard adjuvant therapy of postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. AIs induce a reduction of bioavailable estrogens by inhibiting aromatase, which would be expected to induce alterations in body composition, more extensive than induced by menopause. The objectives are to examine the impact of AIs on (1) DXA-scan derived body composition and (2) gonadal hormone levels. This is a sub-analysis of a 2-year double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of 82 women with nonmetastatic breast cancer, newly menopausal following chemotherapy, who were randomized to risedronate (35 mg once weekly) versus placebo, and stratified for their usage of AI versus no AI. Outcomes included DXA-scan derived body composition and gonadal hormone levels. As a group, total body mass increased in women over 24 months. Women on AIs gained a significant amount of lean body mass compared to baseline as well as to no-AI users (P < 0.05). Women not on an AI gained total body fat compared to baseline and AI users (P < 0.05). Free testosterone significantly increased and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) significantly decreased in women on AIs compared to no AIs at 24 months (P < 0.01) while total estradiol and testosterone levels remained stable. Independent of AI usage, chemotherapy-induced postmenopausal breast cancer patients demonstrated an increase of total body mass. AI users demonstrated maintenance of total body fat, an increase in lean body mass and free testosterone levels, and a decrease in SHBG levels compared to no-AI users. The mechanisms and implications of these changes need to be studied further. PMID:21046232

  9. Pilot initiative in India to explore the gonadal function and fertility outcomes of a cohort of childhood cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Puneet Rana; Misra, Ruchira; Mehrotra, Sumit; Mittal, Charu; Sharma, Sonal; Bagai, Poonam; Arora, Ramandeep Singh

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Steady improvement in childhood cancer outcomes has led to a growing number of survivors, many of who develop long-term sequelae. There is limited data about these sequelae (including those related to fertility) on childhood cancer survivors from India. AIMS: We undertook a prospective pilot study on childhood cancer survivors from India to assess their gonadal function and fertility. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A pediatric oncologist and a reproductive medicine specialist assessed 21 childhood cancer survivors. The risk of infertility was established using disease and treatment variables. Current status of puberty, sexuality, and fertility were assessed using clinical and biochemical parameters. Outcomes were correlated with risk group of infertility. Information was also ascertained on counseling with regards to risk of infertility. RESULTS: The cohort included 21 survivors (71% males) with a median age of 18 years who were off treatment for a median age of 7 years. Ten (48%) survivors were at low risk for infertility, 9 (43%) at medium risk and 2 (9%) at high risk. Gonadal dysfunction was seen in 3 (14%) survivors: 0/10 (0%) low risk, 1/9 (11%) medium risk, and 2/2 (100%) high risk. None of the survivors, who are at high risk or medium risk of infertility, received any counseling before treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective pilot study of a cohort of childhood cancer survivors from India demonstrates a deficiency in the information provided and counseling of patients/families at the time of diagnosis with regards to the risk of infertility. Fertility outcomes of childhood cancer survivors were congruent with recognized risk groups for infertility. Future action points have been identified. PMID:27382233

  10. Activity of the pituitary-gonadal axis is increased prior to the onset of spawning migration of chum salmon.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Takeshi A; Sato, Shunpei; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Makino, Keita; Hu, Weiwei; Jodo, Aya; Davis, Nancy D; Dickey, Jon T; Ban, Masatoshi; Ando, Hironori; Fukuwaka, Masa-Aki; Azumaya, Tomonori; Swanson, Penny; Urano, Akihisa

    2009-01-01

    The activity of the pituitary-gonadal axis (PG axis) in pre-migratory and homing chum salmon was examined because endocrine mechanisms underlying the onset of spawning migration remain unknown. Pre-migratory fish were caught in the central Bering Sea in June, July and September 2001, 2002 and 2003, and in the Gulf of Alaska in February 2006. They were classified into immature and maturing adults on the basis of gonadal development. The maturing adults commenced spawning migration to coastal areas by the end of summer, because almost all fish in the Bering Sea were immature in September. In the pituitaries of maturing adults, the copy numbers of FSHbeta mRNA and the FSH content were 2.5- to 100-fold those of the immature fish. Similarly, the amounts of LHbeta mRNA and LH content in the maturing adults were 100- to 1000-fold those of immature fish. The plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and estradiol were higher than 10 nmol l(-1) in maturing adults, but lower than 1.0 nmol l(-1) in immature fish. The increase in the activity of the PG-axis components had already initiated in the maturing adults while they were still in the Gulf of Alaska in winter. In the homing adults, the pituitary contents and the plasma levels of gonadotropins and plasma sex steroid hormones peaked during upstream migration from the coast to the natal hatchery. The present results thus indicate that the seasonal increase in the activity of the PG axis is an important endocrine event that is inseparable from initiation of spawning migration of chum salmon. PMID:19088211

  11. Effects of five southern California macroalgal diets on consumption, growth, and gonad weight, in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Jarrett E.K.; Reed, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Consumer growth and reproductive capacity are direct functions of diet. Strongylocentrotid sea urchins, the dominant herbivores in California kelp forests, strongly prefer giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera), but are highly catholic in their ability to consume other species. The biomass of Macrocystis fluctuates greatly in space and time, and the extent to which urchins can use alternate species of algae or a mixed diet of multiple algal species to maintain fitness when giant kelp is unavailable is unknown. We experimentally examined the effects of single and mixed species diets on consumption, growth and gonad weight in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Urchins were fed single species diets consisting of one of four common species of macroalgae (the kelps Macrocystis pyrifera and Pterygophora californica, and the red algae Chondracanthus corymbiferus and Rhodymenia californica (hereafter referred to by genus)) or a mixed diet containing all four species ad libitum over a 13-week period in a controlled laboratory setting. Urchins fed Chondracanthus, Macrocystis and a mixed diet showed the highest growth (in terms of test diameter, wet weight and jaw length) and gonad weight, while urchins fed Pterygophora and Rhodymenia showed the lowest. Urchins consumed their preferred food, Macrocystis, at the highest rate when offered a mixture, but consumed Chondracanthus or Macrocystis at similar rates when the two algae were offered alone. The differences in urchin feeding behavior and growth observed between these diet types suggest the relative availability of the algae tested here could affect urchin populations and their interactions with the algal assemblage. The fact that the performance of urchins fed Chondracanthus was similar or higher than those fed the preferred Macrocystis suggests that the availability of the former could could sustain growth and reproduction of purple sea urchins during times of low Macrocystis abundance as is common following

  12. Identification of Sex and Female's Reproductive Stage in Commercial Fish Species through the Quantification of Ribosomal Transcripts in Gonads.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Bartolomé, Iratxe; Diaz de Cerio, Oihane; Diez, Guzman; Cancio, Ibon

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of maturity and sex of fish stocks in European waters is a requirement of the EU Data Collection Framework as part of the policy to improve fisheries management. On the other hand, research on fish biology is increasingly focused in molecular approaches, researchers needing correct identification of fish sex and reproductive stage without necessarily having in house the histological know-how necessary for the task. Taking advantage of the differential gene transcription occurring during fish sex differentiation and gametogenesis, the utility of 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) and General transcription factor IIIA (gtf3a) in the molecular identification of sex and gametogenic stage was tested in different economically-relevant fish species from the Bay of Biscay. Gonads of 9 fish species (, Atlantic, Atlantic-chub and horse mackerel, blue whiting, bogue, European anchovy, hake and pilchard and megrim), collected from local commercial fishing vessels were histologically sexed and 5S and 18S rRNA concentrations were quantified by capillary electrophoresis to calculate a 5S/18S rRNA index. Degenerate primers permitted cloning and sequencing of gtf3a fragments in 7 of the studied species. 5S rRNA and gtf3a transcript levels, together with 5S/18S rRNA index, distinguished clearly ovaries from testis in all of the studied species. The values were always higher in females than in males. 5S/18S rRNA index values in females were always highest when fish were captured in early phases of ovary development whilst, in later vitellogenic stages, the values decreased significantly. In megrim and European anchovy, where gonads in different oogenesis stages were obtained, the 5S/18S rRNA index identified clearly gametogenic stage. This approach, to the sexing and the quantitative non-subjective identification of the maturity stage of female fish, could have multiple applications in the study of fish stock dynamics, fish reproduction and fecundity and fish biology in

  13. Exposure to bleached kraft pulp mill effluent disrupts the pituitary-gonadal axis of white sucker at multiple sites

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Kraak, G.J.; Munkittrick, K.R.; McMaster, M.E.; Portt, C.B.; Chang, J.P. )

    1992-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated reproductive problems in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) exposed to bleached kraft pulp mill effluent (BKME) at Jackfish Bay on Lake Superior. These fish exhibit delayed sexual maturity, reduced gonadal size, reduced secondary sexual characteristics, and circulating steroid levels depressed relative to those of reference populations. The present studies were designed to evaluate sites in the pituitary-gonadal axis of prespawning white sucker affected by BKME exposure. At the time of entry to the spawning stream, plasma levels of immunoreactive gonadotropin (GtH)-II (LH-type GtH) in male and female white sucker were 30- and 50-fold lower, respectively, than the levels in fish from a reference site. A single intraperitoneal injection of D-Arg6, Pro9N-Et sGnRH (sGnRH-A, 0.1 mg/kg) increased plasma GtH levels in male and female fish at both sites, although the magnitude of the response was greatly reduced in BKME-exposed fish. Fish at the BKME site did not ovulate in response to sGnRH-A, while 10 of 10 fish from the reference site ovulated within 6 hr. Plasma 17 alpha,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta-P) levels were depressed in BKME-exposed fish and unlike fish at the reference site, failed to increase in response to sGnRH-A. Testosterone levels in both sexes and 11-ketostestosterone levels in males were elevated in fish from the reference site but were not further increased by GnRH treatment. In contrast, BKME-exposed fish exhibit a transitory increase in testosterone levels in response to the GnRH analog. In vitro incubations of ovarian follicles obtained from fish at the BKME site revealed depressed basal secretion of testosterone and 17,20 beta-P and reduced responsiveness to the GtH analog human chorionic gonadotropin and to forskolin, a direct activator of adenylate cyclase.

  14. Effect of the gonadal status and the gender on glycosaminoglycans profile in the lower urinary tract of dogs.

    PubMed

    Ponglowhapan, S; Church, D B; Khalid, Muhammad

    2011-10-15

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) form a functional component of connective tissues that affect the structural and functional integrity of the lower urinary tract (LUT). The specific GAGs of physiological relevance are both nonsulfated (hyaluronan) and sulfated GAGs (chondroitin sulphate [CS], dermatan sulphate [DS], keratan sulphate [KS], and heparan sulphate [HS]). As GAG composition in the LUT is hormonally regulated, we postulated that gonadectomy-induced endocrine imbalance alters the profile of GAGs in the canine LUT. Four regions of the LUT (body and neck of the bladder as well as the proximal and distal urethra) from 20 clinically healthy dogs (5 intact males, 5 intact anoestrus females, 4 castrated males, and 6 spayed females) were collected, wax-embedded and sectioned. Alcian blue staining at critical electrolyte concentrations was performed on the sections to determine total GAGs, hyaluronan, total sulfated GAGs, combined components of CS and DS, as well as KS and HS. The amount of staining was evaluated in 3 tissue layers, i.e., epithelium, subepithelial stroma and muscle within a region. Overall, hyaluronan (67.1%) was the predominant GAG in the LUT. Among sulfated GAGs, a combined component of KS and HS was found to be 61.8% and 38.2% for CS and DS. Gonadal status significantly affected GAG profiles in the LUT (P < 0.01). All GAG components were lower (P < 0.05) in body of the bladder of gonadectomized dogs. Total sulfated GAGs and a combined component of KS and HS were lower (P < 0.05) in all 4 regions of gonadectomized dogs. Except for a combined component of CS and DS, decreases in all GAGs were found more consistently in the muscle compared to other tissue layers. Differences between genders became obvious only when considered along with the effect of gonadal status. In gonadectomized dogs, changes in GAG components in the LUT were more consistent in females compared to males; this may partly explain different levels of risk in the development of urinary

  15. Effects of an extended photoperiod on gonadal function and condition of hair coats in Thoroughbred colts and fillies

    PubMed Central

    KUNII, Hirokazu; NAMBO, Yasuo; OKANO, Atsushi; MATSUI, Akira; ISHIMARU, Mutsuki; ASAI, Yo; SATO, Fumio; FUJII, Kazuki; NAGAOKA, Kentaro; WATANABE, Gen; TAYA, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of an extended photoperiod (EP) in Thoroughbreds colts and fillies from winter at one year old to spring at two years old on the gonadal functions, coat condition, and endocrine changes were investigated. Sixty-two Thoroughbreds (31 colts and 31 fillies) reared in the Hidaka Training and Research Center (Hidaka), Japan Racing Association were used. Thirty of them (15 colts and 15 fillies) were reared under EP conditions from December 20 to April 10, and the remaining 32 horses were reared under natural light alone as a control group. For EP, a 100-watt white bulb was set near the ceilings of stalls, and lighting conditions of 14.5-hr light and 9.5-hr dark periods were established. Blood was collected from the jugular vein once a month from October at one year old to February at two years old in both colts and fillies, and then twice a month in colts and weekly in fillies after March, and the coat condition was evaluated in January and April in 56 horses. To investigate endocrine changes, the plasma concentrations of prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), immunoreactive (ir-) inhibin, testosterone, estradiol-17β and progesterone were measured. No significant difference was noted in the coat condition between the two groups in January, but they changed from winter to summer coats (molting of winter coats) in April in the EP group compared with the control group. Regarding endocrine changes, the plasma concentrations of prolactin, FSH, ir-inhibin and testosterone were significantly higher in the EP colts than in the control group from January to April. The plasma concentrations of LH tended to rise in the EP colts from January to April compared with the control group. In the EP fillies, the plasma concentrations of prolactin, LH, ir-inhibin, estradiol-17β and progesterone were significantly higher during January and April, but a significantly high level of FSH was noted in the control than EP group in January

  16. Effects of an extended photoperiod on gonadal function and condition of hair coats in Thoroughbred colts and fillies.

    PubMed

    Kunii, Hirokazu; Nambo, Yasuo; Okano, Atsushi; Matsui, Akira; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Asai, Yo; Sato, Fumio; Fujii, Kazuki; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The effects of an extended photoperiod (EP) in Thoroughbreds colts and fillies from winter at one year old to spring at two years old on the gonadal functions, coat condition, and endocrine changes were investigated. Sixty-two Thoroughbreds (31 colts and 31 fillies) reared in the Hidaka Training and Research Center (Hidaka), Japan Racing Association were used. Thirty of them (15 colts and 15 fillies) were reared under EP conditions from December 20 to April 10, and the remaining 32 horses were reared under natural light alone as a control group. For EP, a 100-watt white bulb was set near the ceilings of stalls, and lighting conditions of 14.5-hr light and 9.5-hr dark periods were established. Blood was collected from the jugular vein once a month from October at one year old to February at two years old in both colts and fillies, and then twice a month in colts and weekly in fillies after March, and the coat condition was evaluated in January and April in 56 horses. To investigate endocrine changes, the plasma concentrations of prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), immunoreactive (ir-) inhibin, testosterone, estradiol-17β and progesterone were measured. No significant difference was noted in the coat condition between the two groups in January, but they changed from winter to summer coats (molting of winter coats) in April in the EP group compared with the control group. Regarding endocrine changes, the plasma concentrations of prolactin, FSH, ir-inhibin and testosterone were significantly higher in the EP colts than in the control group from January to April. The plasma concentrations of LH tended to rise in the EP colts from January to April compared with the control group. In the EP fillies, the plasma concentrations of prolactin, LH, ir-inhibin, estradiol-17β and progesterone were significantly higher during January and April, but a significantly high level of FSH was noted in the control than EP group in January. The

  17. Gonadal histology and serum vitellogenin levels of bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus from the Northern Pacific Ocean--absence of endocrine disruption bio-indicators.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Shinya; Kurihara, Ryo; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto; Yamasaki, Tsugiko; Soyano, Kiyoshi; Hara, Akihiko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Morita, Masatoshi

    2003-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals such as organochlorines have been detected in a large number of marine fish. Histological observation of the gonads, measurement of serum vitellogenin (VTG) level and of liver polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content were performed to evaluate the reproductive health and the contamination with endocrine disruptors in bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus, collected in the northern Pacific Ocean in 1999 and 2000. Abnormalities commonly found in species affected by endocrine disruptors such as the presence of oocytes in the testis or elevated serum VTG levels were not found in any of males examined. Both males and females had only small amounts of liver PCB content. The results suggest that currently there is little if any risk of organochlorine contamination or endocrine disruption of gonadal function in bigeye tuna from the northern Pacific Ocean. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate the health status of the open sea fishery resources. PMID:12705919

  18. 5S rRNA and accompanying proteins in gonads: powerful markers to identify sex and reproductive endocrine disruption in fish.

    PubMed

    Diaz de Cerio, Oihane; Rojo-Bartolomé, Iratxe; Bizarro, Cristina; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; Cancio, Ibon

    2012-07-17

    In anuran ovaries, 5S rDNA is regulated transcriptionally by transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA), which upon transcription, binds 5S rRNA, forming 7S RNP. 5S rRNA can be stockpiled also in the form of 42S RNP bound to 42sp43. The aim of the present study was to assess the differential transcriptional regulation of 5S rRNA and associated proteins in thicklip gray mullet (Chelon labrosus) gonads. Up to 75% of the total RNA from mullet ovaries was 5S rRNA. qPCR quantification of 5S rRNA expression, in gonads of histologically sexed individuals from different geographical areas, successfully sexed animals. All males had expression levels that were orders of magnitude below expression levels in females, throughout an annual reproductive cycle, with the exception of two individuals: one in November and one in December. Moreover, intersex mullets from a polluted harbor had expression levels between both sexes. TFIIIA and 42sp43 were also very active transcriptionally in gonads of female and intersex mullets, in comparison to males. Nucleocytoplasmatic transport is important in this context and we also analyzed transcriptional levels of importins-α1, -α2, and -β2 and different exportins. Importin-αs behaved similarly to 5S rRNA. Thus, 5S rRNA and associated proteins constitute very powerful molecular markers of sex and effects of xenosterogens in fish gonads, with potential technological applications in the analysis of fish stock dynamics and reproduction as well as in environmental health assessment. PMID:22724546

  19. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Hypothalamic MicroRNAs as Novel Partners Involved in Timing the Rapid Development of Chicken (Gallus gallus) Gonads

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wei; Zou, Jianmin; Wang, Kehua; Su, Yijun; Zhu, Yunfen; Song, Chi; Li, Guohui; Qu, Liang; Zhang, Huiyong; Liu, Honglin

    2015-01-01

    Onset of the rapid gonad growth is a milestone in sexual development that comprises many genes and regulatory factors. The observations in model organisms and mammals including humans have shown a potential link between miRNAs and development timing. To determine whether miRNAs play roles in this process in the chicken (Gallus gallus), the Solexa deep sequencing was performed to analyze the profiles of miRNA expression in the hypothalamus of hens from two different pubertal stages, before onset of the rapid gonad development (BO) and after onset of the rapid gonad development (AO). 374 conserved and 46 novel miRNAs were identified as hypothalamus-expressed miRNAs in the chicken. 144 conserved miRNAs were showed to be differentially expressed (reads > 10, P < 0.05) during the transition from BO to AO. Five differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) method. 2013 putative genes were predicted as the targets of the 15 most differentially expressed miRNAs (fold-change > 4.0, P < 0.01). Of these genes, 7 putative circadian clock genes, Per2, Bmal1/2, Clock, Cry1/2, and Star were found to be targeted multiple times by the miRNAs. qRT-PCR revealed the basic transcription levels of these clock genes were much higher (P < 0.01) in AO than in BO. Further functional analysis suggested that these 15 miRNAs play important roles in transcriptional regulation and signal transduction pathways. The results provide new insights into miRNAs functions in timing the rapid development of chicken gonads. Considering the characteristics of miRNA functional conservation, the results will contribute to the research on puberty onset in humans. PMID:26061962

  20. Gonadal development and transcript profiling of steroidogenic enzymes in response to 17α-methyltestosterone in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaozhen; Wang, Lihong; Qin, Fang; Zheng, Yao; Li, Meng; Zhang, Yingying; Yuan, Cong; Wang, Zaizhao

    2014-09-01

    It is well known that natural and anthropogenic chemicals interfere with the hormonal system of vertebrate and invertebrate organisms. How these chemicals regulate gonadal steroidogenesis remains to be determined. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic model androgen, on gene expression profiles of six key steroidogenic genes in adult rare minnow. The full-length cDNA encoding 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11β-HSD2) was firstly isolated and characterized by RT-PCR and RACE methods. The gonadal transcript changes of StAR, cyp11a1, 3β-HSD, cyp17a1, 11β-HSD2 and cyp19a1a in 6-month adult Gobiocypris rarus exposed to MT and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) for 7, 14 and 21 days were detected by qRT-PCR. To make an effort to connect the transcriptional changes of steroidogenic enzymes with effects on higher levels of biological organization and on VTG, one remarkable sensitive target of steroids, body and gonad weights, histology of gonads, and hepatic vtg mRNA level were measured. MT caused varying degree of abnormalities in ovaries and testes. The hepatic vtg mRNA level was highly inhibited in females and slightly altered in males by MT. Transcripts of several steroidogenic genes including StAR, cyp17a1, and cyp11a1 showed high responsiveness to MT exposure in G. rarus. The gene expression profiles of these steroidogenic genes in MT-treated groups were much distinct with the EE2-treated group. PMID:24681399

  1. Investigation of de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity in the gonads of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to the phytosterol beta-sitosterol

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Rainie L; Drolet, Melissa; MacLatchy, Deborah L

    2006-01-01

    Total and intra-mitochondrial gonadal cholesterol concentrations are decreased in fish exposed to the phytoestrogen beta-sitosterol (beta-sit). The present study examined the potential for beta-sit to disrupt de novo cholesterol synthesis in the gonads of goldfish exposed to 200 microgram/g beta-sit and 10 microgram/g 17beta-estradiol (E2; estrogenic control) by intra-peritoneal Silastic® implants for 21 days. The de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity was estimated by incubating gonadal tissue with 14C-acetate for a period of 18 hours, followed by chloroform/methanol lipid extraction and thin layer chromatography (TLC) lipid separation. Lipid classes were confirmed using infrared spectroscopy. Plasma testosterone (T) and total cholesterol concentration were measured and gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated. Plasma T was significantly reduced in male beta-sit-treated fish compared to control and E2-treated fish (p < 0.001). 14C-Acetate incorporation into cholesterol and cholesterol esters was not significantly different among treatment groups for male and female fish, however, 14C-enrichment was higher than expected in both triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA). FFA incorporation was significantly higher in male control fish than either beta-sit or E2 treatments (p = 0.005). Plasma cholesterol concentration was significantly increased in the male beta-sit treatment group compared to controls (p = 0.027). These results indicate gonadal de novo cholesterol biosynthetic capacity is not disrupted by beta-sit or E2 treatment in early recrudescing male or female goldfish, while plasma cholesterol and steroid concentrations are sensitive to beta-sit exposure. PMID:17118198

  2. Differential Responses of Brain, Gonad and Muscle Steroid Levels to Changes in Social Status and Sex in a Sequential and Bidirectional Hermaphroditic Fish

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzi, Varenka; Earley, Ryan L.; Grober, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Sex steroids can both modulate and be modulated by behavior, and their actions are mediated by complex interactions among multiple hormone sources and targets. While gonadal steroids delivered via circulation can affect behavior, changes in local brain steroid synthesis also can modulate behavior. The relative steroid load across different tissues and the association of these levels with rates of behavior have not been well studied. The bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli) is a sex changing fish in which social status determines sexual phenotype. We examined changes in steroid levels in brain, gonad and body muscle at either 24 hours or 6 days after social induction of protogynous sex change, and from individuals in stable social groups not undergoing sex change. For each tissue, we measured levels of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Females had more T than males in the gonads, and more E2 in all tissues but there was no sex difference in KT. For both sexes, E2 was higher in the gonad than in other tissues while androgens were higher in the brain. During sex change, brain T levels dropped while brain KT increased, and brain E2 levels did not change. We found a positive relationship between androgens and aggression in the most dominant females but only when the male was removed from the social group. The results demonstrate that steroid levels are responsive to changes in the social environment, and that their concentrations vary in different tissues. Also, we suggest that rapid changes in brain androgen levels might be important in inducing behavioral and/or morphological changes associated with protogynous sex change. PMID:23251444

  3. Postnatal decline in gonadal secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone and 3 beta-hydroxyandrosta-5,7-dien-17-one in the newborn foal.

    PubMed

    Raeside, J I; Renaud, R L; Christie, H L

    1997-11-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and 3 beta-hydroxyandrosta-5,7-dien-17-one (7-dehydro-DHEA) are secreted in large quantities by the remarkably hypertrophied fetal gonads of both sexes in the pregnant mare. Their secretion serves as the fetal component of a feto-placental unit for oestrogen production in equine pregnancies. They are secreted in large amounts but show a decline in late pregnancy when the fetal gonads regress and levels of oestrogens in the mare fall as a consequence. We have examined the levels of these precursor steroids in the newborn foal in the first days after birth. DHEA and 7-dehydro-DHEA were measured in peripheral plasma in a direct RIA with a DHEA antibody which cross-reacts with 7-dehydro DHEA (> 150%). Subsequent studies were performed with solid-phase extraction, separation of unconjugated from conjugated steroids, and HPLC fractionation followed by RIA. Detection on HPLC at 254 and 280 nm was compared with results from RIA. It was concluded that DHEA is the major steroid produced by the gonads at birth. The concentrations are highly variable in the first day of postnatal life (70.45 +/- 63.06 ng/ml, n = 52) and decline rapidly to < 2 ng/ml (n = 6) at 96 h after birth. At this time the sulphate form is also seen, with an increasing ratio of DHEAS/DHEA as the value for total DHEA falls. The mechanism and significance of the apparent abrupt decline in gonadal steroidogenesis in the newborn foal remain unknown. PMID:9415062

  4. Evaluation of surface radiation dose to the thyroid gland and the gonads during routine full-mouth intraoral periapical and maxillary occlusal radiography

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Soheyl; Bhoweer, Anil Kumar; Arya, Smriti; Arora, Gagandeep

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The quantitative aspects of radiation doses to critical organs can help the dental professionals to take the necessary radiation protective measures as deemed necessary and can help the general public to allay radiation exposure fear in dental radiography, if any. Our study determines the surface radiation dose to thyroid and gonads in full-mouth intraoral periapical (IOPA) and maxillary occlusal radiography. Materials and Methods: A total number of 120 subjects participated in the study. The surface radiation dose was estimated to the thyroid gland and the gonads in full-mouth IOPA radiography using 10 IOPA (E speed films) and in maxillary occlusal radiography. The measurements were calculated using a digital pocket dosimeter (PD-4507). Results: The average dose at the thyroid gland level during full-mouth intraoral and maxillary occlusal radiography was estimated to be 10.93 mRads (1.093 × 10-2 mGy) and 0.4 mRads (4.0 × 10-2 mGy), respectively. The average surface radiation dose at the gonadal region during a full mouth intraoral and maxillary occlusal radiography was estimated to be 1.5 mRads (1.5 × 10-2 mGy) and 0.15 mRads (1.5 × 10-3 mGy), respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggest that although the radiation exposure doses to critical organs namely thyroid and gonads is within the safe limits still precautionary measures for these organs are advocated. PMID:22114389

  5. Effects of Changes in Food Supply at the Time of Sex Differentiation on the Gonadal Transcriptome of Juvenile Fish. Implications for Natural and Farmed Populations

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Noelia; Ribas, Laia; Piferrer, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Background Food supply is a major factor influencing growth rates in animals. This has important implications for both natural and farmed fish populations, since food restriction may difficult reproduction. However, a study on the effects of food supply on the development of juvenile gonads has never been transcriptionally described in fish. Methods and Findings This study investigated the consequences of growth on gonadal transcriptome of European sea bass in: 1) 4-month-old sexually undifferentiated fish, comparing the gonads of fish with the highest vs. the lowest growth, to explore a possible link between transcriptome and future sex, and 2) testis from 11-month-old juveniles where growth had been manipulated through changes in food supply. The four groups used were: i) sustained fast growth, ii) sustained slow growth, iii) accelerated growth, iv) decelerated growth. The transcriptome of undifferentiated gonads was not drastically affected by initial natural differences in growth. Further, changes in the expression of genes associated with protein turnover were seen, favoring catabolism in slow-growing fish and anabolism in fast-growing fish. Moreover, while fast-growing fish took energy from glucose, as deduced from the pathways affected and the analysis of protein-protein interactions examined, in slow-growing fish lipid metabolism and gluconeogenesis was favored. Interestingly, the highest transcriptomic differences were found when forcing initially fast-growing fish to decelerate their growth, while accelerating growth of initially slow-growing fish resulted in full transcriptomic convergence with sustained fast-growing fish. Conclusions Food availability during sex differentiation shapes the juvenile testis transcriptome, as evidenced by adaptations to different energy balances. Remarkably, this occurs in absence of major histological changes in the testis. Thus, fish are able to recover transcriptionally their testes if they are provided with enough food

  6. DAX1/NR0B1 was expressed during mammalian gonadal development and gametogenesis before it was recruited to the eutherian X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Stickels, Robert; Clark, Kevin; Heider, Thomas N; Mattiske, Deidre M; Renfree, Marilyn B; Pask, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 1 (NR0B1) gene is an orphan nuclear receptor that is X-linked in eutherian mammals and plays a critical role in the establishment and function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axis. Duplication or overexpression of NR0B1 in eutherian males causes male to female sex reversal, and mutation and deletions of NR0B1 cause testicular defects. Thus, gene dosage is critical for the function of NR0B1 in normal gonadogenesis. However, NR0B1 is autosomal in all noneutherian vertebrates, including marsupials and monotreme mammals, and two active copies of the gene are compatible with both male and female gonadal development. In the current study, we examined the evolution and expression of autosomal NR0B1 during gonadal development in a marsupial (the tammar wallaby) as compared to the role of its X-linked orthologues in a eutherian (the mouse). We show that NR0B1 underwent rapid evolutionary change when it relocated from its autosomal position in the nonmammalian vertebrates, monotremes, and marsupials to an X-linked location in eutherian mammals. Despite the acquisition of a novel genomic location and a unique N-terminal domain, NR0B1 protein distribution was remarkably similar between mice and marsupials both throughout gonadal development and during gamete formation. A conserved accumulation of NR0B1 protein was observed in developing oocytes, where its function appears to be critical in the early embryo, prior to zygotic genome activation. Together these findings suggest that NR0B1 had a conserved role in gonadogenesis that existed long before it moved to the X chromosome and despite undergoing significant evolutionary change. PMID:25395677

  7. Two distinct myosin II populations coordinate ovulatory contraction of the myoepithelial sheath in the Caenorhabditis elegans somatic gonad

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Kanako; Ono, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    The myoepithelial sheath in the somatic gonad of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has nonstriated contractile actomyosin networks that produce highly coordinated contractility for ovulation of mature oocytes. Two myosin heavy chains are expressed in the myoepithelial sheath, which are also expressed in the body-wall striated muscle. The troponin/tropomyosin system is also present and essential for ovulation. Therefore, although the myoepithelial sheath has smooth muscle–like contractile apparatuses, it has a striated muscle–like regulatory mechanism through troponin/tropomyosin. Here we report that the myoepithelial sheath has a distinct myosin population containing nonmuscle myosin II isoforms, which is regulated by phosphorylation and essential for ovulation. MLC-4, a nonmuscle myosin regulatory light chain, localizes to small punctate structures and does not colocalize with large, needle-like myosin filaments containing MYO-3, a striated-muscle myosin isoform. RNA interference of MLC-4, as well as of its upstream regulators, LET-502 (Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase) and MEL-11 (a myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase), impairs ovulation. Expression of a phosphomimetic MLC-4 mutant mimicking a constitutively active state also impairs ovulation. A striated-muscle myosin (UNC-54) appears to provide partially compensatory contractility. Thus the results indicate that the two spatially distinct myosin II populations coordinately regulate ovulatory contraction of the myoepithelial sheath. PMID:26864628

  8. Accumulation of Polyunsaturated Aldehydes in the Gonads of the Copepod Acartia tonsa Revealed by Tailored Fluorescent Probes

    PubMed Central

    Wolfram, Stefanie; Nejstgaard, Jens C.; Pohnert, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) are released by several diatom species during predation. Besides other attributed activities, these oxylipins can interfere with the reproduction of copepods, important predators of diatoms. While intensive research has been carried out to document the effects of PUAs on copepod reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanistic aspects of PUA action. Especially PUA uptake and accumulation in copepods has not been addressed to date. To investigate how PUAs are taken up and interfere with the reproduction in copepods we developed a fluorescent probe containing the α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated aldehyde structure element that is essential for the activity of PUAs as well as a set of control probes. We developed incubation and monitoring procedures for adult females of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa and show that the PUA derived fluorescent molecular probe selectively accumulates in the gonads of this copepod. In contrast, a saturated aldehyde derived probe of an inactive parent molecule was enriched in the lipid sac. This leads to a model for PUAs' teratogenic mode of action involving accumulation and covalent interaction with nucleophilic moieties in the copepod reproductive tissue. The teratogenic effect of PUAs can therefore be explained by a selective targeting of the molecules into the reproductive tissue of the herbivores, while more lipophilic but otherwise strongly related structures end up in lipid bodies. PMID:25383890

  9. Prolonged treatment with N-acetylcysteine and L-arginine restores gonadal function in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Masha, A; Manieri, C; Dinatale, S; Bruno, G A; Ghigo, E; Martina, V

    2009-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a wide spectrum of biological actions including a positive role in oocyte maturation and ovulation. Free radicals levels have been shown elevated in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and therefore would be responsible for quenching NO that, in turn, would play a role in determining oligo- or amenorrhea connoting PCOS. Eight patients with PCOS displaying oligo-amenorrhea from at least 1 yr underwent a combined treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (1200 mg/die) plus L-arginine (ARG) (1600 mg/die) for 6 months. Menstrual function, glucose and insulin levels, and, in turn, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index were monitored. Menstrual function was at some extent restored as indicated by the number of uterine bleedings under treatment (3.00, 0.18-5.83 vs 0.00, 0.00-0.83; p<0.02). Also, a well-defined biphasic pattern in the basal body temperature suggested ovulatory cycles. The HOMA index decreased under treatment (2.12, 1.46-4.42 vs 3.48, 1.62-5.95; p<0.05). In conclusion, this preliminary, open study suggests that prolonged treatment with NAC+ARG might restore gonadal function in PCOS. This effect seems associated to an improvement in insulin sensitivity. PMID:19494711

  10. Comparative analysis of gonadal steroid-mediated neuroprotection after transient focal ischemia in rats: route of application and substrate composition.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Stefanie; Beyer, Cordian; Zendedel, Adib

    2015-05-01

    Progesterone (P) and 17ß-estradiol (E2) mitigate neuronal damage after experimentally induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) and ischemic stroke. Fish oil components such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA n3) also provide neuroprotection in these traumatic models. Steroids and PUFA n3 dampen neuroinflammatory processes and regulate glial function in the affected brain areas. Using a transient focal ischemic rat model, we demonstrate that the co-application of PUFA n3 and P/E2 and the choice of the application route have a clear impact on the prevention of ischemia-induced infarct volume and behavioral recovery. A combinatory PUFA n3 plus P/E2 emulsion intravenously administered was most effective in reducing the infarct size and in restoring behavioral reconstitution compared to other oil emulsions and subcutaneous depot medication. These data encourage to refining clinical treatment protocols for TBI and stroke with gonadal steroids and to establishing combinatory drugs of steroids and fish oil-enriched emulsions thereby creating a win-win situation with two effective components. PMID:25416650

  11. Electrotonic Coupling in the Pituitary Supports the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in a Sex Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Göngrich, Christina; García-González, Diego; Le Magueresse, Corentin; Roth, Lena C.; Watanabe, Yasuhito; Burks, Deborah J.; Grinevich, Valery; Monyer, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Gap junctions are present in many cell types throughout the animal kingdom and allow fast intercellular electrical and chemical communication between neighboring cells. Connexin-36 (Cx36), the major neuronal gap junction protein, synchronizes cellular activity in the brain, but also in other organs. Here we identify a sex-specific role for Cx36 within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at the level of the anterior pituitary gland (AP). We show that Cx36 is expressed in gonadotropes of the AP sustaining their synchronous activity. Cx36 ablation affects the entire downstream HPG axis in females, but not in males. We demonstrate that Cx36-mediated coupling between gonadotropes in the AP supports gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced secretion of luteinizing hormone. Furthermore, we provide evidence for negative feedback regulation of Cx36 expression in the AP by estradiol. We thus, conclude that hormonally-controlled plasticity of gap junction communication at the level of the AP constitutes an additional mechanism affecting female reproduction. PMID:27587994

  12. The effects of social experience and gonadal hormones on retrieving behavior of mice and their responses to pup ultrasonic vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Shota; Nagasawa, Miho; Kihara, Takashi; Kato, Masahiro; Harada, Toshihiro; Koshida, Nobuyoshi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2010-10-01

    Pup ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are emitted from maternally separated pups and are thought to be a trigger for eliciting maternal behavior in mice. We investigated the effects of social experience and gonadectomy on the retrieving behavior of mice and their responses to pup USVs produced by a nanocrystalline silicon thermo-acoustic emitter. In each experiment, virgin, gonadectomized, sham-operated, sexually experienced, and parenting mice of both sexes were used, and the effects of these manipulations were compared in each sex. The retrieving behavior of both sexes increased with social experience or gonadectomy. In particular, mothers showed the highest retrieving activity among female groups, while castrated male mice showed the highest retrieving activity among male groups. All groups of female mice responded to pup USVs, with the responsiveness of sexually experienced female mice being the most enhanced. Unlike the females, virgin male mice did not respond to pup USVs, although socially experienced or castrated males showed this response; fathers exhibited the highest responsiveness. These results suggest that not only parenting experience, but also mating experience, may enhance retrieving activity and response to pup USVs in mice of both sexes. Nevertheless, the degree to which parenting experience contributed to the enhancement of both activities differed between the sexes. Furthermore, gonadectomy enhanced both activities in both sexes, although its effect was more prominent in males. Overall, our findings suggest that alteration in responsiveness of mice to pup USVs might be one of the changes in parental behavior caused by social experiences or gonadal hormones. PMID:20887176

  13. Intra-Bone Marrow Transplantation Confers Superior Multilineage Engraftment of Murine Aorta-Gonad Mesonephros Cells Over Intravenous Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sanjuan-Pla, Alejandra; Romero-Moya, Damia; Prieto, Cristina; Bueno, Clara; Bigas, Anna; Menendez, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment has been achieved using single-cell transplantation of prospectively highly purified adult HSC populations. However, bulk transplants are still performed when assessing the HSC potential of early embryonic hematopoietic tissues such as the aorta-gonad mesonephros (AGM) due to very low HSC activity content early in development. Intra-bone marrow transplantation (IBMT) has emerged as a superior administration route over intravenous (IV) transplantation for assessing the reconstituting ability of human HSCs in the xenotransplant setting since it bypasses the requirement for homing to the BM. In this study, we compared the ability of IBMT and IV administration of embryonic day 11.5 AGM-derived cells to reconstitute the hematopoietic system of myeloablated recipients. IBMT resulted in higher levels of AGM HSC long-term multilineage engraftment in the peripheral blood, BM, spleen, and thymus of primary and secondary recipients, and in limiting dilution experiments. The administration route did not skew the multilineage contribution pattern, but IBMT conferred higher Lineage(-)Sca-1(+)c-kit(+) long-term engraftment, in line with the superior IBMT reconstitution. Therefore, IBMT represents a superior administration route to detect HSC activity from developmentally early sources with limited HSC activity content, such as the AGM. PMID:26603126

  14. Reference ranges for urinary levels of testosterone and epitestosterone, which may reveal gonadal function, in a Korean male population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ju-Yeon; Kwon, Woonyong; Suh, Sungill; Cheong, Jae Chul; In, Moon Kyo; Chung, Bong Chul; Kim, Jin Young; Choi, Man Ho

    2014-03-01

    Cannabis, or marijuana, the most commonly used illicit drug in the world, has been shown to be responsible for suppressing the production and secretion of androgens, particularly testosterone. However, despite such findings in animals, the chronic effects of marijuana use on human endocrine systems have proved to be inconsistent. Here, we investigated the reference ranges of urinary levels of testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E) as well as their metabolic ratio of T/E in a Korean male population (n=337), which would enable an evaluation of abnormal changes in steroid metabolism induced by habitually administered cannabis. The T/E ratio was significantly decreased in the marijuana group (n=18), while the urinary testosterone concentrations were also tended to decrease. This study is the first to provide data for the reference values of two urinary androgens and T/E values among control Korean males, and, furthermore, suggests that the T/E ratio, though not testosterone levels, might be used to understand the suppression of human male gonadal function affected by smoking marijuana. PMID:24333796

  15. Conserved function of medaka pink-eyed dilution in melanin synthesis and its divergent transcriptional regulation in gonads among vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Fukamachi, Shoji; Asakawa, Shuichi; Wakamatsu, Yuko; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi; Mitani, Hiroshi; Shima, Akihiro

    2004-11-01

    Medaka is emerging as a model organism for the study of vertebrate development and genetics, and its effectiveness in forward genetics should prove equal to that of zebrafish. Here, we identify by positional cloning a gene responsible for the medaka i-3 albino mutant. i-3 larvae have weakly tyrosinase-positive cells but lack strongly positive and dendritic cells, suggesting loss of fully differentiated melanophores. The region surrounding the i-3 locus is syntenic to human 19p13, but a BAC clone covering the i-3 locus contained orthologs located at 15q11-13, including OCA2 (P). Medaka P consists of 842 amino acids and shares approximately 65% identity with mammalian P proteins. The i-3 mutation is a four-base deletion in exon 13, which causes a frameshift and truncation of the protein. We detected medaka P transcripts in melanin-producing eyeballs and (putative) skin melanophores on embryos and an alternatively spliced form in the non-melanin-producing ovary or oocytes. The mouse p is similarly expressed in gonads, but not alternatively spliced. This is the first isolation of nonmammalian P, the functional mechanism of action of which has not yet been elucidated, even in mammals. Further investigation of the functions of P proteins and the regulation of their expression will provide new insight into body color determination and gene evolution. PMID:15579703

  16. Gonadal development in a giant threatened reef fish, the humphead wrasse Cheilinus undulatus, and its relationship to international trade.

    PubMed

    Sadovy de Mitcheson, Y; Liu, M; Suharti, S

    2010-08-01

    An opportunity arose to obtain humphead wrasse Cheilinus undulatus specimens between 2006 and 2009 from Indonesia, the major source and exporting country of this species, making study on its early gonad development possible for the first time. Protogynous hermaphroditism, previously proposed for this species, was confirmed in this study. Based on histological examination of 178 specimens, mainly <500 mm total length (L(T)) and ranging from 208 to 1290 mm L(T) (119.1 g to 43.0 kg whole body mass), the minimum body sizes for female and male sexual maturation were determined to be 650 and 845 mm L(T), respectively. Primary male development through juvenile sexual differentiation was not detected. A unique blind pouch, with a possible sperm storage function and associated with the testis, was reported for the first time in the Labridae. In Hong Kong retail markets, the global trading centre for this valuable species, live C. undulatus on sale for food were dominated by body sizes <500 mm L(T) between 1995 and 2009, reflecting an international trade largely focused on juveniles. In consideration of these findings, and given the threatened status of this species, management for C. undulatus capture and trade nationally and internationally are discussed with recommendations for ensuring sufficient spawning biomass in exploited populations and for sustainable trade. PMID:20701649

  17. Drospirenone intake alters plasmatic steroid levels and cyp17a1 expression in gonads of juvenile sea bass.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Maria; Fernandes, Denise; Medina, Paula; Blázquez, Mercedes; Porte, Cinta

    2016-06-01

    Drospirenone (DRO) is one of the most widely used progestins in contraceptive treatments and hormone replacement therapies. The pharmacokinetics and potential toxicological effects of DRO were investigated in juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) exposed through the diet (0.01-10 μg DRO/g) for up to 31 days. DRO was detected in the blood (4-27 ng/mL) of fish exposed to the highest concentration, with no significant bioaccumulation over time and no alteration of hepatic metabolizing enzymes, namely, CYP1A and CYP3A-catalysed activities and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT). Pregnenolone (P5), progesterone (P4), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17P4), 17α-hydroxypregnenolone (17P5), androstenedione (AD) and testosterone (T) were determined in plasma and gene expression of cyp17a1, cyp19a1a and cyp11β analysed by qRT-PCR in gonads. The significant increase in plasmatic levels of 17P5, 17P4 and AD detected after 31 days exposure to 10 ng DRO/g together with the increased expression of cyp17a1 in females evidence the ability of DRO to alter steroid synthesis at low intake concentrations (7 ng DRO/day). However, the potential consequences of this steroid shift for female reproduction remain to be investigated. PMID:26995450

  18. Developmental and Contextual Considerations for Adrenal and Gonadal Hormone Functioning During Adolescence: Implications for Adolescent Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Ruttle, Paula L.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Substantial research has implicated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes independently in adolescent mental health problems, though this literature remains largely inconclusive. Given the cross-talk between the HPA and HPG axes and their increased activation in adolescence, a dual-axis approach that examines both axes simultaneously is proposed to predict the emergence and persistence of adolescent mental health problems. After briefly orienting readers to HPA and HPG axis functioning, we review the literature examining associations between hormone levels and changes with behavior during adolescence. Then, we provide a review of the literature supporting examination of both axes simultaneously and present the limited research that has taken a dual-axis approach. We propose future directions including consideration of between-person and within-person approaches to address questions of correlated changes in HPA and HPG hormones. Potential moderators are considered to increase understanding of the nuanced hormone–behavior associations during key developmental transitions. PMID:24729154

  19. An Outer Mitochondrial Translocase, Tom22, Is Crucial for Inner Mitochondrial Steroidogenic Regulation in Adrenal and Gonadal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksha, Maheshinie; Kaur, Jasmeet; Prasad, Manoj; Pawlak, Kevin J.; Marshall, Brendan; Perry, Elizabeth W.; Whittal, Randy M.

    2016-01-01

    After cholesterol is transported into the mitochondria of steroidogenic tissues, the first steroid, pregnenolone, is synthesized in adrenal and gonadal tissues to initiate steroid synthesis by catalyzing the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone, which is mediated by the inner mitochondrial enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (3βHSD2). We report that the mitochondrial translocase Tom22 is essential for metabolic conversion, as its knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) completely ablated progesterone conversion in both steroidogenic mouse Leydig MA-10 and human adrenal NCI cells. Tom22 forms a 500-kDa complex with mitochondrial proteins associated with 3βHSD2. Although the absence of Tom22 did not inhibit mitochondrial import of cytochrome P450scc (cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme) and aldosterone synthase, it did inhibit 3βHSD2 expression. Electron microscopy showed that Tom22 is localized at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), while 3βHSD2 is localized at the inner mitochondrial space (IMS), where it interacts through a specific region with Tom22 with its C-terminal amino acids and a small amino acid segment of Tom22 exposed to the IMS. Therefore, Tom22 is a critical regulator of steroidogenesis, and thus, it is essential for mammalian survival. PMID:26787839

  20. Expression profile analysis of aorta-gonad-mesonephros region-derived stromal cells reveals genes that regulate hematopoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, Kenji; Ohta, Takayuki; Hinohara, Atsushi; Tahara, Tomoyuki; Hagiwara, Tetsuya; Maeda, Yoshitake; Yoneya, Takashi; Sohma, Yoshiaki; Heike, Toshio; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Inagaki, Yoshimasa Nishikawa, Mitsuo

    2008-12-05

    The aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region is involved in the generation and maintenance of the first definitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). A mouse AGM-derived cell line, AGM-S3, was shown to support the development of HSCs. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating early hematopoiesis, we obtained subclones from AGM-S3, one of which was hematopoiesis supportive (S3-A9) and the other one of which was non-supportive (S3-A7), and we analyzed their gene expression profiles by gene chip analysis. In the present study, we found that Glypican-1 (GPC1) was highly expressed in the supportive subclone AGM-S3-A9. Over-expression of GPC1 in non-supportive cells led to the proliferation of progenitor cells in human cord blood when cocultured with the transfected-stromal cells. Thus, GPC1 may have an important role in the establishment of a microenvironment that supports early events in hematopoiesis.

  1. Two distinct myosin II populations coordinate ovulatory contraction of the myoepithelial sheath in the Caenorhabditis elegans somatic gonad.

    PubMed

    Ono, Kanako; Ono, Shoichiro

    2016-04-01

    The myoepithelial sheath in the somatic gonad of the nematodeCaenorhabditis eleganshas nonstriated contractile actomyosin networks that produce highly coordinated contractility for ovulation of mature oocytes. Two myosin heavy chains are expressed in the myoepithelial sheath, which are also expressed in the body-wall striated muscle. The troponin/tropomyosin system is also present and essential for ovulation. Therefore, although the myoepithelial sheath has smooth muscle-like contractile apparatuses, it has a striated muscle-like regulatory mechanism through troponin/tropomyosin. Here we report that the myoepithelial sheath has a distinct myosin population containing nonmuscle myosin II isoforms, which is regulated by phosphorylation and essential for ovulation. MLC-4, a nonmuscle myosin regulatory light chain, localizes to small punctate structures and does not colocalize with large, needle-like myosin filaments containing MYO-3, a striated-muscle myosin isoform. RNA interference of MLC-4, as well as of its upstream regulators, LET-502 (Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase) and MEL-11 (a myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase), impairs ovulation. Expression of a phosphomimetic MLC-4 mutant mimicking a constitutively active state also impairs ovulation. A striated-muscle myosin (UNC-54) appears to provide partially compensatory contractility. Thus the results indicate that the two spatially distinct myosin II populations coordinately regulate ovulatory contraction of the myoepithelial sheath. PMID:26864628

  2. Effects of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) gonad polysaccharides on cholecystokinin release in STC-1 cells and its signaling mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Zhou, Da-Yong; Yang, Jing-Feng; Song, Shuang; Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Ce; Song, Yan-Qing; Yu, Chen-Xu; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2016-10-20

    Abalone gonad polysaccharide (AGP) -31, -32 and -33 prepared in this study had the molecular weight (MW) of 37.8, 32.2 and 27.5kDa, respectively. They all contained mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, and fucose, with very similar monosaccharide profile. All the three polysaccharides could significantly increase the secretion of cholecystokinin (CCK) in STC-1 cells. Among them, AGP-32 showed the strongest effect. However, the low-MW fragments of AGP-32 showed significantly lower activity than AGP-32 itself. It was also found that the inhibitors on calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), protein kinase A (PKA), Ca(2+)⁄calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) II, p38- mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and an intracellular calcium chelator all inhibited AGP-induced CCK secretion. To conclude, Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)/CaMK, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/PKA and MAPK pathways are all involved in AGP-induced CCK secretion. PMID:27474567

  3. Gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers Epinephelus spp. (Osteichthyes: Serranidae) in the Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, Jayaraman

    2014-10-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new and one specifically not identified gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine fishes of the genus Epinephelus Bloch (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Bay of Bengal, off the eastern coast of India: P. indica sp. nov. (male and females) from the honeycomb grouper E. merra Bloch, P. tropica sp. nov. (males and females) from the duskytail grouper E. bleekeri (Vaillant) and Philometra sp. (only females) from the cloudy grouper E. erythrurus (Valenciennes). Philometra indica is mainly characterized by the length of spicules 192-195 μm and the gubernaculum 84 μm, the distal tip of the gubernaculum without a dorsal protuberance, and by the presence of five pairs of caudal papillae. Philometra tropica is mainly characterized by the spicules conspicuously ventrally distended at their posterior halves, the distal tip of the gubernaculum with a dorsal protuberance, and the presence of three pairs of caudal papillae. PMID:25236267

  4. A novel Amh-Treck transgenic mouse line allows toxin-dependent loss of supporting cells in gonads.

    PubMed

    Shinomura, Mai; Kishi, Kasane; Tomita, Ayako; Kawasumi, Miyuri; Kanezashi, Hiromi; Kuroda, Yoshiko; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Ozawa, Aisa; Aiyama, Yoshimi; Yoneda, Asuka; Suzuki, Hitomi; Saito, Michiko; Picard, Jean-Yves; Kohno, Kenji; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Kanai, Yoshiakira

    2014-12-01

    Cell ablation technology is useful for studying specific cell lineages in a developing organ in vivo. Herein, we established a novel anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)-toxin receptor-mediated cell knockout (Treck) mouse line, in which the diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor was specifically activated in Sertoli and granulosa cells in postnatal testes and ovaries respectively. In the postnatal testes of Amh-Treck transgenic (Tg) male mice, DT injection induced a specific loss of the Sertoli cells in a dose-dependent manner, as well as the specific degeneration of granulosa cells in the primary and secondary follicles caused by DT injection in Tg females. In the testes with depletion of Sertoli cell, germ cells appeared to survive for only several days after DT treatment and rapidly underwent cell degeneration, which led to the accumulation of a large amount of cell debris within the seminiferous tubules by day 10 after DT treatment. Transplantation of exogenous healthy Sertoli cells following DT treatment rescued the germ cell loss in the transplantation sites of the seminiferous epithelia, leading to a partial recovery of the spermatogenesis. These results provide not only in vivo evidence of the crucial role of Sertoli cells in the maintenance of germ cells, but also show that the Amh-Treck Tg line is a useful in vivo model of the function of the supporting cell lineage in developing mammalian gonads. PMID:25212783

  5. Electrotonic Coupling in the Pituitary Supports the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in a Sex Specific Manner.

    PubMed

    Göngrich, Christina; García-González, Diego; Le Magueresse, Corentin; Roth, Lena C; Watanabe, Yasuhito; Burks, Deborah J; Grinevich, Valery; Monyer, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Gap junctions are present in many cell types throughout the animal kingdom and allow fast intercellular electrical and chemical communication between neighboring cells. Connexin-36 (Cx36), the major neuronal gap junction protein, synchronizes cellular activity in the brain, but also in other organs. Here we identify a sex-specific role for Cx36 within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at the level of the anterior pituitary gland (AP). We show that Cx36 is expressed in gonadotropes of the AP sustaining their synchronous activity. Cx36 ablation affects the entire downstream HPG axis in females, but not in males. We demonstrate that Cx36-mediated coupling between gonadotropes in the AP supports gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced secretion of luteinizing hormone. Furthermore, we provide evidence for negative feedback regulation of Cx36 expression in the AP by estradiol. We thus, conclude that hormonally-controlled plasticity of gap junction communication at the level of the AP constitutes an additional mechanism affecting female reproduction. PMID:27587994

  6. EFFECT OF DIETARY PROTEIN AND CARBOHYDRATE LEVELS ON WEIGHT GAIN AND GONAD PRODUCTION IN THE SEA URCHIN LYTECHINUS VARIEGATUS

    PubMed Central

    Heflin, Laura E.; Gibbs, Victoria K.; Powell, Mickie L; Makowsky, Robert; Lawrence, John M.; Lawrence, Addison L.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Adult Lytechinus variegatus were fed eight formulated diets with different protein (ranging from 12 to 36%) and carbohydrate (ranging from 21 to 39 %) levels. Each sea urchin (n = 8 per treatment) was fed a daily sub-satiation ration of 1.5% of average body weight for 9 weeks. Akaike information criterion analysis was used to compare six different hypothesized dietary composition models across eight growth measurements. Dietary protein level and protein: energy ratio were the best models for prediction of total weight gain. Diets with the highest (> 68.6 mg P kcal−-1) protein: energy ratios produced the most wet weight gain after 9 weeks. Dietary carbohydrate level was a poor predictor for most growth parameters examined in this study. However, the model containing a protein × carbohydrate interaction effect was the best model for protein efficiency ratio (PER). PER decreased with increasing dietary protein level, more so at higher carbohydrate levels. Food conversion ratio (FCR) was best modeled by total dietary energy levels: Higher energy diets produced lower FCRs. Dietary protein level was the best model of gonad wet weight gain. These data suggest that variations in dietary nutrients and energy differentially affect organismal growth and growth of body components. PMID:24994942

  7. An Outer Mitochondrial Translocase, Tom22, Is Crucial for Inner Mitochondrial Steroidogenic Regulation in Adrenal and Gonadal Tissues.

    PubMed

    Rajapaksha, Maheshinie; Kaur, Jasmeet; Prasad, Manoj; Pawlak, Kevin J; Marshall, Brendan; Perry, Elizabeth W; Whittal, Randy M; Bose, Himangshu S

    2016-03-01

    After cholesterol is transported into the mitochondria of steroidogenic tissues, the first steroid, pregnenolone, is synthesized in adrenal and gonadal tissues to initiate steroid synthesis by catalyzing the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone, which is mediated by the inner mitochondrial enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (3βHSD2). We report that the mitochondrial translocase Tom22 is essential for metabolic conversion, as its knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) completely ablated progesterone conversion in both steroidogenic mouse Leydig MA-10 and human adrenal NCI cells. Tom22 forms a 500-kDa complex with mitochondrial proteins associated with 3βHSD2. Although the absence of Tom22 did not inhibit mitochondrial import of cytochrome P450scc (cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme) and aldosterone synthase, it did inhibit 3βHSD2 expression. Electron microscopy showed that Tom22 is localized at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), while 3βHSD2 is localized at the inner mitochondrial space (IMS), where it interacts through a specific region with Tom22 with its C-terminal amino acids and a small amino acid segment of Tom22 exposed to the IMS. Therefore, Tom22 is a critical regulator of steroidogenesis, and thus, it is essential for mammalian survival. PMID:26787839

  8. Accumulation of polyunsaturated aldehydes in the gonads of the copepod Acartia tonsa revealed by tailored fluorescent probes.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Stefanie; Nejstgaard, Jens C; Pohnert, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) are released by several diatom species during predation. Besides other attributed activities, these oxylipins can interfere with the reproduction of copepods, important predators of diatoms. While intensive research has been carried out to document the effects of PUAs on copepod reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanistic aspects of PUA action. Especially PUA uptake and accumulation in copepods has not been addressed to date. To investigate how PUAs are taken up and interfere with the reproduction in copepods we developed a fluorescent probe containing the α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated aldehyde structure element that is essential for the activity of PUAs as well as a set of control probes. We developed incubation and monitoring procedures for adult females of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa and show that the PUA derived fluorescent molecular probe selectively accumulates in the gonads of this copepod. In contrast, a saturated aldehyde derived probe of an inactive parent molecule was enriched in the lipid sac. This leads to a model for PUAs' teratogenic mode of action involving accumulation and covalent interaction with nucleophilic moieties in the copepod reproductive tissue. The teratogenic effect of PUAs can therefore be explained by a selective targeting of the molecules into the reproductive tissue of the herbivores, while more lipophilic but otherwise strongly related structures end up in lipid bodies. PMID:25383890

  9. Effects of spectral composition, photoperiod and light intensity on the gonadal development of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Denggao; Xu, Shihong; Song, Changbin; Chi, Liang; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang; Liu, Baoliang; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Artificial lighting regimes have been successfully used to inhibit sexual maturity of Atlantic salmon in confinement. However, when these operations are applied in commercial recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) using standard lighting technology, sexual maturation is not suppressed. In this study, an L9 (33) orthogonal design was used to determine the effects of three factors (spectral composition, photoperiod, and light intensity) on the gonadal development of Atlantic salmon in RAS. We demonstrated that the photoperiod at the tested levels had a much greater effect on the gonadosomatic index and female Fulton condition factor than spectral composition and light intensity. The photoperiod had a significant effect on the secretion of sex steroids and melatonin ( P<0.05), and a short photoperiod delayed sex steroid and melatonin level increases. The three test factors had no significant effects on the survival rate, specific growth rate, relative weight gain, and male Fulton condition factor ( P>0.05). The optimum lighting levels in female and male Atlantic salmon were LD 8:16, 455 nm (or 625 nm), 8.60 W/m2; and LD 8:16, 8.60 W/m2, 455 nm respectively. These conditions not only delayed gonadal development, but also had no negative effects on Atlantic salmon growth in RAS. These results demonstrate that a combination of spectral composition, photoperiod and light intensity is effective at delaying the gonadal development of both male and female salmon in RAS.

  10. Oestrogens are Not Related to Emotional Processing: a Study of Regional Brain Activity in Female-to-Male Transsexuals Under Gonadal Suppression.

    PubMed

    Soleman, R S; Staphorsius, A S; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Lambalk, C B; Veltman, D J; van Trotsenburg, M A A; Hompes, P G A; Drent, M L; de Ronde, W P; Kreukels, B P C

    2016-02-01

    Although the prevailing opinion is that emotional processes are influenced by sex hormones, the literature is still inconclusive. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of gonadal suppression on brain activity during affective picture processing. Twenty-one female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals and 19 control women were recruited and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning while rating emotional pictures adapted from the International Affective Picture System. The gonadal hormone production of the FtMs was suppressed for 8 weeks, the control group did not receive any treatment before scanning. Under gonadal suppression, FtMs showed less brain activation in the superior temporal lobe compared with female controls during perception of positive affective pictures. Regression analysis showed that during processing of positive affective images, brain activity within the right superior temporal lobe was not correlated with levels of estradiol, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. In the absence of associations with hormonal levels, the difference in activation in the superior temporal lobe during positive emotional stimuli between FtMs and control women may be attributed to a priori differences between the 2 groups. Future studies should clarify if these differences are a result of atypical sexual differentiation of the brain in FtMs. PMID:25246514

  11. nr0b1 (DAX1) mutation in zebrafish causes female-to-male sex reversal through abnormal gonadal proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sijie; Zhang, Hefei; Wang, Fenghua; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Gang

    2016-09-15

    Sex determinations are diverse in vertebrates. Although many sex-determining genes and pathways are conserved, the mechanistic roles of these genes and pathways in the genetic sex determination are not well understood. DAX1 (encoded by the NR0B1 gene) is a vertebrate specific orphan nuclear receptor that regulates gonadal development and sexual determination. In human, duplication of the NR0B1 gene leads to male-to-female sex reversal. In mice, Nr0b1 shows both pro-testis and anti-testis functions. We generated inheritable nr0b1 mutation in the zebrafish and found the nr0b1 mutation caused homozygous mutants to develop as fertile males due to female-to-male sex reversal. The nr0b1 mutation did not increase Caspase-3 labeling nor tp53 expression in the developing gonads. Introduction of a tp53 mutation into the nr0b1 mutant did not rescue the sex-reversal phenotype. Further examination revealed reduction in cell proliferation and abnormal somatic cell differentiation in the nr0b1 mutant gonads at the undifferentiated and bi-potential ovary stages. Together, our results suggest nr0b1 regulates somatic cell differentiation and cell proliferation to ensure normal sex development in the zebrafish. PMID:27267667

  12. Lack of essential enzymes for the biosynthesis of C19 and C18 steroids in gonads of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Swevers, L; Lambert, J G; Novak, F; Paesen, G; De Loof, A

    1991-11-01

    Ovaries and testes of the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria migratorioides, were incubated in vitro with six tritiated steroid precursors. Three developmental stages were investigated--1 day, 14 days, and 6 weeks after adult moulting. 20 alpha-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), 20 beta-HSD, 17 beta-HSD, 3 beta-HSD/isomerase, C17-C20 lyase, glucuronyl-transferase, sulfotransferase, and acyltransferase were identified in both sexes. A synthesis of androgens or estrogens comparable to the vertebrate type, however, was not apparent in the locust gonads. 20 alpha-HSD, 20 beta-HSD, and 17 beta-HSD activities were high, while more important steps in steroid synthesis such as 3 beta-HSD and C17-C20 lyase were far less intense. Ovarian 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity was slight. Aromatase activity was not demonstrated. Water-soluble conjugate formation was high in the incubations of "14th-day" and "6th-week" gonads but was absent in "1st-day" ovaries and testes. Active ester formation of pregnenolone was demonstrated in "6th-week" testes. The other steroid conversions were similar in all developmental stages investigated. Major differences between testes and ovaries were not observed. The gonads of the migratory locust are concluded not to produce androgens or estrogens. PMID:1783269

  13. Latitudinal and stock-specific variation in size- and age-at-maturity of female winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, as determined with gonad histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Richard S.; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Nitschke, Paul; Thornton, Grace; King, Jeremy R.

    2013-01-01

    Female winter flounder were examined using gonad histology to determine the adequacy of routine macroscopic maturity classification methods and to determine the spatial variation in size and age of maturity in U.S. waters. Sampling occurred in spring and autumn, which was adequate to collect immature, mature, spawning-active, and non-active females. Females were collected in coastal waters from Delaware Bay, USA, to the Scotian Shelf, Canada, including in Long Island Sound and on Georges Bank, which covered all U.S. stock areas. Mature fish spawned in spring, when gonads comprised up to 30% of the total body weight. Direct comparisons of maturity assignment by macroscopic versus microscopic methods demonstrated that both schemes are compatible, but the more cost-effective macroscopic method had trouble distinguishing larger immature from smaller resting females. Spatial comparisons, using gonad histology only, supported the existence of three stocks in U.S. waters, but also revealed significant variation in age at maturity within the two coastal stocks. Age-at-maturity was more variable than size-at-maturity, which is consistent with known stock-specific patterns of growth rates and a postulated life history tradeoff to delay maturity until a size threshold is reached. The within-stock variation in median age at maturity, about one year for coastal stocks, recommends further investigation of using static, stock-specific maturity ogives to calculate reference points for management.

  14. Characterization of Atrazine-Induced Gonadal Malformations in African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus laevis) and Comparisons with Effects of an Androgen Antagonist (Cyproterone Acetate) and Exogenous Estrogen (17β-Estradiol): Support for the Demasculinization/Feminization Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Tyrone B.; Stuart, A. Ali; Mendoza, Magdalena; Collins, Atif; Noriega, Nigel; Vonk, Aaron; Johnston, Gwynne; Liu, Roger; Kpodzo, Dzifa

    2006-01-01

    Atrazine is a potent endocrine disruptor that both chemically castrates and feminizes male amphibians. It depletes androgens in adult frogs and reduces androgen-dependent growth of the larynx in developing male larvae. It also disrupts normal gonadal development and feminizes the gonads of developing males. Gonadal malformations induced by atrazine include hermaphrodites and males with multiple testes [single sex polygonadism (SSP)], and effects occur at concentrations as low as 0.1 ppb (μg/L). Here, we describe the frequencies at which these malformations occur and compare them with morphologies induced by the estrogen, 17β-estradiol (E2), and the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate, as a first step in testing the hypothesis that the effects of atrazine are a combination of demasculinization and feminization. The various forms of hermaphroditism did not occur in controls. Nonpigmented ovaries, which occurred at relatively high frequencies in atrazine-treated larvae, were found in four individuals out of more than 400 controls examined (1%). Further, we show that several types of gonadal malformations (SSP and three forms of hermaphroditism) are produced by E2 exposure during gonadal differentiation, whereas a final morphology (nonpigmented ovaries) appears to be the result of chemical castration (disruption of androgen synthesis and/or activity) by atrazine. These experimental findings suggest that atrazine-induced gonadal malformations result from the depletion of androgens and production of estrogens, perhaps subsequent to the induction of aromatase by atrazine, a mechanism established in fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals (rodents and humans). PMID:16818259

  15. Synthetic slings: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Staskin, David R; Plzak, Louis

    2002-10-01

    Historically, the choice of sling material for the treatment of urinary incontinence has been based on the surgeon's preference and experience. In general, pelvic surgeons have not differentiated artificial graft materials by their inherent qualities or for biocompatibility in the female pelvis and vaginal wall. The introduction of new artificial graft materials and new methods of implantation for the correction of genuine stress incontinence has generated renewed interest in the "pros and cons" associated with nonabsorbable material use. In this review, we discuss and differentiate sling materials and techniques. We consider some of the physical and biologic qualities of artificial graft materials, present theories and practices associated with the successful use of permanent grafts, and discuss the natural evolution of artificial graft slings to the current use of the tension-free vaginal tape and Suprapubic Arc Sling System (American Medical Systems, Minneapolis, MN). PMID:12354353

  16. Embryonic temperature and gonadal sex organize male-typical sexual and aggressive behavior in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    PubMed

    Rhen, T; Crews, D

    1999-10-01

    Temperature during embryonic development determines gonadal sex in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius. Moreover, both embryonic temperature and gonadal sex influence adult behavior. Yet it remains unclear whether the effects of embryonic temperature and gonadal sex on behavior are irreversibly organized during development. To address this question, we gonadectomized adult females and males generated from a temperature that produces mostly females (30 C) and a temperature that produces mostly males (32.5 C). Females and males from both temperatures were then treated with equivalent levels of various sex steroids. We found that both embryonic temperature and gonadal sex had persistent effects on the expression of male-typical sexual and aggressive behaviors. For example, adult females do not scent mark and display very little courtship and mounting behavior even when treated with levels of hormones (primarily androgens) that activate these behaviors in males. In contrast, species-typical aggressive displays were less sex specific and were activated by both dihydrotestosterone and testosterone (T) in males and by T in females. Nevertheless, the average duration of aggressive displays was significantly shorter in T-treated females than that in T-treated males. With regard to submissive behavior, androgens decreased flight behavior in males, but had no effect in females. Embryonic temperature had enduring effects on certain behaviors in males. For instance, males from a male-biased embryonic temperature scent-marked more than males from a female-biased embryonic temperature when treated with dihydrotestosterone or T. Conversely, and across hormone treatments, males from a female-biased embryonic temperature mounted more than males from a male-biased embryonic temperature. Finally, treatment with 17beta-estradiol decreased submissive behavior in males from a male-biased embryonic temperature compared with that in males from a female-biased embryonic temperature

  17. Development and recovery of histopathological alterations in the gonads of zebrafish (Danio rerio) after single and combined exposure to endocrine disruptors (17α-ethinylestradiol and fadrozole).

    PubMed

    Luzio, Ana; Monteiro, Sandra M; Rocha, Eduardo; Fontaínhas-Fernandes, António A; Coimbra, Ana M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure of wildlife to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is not necessarily continuous. Due to seasonal changes and variable industrial and agricultural activities it often occurs intermittently. Thus, it is possible that aquatic organisms may be more affected by periodic peak exposure than by chronic exposure. Therefore, an experimental scenario including an exposure from 2h to 90 days post-fertilization (dpf) and a subsequent recovery period until 150 dpf was chosen to assess the potential reversibility of the effects of sex steroids on sexual and gonad development of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The aim of this study was to investigate the persistence of the endocrine effects of an estrogen (EE2-17α-ethinylestradiol, 4ng/L), an inhibitor of estrogen synthesis (Fad-fadrozole, 50μg/L) or their binary mixture (Mix-EE2+ Fad, 4ng/L+50μg/L). Afterwards, a semi-quantitative histological assessment was used to investigate histopathological changes on gonad differentiation and development. The data showed that fadrozole, alone or in combination with EE2, permanently disrupts the sexual development, inducing masculinization and causing severe pathological alterations in testis, such as intersex associated to the enlargement of sperm ducts, interstitial changes, asynchronous development and detachment of basal membrane. After exposures to both EDCs and their mixture, the gonad histopathology revealed interstitial proteinaceous fluid deposits and, in ovaries, there were atretic oocytes, and presumably degenerative mineralization. On the other hand, the gonadal changes induced by EE2 alone seem to be partially reversible when the exposure regime changed to a recovery period. In addition, EE2 enhanced zebrafish growth in both genders, with male fish presenting signs of early obesity such as the presence of adipocytes in testis. Moreover, sex ratio was slightly skewed toward females, at 90 and 105 dpf, in zebrafish exposed to EE2. The data further indicate that long

  18. Emerging and Legacy Contaminants in The Foodweb in The Lower Columbia River: USGS ConHab Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, E. B.; Alvarez, D.; Counihan, T.; Elias, E.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hardiman, J.; Jenkins, J.; Mesa, M.; Morace, J.; Patino, R.; Torres, L.; Waite, I.; Zaugg, S.

    2012-12-01

    An interdisciplinary study, USGS Columbia River Contaminants and Habitat Characterization (ConHab) project, investigates transport pathways, chemical fate, and effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic media and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were co-deployed at each of 10 sites in 2008 to provide a measure of the dissolved concentrations of select PBDEs, chlorinated pesticides, and other EDCs. PBDE-47 was the most prevalent of the PBDEs detected. Numerous organochlorine pesticides, both banned and current-use, including hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradates, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and the endosulfan degradation products, were measured at each site. EDCs commonly detected included a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fragrances (galaxolide), pesticides (chlorpyrifos and atrazine), plasticizers (phthalates), and flame retardants (phosphates). The downstream sites tended to have the highest concentrations of contaminants in the lower Columbia River. In 2009 and 2010 passive samplers were deployed and resident largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and surface bed sediments were collected at three of the original sites representing a gradient of exposure based on 2008 results. Brain, fillet, liver, stomach, and gonad tissues were analyzed. Chemical concentrations were highest in livers, followed by brain, stomach, gonad, and, lastly, fillet. Concentrations of halogenated compounds in tissue samples ranged from <1 to 400 ng g-1 wet tissue. PBDEs, organochlorine pesticides, DDT and its degradates, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected at all sites in nearly all organs tested. PBDE congeners most frequently detected and at the highest concentrations were PBDE-47 > PBDE-100 > PBDE-154

  19. A possible neural cascade involving the photoneuroendocrine system (PNES) responsible for regulating gonadal development in an avian species, Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Kuenzel, Wayne J

    2008-08-15

    Neurons located in the lateral septal organ (LSO) and medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) have been proposed to be encephalic photoreceptors (EPRs), which sense photoperiodic time and initiate avian gonadal development. Controversy continues regarding the location of EPRs serving the PNES and their signal transduction pathway. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR we determined activation of key genes following prolonged light periods and sulfamethethazine (compound known to advance light-induced testes development) in 21-day old chicks. Earliest activation occurred in genes of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and type 6 phosphodiesterase beta subunit (PDE-6 beta) in the LSO at 4 and 6h, respectively, after onset of light and sulfamethazine intake. In contrast, no change was detected in the MBH during the first 8h of that treatment. Thereafter, significant increases in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH-1) and VIP receptor (VIPR) mRNA transcripts were detected in the bed nucleus of the pallial commissure (NCPa). Hours later, activation of all four genes (VIP, PDE-6 beta, GnRH-1, VIPR) were induced solely by photostimulation. Deiodinase 2 and tyrosine hydroxylase in the MBH did not show increased gene expression until 12h of photostimulation. Prolactin mRNA transcripts showed significant increases at 4h due to SMZ intake and at 24, 36 and 48 h due to long-day photoperiodic effects. Data suggest that VIP neurons in the LSO may serve as EPRs and utilize PDE, present in the phototransduction cascade of known photoreceptors. Additionally, VIP released from the LSO may modulate GnRH-1 neurons in the NCPa via VIP receptors by increasing GnRH-1 gene expression. PMID:18598849

  20. Identification of a population of cells with hematopoietic stem cell properties in mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Nobuhisa, Ikuo; Ohtsu, Naoki; Okada, Seiji; Nakagata, Naomi; Taga, Tetsuya . E-mail: taga@kaiju.medic.kumamoto-u.ac.jp

    2007-03-10

    The aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region is a primary source of definitive hematopoietic cells in the midgestation mouse embryo. In cultures of dispersed AGM regions, adherent cells containing endothelial cells are observed first, and then non-adherent hematopoietic cells are produced. Here we report on the characterization of hematopoietic cells that emerge in the AGM culture. Based on the expression profiles of CD45 and c-Kit, we defined three cell populations: CD45{sup low} c-Kit{sup +} cells that had the ability to form hematopoietic cell colonies in methylcellulose media and in co-cultures with stromal cells; CD45{sup low} c-Kit{sup -} cells that showed a granulocyte morphology; CD45{sup high} c-Kit{sup low/-} that exhibited a macrophage morphology. In co-cultures of OP9 stromal cells and freshly prepared AGM cultures, CD45{sup low} c-Kit{sup +} cells from the AGM culture had the abilities to reproduce CD45{sup low} c-Kit{sup +} cells and differentiate into CD45{sup low} c-Kit{sup -} and CD45{sup high} c-Kit{sup low/-} cells, whereas CD45{sup low} c-Kit{sup -} and CD45{sup high} c-Kit{sup low/-} did not produce CD45{sup low} c-Kit{sup +} cells. Furthermore, CD45{sup low} c-Kit{sup +} cells displayed a long-term repopulating activity in adult hematopoietic tissue when transplanted into the liver of irradiated newborn mice. These results indicate that CD45{sup low} c-Kit{sup +} cells from the AGM culture have the potential to reconstitute multi-lineage hematopoietic cells.

  1. Disruptions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in rat offspring following prenatal maternal exposure to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Izvolskaia, Marina S; Tillet, Yves; Sharova, Viktoria S; Voronova, Svetlana N; Zakharova, Lyudmila A

    2016-03-01

    Postnatal treatment with bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) changes the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) surge in rats. Exposure to an immune challenge in the critical periods of development has profound and long-lasting effects on the stress response, immune, metabolic, and reproductive functions. Prenatal LPS treatment delays the migration of GnRH neurons associated with increased cytokine release in maternal and fetal compartments. We investigated the effects of a single maternal exposure to LPS (18 μg/kg, i.p.) on day 12 (embryonic day (E)12) of pregnancy on reproductive parameters in rat offspring. Hypothalamic GnRH content, plasma luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and estradiol concentrations were measured in both male and female offsprings at different stages of postnatal development by RIA and ELISA (n = 10 each per group). Body weight and in females day of vaginal opening (VO) were recorded. In offspring exposed to LPS prenatally, compared with controls, body weight was decreased in both sexes at P5 and P30; in females, VO was delayed; hypothalamic GnRH content was decreased at postnatal days 30-60 (P30-P60) in both sexes; plasma LH concentration was decreased at P14-P60 in females; plasma concentrations of testosterone/estradiol were increased at P14 in females, and plasma estradiol was increased at P14 in males. Hence activation of the maternal immune system by LPS treatment at a prenatal critical period leads to decreased GnRH and LH levels in pre- and postpubertal life and sex steroid imbalance in the prepubertal period, and delayed sexual maturation of female offspring. PMID:26941006

  2. Evaluation of activity of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in postmenopausal women suffering from severe acute illness

    PubMed Central

    Raj, M. Neelima; Suresh, V.; Mukka, Arun; Reddy, Amaresh; Sachan, Alok; Mohan, Alladi; Vengamma, B.; Rao, P.V.L.N. Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Postmenopausal women constitute an ideal model for studying the extent of hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis suppression in critical illness as the gonadotropins are normally high and non-cyclical in them. The objective was to assess the impact of acute severe illness in postmenopausal women on the HPG axis and the activities of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), the hypothalamo- pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axes; and levels of serum prolactin, by comparison between critically ill postmenopausal women and otherwise healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: Thirty five consecutive postmenopausal women older than 60 yr admitted to medical intensive care with a Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) more than 30 were included. On day five of their in-hospital stay, blood samples were collected for oestradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), cortisol, androstenedione, prolactin and thyroid profile. Thirty five apparently healthy postmenopausal women were selected as controls. Results: Levels of LH, FSH, thyrotropin, free thyroxin (fT4) and free tri-iodothyronine (fT3) were lower while oestradiol, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were higher among patients in comparison to healthy controls. Prolactin levels were similar in patients and controls. Among sick patients both FSH and fT4 showed a negative correlation (P<0.05) with the SAPS II score. Interpretation & conclusions: In critically ill postmenopausal women, paradoxically elevated oestrogen levels despite gonadotropin suppression suggests a non-ovarian origin. Prolactin remained unaltered in patients despite their illness, possibly reflecting atrophy of lactotrophs in menopause. PMID:26997016

  3. Physiological interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and spleen in rams actively immunized against GnRH.

    PubMed

    Han, Xingfa; Ren, Xiaohua; Zeng, Yu; Zhou, Yuqin; Song, TianZeng; Cao, Xiaohan; Du, Xiaogang; Meng, Fengyan; Tan, Yao; Liu, Yacheng; Feng, Jing; Chu, Mingxing; Zeng, Xianyin

    2016-09-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is strongly implicated in the regulation of immune system. The objective was to determine the effects of immunocastration on splenic reproduction- and immunity-related gene expressions, and serum cytokine profiles in rams. Forty rams were randomly allocated into three groups: control (n=14); surgically castrated (n=13); or immunized (n=13) against 100μg D-Lys6-GnRH-tandem-dimer peptide conjugated to ovalbumin in Specol adjuvant at 6months of age (with a booster 2months later). Blood samples (for hormone and immune cytokine profiles) were collected at 1-month intervals until rams were slaughtered (10months). Compared to intact controls, anti-GnRH immunization reduced (P<0.05) serum concentrations of LH, FSH, and testosterone. Reduced testosterone abrogated its inhibitor feedback effect on the synthesis of GnRH in spleen, as evidenced by increased (P<0.05) protein content and mRNA expressions of GnRH, and simultaneously decreased (P<0.05) mRNA expressions of androgen receptor in spleen. In parallel with the increased GnRH production in spleen, the mRNA expressions of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as lymphocyte marker CD4, CD8 and CD19 molecules were increased (P<0.05) in spleen. Consistently, serum concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α were increased (P<0.05) in rams following immunization. Similarly, deprivation of testosterone by surgical castration also increased (P<0.05) GnRH and thus immune cytokine expressions in spleen. Collectively, our data suggested that immunocastration increased GnRH production in spleen by abrogating the inhibitory feedback effects from testosterone, consequently improving the immune markers of spleen and serum immune cytokines in rams. PMID:27322522

  4. Comparison between adrenal, gonadal, and pituitary hormones on the behavior of rhesus monkey kidney cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Hull, S; Benghuzzi, H; Tucci, M; Hughes, J

    1999-01-01

    Recently, several studies have indicated that the use of Rhesus Monkey Kidney epithelial cells (RMKEC) in culture could provide significant knowledge regarding the alteration or dysfunction of kidney tissues that often resulted into kidney failure. The interrelationship between various steroid hormones, as well as, growth-promoting hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and RMKEC has not been fully investigated. The specific objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cortisol (C), testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), estradiol (E), and GH on the proliferation and viability of RMKEC in culture. The cell line was adapted to grow in Morgan, Morton, and Parker's medium 199 (with 1.68 g/L sodium bicarbonate) supplemented with 1% horse serum. A total of 30 tubes were plated with RMKEC and divided into six equal groups. In-groups 1-5, each well (n = 5) were treated with a physiological dose of C, T, DHEA, E, and GH, respectively. At 24, 48, and 96 hours the cells and supernatants were collected and stored for further analysis. The biochemical markers were assessed using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), catalase, and malinodialdehyde (MDA). Data obtained suggest that: (I) treatment of RMKEC with C and DHEA resulted in an increase in MDA levels compared to the control and other experimental groups, (II) no significant increase was observed in LDH levels in all treated tubes compared to the control group, (III) higher proliferation rate was observed in cells treated with T compared to the control group. However, treatment with C showed suppression to the proliferation rate and no significant difference was observed between DHEA, GH and the control groups. In conclusion this study suggests that steroid hormones regardless of the source of secretion (gonads or adrenals) can influence the functional capacity of RMKEC in culture. PMID:11143395

  5. Male Sexual Dysfunction, Leptin, Pituitary and Gonadal Hormones in Nigerian Males with Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Unyime Aniekpon; Charles-Davies, Mabel Ayebatonyo; Fasanmade, Adesoji Adedipe; Olaniyi, John Ayodele; Oyewole, Oyediran Emmanuel; Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo; Adebusuyi, Jane Roli; Hassan, Olufunke Olayemi; Ajobo, Babatunde Mohammed; Ebesunun, Maria Onomhaguan; Adigun, Kehinde; Akinlade, Kehinde Sola; Arinola, Olatubosun Ganiyu; Agbedana, Emmanuel Oluyemi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pituitary and gonadal dysfunctions resulting from increased adiposity leading to disturbances of sexual and reproductive functions have been reported in males with metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual dysfunction, leptin, and reproductive hormones in Nigerian males with MS and DM2. Methods: Participants were 104 men (34 males with DM2, 17 men with MS and 53 men with normal body mass index (18.5–24.9 Kg/m2) without MS (controls)). The International Diabetes Federation (2005) criteria were used for MS diagnosis. Reproductive history, anthropometry, blood pressure (BP) and 10 ml fasting blood samples were obtained by standard methods. Fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined by enzymatic methods while low density lipoprotein cholesterol was calculated. Leptin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin, testosterone and oestrogen were determined by enzyme immunoassay (leptin by Diagnostic Automation, Inc.; others by Immunometrics (UK) Ltd.) while oestrogen-testosterone ratio was calculated. Data analyzed using ANOVA, Chi square and multiple regression were statistically significant at p<0.05. Results: Testosterone was significantly lower in MS than controls while oestradiol and ETR were significantly higher in MS compared with controls and DM2 group (p<0.05). ETR significantly predicted testosterone in all groups (p<0.05). Significantly lower libido was observed in men in MS than controls and DM2 groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Sexual and reproductive dysfunction may be related to increased conversion of testosterone to oestrogen in increased adipose mass in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26962479

  6. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the sexually dimorphic area of the gerbil brain: sex differences and influences of adult gonadal steroids.

    PubMed

    Commins, D; Yahr, P

    1984-03-20

    The morphology of the medial preoptic area-anterior hypothalamus (MPOA-AH) of gerbils is sexually dimorphic and influenced by adult gonadal hormones. This research shows that the distribution of (MPOA-AH) cells that synthesize acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the activity of AChE within the MPOA-AH are also sexually dimorphic and hormone sensitive. Adult male and female gerbils were gonadectomized, gonadectomized and implanted subcutaneously with testosterone (T), or sham operated 4-8 weeks before sacrifice. Coronal sections through the sexually dimorphic area (SDA) of the MPOA-AH were stained for AChE. Planimeter measurements of camera lucida drawings showed that the total volume of the SDA is similar in the two sexes, but the proportion of the SDA that stains darkly and/or stands out clearly from the surround (dark volume) is larger in males. Optical density readings also indicated that AChE staining is darker in the male SDA. Gonadectomy decreases staining intensity in both sexes and reduces total SDA volume. Dark volume decreases more than 50%. Testosterone treatment reverses all effects of gonadectomy, although hormonal influences are smaller in females than in males. There were no sex differences or hormonal influences on AChE staining lateral to the SDA. The pars compacta of the male SDA was essentially devoid of AChE, indicating that this cell group is distinct from the rest of the SDA. It also shrinks after castration unless the males receive T. Histochemical changes in the SDA may be related to hormonal control of scent marking, a form of communication in this species. PMID:6715576

  7. Differential response of GnIH in the brain and gonads following acute stress in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Darcy K; Lynn, Sharon E; Bentley, George E

    2016-02-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) acts to inhibit reproduction at all levels of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonad axis. GnIH expression and/or immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus increase with acute stress in some birds and mammals, and thus may be involved in stress-induced reproductive inhibition. Much is known about GnIH and stress in seasonal and continuous breeders, but far less is known about these interactions in opportunistic breeders. For opportunistically breeding animals, reproductive readiness is closely associated with unpredictable environmental cues, and thus the GnIH system may be more sensitive to stress. To test this, we collected tissues from zebra finches immediately following capture or after 60min of restraint. Restraint significantly increased plasma corticosterone in males and females but, contrary to studies on other species, restrained birds had significantly fewer GnIH immunoreactive (GnIH-ir) cell bodies than control birds. GnIH-ir cell number did not differ between the sexes. Stressed females had lower mRNA expression of the beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHβ) in the pituitary, suggesting that the reduction in observed GnIH immunoreactivity in females may have been due to increased GnIH release in response to acute stress. GnIH expression increased in the testes, but not the ovaries, of restrained animals. Our data suggest that although GnIH responsiveness to stress appears to be conserved across species, specific tissue response and direction of GnIH regulation is not. Variation in the GnIH response to stress between species might be the result of ecological adaptations or other species differences in the response of the GnIH system to stress. PMID:26158243

  8. Responses of the zebrafish hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis PCR array to prochloraz are dependent on timing of sampling.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yao; Wang, Jianghua; Giesy, John P; Liu, Chunsheng

    2016-06-01

    A PCR array, based on expression of genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver (HPGL) axis of fish, has been suggested as a useful method for screening of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). However, effects of circadian rhythm on responses of the HPGL axis to exposure to chemicals were unknown. In this study, profiles of expression of genes along the HPGL axis and concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2) in blood plasma of female zebrafish were compared at two sampling times of day (8:00 AM and 7:00 PM). Prochloraz (PCZ) was selected as a model chemical to evaluate differences in responses of the HPGL axis at these two times of day. Profiles of responses of concentrations of E2 in plasma and expressions of genes along the HPGL axis genes were different between the two times of sampling. Concentrations of E2 were less, and abundances of mRNA for several genes along the HPGL axis were significantly greater or lesser when samples were collected at 7:00 PM than they were when samples were collected at 8:00 AM. Exposure to three concentrations of PCZ (3, 30 or 300μg/L) for 48h resulted in significantly lesser concentrations of plasma E2 and caused compensatory up-regulation of genes included in hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary. Expressions of genes along the HPGL were more responsive to PCZ at 8:00 AM than they were when samples were collected at 7:00 PM. Correlations among parameters in samples collected at the two times indicated the effects might be due to different concentrations of E2 in plasma due to exposure to PCZ. PMID:27055099

  9. Maternal treatment with dexamethasone during lactation delays male puberty and disrupts reproductive functions via hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis alterations.

    PubMed

    Jeje, S O; Akindele, O O; Balogun, M E; Raji, Y

    2016-03-01

    The effects of maternal treatment with dexamethasone during lactation on pubertal timing, serum hormonal profile and sperm indices in the male offspring were assessed. Twenty lactating dams were divided into 4 groups (n=5). Group 1 was administered subcutaneously 0.02ml/100g/day normal saline at lactation days 1-21. Groups 2-4 were administered subcutaneously 100μg/kg/day dexamethasone (Dex) at lactation days 1-7, 1-14, and 1-21 respectively. Results showed that there was significant reduction in serum testosterone in the DexLD 1-7 (p<0.05), DexLD 1-14 (p<0.01) and DexLD 1-21 (p<0.001) relative to control. In addition there was a significant reduction in serum FSH and LH in the DexLD 1-7 (p<0.01), DexLD 1-14 (p<0.001) and DexLD 1-21 (p<0.001) when compared with the control. Treatment with dexamethasone during lactation significantly increased the days of preputial separation in the DexLD 1-7 (p<0.05), DexLD 1-14 (p<0.05) and DexLD 1-21 (p<0.001) relative to control. Maternal treatment with dexamethasone throughout lactation period also significantly reduced sperm counts (p<0.001), motility (p<0.01) and increased percentage abnormal sperm (p<0.001) in the offspring when compared with the control. In conclusion, maternal treatment with dexamethasone during lactation may induce delayed puberty and disrupt reproductive functions by altering activities at hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the male offspring. PMID:26774541

  10. Ecdysone signaling opposes epidermal growth factor signaling in regulating cyst differentiation in the male gonad of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yue; Dominado, Nicole; Zoller, Richard; Ng, Chun; Kudyba, Karl; Siddall, Nicole A; Hime, Gary R; Schulz, Cordula

    2014-10-15

    The development of stem cell daughters into the differentiated state normally requires a cascade of proliferation and differentiation steps that are typically regulated by external signals. The germline cells of most animals, in specific, are associated with somatic support cells and depend on them for normal development. In the male gonad of Drosophila melanogaster, germline cells are completely enclosed by cytoplasmic extensions of somatic cyst cells, and these cysts form a functional unit. Signaling from the germline to the cyst cells via the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is required for germline enclosure and has been proposed to provide a temporal signature promoting early steps of differentiation. A temperature-sensitive allele of the EGFR ligand Spitz (Spi) provides a powerful tool for probing the function of the EGRF pathway in this context and for identifying other pathways regulating cyst differentiation via genetic interaction studies. Using this tool, we show that signaling via the Ecdysone Receptor (EcR), a known regulator of developmental timing during larval and pupal development, opposes EGF signaling in testes. In spi mutant animals, reducing either Ecdysone synthesis or the expression of Ecdysone signal transducers or targets in the cyst cells resulted in a rescue of cyst formation and cyst differentiation. Despite of this striking effect in the spi mutant background and the expression of EcR signaling components within the cyst cells, activity of the EcR pathway appears to be dispensable in a wildtype background. We propose that EcR signaling modulates the effects of EGFR signaling by promoting an undifferentiated state in early stage cyst cells. PMID:25169192

  11. Effects of cadmium on growth, metamorphosis and gonadal sex differentiation in tadpoles of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharma, Bibek; Patino, Reynaldo

    2009-01-01

    Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed to cadmium (Cd) at 0, 1, 8. 85 or 860 mu g L(-1) in FETAX medium from 0 to 86 d postfertilization. Premetamorphic tadpoles were sampled on day 3 1; pre and prometamorphic tadpoles on day 49; and frogs (NF stage 66) between days 50 and 86. Survival, snout-vent length (SVL), tail length, total length, hindlimb length (HLL), initiation of metamorphic climax, size at and completion of metamorphosis, and gonadal condition and sex ratio (assessed histologically) were determined. Survival was unaffected by Cd until day 49, but increased mortality was observed after day 49 at 860 mu g Cd L(-1). On day 31, when tadpoles were in early premetamorphosis, inhibitory effects on tadpole growth were observed only at 860 mu g Cd L(-1). On day 49, when most tadpoles where in late premetamorphosis/early prometamorphosis, reductions in SVL, HLL and total length were observed at 8 and 860 but not 85 mu g L(-1), thus creating a U-shaped size distribution at 0-85 mu g Cd L(-1). However, this U-shaped size pattern was not evident in postmetamorphic individuals. In fact, frog size at completion of metamorphosis was slightly smaller at 85 mu g Cd L(-1) relative to control animals. These observations confirmed a recent report of a Cd concentration-dependent bimodal growth pattern in late-premetamorphic Xenopus tadpoles, but also showed that growth responses to varying Cd concentrations change with development. The fraction of animals initiating or completing metamorphosis during days 50-86 was reduced in a Cd concentration-dependent manner. Testicular histology and population sex ratios were unaffected by Cd suggesting that, unlike mammals, Cd is not strongly estrogenic in Xenopus tadpoles.

  12. Effects of cadmium on growth, metamorphosis and gonadal sex differentiation in tadpoles of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharma, Bibek; Patino, R.

    2009-01-01

    Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed to cadmium (Cd) at 0, 1, 8, 85 or 860 ??g L-1 in FETAX medium from 0 to 86 d postfertilization. Premetamorphic tadpoles were sampled on day 31; pre and prometamorphic tadpoles on day 49; and frogs (NF stage 66) between days 50 and 86. Survival, snout-vent length (SVL), tail length, total length, hindlimb length (HLL), initiation of metamorphic climax, size at and completion of metamorphosis, and gonadal condition and sex ratio (assessed histologi