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1

Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires  

PubMed Central

Resumen El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O.; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M.

2011-01-01

2

Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.  

PubMed

El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

2011-03-01

3

A comparison between LCM virus-specific secondary cytotoxic T lymphocytes generated by Con A and by the homologous antigen.  

PubMed Central

An investigation was made of the properties of cytotoxic T cells induced by Con A and exposure to LCM virus-infected cells. As a basis for such studies, the optimal conditions for in vitro Con A stimulation of in vivo LCM virus-primed C3H mouse splenocytes were determined. The most potent cytotoxicity was obtained when responder cells were cultured in the presence of Con A in a concentration of 2 micrograms/ml for 3 days, but strong cytotoxicity was also measured on days 2 and 4. When stimulation was performed by the homologous antigen maximal response was seen on day 4 although marked cytotoxicity was also noted on day 3. Effector cells produced by the two different procedures showed equally high degrees of cytotoxicity against LCM virus-infected target cells, whereas they did not appear cytotoxic against non-infected targets. If LCM virus-immune mice were treated intravenously with 280 micrograms of Con A per animal, moderate cytotoxicity was demonstrable in splenocytes from these mice 1, 2 and 3 days after treatment. The in vitro generation of secondary cytotoxicity by Con A as well as by the homologous antigen was found to be totally dependent on DNA synthesis. The reactivated cells were investigated for in vivo anti-viral effect by measuring their ability to protect intracerebrally LCM virus-infected mice from a fatal outcome of this infection. LCM virus-primed splenocytes stimulated by the homologous antigen caused complete protection, while Con A-reactivated cells did not protect at all. Secondary cytotoxic cells stimulated by Con A and by LCM virus showed fairly similar in vitro characteristics, but fundamentally different in vivo qualities. PMID:315920

Marker, O; Andersen, G T

1979-01-01

4

Pros and cons of liver transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus infected recipients  

PubMed Central

Before the introduction of combined highly active antiretroviral therapy, a positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serological status represented an absolute contraindication for solid organ transplant (SOT). The advent of highly effective combined antiretroviral therapy in 1996 largely contributed to the increased demand for SOT in HIV-positive individuals due to increased patients’ life expectancy associated with the increasing prevalence of end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Nowadays, liver failure represents a frequent cause of mortality in the HIV-infected population mainly due to coinfection with hepatitis viruses sharing the same way of transmission. Thus, liver transplantation (LT) represents a reasonable approach in HIV patients with stable infection and ESLD. Available data presently supports with good evidence the practice of LT in the HIV-positive population. Thus, the issue is no longer “whether it is correct to transplant HIV-infected patients”, but “who are the patients who can be safely transplanted” and “when is the best time to perform LT”. Indeed, the benefits of LT in HIV-infected patients, especially in terms of mid- and long-term patient and graft survivals, are strictly related to the patients’ selection and to the correct timing for transplantation, especially when hepatitis C virus coinfection is present. Aim of this article is to review the pros and cons of LT in the cohort of HIV infected recipients. PMID:24833865

Baccarani, Umberto; Righi, Elda; Adani, Gian Luigi; Lorenzin, Dario; Pasqualucci, Alberto; Bassetti, Matteo; Risaliti, Andrea

2014-01-01

5

Pros and cons of liver transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus infected recipients.  

PubMed

Before the introduction of combined highly active antiretroviral therapy, a positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serological status represented an absolute contraindication for solid organ transplant (SOT). The advent of highly effective combined antiretroviral therapy in 1996 largely contributed to the increased demand for SOT in HIV-positive individuals due to increased patients' life expectancy associated with the increasing prevalence of end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Nowadays, liver failure represents a frequent cause of mortality in the HIV-infected population mainly due to coinfection with hepatitis viruses sharing the same way of transmission. Thus, liver transplantation (LT) represents a reasonable approach in HIV patients with stable infection and ESLD. Available data presently supports with good evidence the practice of LT in the HIV-positive population. Thus, the issue is no longer "whether it is correct to transplant HIV-infected patients", but "who are the patients who can be safely transplanted" and "when is the best time to perform LT". Indeed, the benefits of LT in HIV-infected patients, especially in terms of mid- and long-term patient and graft survivals, are strictly related to the patients' selection and to the correct timing for transplantation, especially when hepatitis C virus coinfection is present. Aim of this article is to review the pros and cons of LT in the cohort of HIV infected recipients. PMID:24833865

Baccarani, Umberto; Righi, Elda; Adani, Gian Luigi; Lorenzin, Dario; Pasqualucci, Alberto; Bassetti, Matteo; Risaliti, Andrea

2014-05-14

6

epresented as art, the HIV virus is a crystal-like con-  

E-print Network

changed its function. With information in the digital age taking up gigabytes instead of vast amounts relationship to the world." Many of the artworks would not have been possible without the use of advanced, from chromosomes to cosmology `HIV Virus' by Luke Jerram (Sharon Kanon) `Break Free from Duality

7

DUCHAS VAGINALES Y OTROS RIESGOS DE VAGINOSIS BACTERIANA  

PubMed Central

Vaginosis bacteriana (VB) es una infección caracterizada por el cambio en la microflora de la vagina, asociándose a resultados adversos del embarazo y a la adquisición de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), incluyendo el VIH. En este estudio se buscó la asociación entre el uso de duchas vaginales y otros factores de riesgos con VB. Se usó un diseño observacional descriptivo transversal prospectivo, en 1,252 mujeres que asistieron al servicio de planificación familiar de tres hospitales nacionales (Dos de Mayo, Arzobispo Loayza, San Bartolomé) y el Instituto Materno Perinatal, durante el año 1997. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado donde se registraron variables socio demográficas y características del estilo de vida de las participantes. VB fue diagnosticada mediante el puntaje de Nugent. Se empleó análisis de regresión logística para calcular odds ratio (OR) e intervalos de confianza al 95%. La edad promedio de las participantes fue 25.1 ± 4,7 años, el 23.4% tenían más de 11 años de educación. La prevalencía de VB fue 20,1%. Las mujeres que practicaban duchas vaginales tuvieron 2.28 veces (OR = 2.28, IC 95% [1.0–5.0]) mayor probabilidad de tener VB comparado con aquellas que no lo practicaban. Tener dos o más parejas sexuales estuvo asociado con 2.0 veces (OR =2.0, IC 95% [1.2–3.5]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB comparado con aquellas que habían tenido solo una pareja sexual. Las participantes que iniciaron una relación sexual a una edad temprana tuvieron 1.4 veces (OR=1.4, IC 95% [1.0 –1.9]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB. El uso de duchas vaginales es un factor de riesgo de VB. Los programas destinados a la salud de la mujer deben abordar las repercusiones perjudiciales para la salud asociados con las duchas vaginales. PMID:21132048

Chávez, Natividad; Molina, Helfer; Sánchez, Jorge; Gelaye, Bizu; Sánchez, Sixto E.

2010-01-01

8

El otro "gran" Itziar Aretxaga, INAOE  

E-print Network

primario, y que dirige la luz a los instrumentos de registro. Un telescopio no es nada sin sus instrumentos radiación. El GTC cuenta en la actualidad con 2 instrumentos de primera generación: la cámara óptica OSIRIS

Aretxaga, Itziar

9

Comparison between Subgenomic Replicons of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes 2a (JFH-1) and 1b (Con1 NK5.1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although replicon systems for hepatitis C virus (HCV) recently developed have enabled the replication of HCV in cultured cells, limited genotypes are available for them. We have isolated HCV cDNA of genotype 2a (JFH-1 strain) from serum of a patient with fulminant hepatitis. A subgenomic replicon of JFH-1 was constructed and compared with the HCV replicon of genotype 1b (Con1

Michiko Miyamoto; Takanobu Kato; Tomoko Date; Masashi Mizokami; Takaji Wakita

2006-01-01

10

Viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lytic bacteriophages, viruses which infect and lyse bacterial cells, can provide a natural method to reduce bacterial pathogens on produce commodities. The use of multi-phage cocktails is most likely to be effective against bacterial pathogens on produce commodities, and minimize the development of...

11

Generación de Electricidad con Energías Renovables (ER)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los funcionarios argumentaron, entre otros, sobre la sostenibilidad energética a largo plazo, la producción de electricidad con Energías Renovables-ER (biomasa, eólico, solar, geotérmico, mareomotriz, e hidráulica con capacidad menor de 20 MW), la contaminación ambiental y las externalidades que produce, y las iniciativas sobre el uso de ER que han adoptado países mas adelantados como Alemania y España. El Vice-Ministro

Jaime E. Luyo

2008-01-01

12

Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting duck plague virus. A 765-bp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genome of the duck plague vaccine (DP-VAC) virus was sequenced for PCR primer development. The fragment sequence was found by GenBank alignment searches to be similar to the 3a?? ends of an undefined open reading frame and the gene for DNA polymerase protein in other herpesviruses. Three of four primer sets were found to be specific for the DP-VAC virus and 100% (7/7) of field isolates but did not amplify DNA from inclusion body disease of cranes virus. The specificity of one primer set was tested with genome templates from other avian herpesviruses, including those from a golden eagle, bald eagle, great horned owl, snowy owl, peregrine falcon, prairie falcon, pigeon, psittacine, and chicken (infectious laryngotracheitis), but amplicons were not produced. Hence, this PCR test is highly specific for duck plague virus DNA. Two primer sets were able to detect 1 fg of DNA from the duck plague vaccine strain, equivalent to five genome copies. In addition, the ratio of tissue culture infectious doses to genome copies of duck plague vaccine virus from infected duck embryo cells was determined to be 1:100, making the PCR assay 20 times more sensitive than tissue culture for detecting duck plague virus. The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of this PCR provide a greatly improved diagnostic and research tool for studying the epizootiology of duck plague. /// Se desarroll?? una prueba de reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa para detectar el virus de la peste del pato. Un fragmento EcoRI de 765 pares de bases clonado del genoma del virus vacunal de la peste del pato fue secuenciado para la obtenci??n de los iniciadores de la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa. En investigaciones de alineaci??n en el banco de genes ('GenBank') se encontr?? que la secuencia del fragmento era similar a los extremos 3a?? de un marco de lectura abierto indefinido y al gen para la proteina de la DNA polimerasa en otros virus herpes. Se encontraron tres o cuatro grupos de iniciadores especificos para el virus vacunal y para el 100% (7/7) de los a??slamientos de campo, pero no amplificaron el DNA del virus de hepatitis por cuerpos de inclusi??n de grullas. Se analiz?? la especificidad de un primer juego de iniciadores con moldes del genoma de otros virus herpes aviares, incluyendo el ?!guila dorada, ?!guila de cabeza blanca, lechuza de cuernos grandes, lechuza blanca, halc??n peregrino, palomas, aves psit?!cidas y pollos (virus de laringotraqueitis infecciosa), pero no se produjeron los productos finales. Por lo tanto, esta prueba de reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa es altamente especifica para el DNA del virus. Dos grupos de iniciadores fueron capaces de detectar un fragmento de DNA de la cepa vacunal equivalente a cinco copias del genoma. Adem?!s, se determin?? que la proporci??n de la dosis infecciosa en cultivo celular y copias del genoma del virus vacunal de c??lulas de embri??n de pato infectadas era de 10 a 100 respectivamente, haciendo la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa 20 veces m?!s sensible que el cultivo celular para detectar el virus. La velocidad, sensibilidad y especificidad de la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa suministra una herramienta de investigaci??n y de diagn??stico altamente mejorada para el estudio de la epizootiolog?-a del virus.

Hansen, W.R.; Brown, Sean E.; Nashold, S.W.; Knudson, D.L.

1999-01-01

13

EFECTO PERJUDICIAL DE Moringa oleifera (Lam.) COMBINADA CON OTROS DESECHOS AGRÍCOLAS COMO SUSTRATOS PARA LA LOMBRIZ ROJA (Eisenia spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY An experiment was carried out to study the behavior of the red worm (Eisenia spp.) fed with 5 nutritious substrates based in Moringa oleifera (Lam.) foliage, for the nutritional potentiali- ties, and other agricultural wastes in Trujillo state, Venezuela. A randomized design with repeated measurements and three repli- cates was used. Initially, 1.16kg of biomass in 0.5m3 of substrate

Luis José Cov; Danny Eugenio García; Alexander Rafael Castro; María Gabriela Medina

2007-01-01

14

Heartland Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) NCEZID Share Compartir Heartland virus On this Page What is Heartland virus? How ... Do I Need to Know? What is Heartland virus? Heartland virus belongs to a family of viruses ...

15

ARQUITECTURA FOLIAR Y OTROS CARACTERES DEL ESPORÓFITO EN ESPECIES NEOTROPICALES DE MARATTIA SW. (MARATTIACEAE-PTERIDOPHYTA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN. Arquitectura foliar y otros caracteres del esporófito en especies neotropicales de Marattia Sw., Marattiaceae-Pteridophyta. Se estudió la arquitectura foliar y la anatomía de ejes y láminas en siete especies neotropicales de Marattia: M. alata Sw., M. cicutifolia Kaulf., M. excavata Underw., M. interposita H. Christ, M. laevis Sm., M. laxa Kunze y M. weinmanniifolia Liebm. Los rizomas desnudos, amiláceos,

María del Carmen LAVALLE

16

Aqu hay otros sitiosWeb sobre ayuda financiera que vale la pena consultar  

E-print Network

doctorado u otro titulo terminal: 78% Profesores de jornada completa: 90% PRESUPUESTO ESTIMADO DE LOS vive en el campus universitario durante el año académico 2008­2009. *Estascifrass representan el costo General de Carolina del Norte, por ello, los costos son estimados y no exactos. U.P. 08-232 Printed

17

Virus Resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Identification, characterization and deployment of virus resistant maize are complex tasks requiring multidisciplinary approaches. Insect transmission of viruses in nature and the potential presence of biologically distinct virus strains complicate screening for virus resistance. At least ten maize...

18

Powassan (POW) Virus Basics  

MedlinePLUS

Powassan (POW) Virus Basics Powassan (POW) virus is related to some mosquito-borne viruses, including West Nile virus. The virus is ... concerns? How do people get infected with POW virus? POW virus is passed to people by ticks: ...

19

Presentación del estudio "Links" de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina.  

PubMed

Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos ("teteras"), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M; Balán, Iván C; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria

2011-03-01

20

Presentación del estudio “Links” de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina  

PubMed Central

Resumen Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos (“teteras”), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ávila, María M; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria

2011-01-01

21

Vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa acerca de las vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano (VPH) para prevenir infecciones con ciertos tipos de VPH, los cuales son la causa principal del cáncer de cuello del útero o cérvix.

22

Foodborne viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Testing for human pathogenic viruses in foods represents a formidable task requiring the extraction, concentration, and assay of a host of viruses from a wide range of food matrices. The enteric viruses, particularly genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses and hepatitis A virus, are the princip...

23

Con motivo de la visita a Espaa del presidente de la Rep-blica Popular China, Hu Jintao, el rector de la Universidad  

E-print Network

exámenes, tra- ducción e interpretación, turismo, comercio, banca y medici- na tradicional china Internacional, Liu Bin, y contaba, entre otros, con los rectores de las universidades Jiaotong de Beijing

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

24

Computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer viruses have been around since the mid 1980s. Over 40,000 different viruses have been cataloged so far and the number of viruses is increasing dramatically. The damage they cause is estimated to be several billions of U.S. dollars per year. Most often, the origin of the virus is difficult to trace. Various kinds of anti-virus software have been developed

S. R. Subramanya; N. Lakshminarasimhan

2001-01-01

25

Estudio epidemiológico de sucesos traumáticos, trastorno de estrés post-traumático y otros trastornos psiquiátricos en una muestra representativa de Chile  

PubMed Central

RESUMEN Durante la década de 1990 en los Estados Unidos (EU), el conocimiento sobre el trastorno de estrés post-traumático (TEPT) evolucionó de estudios específicos en un principio, sobre veteranos de guerra y sobre víctimas de desastres, a estudios epidemiológicos más tarde, sin embargo, la epidemiología del TEPT en países en desarrollo ha sido un área poco estudiada hasta ahora. Los expertos en el área de trauma han propuesto que los sucesos traumáticos que ocurren en la niñez son más perjudiciales para la salud mental que aquellos que ocurren más tarde en la vida. Este trabajo revisa los resultados de un estudio epidemiológico llevado a cabo en Chile. Específicamente, se revisan los resultados sobre las tasas de prevalencia del TEPT, traumas asociados más frecuentemente con él, así como la comorbilidad de este trastorno con otros trastornos psiquiátricos a lo largo de la vida. Igualmente se analizaron las diferencias del TEPT en cada sexo, así como la exposición a traumas en una muestra representativa de chilenos. Además se comparó la prevalencia de trastornos psiquiátricos en personas que sufrieron su primer trauma durante la niñez, durante la edad adulta, o que no reportaron traumas durante su vida. En estos estudios epidemiológicos se usaron módulos del TEPT y trastorno de personalidad antisocial (TPA) de la entrevista diagnóstica siguiendo los criterios del DSM-III-R (DIS–III-R). Para evaluar el resto de los trastornos psiquiátricos se usó la Entrevista Diagnóstica Internacional Compuesta (CIDI). Estos instrumentos fueron administrados en tres ciudades chilenas a 2390 personas mayores de 15 años. Para estimar los errores estándares (EE) debido al diseño de la muestra y a la necesidad de ajuste se usó el método Taylor de linearización seriada. También se usó un análisis de regresión logística para examinar la relación entre el TEPT, los factores demográficos de riesgo y el tipo de trauma. Además se utilizó la regresión logística multivariada para evaluar si la relación entre el TEPT y el sexo pudiera ser explicada por medio de otros factores de riesgo, así como para calcular las tasas y la oportunidad relativa (razón de productos cruzados) de trastornos psiquiátricos a lo largo de la vida. El primer análisis arrojó que la prevalencia de TEPT a lo largo de la vida fue de 4.4% (2.5% para hombres y 6.2% para mujeres). De los hechos traumáticos reportados, la violación sexual tuvo una correlación más alta con el TEPT que los demás hechos traumáticos. Las mujeres tuvieron más probabilidades de experimentar TEPT que los hombres, después de controlar la variable asalto violento. El segundo análisis evidenció que los que habían sufrido traumas a lo largo de la vida tuvieron mayor probabilidad de tener un trastorno psiquiátrico en comparación con aquellos que no reportaron traumas. También se encontró que los que sufrieron su primer trauma durante la infancia tuvieron más probabilidad de desarrollar trastornos de pánico a lo largo de la vida que aquellos que sufrieron su primer trauma en la edad adulta, independientemente del número de traumas que sufrieron y de las diferencias demográficas. Aunque Chile tiene un contexto histórico-cultural y una economía diferente a otros países en los que se ha estudiado anteriormente la epidemiología del TEPT, el presente estudio reflejó tendencias similares a las reportadas en estudios previos. Los hallazgos expuestos enfatizan la importancia de investigar la prevalencia del TEPT, los patrones de comorbilidad del TEPT y las diferencias de sexo en la prevalencia del TEPT en diferentes países. También estos resultados sugieren que los sucesos traumáticos en la infancia

Pérez Benítez, Carlos I.; Vicente, Benjamin; Zlotnick, Caron; Kohn, Robert; Johnson, Jennifer; Valdivia, Sandra; Rioseco, Pedro

2010-01-01

26

Comparative Immunogenicity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Particles and Corresponding Polypeptides in a DNA Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative strategies have been explored to generate im- mune responses to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that are important for the development of AIDS vaccines. Among these approaches, immunization with inactivated virus or virus- like particles (VLP) may allow generation of immunity to con- formational epitopes and native virus structures, while presen- tation of individual gene products through the class I

Wataru Akahata; Zhi-yong Yang; Gary J. Nabel

2005-01-01

27

Otro monólogo más (D´après Oscar Villegas, Un señor y una señora)  

E-print Network

pueblan mis sueños ..." —Me voy de aquí, esto parece serio, el hombre ese está loco de veras, no miento nada. Es un degenerado. —¿Que es teatro, dices? Cruzando el puente, ¿POT qué no regresamos mejor al Hospitality Room? Eso es mucho mejor. —Pero de... llevan al hotel Eldridge. 90 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Recepción, recibimos; requetelleno de gente. Alo, Hola, Hello, Beso, abrazo, bienvenido. Beso, beixo, bienvenido, abrazo. Beso, beso, bárbaro. Despertar con las nubes, está bien, vamos a estar...

Cypess, Sandra M.

1993-04-01

28

Chlorella Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque?forming, double?stranded?DNA–containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330?kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV?1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ?366 protein?encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ?50% of these genes resemble

Takashi Yamada; Hideki Onimatsu; James L. Van Etten

2006-01-01

29

ECHO virus  

MedlinePLUS

Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to gastrointestinal infection and skin rashes. ... Echovirus is one of several families of viruses that affect the ... are common. In the US, they are most common in the summer and ...

30

Virus World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Institute for Molecular Virology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, this Web site offers high quality virus images that may be used for seminar presentations or any other noncommercial use. Users can choose from American Society for Virology conference poster images, enhanced EM pictures, and images of virology-related book and journal covers. Images may be searched by virus name; the results page will provide links to summary information from the Protein Data Bank and to the Scripps Research Institute's Virus Particle Explorer. Movie animations and relevant links are provided for some of the virus images. Users can also access tutorials on virus structure and other topics.

2002-01-01

31

CHLORELLA VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque?forming, double?stranded?DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330?kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV?1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ?366 protein?encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ?50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site?specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus?encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV?1 has three types of introns; a self?splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV?1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

2007-01-01

32

Chlorella viruses.  

PubMed

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque-forming, double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330-kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict approximately 366 protein-encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of approximately 50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site-specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus-encoded K(+) channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV-1 has three types of introns; a self-splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV-1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L

2006-01-01

33

DISEÑO E IMPLEMENTACIÓN ÓPTIMA DE PERIFÉRICOS DE DSP CON SYSTEM GENERATOR PARA MICROBLAZE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Con este trabajo pretendemos analizar como se lleva a cabo el diseño de periféricos de DSP utilizando uno de los nuevos entornos de diseño de alto nivel: System Generator for DSP. Así, en este documento el objetivo es mostrar por un lado las características del entorno de diseño y las herramientas utilizadas y por otro la metodología de diseño e

J. Viejo; E. Ostua; M. J. Bellido; J. Juan; A. Millan; P. Ruiz-de-Clavijo; D. Guerrero

34

Accesibilidad para personas con debilidad visual Mac OS X Snow Leopard  

E-print Network

Accesibilidad para personas con debilidad visual Mac OS X Snow Leopard ASIC ­ 18 de noviembre de LEOPARD Al igual que otros sistemas operativos, MAC OS X Snow Leopard ofrece algunas ayudas para que las debilidad visual Mac OS X Snow Leopard ASIC ­ 18 de noviembre de 2010 Pág. 2 de 25 1. Recomendaciones

Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

35

Obesity Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.

Science Update (AAAS; )

2007-06-12

36

TUMOR VIRUSES  

E-print Network

It has been known for many years that infection of an experimental animal with one of a relatively small group of viruses somehow resulted in the appearance of gross tumors. Because of this and the known intimate relationships between the infecting virus and the functions of the cell it invades, many scientists have hypothesized that cancer in man may well be of viral etiology. Yet even today when the amount and sophistication of tumor virus research has markedly increased in recent years, it is not known how a virus transforms a normal cell to one having the properties of a tumor cell nor is there direct evidence that viruses cause cancer in man. However, in the last five years there has been a remarkable change in the experimental approach to the study of tumor viruses. Whereas most early investigations were limited to observations of biological phenomena at the whole animal-gross tumor level, now modern, virological, biochemical, and immunological methods are used to examine the quantitative interaction of tumor viruses with the single cell in the transforming event and to look for determining characteristics of the tumor virus particles, as such. This has been a logical development as techniques in these basic areas have been discovered and applied to other biological problems. Thus, although the final answers are still far from being achieved, we find that a number of basic factors of importance in viral oncogenesis have been defined in certain experimental virus-induced tumor systems. IMPORTANCE OF IN VITRO SYSTEMS FOR VIRUS TRANSFORMATION The chief reason that we are able to start formulating some tentative answers to the question of how a virus transforms a normal cell to a tumor cell is the development of tissue culture systems in which virus transformation occurs in vitro. The degree of control that these isolated systems

37

Diseases Caused by Viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The symptoms, causal agents, epidemiology and management of important virus diseases in chickpea and lentil crops were reviewed in depth. The virus diseases include.Alflafa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaiv virus, Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Pea enation mosaic virus, Pea seed-borne mosaci virus,...

38

Emerging Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Emerging viruses are those "whose incidence in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." This week's Topic in Depth focuses on sites related to viruses, particularly those that are considered "emerging."The first site (1) is an essay by Alison Jacobson of the University of Capetown that discusses some emerging and potentially emerging viruses, along with factors that contribute to the threat. From a US government interagency working group, the second report (2) focuses on the responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including drugs, vaccines, and government response. A World Health Organization site (3) highlights recent reports of infectious disease, archived by date and by disease. This ThinkQuest site (4) gives a basic introduction to viruses and how they cause infections. An online virology tutorial (5) by Ed Rybicki of the University of Cape Town serves as a lesson on the basics of virology for a more advanced student. The next two sites focus on the specifics of selected viruses. From the Institute for Molecular Virology (6) comes a resource on Marburg and Ebola viruses, and from the National Biological Information Infrastructure (7) is a site on West Nile Virus. The last resource (8) is a scholarly journal from the Centers for Disease Control that presents some of the latest scientific research on emerging diseases.

Lee, Amy.

39

Computer viruses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

Denning, Peter J.

1988-01-01

40

HIV virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HIV is a virus that can be transmitted through fluids exchanged in sexual activity. HIV eventually causes AIDS. AIDS patients have compromised immune systems and they eventually die from diseases that healthy humans would normally fight off very easily.

Carl Henderson (National Institutes of Health; )

2005-12-09

41

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... virus is a virus that can infect humans, birds, horses and mosquitoes. Infection from this virus is ... spread by mosquitoes. Mosquitoes become infected by biting birds that carry the virus. People can get West ...

42

Computer Viruses. Technology Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

43

Parainfluenza Viruses  

PubMed Central

Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) were first discovered in the late 1950s. Over the last decade, considerable knowledge about their molecular structure and function has been accumulated. This has led to significant changes in both the nomenclature and taxonomic relationships of these viruses. HPIV is genetically and antigenically divided into types 1 to 4. Further major subtypes of HPIV-4 (A and B) and subgroups/genotypes of HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 have been described. HPIV-1 to HPIV-3 are major causes of lower respiratory infections in infants, young children, the immunocompromised, the chronically ill, and the elderly. Each subtype can cause somewhat unique clinical diseases in different hosts. HPIV are enveloped and of medium size (150 to 250 nm), and their RNA genome is in the negative sense. These viruses belong to the Paramyxoviridae family, one of the largest and most rapidly growing groups of viruses causing significant human and veterinary disease. HPIV are closely related to recently discovered megamyxoviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses) and metapneumovirus. PMID:12692097

Henrickson, Kelly J.

2003-01-01

44

Computer viruses  

SciTech Connect

This thesis investigates a recently discovered vulnerability in computer systems which opens the possibility that a single individual with an average user's knowledge could cause widespread damage to information residing in computer networks. This vulnerability is due to a transitive integrity corrupting mechanism called a computer virus which causes corrupted information to spread from program to program. Experiments have shown that a virus can spread at an alarmingly rapid rate from user to user, from system to system, and from network to network, even when the best-availability security techniques are properly used. Formal definitions of self-replication, evolution, viruses, and protection mechanisms are used to prove that any system that allows sharing, general functionality, and transitivity of information flow cannot completely prevent viral attack. Computational aspects of viruses are examined, and several undecidable problems are shown. It is demonstrated that a virus may evolve so as to generate any computable sequence. Protection mechanisms are explored, and the design of computer networks that prevent both illicit modification and dissemination of information are given. Administration and protection of information networks based on partial orderings are examined, and probably correct automated administrative assistance is introduced.

Cohen, F.B.

1986-01-01

45

Virus Information Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Symantec Corporation's AntiVirus Research Center has recently released a virus information database that includes over 10,000 computer viruses. The searchable and browseable database can include information about aliases for each virus, infection length, area of infection, likelihood of infection, region reported, characteristics, target platform and target date, in addition to a brief description of how the virus works. The site also provides a basic tutorial on viruses. Symantec, under the Norton name, produces several anti-virus products.

46

Virus and Spam Protection Virus Protection  

E-print Network

Virus and Spam Protection Virus Protection On November 14, 2002, we installed software that detects and protects our I-Mail from viruses. This software works in the following way: If someone sends a piece, for some reason, actually wants the quarantined file we will make this (virus infected) file available

California at Santa Barbara, University of

47

Computer Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a description of the major characteristics of disk and network borne viruses for the convenience of library and archival systems administrators. It includes a brief history of the use of destructive software by computer hackers, noting some of the early and more recent forms of attack, and suggests that computer languages newly developed for use with the

Robyn P. Weems

1998-01-01

48

Computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the main categories of malicious programs known as Trojan horses, viruses, bacteria, worms, and logic bombs. The focus is on their general behavior and the properties seen in their implementations rather than the ultimate effects or their intended destructive behavior. Possible preventive measures are also discussed

C. E. Pelaez; John Bowles

1991-01-01

49

Computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis investigates a recently discovered vulnerability in computer systems which opens the possibility that a single individual with an average user's knowledge could cause widespread damage to information residing in computer networks. This vulnerability is due to a transitive integrity corrupting mechanism called a computer virus which causes corrupted information to spread from program to program. Experiments have shown

Frederick B. Cohen

1986-01-01

50

Other liver viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous viruses can infect the liver and the incidence of hepatitis caused by such hepatotropic viruses is increasing in the UK, perhaps related to increased travel worldwide. This article will outline the epidemiology, presentation and management of hepatitis A and E viruses, Epstein–Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus. In certain groups such as pregnant women, and patients in immunocompromised

William Alazawi; Heather Lewis; Graham R. Foster

2011-01-01

51

The Geometry of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an activity in which students make models of viruses, which allows them to visualize the shape of these microorganisms. Included are some background on viruses, the biology and geometry of viruses, directions for building viruses, a comparison of cells and viruses, and questions for students. (KR)

Case, Christine L.

1991-01-01

52

Exploring computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents some thoughts on viruses and explores the anatomy of a sample computer virus. He details, using C language programs, some of the fundamental parts associated with viruses and how these viruses can be detected. It is concluded that the final decision for virus control rests with risk management. It is suggested that, at the very least, contingency

R. Davis

1988-01-01

53

Order effect y presencia de erratas en estudios de usuarios con eye tracking  

E-print Network

evitarse en el diseño de experimentos que impliquen lectura, especialmente si se aplican métricas de eye. Estudios de usuarios. Test de usuarios. Tareas. Diseño de experimentos. Sesgos 1. INTRODUCCI�N Los estudios, su cultura, etc.), y otros están relacionados con el propio diseño del experimento (la redacción de

54

Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Caribbean Countries with reported local transmission of chikungunya virus (as of July 2014) The mosquitoes • Aedes species mosquitoes transmit chikungunya virus • These same types of mosquitoes transmit dengue virus • ...

55

Hanta virus (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Hanta virus is a distant cousin of Ebola virus, but is found worldwide. The virus is spread by human contact with rodent waste. Dangerous respiratory illness develops. Effective treatment is not yet ...

56

Computer Viruses: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

Marmion, Dan

1990-01-01

57

Shellfish-associated enteric virus illness: virus localization, disease outbreaks and prevention  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous outbreaks of shellfish-borne enteric virus illness have been reported worldwide. Most notable among the outbreaks are those involving norovirus illness and hepatitis A. Lessons learned from outbreak investigations indicate that most outbreaks are preventable. Anthropogenic sources of con...

58

Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

2007-11-01

59

Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity.  

PubMed

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material. PMID:18025457

Snyder, Jamie C; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2007-11-27

60

Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material. PMID:18025457

Snyder, Jamie C.; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F.; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C.; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2007-01-01

61

Immunomodulation by viruses: the myxoma virus story  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myxoma virus is a poxvirus pathogen of rabbits that has evolved to replicate successfully in the presence of an active immune response by an infected host. To accomplish this, the virus has developed a variety of strategies to avoid detection by or obstruct specific aspects of the antiviral response whose consolidated action is antagonistic to virus survival. We describe two

Piers Nash; John Barrett; Jing-Xin Cao; Sheela Hota-Mitchell; Alshad S. Lalani; Helen Everett; Xiao-Ming Xu; Janine Robichaud; Shawna Hnatiuk; Cheryl Ainslie; Bruce T. Seet; Grant McFadden

1999-01-01

62

Bacterial viruses against viruses pathogenic for man?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we discuss possible models of bacteriophage–virus interactions. The first is based on the mechanism by which phages may interact indirectly with viruses. Its essence is that bacteriophage-derived nucleic acid may inhibit pathogenic virus infection. It seems that this phenomenon can be partly explained on the basis of interferon induction. We also discuss a study by Borecky's group

Ryszard Miedzybrodzki; Wojciech Fortuna; Beata Weber-Dabrowska; Andrzej Gorski

2005-01-01

63

The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

Sulzinski, Michael A.

1992-01-01

64

Junín Virus Pathogenesis and Virus Replication  

PubMed Central

Junín virus, the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, causes significant morbidity and mortality. The virus is spread through the aerosolization of host rodent excreta and endemic to the humid pampas of Argentina. Recently, significant progress has been achieved with the development of new technologies (e.g. reverse genetics) that have expanded knowledge about the pathogenesis and viral replication of Junín virus. We will review the pathogenesis of Junín virus in various animal models and the role of innate and adaptive immunity during infection. We will highlight current research regarding the role of molecular biology of Junín virus in elucidating virus attenuation. We will also summarize current knowledge on Junín virus pathogenesis focusing on the recent development of vaccines and potential therapeutics. PMID:23202466

Grant, Ashley; Seregin, Alexey; Huang, Cheng; Kolokoltsova, Olga; Brasier, Allan; Peters, Clarence; Paessler, Slobodan

2012-01-01

65

Understanding ebola virus transmission.  

PubMed

An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus. PMID:25654239

Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

2015-02-01

66

RNA Replicons - A New Approach for Influenza Virus Immunoprophylaxis  

PubMed Central

RNA replicons are derived from either positive- or negative-strand RNA viruses. They represent disabled virus vectors that are not only avirulent, but also unable to revert to virulence. Due to autonomous RNA replication, RNA replicons are able to drive high level, cytosolic expression of recombinant antigens stimulating both the humoral and the cellular branch of the immune system. This review provides an update on the available literature covering influenza virus vaccines based on RNA replicons. The pros and cons of these vaccine strategies will be discussed and future perspectives disclosed. PMID:21994644

Zimmer, Gert

2010-01-01

67

Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

2014-01-01

68

Viruses Infecting Reptiles  

PubMed Central

A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

Marschang, Rachel E.

2011-01-01

69

Entrevista con Ricardo Halac  

E-print Network

capitalismo, que cada vez es más abstracto, financiero, ingobernable. Pero el racionalismo subsiste en su vieja forma en el pensamiento de izquierda: en la Unión Soviética, en China, en las democracias populares, se está "construyendo11 el hombre nuevo. En... 1968, con la muerte del "Che" Guevara en Bolivia, luego de una campaña "racionalmente" perfecta, los bolivianos se tenían que insubordinar y seguirlo. Entra en crisis entonces el pensamiento racional en el mundo entero. Hasta las grandes religiones...

Glickman, Nora

1990-04-01

70

Symantec: Virus Alerts and Hoaxes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website by Symantec (makers of Norton AntiVirus) provides information on the latest virus threats, security advisories, updates for Symantec products and removal tools, as well as some basic information on viruses. The Reference Area includes FAQ, a Glossary, Newsletter, White Papers, a section where you can Submit Virus Samples, postings of Hoaxes, a Security Database, Virus Encyclopedia, and Virus Calendar.

71

Viruses and human cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.

1987-01-01

72

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections  

MedlinePLUS

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes mild, cold-like symptoms in adults and older healthy children. It can cause serious problems in ... tests can tell if your child has the virus. There is no specific treatment. You should give ...

73

West Nile virus  

MedlinePLUS

West Nile virus is a disease spread by mosquitoes. The condition ranges from mild to severe. ... West Nile virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda in eastern Africa. It was first discovered in the United States ...

74

West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Good introduction and synopsis of West Nile Virus. Briefly reporting on such topics as geographic distribution, symptoms and treatment, transmission and prevention. The article includes a list of references for further investigation into the West Nile Virus.

0000-00-00

75

Human Parainfluenza Viruses  

MedlinePLUS

... HPIVs Are Not the Same as Influenza (Flu) Viruses People usually get HPIV infections in the spring, ... hands, and touching objects or surfaces with the viruses on them then touching your mouth, nose, or ...

76

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... West Nile virus has been found in animals, birds, and humans in all continental states in the ... picked up the virus after feeding on infected birds. Pets and other animals can also become infected ...

77

Viruses and Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

2010-01-01

78

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

West Nile virus (WNV) is an infectious disease that first appeared in the United States in 1999. Infected mosquitoes ... usually go away on their own. If West Nile virus enters the brain, however, it can be ...

79

SOLENOPSIS INVICTA VIRUSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unique Solenopsis invicta viruses (SINV) have been identified and their genome sequenced. Oligonucleotide primers have been developed using the isolated nucleic acid sequences of the SINV. The viruses are used as a biocontrol agent for control of fire ants....

80

Tumorigenic DNA viruses  

SciTech Connect

The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

Klein, G.

1989-01-01

81

Viruses and cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 14 selections. Some of the titles are: Immortalising gene(s) encoded by Epstein-Barr Virus; Adenovirus genes involved in transformation. What determines the oncogenic phenotype.; Oncogenesis by mouse mammary tumour virus; and Transforming ras genes.

Rigby, P.W.J.; Wilkie, N.M.

1985-01-01

82

Viruses and the Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Every surface of the human body is colonized by a diverse microbial community called the microbiota, yet the impact of microbiota on viruses is unclear. Recent research has advanced our understanding of how microbiota influence viral infection. Microbiota inhibit infection of some viruses and promote infection of other viruses. These effects can occur through direct and/or indirect effects on the host and/or virus. This review examines the known effects and mechanisms by which the microbiota influence mammalian virus infections. Furthermore, we suggest strategies for future research on how microbiota impact viruses. Overall, microbiota may influence a wide array of viruses through diverse mechanisms, making the study of virus-microbiota interactions a fertile area for future investigation.

Robinson, Christopher M.; Pfeiffer, Julie K.

2015-01-01

83

¡Truco Con Agua!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

En esta actividad los aprendices aprenderán un truco de magia donde la magia es la presión del aire. Los participantes tomarán un vaso de agua medio lleno y lo taparán con un pedazo de plástico o cartón. Sosteniendo la tarjeta contra el vaso, lo voltearán boca abajo y cuando quiten la mano debajo del vaso, ¡abracadabra! no se caerá el agua. En la tira cómica, Mateo explica a los aprendices que la presión que hace el aire en todas las direcciones es la que sostiene la tarjeta.

Lawrence Hall of Science

2009-01-01

84

Entrevista con Enrique Buenaventura  

E-print Network

dramaturgia práctica grupai y su extensa labor docente, han ido resultando en un considerable y ponderado corpus teórico sobre la íntima relación del discurso teatral y la historia, especialmente esa historia truncada, manipu lada y camuflada por poderosos... mucho más. Esta manera suya de actuar hizo que todo el mundo se metiera en la guerra y de una manera muy decidida. Entonces se empezó a producir la desmoralización de la Guardia. Como si hubieran ido demasiado lejos con la represión y la matanza. Sí...

Dí ez, Luys A.

1981-04-01

85

Tobacco mosaic virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource demonstrates how the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) provides an excellent model for teaching students about properties of a plant virus and the relationship between a virus and its host plant. Four activities geared toward grades 9-12 are described. Teaching tips, troubleshooting help and sources of materials information is also included.

Rosemary Ford (Washington College; )

2003-05-28

86

Computer Virus Protection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having…

Rajala, Judith B.

2004-01-01

87

Viruses in the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses exist wherever life is found. They are a major cause of mortality, a driver of global geochemical cycles and a reservoir of the greatest genetic diversity on Earth. In the oceans, viruses probably infect all living things, from bacteria to whales. They affect the form of available nutrients and the termination of algal blooms. Viruses can move between marine

Curtis A. Suttle

2005-01-01

88

Viruses of waterfowl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral disease can cause substantial mortality in wild populations of ducks as well as domesticated geese and ducks. Migrating and captive waterfowl play a role in the dynamics and epidemiology of some viruses that also infect humans, such as influenza virus and West Nile virus. Crowded farm conditions favor the transmission of infectious disease agents among birds. Disease transmission is

Jennifer C. Hess; Jean A. Paré

2004-01-01

89

MAIZE FINE STREAK VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The report outlines the salient features of maize fine streak virus (MFSV) including a general description of the causal virus species, virion properties, genome description, the relationship of the virus to other taxa, biological properties of the disease and agronomic aspects of the disease. Maize...

90

Ecology of prokaryotic viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finding that total viral abundance is higher than total prokaryotic abundance and that a significant fraction of the prokaryotic community is infected with phages in aquatic systems has stimulated research on the ecology of prokaryotic viruses and their role in ecosystems. This review treats the ecology of prokaryotic viruses (`phages') in marine, freshwater and soil systems from a `virus

Markus G Weinbauer

2004-01-01

91

A new look at viruses in type 1 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 1 diabetes results from the destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Genetic factors are believed to be a major com- ponent for the development of type 1diabetes, but the con- cordance rate for the development of diabetes in identical twins is only about 40%, suggesting that non-genetic factors play an important role in the expression of the disease. Viruses are

Hee-Sook Jun; Ji-Won Yoon

1995-01-01

92

Technological networks and the spread of computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer infections such as viruses and worms spread over networks of con- tacts between computers, with different types of networks being exploited by different types of infections. Here we analyze the structures of several of these networks, exploring their implications for modes of spread and the control of infection. We argue that vaccination strategies that focus on a limited number

Justin Balthrop; Stephanie Forrest; Mark E. J. Newman; Matthew M. Williamson

2004-01-01

93

AVIAN TUMOR VIRUS  

E-print Network

Thymus glands of chicks with leukemia induced by BAI strain A (myeloblastosis) virus were fixed in cold 4 per cent formaldehyde-sucrose. Frozen sections were incubated in the ATPase medium of Wachstein and Meisel and studied by light microscopy and electron microscopy. The ATPase activity of the virus is localized to the outermost membrane of the virus. The membrane of the blast-like cells of the thymus cortex from which the virus emerges, by budding, also possesses such activity. It appears likely that the outermost membrane of the virus is derived from the plasma membrane of these cells.

94

Lipids of Archaeal Viruses  

PubMed Central

Archaeal viruses represent one of the least known territory of the viral universe and even less is known about their lipids. Based on the current knowledge, however, it seems that, as in other viruses, archaeal viral lipids are mostly incorporated into membranes that reside either as outer envelopes or membranes inside an icosahedral capsid. Mechanisms for the membrane acquisition seem to be similar to those of viruses infecting other host organisms. There are indications that also some proteins of archaeal viruses are lipid modified. Further studies on the characterization of lipids in archaeal viruses as well as on their role in virion assembly and infectivity require not only highly purified viral material but also, for example, constant evaluation of the adaptability of emerging technologies for their analysis. Biological membranes contain proteins and membranes of archaeal viruses are not an exception. Archaeal viruses as relatively simple systems can be used as excellent tools for studying the lipid protein interactions in archaeal membranes. PMID:23049284

Roine, Elina; Bamford, Dennis H.

2012-01-01

95

Virus trafficking – learning from single-virus tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

What could be a better way to study virus trafficking than 'miniaturizing oneself' and 'taking a ride with the virus particle' on its journey into the cell? Single-virus tracking in living cells potentially provides us with the means to visualize the virus journey. This approach allows us to follow the fate of individual virus particles and monitor dynamic interactions between

Boerries Brandenburg; Xiaowei Zhuang

2007-01-01

96

Abacá mosaic virus: A distinct strain of Sugarcane mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abacá mosaic virus (AbaMV) is related to members of the sugarcane mosaic virus subgroup of the genus Potyvirus. The ?2 kb 3? terminal region of the viral genome was sequenced and, in all areas analysed, found to be most similar to Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and distinct from Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Sorghum mosaic

C. F. Gambley; J. E. Thomas; L. V. Magnaye; L. Herradura

2004-01-01

97

Molecular Cell, Vol. 2, 605616, November, 1998, Copyright 1998 by Cell Press Crystal Structure of the Ebola Virus  

E-print Network

of the Ebola Virus Membrane Fusion Subunit, GP2, from the Envelope Glycoprotein Ectodomain (Schnittler et al entry by membrane fusion such as those of the myxovi- ruses, paramyxoviruses, and retroviruses, Ebola activity and to form a stable con- Ebola virus membrane fusion glycoprotein by X-ray crys- formation

Harrison, Stephen C.

98

Review article PRRSV, the virus  

E-print Network

Review article PRRSV, the virus Janneke J.M. MEULENBERG Department of Virology, Institute Abstract ­ Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive-strand RNA virusDNA clone Résumé ­ Syndrome dysgénésique et respiratoire porcin, le virus. Le virus du syndrome dys

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

99

Other Viruses and Viruslike Agents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diseases reported under 'Virus and Virus-like Agents' in the first volume of this compendium, with the exception of Cherry rasp leaf virus and Rubus chinese seed-borne virus, should be considered oddities since there are no known type isolates available for these reported viruses. Without a po...

100

RNA Viruses Infecting Pest Insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RNA viruses are viruses whose genetic material is ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA viruses may be double or single-stranded based on the type of RNA they contain. Single-stranded RNA viruses can be further grouped into negative sense or positive-sense viruses according to the polarity of their RNA. Fur...

101

Rabies-related viruses.  

PubMed Central

Five viruses related to rabies occur in Africa. Two of these, Obodhiang from Sudan and kotonkan from Nigeria, were found in insects and are only distantly related to rabies virus. The other three are antigenically more closely related to rabies. Mokola virus was isolated from shrews in Nigeria, Lagos bat virus from fruit bats in Nigeria, and Duvenhage virus from brain of a man bitten by a bat in South Africa. The public health significance of the rabies-related viruses was emphasized in Zimbabwe where in 1981 a rabies-related virus became epizootic in the dog and cat population. It is postulated that the ancestral origin of rabies virus was Africa where the greatest antigenic diversity occurs and that the ancestor may have been an insect virus. Questions are raised why rabies has not evolved more rapidly in the New World, given the frequency and ease with which antigenic changes can be induced in the laboratory, and how the virus became so extensively established in New World bats. PMID:6758373

Shope, R. E.

1982-01-01

102

Virus Characterization by FFF-MALS Assay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adequate biophysical characterization of influenza virions is important for vaccine development. The influenza virus vaccines are produced from the allantoic fluid of developing chicken embryos. The process of viral replication produces a heterogeneous mixture of infectious and non-infectious viral particles with varying states of aggregation. The study of the relative distribution and behavior of different subpopulations and their inter-correlation can assist in the development of a robust process for a live virus vaccine. This report describes a field flow fractionation and multiangle light scattering (FFF-MALS) method optimized for the analysis of size distribution and total particle counts. A method using a combination of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AFFFF) and multiangle light scattering (MALS) techniques has been shown to improve the estimation of virus particle counts and the amount of aggregated virus in laboratory samples. The FFF-MALS method was compared with several other methods such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), size exclusion chromatography followed by MALS (SEC-MALS), quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT Q-PCR), median tissue culture dose (TCID(50)), and the fluorescent focus assay (FFA). The correlation between the various methods for determining total particle counts, infectivity and size distribution is reported. The pros and cons of each of the analytical methods are discussed.

Razinkov, Vladimer

2009-03-01

103

West Nile Virus Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given the increased concern over contagious diseases and viruses spread by various host animals and insects (such as the West Nile virus), these maps provided by the USGS are both helpful in their pragmatic applications, and for those studying the spatial distribution of the West Nile virus. The Web site begins with a brief background essay on the history of the virus, how the virus is transmitted, and the symptoms that may be evident by those who have become infected. The maps track which states have tested various carriers (such as birds, humans, and mosquitoes) for West Nile virus, and where these tests have turned up positive results. The Web site is updated frequently, and where available, also contains links to state and county public health agencies. [KMG

2003-01-01

104

Water system virus detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (inventors)

1978-01-01

105

DNA Virus Replication Compartments  

PubMed Central

Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication. PMID:24257611

Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

2014-01-01

106

Constructing computer virus phylogenies  

SciTech Connect

There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph whose nodes are the viruses and whose edges map ancestors to descendants and satisfy the property that each code fragment is ``invented`` only once. To provide a simple explanation for the data, we consider the problem of constructing such a phylogeny with a minimal number of edges. In general, this optimization problem cannot be solved in quasi-polynomial time unless NQP=QP; we present positive and negative results for associated approximated problems. When tree solutions exist, they can be constructed and randomly sampled in polynomial time.

Goldberg, L.A. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom) Dept. of Computer Science; Goldberg, P.W. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom) Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Phillips, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorkin, G.B. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center

1996-03-01

107

Viruses in Antarctic lakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

108

Biological Nanomachines: Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although nanotechnology is a new and emerging field, nanoscale structures are not new. Small molecules such as water, large molecules such as proteins, and larger, more complex objects such as viruses and nanotubes are naturally occurring and exist all around us. Viruses are particularly interesting nanoscale objects because of their precise geometrical shape, their self-assembling capability, and their fascinating ability to invade cells and alter their function. Nanoscale science researchers are studying virus properties with the aim of developing new treatments for human disease. The virus is also being studied as a model for how to make materials and engineer products at the nanoscsale through a process called "self-assembly." In this investigation, students create an icosahedral virus model and consider how virus structure and behavior could be mimicked in nanotechnology applications. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Acknowledgments, a Dedication page, and an Introduction.

Amy R. Taylor

2007-01-01

109

Galaxias australes con núcleo doble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se estudia una muestra de galaxias australes con núcleo doble a partir de una búsqueda extensiva en la literatura. Se analizan las características morfológicas, fotométricas y espectroscópicas de la muestra. Para algunas galaxias se han realizado observaciones con el espectrógrafo multifunción (EMF) de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre a partir de las cuales se determinaron parámetros cinemáticos.

Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.

110

Viruses for Tumor Therapy  

PubMed Central

Oncolytic virotherapy exploits live viruses with selective tropism for cancerous cells and tissues to treat cancer. As discussed here, the field has progressed considerably as a result of both the successes and failures of previous and on-going clinical trials for various cancers. These studies indicate that oncolytic viruses are remarkably safe and more efficacious when virus replication stimulates sustained antitumor immune responses. In the future, virotherapy should be combined with immunomodulatory reagents that target immune tolerance to established cancers. PMID:24629333

Bell, John; McFadden, Grant

2014-01-01

111

The human oncogenic viruses  

SciTech Connect

This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

1986-01-01

112

Legume Lectins Inhibit Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 2 Infection by Interfering with the Entr  

PubMed Central

Three lectins with different sugar binding specificities were investigated for anti-viral activity against human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2). The lectins, concanavalin A (Con A), lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA) and peanut agglutinin (PNA), inhibited cell fusion and hemadsorption induced by hPIV-2. Virus nucleoprotein (NP) gene synthesis was largely inhibited, but fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene syntheses were not. An indirect immunofluorescence study showed that Con A inhibited virus NP, F and HN protein syntheses, but LCA did not completely inhibit them, and that PNA inhibited only NP protein synthesis. Using a recombinant green fluorescence protein-expressing hPIV-2, without matrix protein (rghPIV-2?M), it was found that virus entry into the cells was not completely prevented. The lectins considerably reduced the number of viruses released compared with that of virus infected cells. The lectins bound to cell surface within 10 min, and many aggregates were observed at 30 min. Con A and LCA slightly disrupted actin microfilaments and microtubules, but PNA had almost no effect on them. These results indicated that the inhibitory effects of the lectins were caused mainly by the considerable prevention of virus adsorption to the cells by the lectin binding to their receptors. PMID:22852043

Uematsu, Jun; Koyama, Aoi; Takano, Sayaka; Ura, Yukari; Tanemura, Miho; Kihira, Sahoko; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Kawano, Mitsuo; Tsurudome, Masato; O’Brien, Myles; Komada, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

113

Planificación Neuroquirúrgica con Software Osirix  

PubMed Central

Introducción: La individualidad anatómica es clave para reducir el trauma quirúrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimágenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatómica, permitiendo planificar la intervención quirúrgica. Con este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia con el software Osirix. Descripción de la técnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente con meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en área premotora; Caso 2: Paciente con macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por vía transeptoesfenoidal en otra institución con una resección parcial; Caso 3: Paciente con lesiones en pedúnculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realizó la planificación prequirúrgica con el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imágenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatómicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusión: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusión y reconstrucción en 3D de imágenes, analizar la anatomía individual del paciente y planificar de forma rápida, simple, segura y económica cirugías de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor con las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permitió comprender la anatomía post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscópico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposición, logrando la resección tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permitió obtener las coordenadas estereotáxicas y trayectoria de una lesión sin representación tomográfica. Conclusión: En casos de no contar con costosos sistemas de neuronavegación o estereotáxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la cirugía, con el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617

Jaimovich, Sebastián Gastón; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis

2014-01-01

114

CDC: West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

2007-12-12

115

Water system virus detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

1975-01-01

116

Tracking a Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students simulate the spread of a virus such as HIV through a population by "sharing" (but not drinking) the water in a plastic cup with several classmates. Although invisible, the water in a few of the cups has already be tainted with the "virus" (sodium carbonate). After all the students have shared their liquids, the contents of the cups are tested for the virus with phenolphthalein, a chemical that causes a striking color change in the presence of sodium carbonate. Students then set about trying to determine which of their classmates were the ones originally infected with the virus.

Engineering K-PhD Program,

117

CDC: West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

118

Jugando con geometría: Crear secuencias con formas y palabras  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

En esta actividad, los chicos crean secuencias con palabras y formas. Los chicos usan colecciones de triángulos, cuadrados, y rectángulos con palabras adentro. Los chicos organizan las forman en secuencias geométricas que se repiten o que cambian de manera sistemática en cada línea. Los chicos más jóvenes pueden crear secuencias simples; los mayores pueden explorar secuencias que crecen de diferentes maneras. Esta actividad tiene colecciones de palabras en tres niveles de dificultad diferente. Disponible en formato Web y PDF. También disponible en Inglés.

TERC

2012-06-26

119

The hepatitis B virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA recombinant technology has radically changed hepatitis B virus (HBV) virology. The genetic organization, transcription and replication of the virus are basically understood, structures of integrated HBV sequences in hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized, and new vaccines produced by recombinant DNA technique are being developed.

Pierre Tiollais; Christine Pourcel; Anne Dejean

1985-01-01

120

What is a Virus?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of a web site that was created as a tutorial for an introductory virology class for college level microbiology students. It includes links to definitions of virus, virions, other virus-like-agents, and organisms, as well as the "definition of life".

Rybicki, Ed

121

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is an avian retrovirus unrelated to the leukosis/sarcoma group of viruses. REV infects chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, pheasants, quail, and probably many other avian species . The most common clinical diseases induced by REV are chronic lymphomas and an immunosupp...

122

Sweetpotato viruses in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is the largest sweetpotato producer country in the world, with its total growing area and yield reaching 5.5 million ha and 106 million metric tones, respectively. Viral diseases constitute a major hindrance to the development and highly profitable production of the sweetpotato industry. The present article provides updated comprehensive information on type of virus, yield loss caused by viruses,

Qingmei Wang; Liming Zhang; Biao Wang; Zhenfang Yin; Chaohong Feng; Qiaochun Wang

2010-01-01

123

Positive reinforcement for viruses  

PubMed Central

Summary Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al., in PNAS (St Vincent, et al., 2010), designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These Rigid Amphipathic Fusion Inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses. PMID:21035726

Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

2010-01-01

124

Cutthroat Trout Virus  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Electron micrograph of the cutthroat trout virus (CTV) showing the small, round virions of approximately 30 nanometers in diameter containing a single-stranded RNA genome. CTV, whose genome was first characterized by USGS researchers, is being used in research into the human virus Hepatitis E....

125

Bovine viral diarrhea viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) result in significant economic losses for beef and dairy producers worldwide. BVDV is actually an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. While denoted as a bovine pathogen...

126

RYEGRASS MOSAIC VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A brief technical description of Ryegrass mosaic virus (RGMV) is presented. Described are biological properties, genome organization, and phylogenetic relationships among RGMV and other potyvirus species. RGMV is designated as a the type species of the genus Rymovirus within the plant virus family ...

127

Papaya Ringspot Virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...

128

DETECTING VIRUSES IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This article, which reviews the subject of detecting viruses in water, encompasses two topics. he first topic consists of methods used for concentrating viruses from large volumes of water into smaller, more manageable volumes. he second topic consists of assay methods used for e...

129

Equine Arteritis Virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

03. Nidovirales : 03.004. Arteriviridae : 03.004.0. {03.004.0. unknown} : 03.004.0.01. Arterivirus : 03.004.0.01.001. Equine arteritis virus will be published online. The article details the phenotypic and genotypic makeup of equine arteritis virus (EAV), and summarizes its biological properties....

130

Recombination in AIDS viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombination contributes to the generation of genetic diversity in human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) but can only occur between viruses replicating within the same cell. Since individuals have not been found to be simultaneously coinfected with multiple divergent strains of HIV-1 or HIV-2, recombination events have been thought to be restricted to the rather closely related members of the quasispecies that

David L. Robertson; Beatrice H. Hahn; Paul M. Sharp

1995-01-01

131

Ebola virus disease epidemic.  

PubMed

The Ebola virus disease epidemic now constitutes an international public health emergency. Occupational and environmental health nurses can collaborate with international colleagues to halt Ebola virus transmission within Africa, protect workers from exposures, and prevent another pandemic. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(11):484.]. PMID:25373029

Phillips, Jennan A

2014-11-01

132

Virus separation using membranes.  

PubMed

Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies). PMID:24297430

Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter

2014-01-01

133

Biological versus computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand biological viruses, some notions of the fundamental knowledge of the structure of DNA, the genetic code, the biosynthesis of proteins, the transcription, replication and transfer processes,... are presented so as to give an idea as to how the genetic information is decrypted by biological mechanisms and consequently, how viruses work.A computer \\

Daniel GUINIER

1989-01-01

134

Influenza A virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Influenza A viruses are important veterinary and human health pathogens around the world. Avian influenza (AI) virus in poultry is unusual in that it can cause a range of disease symptoms from a subclinical infection to being highly virulent with 100% mortality. The difference between low pathogen...

135

Grapevine Leafroll Associated Viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter reviews recent advances in molecular characterization of grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV), and the development and application of molecular techniques for a timely and sensitive detection of nine viruses that are associated with the leafroll disease on grapevine. To d...

136

Human Papilloma Virus Infections  

PubMed Central

Genital warts are believed to be caused by human papilloma viruses and to be sexually transmitted. The viruses are classified by DNA types, which appear to cause different types of disease. The choice of treatment, and usually its success rate, vary according to the type of disease and its location. PMID:21248973

Wright, V. Cecil

1989-01-01

137

Usutu Virus, Italy, 1996  

PubMed Central

Retrospective analysis of archived tissue samples from bird deaths in the Tuscany region of Italy in 1996 identified Usutu virus. Partial sequencing confirmed identity with the 2001 Vienna strain and provided evidence for a much earlier introduction of this virus into Europe than previously assumed. PMID:23347844

Bakonyi, Tamás; Rossi, Giacomo; Mani, Paolo; Nowotny, Norbert

2013-01-01

138

PATHOLOGIE VGTALE Interactions entre virus ou entre virus et leurs  

E-print Network

PATHOLOGIE V�G�TALE SYNTH�SE Interactions entre virus ou entre virus et leurs satellites chez un 84140 Montfavet R�SUM� Deux ou plusieurs virus, apparentés ou non, peuvent se multiplier ensemble dans une même plante et également dans une même cellule. Les interactions entre virus qui en résultent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

139

Review article Aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) virus: the virus and  

E-print Network

Review article Aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) virus: the virus and molecular pathogenesis la séquence génomique de l'ADN du virus. Cette revue de la littéra- ture, qui fait suite à un article-Loeffler-Institutes, Federal Research Centre for Virus Diseases of Animals, 17498 Insel Riems, Germany Abstract ­ Considerable

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

140

Eragrostis minor streak virus: an Asian streak virus in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Mastrevirus of the single-stranded DNA virus family Geminiviridae consists of four distinct virus lineages that have been sampled in different parts of the Old World. These include the Panicoideae-infecting African streak viruses (ten described species including the geographical outlier, Digitaria streak virus [DSV] from Vanuatu) and Australian striate mosaic viruses (three described species), the dicotyledonous-plant-infecting mastreviruses (seven described

Darren P. Martin; Daphne Linderme; Pierre Lefeuvre; Dionne N. Shepherd; Arvind Varsani

2011-01-01

141

Pacui Virus, Rio Preto da Eva Virus, and Tapirape Virus, Three Distinct Viruses within the Family Bunyaviridae  

PubMed Central

Nearly complete genome sequences for three ungrouped viruses, Pacui virus (BEAN27326), Rio Preto da Eva virus (BEAR540870), and Tapirape virus (BEAN767592) isolated in the Amazon region are reported here. All three genomic segments (small, medium and large RNA) were recovered and were similar to members of the genus Orthobunyavirus. PMID:25395627

Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Martins, Livia Caricio; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; Da Silva, Daisy Elaine; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2014-01-01

142

Pacui Virus, Rio Preto da Eva Virus, and Tapirape Virus, Three Distinct Viruses within the Family Bunyaviridae.  

PubMed

Nearly complete genome sequences for three ungrouped viruses, Pacui virus (BEAN27326), Rio Preto da Eva virus (BEAR540870), and Tapirape virus (BEAN767592) isolated in the Amazon region are reported here. All three genomic segments (small, medium and large RNA) were recovered and were similar to members of the genus Orthobunyavirus. PMID:25395627

Rodrigues, Daniela Sueli Guerreiro; Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Martins, Livia Caricio; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; Da Silva, Daisy Elaine; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2014-01-01

143

Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

1992-01-01

144

A Virus in Turbo Pascal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses why the authors feel it is not inappropriate to teach about viruses in the how-to, hands-on fashion. Identifies the special features of Turbo Pascal that have to be used for the creation of an effective virus. Defines virus, derives its structure, and from this structure is derived the implemented virus. (PR)

Teleky, Heidi Ann; And Others

1993-01-01

145

Realms of the Viruses Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Viruses have evolved strategies for infecting all taxa, but most viruses are highly specific about their cellular host. In humans, viruses cause diverse diseases, from chronic but benign warts, to acute and deadly hemorrhagic fever. Viruses have entertaining names like Zucchini Yellow Mosaic, Semliki Forest, Coxsackie, and the original terminator,…

Liu, Dennis

2007-01-01

146

Viruses isolated from Panamanian sloths.  

PubMed

Seven virus strains were isolated in Vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni, from Central Panamá. Four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to Changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. One strain is an antigenic subtype of Punta Toro virus, and another, described here as Bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. A second new virus from sloths, Utive virus, forms an antigenic complex within the Simbu serogroup with Utinga and Pintupo viruses. Tests on sequential plasma samples from radio-marked free-ranging sloths and from recently captured animals maintained in captivity showed that both species develop neutralizing antibodies following naturally acquired virus infections. Antibodies against the Changuinola and Simbu serogroup viruses are widespread in both sloth species and are especially prevalent in Choloepus, but are virtually absent in all other wild vertebrate species tested. PMID:6316795

Seymour, C; Peralta, P H; Montgomery, G G

1983-11-01

147

Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

2013-01-01

148

Influenza Viruses: Transmission Between Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The only direct evidence for transmission of influenza viruses between species comes from studies on swine influenza viruses. Antigenically and genetically identical Hsw1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from pigs and man on the same farm in Wisconsin, U.S.A. The isolation of H3N2 influenza viruses from a wide range of lower animals and birds suggests that influenza viruses of man can

R. G. Webster; V. S. Hinshaw; W. J. Bean; G. Sriram

1980-01-01

149

Parainfluenza virus infections  

PubMed Central

Parainfluenza viruses types 1, 2 and 3 were found in 2·5%, 0·8% and 1·6% respectively of patients examined in the MRC/PHLS general practice survey and in 2·2%, 0·7% and 2·7% of those in the hospital survey. Type 3 infections were found earlier in life than type 1, while type 2 infections tended to be detected in older children. These viruses were found most frequently in croup and laryngitis but were also common causes of coryza and lower respiratory infections, especially in general practice. The epidemiology and diagnosis of parainfluenza virus infections are discussed briefly. PMID:4377299

Clarke, Suzanne K. R.

1973-01-01

150

Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus  

E-print Network

Figure 1. Leaves infected with Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus. Picture from KSU Department of Plant Pathology web-site. Figure 2. Wheat plant infected with Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and High Plains Virus. Picture was provided by Dr. Charlie Rush, Plant....edu/Agriculture/Entomology/entfacts/fldcrops/ef117. htm ? Compendium of Wheat Diseases, Wiese. American Phy- topathological Society. 1987. Produced by AgriLife Communications and Marketing, Texas A&M System Extension publications can be found on the Web at: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Visit...

Morgan, Gaylon

2005-01-26

151

Fighting cancer with viruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most promising strategies to treat cancer is attacking it with viruses. Viruses can kill tumor cells specifically or act as carriers that deliver normal genes into cancer cells. A model for virotherapy of cancer is investigated and its predictions are in agreement with results obtained from experimental tumors. Furthermore, the model reveals an oscillatory (periodic or aperiodic) response of tumor cells and virus populations which may make clinical prognosis difficult. These results suggest the need for new in vivo and in vitro experiments aiming to detect this oscillatory response.

Ferreira, S. C.; Martins, M. L.; Vilela, M. J.

2005-01-01

152

Viruses in reptiles  

PubMed Central

The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3.9.2. Togaviridae 3.10. Caliciviridae 3.11. Picornaviridae 3.12. Paramyxoviridae 4. Summary 5. Acknowledgements 6. Competing interests 7. References PMID:21933449

2011-01-01

153

Structural basis of efficient contagion: measles variations on a theme by parainfluenza viruses.  

PubMed

A quartet of attachment proteins and a trio of fusion protein subunits play the cell entry concert of parainfluenza viruses. While many of these viruses bind sialic acid to enter cells, wild type measles binds exclusively two tissue-specific proteins, the lymphatic receptor signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM), and the epithelial receptor nectin-4. SLAM binds near the stalk-head junction of the hemagglutinin. Nectin-4 binds a hydrophobic groove located between blades 4 and 5 of the hemagglutinin ?-propeller head. The mutated vaccine strain hemagglutinin binds in addition the ubiquitous protein CD46, which explains attenuation. The measles virus entry concert has four movements. Andante misterioso: the virus takes over the immune system. Allegro con brio: it rapidly spreads in the upper airway's epithelia. 'Targeting' fugue: the versatile orchestra takes off. Presto furioso: the virus exits the host with thunder. Be careful: music is contagious. PMID:24492202

Mateo, Mathieu; Navaratnarajah, Chanakha K; Cattaneo, Roberto

2014-04-01

154

Hepatitis virus panel  

MedlinePLUS

Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ... Blood (serology) tests are used to check for antibodies to each of the hepatitis viruses.

155

Virus Ultra Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Linda Stannard of the University of Capetown, South Africa, has composed a page which, although it was intended to serve as an introductory manual for students of virology, can be appreciated by a wide audience. A section on the principles of virus architecture uses text and outstanding graphics to provide an introduction to why viruses look the way they do. Other parts of the site emphasize how virus shapes and structures are "seen" and recorded with sections on negative staining and electron microscopy of DNA- and RNA-containing viruses. This site's success relies on the use of well-chosen graphics and the inclusion of interesting factoids such as the following: "The head of a dress-maker's pin can provide seating accommodation for five hundred million rhinoviruses (cause of the common cold)!".

156

VIRUS instrument enclosures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

2014-08-01

157

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)  

MedlinePLUS

... RSV often spreads quickly in crowded households and day care centers. The virus can live for a half ... The following increase the risk for RSV: Attending day care Being near tobacco smoke Having school-aged brothers ...

158

Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: ... common. The infection can progress to the lower respiratory tract to cause more severe illness such as ...

159

Virus Chapter: Iflaviridae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The iflaviruses comprise viruses isolated from arthropod species of agricultural importance. All members of iflaviruses have a genome arrangement similar to the picornaviruses, ootyviruses, and secoviruses. However, phylogenetic analysis using the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region showed that th...

160

Ebola Virus Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... survival. There is as yet no licensed treatment proven to neutralise the virus but a range of ... symptoms, improves survival. There is as yet no proven treatment available for EVD. However, a range of ...

161

How rigid are viruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viruses have traditionally been studied as pathogens, but in recent years they have been adapted for applications ranging from drug delivery and gene therapy to nanotechnology, photonics, and electronics. Although the structures of many viruses are known, most of their biophysical properties remain largely unexplored. Using Brillouin light scattering, we analyzed the mechanical rigidity, intervirion coupling, and vibrational eigenmodes of Wiseana iridovirus (WIV). We identified phonon modes propagating through the viral assemblies as well as the localized vibrational eigenmode of individual viruses. The measurements indicate a Young’s modulus of ˜7GPa for single virus particles and their assemblies, surprisingly high for “soft” materials. Mechanical modeling confirms that the DNA core dominates the WIV rigidity. The results also indicate a peculiar mechanical coupling during self-assembly of WIV particles.

Hartschuh, R. D.; Wargacki, S. P.; Xiong, H.; Neiswinger, J.; Kisliuk, A.; Sihn, S.; Ward, V.; Vaia, R. A.; Sokolov, A. P.

2008-08-01

162

Hepatitis B virus (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is seen ... This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

163

Hepatitis G virus  

PubMed Central

A number of new hepatitis viruses (G, TT, SEN) were discovered late in the past century. We review the data available in the literature and our own findings suggesting that the new hepatitis G virus (HGV), disclosed in the late 1990s, has been rather well studied. Analysis of many studies dealing with HGV mainly suggests the lymphotropicity of this virus. HGV or GBV-C has been ascertained to influence course and prognosis in the HIV-infected patient. Until now, the frequent presence of GBV-C in coinfections, hematological diseases, and biliary pathology gives no grounds to determine it as an “accidental tourist” that is of no significance. The similarity in properties of GBV-C and hepatitis C virus (HCV) offers the possibility of using HGV, and its induced experimental infection, as a model to study hepatitis C and to develop a hepatitis C vaccine. PMID:18720531

Reshetnyak, Vasiliy Ivanovich; Karlovich, Tatiana Igorevna; Ilchenko, Ljudmila Urievna

2008-01-01

164

Feline immunodeficiency virus latency  

E-print Network

HIV-1, Feline, Animal model, Antilatency therapy, Reservoirto test this therapy in an animal model of lentiviraltherapy (reactivating latent virus to purge the reservoir) is to progress, use of an animal

McDonnel, Samantha J; Sparger, Ellen E; Murphy, Brian G

2013-01-01

165

The dengue viruses.  

PubMed Central

Dengue, a major public health problem throughout subtropical and tropical regions, is an acute infectious disease characterized by biphasic fever, headache, pain in various parts of the body, prostration, rash, lymphadenopathy, and leukopenia. In more severe or complicated dengue, patients present with a severe febrile illness characterized by abnormalities of hemostasis and increased vascular permeability, which in some instances results in a hypovolemic shock. Four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (dengue-1, dengue-2, dengue-3, and dengue-4) exist, with numerous virus strains found worldwide. Molecular cloning methods have led to a greater understanding of the structure of the RNA genome and definition of virus-specific structural and nonstructural proteins. Progress towards producing safe, effective dengue virus vaccines, a goal for over 45 years, has been made. Images PMID:2224837

Henchal, E A; Putnak, J R

1990-01-01

166

Avoiding Computer Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

Rowe, Joyce; And Others

1989-01-01

167

Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV\\/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in

Christian Drosten; Stephan Göttig; Stefan Schilling; Marcel Asper; Marcus Panning; Herbert Schmitz; Stephan Günther

2002-01-01

168

AVG Anti-Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those who wish for an antivirus program that is both versatile and reliable should definitely consider this latest iteration of the AVG Anti-Virus program. With this program, visitors can be assured that AVG will look for new virus definitions on a daily basis and that it will also create an effective rescue disk in case a dire situation emerges. This website features a number of archived versions of the AVG software for users to choose from.

2008-01-01

169

MEDLINEPlus: Monkeypox Virus Infections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Readers can keep up with the latest developments in the Monkeypox outbreak with this straightforward Web site from MEDLINEplus. The site features the latest Monkeypox news as well as links to authoritative sites for background information about the virus. Readers will also find information on prevention and screening, updated statistics on the outbreak from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and more. The site also includes a downloadable electron micrograph of the Monkeypox virus.

170

Respiratory syncytial virus infections  

PubMed Central

RS virus was isolated from 10·5% of the specimens examined in the MRC/PHLS hospital survey and from 0·9% of those in the general practice survey. The highest isolation rates were in infants with lower respiratory tract infections. Dyspnoea, wheezing and cough were the predominant clinical features. The differences in the rates between hospital and general practice and newer methods of diagnosis of RS virus infection are discussed. PMID:4806397

Gardner, P. S.

1973-01-01

171

Origins of Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of a site created as a supplement for an introduction to virology course for second year microbiology students. It includes discussions on the origins of viruses as well as how they might have evolved. There are several links to pertinent conceptial matter such as basics on the different types of viruses as well as a link to the course home page.

Ed Rybicki

172

Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world's most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages), the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses), the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses), and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses). In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category—bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist—with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms. PMID:24278736

Hyman, Paul; Abedon, Stephen T.

2012-01-01

173

Tick-borne viruses*  

PubMed Central

More than 150 arthropod-borne viruses are now recognized, and over 50 of these are known to produce human infections and disease. Among these viruses are those of the tick-borne Russian spring-summer complex, which is etiologically involved in a wide variety of human diseases of varying severity. The eight antigenically different members of this complex so far known are Russian spring-summer encephalitis, louping-ill, Central European encephalitis, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Langat, Negishi and Powassan viruses. In his review of the problems posed by these viruses and of research on them, the author points out that, while this complex is distributed around the globe in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, the only serious tick-borne virus disease known in the tropics is Kyasanur Forest disease. It is probable, however, that there are other, unrecognized tick-borne viruses in the tropical areas of Asia, Africa and America of importance to human health, and that these will be brought to light as virological studies of diseases of now obscure etiology are pursued. PMID:14043753

Work, Telford H.

1963-01-01

174

Cell Biology of Virus Entry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part 1 of this lecture will discuss ways in which viruses bind to the surface of host cells. Simian Virus 40 which binds to specific cell surface glycolipids, and Human Papilloma Virus-16 which binds to sites on filoipodia, are examples of different binding mechanisms. Attachment of viruses to the plasma membrane activates cell signaling resulting in endocytosis of the viral particles.In the second lecture, the next steps in viral infection are described. Part 3 focuses on a single virus, the Vaccinia virus, as a model for cell binding, signaling and endocytosis.

Ari Helenius (Insitute of Biochemistry, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; )

2009-02-01

175

Compatibilidad con audfonos para sordos  

E-print Network

Compatibilidad con audífonos para sordos Hearing Aid Compatibility Q&A Q. What does hearing aid the different features of the phone thoroughly and in different locations, using your hearing aid or cochlear implant, to determine if you hear any interfering noise. Consult a sales representative about phone return

Greenberg, Albert

176

Article de synthse LES PORTEURS DE VIRUS  

E-print Network

Article de synthèse LES PORTEURS DE VIRUS: ANALYSE DES Ã?TATS D'Ã?QUILIBRE ENTRE LE VIRUS ET SON HÃ?TE/07/86/accepté le 28/12/86 Abstract VIRUS PERSISTENCE ― ANALYSIS OF EQUILIBRIUM STATES BETWEEN VIRUS AND ITS HOST. ― The various mechanisms of virus persistence are described. Four kinds of virus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

2005-01-01

178

Insect transmission of plant viruses: a constraint on virus variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity in viruses is shaped by high rates of recombination and is constrained by host defenses and the requirements of transmission. Recent studies of insect-transmitted plant viruses demonstrate highly conserved molecular motifs in viral genomes that regulate the specificity of insect transmission. In contrast, advances in our understanding of host plant response to virus infection reveal some generalized patterns

Alison G Power

2000-01-01

179

DWEET MOTTLE VIRUS AND CITRUS LEAF BLOTCH VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Dweet Mottle Virus’ (DMV) of Citrus was first described in the early 1960s in California. It is associated with particular symptoms on the ‘Dweet’ tangor indicator. Recently, the Spanish group at IVIA published a new virus, ‘Citrus Leaf Botch Virus’ (CLBV). CLBV reacts similarly to DMV in ‘Dweet’ b...

180

Characterization of K virus and its comparison with polyoma virus.  

PubMed Central

The antigenic relationship between the two murine papovaviruses, K virus and polyoma virus, was examined by serological techniques to determine whether they shared any antigenic components. No cross-reactivity was found associated with the viral (V) antigens by the indirect immunofluorescence, neutralization, or hemagglutination-inhibition tests. The tumor (T) antigens expressed in transformed cells or cells productively infected by either K or polyoma virus did not cross-react by indirect immunofluorescence. An antigenic relationship was detected, however, among the late proteins of K virus, polyoma virus, simian virus 40, and the human papovavirus BKV, when tested with either hyperimmune sera prepared against polyoma virus and simian virus 40 or sera prepared against disrupted virions. The nucleic acids of K and polyoma viruses were compared by agarose gel electrophoresis and restriction endonuclease analysis. No nucleotide sequence homology between the genomes of these two viruses was detectable by DNA-DNA hybridization techniques under stringent conditions. The genome of K virus was found to be slightly smaller than that of polyoma virus, and the cleavage patterns of the viral DNAs with six restriction endonucleases were different. These findings indicate that there is little relationship between these two murine papovaviruses. Images PMID:81318

Bond, S B; Howley, P M; Takemoto, K K

1978-01-01

181

About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)  

MedlinePLUS

... Diagnosis HPIV Seasons Resources & References About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview ... HPIVs, who is at risk, symptoms, how the viruses spread... Symptoms & Illnesses Lists symptoms and illnesses caused ...

182

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... t need to visit a healthcare provider. The virus generally runs its course with the help of ...

183

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... get beter. Good handwashing can prevent spread the virus. In more severe cases, people with RSV might ...

184

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... to six days after being exposed to the virus. However, RSV can be particularly dangerous in premature ...

185

Production of virus resistant plants  

DOEpatents

A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

1996-12-10

186

Chlorella viruses isolated in China  

SciTech Connect

Plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eukaryotic, exsymbiotic, Chlorella-like green algae strain NC64A, which are common in the United States, were also present in fresh water collected in the People's Republic of China. Seven of the Chinese viruses were examined in detail and compared with the Chlorella viruses previously isolated in the United States. Like the American viruses, the Chinese viruses were large polyhedra and sensitive to chloroform. They contained numerous structural proteins and large double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 300 kilobase pairs. Each of the DNAs from the Chinese viruses contained 5-methyldeoxycytosine, which varied from 12.6 to 46.7% of the deoxycytosine, and N{sup 6}-methyldeoxyadenosine, which varied from 2.2 to 28.3% of the deoxyadenosine. Four of the Chinese virus DNAs hybridized extensively with {sup 32}P-labeled DNA from the American virus PBCV-1, and three hybridized poorly.

Zhang, Y.; Burbank, D.E.; Van Etten, J.L. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

1988-09-01

187

Molluscum contagiosum virus infection.  

PubMed

Molluscum contagiosum virus is an important human skin pathogen: it can cause disfigurement and suffering in children, in adults it is less common and often sexually transmitted. Extensive and persistent skin infection with the virus can indicate underlying immunodeficiency. Traditional ablative therapies have not been compared directly with newer immune-modulating and specific antiviral therapies. Advances in research raise the prospect of new approaches to treatment informed by the biology of the virus; in human skin, the infection is localised in the epidermal layers, where it induces a typical, complex hyperproliferative lesion with an abundance of virus particles but a conspicuous absence of immune effectors. Functional studies of the viral genome have revealed effects on cellular pathways involved in the cell cycle, innate immunity, inflammation, and cell death. Extensive lesions caused by molluscum contagiosum can occur in patients with DOCK8 deficiency-a genetic disorder affecting migration of dendritic and specialised T cells in skin. Sudden disappearance of lesions is the consequence of a vigorous immune response in healthy people. Further study of the unique features of infection with molluscum contagiosum virus could give fundamental insight into the nature of skin immunity. PMID:23972567

Chen, Xiaoying; Anstey, Alex V; Bugert, Joachim J

2013-10-01

188

Engineered plant virus resistance.  

PubMed

Virus diseases are among the key limiting factors that cause significant yield loss and continuously threaten crop production. Resistant cultivars coupled with pesticide application are commonly used to circumvent these threats. One of the limitations of the reliance on resistant cultivars is the inevitable breakdown of resistance due to the multitude of variable virus populations. Similarly, chemical applications to control virus transmitting insect vectors are costly to the farmers, cause adverse health and environmental consequences, and often result in the emergence of resistant vector strains. Thus, exploiting strategies that provide durable and broad-spectrum resistance over diverse environments are of paramount importance. The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Genetic engineering offers various options for introducing transgenic virus resistance into crop plants to provide a wide range of resistance to viral pathogens. This review examines the current strategies of developing virus resistant transgenic plants. PMID:25438782

Galvez, Leny C; Banerjee, Joydeep; Pinar, Hasan; Mitra, Amitava

2014-11-01

189

Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of unknown etiology, possibly caused by a virus or virus-triggered immunopathology. The virus might reactivate after years of latency and lyse oligodendrocytes, as in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or initiate immunopathological demyelination, as in animals infected with Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus or coronaviruses. The argument for a viral cause of MS is supported by epidemiological analyses and studies of MS in identical twins, indicating that disease is acquired. However, the most important evidence is the presence of bands of oligoclonal IgG (OCBs) in MS brain and CSF that persist throughout the lifetime of the patient. OCBs are found almost exclusively in infectious CNS disorders, and antigenic targets of OCBs represent the agent that causes disease. Here, the authors review past attempts to identify an infectious agent in MS brain cells and discuss the promise of using recombinant antibodies generated from clonally expanded plasma cells in brain and CSF to identify disease-relevant antigens. They show how this strategy has been used successfully to analyze antigen specificity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a chronic encephalitis caused by measles virus, and in neuromyelitis optica, a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease produced by antibodies directed against the aquaporin-4 water channel. PMID:22130640

Owens, Gregory P.; Gilden, Don; Burgoon, Mark P.; Yu, Xiaoli; Bennett, Jeffrey L.

2012-01-01

190

Dinoflagellates, diatoms, and their viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first discovery of the very high virus abundance in marine environments, a number of researchers were fascinated\\u000a with the world of “marine viruses”, which had previously been mostly overlooked in studies on marine ecosystems. In the present\\u000a paper, the possible role of viruses infecting marine eukaryotic microalgae is enlightened, especially summarizing the most\\u000a up-to-the-minute information of marine viruses

Keizo Nagasaki

2008-01-01

191

Raspberry latent virus in Rubus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Raspberry latent virus (RpLV) is a recently characterized virus reported from the Pacific Northwest, including Oregon and Washington in the United States and British Columbia in Canada. The virus appears to spread rapidly in the Fraser River Valley (northwest Washington and southwest British Columb...

192

Protecting Your Computer from Viruses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is defined as a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer. The existence of computer viruses--or the necessity of avoiding viruses--is part of using a computer. With the advent of the Internet, the door was opened wide for these…

Descy, Don E.

2006-01-01

193

Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

194

Occupational Exposure to Rabies Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This fact sheet is for workers who may be exposed to the rabies virus on the job, and their employers. Three main groups are at risk: those who work with animal species that can transmit the virus, workers whose jobs may incidentally expose them to carrier animal species, and lab workers who use live rabies virus in research or vaccine

2008-01-01

195

Replicon System for Lassa Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lassa virus is endemic to West Africa and causes hemorrhagic fever in humans. To facilitate the functional analysis of this virus, a replicon system was developed based on Lassa virus strain AV. Genomic and antige- nomic minigenomes (MG) were constructed consisting of the intergenic region of S RNA and a reporter gene (Renilla luciferase) in antisense orientation, flanked by the

Meike Hass; Uta Golnitz; Stefanie Muller; Beate Becker-Ziaja; Stephan Gunther

2004-01-01

196

An introduction to computer viruses  

SciTech Connect

This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

Brown, D.R.

1992-03-01

197

Endosomes, exosomes and Trojan viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retroviruses are enveloped viruses that are generally assumed to bud at the plasma membrane of infected cells. Recently it has become apparent that some of these viruses use the endocytic pathway to coordinate their assembly and release. In addition, these and some other enveloped viruses exploit the machinery that generates the internal membranes of multivesicular bodies (MVB). These observations and

Annegret Pelchen-Matthews; Graça Raposo; Mark Marsh

2004-01-01

198

Pathobiology of avian influenza viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Avian influenza virus causes serious disease in a wide variety of birds and mammals. Its natural hosts are wild aquatic birds, in which most infections are unapparent. Avian Influenza (AI) viruses are classified into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-16) and nine neuraminidase (N1-9) subtypes. Each virus has on...

199

Computer Bytes, Viruses and Vaccines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a history of computer viruses, explains various types of viruses and how they affect software or computer operating systems, and describes examples of specific viruses. Available vaccines are explained, and precautions for protecting programs and disks are given. (nine references) (LRW)

Palmore, Teddy B.

1989-01-01

200

CAN CRYPTOGRAPHY PREVENT COMPUTER VIRUSES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between cryptography and virus prevention is anything but simple. Since the beginning of the computer virus problem, people have proposed solutions involving some form of cryptography; but cryptography plays only a minor role in the solutions we actually use today. Encryption can also make virus prevention more difficult, by providing viral hiding places inside the objects that it

John F Morar; David M Chess

2000-01-01

201

Research on computer virus database management system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing proliferation of computer viruses becomes the lethal threat and research focus of the security of network information. While new virus is emerging, the number of viruses is growing, virus classification increasing complex. Virus naming because of agencies' capture time differences can not be unified. Although each agency has its own virus database, the communication between each other lacks, or virus information is incomplete, or a small number of sample information. This paper introduces the current construction status of the virus database at home and abroad, analyzes how to standardize and complete description of virus characteristics, and then gives the information integrity, storage security and manageable computer virus database design scheme.

Qi, Guoquan

2011-12-01

202

Asociación entre el virus XMRV y enfermedades humanas: preguntas y respuestas  

Cancer.gov

El XMRV es un retrovirus del que se informó por primera vez en 2006 como una causa potencial del cáncer de próstata. Está estrechamente relacionado con los virus de leucemia murina, los cuales causan una amplia variedad de cánceres así como enfermedades inmunológicas y neurológicas en ratones.

203

Simian Varicella Virus Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Because varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an exclusively human pathogen, the development of an animal model is necessary to study pathogenesis, latency, and reactivation. The pathological, virological, and immunological features of simian varicella virus (SVV) infection in nonhuman primates are similar to those of VZV infection in humans. Both natural infection of cynomolgus and African green monkeys as well as intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV provide the most useful models to study viral and immunological aspects of latency and the host immune response. Experimental immunosuppression of monkeys latently infected with SVV results in zoster, thus providing a new model system to study how the loss of adaptive immunity modulates virus reactivation. PMID:20186611

Mahalingam, Ravi; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Gilden, Don

2010-01-01

204

[Diversification of influenza viruses].  

PubMed

The presence of flu in humankind history was cited by numerous sources (the oldest known source was written by Hyppocrates, in 412 BC), but the epidemic impact could be measured only starting with the XVIII-th century, after the pandemics from 1729 - 1733 (with estimates of about two million deaths). Nowadays, health scientists dispenses vaccines, containing the antigenes of the viruses responsible with the flu in the last winter mixed with other two major flu-types. The effect of the current flu vaccines extends over about six months from the moment of innoculation. The reason of that short effectiveness of the vaccines is given by ability of viruses to change themselves very quickly. There are two ways through which the virus can astonish the victim antibodies (humans or animals): the mutation (named antigenic drift) and the genetic recombination of the genomic segments from different strains (named antigenic shift). PMID:20422926

Marian, Constantin V; Mih?escu, Grigore

2009-01-01

205

Viruses in water  

PubMed Central

Attention is drawn in this paper to the increasing problem of viral contamination of water and shellfish, particularly since growing demands for available water resources by a rising world population and expanding industry will make the recycling of wastewater almost inevitable in the future. The problem of eliminating viruses pathogenic for man from water is considered in the light of present water treatment procedures, which are often inadequate for that purpose. Man may be exposed to waterborne viruses through the consumption of contaminated water, shellfish, or crops, as a result of recreational activities involving water, or from aerosols following the spraying of crops with liquid wastes. Physical and chemical methods of eliminating viruses from water are discussed. PMID:310357

Melnick, Joseph L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Wallis, Craig

1978-01-01

206

Fragg Virus - Kinetic City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fragg Virus is a learning module centered learning the importance of systems; it is a part of the Kinetic City-Mission to Vearth site. In general this module is concerned with how different parts work within a system. The Fragg Virus module is equipped with a computer simulation mind game, creative writing exercises for independent study, and art-centered exercises, as well as lesson plans for hands on games and activities designed for a group. The focus of the activities is evolution and the features of an animal that helps the animal survive in its environment. Certain features explored are the giraffes neck, polar bears fir, and a birds beak.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

2008-04-17

207

Viruses and viral proteins  

PubMed Central

For more than 30 years X-ray crystallography has been by far the most powerful approach for determining the structures of viruses and viral proteins at atomic resolution. The information provided by these structures, which covers many important aspects of the viral life cycle such as cell-receptor recognition, viral entry, nucleic acid transfer and genome replication, has extensively enriched our vision of the virus world. Many of the structures available correspond to potential targets for antiviral drugs against important human pathogens. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of different structural aspects of the above-mentioned processes. PMID:25485129

Verdaguer, Nuria; Ferrero, Diego; Murthy, Mathur R. N.

2014-01-01

208

Zika Virus Outside Africa  

PubMed Central

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic confusion between ZIKV illness and dengue.The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas. PMID:19788800

2009-01-01

209

Additional hosts of alfalfa mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus, and tobacco mosaic virus in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In New Zealand, alfalfa mosaic virus is recorded on three new field crop hosts, Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth, Coriandrum sativum L., and Wasabia japonica (Miquel) Matsum. Cucumber mosaic virus is recorded on the weeds Cirsium vulgare L. and Veronica persica Poiret and on the ornamental perennial Gentiana sp. Tobacco mosaic virus is recorded on sunflower Helianthus annuus L.

J. D. Fletcher

1989-01-01

210

Soilborne viruses: advances in virus movement, virus induced gene silencing, and engineered resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently soilborne plant viruses were considered important only because they are causative agents for agricultural diseases. In recent years, soilborne plant viruses have played a significant role in advancing research into mechanisms of plasmodesmata transport, gene silencing, and engineered resistance to plant pathogens. Three different mechanisms by which viruses move through plasmodesmata have been identified using dianthoviruses, nepoviruses, and

Jeanmarie Verchot-Lubicz

2003-01-01

211

Bat flight and zoonotic viruses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

212

Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses  

PubMed Central

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

213

todasuvida: Las personas con diabetes son ms  

E-print Network

diabetes Controlesu todasuvida: Las personas con diabetes son más propensas a padecer de enfermedades del corazón que quienes no tienen diabetes. Boletín 631 D Las personas con diabetes tienen mayor- res relacionados con la diabetes, como derrame cerebral, mala circulación en las piernas y pies e

214

Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

2000-01-01

215

Varicella zoster virus latency  

PubMed Central

Primary infection by varicella zoster virus (VZV) typically results in childhood chickenpox, at which time latency is established in the neurons of the cranial nerve, dorsal root and autonomic ganglia along the entire neuraxis. During latency, the histone-associated virus genome assumes a circular episomal configuration from which transcription is epigenetically regulated. The lack of an animal model in which VZV latency and reactivation can be studied, along with the difficulty in obtaining high-titer cell-free virus, has limited much of our understanding of VZV latency to descriptive studies of ganglia removed at autopsy and analogy to HSV-1, the prototype alphaherpesvirus. However, the lack of miRNA, detectable latency-associated transcript and T-cell surveillance during VZV latency highlight basic differences between the two neurotropic herpesviruses. This article focuses on VZV latency: establishment, maintenance and reactivation. Comparisons are made with HSV-1, with specific attention to differences that make these viruses unique human pathogens. PMID:21695042

Eshleman, Emily; Shahzad, Aamir; Cohrs, Randall J

2011-01-01

216

Newcastle disease virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the Avulavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family, has a ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome that is negative sense, non-segmented, and single-stranded. The genome codes for six structural proteins: nucleocapsid, phosphoprotein, matrix, fusion, hemagglutinin-neu...

217

Virus Chapter: Dicistrovidae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Dicistroviridae family comprises viruses infecting both beneficial arthropods such as honey bees and shrimp and insect pests of medical and agricultural importance. During the last five years, advances in sequencing and phylogenetic analysis have led to the discovery and identification of sever...

218

GENOME OF HORSEPOX VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Here we present the genomic sequence of horsepox virus (HSPV) isolate MNR-76, an orthopoxvirus (OPV) isolated in 1976 from diseased Mongolian horses. The 212 kbp genome contained 7.5 kbp inverted terminal repeats (ITR) and lacked extensive terminal tandem repetition. HSPV contained 236 ORFs with sim...

219

Raspberry leaf curl virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Raspberry leaf curl virus (RLCV) is limited to hosts in the genus Rubus and is transmitted persistently by the small raspberry aphid, Aphis rubicola Oestlund. It is found only in North America, principally in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada and in the Rocky Mountain regions of...

220

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

ScienceCinema

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy.

Kim, Sung-Hou

2013-05-29

221

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy.

Kim, Sung-Hou

2009-01-01

222

Cold Facts about Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides ways for students to demonstrate their understanding of scientific concepts and skills. Describes a mini-unit around the cold in which students can relate humans to viruses. Includes activities and a modified simulation that provides questions to guide students. Discusses ways that allows students to apply prior knowledge, take ownership…

Pea, Celeste; Sterling, Donna R.

2002-01-01

223

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

Sung-Hou Kim

2009-02-09

224

Human Viruses and Cancer  

PubMed Central

The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers. PMID:25341666

Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

2014-01-01

225

Apple mosaic virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

226

BLUEBERRY SCORCH VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blueberry scorch disease was first described in the state of Washington in the USA by Martin and Bristow in 1988 and it was later determined that Sheep Pen Hill disease, described previously in New Jersey, USA was also caused by Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV). BlScV has flexuous, rod-shaped particl...

227

Antibodies, viruses and vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutralizing antibodies are crucial for vaccine-mediated protection against viral diseases. They probably act, in most cases, by blunting the infection, which is then resolved by cellular immunity. The protective effects of neutralizing antibodies can be achieved not only by neutralization of free virus particles, but also by several activities directed against infected cells. In certain instances, non-neutralizing antibodies contribute to

Dennis R. Burton

2002-01-01

228

West Nile virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of West Nile virus (WNV) has resulted in the emergence of WNV variants that have a significant pathogenicity for humans, horses, and birds. WNV appeared in North America in New York City in 1999 and has since spread throughout the continent into the Caribbean and Mexico and is now believed to be enzootic in much of the United

David N Phalen; Bob Dahlhausen

2004-01-01

229

VIRUSES IN GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The microbial contamination of ground water is a serious problem that can result in large outbreaks of waterborne disease. The purpose of this article is to review the literature available on viruses in ground water in order to evaluate the present state-of-knowledge, assess the ...

230

Viruses of Haloarchaea  

PubMed Central

In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

Luk, Alison W. S.; Williams, Timothy J.; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R. Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

2014-01-01

231

Equine immunity to viruses.  

PubMed

The identification of some of the adaptive immune responses to infection with equine viruses has been the first step toward rational immunoprophylactic design. Sufficient knowledge of infection-induced immunity and informed estimates of the requirements for long-term immunity for EIV have now been obtained. Thus, the future for inactivated EIV vaccines is promising now that new adjuvants have been applied to induce cellular immunity and safe methods have been designed to stimulate virus-neutralizing (VN) antibody at mucosal surfaces. Adenoviruses induce circulating VN antibody, the presence of which appears to correlate with protection from reinfection. Therefore, the potential of vaccines to induce VN antibody and protect from challenge is an important next step with this virus. With persistent viruses such as EHV-1, antibody-mediated protection from infection can be achieved only at the site of initial infection, that is, the nasopharynx and upper respiratory tract. Systemic dissemination is very rapid and consequently VN antibody is unlikely to play a major role in prevention of disease once the initial infection event has occurred. Cellular immune responses, particularly CTLs, play a dominant role in protection and recovery and are important in immune surveillance and determination of the outcome of reactivation of latent virus. Therefore, the key to future EHV-1 vaccine design is to focus on stimulation of CTL responses, and this requires the successful presentation of vaccine-derived antigenic peptides to MHC class I molecules that are recognized by specific receptors on CTL. There is some evidence that stimulation of EHV-1-specific CTL precursors may correlate with immunity to this virus. By analogy with gamma herpesviruses in humans, CTL precursor frequency may also function as an immune correlate for EHV-2. Although EAV infection induces strong immunity in females and geldings, persistent infection of the genital tract is an important route of dissemination from stallions. Although inactivated vaccines induce strong immunity (which depends upon VN activity of serum antibody) to first infection, the immunologic control of persistent infection is currently poorly understood; however, analogy with other persistent viruses suggests that CTLs are also likely to play an important role in the control of persistent EAV infections. PMID:10752138

Slater, J; Hannant, D

2000-04-01

232

Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma  

PubMed Central

Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma. PMID:24062735

Ishioka, Taisei; Noda, Masahiro; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Kimura, Hirokazu

2013-01-01

233

Viruses and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are chronic degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), which affect 37 million people worldwide. As the lifespan increases, the NDs are the fourth leading cause of death in the developed countries and becoming increasingly prevalent in developing countries. Despite considerable research, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Although the large majority of studies do not show support for the involvement of pathogenic aetiology in classical NDs, a number of emerging studies show support for possible association of viruses with classical neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Space does not permit for extensive details to be discussed here on non-viral-induced neurodegenerative diseases in humans, as they are well described in literature. Viruses induce alterations and degenerations of neurons both directly and indirectly. Their ability to attack the host immune system, regions of nervous tissue implies that they can interfere with the same pathways involved in classical NDs in humans. Supporting this, many similarities between classical NDs and virus-mediated neurodegeneration (non-classical) have been shown at the anatomic, sub-cellular, genomic and proteomic levels suggesting that viruses can explain neurodegenerative disorders mechanistically. The main objective of this review is to provide readers a detailed snapshot of similarities viral and non-viral neurodegenerative diseases share, so that mechanistic pathways of neurodegeneration in human NDs can be clearly understood. Viruses can guide us to unveil these pathways in human NDs. This will further stimulate the birth of new concepts in the biological research, which is needed for gaining deeper insights into the treatment of human NDs and delineate mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. PMID:23724961

2013-01-01

234

A vaccinia virus renaissance  

PubMed Central

In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced the concept of vaccination with cowpox virus, an Orthopoxvirus within the family Poxviridae that elicits cross protective immunity against related orthopoxviruses, including smallpox virus (variola virus). Over time, vaccinia virus (VACV) replaced cowpox virus as the smallpox vaccine, and vaccination efforts eventually led to the successful global eradication of smallpox in 1979. VACV has many characteristics that make it an excellent vaccine and that were crucial for the successful eradication of smallpox, including (1) its exceptional thermal stability (a very important but uncommon characteristic in live vaccines), (2) its ability to elicit strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, (3) the fact that it is easy to propagate, and (4) that it is not oncogenic, given that VACV replication occurs exclusively within the host cell cytoplasm and there is no evidence that the viral genome integrates into the host genome. Since the eradication of smallpox, VACV has experienced a renaissance of interest as a viral vector for the development of recombinant vaccines, immunotherapies, and oncolytic therapies, as well as the development of next-generation smallpox vaccines. This revival is mainly due to the successful use and extensive characterization of VACV as a vaccine during the smallpox eradication campaign, along with the ability to genetically manipulate its large dsDNA genome while retaining infectivity and immunogenicity, its wide mammalian host range, and its natural tropism for tumor cells that allows its use as an oncolytic vector. This review provides an overview of new uses of VACV that are currently being explored for the development of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and oncolytic virotherapies. PMID:22777090

Verardi, Paulo H.; Titong, Allison; Hagen, Caitlin J.

2012-01-01

235

Virus Maturation by Budding  

PubMed Central

Enveloped viruses mature by budding at cellular membranes. It has been generally thought that this process is driven by interactions between the viral transmembrane proteins and the internal virion components (core, capsid, or nucleocapsid). This model was particularly applicable to alphaviruses, which require both spike proteins and a nucleocapsid for budding. However, genetic studies have clearly shown that the retrovirus core protein, i.e., the Gag protein, is able to form enveloped particles by itself. Also, budding of negative-strand RNA viruses (rhabdoviruses, orthomyxoviruses, and paramyxoviruses) seems to be accomplished mainly by internal components, most probably the matrix protein, since the spike proteins are not absolutely required for budding of these viruses either. In contrast, budding of coronavirus particles can occur in the absence of the nucleocapsid and appears to require two membrane proteins only. Biochemical and structural data suggest that the proteins, which play a key role in budding, drive this process by forming a three-dimensional (cage-like) protein lattice at the surface of or within the membrane. Similarly, recent electron microscopic studies revealed that the alphavirus spike proteins are also engaged in extensive lateral interactions, forming a dense protein shell at the outer surface of the viral envelope. On the basis of these data, we propose that the budding of enveloped viruses in general is governed by lateral interactions between peripheral or integral membrane proteins. This new concept also provides answers to the question of how viral and cellular membrane proteins are sorted during budding. In addition, it has implications for the mechanism by which the virion is uncoated during virus entry. PMID:9841669

Garoff, Henrik; Hewson, Roger; Opstelten, Dirk-Jan E.

1998-01-01

236

Virus movement within grafted watermelon plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Watermelon production in Florida is impacted by several viruses including whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus, and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W). While germplasm resistant to some...

237

Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare Mya Breitbart  

E-print Network

Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare Mya Breitbart College of Marine Science, University of South Florida million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing

Saleska, Scott

238

How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus  

E-print Network

How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus Maria Xiridou1 *, Barbara Borkent) virus is a defective virus that relies on hepatitis B virus (HBV) for transmission; infection of the bond between the two viruses, control measures for HBV may have also affected the spread of hepatitis D

Hulshof, Joost

239

Detection of sweet potato viruses in Yunnan and genetic diversity analysis of the common viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two hundred seventy-nine samples with virus-like symptoms collected from 16 regions in Yunnan Province were tested by RT-PCR/PCR using virus-specific primers for 8 sweet potato viruses. Six viruses, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), Sweet Potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato ...

240

Heparan Sulfate-Mediated Binding of Infectious Dengue Virus Type 2 and Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to

Raphaële Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet

2002-01-01

241

Hepatitis C Virus and other Flaviviridae Viruses Enter Cells via Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocytosis of the Flaviviridae viruses, hepatitis C virus, GB virus C\\/hepatitis G virus, and bovine viral diarrheal virus (BVDV) was shown to be mediated by low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on cultured cells by several lines of evidence: by the demonstration that endocytosis of these virus correlated with LDL receptor activity, by complete inhibition of detectable endocytosis by anti-LDL receptor

Vincent Agnello; Gyorgy Abel; Mutasim Elfahal; Glenn B. Knight; Qing-Xiu Zhang

1999-01-01

242

Measles virus for cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Measles virus offers an ideal platform from which to build a new generation of safe, effective oncolytic viruses. Occasional "spontaneous" tumor regressions have occurred during natural measles infections, but common tumors do not express SLAM, the wild-type MV receptor, and are therefore not susceptible to the virus. Serendipitously, attenuated vaccine strains of measles virus have adapted to use CD46, a regulator of complement activation that is expressed in higher abundance on human tumor cells than on their non transformed counterparts. For this reason, attenuated measles viruses are potent and selective oncolytic agents showing impressive antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models. The viruses can be engineered to enhance their tumor specificity, increase their antitumor potency and facilitate noninvasive in vivo monitoring of their spread. A major impediment to the successful deployment of oncolytic measles viruses as anticancer agents is the high prevalence of pre-existing anti measles immunity, which impedes bloodstream delivery and curtails intratumoral virus spread. It is hoped that these problems can be addressed by delivering the virus inside measles-infected cell carriers and/or by concomitant administration of immunosuppressive drugs. From a safety perspective, population immunity provides an excellent defense against measles spread from patient to carers and, in fifty years of human experience, reversion of attenuated measles to a wild type pathogenic phenotype has not been observed. Clinical trials testing oncolytic measles viruses as an experimental cancer therapy are currently underway. PMID:19203112

Russell, Stephen J.; Whye Peng, Kah

2014-01-01

243

Human herpes virus 8: a new virus discloses its face  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) or Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is present in all Kaposi’s sarcoma, and\\u000a the detection of the virus using polymerase chain reaction or in situ hybridization is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic\\u000a test for the diagnosis of this neoplasm. HHV8 is furthermore invariably present in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and has\\u000a also been

Gieri Cathomas

2000-01-01

244

Principles of Virus Structural Organization  

PubMed Central

Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective. PMID:22297509

Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F

2013-01-01

245

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman ... from your healthcare professional. What is Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)? LCMV is a virus that can cause ...

246

Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task ... is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)? HIV is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight ...

247

West Nile Virus Infection and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... online at: http://www.mothertobaby.org/. West Nile Virus Infection and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman ... your health care professional. What is West Nile Virus (WNV)? WNV is a virus that can infect ...

248

Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit Button Past Newsletters Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on ... United States since 2005 Background On Variant Influenza Viruses Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. ...

249

FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds  

MedlinePLUS

... Virus Share Compartir FAQ: West Nile Virus & Dead Birds How do birds get infected with West Nile ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

250

NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

251

Antigenic determinants in influenza virus hemagglutinin.  

PubMed Central

Three antigenic determinants were revealed in H3 hemagglutinin of influenza A viruses isolated from 1968 to 1975. One of them was common for all viruses, and two others specified differences between the viruses possessing H3 hemagglutinin. PMID:89090

Rovnova, Z I; Kosyakov, P N; Berezina, O N; Isayeva, E I; Zhdanov, V M

1979-01-01

252

Mechanisms of virus assembly  

E-print Network

Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid, and in some cases surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assembles within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells, and how these are modified in cases where the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques that have been used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly which are likely to receive significant attention in the near future.

Jason D Perlmutter; Michael F Hagan

2014-07-15

253

Virus Interference. I. The Interferon  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a study of the interference produced by heat-inactivated influenza virus with the growth of live virus in fragments of chick chorio-allantoic membrane it was found that following incubation of heated virus with membrane a new factor was released. This factor, recognized by its ability to induce interference in fresh pieces of chorio-allantoic membrane, was called interferon. Following a lag

A. Isaacs; J. Lindenmann

1957-01-01

254

Tracking the West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can viral sequences help us establish the origin of the virus that appeared in the US in 1999? Epidemiologists have adopted bioinformatics approaches using sequence data from strains of pathogens to track the movement of bacteria and viruses from continent to continent. * explore a data set of West Nile Virus sequences from all over the world that date from the mid-20th century to the present

Erica Suchmann (University of California - San Diego; Biology)

2006-05-20

255

Viruses from extreme thermal environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses of extreme thermophiles are of great interest because they serve as model systems for understanding the biochemistry and molecular biology required for life at high temperatures. In this work, we report the discovery, isolation, and preliminary characterization of viruses and virus-like particles from extreme thermal acidic environments (70-92°C, pH 1.0-4.5) found in Yellowstone National Park. Six unique particle morphologies

George Rice; Kenneth Stedman; Jamie Snyder; Blake Wiedenheft; Debbie Willits; Susan Brumfield; Timothy McDermott; Mark J. Young

2001-01-01

256

Genus Orthopoxvirus: Cowpox virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cowpox virus (CPXV) is distinguished from other orthopoxvirus (OPV) species by producing cytoplasmic A-type inclusion bodies and flattened\\u000a pocks with a hemorrhagic center on the chorioallantoic membrane. CPXV is endemic to Western Eurasia and naturally infects\\u000a a broad range of host species including domestic animals, and zoo animals, as well as humans. Infections in humans seem to\\u000a increase in importance

Sandra Essbauer; Hermann Meyer

257

Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health is an integral component of overall health and well-being in all patients. However, for an immunocompromised patient,\\u000a many common oral conditions may have a significant impact on quality of life. Intraoral pain, which is a common complaint\\u000a among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), will compromise patients’ ability to maintain adequate and appropriate\\u000a oral intake. Furthermore, the polypharmacopeia

Anita Patel; Michael Glick

258

VIRUS instrument collimator assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

2014-07-01

259

Symptomatic mumps virus reinfections.  

PubMed

Although natural mumps virus infection is believed to induce lifelong immunity, our laboratory was confronted with 82 patients who developed mumps-evoking lesions but exhibited serological evidence of a booster immune response, namely a rise or a high titer of virus-specific IgG, without IgM. In order to provide arguments favoring the existence of recurrent mumps attacks, the age, symptomatology, and humoral response of these patients (group 1) were compared to that of 82 randomly selected true primary infected patients (group 2), 10 parainfluenza virus-infected patients (group 3), and 20 noninfected mumps-immune subjects (group 4). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures with different viral antigenic preparations were used for determination of specific IgM, IgA, IgG, IgG subclasses, and IgG avidity. The patients of group 1, older than those of group 2 (28 vs. 10 years, P < 0.0001), presented a significantly less severe and less typical symptomatology. Against the whole virus they exhibited IgG of higher avidity (P < 0.001), a lower prevalence and titer of IgA (10 vs. 68%, P < 0.0001 and 278 vs. 5,009, P < 0.001, respectively). Values obtained for IgG 1, 2, and 3 were significantly different between the two groups. Prevalence and absorbance of nucleocapsid-directed IgG 3 were significantly lower in group 1 (27 vs. 46%, P < 0.01 and 0.444 vs. 0.869, P < 0.01, respectively). A significant discrepancy also allowed patients from group 1 to be distinguished from those of groups 3 and 4.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7714488

Gut, J P; Lablache, C; Behr, S; Kirn, A

1995-01-01

260

West Nile Virus Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the potential effects of global climate change is the spread of disease to new areas, as the vectors of those diseases (e.g., mosquitoes, birds) expand into new locations in response to shifting climate conditions. Although the direct cause of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the United States is not known, the National Atlas of the US Geological Survey (reviewed in the June 26, 1998 Scout Report) has recently launched this new resource on WNV distribution. First documented in the US during the summer of 1999 and previously limited to Africa, Eastern Europe, West Asia, and the Middle East, the West Nile Virus is of danger to humans as it interferes with "normal central nervous system functioning" and can cause encephalitis. This site describes WNV Surveillance Activity for the year 2000 and offers a series of maps highlighting the US distribution of WNV cases found in humans, wild birds, chickens, mosquitoes, and veterinary clinics. A series of links point to further information on the virus.

261

Reemergence of chikungunya virus.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes acute fever and acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain in humans. Since 2004, CHIKV has caused millions of cases of disease in the Indian Ocean region and has emerged in new areas, including Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific region. The mosquito vectors for this virus are globally distributed in tropical and temperate zones, providing the opportunity for CHIKV to continue to expand into new geographic regions. In October 2013, locally acquired cases of CHIKV infection were identified on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, signaling the arrival of the virus in the Western Hemisphere. In just 9 months, CHIKV has spread to 22 countries in the Caribbean and Central and South America, resulting in hundreds of thousands of cases. CHIKV disease can be highly debilitating, and large epidemics have severe economic consequences. Thus, there is an urgent need for continued research into the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of these infections. PMID:25078691

Morrison, Thomas E

2014-10-01

262

[Ebola virus disease].  

PubMed

Ebola virus disease is a zoonosis causing high mortality epidemics in both human and animal populations. The virus belongs to the Filoviride family. It is composed of a single-strand of RNA. Morbidity foci appear in sub-Saharan Africa. The most probable reservoir are fruit bats, which are local delicacy. The most common route of infection is via mucosa or damaged skin. The spread of disease is rapid due to dietary habits, funeral rites and the insufficient supply of disposable equipment in hospitals. The incubation period of the disease ranges from 2 to 21 days. The beginning is abrupt, dominated by influenza-like symptoms. The disease is staggering with the predominant multi-organ failure and shock. Present-day epidemic symptoms from digestive system in the form of vomiting and diarrhoea are dominant. Currently, the research on vaccine and experimental drug is in progress. The virus is damaged by standard disinfectants used in health care units. Epidemic, which broke out in February 2014, caused by the most dangerous type Zaire, is the greatest of the existing. Morbidity and mortality is underestimated due to numerous unreported cases. PMID:25763588

Karwowska, Kornelia

2015-01-01

263

Review: influenza virus in pigs.  

PubMed

Influenza virus disease still remains one of the major threats to human health, involving a wide range of animal species and pigs play an important role in influenza ecology. Pigs were labeled as "mixing vessels" since they are susceptible to infection with avian, human and swine influenza viruses and genetic reassortment between these viruses can occur. After the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009 with a swine origin virus, the most recent research in "influenzology" is directed at improving knowledge of porcine influenza virus infection. This tendency is probably due to the fact that domestic pigs are closely related to humans and represent an excellent animal model to study various microbial infectious diseases. In spite of the role of the pig in influenza virus ecology, swine immune responses against influenza viruses are not fully understood. Considering these premises, the aim of this review is to focus on the in vitro studies performed with porcine cells and influenza virus and on the immune responses of pigs against human, avian and swine influenza viruses in vivo. The increased acceptance of pigs as suitable and valuable models in the scientific community may stimulate the development of new tools to assess porcine immune responses, paving the way for their consideration as the future "gold standard" large-animal model in immunology. PMID:23523121

Crisci, Elisa; Mussá, Tufária; Fraile, Lorenzo; Montoya, Maria

2013-10-01

264

Selective advantage for conservative viruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we study the full semiconservative treatment of a model for the coevolution of a virus and an adaptive immune system. Regions of viability are calculated for both conservatively and semiconservatively replicating viruses interacting with a realistic semiconservatively replicating immune system. The conservative virus is found to have a selective advantage in the form of an ability to survive in regions with a wider range of mutation rates than its semiconservative counterpart, as well as an increased replication rate where both species can survive. This may help explain the existence of a rich range of viruses with conservatively replicating genomes, a trait that is found nowhere else in nature.

Brumer, Yisroel; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

2005-03-01

265

RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

2013-01-01

266

Influenza viruses, 1957-60  

PubMed Central

During the period 1957-60 large numbers of influenza A viruses were received at the World Influenza Centre from countries throughout the world. With one exception all the strains were antigenically closely related to the A2 viruses isolated early in the Asian influenza epidemic, and strikingly different from the A1 strains of the previous decade. The A2 viruses were very uniform antigenically and in other in vitro characteristics such as insensitivity to the ?-inhibitor of agglutination. However, many of the strains, particularly during the early stages of the epidemic, showed a low avidity for antibody. At the same time as the influenza A viruses showed a large antigenic change the influenza B viruses showed a lesser antigenic change from earlier influenza B viruses. As with influenza A, the new influenza B viruses have replaced earlier B strains. In 1960 one strain of influenza virus A1 was recovered from a soldier in England. Evidence is presented that this could not be explained as a laboratory pick-up and the suggestion is put forward that this patient may have harboured virus in latent form for many years. PMID:20604108

Isaacs, Alick; Hart, R. J. C.; Law, V. G.

1962-01-01

267

Limits in virus filtration capability? Impact of virus quality and spike level on virus removal with xenotropic murine leukemia virus.  

PubMed

Virus filtration (VF) is a key step in an overall viral clearance process since it has been demonstrated to effectively clear a wide range of mammalian viruses with a log reduction value (LRV)?>?4. The potential to achieve higher LRV from virus retentive filters has historically been examined using bacteriophage surrogates, which commonly demonstrated a potential of?>?9 LRV when using high titer spikes (e.g. 10(10) PFU/mL). However, as the filter loading increases, one typically experiences significant decreases in performance and LRV. The 9 LRV value is markedly higher than the current expected range of 4-5 LRV when utilizing mammalian retroviruses on virus removal filters (Miesegaes et al., Dev Biol (Basel) 2010;133:3-101). Recent values have been reported in the literature (Stuckey et al., Biotech Progr 2014;30:79-85) of LRV in excess of 6 for PPV and XMuLV although this result appears to be atypical. LRV for VF with therapeutic proteins could be limited by several factors including process limits (flux decay, load matrix), virus spike level and the analytical methods used for virus detection (i.e. the Limits of Quantitation), as well as the virus spike quality. Research was conducted using the Xenotropic-Murine Leukemia Virus (XMuLV) for its direct relevance to the most commonly cited document, the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) Q5A (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999) for viral safety evaluations. A unique aspect of this work is the independent evaluation of the impact of retrovirus quality and virus spike level on VF performance and LRV. The VF studies used XMuLV preparations purified by either ultracentrifugation (Ultra 1) or by chromatographic processes that yielded a more highly purified virus stock (Ultra 2). Two monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) with markedly different filtration characteristics and with similar levels of aggregate (<1.5%) were evaluated with the Ultra 1 and Ultra 2 virus preparations utilizing the Planova 20 N, a small virus removal filter. Impurities in the virus preparation ultimately limited filter loading as measured by determining the volumetric loading condition where 75% flux decay is observed versus initial conditions (V75 ). This observation occurred with both Mabs with the difference in virus purity more pronounced when very high spike levels were used (>5 vol/vol %). Significant differences were seen for the process performance over a number of lots of the less-pure Ultra 1 virus preparations. Experiments utilizing a developmental lot of the chromatographic purified XMuLV (Ultra 2 Development lot) that had elevated levels of host cell residuals (vs. the final Ultra 2 preparations) suggest that these contaminant residuals can impact virus filter fouling, even if the virus prep is essentially monodisperse. Process studies utilizing an Ultra 2 virus with substantially less host cell residuals and highly monodispersed virus particles demonstrated superior performance and an LRV in excess of 7.7 log10 . A model was constructed demonstrating the linear dependence of filtration flux versus filter loading which can be used to predict the V75 for a range of virus spike levels conditions using this highly purified virus. Fine tuning the virus spike level with this model can ultimately maximize the LRV for the virus filter step, essentially adding the LRV equivalent of another process step (i.e. protein A or CEX chromatography). © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 31:135-144, 2015. PMID:25395156

Roush, David J; Myrold, Adam; Burnham, Michael S; And, Joseph V; Hughes, Joseph V

2015-01-01

268

McAfee's Virus Information Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

McAfee, the well-known anti-virus software company, offers this free library, containing information on over 40,000 known PC viruses. Virus details include their source, how they infect your computer, and how to remove them. Users can search for viruses by keyword or browse by category. The site also lists new viruses, the year's top ten, and hoax viruses. Although in most cases the instructions for virus removal include the use of a McAfee product, the site is still an excellent source of virus information.

269

Computer virus information update CIAC-2301  

SciTech Connect

While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

Orvis, W.J.

1994-01-15

270

Neonatal experience interacts with adult social stress to alter acute and chronic Theiler's virus infection.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that neonatal handling has prolonged protective effects associated with stress resilience and aging, yet little is known about its effect on stress-induced modulation of infectious disease. We have previously demonstrated that social disruption stress exacerbates the acute and chronic phases of the disease when applied prior to Theiler's virus infection (PRE-SDR) whereas it attenuates disease severity when applied concurrently with infection (CON-SDR). Here, we asked whether neonatal handling would protect adult mice from the detrimental effects of PRE-SDR and attenuate the protective effects of CON-SDR on Theiler's virus infection. As expected, handling alone decreased IL-6 and corticosterone levels, protected the non-stressed adult mice from motor impairment throughout infection and reduced antibodies to myelin components (PLP, MBP) during the autoimmune phase of disease. In contrast, neonatal handling X PRE/CON-SDR elevated IL-6 and reduced corticosterone as well as increased motor impairment during the acute phase of the infection. Neonatal handling X PRE/CON-SDR continued to exacerbate motor impairment during the chronic phase, whereas only neonatal handling X PRE-SDR increased in antibodies to PLP, MOG, MBP and TMEV. Together, these results imply that while handling reduced the severity of later Theiler's virus infection in non-stressed mice, brief handling may not be protective when paired with later social stress. PMID:24632225

Johnson, R R; Maldonado Bouchard, S; Prentice, T W; Bridegam, P; Rassu, F; Young, C R; Steelman, A J; Welsh, T H; Welsh, C J; Meagher, M W

2014-08-01

271

Tomato chlorosis virus and Tomato infectious chlorosis virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This presentation will help consultants, growers, and other practitioners in the Southern and Western Regions of the US, as well as Mexico and the Caribbean identify and manage Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV) and Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) in tomato. Information will directly benefit cr...

272

DETECTION OF RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUS IN LIVE VIRUS VACCINES OF POULTRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In vitro and in vivo assays have been used for detection of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) in live virus vaccines of poultry. The presence of REV is confirmed by the demonstration of viral antigen or provirus in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) or in specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated wi...

273

Parainfluenza virus 5 expressing the g protein of rabies virus protects mice after rabies virus infection.  

PubMed

Rabies remains a major public health threat around the world. Once symptoms appear, there is no effective treatment to prevent death. In this work, we tested a recombinant parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) strain expressing the glycoprotein (G) of rabies (PIV5-G) as a therapy for rabies virus infection: we have found that PIV5-G protected mice as late as 6 days after rabies virus infection. PIV5-G is a promising vaccine for prevention and treatment of rabies virus infection. PMID:25552723

Huang, Ying; Chen, Zhenhai; Huang, Junhua; Fu, ZhenFang; He, Biao

2015-03-15

274

Concomitant administration of GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine in female dogs (Canis familiaris) in Mexico.  

PubMed

Mexico serves as a global model for advances in rabies prevention and control in dogs. The Mexican Ministry of Health (MMH) annual application of approximately 16 million doses of parenteral rabies vaccine has resulted in significant reductions in canine rabies during the past 20 years. One collateral parameter of rabies programs is dog population management. Enhanced public awareness is critical to reinforce responsible pet ownership. Surgical spaying and neutering remain important to prevent reproduction, but are impractical for achieving dog population management goals. GonaCon™, an anti-gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine, was initially tested in captive female dogs on the Navajo Nation, 2008. The MMH led this international collaborative study on an improved formulation of GonaCon™ in captive dogs with local representatives in Hidalgo, Mexico in 2011. This study contained 20 bitches assigned to Group A (6 control), Group B (7 GonaCon™), and Group C (7 GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine). Vaccines were delivered IM. Animals were placed under observation and evaluated during the 61-day trial. Clinically, all dogs behaved normally. No limping or prostration was observed, in spite of minor muscle atrophy post-mortem in the left hind leg of dogs that received GonaCon™. Two dogs that began the study pregnant give birth to healthy pups. Dogs that received a GonaCon™ injection had macro and microscopic lesions consistent with prior findings, but the adverse injection effects were less frequent and lower in intensity. Both vaccines were immunogenic based on significant increases in rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and anti-GnRH antibodies in treatment Groups B and C. Simultaneous administration of GonaCon™ and rabies vaccine in Group C did not affect immunogenicity. Progesterone was suppressed significantly in comparison to controls. Future studies that monitor fertility through multiple breeding cycles represent a research need to determine the value of integrating this vaccine into dog rabies management. PMID:23871822

Vargas-Pino, Fernando; Gutiérrez-Cedillo, Verónica; Canales-Vargas, Erick J; Gress-Ortega, Luis R; Miller, Lowell A; Rupprecht, Charles E; Bender, Scott C; García-Reyna, Patricia; Ocampo-López, Juan; Slate, Dennis

2013-09-13

275

Replication of Tobacco Mosaic Virus on Endoplasmic Reticulum and Role of the Cytoskeleton and Virus Movement Protein in Intracellular Distribution of Viral RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the mechanisms of in- tracellular targeting of viral nucleic acids within in- fected cells. We used in situ hybridization to visualize the distribution of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) viral RNA (vRNA) in infected tobacco protoplasts. Immuno- staining of the ER lumenal binding protein (BiP) con- current with in situ hybridization revealed that vRNA colocalized with the

P. Mas; Roger N. Beachy

1999-01-01

276

Prevalence and Transmission of Honeybee Viruses  

PubMed Central

Transmission mechanisms of six honeybee viruses, including acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood bee virus (SBV), in honey bee colonies were investigated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods. The virus status of individual queens was evaluated by examining the presence of viruses in the queens' feces and tissues, including hemolymph, gut, ovaries, spermatheca, head, and eviscerated body. Except for head tissue, all five tissues as well as queen feces were found to be positive for virus infections. When queens in bee colonies were identified as positive for BQCV, DWV, CBPV, KBV, and SBV, the same viruses were detected in their offspring, including eggs, larvae, and adult workers. On the other hand, when queens were found positive for only two viruses, BQCV and DWV, only these two viruses were detected in their offspring. The presence of viruses in the tissue of ovaries and the detection of the same viruses in queens' eggs and young larvae suggest vertical transmission of viruses from queens to offspring. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of vertical transmission of viruses in honeybee colonies. PMID:16391097

Chen, Y. P.; Pettis, J. S.; Collins, A.; Feldlaufer, M. F.

2006-01-01

277

Human viruses: discovery and emergence  

PubMed Central

There are 219 virus species that are known to be able to infect humans. The first of these to be discovered was yellow fever virus in 1901, and three to four new species are still being found every year. Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a substantial pool of undiscovered human virus species, although an apparent slow-down in the rate of discovery of species from different families may indicate bounds to the potential range of diversity. More than two-thirds of human viruses can also infect non-human hosts, mainly mammals, and sometimes birds. Many specialist human viruses also have mammalian or avian origins. Indeed, a substantial proportion of mammalian viruses may be capable of crossing the species barrier into humans, although only around half of these are capable of being transmitted by humans and around half again of transmitting well enough to cause major outbreaks. A few possible predictors of species jumps can be identified, including the use of phylogenetically conserved cell receptors. It seems almost inevitable that new human viruses will continue to emerge, mainly from other mammals and birds, for the foreseeable future. For this reason, an effective global surveillance system for novel viruses is needed. PMID:22966141

Woolhouse, Mark; Scott, Fiona; Hudson, Zoe; Howey, Richard; Chase-Topping, Margo

2012-01-01

278

[Virus transmission in drinking water].  

PubMed

Several epidemiological data confirm the presence of enteric viruses in drinking water. The present paper deals with several problems tied to the virological analysis, such as the concentration of the samples, the isolation and the identification of enteric viruses. PMID:14677255

Divizia, M; Gabrieli, R; Macaluso, A; el Ouardi, A

2003-01-01

279

Arenaviruses other than Lassa virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family Arenaviridae includes 23 viral species, of which 5 can cause viral hemorrhagic fevers with a case fatality rate of about 20%. These five viruses are Junin, Machupo, Guanarito, Sabia and Lassa virus, the manipulation of which requires biosafety level 4 facilities. They are included in the Category A Pathogen List established by the Center for Disease Control and

Rémi N Charrel; Xavier de Lamballerie

2003-01-01

280

Tomato ringspot virus in Rubus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) is the most widespread and important of the nematode-transmitted viruses affecting cultivated Rubus in North and South America but is not known to occur outside of the Western Hemisphere. A recent report from Turkey on ToRSV in blackberry in borders of stone fruit orcha...

281

TOTAL CULTURABLE VIRUS QUANTAL ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter describes a quantal method for assaying culturable human enteric viruses from water matrices. The assay differs from the plaque assay described in Chapter 10 (December 1987 Revision) in that it is based upon the direct microscopic viewing of cells for virus-induced ...

282

RNA viruses as virotherapy agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA viruses are rapidly emerging as extraordinarily promising agents for oncolytic virotherapy. Integral to the lifecycles of all RNA viruses is the formation of double-stranded RNA, which activates a spectrum of cellular defense mechanisms including the activation of PKR and the release of interferon. Tumors are frequently defective in their PKR signaling and interferon response pathways, and therefore provide a

Stephen J Russell

2002-01-01

283

Virioplankton: Viruses in Aquatic Ecosystems†  

PubMed Central

The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic components of the plankton, changing dramatically in number with geographical location and season. The evidence to date suggests that virioplankton communities are composed principally of bacteriophages and, to a lesser extent, eukaryotic algal viruses. The influence of viral infection and lysis on bacterial and phytoplankton host communities was measurable after new methods were developed and prior knowledge of bacteriophage biology was incorporated into concepts of parasite and host community interactions. The new methods have yielded data showing that viral infection can have a significant impact on bacteria and unicellular algae populations and supporting the hypothesis that viruses play a significant role in microbial food webs. Besides predation limiting bacteria and phytoplankton populations, the specific nature of virus-host interaction raises the intriguing possibility that viral infection influences the structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. Novel applications of molecular genetic techniques have provided good evidence that viral infection can significantly influence the composition and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. PMID:10704475

Wommack, K. Eric; Colwell, Rita R.

2000-01-01

284

Groundnut Ringspot Virus in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tospoviruses in vegetable crops are difficult to manage due to a shortage of basic information about the viruses and their vectors. This is especially true for the recently detected Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV). This publication presents all current knowledge of GRSV in Florida....

285

Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2005-01-01

286

Defining Life: The Virus Viewpoint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism—the virus—producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

Forterre, Patrick

2010-04-01

287

Swine Influenza Virus: Emerging Understandings  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America [1]. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...

288

West Nile Virus and Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines,

Peter P. Marra; Sean Griffing; Carolee Caffrey; A. Marm Kilpatrick; Robert McLean; Christopher Brand; Emi Saito; Alan P. Dupuis; Laura Kramer; Robert Novak

2004-01-01

289

Computer viruses: a quantitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides interesting insights for anti-virus research, as it reflects a period of rapid uptake in the application of the Internet and the use of e-mail for business purposes. The purpose of the research is to provide independent justification of the growing prevalence of computer virus incidents over the past five years, and identify patterns in the frequency and

A. Coulthard; T. A. Vuori

2002-01-01

290

Mathematical models on computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt has been made to develop mathematical models on computer viruses infecting the system under different conditions. Mathematical model 1 discusses the situation to find the probability that at any time t how many software components are infected by virus, assuming the recovery rate and proportion of un-infected population receiving infection per unit time does not change with time.

Bimal Kumar Mishra; Dinesh Saini

2007-01-01

291

Dynamic models for computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer viruses are an important risk to computational systems endangering either corporations of all sizes or personal computers used for domestic applications. Here, classical epidemiological models for disease propagation are adapted to computer networks and, by using simple systems identification techniques a model called SAIC (Susceptible, Antidotal, Infectious, Contaminated) is developed. Real data about computer viruses are used to validate

Jose R. C. Piqueira; Adolfo A. De Vasconcelos; Carlos E. C. J. Gabriel; Vanessa O. Araujo

2008-01-01

292

Computer Viruses as Artificial Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable interest in computer viruses since they first appeared in 1981, and especially in the past few years as they have reached epidemic numbers in many per- sonal computer environments. Viruses have been written about as a security problem, as a social problem, and as a possible means of performing useful tasks in a distributed computing environment.

Eugene H. Spafford

1994-01-01

293

INTERACTIONS OF VIRUS AND HOST  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an ubiquitous pathogen of ruminants, found worldwide that is often associated with severe economic losses. Understanding these viruses, particularly at the cellular and molecular levels, is important to develop new vaccination and treatment strategies for produc...

294

Human polyomavirus JC virus genome.  

PubMed Central

The complete DNA sequence of the human JC virus, which was found to consist of 5,130 nucleotide pairs, is presented. The amino acid sequence of six proteins could be deduced: the early, nonstructural proteins, large T and small t antigens; the late capsid proteins, VP1, VP2, and VP3; and the agnogene product encoded within the late leader sequence, called the agnoprotein in simian virus 40. The extent of homology between JC virus DNA and the genomes of simian virus 40 (69%) and BK virus (75%) confirmed the close evolutionary relationship of these three polyomaviruses. The sequences showing the greatest divergence in these viral DNAs occurred within the tandem repeats located to the late side of the replication origins. PMID:6086957

Frisque, R J; Bream, G L; Cannella, M T

1984-01-01

295

Herpes viruses hedge their bets.  

PubMed

Static latency is the hallmark of all herpes viruses. The varicella zoster virus, for instance, causes varicella (chickenpox), and after a latent phase of between 5 and 40 years, it can give rise to herpes zoster (shingles). This latency and the subsequent reactivation has intrigued and puzzled virologists. Although several factors have been suggested, it is unknown what triggers reactivation. However, latency can be explained with a simple evolutionary model. Here, we demonstrate that a simple, yet efficient, bet-hedging strategy might have evolved in a number of viruses, especially those belonging to the herpes virus family and most importantly in varicella zoster virus. We show that the evolution of latency can be explained by the population dynamics of infectious diseases in fluctuating host populations. PMID:12409612

Stumpf, Michael P H; Laidlaw, Zoe; Jansen, Vincent A A

2002-11-12

296

New aspects of influenza viruses.  

PubMed Central

Influenza virus infections continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality with a worldwide social and economic impact. The past five years have seen dramatic advances in our understanding of viral replication, evolution, and antigenic variation. Genetic analyses have clarified relationships between human and animal influenza virus strains, demonstrating the potential for the appearance of new pandemic reassortants as hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes are exchanged in an intermediate host. Clinical trials of candidate live attenuated influenza virus vaccines have shown the cold-adapted reassortants to be a promising alternative to the currently available inactivated virus preparations. Modern molecular techniques have allowed serious consideration of new approaches to the development of antiviral agents and vaccines as the functions of the viral genes and proteins are further elucidated. The development of techniques whereby the genes of influenza viruses can be specifically altered to investigate those functions will undoubtedly accelerate the pace at which our knowledge expands. PMID:1310439

Shaw, M W; Arden, N H; Maassab, H F

1992-01-01

297

Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.

Breitbart, Mya

2012-01-01

298

Unleash your Idea Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In his book, Unleashing the Idea Virus, Godin explores the concept of "ideaviruses," or those ideas or trends that seem spread entirely by word of mouth. New ideas are driving the New Economy, and those "ideas that spread the fastest win." Godin predicts that word of mouth, which is faster, easier to launch, and more effective than traditional marketing strategies, will soon become the preferred way to market new ideas and brand products. Fast Company features an article by Godin, summarizing the ideavirus concept.

Godin, Seth.

2000-01-01

299

ORNL/CON-462 Methodology for  

E-print Network

ORNL/CON-462 Methodology for the Evaluation of a 4000-Home Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofit at Fort agency thereof. #12;ORNL/CON-462 Methodology for the Evaluation of a 4000-Home Geothermal Heat Pump of the Fort Polk bid documents and the resultant performance contract between the Army and Co-Energy Group

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

300

AwareCon: Situation Aware Context Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ubicomp environments impose tough constraints on networks, including immediate communication, low energy consumption, minimal maintenance and ad- ministration. With the AwareCon network, we address these challenges by prescribing an integrated architecture that differs from classical networking by featuring an aware- ness of the surrounding situation and context. In various settings, where AwareCon was implemented on tiny battery driven devices, we

Michael Beigl; Albert Krohn; Tobias Zimmer; Christian Decker; Philip Robinson

2003-01-01

301

IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster  

E-print Network

IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster virus? PC all locked up? Ever run into these? Help is on the way. NC State has licensed Symantec AntiVirus and NC State students, faculty and staff can get a free copy. Computer viruses on campus are no laughing matter. Last

302

Complete Genome Sequence of Le Blanc Virus, a Third Caenorhabditis Nematode-Infecting Virus  

E-print Network

Complete Genome Sequence of Le Blanc Virus, a Third Caenorhabditis Nematode-Infecting Virus Carl J,a and Institute of Biology of the Ecole Normale Supérieure (IBENS), Paris, Franceb Orsay virus and Santeuil virus, the first known viruses capable of naturally infecting the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans

Wang, David

303

Comportement de deux virus filamenteux (Carnation Vein Mottle Virus, Carnation Streak  

E-print Network

Comportement de deux virus filamenteux (Carnation Vein Mottle Virus, Carnation Streak Virus) dans Botanique et de Pathologie végétale, Villa Thuret, B.P. 78, 06602 Antibes Cedex. R�SUM� Virus filamenteux, Dosage, Spectrophotométrie, OEillet. L'évolution de la teneur en virus de la Marbrure des Nervures de l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

304

Immunobiologic heterotypic activity associated with viral and soluble components of bovine virus diarrhea virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The V and S antigens of bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus were studied by pig inoculation experiments to determine the basis for the bovine virus diarrheahog cholera heterotypic relationship. BVD virus infected tissue cultures were harvested and separated by ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration. V antigen was prepared by Tween-ether-urea inactivation of virus. S antigen was quantitated in filtration samples and

F. J. Volenec; B. E. Sheffy; J. A. Baker

1972-01-01

305

Live-attenuated influenza A virus vaccines using a B virus backbone  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The currently FDA-licensed live attenuated influenza virus vaccine contains a trivalent mixture of types A (H1N1 and H3N2) and B vaccine viruses. The two A virus vaccines have the backbone of a cold-adapted influenza A virus and the B virus vaccine has the six backbone segments derived from a cold-...

306

Genome Sequence of Bivens Arm Virus, a Tibrovirus Belonging to the Species Tibrogargan virus (Mononegavirales: Rhabdoviridae)  

PubMed Central

The new rhabdoviral genus Tibrovirus currently has two members, Coastal Plains virus and Tibrogargan virus. Here, we report the coding-complete genome sequence of a putative member of this genus, Bivens Arm virus. A genomic comparison reveals Bivens Arm virus to be closely related to, but distinct from, Tibrogargan virus. PMID:25792044

Hensley, Lisa E.

2015-01-01

307

Comparison of Immunohistochemistry and Virus Isolation for Diagnosis of West Nile Virus  

PubMed Central

Immunohistochemistry and virus isolation were performed on 1,057 birds. Immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, or both found 325 birds to be West Nile virus positive. Of these, 271 were positive by both methods. These results indicate that virus isolation and immunohistochemistry are approximately equal in their ability to detect West Nile virus. PMID:15956415

Ellis, Angela E.; Mead, Daniel G.; Allison, Andrew B.; Gibbs, Samantha E. J.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Stallknecht, David E.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.

2005-01-01

308

Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

Wodarz, Nan

2001-01-01

309

Virus Evolution: Insights from an Experimental  

E-print Network

Virus Evolution: Insights from an Experimental Approach Santiago F. Elena and Rafael Sanju Viruses represent a serious problem faced by human and veterinary medicine and agronomy. New viruses indicates that the evolution of viruses is determined mainly by key features such as their small genomes

Elena, Santiago F.

310

Virus Versus Mankind Aviezri S. Fraenkel  

E-print Network

Virus Versus Mankind Aviezri S. Fraenkel Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics://www.wisdom.weizmann.ac.il/~fraenkel Humanity is but a passing episode in the eternal life of the virus Abstract. We define a two­player virus game played on a finite cyclic digraph G = (V; E). Each vertex is either occupied by a single virus

Fraenkel, Aviezri

311

Experimental evolution of plant RNA viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undoubtedly, viruses represent a major threat faced by human and veterinary medicines and by agronomy. The rapid evolution of viruses enables them to escape from natural immunities and from state-of-the-art antiviral treatments, with new viruses periodically emerging with deadly consequences. Viruses have also become powerful and are increasingly used tools in the field of experimental evolution. A growing body of

S F Elena; P Agudelo-Romero; P Carrasco; F M Codoñer; S Martín; C Torres-Barceló; R Sanjuán

2008-01-01

312

Original article Virus association with lymphocytes  

E-print Network

Original article Virus association with lymphocytes in acute African swine fever L Carrasco F with a highly virulent African swine fever (ASF) virus isolate (Malawi' 83), and the adhesion of the lymphocytes to macrophages containing the virus replication sites. Virus replication in lymph-node medullar tissue

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

313

Cellular Factors Required for Lassa Virus Budding  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that Lassa virus Z protein is sufficient for the release of virus-like particles (VLPs) and that it has two L domains, PTAP and PPPY, in its C terminus. However, little is known about the cellular factor for Lassa virus budding. We examined which cellular factors are used in Lassa virus Z budding. We demonstrated that Lassa Z

S. Urata; T. Noda; Yoshihiro Kawaoka; Hideyoshi Yokosawa; Jiro Yasuda

2006-01-01

314

Label-Free Chemiresistive Immunosensors for Viruses  

E-print Network

Label-Free Chemiresistive Immunosensors for Viruses D H A M M A N A N D J . S H I R A L E , M A N of viruses. Bacteriophages T7 and MS2 were used as safe models for viruses for demonstration. Ppy nanowires, and affordable detection of bioagents/pathogens. Introduction Detection of viruses is central to human health

Chen, Wilfred

315

Biologically Inspired Defenses Against Computer Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's anti-virus technology, based largely on analysis of existing viruses by human experts, is just barely able to keep pace with the more than three new computer viruses that are writ­ ten daily. In a few years, intelligent agents nav­ igating through highly connected networks are likely to form an extremely fertile medium for a new breed of viruses. At

Jeffrey O. Kephart; Gregory B. Sorkin; William C. Arnold; David M. Chess; Gerald Tesauro; Steve R. White

1995-01-01

316

Modeling Computer Viruses MSc Thesis (Afstudeerscriptie)  

E-print Network

Modeling Computer Viruses MSc Thesis (Afstudeerscriptie) written by Luite Menno Pieter van Zelst About half a year ago, Alban Ponse, my thesis supervisor, suggested that the topic of `computer viruses indus- try and the creators of computer viruses. After all, the anti-virus industry stands to lose a lot

Amsterdam, University of

317

Ebola virus antibodies in fruit bats, bangladesh.  

PubMed

To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia. PMID:23343532

Olival, Kevin J; Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J; Epstein, Jonathan H; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W Ian; Luby, Stephen P; Daszak, Peter

2013-02-01

318

Antibody production and blastogenic response in pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed Central

Seven five-week piglets were infected intranasally with 10(5) TCID50 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus strain IAF.exp91. All virus-exposed pigs developed fever, labored abdominal breathing, conjunctivitis, and lymph node enlargement within the first 96 h postexposure (PE), which continued to d 10 to 14 PE. Two pigs that were necropsied at d 7 and 10 PE had diffuse interstitial pneumonitis, cardiopathy and lymphadenopathy. All 5 remaining pigs produced serum IgM and IgG antibodies against PRRS virus by 7 or 14 days PE, as demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence. This corresponded with the capability of isolating the virus from serum d 7 to d 49 or d 63 PE. Low serum neutralizing antibody titers were detected in 3 of the virus-exposed pigs by 35 days PE. A transient episode of diminished proliferative response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to mitogens phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) was observed in the virus-exposed pigs at d 3 PE. However, in vitro spontaneous uptake of [3H]-thymidine was significantly increased in lymphocyte cultures of the same pigs at d 7 or d 14 PE. These results suggest polyclonal activation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. PMID:8785726

Vézina, S A; Loemba, H; Fournier, M; Dea, S; Archambault, D

1996-01-01

319

Hepatitis E Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a worldwide disease. An improved understanding of the natural history of HEV infection has been achieved within the last decade. Several reservoirs and transmission modes have been identified. Hepatitis E is an underdiagnosed disease, in part due to the use of serological assays with low sensitivity. However, diagnostic tools, including nucleic acid-based tests, have been improved. The epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E differ between developing and developed countries. HEV infection is usually an acute self-limiting disease, but in developed countries it causes chronic infection with rapidly progressive cirrhosis in organ transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancy requiring chemotherapy, and individuals with HIV. HEV also causes extrahepatic manifestations, including a number of neurological syndromes and renal injury. Acute infection usually requires no treatment, but chronic infection should be treated by reducing immunosuppression in transplant patients and/or the use of antiviral therapy. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge about the virus itself, as well as the epidemiology, diagnostics, natural history, and management of HEV infection in developing and developed countries. PMID:24396139

Dalton, Harry R.; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques

2014-01-01

320

Transmitting Plant Viruses Using Whiteflies  

PubMed Central

Whiteflies, Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Bemisia tabaci, a complex of morphologically indistinquishable species5, are vectors of many plant viruses. Several genera of these whitefly-transmitted plant viruses (Begomovirus, Carlavirus, Crinivirus, Ipomovirus, Torradovirus) include several hundred species of emerging and economically significant pathogens of important food and fiber crops (reviewed by9,10,16). These viruses do not replicate in their vector but nevertheless are moved readily from plant to plant by the adult whitefly by various means (reviewed by2,6,7,9,10,11,17). For most of these viruses whitefly feeding is required for acquisition and inoculation, while for others only probing is required. Many of these viruses are unable or cannot be easily transmitted by other means. Therefore maintenance of virus cultures, biological and molecular characterization (identification of host range and symptoms)3,13, ecology2,12, require that the viruses be transmitted to experimental hosts using the whitefly vector. In addition the development of new approaches to management, such as evaluation of new chemicals14 or compounds15, new cultural approaches1,4,19, or the selection and development of resistant cultivars7,8,18, requires the use of whiteflies for virus transmission. The use of whitefly transmission of plant viruses for the selection and development of resistant cultivars in breeding programs is particularly challenging7. Effective selection and screening for resistance employs large numbers of plants and there is a need for 100% of the plants to be inoculated in order to find the few genotypes which possess resistance genes. These studies use very large numbers of viruliferous whiteflies, often several times per year. Whitefly maintenance described here can generate hundreds or thousands of adult whiteflies on plants each week, year round, without the contamination of other plant viruses. Plants free of both whiteflies and virus must be produced to introduce into the whitefly colony each week. Whitefly cultures must be kept free of whitefly pathogens, parasites, and parasitoids that can reduce whitefly populations and/or reduce the transmission efficiency of the virus. Colonies produced in the manner described can be quickly scaled to increase or decrease population numbers as needed, and can be adjusted to accommodate the feeding preferences of the whitefly based on the plant host of the virus. There are two basic types of whitefly colonies that can be maintained: a nonviruliferous and a viruliferous whitefly colony. The nonviruliferous colony is composed of whiteflies reared on virus-free plants and allows the weekly availability of whiteflies which can be used to transmit viruses from different cultures. The viruliferous whitefly colony, composed of whiteflies reared on virus-infected plants, allows weekly availability of whiteflies which have acquired the virus thus omitting one step in the virus transmission process. PMID:24300175

Polston, Jane E.; Capobianco, H.

2013-01-01

321

Multiple sclerosis: autoimmunity and viruses  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This review will explore two new aspects of the involvement of viruses in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. The first aspect is the complex interactions between viruses. The second aspect is the proposal of a mechanism by which autoreactive T cells are able to escape thymic selection and potentially recognize self and a pathogen. Recent findings With regard to viruses, recent work has demonstrated that one virus may enhance the replication of another virus, potentially leading to an increase in inflammation and disease progression. Also, interactions between human endogenous retroviruses, which likely do not replicate, and certain herpes viruses, may also play a role in disease pathogenesis. Mechanistically, T cells expressing dual T-cell receptors would be able to recognize self and a foreign antigen specifically. Therefore, human endogenous retroviruses potentially play a role in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis, and both interactions between multiple viruses and autoreactive CD8+ T cells with dual T-cell receptors may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Summary The complex interactions between multiple viral infections, either within the central nervous system or in the periphery, and the host immune response to viral infection may be such that a variety of viral specificities result in the activation of T cells that recognize self and induce multiple sclerosis. Therefore, it is unlikely that any one microbe will be determined to be the causative agent of multiple sclerosis as reflected by the number of potential triggering mechanisms of the disease. PMID:23656710

Cusick, Matthew F.; Libbey, Jane E.; Fujinami, Robert S.

2015-01-01

322

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2013-04-01

323

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2011-04-01

324

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2014-04-01

325

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2014-04-01

326

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2011-04-01

327

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2012-04-01

328

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2013-04-01

329

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2012-04-01

330

The genesis of a pandemic influenza virus.  

PubMed

Pandemic influenza viruses pose a significant threat to public health worldwide. In a recent Nature paper, Taubenberger et al. (2005) now report remarkable similarities between the polymerase genes of the influenza virus that caused the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic and those of avian influenza viruses. Meanwhile, Tumpey et al. (2005) reporting in Science show that the reconstructed 1918 Spanish influenza virus kills mice faster than any other influenza virus so far tested. PMID:16269328

Russell, Charles J; Webster, Robert G

2005-11-01

331

Modelling the evolution of the influenza virus  

E-print Network

CamGrid: High Throughput Computing in Science dfb21@cam.ac.uk Dr David Burke Antigenic Cartography Group Department of Zoology University of Cambridge 25th June 2008 Modelling the evolution of the influenza virus Antigenic variation of viruses... Antigenically Stable Pathogens Antigenically Variable Pathogens Smallpox Measles Tuberculosis Mumps Tetanus Influenza Virus Malaria HIV Dengue The Influenza Virus Annually, 'flu infects 7-14% of the population (400-800 million people globally ) Virus...

Burke, David

2008-06-27

332

Why do RNA viruses recombine?  

PubMed Central

Recombination occurs in many RNA viruses and can be of major evolutionary significance. However, rates of recombination vary dramatically among RNA viruses, which can range from clonal to highly recombinogenic. Here, we review the factors that might explain this variation in recombination frequency and show that there is little evidence that recombination is favoured by natural selection to create advantageous genotypes or purge deleterious mutations, as predicted if recombination functions as a form of sexual reproduction. Rather, recombination rates seemingly reflect larger-scale patterns of viral genome organization, such that recombination may be a mechanistic by-product of the evolutionary pressures acting on other aspects of virus biology. PMID:21725337

Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Holmes, Edward C.

2012-01-01

333

METHODOLOGY Open Access Virus replicon particle based Chikungunya virus  

E-print Network

the efficacy of potential vaccines. As CHIKV is a BSL3 agent, neutralization assays with infectious virus need outbreaks causing fever, headache, rash and severe arthralgia. So far, no specific treatment or vaccine

Boyer, Edmond

334

Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus (XMRV) Backgrounder  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have not found evidence that XMRV causes any diseases in humans or in animals. The presence of an infectious agent, such as a virus, in diseased tissue does not mean that the agent causes the disease.

335

Rice Yellow Mottle Virus, an RNA Plant Virus, Evolves as Rapidly as Most RNA Animal Viruses? †  

PubMed Central

The rate of evolution of an RNA plant virus has never been estimated using temporally spaced sequence data, by contrast to the information available on an increasing range of animal viruses. Accordingly, the evolution rate of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) was calculated from sequences of the coat protein gene of isolates collected from rice over a 40-year period in different parts of Africa. The evolution rate of RYMV was estimated by pairwise distance linear regression on five phylogeographically defined groups comprising a total of 135 isolates. It was further assessed from 253 isolates collected all over Africa by Bayesian coalescent methods under strict and relaxed molecular clock models and under constant size and skyline population genetic models. Consistent estimates of the evolution rate between 4 × 10?4 and 8 × 10?4 nucleotides (nt)/site/year were obtained whatever method and model were applied. The synonymous evolution rate was between 8 × 10?4 and 11 × 10?4 nt/site/year. The overall and synonymous evolution rates of RYMV were within the range of the rates of 50 RNA animal viruses, below the average but above the distribution median. Experimentally, in host change studies, substitutions accumulated at an even higher rate. The results show that an RNA plant virus such as RYMV evolves as rapidly as most RNA animal viruses. Knowledge of the molecular clock of plant viruses provides methods for testing a wide range of biological hypotheses. PMID:18199644

Fargette, D.; Pinel, A.; Rakotomalala, M.; Sangu, E.; Traoré, O.; Sérémé, D.; Sorho, F.; Issaka, S.; Hébrard, E.; Séré, Y.; Kanyeka, Z.; Konaté, G.

2008-01-01

336

Adeno-Associated Virus Vector Genomes Persist as Episomal Chromatin in Primate Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are capable of mediating long-term gene expression following administration to skeletal muscle. In rodent muscle, the vector genomes persist in the nucleus in concatemeric episomal forms. Here, we demonstrate with nonhuman primates that rAAV vectors integrate inefficiently into the chromosomes of myocytes and reside predominantly as episomal monomeric and con- catemeric circles. The episomal rAAV

Magalie Penaud-Budloo; Caroline Le Guiner; Ali Nowrouzi; Alice Toromanoff; Yan Cherel; Pierre Chenuaud; Manfred Schmidt; Christof von Kalle; Fabienne Rolling; Philippe Moullier; Richard O. Snyder

2008-01-01

337

High-Throughput Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Quantitation of Hepatitis C Virus RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a rapid and reproducible method for assessment of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) load in serum samples. The method combines Taqman technology (Roche) and the ABI Prism 7700 (Perkin Elmer) real-time sequence detection system. We have optimized a single-tube reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) that con- tains a dual-labeled fluorogenic probe to quantify the 5* noncoding region (5* NCR) of

MARIA MARTELL; JORDI GOMEZ; JUAN I. ESTEBAN; SILVIA SAULEDA; JOSEP QUER; BEATRIZ CABOT; RAFAEL ESTEBAN; JAIME GUARDIA

338

Hepatitis C virus glycoproteins mediate pH-dependent cell entry of pseudotyped retroviral particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV pseudotypes bearing native hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoproteins (strain H and Con1) are infectious for the human hepatoma cell lines Huh-7 and PLC\\/PR5. Infectivity depends on coexpression of both E1 and E2 glycoproteins, is pH-dependent, and can be neutralized by mAbs mapping to amino acids 412-447 within E2. Cell-surface expression of one or all of the candidate receptor molecules

Mayla Hsu; Jie Zhang; Mike Flint; Carine Logvinoff; Cecilia Cheng-Mayer; Charles M. Rice; Jane A. McKeating

2003-01-01

339

Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients. PMID:22028995

Sinha, Uma; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta; Roy, Keshab Sinha

2011-01-01

340

West Nile virus meningoencephalitis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Since its first appearance in the US in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged as the most common cause of epidemic meningoencephalitis in North America. In the 6 years following the 1999 outbreak, the geographic range and burden of the disease in birds, mosquitoes and humans has greatly expanded to include the 48 contiguous US and 7 Canadian provinces, as well as Mexico, the Caribbean islands and Colombia. WNV has shown an increasing propensity for neuroinvasive disease over the past decade, with varied presentations including meningitis, encephalitis and acute flaccid paralysis. Although neuroinvasive disease occurs in less than 1% of infected individuals, it is associated with high mortality. From 1999–2005, more than 8,000 cases of neuroinvasive WNV disease were reported in the US, resulting in over 780 deaths. In this review, we discuss epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnosis and prognosis of WNV meningoencephalitis, along with potential treatments. PMID:16932563

DeBiasi, Roberta L.; Tyler, Kenneth L.

2013-01-01

341

Varicella-zoster virus.  

PubMed Central

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Varicella is a common childhood illness, characterized by fever, viremia, and scattered vesicular lesions of the skin. As is characteristic of the alphaherpesviruses, VZV establishes latency in cells of the dorsal root ganglia. Herpes zoster, caused by VZV reactivation, is a localized, painful, vesicular rash involving one or adjacent dermatomes. The incidence of herpes zoster increases with age or immunosuppression. The VZV virion consists of a nucleocapsid surrounding a core that contains the linear, double-stranded DNA genome; a protein tegument separates the capsid from the lipid envelope, which incorporates the major viral glycoproteins. VZV is found in a worldwide geographic distribution but is more prevalent in temperate climates. Primary VZV infection elicits immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies, which bind to many classes of viral proteins. Virus-specific cellular immunity is critical for controlling viral replication in healthy and immunocompromised patients with primary or recurrent VZV infections. Rapid laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis of varicella or herpes zoster, which can be accomplished by detecting viral proteins or DNA, is important to determine the need for antiviral therapy. Acyclovir is licensed for treatment of varicella and herpes zoster, and acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir are approved for herpes zoster. Passive antibody prophylaxis with varicella-zoster immune globulin is indicated for susceptible high-risk patients exposed to varicella. A live attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka/Merck strain) is now recommended for routine childhood immunization. PMID:8809466

Arvin, A M

1996-01-01

342

Epstein-Barr virus test  

MedlinePLUS

EBV antibody test; Monospot ... a lab, where a lab specialist looks for antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus. In the first stages of an illness, little antibody may be detected. For this reason, serology tests ...

343

Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... screening test looks for the presence of HIV antibodies in a sample of your blood. Urine and ... damaged by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antibodies: Proteins in the blood produced in reaction to ...

344

Bronchiolitis and Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

MedlinePLUS

ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Bronchiolitis and Respiratory Syncytial Virus B ronchiolitis is an infection that affects the lungs and breathing passages; the name “bronchiolitis” means inflammation of the small airways in the ...

345

Viruses of eukaryotice green algae  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of our research was to develop the Chlorella-PBCV-1 virus system so that it can be used as a model system for studying gene expression in a photosynthetic eukaryote. We have made considerable progress and have learned much about PBCV-1 and its replication cycle. In addition, several significant discoveries were made in the last 3 to 4 years. These discoveries include: (i) the finding that morphologically similar, plaque forming, dsDNA containing viruses are common in nature and can be isolated readily from fresh water, (ii) the finding that all of these Chlorella viruses contain methylated bases which range in concentration from 0.1% to 47.5% m{sup 5}dC and 0 to 37% m{sup 6}dA and (iii) the discovery that infection with at least some of these viruses induces the appearance of DNA modification/restriction systems. 26 refs.

Van Etten, J.L.

1989-01-01

346

DIVERSAS MANERAS DE GENERAR ENERGIA CON  

E-print Network

DE OLAS #12;PAISES CON MAYOR CAPACIDAD HIDROELECTRICA Country Annual Hydroelectric Energy Production hydroelectric generating system. Three Gorges Dam Gezhouba Dam #12;COSTO PROMEDIO DE PRODUCCION (KWH) #12;U

Gilbes, Fernando

347

Nanoparticulas basadas en complejos de Fe(II) con transicion de espin: sintesis, caracterizacion y aplicaciones en electronica molecular  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Esta tesis doctoral esta organizada en 5 capitulos y esta destinada al estudio de sistemas de Fe (II) que presentan el fenomeno de la transicion de espin a escala nanometrica. El capitulo 1 contiene una introduccion general sobre materiales moleculares multifuncionales, destacando aquellos ejemplos mas importantes. Por otro lado, se explicara el fenomeno de la transicion de espin, tratando aspectos conceptuales, los antecedentes mas importantes y la situacion actual. En el capitulo 2 se describen los diferentes procesos existentes para la obtencion de diferentes tipos de nanoparticulas. Ademas, se presenta la sintesis y caracterizacion de nanoparticulas del polimero de coordinacion unidimensional [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4, obtenidas mediante el metodo de micelas inversas. Estas nanoparticulas, con una estrecha distribucion de tamanos centrada alrededor de los 11 nm, presentan una transicion de espin muy abrupta, con un ancho ciclo de histeresis termica de unos 40K. En el capitulo 3 se describe el proceso de modificacion del tamano de las nanoparticulas descritas en el capitulo anterior, llevado a cabo variando la proporcion de surfactante/H2O en el medio. Ademas, con el objetivo de modificar las propiedades magneticas de las nanoparticulas obtenidas en el capitulo 2, se lleva a cabo la sintesis de nanoparticulas de polimeros de la misma familia del [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4. En concreto se sintetizaron 3 nuevos tipos de nanoparticulas basadas en el polimero [Fe(Htrz)1-x(NH2trz)x](ClO4)2, siendo x = 0.05, 0.15 y 0.3, en cada caso. Estas nanoparticulas siguen presentando una estrecha distribucion de tamanos y una transicion de espin muy abrupta y con un ancho ciclo de histeresis. Ademas, se observa que este ciclo se desplaza a temperaturas mas proximas a la temperatura ambiente a medida que se aumenta el porcentaje de 4-amino-1, 2, 4- triazol en la muestra. Pero al mismo tiempo se produce una disminucion de la anchura de este ciclo. Por ultimo, en este capitulo se presenta la sintesis de otro nuevo tipo de nanoparticulas, obtenidas a partir de otro polimero de la misma familia, el [FeO8ZnO2(Htrz)3](BF4). Estas nanoparticulas se sintetizaron con el objetivo de estudiar el efecto de la dilucion del metal en la muestra. Como resultado se obtuvieron nanoparticulas que tambien presentan una estrecha distribucion de tamanos pero en este caso la transicion de espin no es tan abrupta como en los casos anteriores. Aunque sigue presentando un ciclo de histeresis termica bastante ancho y a temperaturas proximas a la temperatura ambiente. En el capitulo 4 se describiran las estrategias que se han seguido para mejorar la estabilidad y afinidad sobre diferentes sustratos de las nanoparticulas sintetizadas en el capitulo 2. Tambien se hablara de los intentos realizados parar depositarlas en superficies y embeberlas en diferentes matrices organicas e inorganicas. En el capitulo 5 presentaremos la obtencion de un interruptor molecular realizado poniendo en contacto nanoparticulas individuales sintetizadas en el capitulo 2, con unos electrodos separados varios nanometros. Este dispositivo exhibe "switching" y efecto memoria a temperaturas proximas a la temperatura ambiente como consecuencia de la biestabilidad intrinseca de las nanoparticulas. Ademas demostraremos que el estado magnetico de estas nanoparticulas puede ser controlado electricamente, ya que la transicion de espin en este nanodispositivo molecular puede ser inducida simplemente aplicando un voltaje, lo que puede ser de gran interes para la electronica molecular.

Monrabal Capilla, Maria

348

Movement of Viruses between Biomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are abundant in all known ecosystems. In the present study, we tested the possibility that viruses from one biome can successfully propagate in another. Viral concentrates were prepared from different near-shore marine sites, lake water, marine sediments, and soil. The concentrates were added to microcosms containing dissolved organic matter as a food source (after filtration to allow 100-kDa particles

Emiko Sano; Suzanne Carlson; Linda Wegley; Forest Rohwer

2004-01-01

349

Plant Viruses Transmitted by Whiteflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-hundred and fourteen virus species are transmitted by whiteflies (family Aleyrodidae). Bemisia tabaci transmits 111 of these species while Trialeurodes vaporariorum and T. abutilonia transmit three species each. B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum are present in the European–Mediterranean region, though the former is restricted in its distribution. Of the whitefly-transmitted virus species, 90% belong to the Begomovirus genus, 6% to

David R. Jones

2003-01-01

350

The Genome of Canarypox Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present the genomic sequence, with analysis, of a canarypox virus (CNPV). The 365-kbp CNPV genome contains 328 potential genes in a central region and in 6.5-kbp inverted terminal repeats. Comparison with the previously characterized fowlpox virus (FWPV) genome revealed avipoxvirus-specific genomic fea- tures, including large genomic rearrangements relative to other chordopoxviruses and novel cellular homo- logues and gene

E. R. Tulman; C. L. Afonso; Z. Lu; L. Zsak; G. F. Kutish; D. L. Rock

2004-01-01

351

Bifunctional thiosialosides inhibit influenza virus  

PubMed Central

We have synthesized a panel of bivalent S-sialoside analogues, with modifications at the 4 position, as inhibitors of influenza virus. These first generation compounds show IC50 values ranging from low micromolar to high nanomolar in enzyme inhibition and plaque reduction assays with two intact viruses, Influenza H1N1 (A/California/07/2009) and H3N2 (A/Hongkong/8/68). PMID:24374271

Yang, Yang; He, Yun; Li, Xingzhe; Dinh, Hieu

2014-01-01

352

Taxonomy and nomenclature of viruses.  

PubMed

In his article The species concept in plant virology Milne1 describes the CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses2 as providing the 'creeping barrage' (for the 'anti-species' views of many plant virologists and others) in the seemingly unending trench warfare over virus taxonomy and nomenclature. As an editor since 1970 (with BD Harrison) of this continuing series, I am moved to fire a few additional shots in support of Milne's thesis. PMID:3940013

Murant, A F

1985-07-01

353

Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several groups of viruses may infect persons after ingestion and then are shed via stool. Of these, the norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recognised as the most important human foodborne pathogens with regard to the number of outbreaks and people affected in the Western world.NoV and HAV are highly infectious and may lead to widespread outbreaks.

Marion Koopmans; Erwin Duizer

2004-01-01

354

Kinetics of virus production from single cells  

PubMed Central

The production of virus by infected cells is an essential process for the spread and persistence of viral diseases, the effectiveness of live-viral vaccines, and the manufacture of viruses for diverse applications. Yet despite its importance, methods to precisely measure virus production from cells are lacking. Most methods test infected-cell populations, masking how individual cells behave. Here we measured the kinetics of virus production from single cells. We combined simple steps of liquid-phase infection, serial dilution, centrifugation, and harvesting, without specialized equipment, to track the production of virus particles from BHK cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus. Remarkably, cell-to-cell differences in latent times to virus release were within a factor of two, while production rates and virus yields spanned over 300-fold, highlighting an extreme diversity in virus production for cells from the same population. These findings have fundamental and technological implications for health and disease. PMID:22222212

Timm, Andrea; Yin, John

2011-01-01

355

Major tomato viruses in the Mediterranean basin.  

PubMed

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) originated in South America and was brought to Europe by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century following their colonization of Mexico. From Europe, tomato was introduced to North America in the eighteenth century. Tomato plants show a wide climatic tolerance and are grown in both tropical and temperate regions around the world. The climatic conditions in the Mediterranean basin favor tomato cultivation, where it is traditionally produced as an open-field plant. However, viral diseases are responsible for heavy yield losses and are one of the reasons that tomato production has shifted to greenhouses. The major tomato viruses endemic to the Mediterranean basin are described in this chapter. These viruses include Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, Tomato torrado virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, Tomato infectious chlorosis virus, Tomato chlorosis virus, Pepino mosaic virus, and a few minor viruses as well. PMID:22682165

Hanssen, Inge M; Lapidot, Moshe

2012-01-01

356

Mapping overlapping functional elements embedded within the protein-coding regions of RNA viruses  

E-print Network

viruses. Such viruses include influenza A virus, Ebola virus, rabies virus, SARS virus, MERS virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Lassa virus. Many other human pathogenic viruses... functional elements embedded within the coding sequences [40]. For Enterovirus C these include the cre (cis-acting replication element) [41], the RNase L ciRNA (competitive inhibitor of RNase L) [42], and the ?/3D-7000 element [7,10]. The synplot2 analysis...

Firth, Andrew E.

2014-01-01

357

New hosts of Alfalfa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Potato virus Y, Soybean dwarf virus, and Tomato spotted wilt virus in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alfalfa mosaic virus is recorded for the first time in New Zealand on Cirsium arvense, Medicago lupulina, Mentha sp., Petunia × hybrida, Rumex obtusifolius, Senecio vulgaris, Sonchus asper, and Trifolium ambiguum. Cucumber mosaic virus is recorded on Arthropodium cirratum, Capsella bursa?pastoris, Carthamus tinctorius, Conium maculatum, Coronopus didymus, Galium aparine, Hirschfeldia incana, Marrubium vulgare, Malva parviflora, Malva sylvestris, Ranunculus sardous, and

J. D. Fletcher

2001-01-01

358

Another Really, Really Big Virus  

PubMed Central

Viruses with genomes larger than 300 kb and up to 1.2 Mb, which encode hundreds of proteins, are being discovered and characterized with increasing frequency. Most, but not all, of these large viruses (often referred to as giruses) infect protists that live in aqueous environments. Bioinformatic analyses of metagenomes of aqueous samples indicate that large DNA viruses are quite common in nature and await discovery. One issue that is perhaps not appreciated by the virology community is that large viruses, even those classified in the same family, can differ significantly in morphology, lifestyle, and gene complement. This brief commentary, which will mention some of these unique properties, was stimulated by the characterization of the newest member of this club, virus CroV (Fischer, M.G.; Allen, M.J.; Wilson, W.H.; Suttle, C.A. Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010, 107, 19508–19513 [1]). CroV has a 730 kb genome (with ?544 protein-encoding genes) and infects the marine microzooplankton Cafeteria roenbergensis producing a lytic infection. PMID:21994725

Van Etten, James L.

2011-01-01

359

Virus detection using nanoelectromechanical devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used a resonating mechanical cantilever to detect immunospecific binding of viruses, captured from liquid. As a model virus, we used a nonpathogenic insect baculovirus to test the ability to specifically bind and detect small numbers of virus particles. Arrays of surface micromachined, antibody-coated polycrystalline silicon nanomechanical cantilever beams were used to detect binding from various concentrations of baculoviruses in a buffer solution. Because of their small mass, the 0.5?m×6?m cantilevers have mass sensitivities on the order of 10-19g/Hz, enabling the detection of an immobilized AcV1 antibody monolayer corresponding to a mass of about 3×10-15g. With these devices, we can detect the mass of single-virus particles bound to the cantilever. Resonant frequency shift resulting from the adsorbed mass of the virus particles distinguished solutions of virus concentrations varying between 105 and 107pfu/ml. Control experiments using buffer solutions without baculovirus showed small amounts (<50attograms) of nonspecific adsorption to the antibody layer.

Ilic, B.; Yang, Y.; Craighead, H. G.

2004-09-01

360

Live viruses to treat cancer.  

PubMed

Viruses that selectively replicate in cancer cells, leading to the death of the cell, are being studied for their potential as cancer therapies. Some of these viruses are naturally occurring but cause little if any illness in humans; others have been engineered to make them specifically able to kill cancer cells while sparing normal cells. These oncolytic viruses may be selective for cancer cells because viral receptors are over-expressed on the surface of cancer cells or because antiviral pathways are distorted in cancer cells. Additionally, when oncolytic viruses kill cancer cells, it can stimulate an antitumour immune response from the host that can enhance efficacy. Numerous early phase trials of at least six oncolytic viruses have been reported with no evidence of concerning toxicity either as single agents or in combination with chemotherapies and radiotherapy. Three oncolytic viruses have reached randomized testing in cancer patients; reolysin in head and neck cancer and JX594 in hepatocellular cancers, while results from the first-phase III trial of T-vec in metastatic melanoma are expected shortly. PMID:23824333

Donnelly, Oliver; Harrington, Kevin; Melcher, Alan; Pandha, Hardev

2013-08-01

361

Viruses in Turing's Garden by Jean-Yves Marion  

E-print Network

Viruses in Turing's Garden by Jean-Yves Marion Cohen and his supervisor Adleman defined a virus as follows: "A virus is a program security community as a foundational definition. Thus, a virus is a self

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

362

PC viruses: How do they do that?  

SciTech Connect

The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

Pichnarczyk, K.

1992-07-01

363

PC viruses: How do they do that  

SciTech Connect

The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

Pichnarczyk, K.

1992-07-01

364

Virus of Pekin ducks with structural and biological relatedness to human hepatitis B virus.  

PubMed

A virus found in the sera of Pekin ducks appears to be a new member of the human hepatitis B-like family of viruses. This virus had a diameter of 40 nm and an appearance in the electron microscope similar to that of human hepatitis B virus. The DNA genome of the virus was circular and partially single stranded, and an endogenous DNA polymerase associated with the virus was capable of converting the genome to a double-stranded circle with a size of ca. 3,000 base pairs. An analysis for viral DNA in the organs of infected birds indicated preferential localization in the liver, implicating this organ as the site of virus replication. In all of these aspects, the virus bears a striking resemblance to human hepatitis B virus and appears to be a new member of this family, which also includes ground squirrel hepatitis virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus. PMID:7463557

Mason, W S; Seal, G; Summers, J

1980-12-01

365

Virus-like particles as virus substitutes to design artificial virus-recognition nanomaterials.  

PubMed

Functional recognition imprints of virus-like particles, at the surface of silica particles, were generated following a strategy based on protein-templated polycondensation of organosilanes. PMID:25558487

Sykora, Sabine; Cumbo, Alessandro; Belliot, Gaël; Pothier, Pierre; Arnal, Charlotte; Dudal, Yves; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Shahgaldian, Patrick

2015-01-27

366

Transformation of Murine Cells by Two “Slow Viruses,” Visna Virus and Progressive Pneumonia Virus  

PubMed Central

Visna and progressive pneumonia virus (PPV), two antigenically related, non-oncogenic “slow viruses” which have ribonucleic acid (RNA)-dependent deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerase activity, were examined for their ability to transform cells. Murine cells which had been exposed to either visna or PPV developed foci of altered, spindle-shaped cells 3 to 4 weeks after infection. Visna and PPV transformed lines were established from these cultures. There was no evidence that other oncogenic DNA or RNA viruses were involved in the observed transformation. Visna or PPV could be “rescued” from all transformed lines by co-cultivation with normal sheep testis cells. “Rescued” virus was identified as visna or PPV, and they retained the capacity to transform mouse cells. These experiments may have important implications in the understanding of both viral carcinogenesis and “slow” viral infections. Images PMID:4998321

Takemoto, Kenneth K.; Stone, Lawrence B.

1971-01-01

367

Trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad: comorbilidad con trastornos depresivos y de ansiedad  

Microsoft Academic Search

El estudio analiza el perfil comórbido del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) y trastornos depresivos y\\/o de ansiedad (TI), explorando el modelo que predice esta asocia- ción psicopatológica. Se analiza una muestra de 90 casos con TDAH (6-16 años) y mediante investi- gación diferencial se compara la agrupación TDAH+TI con la ausencia de esta comorbilidad. El caso

José Antonio López-Villalobos; Isabel Serrano Pintado; Juan Delgado Sánchez-Mateos

2004-01-01

368

Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential. PMID:25256392

Mehle, Andrew

2014-01-01

369

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2011-07-01

370

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2014-07-01

371

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2010-07-01

372

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2013-07-01

373

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2012-07-01

374

Emerging and re-emerging swine viruses.  

PubMed

In the past two decades or so, a number of viruses have emerged in the global swine population. Some, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), cause economically important diseases in pigs, whereas others such as porcine torque teno virus (TTV), now known as Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), porcine bocavirus (PBoV) and related novel parvoviruses, porcine kobuvirus, porcine toroviruses (PToV) and porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses (PLHV), are mostly subclinical in swine herds. Although some emerging swine viruses such as swine hepatitis E virus (swine HEV), porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) and porcine sapovirus (porcine SaV) may have a limited clinical implication in swine health, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans due to zoonotic (swine HEV) or potential zoonotic (porcine SaV) and xenozoonotic (PERV, PLHV) risks. Other emerging viruses such as Nipah virus, Bungowannah virus and Menangle virus not only cause diseases in pigs but some also pose important zoonotic threat to humans. This article focuses on emerging and re-emerging swine viruses that have a limited or uncertain clinical and economic impact on pig health. The transmission, epidemiology and pathogenic potential of these viruses are discussed. In addition, the two economically important emerging viruses, PRRSV and PCV2, are also briefly discussed to identify important knowledge gaps. PMID:22225855

Meng, X J

2012-03-01

375

High prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 in acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE:To determine the type of herpes simplex virus in acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus.METHODS:Herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus were examined by polymerase chain reaction in intraocular specimens from 16 patients with acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Anti–herpes simplex virus type 1 and anti–herpes simplex virus type

Norihiko Itoh; Nozomi Matsumura; Akiko Ogi; Tadayuki Nishide; Yumi Imai; Hikaru Kanai; Shigeaki Ohno

2000-01-01

376

Bluetongue virus in Lebanon.  

PubMed

Since 2000, several incursions of bluetongue virus (BTV) occurred in the Mediterranean Basin involving European and surrounding Countries. The Middle East represents one of the most important gateways for the access of BTV in Europe. Limited data on the BTV situation in this area are available. In this perspective, an epidemiological survey on the presence of BTV in Lebanon was conducted. Of the 181 serum samples tested, 97 (mean = 53.6%; 95% CI: 46.3-60.7) resulted positive when tested for the presence of BTV antibodies by c-ELISA, of these 42 (mean = 42%; 95% CI: 32.8-51.8) serum samples were from sheep and 55 (mean = 67.9%; 95% CI: 57.1-77.1) serum samples were from goats. Fourteen blood samples (14/110; mean = 12.7%; 95% CI: 7.8-20.3), 6 (6/66; mean = 9.1%; 95% CI: 4.4-18.5) from sheep and 8 (8/44; mean = 18.2%; 95% CI: 9.6-32.0) from goats, were positive by qRT-PCR. The results with serum-neutralization assay and typing performed by RT-PCR confirmed that six BTV serotypes are currently circulating in Lebanon, and these serotypes are as follows: 1, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24. This study is the first report that confirms the presence and circulation of BTV in Lebanon. PMID:23870037

El Hage, J; Lorusso, A; Carmine, I; Di Gennaro, A; Portanti, O; Olivieri, S; Casaccia, C; Pisciella, M; Teodori, L; Sghaier, S; Savini, G

2013-10-01

377

HETEROLOGOUS IMMUNITY BETWEEN VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

Summary Immune memory responses to previously encountered pathogens can sometimes alter the immune response to and the course of infection of an unrelated pathogen by a process known as heterologous immunity. This response can lead to enhanced or diminished protective immunity and altered immunopathology. Here we discuss the nature of T-cell cross-reactivity and describe matrices of epitopes from different viruses eliciting cross-reactive CD8+ T-cell responses. We examine the parameters of heterologous immunity mediated by these cross-reactive T cells during viral infections in mice and humans. We show that heterologous immunity can disrupt T-cell memory pools, alter the complexity of the T-cell repertoire, change patterns of T-cell immunodominance, lead to the selection of viral epitope-escape variants, alter the pathogenesis of viral infections, and, by virtue of the private specificity of T-cell repertoires within individuals, contribute to dramatic variations in viral disease. We propose that heterologous immunity is an important factor in resistance to and variations of human viral infections and that issues of heterologous immunity should be considered in the design of vaccines. PMID:20536568

Welsh, Raymond M.; Che, Jenny; Brehm, Michael A.; Selin, Liisa K.

2010-01-01

378

Dengue viruses – an overview  

PubMed Central

Dengue viruses (DENVs) cause the most common arthropod-borne viral disease in man with 50–100 million infections per year. Because of the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drugs, the sole measure of control is limiting the Aedes mosquito vectors. DENV infection can be asymptomatic or a self-limited, acute febrile disease ranging in severity. The classical form of dengue fever (DF) is characterized by high fever, headache, stomach ache, rash, myalgia, and arthralgia. Severe dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are accompanied by thrombocytopenia, vascular leakage, and hypotension. DSS, which can be fatal, is characterized by systemic shock. Despite intensive research, the underlying mechanisms causing severe dengue is still not well understood partly due to the lack of appropriate animal models of infection and disease. However, even though it is clear that both viral and host factors play important roles in the course of infection, a fundamental knowledge gap still remains to be filled regarding host cell tropism, crucial host immune response mechanisms, and viral markers for virulence. PMID:24003364

Bäck, Anne Tuiskunen; Lundkvist, Åke

2013-01-01

379

Usutu virus in Africa.  

PubMed

Usutu virus (USUV) was discovered in South Africa in 1959. Since then, it has been reported in several African countries including Senegal, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Uganda, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, and Morocco. In 2001, USUV has been identified for the first time outside of Africa, namely in Europe, where it caused a significant mortality among blackbirds in Vienna, Austria. In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. The host range in Africa includes mainly Culex mosquitoes, birds, and also humans with one benign and one severe case. Given its role as a potential human pathogen and the similar appearance compared with other emerging arboviruses, it is essential to investigate the natural history and ecology of USUV in Africa. In this regard, we review the emergence of USUV in Africa, summarizing data about isolations, host range, and potential vectors, which should help to improve our understanding of the factors underlying the circulation of USUV in Europe and Africa. PMID:21767160

Nikolay, Birgit; Diallo, Mawlouth; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Sall, Amadou Alpha

2011-11-01

380

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide and causes significant LRI in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. The goal of RSV vaccination is to prevent serious RSV-associated LRI. There are several obstacles to the development of successful RSV vaccines, including the need to immunize very young infants, who may respond inadequately to vaccination; the existence of two antigenically distinct RSV groups, A and B; and the history of disease enhancement following administration of a formalin-inactivated vaccine. It is likely that more than one type of vaccine will be needed to prevent RSV LRI in the various populations at risk. Although vector delivery systems, synthetic peptide, and immune-stimulating complex vaccines have been evaluated in animal models, only the purified F protein (PFP) subunit vaccines and live attenuated vaccines have been evaluated in recent clinical trials. PFP-2 appears to be a promising vaccine for the elderly and for RSV-seropositive children with underlying pulmonary disease, whereas live cold-passaged (cp), temperature-sensitive (ts) RSV vaccines (denoted cpts vaccines) would most probably be useful in young infants. The availability of cDNA technology should allow further refinement of existing live attenuated cpts candidate vaccines to produce engineered vaccines that are satisfactorily attenuated, immunogenic, and phenotypically stable. PMID:9665976

Dudas, Robert A.; Karron, Ruth A.

1998-01-01

381

Virus-host protein interactions in RNA viruses Pierre-Olivier Vidalain*, Frederic Tangy*  

E-print Network

Review Virus-host protein interactions in RNA viruses Pierre-Olivier Vidalain*, Fre´de´ric Tangy RNA viruses exhibit small-sized genomes that only encode a limited number of viral proteins, but still that aim at understanding general features of RNA virus infection networks at the protein level. � 2010

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

Guidelines for Anti-Virus Protection Recommended processes to prevent virus problems  

E-print Network

Guidelines for Anti-Virus Protection COE­AVP­01 Recommended processes to prevent virus problems: · Always run either the current University site licensed anti-virus software, which is available from the University download site or through ECS, or other reputable anti-virus software. · Download and run

Demirel, Melik C.

383

Analysis of in vivo dynamics of influenza virus infection in mice using a GFP reporter virus  

E-print Network

Analysis of in vivo dynamics of influenza virus infection in mice using a GFP reporter virus Balaji for review December 30, 2009) Influenza A virus is being extensively studied because of its major impact on human and animal health. However, the dynamics of influenza virus infection and the cell types infected

384

Cytotoxic T-cell abundance and virus load in human immunode ciency virus type 1  

E-print Network

Cytotoxic T-cell abundance and virus load in human immunode ciency virus type 1 and human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 Dominik Wodarz1 {, Sarah E. Hall2 {, Koichiro Usuku3,4 , Mitsuhiro Osame4 , Graham S OX3 9DU, UK The correlation between virus load and speci¢c cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) frequency

Nowak, Martin A.

385

West Nile Virus What you need to know about West Nile Virus  

E-print Network

West Nile Virus What you need to know about West Nile Virus: To date there have been no reported cases of infection on campus. While there have been a number of high profile deaths from West Nile Virus to human health. More information about West Nile Virus and how to prevent it can be found at the following

Houston, Paul L.

386

Comparison of wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) and barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV)  

E-print Network

Comparison of wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) and barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV): 2 streak mosaic bymovirus (WSSMV). Using different methods both viruses were found to be closely related. Electron microscopy studies revealed that both viruses lead to formation of 2 types of cytoplasmic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

387

GENOMIC SEQUENCING OF DEER TICK VIRUS AND PHYLOGENY OF POWASSAN-RELATED VIRUSES OF NORTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powassan (POW) virus is responsible for central nervous system infection in humans in North America and the eastern parts of Russia. Recently, a new flavivirus, deer tick (DT) virus, related to POW virus was isolated in the United States, but neither its pathogenic potential in human nor the taxonomic relationship with POW virus has been elucidated. In this study, we

G. KUNO; H. ARTSOB; N. KARABATSOS; K. R. TSUCHIYA; G. J. J. CHANG

2001-01-01

388

Identification du virus de rabougrissement buissonneux de la tomate (Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus)  

E-print Network

Identification du virus de rabougrissement buissonneux de la tomate (Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus) en observé à de nombreuses reprises le virus du rabougrissement buissonneux de la tomate (Tomato Bushy Stunt of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus on tomato, pepper and eggplant in Tunisia. Some characteristics of the Tunisian

Boyer, Edmond

389

Prevalence of respiratory viruses, including newly identified viruses, in hospitalised children in Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this epidemiological study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory viruses, including new viruses, in hospitalised children in Austria. Two hundred fourteen nasopharyngeal samples from hospitalised children were tested for the presence of viruses using cell culture and PCR and\\/or viral antigen assays. The results revealed a parainfluenza virus 1 (PIV1) outbreak that ended right before the

C. Larcher; V. Jeller; H. Fischer; H. P. Huemer

2006-01-01

390

Araçatuba Virus: A Vaccinialike Virus Associated with Infection in Humans and Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a vaccinialike virus, Araçatuba virus, associ- ated with a cowpoxlike outbreak in a dairy herd and a related case of human infection. Diagnosis was based on virus growth characteristics, electron microscopy, and molecular biology techniques. Molecular characterization of the virus was done by using polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning, and DNA sequencing of conserved orthopoxvirus genes such as

Giliane de Souza Trindade; Flávio Guimarães da Fonseca; João Trindade Marques; Maurício Lacerda Nogueira; Luiz Claudio; Nogueira Mendes; Alexandre Secorun Borges; Juliana Regina Peiró; Edviges Maristela Pituco; Cláudio Antônio Bonjardim; Paulo César Peregrino Ferreira; Erna Geessien Kroon

2003-01-01

391

Research Projects in Ly's & Liang's Labs How virus-host interactions affect Lassa and Influenza virus  

E-print Network

Guanarito (BSL4) Sabia (BSL4) Chapare (BSL4) Lujo (BSL4) Rift Valley Fever (BSL3) (BSL4) Yellow Fever (BSL and Influenza virus replication, virulence and pathogenesis? I fl iLassa fever virus Influenza virus #12;Lassa Virus Causes Lethal Hemorrhagic Fever · Severe multisystem syndrome · Damage to overall vascular system

Blanchette, Robert A.

392

Nyamanini and Midway Viruses Define a Novel Taxon of RNA Viruses in the Order Mononegavirales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we report the sequencing and classification of Nyamanini virus (NYMV) and Midway virus (MIDWV), two antigenically related viruses that were first isolated in 1957 and 1966, respectively. Although these viruses have been cultured multiple times from cattle egrets, seabirds, and their ticks, efforts to classify them taxonomically using conventional serological and electron microscopic approaches have failed completely. We used

Kathie A. Mihindukulasuriya; Nang L. Nguyen; Guang Wu; Henry V. Huang; Vsevolod L. Popov; Robert B. Tesh; David Wang

2009-01-01

393

Structure of the hepatitis E virus-like particle suggests mechanisms for virus assembly  

E-print Network

Structure of the hepatitis E virus-like particle suggests mechanisms for virus assembly (received for review May 1, 2009) Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a small, non-enveloped RNA virus in the family Hepeviridae, is associated with endemic and epidemic acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. Our 3.5-Ã?

Tao, Yizhi Jane

394

RNA Viruses in Hymenopteran Pollinators: Evidence of Inter-Taxa Virus Transmission via Pollen and Potential  

E-print Network

RNA Viruses in Hymenopteran Pollinators: Evidence of Inter-Taxa Virus Transmission via Pollen in the agricultural community. Among honey bee pathogens, RNA viruses are emerging as a serious threat a possible wider environmental spread of these viruses with potential broader impact. It is therefore vital

dePamphilis, Claude

395

Viruses in freshwater ecosystems: an introduction to the exploration of viruses in new aquatic habitats  

E-print Network

Viruses in freshwater ecosystems: an introduction to the exploration of viruses in new aquatic SUMMARY 1. Viruses have become widely recognized as the most abundant biological entities and important focussed on marine viruses, especially in pelagic environments. 2. Here we introduce a special issue

Jacquet, Stéphan

396

Protection of inactivated influenza virus vaccine against lethal influenza virus infection in diabetic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza virus infection frequently causes complications and some excess mortality in the patients with diabetes. Vaccination is an effective measure to prevent influenza virus infection. In this paper, antibody response and protection against influenza virus infection induced by vaccination were studied in mouse model of diabetes. Healthy and diabetic BALB\\/c mice were immunized once or twice with inactivated influenza virus

Qiang Zhu; Haiyan Chang; Yan Chen; Fang Fang; Changyong Xue; Fenghua Zhang; Meizhen Qiu; Hanzhong Wang; Bin Wang; Ze Chen

2005-01-01

397

Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

Primich, Tracy

1992-01-01

398

A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses  

E-print Network

A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses (Class I, II, and III) based on the protein sequence and structure. For Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV KW, Taylor SL, et al. (2013) A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits

399

Ependimoma myxopapilar sacro gigante con osteolisis  

PubMed Central

Objetivo: la presentación de un caso de una paciente con un ependimoma sacro con extensa infiltración y destrucción ósea local. Descripción del caso: una mujer de 53 años acudió a la consulta por dolor lumbosacro y alteraciones sensitivas perineales y esfinterianas. La imágenes por Resonancia Magnética (IRM) y la Tomografía Axial Computada (TAC) mostraron una lesión expansiva gigante a nivel S2-S4 con extensa osteólisis e invasión de tejidos adyacentes. Se realizó una exéresis tumoral completa con mejoría del estatus funcional. La anatomía patológica informó ependimoma mixopapilar. Discusión: la extensión de la resección quirúrgica es el mejor predictor de buen pronóstico. El tratamiento radiante se reserva como opción adyuvante para las resecciones incompletas y recidiva tumoral. La quimioterapia sólo debería utilizarse en casos en que la cirugía y la radioterapia estén contraindicadas. Conclusión: Los ependimomas mixopapilares sacros con destrucción ósea y presentación intra y extradural son muy infrecuentes y deben ser tenidos en cuenta entre los diagnósticos diferenciales preoperatorios. Su resección total, siempre que sea posible, es la mejor alternativa terapéutica. PMID:25165615

Ajler, Pablo; Landriel, Federico; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Campero, Álvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio

2014-01-01

400

Full Genome Sequencing and Genetic Characterization of Eubenangee Viruses Identify Pata Virus as a Distinct Species within the Genus Orbivirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eubenangee virus has previously been identified as the cause of Tammar sudden death syndrome (TSDS). Eubenangee virus (EUBV), Tilligery virus (TILV), Pata virus (PATAV) and Ngoupe virus (NGOV) are currently all classified within the Eubenangee virus species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Full genome sequencing confirmed that EUBV and TILV (both of which are from Australia) show high levels

Manjunatha N. Belaganahalli; Sushila Maan; Narender S. Maan; Kyriaki Nomikou; Ian Pritchard; Ross Lunt; Peter D. Kirkland; Houssam Attoui; Joe Brownlie; Peter P. C. Mertens

2012-01-01

401

Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication  

SciTech Connect

Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication.

Lee, Y.-R. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lei, H.-Y. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, M.-T. [Tainan Hospital, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, J.-R. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.-H. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Yeh, T.-M. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, C.-C. [Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, H.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: a713@mail.ncku.edu.tw

2008-05-10

402

Recombination promoted by DNA viruses: phage ? to herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage ? and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on ? and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

Weller, Sandra K; Sawitzke, James A

2014-01-01

403

Recombination Promoted by DNA Viruses: Phage ? to Herpes Simplex Virus  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage ? and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on ? and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

Weller, Sandra K.; Sawitzke, James A.

2015-01-01

404

Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies Test  

MedlinePLUS

... website will be limited. Search Help? Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... available for EBV? 1. How is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection or infectious mononucleosis (mono) treated? Care ...

405

Viruses Increasingly Behind Child Pneumonia Cases  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Viruses Increasingly Behind Child Pneumonia Cases Bug that causes ... years past, the cause is usually a respiratory virus, a large U.S. study finds. The researchers found ...

406

Tropical Virus Symptoms Can Mimic Rheumatoid Arthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Tropical Virus Symptoms Can Mimic Rheumatoid Arthritis: Study Similarities may ... 20, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus causes joint pain and swelling similar to rheumatoid ...

407

About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Providers Laboratory Testing References & Resources About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Page Symptoms Transmission Diagnosis Prevention & Treatment Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also known as human herpesvirus 4, is ...

408

Rare Virus Discovered in Common Tick  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rare Virus Discovered in Common Tick Scientists not yet sure ... FRIDAY, Jan. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A rare virus has been found in ticks that are common ...

409

Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses Language: English Español ... pigs and variant influenza virus infections in humans. Swine Flu in Swine (pigs) Swine Flu in Swine ( ...

410

FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on infected birds. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to ... from year to year. The weather, numbers of birds that maintain the virus, numbers of mosquitoes that ...

411

MOSQUITO PATHOGENIC VIRUSES - THE LAST 20 YEARS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are several types of viral pathogens that cause disease in mosquitoes with most belonging to four major groups. The most common viruses of mosquitoes are the baculoviruses (NPVs) (Baculoviridae: Nucleopolyhedrovirus) and cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses (CPVs) (Reoviridae: Cypovirus). The ot...

412

Prokaryote viruses studied by electron microscopy.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the electron microscopical descriptions of prokaryote viruses. Since 1959, nearly 6300 prokaryote viruses have been described morphologically, including 6196 bacterial and 88 archaeal viruses. As in previous counts, the vast majority (96.3 %) are tailed, and only 230 (3.7 %) are polyhedral, filamentous, or pleomorphic. The family Siphoviridae, whose members are characterized by long, noncontractile tails, is by far the largest family (over 3600 descriptions, or 57.3 %). Prokaryote viruses are found in members of 12 bacterial and archaeal phyla. Archaeal viruses belong to 15 families or groups of family level and infect members of 16 archaeal genera, nearly exclusively hyperthermophiles or extreme halophiles. Tailed archaeal viruses are found in the Euryarchaeota only, whereas most filamentous and pleomorphic archaeal viruses occur in the Crenarchaeota. Bacterial viruses belong to 10 families and infect members of 179 bacterial genera, mostly members of the Firmicutes and ?-proteobacteria. PMID:22752841

Ackermann, H-W; Prangishvili, D

2012-10-01

413

Evolution and ecology of Drosophila sigma viruses   

E-print Network

Insects are host to a diverse range of vertically transmitted micro-organisms, but while their bacterial symbionts are well-studied, little is known about their vertically transmitted viruses. The sigma virus (DMelSV) ...

Longdon, Ben John

2011-11-24

414

DETECTING UNDETECTABLE COMPUTER VIRUSES A Project Report  

E-print Network

DETECTING UNDETECTABLE COMPUTER VIRUSES A Project Report Presented to The Faculty of the Department Titled DETECTING UNDETECTABLE COMPUTER VIRUSES by Sujandharan Venkatachalam of Computer Science San Jose State University In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Master

Stamp, Mark

415

Evolution of Computer Virus Concealment and Anti-Virus Techniques: A Short Survey  

E-print Network

This paper presents a general overview on evolution of concealment methods in computer viruses and defensive techniques employed by anti-virus products. In order to stay far from the anti-virus scanners, computer viruses gradually improve their codes to make them invisible. On the other hand, anti-virus technologies continually follow the virus tricks and methodologies to overcome their threats. In this process, anti-virus experts design and develop new methodologies to make them stronger, more and more, every day. The purpose of this paper is to review these methodologies and outline their strengths and weaknesses to encourage those are interested in more investigation on these areas.

Rad, Babak Bashari; Ibrahim, Suhaimi

2011-01-01

416

Control of viruses infecting grapevine.  

PubMed

Grapevine is a high value vegetatively propagated fruit crop that suffers from numerous viruses, including some that seriously affect the profitability of vineyards. Nowadays, 64 viruses belonging to different genera and families have been reported in grapevines and new virus species will likely be described in the future. Three viral diseases namely leafroll, rugose wood, and infectious degeneration are of major economic importance worldwide. The viruses associated with these diseases are transmitted by mealybugs, scale and soft scale insects, or dagger nematodes. Here, we review control measures of the major grapevine viral diseases. More specifically, emphasis is laid on (i) approaches for the production of clean stocks and propagative material through effective sanitation, robust diagnosis, as well as local and regional certification efforts, (ii) the management of vectors of viruses using cultural, biological, and chemical methods, and (iii) the production of resistant grapevines mainly through the application of genetic engineering. The benefits and limitations of the different control measures are discussed with regard to accomplishments and future research directions. PMID:25591880

Maliogka, Varvara I; Martelli, Giovanni P; Fuchs, Marc; Katis, Nikolaos I

2015-01-01

417

Powassan Virus: Morphology and Cytopathology  

PubMed Central

Powassan virus, a North American tickborne group B arbovirus, multiplied after simultaneous inoculation into bottles or tubes of virus and trypsinized suspension of continuous-line cultures of rhesus monkey kidney cells, strain LLC-MK2. Cytopathic effects comprising cell rounding and cytoplasmic vacuolation were first observed five days after inoculation. Mixture of Powassan antiserum with virus before inoculation into tissue cultures inhibited the appearance of cytopathic effects. Hemagglutinins for rooster erythrocytes, optimally at pH 6.4 and 22° C., first appeared in tissue culture supernatant fluids four days after inoculation. Electron microscopic observation of thin sections of infected tissue culture cells showed virus particles 360-380 A.U. along outer cell membranes and edges of cytoplasmic vacuoles. In phosphotungstic acid negatively stained preparations, intact virus particles, 400-450 A.U. total diameter, were observed inside infected cells. In particles in which the peripheral layer became discontinuous, geometrically arranged subunits compatible with cubic symmetry were observed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:14146854

Abdelwahab, K. S. E.; Almeida, J. D.; Doane, F. W.; McLean, D. M.

1964-01-01

418

Opciones de cirugía para mujeres con CDIS o con cáncer de seno  

Cancer.gov

Contiene información sobre los tipos de cirugía de seno, como la operación para conservar el seno y la mastectomía, y ayuda a las mujeres diagnosticadas con CDIS o con cáncer de seno a decidir cuál cirugía es la más conveniente para ellas.

419

Aleaciones con memoria de forma, una filosofía diferente en la ingeniería y el diseño con materias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los materiales con memoria de forma también llamados materiales inteligentes poseen propiedades que los diferencian del resto de materiales. Estas propiedades no son propiedades mejoradas respecto a los materiales convencionales, sino que son nuevas propiedades que hacen que el proceso de diseño con materiales haya de ser modificado. La comprensión de estas nuevas propiedades y la estandarización de todos los

Fco. Javier Peña Andrés

2002-01-01

420

The iCons Four Year Curriculum Plan Contact: iCons@cns.umass.edu  

E-print Network

program offered by the College of Natural Sciences at the University their evolution in the iCons Program. Students' reflections in their portfolios) YEAR 1 (Spring 2013) iCons-1 (4 CR) 1 section: Tues/Thurs "Global Challenges

Auerbach, Scott M.

421

killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine  

E-print Network

killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine FluMist Thomas Francis, Jr. National Institutes of Health live-virus influenza vaccine Hunein Maassab Jonas Salk Type-A virus trivalent cold-adapted retrofitting virus 18 19Findings L A B O R A T O R Y D R E A M S U N I V E R S I T Y O F M I C H I G A N S C H

Shyy, Wei

422

Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Embryonic bovine kidney cell cultures infected with the NADL strain of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus, and PK-15 cells infected with an adapted strain of BVD virus were stained with fluorescein-isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-BVD serum globulins at sequential time periods. The development of virus-induced fluorescing antigens within infected cells was then studied. From this time-study, it appears that BVD virus-induced fluorescing

A. L. Fernelius

1969-01-01

423

Historical review: viruses, crystals and geodesic domes.  

PubMed

In the mid 1950s, Francis Crick and James Watson attempted to explain the structure of spherical viruses. They hypothesized that spherical viruses consist of 60 identical equivalently situated subunits. Such an arrangement has icosahedral symmetry. Subsequent biophysical and electron micrographic data suggested that many viruses had >60 subunits. Drawing inspiration from architecture, Donald Caspar and Aaron Klug discovered a solution to the problem - they proposed that spherical viruses were structured like miniature geodesic domes. PMID:12575996

Morgan, Gregory J

2003-02-01

424

Herpes Virus and Ménière’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The main goal of this study was to examine the vestibular ganglia from patients with intractable classic Ménière’s disease (MD) for the presence or absence of DNA from three neurotropic viruses herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV1, HSV2) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) and to investigate the hypothesis that MD is associated with virus reactivation within Scarpa’s ganglion.

M. Gärtner; W. Bossart; T. Linder

2008-01-01

425

SURVEY OF GRAPEVINE VIRUSES IN CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Grapevines from six Chilean regions were surveyed for virus diseases and tested for the presence of the most important viruses. ELISA testing of 2535 samples and confirmatory RT-PCR of some ELISA-negative samples from symptomatic and symptomless vines gave the fol- lowing infection rates: 6.36% for Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV); 4.67% for Grapevine leafroll associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1); 16.05% for

N. Fiore; S. Prodan; J. Montealegre; E. Aballay; A. M. Pino; A. Zamorano

426

Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola Viruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery.

Beer, Brigitte; Kurth, Reinhard; Bukreyev, Alexander

427

Neutralizing antibodies to different proteins of African swine fever virus inhibit both virus attachment and internalization.  

PubMed Central

African swine fever virus induces in convalescent pigs antibodies that neutralized the virus before and after binding to susceptible cells, inhibiting both virus attachment and internalization. A further analysis of the neutralization mechanisms mediated by the different viral proteins showed that antibodies to proteins p72 and p54 are involved in the inhibition of a first step of the replication cycle related to virus attachment, while antibodies to protein p30 are implicated in the inhibition of virus internalization. PMID:8764090

Gómez-Puertas, P; Rodríguez, F; Oviedo, J M; Ramiro-Ibáñez, F; Ruiz-Gonzalvo, F; Alonso, C; Escribano, J M

1996-01-01

428

The greasy response to virus infections.  

PubMed

Virus replication requires lipid metabolism, but how lipids mediate virus infection remains obscure. In this issue, Amini-Bavil-Olyaee et al. (2013) reveal that IFITM proteins disturb cholesterol homeostasis to block virus entry. Previously, in Cell, Morita and colleagues (2013) showed the antiviral potency of the lipid mediator protectin D1. PMID:23601099

Tanner, Lukas Bahati; Lee, Benhur

2013-04-17

429

VideoLab:Virus Spreads Fourfold Faster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Viruses are thought to infect cells cyclically: infect, replicate, release, repeat. However, the vaccinia virus can spread four times faster than this iterative process allows (first movie clip). To explain this incredible speed, Doceul et al. found that as soon as this virus infects a cell, it directs the cell to make two crucial surface proteins.

Virginie Doceul (Imperial College London, St Maryâ??s Campus; Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine)

2010-02-12

430

Optimization of network protection against virus spread  

E-print Network

Optimization of network protection against virus spread Eric Gourdin Orange Labs, Issy Abstract--The effect of virus spreading in a telecommunication network, where a certain curing strategy in nature, to name a few: the spread of viruses and worms in the Internet, as well as social engineering

Van Mieghem, Piet

431

Metamorphic Virus: Analysis and Evgenios Konstantinou  

E-print Network

Metamorphic Virus: Analysis and Detection Evgenios Konstantinou Supervisor: Dr. Stephen Wolthusen://www.rhul.ac.uk/mathematics/techreports #12;Abstract Metamorphic viruses transform their code as they propagate, thus evading detection by static signature-based virus scanners, while keeping their func- tionality. They use code obfuscation

Dent, Alexander W.

432

Murine Sarcoma Virus: The Question of Defectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of mouse and rat cells by the murine sarcoma virus (Moloney isolate) showed two-hit kinetics for focus production in mouse cells but one-hit kinetics in rat cells. Antiserum added to cultures after infection suppressed focus formation in mouse cells but not in rat cells. These studies suggest that, in rat cells infected with murine sarcoma virus, leukemia virus is

Robertson Parkman; Jay A. Levy; Robert C. Ting

1970-01-01

433

Review article Pathobiology of bovine leukemia virus  

E-print Network

Review article Pathobiology of bovine leukemia virus I Schwartz D Lévy URA-INRA d-Alfort cedex, France (Received 16 March 1994; accepted 25 July 1994) Summary ― Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus similar to the human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV). Most BLV infected animals (70

Boyer, Edmond

434

Detection and Diagnosis of Plant Viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diseases caused by viruses are a constant and major problem for crop production worldwide. Human interest in plant genetic resources and globalization of human activities has inadvertently contributed to the spread of viruses throughout the world, increasing the frequency of plant virus outbreaks. C...

435

Open Problems in Computer Virus Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a decade of work on the computer virus problem has resulted in a number of useful scientific and technological achievements. The study of biological epidemiology has been extended to help us understand when and why computer viruses spread. Techniques have been developed to help us estimate the safety and effectiveness of anti-virus technology before it is deployed. Technology for

Steve R. White

1998-01-01

436

Original article Bovine respiratory syncytial virus  

E-print Network

Original article Bovine respiratory syncytial virus: first serological evidence in Uruguay Mauro; accepted 18 November 1999) Abstract ­ Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a major cause virus / recombinant N protein / epidemiology / baculovirus / Uruguay Résumé ­ Première mise en évidence

Boyer, Edmond

437

Protecting Student Labs from Computer Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explains the effects that computer viruses may have on computers and computer files, discusses how computers usually become infected with viruses, and suggests techniques that users should follow to reduce the incidence of computer virus attacks occurring primarily in educational computer labs. Drawing from personal experience, the author emphasizes nine safeguards that instructors, computer lab managers, and students

Carolyn Dolecheck

1993-01-01

438

Hot crenarchaeal viruses reveal deep evolutionary connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of archaeal viruses provides insights into the fundamental biochemistry and evolution of the Archaea. Recent studies have identified a wide diversity of archaeal viruses within the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park and other high-temperature environments worldwide. These viruses are often morphologically unique and code for genes with little similarity to other known genes in the biosphere, a

Alice C. Ortmann; Blake Wiedenheft; Trevor Douglas; Mark Young

2006-01-01

439

Tobacco mosaic virus virulence and avirulence.  

PubMed Central

In celebration of a century of research on tobacco mosaic virus that initiated the science of virology, I review recent progress relative to earlier contributions concerning how viruses cause diseases of plants and how plants defend themselves from viruses. PMID:10212944

Dawson, W O

1999-01-01

440

Focus on: Hendra virus in Australia.  

PubMed

Cases of Hendra virus infection in horses in Australia have been seen regularly since the virus was first isolated in 1994. Kristopher Hughes, associate professor of equine medicine at Charles Sturt University in Australia, gives an overview of how knowledge of the virus has developed in the past 20 years. PMID:25431383

Hughes, Kristopher

2014-11-29

441

VIRUS TRANSPORT EXPERIMENTS IN A SANDY AQUIFER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The occurrence of human enteric viruses in ground water has been well documented in the literature. Bacteriophages, such as MS-2 and PRD1, have properties similar to pathogenic human viruses, suggesting that bacteriophages can be used as proxies for virus transport. The objective of this study is to...

442

GENETIC VARIABILITY IN MAIZE CHLOROTIC DWARF VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) (genus Waikavirus; family Sequiviridae) is a picorna-like virus transmitted by the black-faced leafhopper, Graminella nigrifrons, in a semi-persistent manner using a virus-encoded helper protein. The MCDV genome contains one large open reading frame encoding a poly...

443

Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover  

PubMed Central

Viruses that originate in bats may be the most notorious emerging zoonoses that spill over from wildlife into domestic animals and humans. Understanding how these infections filter through ecological systems to cause disease in humans is of profound importance to public health. Transmission of viruses from bats to humans requires a hierarchy of enabling conditions that connect the distribution of reservoir hosts, viral infection within these hosts, and exposure and susceptibility of recipient hosts. For many emerging bat viruses, spillover also requires viral shedding from bats, and survival of the virus in the environment. Focusing on Hendra virus, but also addressing Nipah virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and coronaviruses, we delineate this cross-species spillover dynamic from the within-host processes that drive virus excretion to land-use changes that increase interaction among species. We describe how land-use changes may affect co-occurrence and contact between bats and recipient hosts. Two hypotheses may explain temporal and spatial pulses of virus shedding in bat populations: episodic shedding from persistently infected bats or transient epidemics that occur as virus is transmitted among bat populations. Management of livestock also may affect the probability of exposure and disease. Interventions to decrease the probability of virus spillover can be implemented at multiple levels from targeting the reservoir host to managing recipient host exposure and susceptibility. PMID:25392474

Plowright, Raina K.; Eby, Peggy; Hudson, Peter J.; Smith, Ina L.; Westcott, David; Bryden, Wayne L.; Middleton, Deborah; Reid, Peter A.; McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Martin, Gerardo; Tabor, Gary M.; Skerratt, Lee F.; Anderson, Dale L.; Crameri, Gary; Quammen, David; Jordan, David; Freeman, Paul; Wang, Lin-Fa; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Marsh, Glenn A.; Kung, Nina Y.; McCallum, Hamish

2015-01-01

444

Email Virus Propagation Modeling and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Email viruses constitute one of the major Internet security problems. In this paper we present an email virus model that accounts for the behaviors of email users, such as email checking frequency and the probability of opening an email attachment. Email viruses spread over a logical network defined by email address books. The topology of email network plays an important

Cliff C. Zou; Don Towsley; Weibo Gong

2003-01-01

445

Advanced Review Viruses and the cellular RNA  

E-print Network

Advanced Review Viruses and the cellular RNA decay machinery Marta Maria Gaglia and Britt A interactions between the eukaryotic RNA turnover machinery and a wide variety of viruses. Interestingly, in many cases viruses have evolved mechanisms not only to evade eradication by these pathways, but also

446

Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters  

PubMed Central

Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles. PMID:25355078

Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

2014-01-01

447

Ebola Virus Antibody Prevalence in Dogs  

E-print Network

observed that several dogs were highly exposed to Ebola virus by eating infected dead animals. To examine whether these animals became infected with Ebola virus, we sampled 439 dogs and screened them by Ebola virus–specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G assay, antigen detection, and viral polymerase chain

Human Risk; Loïs Allela; Olivier Bourry; Régis Pouillot; André Délicat; Brice Kumulungui; Pierre Rouquet; Jean-paul Gonzalez; Eric M. Leroy

448

CLASSIFICATION AND NOMENCLATURE OF VIRUSES OF CYANOBACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The Study Group finds it appropriate that viruses which have as their host cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) should be grouped within the well-categorized families of the bacterial viruses. Thus, the term cyanophage is adopted as a synonym for the vernacular name BGA virus (BGAV) ...

449

MODEL OF VIRUS TRANSPORT IN UNSATURATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of the recently-proposed mandatory ground-water disinfection requirements to inactivate viruses in potable water supplies, there has been increasing interest in virus fate and transport in the subsurface. everal models have been developed to predict the fate of viruse...

450

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A A When HIV is first contracted, there may be ... 1–6 weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can ...

451

Replication-selective viruses for cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of cancer and the availability of technology to genetically engineer viruses have led to the development of replication-competent viruses to treat cancer. In theory, replication-selective viruses offer several appealing properties as biological agents for cancer therapy: they kill tumor cells selectively, and their replication leads to amplification of their oncolytic potential. Most

Carola Biederer; Stefan Ries; Christian H. Brandts; Frank McCormick

2002-01-01

452

On the time complexity of computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer viruses can disable computer systems not only by destroying data or modifying a system's configuration, but also by consuming most of the computing resources such as CPU time and storage. The latter effects are related to the computational complexity of computer viruses. In this correspondence, we investigate some issues concerning the time complexity of computer viruses, and prove some

Zhi-hong Zuo; Qing-xin Zhu; Ming-tian Zhou

2005-01-01

453

An Abstract Theory of Computer Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the detection of computer viruses has become common place. It appears that for the most part these viruses\\u000a have been ‘benign’ or only mildly destructive. However, whether or not computer viruses have the potential to cause major\\u000a and prolonged disruptions of computing environments is an open question.

Leonard M. Adleman

1988-01-01

454

Computer Viruses and Safe Educational Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion of computer viruses explains how these viruses may be transmitted, describes their effects on data and/or computer application programs, and identifies three groups that propagate them. Ten major viruses are listed and described, and measures to deal with them are discussed. Nineteen antiviral programs are also listed and…

Azarmsa, Reza

1991-01-01

455

Semester Thesis Virus Inoculation on Social Graphs -  

E-print Network

led to a huge number of computer-viruses, acting in many different manners and aiming at diverse. A contaminated computer hence serves as a source for the virus to infect every other directly linked computer of the virus, every computer that eventually is infected has also to face a drawback in terms of e.g. lost data

Schmid, Stefan

456

A modified epidemiological model for computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the computer viruses pose a serious problem to individual and corporative computer systems, a lot of effort has been dedicated to study how to avoid their deleterious actions, trying to create anti-virus programs acting as vaccines in personal computers or in strategic network nodes. Another way to combat viruses propagation is to establish preventive policies based on the whole

José Roberto C. Piqueira; Vanessa O. Araujo

2009-01-01

457

Current best practice against computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summarizes research on viruses and defenses. The author examines the state-of-the-art in virus defense today and describes how normal computing activities can proceed without undue risk of substantial viral harm. He then describes a set of redundant integrity protection mechanisms used in defending against computer viruses in untrusted computing environments. They include applications of coding theory, cryptography, operating system modifications,

Fred Cohen

1991-01-01

458

Biodiversity I: Basic Taxonomy and Viruses  

E-print Network

1 Biodiversity I: Basic Taxonomy and Viruses A computer model of HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus What Defines a Living Organism? Some kind of organizational plan for performing needed tasks in cell membrane structure, organelle types, and other cellular traits What about viruses? On all our

Brown, Christopher A.

459

A history of computer viruses - Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following series of articles are taken from Harold's Computer Virus Handbook, published by Elsevier Advanced Technology in 1990. Viruses have moved on a long way since then, but the extracts published here provide a useful background in virus development, and contain much information that is still relevant today. It is also interesting to note that Harold introduces the Macro

Harold Joseph Highland

1997-01-01

460

METAMORPHIC VIRUSES WITH BUILT BUFFER OVERFLOW  

E-print Network

METAMORPHIC VIRUSES WITH BUILT BUFFER OVERFLOW The Faculty of the Department of Computer Science of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Computer Science by Ronak Shah Spring 2010 METAMORPHIC VIRUSES WITH BUILT WITH BUILT-IN BUFFER OVERFLOW Metamorphic computer viruses change their structure--and thereby

Stamp, Mark

461

Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles.

Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

2014-10-01

462

Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or s...

463

The greasy response to virus infections  

PubMed Central

Previews Virus replication requires lipid metabolism, but how lipids mediate virus infection remains obscure. In this issue, Amini-Bavil-Olyaee et al. (2013) reveal that IFITM proteins disturb cholesterol homeostasis to block virus entry. Previously in Cell, Morita and colleagues (2013) showed the antiviral potency of the lipid mediator protectin D1. PMID:23601099

Tanner, Lukas Bahati; Lee, Benhur

2013-01-01

464

Development and optimization of an internally controlled dried blood spot assay for surveillance of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 drug resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: We present the evaluation of a methodology for the genotypic assessment of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) drug resistance, optimized for use with dried blood spots (DBS). Methods: The ability to generate HIV-1 protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) contiguous ampli- cons and nucleotide sequences from DBS was evaluated. Different collection matrices and extraction methodologies were compared. The relative

Andrew J. Buckton; Sara L. Bissett; Richard E. Myers; Simon Beddows; Simon Edwards; Patricia A. Cane; Deenan Pillay

2008-01-01

465

Major Histocompatibility Complex-Linked Immune Response of Young Chickens Vaccinated with an Attenuated Live Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccine Followed by an Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the MHC on infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine response in chickens was investigated in three different chicken lines con- taining four different MHC haplotypes. Two MHC haplo- types were present in all three lines with one haplotype (B19) shared between the lines. Line 1 further contains the BW1 haplotype isolated from a Red Jungle Fowl. Line

H. R. Juul-Madsen; O. L. Nielsen; T. Krogh-Maibom; C. M. Røntved; T. S. Dalgaard; N. Bumstead; P. H. Jørgensen

466

Novel avian influenza virus vaccines.  

PubMed

Current vaccines against avian influenza (AI) virus infections are primarily based on classical inactivated whole-virus preparations. Although administration of these vaccines can protect poultry from clinical disease, sterile immunity is not achieved under field conditions, allowing for undetected virus spread and evolution under immune cover. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a robust and reliable system of differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals. Moreover, current AI vaccines must be administered individually, requiring the handling of excessively large numbers of animals, which makes it difficult to obtain high vaccine coverage. Consequently, AI vaccines conferring solid immunity that could be used for mass application would be advantageous. Several approaches are being pursued to improve existing vaccines and develop novel vaccines, all of which will be covered in this overview. PMID:19618635

Fuchs, W; Römer-Oberdörfer, A; Veits, J; Mettenleiter, T C

2009-04-01

467

RNA of mouse hepatitis virus.  

PubMed Central

The RNA of mouse hepatitis virus, a coronavirus, was isolated from the virus released early in the infection and analyzed by sucrose gradient sedimentation and electrophoresis. It was found to consist of a piece of single-stranded RNA of about 60S. Its molecular weight was estimated to be 5.4 X 10(6) by electrophoresis in methylmercury-agarose gels. At least one third of the RNA contained polyadenylated sequences. It is, therefore, probably positive stranded. The virus harvested late in the infection contained, in addition to 60S, some 30 to 50S RNA that are possibly degradation products of the 60S RNA. No difference in the electrophoretic behavior could be detected between the RNA isolated from a pathogenic (JHM) and a nonpathogenic (A59) strain. PMID:207885

Lai, M M; Stohlman, S A

1978-01-01

468

Serological differences between red currant spoon leaf virus, virus isolates from Eckelrade-diseased cherry trees and the Scottish raspberry ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antisera were made to red currant spoon leaf virus (SLV), an isolate of the Scottish raspberry ringspot virus (RRV), and two virus isolates from Eckelrade-diseased cherry trees (EV). Different virus isolates, including one from Belgium, were tested against these antisera. The results indicate that we are dealing with a group of virus isolates with different antigenic properties. SLV is very

D. Z. Maat

1965-01-01

469

Ready to implement CIM Monolith Technology Order our CIM Disk Virus Purification Pack and identify the optimal chemistry  

E-print Network

MV Measles virus Measles virus Measles virus Measles virus Measles virus HSV HSV HSV HSV HSV Mumps virusMVCaMV CaMV CaMV Measles virus Measles virus Measles virus Measles virus Measles virus HSV HSV HSV HSV HSV

Lebendiker, Mario

470

Preventing respiratory syncytial virus infections.  

PubMed

Respiratory syncytial virus infection is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children. Palivizumab, a respiratory syncytial virus-specific monoclonal antibody, reduces the hospitalization rate of high-risk children but it is very costly. This statement replaces three previous position statements from the Canadian Paediatric Society about this topic, and was updated primarily to discuss recent changes in the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines in the Canadian context. It reviews the published literature and provides recommendations regarding palivizumab use in high-risk children. PMID:23024588

Robinson, Jl

2011-10-01

471

Dominant resistance against plant viruses  

PubMed Central

To establish a successful infection plant viruses have to overcome a defense system composed of several layers. This review will overview the various strategies plants employ to combat viral infections with main emphasis on the current status of single dominant resistance (R) genes identified against plant viruses and the corresponding avirulence (Avr) genes identified so far. The most common models to explain the mode of action of dominant R genes will be presented. Finally, in brief the hypersensitive response (HR) and extreme resistance (ER), and the functional and structural similarity of R genes to sensors of innate immunity in mammalian cell systems will be described. PMID:25018765

de Ronde, Dryas; Butterbach, Patrick; Kormelink, Richard

2014-01-01

472

[Epidemiologic aspects of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis virus infections].  

PubMed

In order to determinate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus among patients infected by the HIV, We realized a transverse survey case--control in hepato-gastro-enterological ward and serology unity of National Institute of Research in Public health (INRSP). Our sample was constituted with 100 patients HIV positive compared to 100 controls HIV negative. The viral markers research has been made by methods immuno-enzymatiqueses of ELISA 3rd generation. Tests permitted to get the following results: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag) was positive among 21% with patients HIV positive versus 23% among control (p = 0,732); Antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV ab) was present among 23% with patients HIV positive versus 0% among control (p <0,05). Female was predominant among co-infections patient, but without statistic link (p = 0,9 and p = 0,45); The co-infection HBV- HCV was significatively linked to age beyond 40 years (p = 0,0005). Co-infections with HIV infection and hepatitis virus are not rare and deserve to be investigated. PMID:19617082

Diarra, M; Konate, A; Minta, D; Sounko, A; Dembele, M; Toure, C S; Kalle, A; Traore, H H; Maiga, M Y

2006-01-01

473

Bovine viral diarrhea virus: characteristics of the virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper reviews the history of research on bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) from their discovery in the 1940's to the design of current BVDV eradication programs. The physiochemical characteristics of BVDV are discussed and well as classification of BVDV into biotypes and genotypes. The trans...

474

Expression of rabies virus glycoprotein from a recombinant vaccinia virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabies is one of the oldest diseases known to man, but its successful control has remained elusive. Although effective vaccines of tissue culture origin against rabies do exist1, such preparations are expensive. Live vaccinia virus (VV) recombinants expressing influenza or hepatitis B antigens have recently been used to immunize against these diseases2-4. We have now used this approach to produce

M. P. Kieny; R. Lathe; R. Drillien; D. Spehner; S. Skory; D. Schmitt; T. Wiktor; H. Koprowski; J. P. Lecocq

1984-01-01

475

DIVERSAS MANERAS DE GENERAR ENERGIA CON  

E-print Network

;PAISES CON MAYOR CAPACIDAD HIDROELECTRICA Country Annual Hydroelectric Energy Production (TW-Rivera #12;The Three Gorges Dam project in Hubei, China, is the world's largest hydroelectric generating convirtio en la fuente principal de energia en Puerto Rico #12;23/feb/2008 Wave Power Energía de las Olas

Gilbes, Fernando

476

Equivariant con guration spaces Colin Rourke  

E-print Network

by thinking of the con guration as a set of charged particles and using the electric eld they generate (see 8(X) is a nite disjoint collection of little discs in M which is closed under the action of G and such that each

Rourke, Colin

477

Google Scholar: the pros and the cons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To identify the pros and the cons of Google Scholar. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Chronicles the recent history of the Google Scholar search engine from its inception in November 2004 and critiques it with regard to its merits and demerits. Findings – Feels that there are massive content omissions presently but that, with future changes in its structure, Google Scholar

Péter Jacsó

2005-01-01

478

Interacción, Motivación y Emociones con Videojuegos  

Microsoft Academic Search

El principal objetivo de este trabajo es comprender como se construye el conocimiento y se adquieren competencias en una comunidad virtual de aprendizaje soportada en una plataforma telemática integrada con un juego 3D de rol masivo. Para ello, hemos diseñado actividades formativas colaborativas que nos permitirán modelar las interacciones de una comunidad de aprendizaje virtual producidas en juegos de rol

Carina S. González; Francisco Blanco

479

The Pros and Cons of Artificial Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan asks students to consider whether artificial reefs (human-made objects in the ocean or sea) are good for marine ecosystems. Students will look at pictures of artificial reefs and read articles describing the pros and cons of these structures. They will conclude by writing paragraphs explaining whether they think a new artificial reef should be created in Florida waters.

480

Interacción con Entornos Virtuales en teléfonos móviles  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo presentamos un sistema para la navegación en entornos virtuales 3D sobre teléfonos móviles. Tradicionalmente la interacción con el teléfono móvil se ha realizado utilizando el teclado como dispositivo de interacción. Sin embargo, gracias a las capacidades de los nuevos terminales es posible aprovechar dispositivos como la cámara incorporada o los acelerómetros para implementar interacciones basadas en movimientos

Jesús Gimeno; Marcos Fernández; Pedro Morillo; Lucía Vera

481

The pros and cons of hospital employment.  

PubMed

The pros and cons of hospital employment vary significantly in today's economic environment. This chapter summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of hospital employment with an emphasis on the critical aspect of formalizing an agreement with the hospital employer to prevent future salary reductions and/or termination. PMID:23924751

Bert, Jack M

2013-09-01

482

Descubre la biblioteca con Gua rpida  

E-print Network

provenientes de los recursos electrónicos y del repositorio institucional #12;Acceso desde la página web de la, revistas, audiovisuales, mapas, ... Repositorio UAM: tesis doctorales, proyectos de investigación, revistas Repositorio · Algunas suscripciones a recursos electrónicos #12;Enlace con el documento Acceso mediante el

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

483

Viruses and host evolution: virus-mediated self identity.  

PubMed

Virus evolution has become a topic that involves population based selection. Both quasispecies based populations and reticulated mosaic exchange of populations of genetic elements are now well established. This has led us to the understanding that a cooperative consortia can be a crucial aspect of virus driven evolution. Thus viruses exist in groups that can cooperate. However, consortial based evolution (group selection) has long been dismissed by evolutionary biologist. Recently, biocommunication theory has concluded that the evolution and editing of any code or language requires a consortial based process in order to adhere to pragmatic (context) requirements for meaning (in conflict with survival of the fittest concepts). This has led to the idea that viruses are the natural editors of biological codes or language. In this chapter, I present the view that the persistence of virus information in their host provides a natural process of host code editing that is inherently consortial. Since persistence requires mechanisms to attain stability and preclude competition, it also provided mechanisms that promote group identity. Accordingly, I review the viral origins of addiction modules and how these affect both persistence and group identity. The concepts emerging from addiction module based group identity are then generalized and applied to social identity systems as well. I then examine the prokaryotes and the involvement of viral elements in the emergence of their group identity systems (biofilms). Here, integrating dsDNA agents prevailed. In the eukaryotes, however, a large shift in virus-host evolution occurred in which the role of dsDNA agents was diminished but the role of retroviruses and retroposons was greatly enhanced. These agents provided greatly expanded and network based regulatory complexity that was controlled by sensory inputs. From this perspective, the role of virus in the origin of the adaptive immune system is then outlined. I then consider human evolution from the perspective of the great HERV colonization. The origin of a large social brain able to support the learning of language is presented from this viral perspective. The role of addiction modules in the origin of extended social bonding of humans is outlined and applied to the emergence of language as a system of group identity. PMID:22399381

Villarreal, Luis

2012-01-01

484

Las personas con diabetes deben lograr un balance entre los  

E-print Network

en un lado del plato y los alimentos bajos en carbohidratos al otro lado. Karen Halderson, MPH, RD bajos en carbohidratos, manteniendo cada uno en su propio lado del plato o de la mesa. Comer vegetales en diferentes lados de su plato y ver si su plato está "balanceado". Sin embargo, muchas veces

485

Persistence of virus lipid signatures upon silicification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date there is no known evidence of viruses within the rock record. Their small size and absence of a metabolism has led to the hypothesis that they lack unique biological signatures, and the potential to become preserved. Biosignature research relevant to early Earth has focused on prokaryotic communities; however, the most abundant member of modern ecosystems, viruses, have been ignored. In order to establish a baseline for research on virus biosignatures, we have initiated laboratory research on known lipid-containing viruses. PRD1 is a lipid-containing virus that infects and replicates in Salmonella typhimurium LT2. PRD1 is a 65 nm spherical virus with an internal lipid membrane, which is a few nanometers thick. When the PRD1 virus stock was mixed with a 400 ppm SiO2 (final concentration) solution and incubated for six months. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and lipid analysis using gas chromatography revealed that the virus lipids were still detectable despite complete removal of dissolved silica. Free fatty acids were also detected. Titers of infectious PRD1 viruses after six months in the presence of silica decreased 40 times more than without silica. Though virus biosignature research is in its incipient stages, the data suggest that virus lipid signatures are preserved under laboratory conditions and may offer the potential for contribution to the organic geochemical record.

Kyle, J.; Jahnke, L. L.; Stedman, K. M.

2011-12-01

486

Human viruses in sediments, sludges, and soils*  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have provided a greater understanding of the movement of viruses in the environment by their attachment to solids. These studies have focused on solids-associated viruses present in wastewater discharged into the ocean and on viruses in sludge and wastewater that may be retained in soil following their land disposal. Such ocean or land disposal of wastewater and sludge may result in a discharge of one or more of 120 human enteric virus pathogens including those causing poliomyelitis, viral hepatitis A and acute gastroenteritis. Solids-associated viruses in effluents discharged into coastal waters accumulate in bottom sediments, which may contain 10 to 10 000 more virus per unit volume than the overlying seawater. Solids-associated viruses resuspended by water turbulence may be transported from polluted to distant non-polluted recreational or shellfish-growing water. Transmission of viruses causing hepatitis or gastroenteritis may result from contact by bathers or swimmers with these viruses in recreational waters, or from ingestion of raw or improperly cooked shellfish in which the solids-associated virus had been bioaccumulated. The land disposal of sludge and wastewater has a potential of causing infections in farm workers, contamination of crops, pollution of raw potable water sources or infiltration of ground water. Viruses retained on soils can be released by rain water and may contaminate ground water through lateral and vertical movements. PMID:3015442

Rao, V. Chalapati; Metcalf, Theodore G.; Melnick, Joseph L.

1986-01-01

487

Tanay virus, a new species of virus isolated from mosquitoes in the Philippines.  

PubMed

In 2005, we isolated a new species of virus from mosquitoes in the Philippines. The virion was elliptical in shape and had a short single projection. The virus was named Tanay virus (TANAV) after the locality in which it was found. TANAV genomic RNA was a 9562 nt+poly-A positive strand, and polycistronic. The longest ORF contained putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP); however, conserved short motifs in the RdRP were permuted. TANAV was phylogenetically close to Negevirus, a recently proposed taxon of viruses isolated from haemophagic insects, and to some plant viruses, such as citrus leprosis virus C, hibiscus green spot virus and blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus. In this paper, we describe TANAV and the permuted structure of its RdRP, and discuss its phylogeny together with those of plant viruses and negevirus. PMID:24646751

Nabeshima, Takeshi; Inoue, Shingo; Okamoto, Kenta; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Yu, Fuxun; Uchida, Leo; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Sakaguchi, Miako; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Buerano, Corazon C; Tadena, Florencio P; Orbita, Ildefonso B; Natividad, Filipinas F; Morita, Kouichi

2014-06-01

488

West Nile virus in the Americas.  

PubMed

West Nile virus causes sporadic disease in the Eastern hemisphere that is often asymptomatic or mild, whereas in the Western hemisphere, West Nile virus has been associated with illness and profound mortality in many avian species. West Nile virus might have been transported to North America by an infected mosquito or the virus could have entered within a vertebrate host like a bird. Although the most important method of West Nile virus transmission is by Culex species mosquitoes, additional modes of transmission have been identified. West Nile virus has been isolated from almost 300 species of Western birds. The long-term effects on common species such as corvids, sparrows, grackles, finches, hawks, and robins are still being debated. However the potential effect of West Nile virus on small populations or species with limited geographic distribution, such as Hawaiian avifauna, could be much more catastrophic. PMID:18689077

Pollock, Christal G

2008-06-01

489

Systems analysis of West Nile virus infection.  

PubMed

Emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne viruses continue to pose a significant threat to human health throughout the world. Over the past decade, West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), have caused annual epidemics of virus-induced encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever\\shock syndromes, and arthritis, respectively. Currently, no specific antiviral therapies or vaccines exist for use in humans to combat or prevent these viral infections. Thus, there is a pressing need to define the virus-host interactions that govern immunity and infection outcome. Recent technological breakthroughs in 'omics' resources and high-throughput based assays are beginning to accelerate antiviral drug discovery and improve on current strategies for vaccine design. In this review, we highlight studies with WNV and discuss how traditional and systems biological approaches are being used to rapidly identify novel host targets for therapeutic intervention and develop a deeper conceptual understanding of the host response to virus infection. PMID:24851811

Suthar, Mehul S; Pulendran, Bali

2014-06-01

490

Computer analysis identifies sequence homologies between potential gene products of Maize Streak Virus and those of Cassava Latent Virus and Tomato Golden Mosaic Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acid sequences of the putative polypeptides of maize streak virus (MSV) have been systematically compared with those of cassava latent virus (CLV) and tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) using the programme DIAGON (8).

P. M. Mullineaux; J. Donson; M. I. Boulton; B. A. M. Morris-Krsinich; P. G. Markham; J. W. Davies

1985-01-01

491

Viruses Associated with Human Cancer  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that viral infections contribute to 15–20% of all human cancers. As obligatory intracellular parasites, viruses encode proteins that reprogram host cellular signaling pathways that control proliferation, differentiation, cell death, genomic integrity, and recognition by the immune system. These cellular processes are governed by complex and redundant regulatory networks and are surveyed by sentinel mechanisms that ensure that aberrant cells are removed from the proliferative pool. Given that the genome size of a virus is highly restricted to ensure packaging within an infectious structure, viruses must target cellular regulatory nodes with limited redundancy and need to inactivate surveillance mechanisms that would normally recognize and extinguish such abnormal cells. In many cases, key proteins in these same regulatory networks are subject to mutation in non-virally associated diseases and cancers. Oncogenic viruses have thus served as important experimental models to identify and molecularly investigate such cellular networks. These include the discovery of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, identification of regulatory networks that are critical for maintenance of genomic integrity, and processes that govern immune surveillance. PMID:18201576

McLaughlin-Drubin, Margaret E.; Munger, Karl

2008-01-01

492

Who Let the Virus In?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fifty-second monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Respiratory syncytial virus, RSV for short, is so common that almost every child in the United States under two years of age has been infected once, and that half of children under three have been infected at least twice.

2011-11-01

493

West Nile Virus Problem Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As an emerging disease in the public eye, WNV continues to generate scientific interest as well. Researchers are exploring questions about its origin, evolution, transmission by multiple vectors and host tissues, replication in multiple hosts, viremic period, viral loads, seroconversion and antibody production, detection, vaccine potential, etc. Central to these investigations are the use of molecular data including nucleic acid sequences and the use of bioinformatics. There are multiple ways this data can be used in courses. Other instructors have used West Nile Virus to: * Help students become familiar with Biology Workbench, including the use of Nucleic Acid Tools such as ClustalW and SixFrame as well as Alignment Tools such as DrawGram, BoxShade, and MView, etc. * Locate and download sequence data on line using Biology WorkBench, NCBI, and more. Edit the sequences for comparing sequence data obtained from multiple sources and/or for making shorter labels. * Learn more about the West Nile Virus, including structure of the virus, transmission cycle, replication cycle, viremia, blood titers and the disease in reservoir and incidental hosts, vectors for virus, natural history in the US and around the world, and testing for WNV.

Ethel Stanley (Beloit College; )

2005-12-13

494

Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus (STMV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus (STMV)--one of the smallest viruses known--has been successfully deduced using STMV crystals grown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1992 and 1994. The STMV crystals were up to 30 times the volume of any seen in the laboratory. At the same time they gave the best resolution data ever obtained on any virus crystal. STMV is a small icosahedral plant virus, consisting of a protein shell made up of 60 identical protein subunits of molecular weight 17,500. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that, in contrast to the crystal grown on Earth, the crystals grown under microgravity conditions were viusally perfect, with no striations or clumping of crystals. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction data obtained from the space-grown crystals was of a much higher quality than the best data available at that time from ground-based crystals. This computer model shows the external coating or capsid. STMV is used because it is a simple protein to work with; studies are unrelated to tobacco. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, Univeristy of California at Irvin.

2000-01-01

495

Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using protein crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the enexpected hypothesis that the virus release its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have farly flat coats, but in TYMV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early studies of TYMV, but McPhereson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central viod on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides liked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the voild. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

2000-01-01

496

Oncolytic Viruses as Anticancer Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Oncolytic virotherapy has shown impressive results in preclinical studies and first promising therapeutic outcomes in clinical trials as well. Since viruses are known for a long time as excellent vaccination agents, oncolytic viruses are now designed as novel anticancer agents combining the aspect of lysis-dependent cytoreductive activity with concomitant induction of antitumoral immune responses. Antitumoral immune activation by oncolytic virus infection of tumor tissue comprises both, immediate effects of innate immunity and also adaptive responses for long lasting antitumoral activity, which is regarded as the most prominent challenge in clinical oncology. To date, the complex effects of a viral tumor infection on the tumor microenvironment and the consequences for the tumor-infiltrating immune cell compartment are poorly understood. However, there is more and more evidence that a tumor infection by an oncolytic virus opens up a number of options for further immunomodulating interventions such as systemic chemotherapy, generic immunostimulating strategies, dendritic cell-based vaccines, and antigenic libraries to further support clinical efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy. PMID:25101244

Woller, Norman; Gürlevik, Engin; Ureche, Cristina-Ileana; Schumacher, Anja; Kühnel, Florian

2014-01-01

497

Antigenic variants of rabies virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabies viruses isolated from different animal species in various parts of the world were in the past considered to be antigenically closely related. Only when the antibodies produced in animals immunized with whole virions or viral components were assayed by the plaque reduction method, were some minor differences detected in the antigenic composition of various rabies strains (1). On the

T. J. WIKTOR; H. KOPROWSKI

1980-01-01

498

BARLEY YELLOW STREAK MOSAIC VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley yellow streak mosaic virus (BaYSMV) was discovered in barley from Montana, U.S.A. in 1982, and later reported in several western states, Alaska, and Alberta, Canada. Barley plants show chlorotic streaks, stripes, and dashes parallel to the leaf veins and varying degrees of stunting; increased...

499

West Nile Virus and Wildlife  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from BioScience is about West Nile virus in wildlife. West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

PETER P. MARRA, SEAN GRIFFING, CAROLEE CAFFREY, A. MARM KILPATRICK, ROBERT McLEAN, CHRISTOPHER BRAND, EMI SAITO, ALAN P. DUPUIS, LAURA KRAMER, and ROBERT NOVAK (; )

2004-05-01

500

Virus and cell fusion mechanisms.  

PubMed

In biomembrane fusion pathways, membranes are destabilized through insertions of amphipathic protein segments, lipid reorganization via hemifusion, protein restructuring, and dimpling of the membranes. Four classes of membrane proteins are known in virus and cell fusion. Class I virus-cell fusion proteins (fusogens) are ?-helix-rich prefusion trimers that form coiled-coil structures that insert hydrophobic fusion peptides or loops (FPs or FLs) into membranes and refold into postfusion trimers. Class II virus-cell fusogens are ?-sheet-rich prefusion homo- or heterodimers that insert FLs into membranes, ending in postfusion trimers. Class III virus-cell fusogens are trimers with both ?-helices and ?-sheets that dissociate into monomers, insert FLs into membranes, and oligomerize into postfusion trimers. Class IV reoviral cell-cell fusogens are small proteins with FLs that oligomerize to fuse membranes. Class I cell-cell fusogens (Syncytins) were captured by mammals from retroviruses, and class II cell-cell fusogens (EFF-1/AFF-1) fuse membranes via homotypic zippering. Mechanisms and fusogens for most cell fusion events are unknown. PMID:25000995

Podbilewicz, Benjamin

2014-01-01