Science.gov

Sample records for conceptual para los

  1. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W., II; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  2. REPORT ON PARA MEDICAL CURRICULA AT LOS ANAGELES CITY COLLEGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WHALEN, PAUL L.

    AT THE TIME OF THIS REPORT, LOS ANGELES CITY COLLEGE OFFERED PROGRAMS LEADING TO EMPLOYMENT IN 13 HEALTH RELATED AND PARAMEDICAL OCCUPATIONS. REVIEW OF THESE PROGRAMS AND RELEVANT LITERATURE LED TO NINE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INCREASING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PROGRAMS--(1) CONSTRUCTION OF A SPECIAL FACILITY FOR ALLIED HEALTH SERVICES EDUCATION, (2)…

  3. Hacer frente - Para la familia y los amigos

    Cancer.gov

    Si usted ayuda a su familiar o amigo durante el tratamiento del cáncer, usted es quien le cuida. Estar al cuidado de una persona con cáncer puede incluir muchas tensiones. Sugerencias para que se cuide usted cuando cuida a otros.

  4. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

    PubMed Central

    Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. Métodos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n = 1 304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés). La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n = 1 304) fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE] = 9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  5. Protegiendo a su familia de los terremotos-Los siete pasos a la seguridad para prepararse en caso de un terremoto (en espa?ol y en ingles)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Desarrollado por American Red Cross, Asian Pacific Fund, California Earthquake Authority, Governor's Office of Emergency Services, New America Media, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency, and U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    Les escribimos esta carta para comunicarle un mensaje sumamente importante sobre las preparaciones de emergencia. Historicamente, hemos sufrido terremotos aqui en el Area de la Bahia de San Francisco que han causado graves privaciones para los residentes de la comunidad y da?os increibles a nuestras ciudades. Es probable que suframos un terremoto de gran magnitud en los proximos 30 a?os. Muchos de nosotros venimos de otros paises donde hemos pasado por terremotos y por eso creemos entenderlos. Sin embargo, la manera que nos preparamos para terremotos en nuestros paises de origen puede ser distinta a la que empleamos aca en los Estados Unidos. Muy pocas personas mueren a causa de los derrumbes de los edificios en el Area de la Bahia porque la mayoria de los edificios son construidos para resistir el sacudimiento de la tierra. Pero es muy probable que su familia no tenga atencion medica, alimentos o que esten separados del uno al otro por dias o semanas. Finalmente depende de usted mantener a su familia a salvo hasta que llegue asistencia, por eso les pedimos que nos unamos para aprender a cuidar a su familia antes, durante, y despues de un terremoto. El primer paso es leer este libro. Cada uno de su familia, ni?os y adultos, pueden aprender como prepararse para un terremoto. Haga participar e incluya sus ni?os; pueden ayudarle a prepararse. Aproveche las clases ofrecidas en su comunidad sobre las preparaciones de terremotos por la Cruz Roja Estadounidense (American Red Cross). Estos cursos de preparacion son gratis y disponibles en espa?ol para todos en la comunidad sin tomar en cuenta la historia de la familia, estado legal, genero o edad. Les recomendamos que tome ventaja de estas clases gratuitas. Para mas informacion consulte la ultima pagina de este libro. Recuerde que un terremoto puede ocurrir sin aviso y la unica manera de reducir el da?o de terremotos es estar preparados. !Preparese!

  6. Significado de los cambios en el cuello uterino: Guía para la salud de la mujer

    Cancer.gov

    Explica qué es la infección por el VPH; los exámenes de detección del cáncer de cuello uterino, entre ellos la prueba de Pap, la prueba del VPH y la prueba conjunta de Pap y del VPH; las pautas para los exámenes de detección; los posibles resultados de la

  7. LAVA (Los Alamos Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Methodology): A conceptual framework for automated risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.T.; Lim, J.J.; Phillips, J.R.; Tisinger, R.M.; Brown, D.C.; FitzGerald, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed an original methodology for performing risk analyses on subject systems characterized by a general set of asset categories, a general spectrum of threats, a definable system-specific set of safeguards protecting the assets from the threats, and a general set of outcomes resulting from threats exploiting weaknesses in the safeguards system. The Los Alamos Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Methodology (LAVA) models complex systems having large amounts of ''soft'' information about both the system itself and occurrences related to the system. Its structure lends itself well to automation on a portable computer, making it possible to analyze numerous similar but geographically separated installations consistently and in as much depth as the subject system warrants. LAVA is based on hierarchical systems theory, event trees, fuzzy sets, natural-language processing, decision theory, and utility theory. LAVA's framework is a hierarchical set of fuzzy event trees that relate the results of several embedded (or sub-) analyses: a vulnerability assessment providing information about the presence and efficacy of system safeguards, a threat analysis providing information about static (background) and dynamic (changing) threat components coupled with an analysis of asset ''attractiveness'' to the dynamic threat, and a consequence analysis providing information about the outcome spectrum's severity measures and impact values. By using LAVA, we have modeled our widely used computer security application as well as LAVA/CS systems for physical protection, transborder data flow, contract awards, and property management. It is presently being applied for modeling risk management in embedded systems, survivability systems, and weapons systems security. LAVA is especially effective in modeling subject systems that include a large human component.

  8. A Conceptual Model for Supporting Para-Teacher Learning in an Indian Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are being recognized globally for their influential role in realizing the UN Millennium Development Goal of education for all in developing countries. NGOs mostly employ untrained para-educators for grassroots activities. The professional development of these teachers is critical for NGO effectiveness, yet…

  9. Comprension de los conceptos de los enlaces ionico y covalente en estudiantes universitarios del primer curso de quimica general

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros Benavides, Maria Elvira

    Para este trabajo utilizamos el estudio de casos cualitativo que se llevo a cabo en una universidad privada de Puerto Rico. Empleamos como unidad de analisis el concepto de enlace quimico, ionico y covalente. Los participantes fueron los estudiantes de la seccion nocturna del curso de Quimica General I. La investigacion se desarrollo por medio de dos entrevistas de persona a persona, observaciones de las expresiones no verbales y la hoja de identificacion de conceptos. Para la triangulacion tomamos en consideracion las preconcepciones erroneas, las concepciones alternativas y el mapa de conceptos de cada participante. Preparamos un mapa de conceptos para el enlace quimico validado por un comite de expertos. Tambien, elaboramos los mapas de conceptos de los participantes que sirvieron para varios propositos: conocer la estructura conceptual, expresar los logros, hacer comparaciones e identificar la presencia de concepciones alternativas. Entre los hallazgos encontramos que todos los participantes poseen conocimiento previo de los enlaces quimicos ionico y covalente y dentro de ese conocimiento existen preconcepciones erroneas mas numerosas para el enlace ionico. Al principio del semestre el 50% de los participantes demostraron tener "carencia fuerte de conceptos" tanto para el enlace ionico como para el covalente. Al finalizar el semestre encontramos en el 40% de los participantes concepciones alternativas tanto para el enlace ionico como para el covalente y el 90% no lograron distinguir un enlace del otro. Nuestras conclusiones fueron que los participantes sin distincion del aprovechamiento academico demostraron tener la tendencia de "carencia fuerte de conceptos" tanto para el enlace ionico como para el covalente, presentaron dificultad al integrar los conceptos de los enlaces quimicos ionico y covalente que se pusieron de manifiesto al dar los ejemplos. Las preconcepciones erroneas contribuyen en el desarrollo de las concepciones alternativas. Ademas, los

  10. Preliminary geohydrologic conceptual model of the Los Medanos region near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for the purpose of performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Brinster, K.F. )

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a geohydrologic conceptual model of the northern Delaware Basin to be used in modeling three-dimensional, regional ground-water flow for assessing the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the Los Medanos region near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Geochemical and hydrological evidence indicates that flow is transient in the Rustler Formation and the Capitan aquifer in response to changing geologic, hydrologic, and climatic conditions. Before the Pleistocene, ground-water flow in the Rustler Formation was generally eastward, but uneven tilting of the Delaware Basin lowered the regional base level and formed fractures in the evaporitic sequence of rocks approximately parallel to the basin axis. Dissolution along the fractures, coupled with erosion, formed Nash Draw. Also, the drop in base level resulted in an increase in the carrying power of the Pecos River, which began incising the Capitan/aquifer near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Erosion and downcutting released hydraulic pressure that caused a reversal in Rustler ground-water flow direction near the WIPP. Flow in the Rustler west of the WIPP is toward Nash Draw and eventually toward Malaga Bend; flow south of the WIPP is toward Malaga Bend. 126 refs., 70 figs., 18 tabs.

  11. Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Ashwin, Ed.; Nersessian, Nancy J., Ed.; Keil, Frank C., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This special issue includes four articles that address issues concerning conceptual change. Topics include analogical reasoning and a case study of Johannes Kepler; conceptual change and wine expertise; the role of extreme case reasoning in instruction for conceptual change; and dynamic science assessment: a new approach for investigating…

  12. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    que le modèle conceptuel peut bien changer lorsque des nouvelles informations apparaissent. Dans l'analyse finale le hydrogéologue prend une décision subjective sur le modèle conceptuel approprié. Le problème du le modèle conceptuel ne doit pas rendre le modèle inutilisable. Ce problème introduit une incertitude qui n'est pas toujours reconnue. Les incertitudes du modèle conceptuel deviennent plus importantes dans les cases de prévisions à long terme dans l'analyse de performance. La base para hacer un análisis de un modelo es el modelo conceptual. Se define aquí la sorpresa como los datos nuevos que convierten en incoherente al modelo conceptual previamente aceptado; tal como se define aquí esto representa un cambio de paradigma. Los datos empíricos limitados indican que estas sorpresas suceden entre un 20 a un 30% de los análisis de modelos. Esto sugiere que los analistas de modelos de agua subterránea tienen dificultades al seleccionar el modelo conceptual apropiado. No hayotra solución disponible a este problema del modelo conceptual diferente de: (1) Recolectar tanta información como sea posible, mediante la utilización de todos los métodos aplicables, lo cual puede resultar en que esta nueva información ayude a cambiar el modelo conceptual vigente, y (2) Que el analista de modelos se mantenga siempre abierto al hecho de que un modelo conceptual puede cambiar de manera total, en la medida en que se colecte mas información. En el análisis final el hidrogeólogo toma una decisión subjetiva en cuanto al modelo conceptual apropiado. El problema de la conceptualización no produce modelos inútiles. El problema presenta una incertidumbre, la cual a menudo no es tenida en cuentade manera adecuada. Esta incertidumbre en los modelos conceptuales se aumenta, cuando se hacen predicciones a largo plazo del comportamiento de un sistema dado.

  13. PROGRAMA PARA LA VERIFICACION DE LA TECNOLOGIA AMBIENTAL - CULTIVANDO ASOCIACIONES PARA EL INCREMENTO DE LAS SELECCIONES DE TECNOLOGIAS AMBIENTALES A LOS SECTORES PUBLICO Y PRIVADO EN LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS Y EN EL EXTERIOR (EPA/600/F-97/005A)

    EPA Science Inventory

    La meta del ETV es verificar, a travs de una
    evaluacin de informacin objectiva y de calidad, las caracteristicas del desempeo de tecnologas
    comerciales ambientales. As el ETV proporciona a
    los compradores y los licenciadores potenciales una valoracin imparcial y creble d...

  14. Analisis del contenido curricular de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia para la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico: 1993-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Montanez, Melissa

    Esta investigacion de naturaleza cualitativa se ocupo de realizar un analisis de contenido documental de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia de la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico del periodo 1993-2012. Los documentos analizados fueron: Guia Curricular, 1995; Marco Curricular, 2003; Estandares de Excelencia, 1996, 2000 y Estandares de Contenido y Expectativas de Grado, 2007. Se indago si hubo cambios en significados en los Componentes Estructurales: Naturaleza de la ciencia, Paradigmas para la ensenanza de la ciencia, Funcion del curriculo formal, Mision de la ensenanza de la ciencia; Contenidos, destrezas y competencias, Estrategias de ensenanza y Evaluacion/Assessment del aprendizaje. El analisis sugiere que no hubo cambios sustanciales en los significados de los Componentes Estructurales. Los documentos estudiados muestran mayormente caracteristicas similares, aunque los documentos mas recientes eran mas descriptivos, explicativos y especificos.

  15. Establishing the Empirical Relationship Between Non-Science Majoring Undergraduate Learners' Spatial Thinking Skills and Their Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Estableciendo Una Relación Empírica Entre el Razonamiento Espacial de los Estudiantes de Graduación de Carreras no Científicas y su Conocimento Conceptual de la Astronomía.) Estabelecendo Uma Relação Empírica Entre o RacioCínio Espacial dos Estudantes de Graduação EM Carreiras Não Científicas e Seu Conhecimento Conceitual da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2013-12-01

    The astronomy education community has tacitly assumed that learning astronomy is a conceptual domain resting upon spatial thinking skills. As a first step to formally identify an empirical relationship, undergraduate students in a non-major introductory astronomy survey class at a mediumsized, Ph.D. granting, mid-western US university were given pre- and post-astronomy conceptual diagnostics and spatial reasoning diagnostics, Instruments used were the "Test Of Astronomy Standards" and "What Do You Know?" Using only fully matched data for analysis, our sample consisted of 86 undergraduate non-science majors. Students' normalized gains for astronomy surveys were low at .26 and .13 respectively. Students' spatial thinking was measured using an instrument designed specifically for this study. Correlations between the astronomy instruments' pre- to post-course gain scores and the spatial assessment instrument show moderate to strong relationships suggesting the relationship between spatial reasoning and astronomy ability can explain about 25% of the variation in student achievement. La comunidad de educación en astronomía ha supuesto de forma tácita que el aprendizaje de la astronomía consiste en un dominio conceptual fundamentado en el razonamiento espacial. Como un primer paso para identificar formalmente una relación empírica entre estas dos cosas, utilizamos como muestra los estudantes de graduación de carreras no científicas de un curso experimental en una universidad norteamericana del medioeste de porte mediano con programa de Doctorado em curso, en el cual estos estudiantes se sometieron a un diagnóstico de razonamiento espacial y conceptos astronómicos antes e después del mismo. Las herramientas utilizadas fueron el Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) y el cuestionario What do you know? Utilizando solo los datos completamente consistentes para este análisis, nuestra muestra consistió en 86 estudantes de graduación. Las mejoras, depués de

  16. Leyendo con tu hijo: Consejos practicos para los padres... (Reading with Your Child: Practical Advice for Parents...).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This brochure (in Spanish) offers some practical tips for Spanish-speaking parents who wish to read to their young children. The brochure first provides general tips, such as "Lea a su hijo en voz alto por lo menos unos 15 minutos todos los dias" (Read to your child aloud for at least 15 minutes daily), and "Estabeleza una rotina y un lugar para…

  17. Alternative Conceptualizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; O'Reilly, Patricia, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains five articles devoted to the topic of "Alternative Conceptualizations" of the foundations of education. In "The Concept of Place in the New Sociology of Education," Paul Theobald examines the notion of place in educational theory and practice. Janice Jipson and Nicholas Paley, in…

  18. Conceptual Metaphor Meets Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Tamer G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the metaphorical representation of concepts and the appropriation of language-based construals can be hypothesized as additional sources of conceptual change alongside those previously proposed. Analyses of construals implicit in the lay and scientific use of the noun "energy" from the perspective of the theory of conceptual…

  19. Revision curricular a partir de un analisis comparativo de las discrepancias en los curriculos de una escuela de optometria en Puerto Rico con las competencias requeridas para las agencias de revalida y acreditacion 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Pacheco, Andres

    El proposito de esta investigacion, un estudio cualitativo de caso, fue comparar y contrastar el curriculo vigente de la Escuela de Optometria de la UIAPR con las competencias y estandares requeridos por las agencias de acreditacion y de revalida. Con este proposito, decidimos realizar una revision y un analisis de documentos: el prontuario de cada uno de los cursos de los curriculos implantados en el 1993 y en el 2001; las competencias y estandares establecidos por las agencias de revalida y de acreditacion; y las estadisticas en las que se analiza el porcentaje de estudiantes que aprueban cada una de las partes de los examenes de revalida entre el 1998 al 2003. Se realizaron entrevistas dirigidas para dar apoyo y complementar la revision y el analisis de estos documentos. Los participantes de las entrevistas fueron tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2004 (ultima clase del curriculo del 1993); tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2005 (primera clase graduanda del curriculo vigente) y tres profesores y/o directores de los Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas, Ciencias Clinicas y Cuidado al Paciente. Esta investigacion se enmarco en el modelo de evaluacion curricular de discrepancia de Malcolm Provus y en el modelo de desarrollo basado en competencias. Uno de los hallazgos mas importantes del estudio es que los cambios que se implantaron al curriculo del 2001 no han logrado que los estudiantes mejoren su ejecucion en los examenes de revalida. Por otro lado, se encontro que el curriculo vigente atiende completamente los estandares de la practica de Optometria, pero no las competencias. Esta informacion fue validada mediante el uso de una tabla de cotejo para el analisis de los cursos y de la informacion obtenida de las entrevistas. El estudio determina y concluye que existen discrepancias entre los prontuarios de los cursos del curriculo y las competencias requeridas por la agencia de revalida. Segundo, que el Departamento de Ciencias Basicas es el

  20. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  1. Aspectos generales de los exámenes de detección del cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre la medición de la eficacia de los exámenes de detección del cáncer y la evaluación de la solidez de las pruebas obtenidas en estudios de investigación de detección del cáncer.

  2. Para muchos jóvenes supervivientes de cáncer, los efectos tardíos representan problemas duraderos

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre los efectos tardíos en la salud que afectan a ciertos adolescentes y adultos jóvenes supervivientes de cáncer, y la necesidad de aumentar la concientización y la vigilancia de estos efectos tardíos.

  3. Los NIH anuncian el lanzamiento de los estudios ALCHEMIST

    Cancer.gov

    Los Estudios sobre la Secuenciación e Identificación de Marcadores para el Mejoramiento de la Terapia Adjuvante para el Cáncer de Pulmón, ALCHEMIST, identificarán a pacientes con cáncer de pulmón en estadio inicial cuyos tumores tienen cambios genéticos.

  4. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object's conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  5. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  6. Overlooking the Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leshem, Shosh; Trafford, Vernon

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual framework is alluded to in most serious texts on research, described in some and fully explained in few. However, examiners of doctoral theses devote considerable attention to exploring its function within social science doctoral vivas. A literature survey explores how the conceptual framework is itself conceptualised and explained.…

  7. Communication, Conceptualization and Articulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsayed, Adel; Hartley, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Learning can be viewed as a communication process that puts the learner in contact with concepts created by others. A result of communication is that an act of interpretation starts, which invokes a process of conceptualization. According to Mayes, successful conceptualization will need the support of learning activities. Hence, machine mediated…

  8. Embodied Conceptual Combination

    PubMed Central

    Lynott, Dermot; Connell, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Conceptual combination research investigates the processes involved in creating new meaning from old referents. It is therefore essential that embodied theories of cognition are able to explain this constructive ability and predict the resultant behavior. However, by failing to take an embodied or grounded view of the conceptual system, existing theories of conceptual combination cannot account for the role of perceptual, motor, and affective information in conceptual combination. In the present paper, we propose the embodied conceptual combination (ECCo) model to address this oversight. In ECCo, conceptual combination is the result of the interaction of the linguistic and simulation systems, such that linguistic distributional information guides or facilitates the combination process, but the new concept is fundamentally a situated, simulated entity. So, for example, a cactus beetle is represented as a multimodal simulation that includes visual (e.g., the shiny appearance of a beetle) and haptic (e.g., the prickliness of the cactus) information, all situated in the broader location of a desert environment under a hot sun, and with (at least for some people) an element of creepy-crawly revulsion. The ECCo theory differentiates interpretations according to whether the constituent concepts are destructively, or non-destructively, combined in the situated simulation. We compare ECCo to other theories of conceptual combination, and discuss how it accounts for classic effects in the literature. PMID:21833267

  9. Conceptualizing Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of theories of the transition to young adulthood. It sets out the argument for conceptual renewal and discusses some implications of new patterns of transition for adult education.

  10. Conceptual atomism rethought.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Susan

    2010-06-01

    Focusing on Machery's claim that concepts play entirely different roles in philosophy and psychology, I explain how one well-known philosophical theory of concepts, Conceptual Atomism (CA), when properly understood, takes into account both kinds of roles. PMID:20584416

  11. Conceptual design optimization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollowell, S. J.; Beeman, E. R., II; Hiyama, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of applying multilevel functional decomposition and optimization techniques to conceptual design of advanced fighter aircraft was investigated. Applying the functional decomposition techniques to the conceptual design phase appears to be feasible. The initial implementation of the modified design process will optimize wing design variables. A hybrid approach, combining functional decomposition techniques for generation of aerodynamic and mass properties linear sensitivity derivatives with existing techniques for sizing mission performance and optimization, is proposed.

  12. Conceptual frameworks in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pundak, David

    2016-06-01

    How to evaluate students' astronomy understanding is still an open question. Even though some methods and tools to help students have already been developed, the sources of students' difficulties and misunderstanding in astronomy is still unclear. This paper presents an investigation of the development of conceptual systems in astronomy by 50 engineering students, as a result of learning a general course on astronomy. A special tool called Conceptual Frameworks in Astronomy (CFA) that was initially used in 1989, was adapted to gather data for the present research. In its new version, the tool included 23 questions, and five to six optional answers were given for each question. Each of the answers was characterized by one of the four conceptual astronomical frameworks: pre-scientific, geocentric, heliocentric and sidereal or scientific. The paper describes the development of the tool and discusses its validity and reliability. Using the CFA we were able to identify the conceptual frameworks of the students at the beginning of the course and at its end. CFA enabled us to evaluate the paradigmatic change of students following the course and also the extent of the general improvement in astronomical knowledge. It was found that the measure of the students’ improvement (gain index) was g = 0.37. Approximately 45% of the students in the course improved their understanding of conceptual frameworks in astronomy and 26% deepened their understanding of the heliocentric or sidereal conceptual frameworks.

  13. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  14. Mensaje para alumnos y padres

    NASA Video Gallery

    El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...

  15. Conceptualization for Evaluation and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trochim, William M. K.; Linton, Rhoda

    Both evaluation and planning typically begin with an attempt to define the conceptual territory of interest; this paper presents an approach to such conceptualization. The term, structured conceptualization, is used to refer to any definable set of procedures which can help a user develop a useful conceptual representation. Structured…

  16. Investigadores simulan los beneficios reales de los exámenes de detección

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre los esfuerzos de la Red de Modelado de Intervención y Vigilancia del Cáncer (CISNET) del NCI para determinar los beneficios reales de los exámenes de detección del cáncer en la población general.

  17. Estudio de la estructura logica utilizada en la ensenanza y el aprendizaje de los conceptos sobre el comportamiento de gases en el curso introductorio de quimica a nivel universitario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Diaz, Agnes

    El estudio que se presenta es de caracter cualitativo, un estudio multicasos donde se estudia la estructura logica utilizada por cuatro (4) profesores universitarios que ensenan el curso introductorio de quimica, en la planificacion, presentacion y evaluacion del tema sobre el comportamiento de los gases. Se utilizaron varias fuentes de informacion como: cuestionarios de profesores y estudiantes, entrevistas, grabaciones videomagnetofonicas, materiales didacticos y una prueba conceptual, entre otros. La informacion recopilada fue analizada de acuerdo al orden logico del contenido presentado, el estilo de ensenanza del profesor, las tecnicas y estrategias utilizadas para el desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, el ambiente fisico en el salon de clase y los instrumentos de evaluacion y avaluo. El estudio demuestra que lo que los profesores piensan y planifican para hacer sus presentaciones no necesariamente es lo que ocurre en el salon de clases. El desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, que constituye una prioridad de los profesores, no se elaboran efectivamente. El uso de las estrategias de resolucion de problemas numericos predomino. La participacion del estudiante en el salon de clases fue limitada y no se logro demostrar el desarrollo de las destrezas de pensamiento deseadas. Aunque los profesores tienen su propio estilo de ensenanza, el orden logico del contenido presentado en clase fue el mismo o siguio muy de cerca el orden establecido por el libro de texto. Los profesores utilizaron preferentemente la tiza y la pizarra para sus presentaciones y la dinamica en el salon de clases fue esencialmente tradicional. Los profesores hicieron su presentacion y los estudiantes copiaron pasivamente la informacion. Las evaluaciones de los estudiantes fueron esencialmente, pruebas escritas de seleccion multiple de acuerdo con el estilo en que se les enseno. El avaluo fue casi inexistente. La prueba conceptual administrada revela un aprendizaje pobre en los conceptos mas

  18. On the Formation of a Study Group to the Realization of Workshops for Teachers: Astronomy in Basic Education in Umuarama-Pr (Spanish Title: De la Formación de un Grupo de Estudios a la Realización de los Talleres Para los Profesores: la Astronomía en la Educación Básica en Umuarama-Pr ) Da Formação de um Grupo de Estudos À Realização de Oficinas Para Professores: a Astronomia na Educação Básica em Umuarama-Pr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belusso, Diane; Akira Sakai, Otávio

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we aimed to present the activities developed by the Astronomy Study Group (ASG) to contribute to the dissemination and improvement of the astronomy teaching-learning. The results of a research carried out in schools of Umuarama-PR are shown, with the intention of checking the students' knowledge and interest in relation to Astronomy. It is reported the realization of workshops for Science teachers linked to the Education Regional Nucleus. The research and the workshop execution promoted the direct contact of the study group with the community; the results were used to diagnose the state of astronomy teaching-learning, in the basic education in Umuarama-PR. En este artículo se intenta presentar las actividades desarrolladas por el Grupo de Estudios de Astronomía (GEA) y contribuir para la divulgación y mejoría de la enseñanza-aprendizaje de la Astronomía. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación realizada en las escuelas de Umuarama-PR, con la intención de determinar el grado de conocimiento y el interés de los estudiantes en relación a la astronomía. Se relata la realización de talleres de capacitación para los profesores de ciencias vinculados al Núcleo Regional del Educación. La ejecución de la investigación y de los talleres promovió el contacto directo del grupo de estudios con la comunidad; los resultados sirvieron de diagnóstico de la enseñanza aprendizaje de la astronomía en la educación básica en Umuarama-PR. Neste artigo, objetiva-se apresentar as atividades desenvolvidas pelo Grupo de Estudos de Astronomia (GEA) e contribuir para a divulgação e melhoria do ensino-aprendizagem de astronomia. São apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa realizada nas escolas de Umuarama-PR, com o intuito de averiguar o conhecimento e o interesse dos estudantes em relação à astronomia. Relata-se a realização de oficinas de capacitação para professores de ciências vinculados ao Núcleo Regional de Educação. A

  19. Conceptualization of Light Refraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    There have been a number of papers dealing quantitatively with light refraction. Yet the conceptualization of the phenomenon that sets the foundation for a more rigorous math analysis is minimized. The purpose of this paper is to fill that gap. (Contains 3 figures.)

  20. Conceptual Distinctions amongst Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasada, Sandeep; Khemlani, Sangeet; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Glucksberg, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Generic sentences (e.g., bare plural sentences such as "dogs have four legs" and "mosquitoes carry malaria") are used to talk about "kinds" of things. Three experiments investigated the conceptual foundations of generics as well as claims within the formal semantic approaches to generics concerning the roles of prevalence, cue validity and…

  1. Conceptual Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center data aid in efficient construction-cost managment. Report discusses development and use of NASA TR-1508, Kennedy Space Center Aerospace Construction price book for preparing conceptual budget, funding cost estimating, and preliminary cost engineering reports. Report based on actual bid prices and Government estimates.

  2. Changing Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    diSessa, Andrea A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews Giyoo Hatano's ground-breaking theoretical, empirical, and methodological contributions to conceptual change research. In particular, his discovery of "vitalism" as part of children's legitimate and distinctive biology at early ages stands as a landmark. In addition, his work reinterpreted childhood "personification," changing…

  3. Evaluating Conceptual Metaphor Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    A major revolution in the study of metaphor occurred 30 years ago with the introduction of "conceptual metaphor theory" (CMT). Unlike previous theories of metaphor and metaphorical meaning, CMT proposed that metaphor is not just an aspect of language, but a fundamental part of human thought. Indeed, most metaphorical language arises from…

  4. SLC ir conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, L.P.

    1982-06-21

    Work on a one interaction-region, push-pull conceptual design for the SLC is described. The concept which has received the most attention is described. It is a below-ground hall - a 15 m deep rectangular pit covered by a surface building which houses counting rooms, power supplies, cryogenics and other auxiliary equipment. (LEW)

  5. Is Neurolaw Conceptually Confused?

    PubMed

    Levy, Neil

    2014-06-01

    In Minds, Brains, and Law, Michael Pardo and Dennis Patterson argue that current attempts to use neuroscience to inform the theory and practice of law founder because they are built on confused conceptual foundations. Proponents of neurolaw attribute to the brain or to its parts psychological properties that belong only to people; this mistake vitiates many of the claims they make. Once neurolaw is placed on a sounder conceptual footing, Pardo and Patterson claim, we will see that its more dramatic claims are false or meaningless, though it might be able to provide inductive evidence for particular less dramatic claims (that a defendant may be lying, or lacks control over their behavior, for instance). In response, I argue that the central conceptual confusions identified by Pardo and Patterson are not confusions at all. Though some of the claims made by its proponents are hasty and sometimes they are confused, there are no conceptual barriers to attributing psychological properties to brain states. Neuroscience can play a role in producing evidence that is more reliable than subjective report or behavior; it therefore holds out the possibility of dramatically altering our self-conception as agents and thereby the law. PMID:25009442

  6. Conceptual Design Plan SM-43 Replacement Project

    SciTech Connect

    University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, SCC Project Office

    2000-11-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual Design Plan for the SM-43 Replacement Project outlines plans for replacing the SM-43 Administration Building. Topics include the reasons that replacement is considered a necessity; the roles of the various project sponsors; and descriptions of the proposed site and facilities. Also covered in this proposal is preliminary information on the project schedule, cost estimates, acquisition strategy, risk assessment, NEPA strategy, safety strategy, and safeguards and security. Spreadsheets provide further detail on space requirements, project schedules, and cost estimates.

  7. [Parenting Information: Teenagers. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre los Jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These four booklets are devoted specifically to the concerns of parents and their teenage children and are part of a series of 22 booklets designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Parents--Learn about Your Teenager" (booklet #6) explains the changes which occur during the teen years and the reasons…

  8. coNCePTual

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-05-13

    A frequently reinvented wheel among network researchers is a suite of programs that test a network’s performance. A problem with having umpteen versions of performance tests is that it leads to a variety in the way results are reported; colloquially, apples are often compared to oranges. Consider a bandwidth test. Does a bandwidth test run for a fixed number of iterations or a fixed length of time? Is bandwidth measured as ping-pong bandwidth (i.e., 2more » * message length / round-trip time) or unidirectional throughput (N messages in one direction followed by a single acknowledgement message)? Is the acknowledgement message of minimal length or as long as the entire message? Does its length contribute to the total bandwidth? Is data sent unidirectionally or in both directions at once? How many warmup messages (if any) are sent before the timing loop? Is there a delay after the warmup messages (to give the network a chance to reclaim any scarce resources)? Are receives nonblocking (possibly allowing overlap in the NIC) or blocking? The motivation behind creating coNCePTuaL, a simple specification language designed for describing network benchmarks, is that it enables a benchmark to be described sufficiently tersely as to fit easily in a report or research paper, facilitating peer review of the experimental setup and timing measurements. Because coNCePTuaL code is simple to write, network tests can be developed and deployed with low turnaround times -- useful when the results of one test suggest a following test that should be written. Because coNCePTuaL is special-purpose its run-time system can perform the following functions, which benchmark writers often neglect to implement: * logging information about the environment under which the benchmark ran: operating system, CPU architecture and clock speed, timer type and resolution, etc. * aborting a program if it takes longer than a predetermined length of time to complete * writing measurement data and

  9. Conceptual IT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaoudova, Kristina; Stanchev, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The business processes are the key asset for every organization. The design of the business process models is the foremost concern and target among an organization's functions. Business processes and their proper management are intensely dependent on the performance of software applications and technology solutions. The paper is attempt for definition of new Conceptual model of IT service provider, it could be examined as IT focused Enterprise model, part of Enterprise Architecture (EA) school.

  10. PRA and Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMott, Diana; Fuqua, Bryan; Wilson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Once a project obtains approval, decision makers have to consider a variety of alternative paths for completing the project and meeting the project objectives. How decisions are made involves a variety of elements including: cost, experience, current technology, ideologies, politics, future needs and desires, capabilities, manpower, timing, available information, and for many ventures management needs to assess the elements of risk versus reward. The use of high level Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Models during conceptual design phases provides management with additional information during the decision making process regarding the risk potential for proposed operations and design prototypes. The methodology can be used as a tool to: 1) allow trade studies to compare alternatives based on risk, 2) determine which elements (equipment, process or operational parameters) drives the risk, and 3) provide information to mitigate or eliminate risks early in the conceptual design to lower costs. Creating system models using conceptual design proposals and generic key systems based on what is known today can provide an understanding of the magnitudes of proposed systems and operational risks and facilitates trade study comparisons early in the decision making process. Identifying the "best" way to achieve the desired results is difficult, and generally occurs based on limited information. PRA provides a tool for decision makers to explore how some decisions will affect risk before the project is committed to that path, which can ultimately save time and money.

  11. Conceptualization for planning and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Trochim, W M; Linton, R

    1986-01-01

    Conceptualization is a central task in planning and evaluation. There is a need to develop conceptualization methods which can help multiple constituency groups collaborate on the development of conceptual frameworks which can guide the planning and evaluation effort. A general model for conceptualization methods is presented along with considerations for implementation. This model is illustrated in two planning and evaluation studies which involved a broad range of constituent groups within the organizations in the development of "concept maps" which could guide subsequent work. Some general implications of conceptualization methods for planning and evaluation are discussed. PMID:10301179

  12. Vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano

    Cancer.gov

    Una hoja informativa acerca de las vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano (VPH) para prevenir infecciones con ciertos tipos de VPH, los cuales son la causa principal del cáncer de cuello del útero o cérvix.

  13. Rotorcraft Conceptual Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Sinsay, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Requirements for a rotorcraft conceptual design environment are discussed, from the perspective of a government laboratory. Rotorcraft design work in a government laboratory must support research, by producing technology impact assessments and defining the context for research and development; and must support the acquisition process, including capability assessments and quantitative evaluation of designs, concepts, and alternatives. An information manager that will enable increased fidelity of analysis early in the design effort is described. This manager will be a framework to organize information that describes the aircraft, and enable movement of that information to and from analyses. Finally, a recently developed rotorcraft system analysis tool is described.

  14. Updated Conceptual Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    16-page report discusses development and use of NASA TR-1508, the Kennedy Space Center Aerospace Construction Price Book for preparing conceptual, budget, funding, cost-estimating, and preliminary cost-engineering reports. Updated annually from 1974 through 1985 with actual bid prices and government estimates. Includes labor and material quantities and prices with contractor and subcontractor markups for buildings, facilities, and systems at Kennedy Space Center. While data pertains to aerospace facilities, format and cost-estimating techniques guide estimation of costs in other construction applications.

  15. Rotorcraft Conceptual Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Sinsay, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Requirements for a rotorcraft conceptual design environment are discussed, from the perspective of a government laboratory. Rotorcraft design work in a government laboratory must support research, by producing technology impact assessments and defining the context for research and development; and must support the acquisition process, including capability assessments and quantitative evaluation of designs, concepts, and alternatives. An information manager that will enable increased fidelity of analysis early in the design effort is described. This manager will be a framework to organize information that describes the aircraft, and enable movement of that information to and from analyses. Finally, a recently developed rotorcraft system analysis tool is described.

  16. Conceptual design of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Paisner, J.A.; Kumpan, S.A.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Boyes, J.D.; Sorem, M.

    1995-08-02

    DOE commissioned a Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in January 1993 as part of a Key Decision Zero (KDO), justification of Mission Need. Motivated by the progress to date by the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program in meeting the Nova Technical Contract goals established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1989, the Secretary requested a design using a solid-state laser driver operating at the third harmonic (0.35 {mu}m) of neodymium (Nd) glass. The participating ICF laboratories signed a Memorandum of Agreement in August 1993, and established a Project organization, including a technical team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester. Since then, we completed the NIF conceptual design, based on standard construction at a generic DOE Defense Program`s site, and issued a 7,000-page, 27-volume CDR in May 1994.2 Over the course of the conceptual design study, several other key documents were generated, including a Facilities Requirements Document, a Conceptual Design Scope and Plan, a Target Physics Design Document, a Laser Design Cost Basis Document, a Functional Requirements Document, an Experimental Plan for Indirect Drive Ignition, and a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) Document. DOE used the PHA to categorize the NIF as a low-hazard, non-nuclear facility. On October 21, 1994 the Secretary of Energy issued a Key Decision One (KD1) for the NIF, which approved the Project and authorized DOE to request Office of Management and Budget-approval for congressional line-item FY 1996 NIF funding for preliminary engineering design and for National Environmental Policy Act activities. In addition, the Secretary declared Livermore as the preferred site for constructing the NIF. The Project will cost approximately $1.1 billion and will be completed at the end of FY 2002.

  17. Tiempo para un cambio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  18. Feasibility study, conceptual design and bid package preparation for the treatment and effluent reuse of domestic wastewater discharges from saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. Final report. Volume 2. Export trade information; Fideicomiso para la ampliacion de infraestructura y eficientizacion del agua potable, drenaje sanitario y saneamiento de aguas residuales para la ciudad de saltillo, coahuila

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The study, conducted by Freese and Nichols, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the State of Coahuila, Mexico. The report presents the findings of the feasibility study and conceptual design for the treatment and effluent reuse of wastewater from Saltillo, Coahuila. The main objective of the study is to determine the most feasible alternative for wastewater treatment. This is the second of two volumes. It contains the appendices and is divided into the following sections: (1) Appendix A - Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Regulations; (2) Appendix B - Flow Monitoring Program Results; (3) Appendix C - Partial Results for the First Monitoring Period; (4) Appendix D - Characterization Program; (5) Appendix E - Characterization Program Results; (6) Appendix F - Preliminary Treatment Unit Design and Cost Estimation; (7) Appendix G - List of Threatened and Endangered Species; (8) Appendix H - Cost Estimation for the Wastewater Treatment Plant; (9) Appendix I - Hydraulic and Cost Calculations for Interceptors; (10) Appendix J - Financial Feasibility Worksheets.

  19. Shuttle freezer conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A conceptual design for a kit freezer for operation onboard shuttle was developed. The freezer features a self-contained unit which can be mounted in the orbiter crew compartment and is capable of storing food at launch and returning with medical samples. Packaging schemes were investigated to provide the optimum storage capacity with a minimum weight and volume penalty. Several types of refrigeration systems were evaluated to select one which would offer the most efficient performance and lowest hazard of safety to the crew. Detailed performance data on the selected, Stirling cycle principled refrigeration unit were developed to validate the feasibility of its application to this freezer. Thermal analyses were performed to determine the adequacy of the thermal insulation to maintain the desired storage temperature with the design cooling capacity. Stress analyses were made to insure the design structure integrity could be maintained over the shuttle flight regime. A proposed prototype freezer development plan is presented.

  20. Lunar lander conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecklein, J. M.; Petro, A. J.; Stump, W. R.; Adorjan, A. S.; Chambers, T. V.; Donofrio, M.; Hirasaki, J. K.; Morris, O. G.; Nudd, G.; Rawlings, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a first look at the problems of building a lunar lander to support a small lunar surface base. A series of trade studies was performed to define the lander. The initial trades concerned choosing number of stages, payload mass, parking orbit altitude, and propellant type. Other important trades and issues included plane change capability, propellant loading and maintenance location, and reusability considerations. Given a rough baseline, the systems were then reviewed. A conceptual design was then produced. The process was carried through only one iteration. Many more iterations are needed. A transportation system using reusable, aerobraked orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) is assumed. These OTV's are assumed to be based and maintained at a low Earth orbit (LEO) space station, optimized for transportation functions. Single- and two-stage OTV stacks are considered. The OTV's make the translunar injection (TLI), lunar orbit insertion (LOI), and trans-Earth injection (TEI) burns, as well as midcourse and perigee raise maneuvers.

  1. Spintronics: Conceptual Building Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansermet, J.-Ph.

    The purpose of this introduction to spintronics is to provide some elementary description of its conceptual building blocks. Thus, it is intended for a newcomer to the field. After recalling rudimentary descriptions of spin precession and spin relaxation, spin-dependent transport is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. This suffices to introduce key notions such as the spin asymmetry of the conductivities in the two-current model, the spin diffusion length, and spin accumulation. Two basic mechanisms of spin relaxation are then presented, one arising from spin-orbit scattering and the other from electron-magnon collisions. Finally, the action of a spin-polarized current on magnetization is presented in a thermodynamics framework. This introduces the notion of spin torque and the characteristic length scale over which the transverse spin polarization of conduction electron decays as it is injected into a magnet.

  2. Lunar lander conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Carini, John; Choi, Andrew; Dillman, Robert; Griffin, Sean J.; Hanneman, Susan; Mamplata, Caesar; Stanton, Edward

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented of a Lunar Lander, which can be the primary vehicle to transport the equipment necessary to establish a surface lunar base, the crew that will man the base, and the raw materials which the Lunar Station will process. A Lunar Lander will be needed to operate in the regime between the lunar surface and low lunar orbit (LLO), up to 200 km. This lander is intended for the establishment and operation of a manned surface base on the moon and for the support of the Lunar Space Station. The lander will be able to fulfill the requirements of 3 basic missions: A mission dedicated to delivering maximum payload for setting up the initial lunar base; Multiple missions between LLO and lunar surface dedicated to crew rotation; and Multiple missions dedicated to cargo shipments within the regime of lunar surface and LLO. A complete set of structural specifications is given.

  3. Capacitación del personal y de los pacientes en torno a los cuidados terminales

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre programas innovadores de base científica para ayudar a médicos y pacientes a hablar sobre la transición de un tratamiento activo para el cáncer a los cuidados en la etapa final de la vida.

  4. Desarrollo de un instrumento para medir percepciones sobre el contexto de construccion del conocimiento cientifico de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Ramirez, Jaime Antonio

    En esta investigacion, se desarrollo un instrumento que permite medir percepciones relacionadas al contexto de constriccion del conocimiento cientifico. Se examinaron instrumentos existentes y se encontro que el VOSTS (Views on science, technology, and society), instrumento desarrollado empiricamente en Canada por Aikenhead, Ryan y Fleming, podia traducirse y validarse en el contexto cultural puertorriqueno. El instrumento es extenso, consta de 113 reactivos, cada uno con una premisa basica relacionada a la tematica ciencia, tecnologia y sociedad y un numero de alternativas relacionadas a la premisa que oscila entre siete y trece. Se delimito su utilizacion a los quince reactivos identificados por los autores como relacionados a la construccion social del conocimiento cientifico. Metodologicamente, se procedio a utilizar el modelo de adaptacion intercultural, que permite que el instrumento desarrollado satisfaga las dimensiones de equivalencia semantica, de contenido, tecnica, de criterio y conceptual, atemperado asi al instrumento original. Se cumplio con este proposito mediante la traduccion de la version original en ingles al espanol y viceversa. Se utilizaron comites para examinar la traduccion y la retro-traduccion del instrumento. Se realizo una prueba piloto con estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso, utilizando el instrumento traducido para asegurar su intelegibilidad. La confiabilidad del instrumento se determino mediante la intervencion de un panel de expertos quienes clasificaron las distintas posiciones dentro de cada reactivo en: realista, con merito e ingenua; se transformaron estas opciones en valores numericos lo que permitio establecer una escala Likert para cada una. Se suministro el instrumento a una muestra de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso con caracteristicas similares a las de la poblacion puertorriquena en cuanto a ejecucion en las pruebas de aptitud verbal y matematica del College Board. Los resultados de sus contestaciones

  5. Development of Educational Resources to Include the Teaching of Astronomy in the First Years of the Basic Education. (Spanish Title: Desarrollo de Recursos Pedagógicos Para Incluir la Enseñanza de la Astronomía en los Primeros Años de la Educación Básica.) Desenvolvimento de Recursos Pedagógicos Para Inserir o Ensino de Astronomia nas Séries Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Morett, Samara; de Oliveira Souza, Marcelo

    2010-07-01

    In this report will be presented the development of educational resources for the presentation of concepts of astronomy in the early grades of elementary school. This material is composed by presentations developed with the use of new technological resources, by the development of experiments and by the presentation of curiosities related to this field. The experiments were constructed with low cost material in order to allow the students involved to rework them in other occasions. The material presented aims to emphasize the relationship between Astronomy and the daily life of students. The inclusion of Astronomy in elementary school is a way to demonstrate to students how this area is present in an active way in their daily lives. The classes involved in the project participated in a survey with the aim of providing information about the prior knowledge they had about topics in astronomy that were considered during the project. With the experiments conducted, and the aid of new technologies, the astronomical concepts were presented to students of 4th and 5th years of basic education of a municipal school of Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ). After the presentations new data collections were carried out with the aim of verifying the level of learning obtained and it was observed that the method used was an important tool to aid the process of teaching and learning. The project obtained good results. En este informe se presenta el desarrollo de recursos pedagógicos para la presentación de los conceptos de la astronomía en los primeros grados de la escuela primaria. Este material consiste en las presentaciones hechas con el uso de nuevos recursos tecnológicos, haciendo experimentos y análisis de objetos de interés relacionados con este ámbito. Los experimentos fueron construidos con material de bajo costo a fin de que los estudiantes involucrados podrían rehacer en otras ocasiones. El material presentado tiene como objetivo destacar la relación entre la astronom

  6. Conceptualization for Planning and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trochim, William M. K.; Linton, Rhoda

    1986-01-01

    A general model for conceptualization methods is presented along with considerations for implementation. The model is illustrated in two planning and evaluation studies which involved a broad range of constituent groups within the organizations in the development of "concept maps." General implications of conceptualization methods are discussed.…

  7. Attentional Factors in Conceptual Congruency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Julio; Ouellet, Marc; Roman, Antonio; Valenzuela, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual congruency effects are biases induced by an irrelevant conceptual dimension of a task (e.g., location in vertical space) on the processing of another, relevant dimension (e.g., judging words' emotional evaluation). Such effects are a central empirical pillar for recent views about how the mind/brain represents concepts. In the present…

  8. PHENIX Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nagamiya, Shoji; Aronson, Samuel H.; Young, Glenn R.; Paffrath, Leo

    1993-01-29

    The PHENIX Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the detector design of the PHENIX experiment for Day-1 operation at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The CDR presents the physics capabilities, technical details, cost estimate, construction schedule, funding profile, management structure, and possible upgrade paths of the PHENIX experiment. The primary goals of the PHENIX experiment are to detect the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and to measure its properties. Many of the potential signatures for the QGP are measured as a function of a well-defined common variable to see if any or all of these signatures show a simultaneous anomaly due to the formation of the QGP. In addition, basic quantum chromodynamics phenomena, collision dynamics, and thermodynamic features of the initial states of the collision are studied. To achieve these goals, the PHENIX experiment measures lepton pairs (dielectrons and dimuons) to study various properties of vector mesons, such as the mass, the width, and the degree of yield suppression due to the formation of the QGP. The effect of thermal radiation on the continuum is studied in different regions of rapidity and mass. The e[mu] coincidence is measured to study charm production, and aids in understanding the shape of the continuum dilepton spectrum. Photons are measured to study direct emission of single photons and to study [pi][sup 0] and [eta] production. Charged hadrons are identified to study the spectrum shape, production of antinuclei, the [phi] meson (via K[sup +]K[sup [minus

  9. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    ROBINSON,K.

    2006-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has prepared a conceptual design for a world class user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. This facility, called the ''National Synchrotron Light Source II'' (NSLS-II), will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility. Together these will enable the study of material properties and functions with a spatial resolution of {approx}1 nm, an energy resolution of {approx}0.1 meV, and the ultra high sensitivity required to perform spectroscopy on a single atom. The overall objective of the NSLS-II project is to deliver a research facility to advance fundamental science and have the capability to characterize and understand physical properties at the nanoscale, the processes by which nanomaterials can be manipulated and assembled into more complex hierarchical structures, and the new phenomena resulting from such assemblages. It will also be a user facility made available to researchers engaged in a broad spectrum of disciplines from universities, industries, and other laboratories.

  10. ERHIC Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyn,V.; Beebe-Wang,J.; Ben-Zvi,I.; Fedotov, A.; Fischer, W.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V.N.; MacKay, W.W.; Montag, C.; Pozdeyev, E.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tsentalovich, E.

    2008-08-25

    The conceptual design of the high luminosity electron-ion collider, eRHIC, is presented. The goal of eRHIC is to provide collisions of electrons (and possibly positrons) with ions and protons at the center-of-mass energy range from 25 to 140 GeV, and with luminosities exceeding 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. A considerable part of the physics program is based on polarized electrons, protons and He3 ions with high degree of polarization. In eRHIC electron beam will be accelerated in an energy recovery linac. Major R&D items for eRHIC include the development of a high intensity polarized electron source, studies of various aspects of energy recovery technology for high power beams and the development of compact magnets for recirculating passes. In eRHIC scheme the beam-beam interaction has several specific features, which have to be thoroughly studied. In order to maximize the collider luminosity, several upgrades of the existing RHIC accelerator are required. Those upgrades may include the increase of intensity as well as transverse and longitudinal cooling of ion and proton beams.

  11. Organizational closure and conceptual coherence

    PubMed

    Scott

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews ideas developed by the late Gordon Pask as part of this conversation theory (CT). CT uses theories of the dynamics of complex, self-organizing systems, in conjunction with models of conceptual structures, in order to give an account of conceptual coherence (for example, of a theory or a belief system) as a form of organizational closure. In Pask's own terms, CT is concerned both with the kinematics of knowledge structures and the kinetics of knowing and coming to know. The main features of modelling conceptual structures and processes used by Pask are presented. We continue by presenting a summary two-cycle model of learning, aimed to capture some of Pask's key insights with respect to conceptual coherence and the organizational closure of conceptual systems. Parallels are drawn with other work in epistemology, classic cybernetic studies of self-organization, and the concept of autopoiesis. The two-cycle model is then applied recursively to generate learning cycles and conceptual structures at different levels of abstraction, as a contribution to the work of Pask on the topology of thought. Finally, the model is applied reflexively. That is, its own form is considered as a topic for conversation and conceptualization. Carrying out such a reflection provides a coherent way of characterizing epistemological limits, while retaining a clear sense of there being an (in principle) unlimited praxeology of awareness. PMID:10818581

  12. Development of Educational Resources to Include the Teaching of Astronomy in the First Years of the Basic Education. (Spanish Title: Desarrollo de Recursos Pedagógicos Para Incluir la Enseñanza de la Astronomía en los Primeros Años de la Educación Básica.) Desenvolvimento de Recursos Pedagógicos Para Inserir o Ensino de Astronomia nas Séries Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Morett, Samara; de Oliveira Souza, Marcelo

    2010-07-01

    In this report will be presented the development of educational resources for the presentation of concepts of astronomy in the early grades of elementary school. This material is composed by presentations developed with the use of new technological resources, by the development of experiments and by the presentation of curiosities related to this field. The experiments were constructed with low cost material in order to allow the students involved to rework them in other occasions. The material presented aims to emphasize the relationship between Astronomy and the daily life of students. The inclusion of Astronomy in elementary school is a way to demonstrate to students how this area is present in an active way in their daily lives. The classes involved in the project participated in a survey with the aim of providing information about the prior knowledge they had about topics in astronomy that were considered during the project. With the experiments conducted, and the aid of new technologies, the astronomical concepts were presented to students of 4th and 5th years of basic education of a municipal school of Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ). After the presentations new data collections were carried out with the aim of verifying the level of learning obtained and it was observed that the method used was an important tool to aid the process of teaching and learning. The project obtained good results. En este informe se presenta el desarrollo de recursos pedagógicos para la presentación de los conceptos de la astronomía en los primeros grados de la escuela primaria. Este material consiste en las presentaciones hechas con el uso de nuevos recursos tecnológicos, haciendo experimentos y análisis de objetos de interés relacionados con este ámbito. Los experimentos fueron construidos con material de bajo costo a fin de que los estudiantes involucrados podrían rehacer en otras ocasiones. El material presentado tiene como objetivo destacar la relación entre la astronom

  13. Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Contiene información sobre las medicinas contra el dolor para pacientes con cáncer, los planes para controlarlo, cómo hablar con su equipo de atención médica sobre el dolor que usted siente y qué hacer para controlar los efectos físicos y emocionales del

  14. Conceptualizing Race in Research

    PubMed Central

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Henderson, Gail; Blumenthal, Connie; Dorrance, Jessica; Estroff, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of race as a variable in research continues to spark debate about whether it should be used, as well as the implications it has for research on health differences. Given this continued controversy, we examined how investigators interpret the concept of “race” and whether their views of race are reflected in their published work. Methods Thirty-three semistructured interviews were conducted with investigators from 3 southeastern universities to discuss recruitment of participants, the use of race as a variable in research and analyses, and their assessment of the National Institutes of Health mandate on the inclusion of women and minorities. The interview data were analyzed using the principles of constant comparative method, theme identification and pattern investigation. Up to 2 publications for each respondent were also used to assess the use of race in their research. Results Results reflect a spectrum of views on the definition of race, from biological to social. Findings also suggest that investigators think critically about the use and implications of using race in their research, although this is not consistently reflected in their published work. Conclusion In our view, authors, journal editors and peer reviewers have an important role in moving this debate forward, and advocate that they engage more directly in shaping the process. When reporting results by race, investigators should provide a statement on the theory or conceptual framework underlying the hypothesized racial differences in health examined in the study. They should be also cautious in invoking either biological or social constructions of race, thus demonstrating an appreciation of the nuances and implications of using this variable. PMID:18942287

  15. Clinical Supervision: A Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajewski, Robert J.

    1982-01-01

    Various views of clinical supervision are analyzed and examined. The "process" definition of clinical supervision emphasizes an eight-step cycle of supervision. Clinical supervision as "concept" is also considered and seven conceptual elements are examined. (JN)

  16. Electronic aids to conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouchard, Eugene E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented in viewgraph form are techniques to improve the conceptual design of complex systems. The paper discusses theory of design, flexible software tools for computer aided design, and methods for enhancing communication among design teams.

  17. Conceptual design of the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Boyes, John D.; Kumpan, Steven A.; Lowdermilk, W. Howard; Sorem, Michael S.

    1995-12-01

    The Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a conceptual design report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in January 1993 as part of a key decision zero (KD0), justification of mission need. Motivated by the progress to date by the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program in meeting the Nova technical contract goals established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1989, the Secretary requested a design using a solid-state laser driver operating at the third harmonic (0.35 micrometer) of neodymium (Nd) glass. The participating ICF laboratories signed a memorandum of agreement in August 1993, and established a project organization, including a technical team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester. Since then, we completed the NIF conceptual design, based on standard construction at a generic DOE defense program's site, and issued a 7,000-page, 27-volume CDR in May 1994. Over the course of the conceptual design study, several other key documents were generated, including a facilities requirements document, a conceptual design scope and plan, a target physics design document, a laser design cost basis document, a functional requirements document, an experimental plan for indirect drive ignition, and a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA) document. DOE used the PHA to categorize the NIF as a low-hazard, non-nuclear facility. On October 21, 1994 the Secretary of Energy issued a key decision one (KD1) for the NIF, which approved the project and authorized DOE to request Office of Management and Budget-approval for congressional line-item FY 1996 NIF funding for preliminary engineering design and for National Environmental Policy Act activities. In addition, the Secretary declared Livermore as the preferred site for constructing the NIF. In February 1995, the NIF Project was

  18. Grounding Emotion in Situated Conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Simmons, W. Kyle; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion, the situated conceptualization used to construe a situation determines the emotion experienced. A neuroimaging experiment tested two core hypotheses of this theory: (1) different situated conceptualizations produce different forms of the same emotion in different situations, (2) the composition of a situated conceptualization emerges from shared multimodal circuitry distributed across the brain that produces emotional states generally. To test these hypotheses, the situation in which participants experienced an emotion was manipulated. On each trial, participants immersed themselves in a physical danger or social evaluation situation and then experienced fear or anger. According to Hypothesis 1, the brain activations for the same emotion should differ as a function of the preceding situation (after removing activations that arose while constructing the situation). According to Hypothesis 2, the critical activations should reflect conceptual processing relevant to the emotion in the current situation, drawn from shared multimodal circuitry underlying emotion. The results supported these predictions and demonstrated the compositional process that produces situated conceptualizations dynamically. PMID:21192959

  19. Fuzzy conceptual rainfall runoff models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özelkan, Ertunga C.; Duckstein, Lucien

    2001-11-01

    A fuzzy conceptual rainfall-runoff (CRR) framework is proposed herein to deal with those parameter uncertainties of conceptual rainfall-runoff models, that are related to data and/or model structure: with every element of the rainfall-runoff model assumed to be possibly uncertain, taken here as being fuzzy. First, the conceptual rainfall-runoff system is fuzzified and then different operational modes are formulated using fuzzy rules; second, the parameter identification aspect is examined using fuzzy regression techniques. In particular, bi-objective and tri-objective fuzzy regression models are applied in the case of linear conceptual rainfall-runoff models so that the decision maker may be able to trade off prediction vagueness (uncertainty) and the embedding outliers. For the non-linear models, a fuzzy least squares regression framework is applied to derive the model parameters. The methodology is illustrated using: (1) a linear conceptual rainfall-runoff model; (2) an experimental two-parameter model; and (3) a simplified version of the Sacramento soil moisture accounting model of the US National Weather Services river forecast system (SAC-SMA) known as the six-parameter model. It is shown that the fuzzy logic framework enables the decision maker to gain insight about the model sensitivity and the uncertainty stemming from the elements of the CRR model.

  20. Conceptual Metaphor and the Study of Conceptual Change: Research Synthesis and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Tamer G.

    2015-01-01

    Many of the goals of research on conceptual metaphor in science education overlap with the goals of research on conceptual change. The relevance of a conceptual metaphor perspective to the study of conceptual change has already been discussed. However, a substantial body of literature on conceptual metaphor in science education has now emerged.…

  1. La Enseñanza/Aprendizaje del Modelo Sol-Tierra Análisis de la Situación Actual y Propuesta de Mejora Para la Formación de los Futuros Profesores de Primaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Sebastià, Bernat

    2004-12-01

    This work is an extened summary of the autor's PhD thesis. It deals with the teaching of astronomy (day/night, seasons) in primary school. At first, students teachers' undestanding of astronomical concepts related to Sun-Earth system have been analysed. Taking into account the results of the previous analysis and using a socio-constructivist approach a teaching sequence has been designed. This sequence has been tested with different groups of students teachers showing an improvement in their undestanding of elementary astronomical concepts. El trabajo que presentamos es un resumen extenso de la tesis doctoral del autor. El enfoque utilizado ha sido tratar de ligar la investigación sobre las ideas, razonamientos y obstáculos de los profesores de primaria con la planificación de la enseñanza del modelo Sol-Tierra que permite explicar el ciclo día/noche y las estaciones. En primer lugar, se ha procedido a realizar un análisis crítico de los resultados que se obtienen en el aprendizaje de los contenidos astronómicos en la enseñanza habitual. En segundo lugar se ha diseñado un curriculum potencialmente superador de esta situación desde una orientación que concibe la enseñanza y el aprendizaje como un proceso de construcción de conocimientos en una estructura problematizada. Finalmente, esta secuencia didáctica ha sido experimentada con diferentes grupos de estudiantes de magisterio, mostrando una mejora relevante en la comprensión de los conceptos astronómicos fundamentales.

  2. Simulation, situated conceptualization, and prediction

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2009-01-01

    Based on accumulating evidence, simulation appears to be a basic computational mechanism in the brain that supports a broad spectrum of processes from perception to social cognition. Further evidence suggests that simulation is typically situated, with the situated character of experience in the environment being reflected in the situated character of the representations that underlie simulation. A basic architecture is sketched of how the brain implements situated simulation. Within this framework, simulators implement the concepts that underlie knowledge, and situated conceptualizations capture patterns of multi-modal simulation associated with frequently experienced situations. A pattern completion inference mechanism uses current perception to activate situated conceptualizations that produce predictions via simulations on relevant modalities. Empirical findings from perception, action, working memory, conceptual processing, language and social cognition illustrate how this framework produces the extensive prediction that characterizes natural intelligence. PMID:19528009

  3. Conceptual models of information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    The conceptual information processing issues are examined. Human information processing is defined as an active cognitive process that is analogous to a system. It is the flow and transformation of information within a human. The human is viewed as an active information seeker who is constantly receiving, processing, and acting upon the surrounding environmental stimuli. Human information processing models are conceptual representations of cognitive behaviors. Models of information processing are useful in representing the different theoretical positions and in attempting to define the limits and capabilities of human memory. It is concluded that an understanding of conceptual human information processing models and their applications to systems design leads to a better human factors approach.

  4. Conceptualizing Conceptual Teaching: Practical Strategies for Large Instrumental Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Half a century ago, calls had already been made for instrumental ensemble directors to move beyond performance to include the teaching of musical concepts in the rehearsal hall. Relatively recent research, however, suggests that conceptual teaching remains relatively infrequent during rehearsals. Given the importance of teaching for long-term…

  5. Los LGBT y fumar | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    En Estados Unidos, las personas lesbianas, gays, bisexuales y transexuales (LGBT) tienen el doble de probabilidades de empezar a fumar que los heterosexuales. Sepa por qué los miembros de la comunidad LGBT fuman y aprenda estrategias para dejar de fumar definitivamente.

  6. Reading, Understanding, and Conceptual Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Glasersfeld, Ernst

    Information necessary to understand many English sentences appears to be supplied by a source outside the sentence which is composed of a fund of knowledge accumulated throughout life. This fund of knowledge may be visualized and a conceptual network into which the incomplete information supplied by a sentence can be mapped, thus making it…

  7. Conceptual Physics in the VCCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, William R.

    2006-01-01

    Conceptual physics (CP) is an introductory survey course in which basic concepts are emphasized instead of formula-driven problem solving. Mathematical derivation is replaced by verbal explanation, pictorial representation, observations of phenomena, and logical reasoning. Algebraic equations are used as guides to thinking rather than recipes for…

  8. Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Williams, Kathy S.; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified…

  9. Comprehending Conceptual Anaphors in Spanish

    PubMed Central

    Carreiras, Manuel; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the mechanisms involved in the assignment of an antecedent to an anaphoric element. In general, pronouns must match their antecedents at least with respect to number and gender. Sensitivity to such constraints has been shown in several experiments. But Gernsbacher (1991) has also shown that people have no difficulty comprehending a plural pronoun with an antecedent that is grammatically singular but conceptually plural. In the first three experiments, we tested whether such a “conceptual effect” was preserved with zero anaphors in Spanish. (The typical omission of pronouns in subject position in Spanish.) Verbs in a second clause were marked with plural or singular endings. Plural verbs were rated more natural than singular verbs when they followed three types of singular but conceptually plural antecedents (Experiment 1). Clauses containing plural verbs were read faster when they followed one type of singular but conceptually plural antecedents, i.e. collective sets (Experiments 2 and 3). In fact, clauses containing plural verbs were read equally fast when they followed literally singular collective sets or explicitly group nouns. Using pronominal anaphors, these reading time effects were replicated and extended to sentences that contained generic types as antecedents (Experiment 4). The results are discussed in terms of the use of information during the comprehension of anaphors. PMID:25425750

  10. Conceptual Analysis of Validation Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babins, Leonard

    1988-01-01

    Examines conceptual aspects of Validation Therapy (VT), humanistic approach to help disoriented very old persons resolve life's unfinished conflicts by expressing feelings. Describes four stages of disorientation based on emotional and physical characteristics. Discusses theoretical assumptions and underlying principles of VT. Outlines research…

  11. Conceptual Developments in Schema Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigenho, Frederick W., Jr.

    The conceptual development of schema theory, the way an individual organizes knowledge, is discussed, reviewing a range of perspectives regarding schema. Schema has been defined as the interfacing of incoming information with prior knowledge, clustered in networks. These networks comprise a superordinate concept and supporting information. The…

  12. MINIMARS conceptual design: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1986-09-01

    This volume contains the following sections: (1) fueling systems; (2) blanket; (3) alternative blanket concepts; (4) halo scraper/direct converter system study and final conceptual design; (5) heat-transport and power-conversion systems; (6) tritium systems; (7) minimars air detritiation system; (8) appropriate radiological safety design criteria; and (9) cost estimate. (MOW)

  13. A Behavioral Conceptualization of Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jonathan C.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Raetz, Paige B.

    2008-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment that affects over 1 million individuals, the majority of whom are over age 65 (Groher, 1989). This disorder has typically been conceptualized within a cognitive neuroscience framework, but a behavioral interpretation of aphasia is also possible. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior proposes a…

  14. Conceptualizing the World of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, William H.; Bailey, Larry J.

    1973-01-01

    The conceptual model described here has resulted from the need to organize a body of knowledge related to the world of work which would enable curriculum developers to prepare accurate, realistic instructional materials. The world of work is described by applying Malinowski's scientific study of the structural components of culture. (Author/DS)

  15. Fairness Conceptualizations and Comparable Worth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegtvedt, Karen A.

    1989-01-01

    Examines wage-setting policies as different conceptualizations of fairness. Focuses on comparable worth as an alternative to existing wage-setting policies. Analyzes the contributions of social psychology research on distributive justice and procedural justice to understanding the determination of job worth and the dynamics of implementing…

  16. Personality Correlates of Conceptual Tempo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomba, Anne K.; And Others

    Temperament characteristics of 63 4- and 5-year-olds were assessed for the purpose of investigating the relationship between classifications of conceptual tempo and underlying personality factors. Subjects were classified as impulsive, reflective, fast accurate, and slow accurate on the basis of performance on Form A of Wright's (1971) Kansas…

  17. Epistemic Motivation and Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Robert A.; And Others

    While the conceptual change model of learning has contributed much to our understanding of how children learn science, recent criticisms of the model point out its lack of attention to motivational issues. This paper examines one such motivational construct of importance to the model: epistemic motivation. After a description of the construct, we…

  18. A Taxonomy for Conceptualizing Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seda, E. Elliott

    This paper details the development of a taxonomy for conceptualizing teaching. This taxonomy is presented as a means to help educators understand and interpret what it is they do and continue in the process of searching and understanding. The purpose of developing a taxonomy, the basis for the dimensions--or subject matter--for the taxonomy, and…

  19. Many Mansions: Conceptualizing Translingual Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmetdinova, Alsu; Burdick, Jake

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a vision for fostering multilingualism in schools that extends the notion of translanguaging to include the realm of multilingual curriculum theorizing. We locate our analysis at the intersection of multicultural education, multilingual education, and curriculum studies in order to conceptualize language, culture, and…

  20. The Theory of Conceptual Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergnaud, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    The theory of conceptual fields is a developmental theory. It has two aims: (1) to describe and analyse the progressive complexity, on a long- and medium-term basis, of the mathematical competences that students develop inside and outside school, and (2) to establish better connections between the operational form of knowledge, which consists in…

  1. Constraining performance assessment models with tracer test results: a comparison between two conceptual models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Sean A.; Selroos, Jan-Olof

    infini sur une période de temps spécifiée explique les différences entre les modèles et le ! fait que le test de traçage seul ne permet pas de déterminer les paramètres de transport à l'échelle du PA. Les résultats des simulations Monte Carlo du modèle de transport avec des temps et des distances de transport variables montrent des résultats concordances entre les différents modèles et suggère que la variation que la variation entre surface mouillée et le rapport de la différence de débits entre les lignes d'écoulement est insignifiante, en regard de la variabilité du montant de la capacité diffusive qui peut être accessible le long de la ligne de transport. Delimitando la eficacia de modelos de evaluación con resultados de pruebas de trazadores: una comparación entre dos modelos conceptuales. Se llevaron a cabo pruebas de trazadores para evaluar los parámetros de transporte de solutos en un rasgo rocoso a lo largo de una trayectoria de transporte de 5 m. Dos diferentes conceptualizaciones del transporte de solutos de porosidad doble aportan estimados de las curvas de avance de trazadores. Una de las conceptualizaciones (ritmo único) utiliza un coeficiente de difusión efectiva único en una matriz con profundidad de penetración infinita. Sin embargo, la retención del trazador entre diferentes trayectorias de flujo puede variar debido a que la relación entre la superficie mojada de flujo y el ritmo de flujo difiere entre las líneas de trayectoria. La otra conceptualización (multi-ritmo) utiliza una distribución continua de coeficientes de ritmos de difusión múltiple en una matriz con capacidad variable pero finita. La aplicación de los dos modelos con los parámetros estimados en base a las curvas de avance de trazadores producen resultados de transporte que difieren en varios órdenes de magnitud, tanto en concentración pico como en el tiempo en que se alcanza la concentración pico, en las escalas de evaluación de eficacia (PA) de

  2. CONCEPTUAL MODELS FOR WATERSHED AND REGIONAL ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conceptual models, as defined here, describe and illustrate the relationships between ecological receptors, the stressors to which they may be exposed, and the potential sources of the those stressors within a particular area or ecosystem. This document describes conceptual model...

  3. Unconscious phantasy and its conceptualizations: An attempt at conceptual integration.

    PubMed

    Bohleber, Werner; Jiménez, Juan Pablo; Scarfone, Dominique; Varvin, Sverre; Zysman, Samuel

    2015-06-01

    That there is a lack of consensus as to how to decide between competing, at times even contradictory theories, and about how to integrate divergent concepts and theories is well known. In view of this situation, the IPA Committee on Conceptual Integration (2009-2013) developed a method for comparing the different versions of any given concept, together with the underlying theories and fundamental assumptions on which they are based. Only when situated in the same frame of reference do similarities and differences begin to appear in a methodically comprehensible and reproducible form. After having studied the concept of enactment followed by the publication of a paper in this Journal in 2013, we proceeded to analyze the concept of unconscious phantasy while at the same time continuing to improve our method. Unconscious phantasy counts among the central concepts in psychoanalysis. We identified a wide range of definitions along with their various theoretical backgrounds. Our primary concern in the present paper addresses the dimensional analysis of the semantic space occupied by the various conceptualizations. By way of deconstructing the concepts we endeavoured to establish the extent to which the integration of the different conceptualizations of unconscious phantasy might be achieved. PMID:26173886

  4. Using Knowledge Building to Foster Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chwee Beng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Hong, Huang-Yao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there have been many exchanges of perspectives and debates in the field of conceptual change. Most of the classical views on conceptual change have been criticized, and there have been recent discussions around bridging the cognitive and socio-cultural approaches in the research on conceptual change. On the other hand, researchers…

  5. Strategies for Teaching Healthy Behavior Conceptual Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloeppel, Tiffany; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2012-01-01

    By definition, conceptual knowledge is rich in relationships and understanding the kind of knowledge that may be transferred between situations. Despite the lack of importance that Conceptual Physical Education has been given in previous physical education reform efforts, research findings have shown that Conceptual Physical Education along with…

  6. The conceptually-oriented physician.

    PubMed

    Fuller, B F; Fuller, F

    1979-07-01

    This article is based on the authors' book "Physician or Magician: The Myths and Realities of Patient Care" (McGraw Hill and Hemisphere, 1978). In this paper, the authors contend that the main problem confronting medical practice and medical education today is that there is no consensus on what physicians should be doing. Should they be technologists or should they be conceptually-oriented? The authors further state that these two types of physicians are trained in different approaches to problem solving. They conclude by saying that both types of physicians are needed if the quality of patient care is to improve while containing cost, but that the conceptually-oriented physician--the primary physician--should be in charge of all treatment patients receive. This is because the primary physicians as well as the Cartesian approach. Therefore, they would be better able to determine the risks and benefits to each patient of various technological regimens. PMID:514116

  7. Conceptual Metaphor and the Study of Conceptual Change: Research synthesis and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Tamer G.

    2015-04-01

    Many of the goals of research on conceptual metaphor in science education overlap with the goals of research on conceptual change. The relevance of a conceptual metaphor perspective to the study of conceptual change has already been discussed. However, a substantial body of literature on conceptual metaphor in science education has now emerged. This work has not yet been synthesized or related explicitly to the goals of conceptual change research. This paper first presents a broad sketch of the study of conceptual change, characterizing the goals of this body of work, its contributions to date, and identifying open questions. Next, the literature on conceptual metaphor in science education is reviewed against this background. The review clarifies the natural theoretical connections between the conceptual metaphor perspective and the phenomenon of conceptual change. It then examines the contributions made by the literature on conceptual metaphor in science education to the goals of research on conceptual change-namely, characterizing student conceptions, identifying obstacles to learning, understanding the process of conceptual change, and designing productive pedagogical strategies that could achieve conceptual change. The paper concludes with a discussion of further avenues for research into conceptual change, suggested by adopting a conceptual metaphor perspective.

  8. Explanatory Identities and Conceptual Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thagard, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Although mind-brain identity remains controversial, many other identities of ordinary things with scientific ones are well established. For example, air is a mixture of gases, water is H2O, and fire is rapid oxidation. This paper examines the history of 15 important identifications: air, blood, cloud, earth, electricity, fire, gold, heat, light, lightning, magnetism, salt, star, thunder, and water. This examination yields surprising conclusions about the nature of justification, explanation, and conceptual change.

  9. A conceptual approach to immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Bardana, E J

    1981-09-01

    Immunodeficiency represents a congenital or acquired aberration of immune function which is commonly associated with autoimmunity and neoplasia as a potential triad of biologic sequelae. Irrespective of the initial focal point in the triad, the natural evolution of the condition is frequently associated with the other two. This conceptualization should increase the clinician's ability in a more understanding approach to the evaluation and care of immunocompromised patients. PMID:7026918

  10. Conceptual Models for Search Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, D. G.; Efthimiadis, E. N.

    Search engines have entered popular culture. They touch people in diverse private and public settings and thus heighten the importance of such important social matters as information privacy and control, censorship, and equitable access. To fully benefit from search engines and to participate in debate about their merits, people necessarily appeal to their understandings for how they function. In this chapter we examine the conceptual understandings that people have of search engines by performing a content analysis on the sketches that 200 undergraduate and graduate students drew when asked to draw a sketch of how a search engine works. Analysis of the sketches reveals a diverse range of conceptual approaches, metaphors, representations, and misconceptions. On the whole, the conceptual models articulated by these students are simplistic. However, students with higher levels of academic achievement sketched more complete models. This research calls attention to the importance of improving students' technical knowledge of how search engines work so they can be better equipped to develop and advocate policies for how search engines should be embedded in, and restricted from, various private and public information settings.

  11. Conceptual dynamical models for turbulence.

    PubMed

    Majda, Andrew J; Lee, Yoonsang

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the complexity of anisotropic turbulent processes in engineering and environmental fluid flows is a formidable challenge with practical significance because energy often flows intermittently from the smaller scales to impact the largest scales in these flows. Conceptual dynamical models for anisotropic turbulence are introduced and developed here which, despite their simplicity, capture key features of vastly more complicated turbulent systems. These conceptual models involve a large-scale mean flow and turbulent fluctuations on a variety of spatial scales with energy-conserving wave-mean-flow interactions as well as stochastic forcing of the fluctuations. Numerical experiments with a six-dimensional conceptual dynamical model confirm that these models capture key statistical features of vastly more complex anisotropic turbulent systems in a qualitative fashion. These features include chaotic statistical behavior of the mean flow with a sub-Gaussian probability distribution function (pdf) for its fluctuations whereas the turbulent fluctuations have decreasing energy and correlation times at smaller scales, with nearly Gaussian pdfs for the large-scale fluctuations and fat-tailed non-Gaussian pdfs for the smaller-scale fluctuations. This last feature is a manifestation of intermittency of the small-scale fluctuations where turbulent modes with small variance have relatively frequent extreme events which directly impact the mean flow. The dynamical models introduced here potentially provide a useful test bed for algorithms for prediction, uncertainty quantification, and data assimilation for anisotropic turbulent systems. PMID:24753605

  12. Conceptual dynamical models for turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Majda, Andrew J.; Lee, Yoonsang

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the complexity of anisotropic turbulent processes in engineering and environmental fluid flows is a formidable challenge with practical significance because energy often flows intermittently from the smaller scales to impact the largest scales in these flows. Conceptual dynamical models for anisotropic turbulence are introduced and developed here which, despite their simplicity, capture key features of vastly more complicated turbulent systems. These conceptual models involve a large-scale mean flow and turbulent fluctuations on a variety of spatial scales with energy-conserving wave–mean-flow interactions as well as stochastic forcing of the fluctuations. Numerical experiments with a six-dimensional conceptual dynamical model confirm that these models capture key statistical features of vastly more complex anisotropic turbulent systems in a qualitative fashion. These features include chaotic statistical behavior of the mean flow with a sub-Gaussian probability distribution function (pdf) for its fluctuations whereas the turbulent fluctuations have decreasing energy and correlation times at smaller scales, with nearly Gaussian pdfs for the large-scale fluctuations and fat-tailed non-Gaussian pdfs for the smaller-scale fluctuations. This last feature is a manifestation of intermittency of the small-scale fluctuations where turbulent modes with small variance have relatively frequent extreme events which directly impact the mean flow. The dynamical models introduced here potentially provide a useful test bed for algorithms for prediction, uncertainty quantification, and data assimilation for anisotropic turbulent systems. PMID:24753605

  13. Conceptual change with refutational maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qing

    The purpose of this research was to explore the effect of studying refutational maps on conceptual change. Refutational maps are diagrams that explicitly present correct conceptions and commonly held misconceptions. A sample of 120 participants was randomly assigned into three groups: a refutational map group, a refutational text group and a non-refutational text group. A posttest was conducted to examine participants' performance on free recall and learning transfer measures. Results revealed that the refutational map group outperformed the other two groups on the free recall test. On the transfer essay test, the refutational map group outperformed the non-refutational text group but was not statistically detectably different from the refutational text group. On the transfer multiple-choice test, differences in the mean scores of the three treatment groups were not statistically detected. The research also found that need for cognition and logical thinking predicted the acquisition of scientific concepts, and students with lower logical thinking ability benefited more from learning the refutational map. These findings provide an insight into prior research on conceptual change and have instructional implications for incorporating effective cognitive tools in science classrooms. Key words: refutational map; conceptual change; need for cognition; logical thinking

  14. Delirio (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se tratan enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo y los abordajes farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

  15. Response times to conceptual questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasry, Nathaniel; Watkins, Jessica; Mazur, Eric; Ibrahim, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    We measured the time taken by students to respond to individual Force Concept Inventory (FCI) questions. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers, both before and after instruction. We also determine the relation between response time and expressed confidence. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response times are longer for incorrect answers than for correct ones, indicating that distractors are not automatic choices. Second, response times increase after instruction for both correct and incorrect answers, supporting the notion that instruction changes students' approach to conceptual questions. Third, response times are inversely related to students' expressed confidence; the lower their confidence, the longer it takes to respond.

  16. Conceptual Design - Polar Drive Ignition Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, R

    2012-04-05

    The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester is proposing a collaborative effort with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL), the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and General Atomics (GA) with the goal of developing a cryogenic polar drive (PD) ignition platform on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The scope of this proposed project requires close discourse among theorists, experimentalists, and laser and system engineers. This document describes how this proposed project can be broken into a series of parallel independent activities that, if implemented, could deliver this goal in the 2017 timeframe. This Conceptual Design document is arranged into two sections: mission need and design requirements. Design requirements are divided into four subsystems: (1) A point design that details the necessary target specifications and laser pulse requirements; (2) The beam smoothing subsystem that describes the MultiFM 1D smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD); (3) New optical elements that include continuous phase plates (CPP's) and distributed polarization rotators (DPR's); and (4) The cryogenic target handling and insertion subsystem, which includes the design, fabrication, testing, and deployment of a dedicated PD ignition target insertion cryostat (PD-ITIC). This document includes appendices covering: the primary criteria and functional requirements, the system design requirements, the work breakdown structure, the target point design, the experimental implementation plan, the theoretical unknowns and technical implementation risks, the estimated cost and schedule, the development plan for the DPR's, the development plan for MultiFM 1D SSD, and a list of acronym definitions. While work on the facility modifications required for PD ignition has been in progress for some time, some of the technical details required to define the specific modifications for a Conceptual Design Review (CDR) remain

  17. Una técnica para filtrar patrones de fringing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, P. G.

    Se presenta una nueva técnica para filtrar los patrones de fringing producidos en los CCDs tipo RCA. El método consiste en construir un mapa con los ángulos de inclinación de las franjas en cada punto de la imagen. Este mapa es ulteriormente utilizado para alinear con el patrón de interferencia una ventana estrecha, sobre la que se aplica un filtro de mediana. Este procedimiento permite eliminar la mayor parte del ruido del patrón de fringing sin destruirlo.

  18. Conceptual approach to astronomical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsov, N. A.; Avvakumova, E. A.; Bryukhov, D. O.; Vovchenko, A. E.; Vol'nova, A. A.; Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Kaigorodov, P. V.; Kalinichenko, L. A.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Pozanenko, A. S.; Stupnikov, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    New technical capabilities have brought about the sweeping growth of the amount of data acquired by the astronomers from observations with different instruments in various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. We consider conceptual approach to be a promising tool to efficiently deal with these data. It uses problem domain knowledge to formulate the tasks and develop problem-solving algorithms and data analysis methods in terms of domain concepts without reference to particular data sources, and thereby allows solving certain problems in general form. We demonstrate the benefits of conceptual approach by using it to solve problems related to search for secondary photometric standard candidates, determination of galaxy redshifts, creation of a binary and multiple star repository based on inhomogeneous databases, and classification of eclipsing binaries.We formulate and solve these problems over specifications of astronomical knowledge units such as photometric systems, astronomical objects, multiple stars, etc., and define them in terms of the corresponding problem domains independently of the existing data resources.

  19. Planets, pluralism, and conceptual lineage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusse, Carl

    2016-02-01

    Conceptual change can occur for a variety of reasons; some more scientifically significant than others. The 2006 definition of 'planet', which saw Pluto reclassified as a dwarf planet, is an example toward the more mundane end of the scale. I argue however that this case serves as a useful example of a related phenomenon, whereby what appears to be a single kind term conceals two or more distinct concepts with independent scientific utility. I examine the historical background to this case, as a template for developing additional evidence for pluralist approaches to conceptual disputes within science and elsewhere. "I would like to note that the two speakers who have spoken so far have both done the same extremely insulting gaffe," he said. "They have used the expression 'a physical definition of a planet' - by implication, suggesting that a dynamical definition is not physics!" He said he felt he had to teach the panel "something you should know": that dynamics was indeed physics, and in fact was addressed before solid-state physics in every textbook ever written." (Boyle, 2010, p. 126)

  20. How can conceptual schemes change teaching?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickman, Per-Olof

    2012-03-01

    Lundqvist, Almqvist and Östman describe a teacher's manner of teaching and the possible consequences it may have for students' meaning making. In doing this the article examines a teacher's classroom practice by systematizing the teacher's transactions with the students in terms of certain conceptual schemes, namely the epistemological moves, educational philosophies and the selective traditions of this practice. In connection to their study one may ask how conceptual schemes could change teaching. This article examines how the relationship of the conceptual schemes produced by educational researchers to educational praxis has developed from the middle of the last century to today. The relationship is described as having been transformed in three steps: (1) teacher deficit and social engineering, where conceptual schemes are little acknowledged, (2) reflecting practitioners, where conceptual schemes are mangled through teacher practice to aid the choices of already knowledgeable teachers, and (3) the mangling of the conceptual schemes by researchers through practice with the purpose of revising theory.

  1. Terapia hormonal para la menopausia y el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los resultados de los estudios sobre el uso de la terapia hormonal para la menopausia. Incluye información sobre el efecto de esta terapia en el cuerpo y explica los riesgos y beneficios del uso de hormonas.

  2. Hydrochemical tracers in the middle Rio Grande Basin, USA: 1. Conceptualization of groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, L. Niel; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Sanford, Ward E.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    zones hydro-chimiques reflète principalement la distribution moderne des charges hydrauliques mais est incohérente avec une dépression dans le niveau d'eau dans la partie centre-ouest du bassin, ce qui indique que cette dépression est un élément transitoire du système aquifère plutôt qu'un élément à long terme. Les âges radiocarbones ajustés aux réactions géochimiques et aux processus de mélange et d'évapotranspiration/dilution qui ont lieu dans l'aquifère sont presque identiques aux âges non ajustés et varient de la période moderne jusqu'à 30 ka. Les gradients d'âge établis à partir des nids de piézomètres s'étendent de 0.1 à 2 a cm-1 et suggèrent un taux de recharge d'environ 3 cm a-1 le long du front des montagnes à l'est et pour l'infiltration provenant du Rio Grande près d'Albuquerque. Il y a eu substantiellement moins de recharge le long du front des montagnes à l'est, au nord et au sud d'Albuquerque. Se utilizaron datos químicos e isotópicos de agua subterránea a lo largo de la cuenca central del río Grande, Nuevo México, EEUU, para identificar y mapear el flujo de agua subterránea de 12 fuentes de agua a la cuenca para evaluar edades por medio de radio carbon y para refinar el modelo conceptual del sistema acuífero del Grupo Santa Fé. Se puede establecer zonas hidrotérmicas que representan el flujo de agua subterránea a lo largo de miles a miles de decenas de años en grandes distancias a través del sistema acuífero principalmente siliclástico. Las ubicaciones de las zonas hidroquímicas mayormente reflejan la distribucion de la cabeza hidráulica pre-desarollo moderna pero son inconsistentes con una depresión en los niveles de agua pre-desarollo en la zona central oeste de la cuenca. Esto indica que esta depresión es un rasgo transitorio y no un rasgo de largo plazo del sistema acuífero. Las edades de radio carbon ajustadas para los procesos de reaciones geoquímicas, de mezclado y de evapotranspiraci

  3. Waste Handeling Building Conceptual Study

    SciTech Connect

    G.W. Rowe

    2000-11-06

    The objective of the ''Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study'' is to develop proposed design requirements for the repository Waste Handling System in sufficient detail to allow the surface facility design to proceed to the License Application effort if the proposed requirements are approved by DOE. Proposed requirements were developed to further refine waste handling facility performance characteristics and design constraints with an emphasis on supporting modular construction, minimizing fuel inventory, and optimizing facility maintainability and dry handling operations. To meet this objective, this study attempts to provide an alternative design to the Site Recommendation design that is flexible, simple, reliable, and can be constructed in phases. The design concept will be input to the ''Modular Design/Construction and Operation Options Report'', which will address the overall program objectives and direction, including options and issues associated with transportation, the subsurface facility, and Total System Life Cycle Cost. This study (herein) is limited to the Waste Handling System and associated fuel staging system.

  4. Conceptual design of lunar lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Eto, Takao; Kaneko, Yutaka; Kawazoe, Takeshi; Kaneko, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Masaya

    Lunar exploration/development will be one of the most significant future space activities. In the initial phase of lunar exploration, various unmanned missions will be undertaken and effective transportation means will be required. This paper discusses the results of the conceptual design of a Japanese lunar lander to be used in such explorations. The lunar lander would be launched on a Japanese H-II launch vehicle and would transport a payload, such as a lunar mobile explorer or a lunar sample return vehicle, on to the Moon. Requirements definition, mission analysis, system and subsystem definition of a lunar lander were performed. Our analysis shows that it should be able to carry an 750 kg payload onto the lunar surface. This lunar lander features are summarized.

  5. toolkit computational mesh conceptual model.

    SciTech Connect

    Baur, David G.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Cochran, William K.; Williams, Alan B.; Sjaardema, Gregory D.

    2010-03-01

    The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh is a software library intended to support massively parallel multi-physics computations on dynamically changing unstructured meshes. This domain of intended use is inherently complex due to distributed memory parallelism, parallel scalability, heterogeneity of physics, heterogeneous discretization of an unstructured mesh, and runtime adaptation of the mesh. Management of this inherent complexity begins with a conceptual analysis and modeling of this domain of intended use; i.e., development of a domain model. The Sierra Toolkit computational mesh software library is designed and implemented based upon this domain model. Software developers using, maintaining, or extending the Sierra Toolkit computational mesh library must be familiar with the concepts/domain model presented in this report.

  6. A conceptual framework of bonding.

    PubMed

    Gay, J

    1981-01-01

    Nurses involved in maternal-infant child care should objectively analyze any tools that purport to measure attachment and/or bonding. Has the author adequately defined the terms? Are directions given for making concepts operational for the practicing nurse? What are the foundations for placing values on parental behaviors? Do deviant parental behaviors reflect poor attachment or bonding, or are such behaviors merely indicative of limited parental opportunities for acquaintance? The presentation of of any conceptual framework should not be considered complete without empirical testing. Such testing and peer critique of a framework are essential fro any theory of bonding to evolve. With further research into the parental-child relationship, nurses can learn to provide adequate care for facilitating the bonding process in families. PMID:6913616

  7. Conceptual design for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratzer, Louis B.

    1989-01-01

    The designers of aircraft and more recently, aerospace vehicles have always struggled with the problems of evolving their designs to produce a machine which would perform its assigned task(s) in some optimum fashion. Almost invariably this involved dealing with more variables and constraints than could be handled in any computationally feasible way. With the advent of the electronic digital computer, the possibilities for introducing more variable and constraints into the initial design process led to greater expectations for improvement in vehicle (system) efficiency. The creation of the large scale systems necessary to achieve optimum designs has, for many reason, proved to be difficult. From a technical standpoint, significant problems arise in the development of satisfactory algorithms for processing of data from the various technical disciplines in a way that would be compatible with the complex optimization function. Also, the creation of effective optimization routines for multi-variable and constraint situations which could lead to consistent results has lagged. The current capability for carrying out the conceptual design of an aircraft on an interdisciplinary bases was evaluated to determine the need for extending this capability, and if necessary, to recommend means by which this could be carried out. Based on a review of available documentation and individual consultations, it appears that there is extensive interest at Langley Research Center as well as in the aerospace community in providing a higher level of capability that meets the technical challenges. By implication, the current design capability is inadequate and it does not operate in a way that allows the various technical disciplines to participate and cooperately interact in the design process. Based on this assessment, it was concluded that substantial effort should be devoted to developing a computer-based conceptual design system that would provide the capability needed for the near

  8. The Conceptual Evolution of Actual Mathematical Infinity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno A., Luis E.; Waldegg, Guillermina

    1991-01-01

    Analyzed are the different stages in the conceptual evolution of infinity as developed historically through the work of Bolzano and Cantor. Results of a study of 18 to 20 year old's concept of infinity prior to instruction produced aspects of the passage between conceptual levels of infinity. (MDH)

  9. Color Word Acquisition: Conceptual or Linguistic Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soja, Nancy N.

    A study investigated children's difficulty in learning color words and attempted to determine whether the difficulty was perceptual, conceptual, or linguistic. The subjects were 24 two-year-olds, half with knowledge of color words and half without, and a similar control group. The experimental subjects were given conceptual and comprehension tasks…

  10. Mentoring the Gifted: A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassinger, Robert; Porath, Marion; Ziegler, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Mentoring is considered among the most effective pedagogical measures, yet it is rarely used in gifted education. One of the main reasons for this neglect seems to be the lack of a thorough analysis of its conceptual foundations from the point of view of giftedness research. This contribution starts with a discussion of conceptual and definitional…

  11. Conceptual Development During the School Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Herbert J.

    This study tested certain implied predictions regarding conceptual learning at each of four sequential levels of development: concrete level, identity level, classificatory level, and formal level. For this purpose, scaled batteries to assess the level of conceptual development of children, kindergarten through high school, were constructed and a…

  12. On an Actual Apparatus for Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macbeth, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Organizes a reading of the conceptual change literature that brings into view a collection of design specifications for a conceptual change apparatus. Analyzes one such apparatus in the particulars of a science education demonstration program produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Private Universe Project. (Contains 114 references.) (Author/WRM)

  13. Determining Students' Conceptual Understanding Level of Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricayir, Hakan; Ay, Selahattin; Comek, Arif; Cansiz, Gokhan; Uce, Musa

    2016-01-01

    Science students find heat, temperature, enthalpy and energy in chemical reactions to be some of the most difficult subjects. It is crucial to define their conceptual understanding level in these subjects so that educators can build upon this knowledge and introduce new thermodynamics concepts. This paper reports conceptual understanding levels of…

  14. Entrepreneurial University Conceptualization: Case of Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsi, Jahangir Yadollahi; Imanipour, Narges; Salamzadeh, Aidin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of the present paper is to elaborate an entrepreneurial university conceptualization which could be appropriate for developing countries. A conceptualization which distinguishes between different elements of entrepreneurial universities in developing countries, and identifies the common ones. This conceptualization…

  15. Cultivation Theory and Research: A Conceptual Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, W. James

    1993-01-01

    Presents a critical analysis of how cultivation (long-term formation of perceptions and beliefs about the world as a result of exposure to media) has been conceptualized in theory and research. Analyses the construct of television exposure. Suggests revisions for conceptualizing the existing theory and extending it. (RS)

  16. Patterns of Conceptual Change in Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demastes, Sherry S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the patterns of students' conceptual restructuring within the theoretical framework of biologic evolution. Results indicate that many conceptions in this content are closely interwoven, so that a change in one conception requires a change in many others. Reports four patterns of conceptual change: cascade, wholesale, incremental, and…

  17. A Conceptual Data Model of Datum Systems

    PubMed Central

    McCaleb, Michael R.

    1999-01-01

    A new conceptual data model that addresses the geometric dimensioning and tolerancing concepts of datum systems, datums, datum features, datum targets, and the relationships among these concepts, is presented. Additionally, a portion of a related data model, Part 47 of STEP (ISO 10303-47), is reviewed and a comparison is made between it and the new conceptual data model.

  18. Context and Structure in Conceptual Combination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Shoben, Edward J.

    1988-01-01

    Three experiments evaluated modifications of conceptual knowledge associated with judgments of adjective-noun conceptual combinations. The subjects included 109 students at the University of Illinois (Champaign). Results indicate that models that attempt to explain combined categories by adding or changing a single feature are not successful. (TJH)

  19. Tapping in "to" Tapped Out: "Thinking about Conceptual Art"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Kim; Stephens, Pam

    2005-01-01

    Perhaps one of the best ways to describe conceptual art is to quote an old bumper sticker, "If you like conceptual art, think about honking." Conceptual art is an art movement that came into prominence in the 1960s. Like other movements in modern art, conceptual art broke with established tradition. In conceptual art, ideas or perceptions are as…

  20. Government conceptual estimating for contracting and management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The use of the Aerospace Price Book, a cost index, and conceptual cost estimating for cost-effective design and construction of space facilities is discussed. The price book consists of over 200 commonly used conceptual elements and 100 systems summaries of projects such as launch pads, processing facilities, and air locks. The cost index is composed of three divisions: (1) bid summaries of major Shuttle projects, (2) budget cost data sheets, and (3) cost management summaries; each of these divisions is described. Conceptual estimates of facilities and ground support equipment are required to provide the most probable project cost for budget, funding, and project approval purposes. Similar buildings, systems, and elements already designed are located in the cost index in order to make the best rough order of magnitude conceptual estimates for development of Space Shuttle facilities. An example displaying the applicability of the conceptual cost estimating procedure for the development of the KSC facilities is presented.

  1. Developing Coherent Conceptual Storylines: Two Elementary Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuscin, Deborah; Lipsitz, Kelsey; Cisterna-Alburquerque, Dante; Arnone, Kathryn A.; van Garderen, Delinda; de Araujo, Zandra; Lee, Eun Ju

    2016-06-01

    The `conceptual storyline' of a lesson refers to the flow and sequencing of learning activities such that science concepts align and progress in ways that are instructionally meaningful to student learning of the concepts. Research demonstrates that when teachers apply lesson design strategies to create a coherent science content storyline, student learning is positively impacted (Roth et al., 2011). Because the conceptual storyline is often implicit within a lesson, and teachers often have difficulty articulating this aspect of lesson design (Lo et al., 2014), our professional development program engages elementary teachers in analyzing and developing graphic representations of a lesson's conceptual storyline to make that element explicit. In this exploratory study, we present typologies that represent two primary challenges teachers faced in developing coherent conceptual storylines in their lesson design, and examine the extent to which professional development enhanced their capacity to develop a coherent conceptual storyline.

  2. Developing Coherent Conceptual Storylines: Two Elementary Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuscin, Deborah; Lipsitz, Kelsey; Cisterna-Alburquerque, Dante; Arnone, Kathryn A.; van Garderen, Delinda; de Araujo, Zandra; Lee, Eun Ju

    2016-04-01

    The `conceptual storyline' of a lesson refers to the flow and sequencing of learning activities such that science concepts align and progress in ways that are instructionally meaningful to student learning of the concepts. Research demonstrates that when teachers apply lesson design strategies to create a coherent science content storyline, student learning is positively impacted (Roth et al., 2011). Because the conceptual storyline is often implicit within a lesson, and teachers often have difficulty articulating this aspect of lesson design (Lo et al., 2014), our professional development program engages elementary teachers in analyzing and developing graphic representations of a lesson's conceptual storyline to make that element explicit. In this exploratory study, we present typologies that represent two primary challenges teachers faced in developing coherent conceptual storylines in their lesson design, and examine the extent to which professional development enhanced their capacity to develop a coherent conceptual storyline.

  3. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF A LOW-BETA SC PROTON LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    R. W. GARNETT; T. P WANGLER; ET AL

    2001-04-01

    In this paper we discuss the conceptual design of a low-{beta} superconducting proton linac based on multi-gap spoke resonator structures. We have demonstrated the feasibility of using superconducting accelerating structures throughout a proton linac for high-peak current applications. The injection energy for this linac is assumed to be 6.7 MeV, which equals the output energy of the CW RFQ built for the Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator now operating at Los Alamos. The beam is accelerated to 109 MeV using multi-gap spoke resonators. Both 2-gap and 3-gap cavities are used in three accelerating sections with geometric-{beta} values of 0.175, 0.2, and 0.34. Higher beam energies can be achieved by transitioning to elliptical superconducting cavities to further accelerate the beam. Preliminary beam-dynamics simulation results are shown and discussed.

  4. Psychopharmacological enhancement: a conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a range of new psychotropic agents raises the possibility that these will be used for enhancement purposes (smart pills, happy pills, and pep pills). The enhancement debate soon raises questions in philosophy of medicine and psychiatry (eg, what is a disorder?), and this debate in turn raises fundament questions in philosophy of language, science, and ethics. In this paper, a naturalistic conceptual framework is proposed for addressing these issues. This framework begins by contrasting classical and critical concepts of categories, and then puts forward an integrative position that is based on cognitive-affective research. This position can in turn be used to consider the debate between pharmacological Calvinism (which may adopt a moral metaphor of disorder) and psychotropic utopianism (which may emphasize a medical metaphor of disorder). I argue that psychiatric treatment of serious psychiatric disorders is justified, and that psychotropics are an acceptable kind of intervention. The use of psychotropics for sub-threshold phenomena requires a judicious weighing of the relevant facts (which are often sparse) and values. PMID:22244084

  5. Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Williams, Kathy S.; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified from the previously published Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test (DODT) and some newly developed items. The ODCA, a validated instrument containing fewer items than the DODT and emphasizing different content areas within the realm of osmosis and diffusion, better aligns with our curriculum. Creation of the ODCA involved removal of six DODT item pairs, modification of another six DODT item pairs, and development of three new item pairs addressing basic osmosis and diffusion concepts. Responses to ODCA items testing the same concepts as the DODT were remarkably similar to responses to the DODT collected from students 15 yr earlier, suggesting that student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis remains elusive. PMID:22135375

  6. Conceptual Mapping: A Tool for Self-Reflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcombe, Melinda; Shonka, Amy

    1993-01-01

    Considers the ways that conceptual mapping as a classroom technique can help students reflect critically on complex conceptual relationships. Shows how teachers can use conceptual mapping in the classroom. (HB)

  7. Personalizing knowledge delivery services: a conceptual framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majchrzak, Ann; Chelleppa, Ramnath K.; Cooper, Lynne P.; Hars, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Consistent with the call of the Minnesota Symposium for new theory in knowledge management, we offer a new conceptualization of Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) as a portfolio of personalized knowledge delivery services. Borrowing from research on online consumer behavior, we describe the challenges imposed by personalized knowledge delivery services, and suggest design parameters that can help to overcome these challenges. We develop our design constructs through a set of hypotheses and discuss the research implications of our new conceptualization. Finally, we describe practical implications suggested by our conceptualization - practical suggestions that we hope to gain some experience with as part of an ongoing action research project at our partner organization.

  8. Structural Analysis in a Conceptual Design Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Robinson, Jay H.; Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic aircraft designers must shape the outer mold line of the aircraft to improve multiple objectives, such as mission performance, cruise efficiency, and sonic-boom signatures. Conceptual designers have demonstrated an ability to assess these objectives for a large number of candidate designs. Other critical objectives and constraints, such as weight, fuel volume, aeroelastic effects, and structural soundness, are more difficult to address during the conceptual design process. The present research adds both static structural analysis and sizing to an existing conceptual design framework. The ultimate goal is to include structural analysis in the multidisciplinary optimization of a supersonic aircraft. Progress towards that goal is discussed and demonstrated.

  9. La preparacion en ciencia de los candidatos a maestros del nivel elemental primario segun la reforma de la educacion cientifica en Puerto Rico: Una propuesta de secuencia curricular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Plaza, Evelyn

    El proposito de esta investigacion fue identificar los componentes de la preparacion en ciencia que deben recibir los estudiantes del Bachillerato en Artes en Educacion Elemental, Nivel Primario, de acuerdo a los documentos que dirigen la reforma de la educacion cientifica en Puerto Rico. Tambien, se identificaron los componentes de los cursos que forman parte de la preparacion en ciencia de estos estudiantes. Se compararon los componentes de la preparacion en ciencia y los componentes de los cursos para determinar congruencias y discrepancias. Con los datos recopilados se identificaron los componentes de los cursos de una secuencia curricular para la preparacion en ciencia de los candidatos a maestros del nivel elemental primario. La secuencia curricular que se propone en esta investigacion incluye cursos de contenido cientifico y de metodologia en la ensenanza de la ciencia disenados para satisfacer las necesidades de los candidatos. Se recomienda que en los procesos para el diseno, la implantacion y la evaluacion de estos cursos participen profesores de ciencia, profesores de educacion y maestros del nivel elemental primario. Todos los cursos de la secuencia curricular deben tener un enfoque constructivista. Las experiencias educativas que se incluyan en los cursos deben aspirar a desarrollar en los candidatos los atributos de la cultura cientifica y actitudes positivas hacia la ciencia y hacia la ensenanza de esta disciplina. El modelaje por parte de los profesores que ensenen los cursos de la secuencia curricular es fundamental en el desarrollo profesional de los candidatos. Se recomienda que en los cursos de contenido cientifico se estudien los conceptos y los conocimientos cientificos que forman parte del curriculo de Kindergarten a tercer grado de forma integrada y con una profundidad universitaria. Estos cursos deben tener un enfoque interdisciplinario e incluir el estudio de la naturaleza de la ciencia y un componente de laboratorio para desarrollar los

  10. Estabilidad de los modelos de Heggie y Ramamani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, J. C.; Vergne, M. M.; Wachlin, F. C.; Carpintero, D. D.

    Los modelos de Heggie y Ramamani de satélites galácticos en órbitas circulares se basan en una teoría aproximada, por lo que es importante verificar su estabilidad mediante simulaciones numéricas. En esta forma, hemos logrado mostrar que son estables sobre intervalos de tiempo mucho mayores que los que lograron los propios autores de los modelos. Por otra parte, dado que hemos mostrado que el caos es significativo en estos modelos, son un sistema ideal para investigar si, pese a ello, se mantienen estacionarios. Nuestras simulaciones numéricas muestran que, pese al caos, la estacionariedad se mantiene sobre intervalos de centenares de tiempos de cruce del sistema, mucho mayores que los tiempos de Liapunov característicos de sus movimientos caóticos.

  11. Tips for Reading Tutors = Consejos para los Tutores en Lectura.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Reading is the basis for learning and school success. While reading is learned primarily in the classroom, many students need extra time and help. Research shows that tutoring is a great way for individuals and groups outside school to support learning, but effective tutoring requires appropriate training and careful planning. This brochure,…

  12. [Parenting Information: Drugs. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre las Drojas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These two booklets provide basic information about drugs and drug abuse and are part of a series of 22 booklets, designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Let's Talk about Drug Abuse," (booklet #18), reviews foreign substances or drugs young people are often exposed to (i.e., tobacco, alcohol,…

  13. 100 Consejos para los Padres (100 Tips for Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Noting that involved parents can improve their children's chances of succeeding in school, this packet of Spanish-language cards offers 100 tips created to help parents become more involved in their child's education. Following a card of general tips on becoming involved, tips are offered in the following topic areas: keeping a child alcohol,…

  14. Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, Edward F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Current and post World War II scientific research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (New Mexico) is discussed. The operation of the laboratory, the Los Alamos consultant program, and continuation education, and continuing education activities at the laboratory are also discussed. (JN)

  15. Modular biowaste monitoring system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The objective of the study was to define requirements and generate a conceptual design for a Modular Biowaste Monitoring System for specifically supporting shuttle life science experimental and diagnostic programs.

  16. Shuttle mission simulator software conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Software conceptual designs (SCD) are presented for meeting the simulator requirements for the shuttle missions. The major areas of the SCD discussed include: malfunction insertion, flight software, applications software, systems software, and computer complex.

  17. Relational Conceptual Change in Solution Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenezer, Jazlin V.; Gaskell, P. James

    1995-01-01

    Explores changes in students' conceptions about solution chemistry in the context of instruction based on collaboration between a researcher and an experienced teacher attempting to implement strategies from the literature on conceptual change. (ZWH)

  18. Research in Psychiatry: Concepts and Conceptual Analysis.

    PubMed

    Marková, Ivana S; Berrios, German E

    2016-01-01

    Current research in psychiatry is increasingly focused on empirical studies with methods and technologies adopted from medicine. This paper argues that psychiatry has a different epistemological basis from medicine, and it is on account of this that research in psychiatry demands a different approach, one that perforce focuses on the clarification of concepts central to psychiatric practice. This means undertaking conceptual analysis and conceptual history and only then moving on to empirical study. This paper highlights the crucial epistemological differences between the practice of medicine and psychiatry, showing that the latter is enacted at the level of language and communication. Consequently, the structures of psychiatric objects, namely, mental disorders and mental symptoms, are complexes of meaning derived from heterogeneous sources - both organic and semantic. Conceptual analysis of such structures is essential as ultimately the validity of empirical research is directly dependent on the conceptual clarification of its objects of inquiry. PMID:27463619

  19. Mars orbiter conceptual systems design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, W.; Vogl, J.

    1982-01-01

    Spacecraft system and subsystem designs at the conceptual level to perform either of two Mars Orbiter missions, a Climatology Mission and an Aeronomy Mission were developed. The objectives of these missions are to obtain and return data.

  20. It's Time for a Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausfather, Samuel J.

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual change teaching is an instructional method that helps students modify, extend, or exchange their alternative conceptions for the appropriate scientific conceptions. Provides activities and a diagnostic test to apply the method to the concepts of heat and temperature. (MDH)

  1. Conceptual design. Final report: TFE Verification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report documents the TFE Conceptual Design, which provided the design guidance for the TFE Verification program. The primary goals of this design effort were: (1) establish the conceptual design of an in-core thermionic reactor for a 2 Mw(e) space nuclear power system with a 7-year operating lifetime; (2) demonstrate scalability of the above concept over the output power range of 500 kW(e) to 5 MW(e); and (3) define the TFE which is the basis for the 2 MW (e) reactor design. This TFE specification provided the basis for the test program. These primary goals were achieved. The technical approach taking in the conceptual design effort is discussed in Section 2, and the results are discussed in Section 3. The remainder of this introduction draws a perspective on the role that this conceptual design task played in the TFE Verification Program.

  2. Conceptual and logical level of database modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunka, Frantisek; Matula, Jiri

    2016-06-01

    Conceptual and logical levels form the top most levels of database modeling. Usually, ORM (Object Role Modeling) and ER diagrams are utilized to capture the corresponding schema. The final aim of business process modeling is to store its results in the form of database solution. For this reason, value oriented business process modeling which utilizes ER diagram to express the modeling entities and relationships between them are used. However, ER diagrams form the logical level of database schema. To extend possibilities of different business process modeling methodologies, the conceptual level of database modeling is needed. The paper deals with the REA value modeling approach to business process modeling using ER-diagrams, and derives conceptual model utilizing ORM modeling approach. Conceptual model extends possibilities for value modeling to other business modeling approaches.

  3. Conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Suer, A.

    1996-02-28

    This report presents a conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study (FS) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) focusing exclusively on thermal treatment technologies for contaminated soil, sediment, or sludge remediation projects.

  4. Conceptualizing services research on outpatient commitment.

    PubMed

    Draine, J

    1997-01-01

    Issues affecting the research of outcomes of involuntary outpatient commitment (OC) of persons with serious mental illness are explored. These issues include the reliance on hospital recidivism as a primary measure of outcome, the role of family members and coercion in the process of outpatient commitment, and the conceptualization and design of studies. A conceptual framework that attempts to incorporate responses to these issues is proposed. Continued research on OC should build on conceptual models that include family role and burden, services delivered, an accounting for varied coercive mechanisms, and client-level outcomes. Rehospitalization should be conceptualized as an intermediate variable between OC and client-level outcomes rather than as an ultimate outcome. PMID:9230572

  5. Music-therapy analyzed through conceptual mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Rodolfo; de la Fuente, Rebeca

    2002-11-01

    Conceptual maps have been employed lately as a learning tool, as a modern study technique, and as a new way to understand intelligence, which allows for the development of a strong theoretical reference, in order to prove the research hypothesis. This paper presents a music-therapy analysis based on this tool to produce a conceptual mapping network, which ranges from magic through the rigor of the hard sciences.

  6. A Conceptual Tree of Laser Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Pakhomov, Andrew V.; Sinko, John E.

    2008-04-28

    An original attempt to develop a conceptual tree for laser propulsion is offered. The tree provides a systematic view for practically all possible laser propulsion concepts and all inter-conceptual links, based on propellant phases and phase transfers. It also helps to see which fields of laser propulsion have been already thoroughly explored, where the next effort must be applied, and which paths should be taken with proper care or avoided entirely.

  7. Conceptual size representation in ventral visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Gabay, Shai; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Henik, Avishai; Gronau, Nurit

    2016-01-29

    Recent findings suggest that visual objects may be mapped along the ventral occipitotemporal cortex according to their real-world size (Konkle and Oliva, 2012). It has been argued that such mapping does not reflect an abstract, conceptual size representation, but rather the visual or functional properties associated with small versus big real-world objects. To determine whether a more abstract conceptual size representation may affect visual cortical activation we used meaningless geometrical shapes, devoid of semantic or functional associations, which were associated with specific size representations by virtue of extensive training. Following training, participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while performing a conceptual size comparison task on the geometrical shapes. In addition, a size comparison task was conducted for numeral digits denoting small and big numbers. A region-of-interest analysis revealed larger blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses for conceptually 'big' than for conceptually 'small' shapes, as well as for big versus small numbers, within medial (parahippocampal place area, PPA) and lateral (occipital place area, OPA) place-selective regions. Processing of the 'big' visual shapes further elicited enhanced activation in early visual cortex, possibly reflecting top-down projections from PPA. By using arbitrary shapes and numbers we minimized visual, categorical, or functional influences on fMRI measurement, providing evidence for a possible neural mechanism underlying the representation of abstract conceptual size within the ventral visual stream. PMID:26731198

  8. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports Primary School teachers' discourses analysis about their difficulties related to the teaching of Astronomy. It reports partial data of a master's level research carried out in the last two years, named "An exploratory study for inserting Astronomy in primary school teachers' education" (LANGHI, 2004). The study took into consideration students' and teachers' common sense conceptions about astronomical phenomena, conceptual mistakes in textbooks, and Astronomy's suggestions given by the PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais - The Brazilian National Curriculum Standards). The paper aims to characterize teachers' difficulties, in order to provide subsides to the implementation of an initial or continuing education program. This study is justified by the fact that courses plans like these only will be adapted to the teacher's (and students') reality, if there is a primary investigation about what the teachers really need to know about Astronomy. This fact was possible here by the enunciations interpretation of a teachers' sample using semi-structured interviews, according to discourse analysis procedures. The research outcomes show difficulties related to factors like: those of personal order, methodological, on teacher's formation, educational infrastructure and other related to information sources for educators. Este artigo, que relata as dificuldades de professores em relação ao ensino da Astronomia, faz parte de um estudo exploratório para a inserção da Astronomia na formação de professores dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Esse estudo leva em consideração as concepções alternativas de alunos e professores sobre fenômenos astronômicos, os erros conceituais em livros didáticos e as sugestões de conteúdos de Astronomia constantes nos PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais). Caracterizar as dificuldades dos professores é a questão central deste texto, apontando para o objetivo de contribuir com subsídios para um futuro

  9. Instantánea de los cánceres infantiles

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre la incidencia y mortalidad del cáncer en los niños, tendencias en el financiamiento del NCI para la investigación del cáncer infantil; así como ejemplos de actividades y adelantos en la investigación relevantes para esta población.

  10. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

  11. Stockpile Stewardship: Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, Charlie; Morgan, Nathanial; Goorley, Tom; Merrill, Frank; Funk, Dave; Korzekwa, Deniece; Laintz, Ken

    2012-01-26

    "Heritage of Science" is a short video that highlights the Stockpile Stewardship program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stockpile Stewardship was conceived in the early 1990s as a national science-based program that could assure the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without the need for full-scale underground nuclear testing. This video was produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory for screening at the Lab's Bradbury Science Museum in Los Alamos, NM and is narrated by science correspondent Miles O'Brien.

  12. Stockpile Stewardship: Los Alamos

    ScienceCinema

    McMillan, Charlie; Morgan, Nathanial; Goorley, Tom; Merrill, Frank; Funk, Dave; Korzekwa, Deniece; Laintz, Ken

    2014-08-12

    "Heritage of Science" is a short video that highlights the Stockpile Stewardship program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stockpile Stewardship was conceived in the early 1990s as a national science-based program that could assure the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without the need for full-scale underground nuclear testing. This video was produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory for screening at the Lab's Bradbury Science Museum in Los Alamos, NM and is narrated by science correspondent Miles O'Brien.

  13. La utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales en la ensenanza de biologia y su efecto sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en los estudiantes universitarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rivera, Maria M.

    Se investigo el efecto de los mapas conceptuales sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en estudiantes universitarios. La investigacion utilizo dos estrategias: mapas conceptuales individuales y mapas conceptuales colaborativos, con el fin de investigar si existen diferencias significativas en el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis. El analisis de los datos incluyo aspectos cualitativos y cuantitativos. Se desprende del estudio que el 80% de los estudiantes describen la utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales como una experiencia beneficiosa. El 70% de los estudiantes expreso que los mapas conceptuales son utiles en el aprendizaje del proceso de fotosintesis y el 61% indico que facilitan la comprension de los conceptos. Los hallazgos mas importantes del analisis cuantitativo indican que los estudiantes que utilizaron los mapas conceptuales mejoraron significativamente su desempeno en la posprueba global. Se utilizo la prueba Mann-Whitney para investigar si existian diferencias significativas en la posprueba y preprueba global, el valor de W = 1945.0, para un valor p de 0.00, lo cual establece diferencias significativas. Para determinar si existian diferencias significativas entre la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual, se realizo la prueba nuevamente. El valor de W correspondio a 490.5, que es significativo, con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluye que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual. Los datos proveen suficiente evidencia para sostener que los estudiantes que utilizaron la estrategia de mapas conceptuales individuales mejoraron el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis significativamente. Se realizo nuevamente la prueba para los resultados de posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. El valor de W correspondio a 446 con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluyo que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. Finalmente, se efectuo una

  14. Ways of Going Wrong in Teaching for Conceptual Change: Report on the Conceptual Change Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward L.; Lott, Gerald W.

    A specific teaching strategy to effect conceptual change used with a single class of fifth grade students was evaluated. The Rand McNally SCIIS "Communities" unit used in this study can be characterized as a conceptual change strategy because it is organized around a three-phase learning cycle designed to move students from preconceptions to new,…

  15. Conceptual influences on category-based induction

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Davidson, Natalie S.

    2013-01-01

    One important function of categories is to permit rich inductive inferences. Prior work shows that children use category labels to guide their inductive inferences. However, there are competing theories to explain this phenomenon, differing in the roles attributed to conceptual information versus perceptual similarity. Seven experiments with 4- to 5-year-old children and adults (N = 344) test these theories by teaching categories for which category membership and perceptual similarity are in conflict, and varying the conceptual basis of the novel categories. Results indicate that for non-natural kind categories that have little conceptual coherence, children make inferences based on perceptual similarity, whereas adults make inferences based on category membership. In contrast, for basic- and ontological-level categories that have a principled conceptual basis, children and adults alike make use of category membership more than perceptual similarity as the basis of their inferences. These findings provide evidence in favor of the role of conceptual information in preschoolers’ inferences, and further demonstrate that labeled categories are not all equivalent; they differ in their inductive potential. PMID:23517863

  16. Taxonomía de asteroides y cometas basada en los espectros de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.; Motta, V.; Froeschlé, C.

    Estudiaremos dos familias de objetos que sufren encuentros cercanos con planetas, a saber: la familia de cometas de Júpiter (JF) y los asteroides cercanos a la Tierra (NEAs). El movimiento de estos objetos es caótico en una escala de tiempo corta. Más aún, debido a los cambios erráticos en los elementos orbitales, la comparación de los valores actuales da poca información acerca de la posible vinculación dinámica entre los objetos de una misma familia. Calculamos una estimación finita de los Exponentes Característicos de Lyapunov (LCE), los llamamos Indicadores Característicos de Lyapunov (LCI) para ambas familias y analizamos las características del espacio de fase donde tiene lugar el movimiento de estos objetos. Integrando en un período suficientemente largo (e.g. 20000 años), encontramos que el LCI alcanza un valor cuasi-constante. La mayoría de los miembros de ambas familias muestran una concentración de los tiempos de Lyapunov (inverso del LCI) de alrededor de 50-100 años (Tancredi, 1995, Astron & Astrop., 299, 288). La concentración de los tiempos de Lyapunov es mayor para la familia de Júpiter que para los NEAs. Entre estos últimos, la menor dispersión se da para aquellos que cruzan la órbita de la Tierra. Se demostró que el espectro de los `indicadores locales' (Froeschlé et. al., 1990, Cel. Mec. 56, 307) o ``números de estiramiento'' (Voglis and Contopoulos, 1994, J. Phys. A 26, 4899) (relacionados con el LCI) son invariantes y nos dan una información más completa sobre el comportamiento caótico. Mediante la comparación de espectros discutimos la similitud entre los objetos de una misma familia y analizamos las diferentes posibles rutas al caos. Los espectros se clasifican mediante la comparación de los momentos de las distribuciones de los `números de estiramiento'. Aplicamos un método de agrupamiento jerárquico (Zappala et. al., 1990, Astron. J. 100, 2030) para identificar ``familias'' de espectros (grupos de espectros

  17. How Physicists Communicate Conceptual Meaning with Math

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Scott

    2015-04-01

    Physics embeds conceptual meaning within a complex mathematical formalism. In this talk, I present a discourse analysis of faculty teaching with mathematical derivations, rearranging and simplifying equations to illuminate physical principles. Observations are interpreted through the lens of symbolic forms, conceptual and contextual meanings that are embedded in the equation. As an equation is manipulated, different forms are emphasized, subtly changing the physical interpretation. The symbolic forms framework can make explicit the motivations behind the mathematical ``moves'' in a derivation. Some manipulations change the dominant context from physics to mathematics. Other thematic manipulations -- e.g. grouping terms of a common variable -- reveal important conceptual points. While direct observational evidence supports the inference of these motivations, the reasoning is often hidden from the students. The study of mathematical discourse represents a new direction in which physics education researchers can study and inform the classroom.

  18. Being moved: linguistic representation and conceptual structure

    PubMed Central

    Kuehnast, Milena; Wagner, Valentin; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Jacobsen, Thomas; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the organization of the semantic field and the conceptual structure of moving experiences by investigating German-language expressions referring to the emotional state of being moved. We used present and past participles of eight psychological verbs as primes in a free word-association task, as these grammatical forms place their conceptual focus on the eliciting situation and on the felt emotional state, respectively. By applying a taxonomy of basic knowledge types and computing the Cognitive Salience Index, we identified joy and sadness as key emotional ingredients of being moved, and significant life events and art experiences as main elicitors of this emotional state. Metric multidimensional scaling analyses of the semantic field revealed that the core terms designate a cluster of emotional states characterized by low degrees of arousal and slightly positive valence, the latter due to a nearly balanced representation of positive and negative elements in the conceptual structure of being moved. PMID:25404924

  19. Clinical research informatics: a conceptual perspective

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Chunhua

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research informatics is the rapidly evolving sub-discipline within biomedical informatics that focuses on developing new informatics theories, tools, and solutions to accelerate the full translational continuum: basic research to clinical trials (T1), clinical trials to academic health center practice (T2), diffusion and implementation to community practice (T3), and ‘real world’ outcomes (T4). We present a conceptual model based on an informatics-enabled clinical research workflow, integration across heterogeneous data sources, and core informatics tools and platforms. We use this conceptual model to highlight 18 new articles in the JAMIA special issue on clinical research informatics. PMID:22523344

  20. Conceptual Alignment: How Brains Achieve Mutual Understanding.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Verhagen, Lennart; Toni, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    We share our thoughts with other minds, but we do not understand how. Having a common language certainly helps, but infants' and tourists' communicative success clearly illustrates that sharing thoughts does not require signals with a pre-assigned meaning. In fact, human communicators jointly build a fleeting conceptual space in which signals are a means to seek and provide evidence for mutual understanding. Recent work has started to capture the neural mechanisms supporting those fleeting conceptual alignments. The evidence suggests that communicators and addressees achieve mutual understanding by using the same computational procedures, implemented in the same neuronal substrate, and operating over temporal scales independent from the signals' occurrences. PMID:26792458

  1. A conceptual graphs modeling of UMLS components.

    PubMed

    Joubert, M; Miton, F; Fieschi, M; Robert, J J

    1995-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) of the U.S. National Library of Medicine is a complex collection of terms, concepts, and relationships derived from standard classifications. Potential applications would benefit from a high level representation of its components. This paper proposes a conceptual representation of both the Metathesaurus and the Semantic Network of the UMLS based on conceptual graphs. It shows that the addition of a dictionary of concepts to the UMLS knowledge base allows the capability to exploit it pertinently. This dictionary defines more precisely the core concepts and adds constraints on their use. Constraints are dedicated to guide an "intelligent" browsing of the UMLS knowledge sources. PMID:8591348

  2. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports Primary School teachers' discourses analysis about their difficulties related to the teaching of Astronomy. It reports partial data of a master's level research carried out in the last two years, named "An exploratory study for inserting Astronomy in primary school teachers' education" (LANGHI, 2004). The study took into consideration students' and teachers' common sense conceptions about astronomical phenomena, conceptual mistakes in textbooks, and Astronomy's suggestions given by the PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais - The Brazilian National Curriculum Standards). The paper aims to characterize teachers' difficulties, in order to provide subsides to the implementation of an initial or continuing education program. This study is justified by the fact that courses plans like these only will be adapted to the teacher's (and students') reality, if there is a primary investigation about what the teachers really need to know about Astronomy. This fact was possible here by the enunciations interpretation of a teachers' sample using semi-structured interviews, according to discourse analysis procedures. The research outcomes show difficulties related to factors like: those of personal order, methodological, on teacher's formation, educational infrastructure and other related to information sources for educators. Este artigo, que relata as dificuldades de professores em relação ao ensino da Astronomia, faz parte de um estudo exploratório para a inserção da Astronomia na formação de professores dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Esse estudo leva em consideração as concepções alternativas de alunos e professores sobre fenômenos astronômicos, os erros conceituais em livros didáticos e as sugestões de conteúdos de Astronomia constantes nos PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais). Caracterizar as dificuldades dos professores é a questão central deste texto, apontando para o objetivo de contribuir com subsídios para um futuro

  3. Exact and conceptual repetition dissociate conceptual memory tests: problems for transfer appropriate processing theory.

    PubMed

    McDermott, K B; Roediger, H L

    1996-03-01

    Three experiments examined whether a conceptual implicit memory test (specifically, category instance generation) would exhibit repetition effects similar to those found in free recall. The transfer appropriate processing account of dissociations among memory tests led us to predict that the tests would show parallel effects; this prediction was based upon the theory's assumption that conceptual tests will behave similarly as a function of various independent variables. In Experiment 1, conceptual repetition (i.e., following a target word [e.g., puzzles] with an associate [e.g., jigsaw]) did not enhance priming on the instance generation test relative to the condition of simply presenting the target word once, although this manipulation did affect free recall. In Experiment 2, conceptual repetition was achieved by following a picture with its corresponding word (or vice versa). In this case, there was an effect of conceptual repetition on free recall but no reliable effect on category instance generation or category cued recall. In addition, we obtained a picture superiority effect in free recall but not in category instance generation. In the third experiment, when the same study sequence was used as in Experiment 1, but with instructions that encouraged relational processing, priming on the category instance generation task was enhanced by conceptual repetition. Results demonstrate that conceptual memory tests can be dissociated and present problems for Roediger's (1990) transfer appropriate processing account of dissociations between explicit and implicit tests. PMID:8653098

  4. Delirio (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo, asi como farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

  5. Sistemas Eolicos Pequenos para Generacion de Electricidad; Una guia para consumidores en los EE.UU.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-09-01

    This Spanish version of the popular Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  6. Examining the influence of formative assessment on conceptual accumulation and conceptual change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Miki K.

    This study explored the effect of formative assessment on student achievement in science. Research in science education has shown that students enter science classrooms with previously formed explanatory models of the natural world; these naive "mental models" have a substantial influence on their learning of scientific conceptions. In general, conceptual change describes the pathway from pre-instructional or prior conceptions to a post-instructional or desired conception. Conceptual change involves a fundamental restructuring of a network of concepts rather than fitting new concepts into an existing conceptual network or structure. Research has shown that conceptual change is difficult to promote; for example, students may accumulate multiple conceptions over the course of instruction, including both new misconceptions and more scientifically-sound conceptions. Hellden and Solomon (2004) found that although students tended to evoke the same, less-scientific conceptions over time, they could produce more scientifically-sound conceptions during interviews with appropriate prompting; thus, students undergo conceptual accumulation rather than conceptual change. Students can recall scientifically-sound conceptions they have learned and may use them to reason, but they do so in partnership or hybridization with their less-scientific prior conceptions. Formative assessment, which focuses on providing immediate feedback by acting upon student understanding during the course of instruction, and conceptual change have both been linked to increased student achievement. Formative assessment is an instructional strategy that helps teachers to assess students' current understanding, identify the gap between current understanding and expected understanding, and provide immediate and useful feedback to students on how to close the gap. Formative assessment ranges from formal (e.g. embedded, planned-for interactions between teacher and entire class) to informal (e.g. on

  7. Los Alamos offers Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico is calling for applications for postdoctoral appointments and research fellowships. The positions are available in geoscience as well as other scientific disciplines.The laboratory, which is operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy, awards J. Robert Oppenheimer Research Fellowships to scientists that either have or will soon complete doctoral degrees. The appointments are for two years, are renewable for a third year, and carry a stipend of $51,865 per year. Potential applicants should send a resume or employment application and a statement of research goals to Carol M. Rich, Div. 89, Human Resources Development Division, MS P290, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 by mid-November.

  8. Tumores cerebrales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

  9. Neuroblastoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento y los exámenes de detección del neuroblastoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  10. The Conceptual Bases of Study Strategy Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entwistle, Noel; McCune, Velda

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the historical origins and development of a series of well-known study strategy inventories and seeks to identify their conceptual bases. The theories and evidence influencing the development of 6 contrasting instruments are considered before examining empirical evidence of similarities and differences between the…

  11. Conceptualizing Organizational Climates. Research Report No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Benjamin

    Part 1 of this paper presents some logical and conceptual distinctions between job satisfaction and organizational climate, the former being viewed as micro, evaluative, individual perceptions of personal events and experiences the latter as macro, relatively descriptive, organizational level perceptions that are abstractions of organizational…

  12. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Gases Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Pinar Seda; Kaya, Ebru; Geban, Omer

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of conceptual change oriented instruction (CCOI) over traditionally designed chemistry instruction (TDCI) on overcoming 10th grade students' misconceptions on gases concepts. In addition, the effect of gender difference on students' understanding of gases concepts was investigated. The…

  13. A Conceptual Framework for Studying Knowledge Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Douglas

    This paper, written from an organizational perspective, begins with an examination of the deficiencies of knowledge utilization and educational change literature. It suggests the explication of descriptive and heuristic conceptual dimensions as one approach for facilitating a descriptive perspective of knowldge utilization. The efficacy of three…

  14. Phonological and Conceptual Activation in Speech Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dennis; Cutler, Anne; McQueen, James M.; Butterfield, Sally

    2006-01-01

    We propose that speech comprehension involves the activation of token representations of the phonological forms of current lexical hypotheses, separately from the ongoing construction of a conceptual interpretation of the current utterance. In a series of cross-modal priming experiments, facilitation of lexical decision responses to visual target…

  15. A Conceptual Framework for Educational Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenning, Oscar T.; And Others

    Educational outputs are defined as the direct end products, events or conditions that result from facilitation and production processes within educational institutions. The conceptual framework for education outcomes developed by the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) is explained. The basic elements of any…

  16. Culturally Conscious Organizations: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paula M.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses workplace culture in academic libraries as an aspect of organizational success in achieving on-the-job diversity. It introduces a conceptual framework in the form of selected indicators as measurements of cultural integration in the workplace. Characteristics of organizational cultural health are also identified in order to…

  17. Biology Student Teachers' Conceptual Frameworks regarding Biodiversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikmenli, Musa

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, biodiversity has received a great deal of attention worldwide, especially in environmental education. The reasons for this attention are the increase of human activities on biodiversity and environmental problems. The purpose of this study is to investigate biology student teachers' conceptual frameworks regarding biodiversity.…

  18. Ghanaian Teacher Trainees' Conceptual Understanding of Stoichiometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ruby

    2015-01-01

    Chemical stoichiometry is a conceptual framework that encompasses other concepts such as the mole, writing of chemical equations in word and representative form, balancing of equations and the equilibrium concept. The underlying concepts enable students to understand relationships among entities of matter and required amounts for use when…

  19. Friendship Quality Scale: Conceptualization, Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thien, Lei Mee; Razak, Nordin Abd; Jamil, Hazri

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to initialize a new conceptualization of positive feature based Friendship Quality (FQUA) scale on the basis of four dimensions: Closeness, Help, Acceptance, and Safety; and (2) to develop and validate FQUA scale in the form of reflective measurement model. The scale development and validation procedures…

  20. Information Processing Theory and Conceptual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, H. M.

    An educational program based upon information processing theory has been developed at Southern Illinois University. The integrating theme was the development of conceptual ability for coping with social and personal problems. It utilized student information search and concept formation as foundations for discussion and judgment and was organized…

  1. Leading Generative Groups: A Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Manuel; Sobel-Lojeski, Karen A.; Reilly, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual model of leadership in generative groups. Generative groups have diverse team members who are expected to develop innovative solutions to complex, unstructured problems. The challenge for leaders of generative groups is to balance (a) establishing shared goals with recognizing members' vested interests, (b)…

  2. Conceptual Change among Arab Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rass, Ruwaida Abu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a qualitative research study designed to examine the effectiveness of an attempt to make a conceptual change among pre-service teachers to their role as trainees and the role of their pedagogical advisor. The participants are six Arab-Muslim female student teachers who are highly influenced by their first learning…

  3. Defining Conceptual Understanding in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Thomas A.; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Brandriet, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Among the many possible goals that instructors have for students in general chemistry, the idea that they will better understand the conceptual underpinnings of the science is certainly important. Nonetheless, identifying with clarity what exemplifies student success at achieving this goal is hindered by the challenge of clearly articulating what…

  4. Conceptual Influences on Category-Based Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Davidson, Natalie S.

    2013-01-01

    One important function of categories is to permit rich inductive inferences. Prior work shows that children use category labels to guide their inductive inferences. However, there are competing theories to explain this phenomenon, differing in the roles attributed to conceptual information vs. perceptual similarity. Seven experiments with 4- to…

  5. The Phenomenology of Action: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacherie, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    After a long period of neglect, the phenomenology of action has recently regained its place in the agenda of philosophers and scientists alike. The recent explosion of interest in the topic highlights its complexity. The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework allowing for a more precise characterization of the many facets of…

  6. Conceptual Design of a Prototype LSST Database

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, S; Huber, M E; Cook, K H; Abdulla, G; Brase, J

    2004-10-07

    This document describes a preliminary design for Prototype LSST Database (LSST DB). They identify key components and data structures and provide an expandable conceptual schema for the database. The authors discuss the potential user applications and post-processing algorithm to interact with the database, and give a set of example queries.

  7. On Automatic Assessment and Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasila, Antti; Malinen, Jarmo; Tiitu, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    We consider two complementary aspects of mathematical skills, i.e. "procedural fluency" and "conceptual understanding," from a point of view that is related to modern e-learning environments and computer-based assessment. Pedagogical background of teaching mathematics is discussed, and it is proposed that the traditional book…

  8. International Handbook of Research on Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosniadou, Stella

    2008-01-01

    The study of conceptual change traces its heritage to the notions of paradigm (networks of shared beliefs, concepts, practices) and paradigm shift made famous by Thomas Kuhn in his book, "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions". Kuhn's work was quickly linked to developmental psychology (how knowledge develops) and to science education (teaching…

  9. Promoting Conceptual Understanding via Adaptive Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jacob P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of a scalable concept map based navigation system for a digital textbook. A literature review has been conducted to identify possible methods to promote conceptual understanding in the context of a digital textbook, and these hypothesized solutions will be evaluated through…

  10. High School Students' Physical Education Conceptual Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Suzan F.

    2004-01-01

    The value of conceptual physical education knowledge has long been acknowledged (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, 1969; Kneer, 1981; NASPE, 1995) yet has not been formally measured or assessed. Seven multiple choice tests with established validity and reliability (Ayers, 2001b) were used to assess the concepts…

  11. Modernity: a non-European conceptualization.

    PubMed

    Mouzelis, N

    1999-03-01

    In the light of insights drawn from historical sociology and Parsons' theory of differentiation/modernization, an attempt is made to conceptualize modernity in such a way as to avoid both eurocentrism and the total rejection of the concept by those who view it as an ideological means for the further advancement of western cultural imperialism. PMID:15266678

  12. How Can Conceptual Schemes Change Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickman, Per-Olof

    2012-01-01

    Lundqvist, Almqvist and Ostman describe a teacher's manner of teaching and the possible consequences it may have for students' meaning making. In doing this the article examines a teacher's classroom practice by systematizing the teacher's transactions with the students in terms of certain conceptual schemes, namely the "epistemological moves",…

  13. Self-Presentation: A Conceptualization and Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Barry R.

    This paper provides a conceptual definition and model of self-presentational behavior. Self-presentation is defined as the attempt to control self-relevant images before real or imagined others. Several aspects of the definition are discussed along with the notion that people's self-presentations represent the choice of the most desirable images…

  14. A Conceptual Model of Rhetorical Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenhaus, Peter

    A conceptual model of the rhetorical community that addresses the sociodramatic processes through which social order evolves, is maintained, can change, and is threatened is presented in this paper. Following an introduction, the paper identifies the various uses of rhetorical vision and rhetorical community that are found in fantasy theme…

  15. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Integers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Stacy; Bateiha, Summer

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined the degree to which prospective elementary teachers had developed a meaningful and conceptual understanding of what integers are and explored their development of models for multiplication with integers that are related to everyday activities. Additionally, this study explored how these understandings informed…

  16. Conceptual Resources for Questioning "Child as Educator"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burman, Erica

    2013-01-01

    This paper critically evaluates the ways we look to children to educate us and explores how we might depart from that dynamic, exploring how a range of conceptual frameworks from historical and cultural studies and psychoanalysis might contribute to understanding the problematic of childhood, its problems and its limitations. While "child as…

  17. Intercultural Historical Learning: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordgren, Kenneth; Johansson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a conceptual framework in order to systematically discuss the meaning of intercultural learning in history education and how it could be advanced. We do so by bringing together theories of historical consciousness, intercultural competence and postcolonial thinking. By combining these theories into one framework, we identify…

  18. Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Deist, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

  19. Conceptual Acquisition and Change through Social Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Yoshikazu

    1994-01-01

    Examines the role of social interaction as a facilitator of learning in general and conceptual change in particular. Three conditions are proposed as necessary for social interaction to facilitate knowledge construction--horizontal information, comparable domain knowledge, and availability of cognitive tools. Suggests that these conditions assure…

  20. A Conceptual Framework for Primary Source Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensminger, David C.; Fry, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a descriptive conceptual framework to provide teachers with a means of recognizing and describing instructional activities that use primary sources. The framework provides structure for professional development programs that have been established to train teachers to access and integrate primary sources into lessons. The…

  1. Assessing Students' Conceptual Understanding of Solubility Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raviolo, Andres

    2001-01-01

    Presents a problem on solubility equilibrium which involves macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic levels of representation as a resource for the evaluation of students, and allows for assessment as to whether students have acquired an adequate conceptual understanding of the phenomenon. Also diagnoses difficulties with regard to previous…

  2. Using Conceptual Analysis To Build Knowledge Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinghal, Rajjan; Le Xuan, Albert

    This paper describes the methods and techniques called Conceptual Analysis (CA), a rigorous procedure to generate (without involuntary omissions and repetitions) knowledge bases for the development of knowledge-based systems. An introduction is given of CA and how it can be used to produce knowledge bases. A discussion is presented on what is…

  3. Administrator Training and Development: Conceptual Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Gerald R.

    A conceptual model for an individualized training program for school administrators integrates processes, characteristics, and tasks through theory training and application. Based on an application of contingency theory, it provides a system matching up administrative candidates' needs in three areas (administrative process, administrative…

  4. Short storybooks to build conceptual understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variano, Evan

    2014-11-01

    To help students build intuitive or conceptual understanding of key fluids concepts, I present short stories written in the style of childrens' books. The goal is to provide analogies with a strong visual component, in a format that allows students to return for a quick review. The content, philosophy, and initial student feedback will be discussed.

  5. Conceptualizing Emotions in Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Maia; Katz, Doran; Grosland, Tanetha

    2015-01-01

    This review of research investigates how the field of social studies education conceptualizes emotions within its literature. Analysis indicates a lack of theoretical and empirical engagement with emotions, even when the presence of emotions is explicitly acknowledged. Drawing on Michalinos Zembylas's framework for researching emotions in…

  6. Frequent Collaborative Quiz Taking and Conceptual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei, Ali R.

    2015-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study reports on the effectiveness of three assessment strategies for students' performance. The primary goal was to determine whether there are any improvements in students' conceptual learning when a frequent (weekly) quiz is used for grading purposes compared to using midterm and final examinations only. Another goal was…

  7. Conceptualizing Education Policy in Democratic Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Laura B.

    2009-01-01

    Although theorists and policy makers agree that schooling should be democratic, what this exactly means often varies. This article establishes a conceptual model for analyzing education policy in democratic societies, based on the key concepts of equality, diversity, participation, choice, and cohesion. The model facilitates the design,…

  8. Teaching Modern Dance: A Conceptual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enghauser, Rebecca Gose

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual approach to teaching modern dance can broaden the awareness and deepen the understanding of modern dance in the educational arena in general, and in dance education specifically. This article describes a unique program that dance teachers can use to introduce modern dance to novice dancers, as well as more experienced dancers,…

  9. Conceptual Design of a Regional Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Regional Council of Governments, CO.

    This report describes the conceptual design of a regional information system, developed in support of the Denver Regional Council of Government's established comprehensive planning work program. It includes a discussion of system objectives, available data sources, recommended system content, software and system maintenance requirements,…

  10. Conceptual Variation and Coordination in Probability Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Per

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates students' conceptual variation and coordination among theoretical and experimental interpretations of probability. In the analysis we follow how Swedish students (12-13 years old) interact with a dice game, specifically designed to offer the students opportunities to elaborate on the logic of sample space,…

  11. A Conceptual Framework for Job Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughead, Teri A.; Black, David R.

    1990-01-01

    Outlines a conceptual framework for job change analogous to a thermostat, in which job satisfaction is the "thermometer," change in a job or between jobs is the "adjustment lever," and values, life status, readiness to change, and job opportunities are the "controls." (26 references) (SK)

  12. A Conceptual Framework for Defining Pharmaceutical Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Vaughn L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a conceptual framework to help pharmacy students and practitioners identify and document drug-related problems. Presents a preliminary description and taxonomy, using principles established within nursing's diagnostic structure, and discusses implications for contemporary pharmacy practice and education, including delineation of…

  13. Taming Multivariate Data: Conceptual and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redlinger, Lawrence J.; Wiorkowski, John J.; Moses, Anna I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the conceptual, methodological, and statistical challenges in selecting appropriate peer institutions for comparative purposes. The authors' approach embraces a Western scientific tradition that physical things and phenomena can be "reduced into a set of key variables--identifiable parts--that make key…

  14. Development of a Conceptual Framework of Heat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, John M.

    1988-01-01

    Considers variables which affect the acquisition of the kinetic theory of heat by children who hold alternative viewpoints. Suggests that the articulation of different viewpoints in no way hinders the acquisition of the desired conceptual framework. Emphasizes the benefit to low-reasoning students in particular. (CW)

  15. Vision: A Conceptual Framework for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkinson, Jennifer Scaturo

    2013-01-01

    Vision is essential to the implementation of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model. Drawing from research in organizational leadership, this article provides a conceptual framework for how school counselors can incorporate vision as a strategy for implementing school counseling programs within the context of practice.…

  16. Conceptual Examination of Bereiter's Educational Notion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talkhabi, Mahmoud; Karrazi, Kamal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the Bereiter's educational notion and its applicability, conceptually and critically. The method of research was empirical applicability by means of which the essential components of the notion were formulated, criticized and verified, to see if it is applicable. In the study, primarily Bereiter's…

  17. Young Children's Conceptual Understanding of Triangle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagli, Ümmühan Yesil; Halat, Erdogan

    2016-01-01

    This study explored 5-6 year-old children's conceptual understanding of one geometric shape, the triangle. It focused on whether children could draw a triangle from memory, and identify triangles of different types, sizes, and orientations. The data were collected from 82 children attending state preschool programs through a one-on-one interview,…

  18. Anger perceptually and conceptually narrows cognitive scope.

    PubMed

    Gable, Philip A; Poole, Bryan D; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2015-07-01

    For the last 50 years, research investigating the effect of emotions on scope of cognitive processing was based on models proposing that affective valence determined cognitive scope. More recently, our motivational intensity model suggests that this past work had confounded valence with motivational intensity. Research derived from this model supports the idea that motivational intensity, rather than affective valence, explains much of the variance emotions have on cognitive scope. However, the motivational intensity model is limited in that the empirical work has examined only positive affects high in approach and negative affects high in avoidance motivation. Thus, perhaps only approach-positive and avoidance-negative states narrow cognitive scope. The present research was designed to clarify these conceptual issues by examining the effect of anger, a negatively valenced approach-motivated state, on cognitive scope. Results revealed that anger narrowed attentional scope relative to a neutral state and that attentional narrowing to anger was similar to the attentional narrowing caused by high approach-motivated positive affects (Study 1). This narrowing of attention was related to trait approach motivation (Studies 2 and Study 3). Anger also narrowed conceptual cognitive categorization (Study 4). Narrowing of categorization related to participants' approach motivation toward anger stimuli. Together, these results suggest that anger, an approach-motivated negative affect, narrows perceptual and conceptual cognitive scope. More broadly, these results support the conceptual model that motivational intensity per se, rather than approach-positive and avoidance-negative states, causes a narrowing of cognitive scope. PMID:26011662

  19. University Student Conceptual Resources for Understanding Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Hannah C.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Robertson, Amy D.

    2016-01-01

    We report some of the common, prevalent conceptual resources that students used to reason about energy, based on our analysis of written responses to questions given to 807 introductory physics students. These resources include, for example, associating forms of energy with indicators, relating forces and energy, and representing energy…

  20. Shuttle mission simulator hardware conceptual design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The detailed shuttle mission simulator hardware requirements are discussed. The conceptual design methods, or existing technology, whereby those requirements will be fulfilled are described. Information of a general nature on the total design problem plus specific details on how these requirements are to be satisfied are reported. The configuration of the simulator is described and the capabilities for various types of training are identified.

  1. Aircraft Conceptual Design Using Vehicle Sketch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J.; Antcliff, Kevin R.; Costa, Guillermo; Deshpande, Nachiket; Moore, Mark D.; Miguel, Edric A. San; Snyder, Alison N.

    2010-01-01

    Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is a parametric geometry modeling tool that is intended for use in the conceptual design of aircraft. The intent of this software is to rapidly model aircraft configurations without expending the expertise and time that is typically required for modeling with traditional Computer Aided Design (CAD) packages. VSP accomplishes this by using parametrically defined components, such as a wing that is defined by span, area, sweep, taper ratio, thickness to cord, and so on. During this phase of frequent design builds, changes to the model can be rapidly visualized along with the internal volumetric layout. Using this geometry-based approach, parameters such as wetted areas and cord lengths can be easily extracted for rapid external performance analyses, such as a parasite drag buildup. At the completion of the conceptual design phase, VSP can export its geometry to higher fidelity tools. This geometry tool was developed by NASA and is freely available to U.S. companies and universities. It has become integral to conceptual design in the Aeronautics Systems Analysis Branch (ASAB) here at NASA Langley Research Center and is currently being used at over 100 universities, aerospace companies, and other government agencies. This paper focuses on the use of VSP in recent NASA conceptual design studies to facilitate geometry-centered design methodology. Such a process is shown to promote greater levels of creativity, more rapid assessment of critical design issues, and improved ability to quickly interact with higher order analyses. A number of VSP vehicle model examples are compared to CAD-based conceptual design, from a designer perspective; comparisons are also made of the time and expertise required to build the geometry representations as well.

  2. Kuhn and conceptual change: on the analogy between conceptual changes in science and children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiffenhagen, Christian; Sherman, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that the analogy between conceptual changes in the history of science and conceptual changes in the development of young children is problematic. We show that the notions of ‘conceptual change’ in Kuhn and Piaget’s projects, the two thinkers whose work is most commonly drawn upon to support this analogy, are not compatible in the sense usually claimed. We contend that Kuhn’s work pertains not so much to the psychology of individual scientists, but to the way philosophers and historians should describe developments in communities of scientists. Furthermore, we argue that the analogy is based on a misunderstanding of the nature of science and the relation between science and common sense. The distinctiveness of the two notions of conceptual change has implications for science education research, since it raises serious questions about the relevance of Kuhn’s remarks for the study of pedagogical issues.

  3. The Los Alamos primer

    SciTech Connect

    Serber, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the 1943 lecture notes of Robert Serber. Serber was a protege of J. Robert Oppenheimer and member of the team that built the first atomic bomb - reveal what the Los Alamos scientists knew, and did not know, about the terrifying weapon they were building.

  4. Conceptual chains and their didactic applications in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Campos, Carlos Enrique

    2010-02-01

    It is presented the definition of graphical schemas called of conceptual dependency and their particular cases, the conceptual chains, which are useful for the representation of conceptual structures during the learning of a topic or the process of solving problems in physics. We review and we contrast their characteristics in relation to other cognitive structural models as the conceptual maps and the conceptual networks. Finally we discuss points of difference and coincidence between the three schematic models and about various possible applications of the conceptual dependency schemas and the conceptual chains, such as, didactic applications for teaching and learning, detection of conceptual faults in apprentices and as a research tool of the cognition process, showing results obtained of studies realized on the degree of difficulty of problems that were proposed to diverse populations of students. )

  5. Conceptual Frameworks in the Doctoral Research Process: A Pedagogical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Jeanette; Smyth, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to consideration of the role of conceptual frameworks in the doctoral research process. Through reflection on the two authors' own conceptual frameworks for their doctoral studies, a pedagogical model has been developed. The model posits the development of a conceptual framework as a core element of the doctoral…

  6. Effect of Conceptual Level on Group Conflict Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRoy, Carolyn R.; Brown, Beverly M.

    1996-01-01

    Investigated effects of an individual's ability to process information (conceptual level) on the choice of alternative verbal conflict behaviors (tactics) in a small-group context. Members of the higher conceptual level study group made a higher percentage of overall responses, while members of the lower conceptual level group used avoidance and…

  7. Data Modeling & the Infrastructural Nature of Conceptual Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesh, Richard; Caylor, Elizabeth; Gupta, Shweta

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the infrastructural nature of many modern conceptual technologies. The focus of this paper is on conceptual tools associated with elementary types of data modeling. We intend to show a variety of ways in which these conceptual tools not only express thinking, but also mold and shape thinking. And those ways…

  8. A Structural Equation Model of Conceptual Change in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2011-01-01

    A model of conceptual change in physics was tested on introductory-level, college physics students. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to conceptual change in physics including an approach goal orientation, need for cognition, motivation, and course grade. Conceptual change in physics…

  9. The Influence of Approach and Avoidance Goals on Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcus Lee; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, conceptual change research has been experiencing a warming trend (G. M. Sinatra, 2005) whereby motivational and affective factors are being explored in the conceptual change process. The purpose of this study is to explore the 2 × 2 framework of achievement goal theory in relation to students' conceptual change learning for a…

  10. Towards to an Explanation for Conceptual Change: A Mechanistic Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari

    2014-01-01

    Conceptual change is one of the most studied fields in science education and psychology of learning. However, there are still some foundational issues in conceptual change research on which no clear consensus has emerged. Firstly, there is no agreement on what changes in belief and concept systems constitute conceptual change and what changes do…

  11. Familiares a cargo de pacientes de cáncer: funciones y desafíos (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos acerca de los desafíos que enfrentan los familiares a cargo de los pacientes con cáncer. Este resumen se centra en las funciones típicas y las inquietudes de las personas a cargo del paciente y en las intervenciones útiles para esas personas.

  12. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Gases Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çetin, Pinar Seda; Kaya, Ebru; Geban, Ömer

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of conceptual change oriented instruction (CCOI) over traditionally designed chemistry instruction (TDCI) on overcoming 10th grade students' misconceptions on gases concepts. In addition, the effect of gender difference on students' understanding of gases concepts was investigated. The subjects of this study consisted of 74 10th grade students from two chemistry classes. One of the classes was assigned as experimental group and the other group was assigned as control group. The experimental group was instructed with CCOI and the control group was instructed by TDCI. Gases Concept Test (GCT) was administered to both groups as pre- and post-tests to measure the students' conceptual understanding. The results showed that students in the experimental group got higher average scores from Gases Concept Test. Also, a significant difference was found between the performance of females and that of males in terms of understanding gases concepts in favor of males.

  13. Vagueness, graded membership, and conceptual spaces.

    PubMed

    Douven, Igor

    2016-06-01

    This paper is concerned with a version of Kamp and Partee's account of graded membership that relies on the conceptual spaces framework. Three studies are reported, one to construct a particular shape space, one to detect which shapes representable in that space are typical for certain sorts of objects, and one to elicit degrees of category membership for the various shapes from which the shape space was constructed. Taking Kamp and Partee's proposal as given, the first two studies allowed us to predict the degrees to which people would judge shapes representable in the space to be members of certain categories. These predictions were compared with the degrees that were measured in the third study. The comparison yielded a test of the account of graded membership at issue. The outcome of this test was found to support the conceptual spaces version of Kamp and Partee's account of graded membership. PMID:26995187

  14. Conceptualization of relative size by honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; d’Amaro, Daniele; Metzler, Marita; Dyer, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to process visual information using relational rules allows for decisions independent of the specific physical attributes of individual stimuli. Until recently, the manipulation of relational concepts was considered as a prerogative of large mammalian brains. Here we show that individual free flying honeybees can learn to use size relationship rules to choose either the larger or smaller stimulus as the correct solution in a given context, and subsequently apply the learnt rule to novel colors and shapes providing that there is sufficient input to the long wavelength (green) photoreceptor channel. Our results add a novel, size-based conceptual rule to the set of relational concepts that honeybees have been shown to master and underline the value of bees as an animal model for studying the emergence of conceptualization abilities. PMID:24672444

  15. Conceptual Design of an APT Reusable Spaceplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corpino, S.; Viola, N.

    This paper concerns the conceptual design of an Aerial Propellant Transfer reusable spaceplane carried out during our PhD course under the supervision of prof. Chiesa. The new conceptual design methodology employed in order to develop the APT concept and the main characteristics of the spaceplane itself will be presented and discussed. The methodology for conceptual design has been worked out during the last three years. It was originally thought for atmospheric vehicle design but, thanks to its modular structure which makes it very flexible, it has been possible to convert it to space transportation systems design by adding and/or modifying a few modules. One of the major improvements has been for example the conception and development of the mission simulation and trajectory optimisation module. The methodology includes as main characteristics and innovations the latest techniques of geometric modelling and logistic, operational and cost aspects since the first stages of the project. Computer aided design techniques are used to obtain a better definition of the product at the end of the conceptual design phase and virtual reality concepts are employed to visualise three-dimensional installation and operational aspects, at least in part replacing full-scale mock- ups. The introduction of parametric three-dimensional CAD software integrated into the conceptual design methodology represents a great improvement because it allows to carry out different layouts and to assess them immediately. It is also possible to link the CAD system to a digital prototyping software which combines 3D visualisation and assembly analysis, useful to define the so-called Digital Mock-Up at Conceptual Level (DMUCL) which studies the integration between the on board systems, sized with simulation algorithms, and the airframe. DMUCL represents a very good means to integrate the conceptual design with a methodology turned towards dealing with Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and

  16. Formalizing Linguistic Conventions for Conceptual Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Jörg; Delfmann, Patrick; Herwig, Sebastian; Lis, Łukasz; Stein, Armin

    A precondition for the appropriate analysis of conceptual models is not only their syntactic correctness but also their semantic comparability. Assuring comparability is challenging especially when models are developed by different persons. Empirical studies show that such models can vary heavily, especially in model element naming, even if they express the same issue. In contrast to most ontology-driven approaches proposing the resolution of these differences ex-post, we introduce an approach that avoids naming differences in conceptual models already during modeling. Therefore we formalize naming conventions combining domain thesauri and phrase structures based on a lin-guistic grammar. This allows for guiding modelers automatically during the modeling process using standardized labels for model elements. Our approach is generic, making it applicable for any modeling language.

  17. A conceptual framework for implementation fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Christopher; Patterson, Malcolm; Wood, Stephen; Booth, Andrew; Rick, Jo; Balain, Shashi

    2007-01-01

    Background Implementation fidelity refers to the degree to which an intervention or programme is delivered as intended. Only by understanding and measuring whether an intervention has been implemented with fidelity can researchers and practitioners gain a better understanding of how and why an intervention works, and the extent to which outcomes can be improved. Discussion The authors undertook a critical review of existing conceptualisations of implementation fidelity and developed a new conceptual framework for understanding and measuring the process. The resulting theoretical framework requires testing by empirical research. Summary Implementation fidelity is an important source of variation affecting the credibility and utility of research. The conceptual framework presented here offers a means for measuring this variable and understanding its place in the process of intervention implementation. PMID:18053122

  18. Abulia and impulsiveness revisited: a conceptual history.

    PubMed

    Berrios, G E; Gili, M

    1995-09-01

    Historical analysis suggests that the decline and fall of the will was due not to any major piece of empirical work demonstrating that the concept was unsound but to general changes in philosophical fashion, and to the temporary influence of the anti-mentalistic tenets of behaviorism and the anti-volitional assumptions of psychoanalysis. Clinical disorders like abulia and impulsiveness share conceptual features that 19th-century alienists captured well in their clinical category of disorder of the will. Current accounts, which include semi-explanatory concepts such as "drive", "motivation" or frontal lobe "executive" are not conceptually better than the old notion of will nor are they superior as correlational variables for neurobiological studies. It is suggested that the will, updated according to modern work in the philosophy of action, be re-adopted as a research category in current psychiatry. PMID:7484191

  19. A contemporary conceptual model of hypochondriasis.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Schwartz, Stefanie A; Whiteside, Stephen P

    2002-12-01

    Hypochondriasis (HC), which involves preoccupation with the fear of having a serious illness despite appropriate medical examination, is often encountered in medical settings. The most conspicuous feature of this disorder is seeking excessive reassurance from physicians, medical references, or self-inspection; however, many patients also fear they will receive upsetting information if evaluated and thus avoid consultations and remain preoccupied with physiologic events, believing they are physically ill. Thus, HC causes personal suffering for the patient and practical and cost management problems for professionals across fields of clinical practice. The past 2 decades have seen considerable improvement in the understanding and treatment of HC. In this article, we review a contemporary conceptual model of HC and an effective form of treatment called cognitive-behavioral therapy that is derived from this model. Recommendations for presenting this conceptualization to patients and encouraging proper treatment are also discussed. PMID:12479520

  20. Neural Adaptation Effects in Conceptual Processing

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Barbara F. M.; Borghi, Anna M.; Gemmi, Luca; Cacciari, Cristina; Riggio, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the conceptual processing of nouns referring to objects characterized by a highly typical color and orientation. We used a go/no-go task in which we asked participants to categorize each noun as referring or not to natural entities (e.g., animals) after a selective adaptation of color-edge neurons in the posterior LV4 region of the visual cortex was induced by means of a McCollough effect procedure. This manipulation affected categorization: the green-vertical adaptation led to slower responses than the green-horizontal adaptation, regardless of the specific color and orientation of the to-be-categorized noun. This result suggests that the conceptual processing of natural entities may entail the activation of modality-specific neural channels with weights proportional to the reliability of the signals produced by these channels during actual perception. This finding is discussed with reference to the debate about the grounded cognition view. PMID:26264031

  1. University student conceptual resources for understanding energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabo, Hannah C.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Robertson, Amy D.

    2016-06-01

    We report some of the common, prevalent conceptual resources that students used to reason about energy, based on our analysis of written responses to questions given to 807 introductory physics students. These resources include, for example, associating forms of energy with indicators, relating forces and energy, and representing energy quantitatively. This research responds to a need for large-scale, resources-oriented research on students' conceptual understanding and has the potential to support the development of an underexplored dimension of pedagogical content knowledge-knowledge of student resources for understanding energy. Our aim is to promote instructor take-up of the resources theory of knowledge, and we suggest a number of ways in which instructors might capitalize on the resources we report.

  2. Conceptual design for PSP mounting bracket

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, G.; Stein, R.

    1991-12-31

    Protective structural packages (PSP`s or overpacks) used to ship 2 1/2-ton UF{sub 6} product cylinders are bolted to truck trailers. All bolts penetrate two longitudinal rows of wooden planks. Removal and replacement is required at various intervals for maintenance and routine testing. A conceptual design is presented for mounting brackets which would securely attach PSP`s to trailer frames, reduce removal and replacement time, and minimize risk of personnel injury.

  3. Conceptual issues in nursing ethics research.

    PubMed

    Penticuff, J H

    1991-06-01

    Empirical studies that have attempted to describe nurses' ethical practice have used conceptual frameworks derived primarily from the disciplines of bioethics and psychology. These frameworks have not incorporated important concepts developed by nursing theorists over the past two decades. This article points out flaws in the past research frameworks and proposes a synthesis of ethical theory, nursing practice contexts, and empirical research methods to enrich theoretical development in nursing ethics. PMID:1880464

  4. Preliminary conceptual design of DEMO EC system

    SciTech Connect

    Garavaglia, S. Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; Granucci, G.; Moro, A.; Rispoli, N.; Grossetti, G.; Strauss, D.; Jelonnek, J.; Tran, Q. M.; Franke, T.

    2015-12-10

    In the framework of EUROfusion Consortium the Work Package Heating and Current Drive addresses the engineering design and R&D for the electron cyclotron, ion cyclotron and neutral beam systems. This paper reports the activities performed in 2014, focusing on the work done regarding the input for the conceptual design of the EC system, particularly for the gyrotron, the transmission line and the launchers.

  5. Conceptual and instrumental progress in dissolution DNP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jähnig, Fabian; Kwiatkowski, Grzegorz; Ernst, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    We discuss conceptual and instrumental progress in dissolution DNP since its introduction in 2003. In our view there are three critical steps in the dissolution DNP process: (i) The achievable polarization level in a sample. (ii) The time required to build up the polarization. (iii) The transfer of the sample to the measurement system with minimum loss of polarization. In this review we describe in detail these steps and the different methodological and instrumental implementations, which have been proposed to optimize them.

  6. Engineering report (conceptual design) PFP solution stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, J.B.

    1997-07-17

    This Engineering Report (Conceptual Design) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.

  7. Conceptual change strategies in teaching genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzli, Laura Elizabeth

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of utilizing conceptual change strategies when teaching high school genetics. The study examined the effects of structuring instruction to provide students with cognitive situations which promote conceptual change, specifically instruction was structured to elicit students' prior knowledge. The goal of the study was that the students would not only be able to solve genetics problems and define basic terminology but they would also have constructed more scientific schemas of the actual processes involved in inheritance. This study is based on the constructivist theory of learning and conceptual change research which suggest that students are actively involved in the process of relating new information to prior knowledge as they construct new knowledge. Two sections of biology II classes received inquiry based instruction and participated in structured cooperative learning groups. However, the unique difference in the treatment group's instruction was the use of structured thought time and the resulting social interaction between the students. The treatment group students' instructional design allowed students to socially construct their cognitive knowledge after elicitation of their prior knowledge. In contrast, the instructional design for the control group students allowed them to socially construct their cognitive knowledge of genetics without the individually structured thought time. The results indicated that the conceptual change strategies with individually structured thought time improved the students' scientific mastery of genetics concepts and they maintained fewer post instructional alternative conceptions. Although all students gained the ability to correctly solve genetics problems, the treatment group students were able to explain the processes involved in terms of meiosis. The treatment group students were also able to better apply their knowledge to novel genetic situations. The implications

  8. Preliminary conceptual design of DEMO EC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garavaglia, S.; Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; Granucci, G.; Grossetti, G.; Jelonnek, J.; Moro, A.; Rispoli, N.; Strauss, D.; Tran, Q. M.; Franke, T.

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of EUROfusion Consortium the Work Package Heating and Current Drive addresses the engineering design and R&D for the electron cyclotron, ion cyclotron and neutral beam systems. This paper reports the activities performed in 2014, focusing on the work done regarding the input for the conceptual design of the EC system, particularly for the gyrotron, the transmission line and the launchers.

  9. Executive functions predict conceptual learning of science.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Sinéad M; Booth, Josephine N; Palmer, Lorna Elise; Blythe, Richard A; Delibegovic, Mirela; Wheate, Nial J

    2016-06-01

    We examined the relationship between executive functions and both factual and conceptual learning of science, specifically chemistry, in early adolescence. Sixty-three pupils in their second year of secondary school (aged 12-13 years) participated. Pupils completed tasks of working memory (Spatial Working Memory), inhibition (Stop-Signal), attention set-shifting (ID/ED), and planning (Stockings of Cambridge), from the CANTAB. They also participated in a chemistry teaching session, practical, and assessment on the topic of acids and alkalis designed specifically for this study. Executive function data were related to (1) the chemistry assessment which included aspects of factual and conceptual learning and (2) a recent school science exam. Correlational analyses between executive functions and both the chemistry assessment and science grades revealed that science achievements were significantly correlated with working memory. Linear regression analysis revealed that visuospatial working memory ability was predictive of chemistry performance. Interestingly, this relationship was observed solely in relation to the conceptual learning condition of the assessment highlighting the role of executive functions in understanding and applying knowledge about what is learned within science teaching. PMID:26751597

  10. In defense of abstract conceptual representations.

    PubMed

    Binder, Jeffrey R

    2016-08-01

    An extensive program of research in the past 2 decades has focused on the role of modal sensory, motor, and affective brain systems in storing and retrieving concept knowledge. This focus has led in some circles to an underestimation of the need for more abstract, supramodal conceptual representations in semantic cognition. Evidence for supramodal processing comes from neuroimaging work documenting a large, well-defined cortical network that responds to meaningful stimuli regardless of modal content. The nodes in this network correspond to high-level "convergence zones" that receive broadly crossmodal input and presumably process crossmodal conjunctions. It is proposed that highly conjunctive representations are needed for several critical functions, including capturing conceptual similarity structure, enabling thematic associative relationships independent of conceptual similarity, and providing efficient "chunking" of concept representations for a range of higher order tasks that require concepts to be configured as situations. These hypothesized functions account for a wide range of neuroimaging results showing modulation of the supramodal convergence zone network by associative strength, lexicality, familiarity, imageability, frequency, and semantic compositionality. The evidence supports a hierarchical model of knowledge representation in which modal systems provide a mechanism for concept acquisition and serve to ground individual concepts in external reality, whereas broadly conjunctive, supramodal representations play an equally important role in concept association and situation knowledge. PMID:27294428

  11. Conceptualizing and Exemplifying Science Teachers' Assessment Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geaney Lyon, Edward

    2013-05-01

    Although research in science education has led to new assessment forms and functions, the reality is that little work has been done to unpack and capture what it means for a teacher to develop expertise at assessing science. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, I suggest a conceptualization of assessment expertise that is organized around three dimensions: (a) designing aligned and theoretically cohesive assessment (Design), (b) using assessment to support students' science learning (Use), and (c) equitably assessing language minorities (Equity). The second purpose is to suggest and exemplify various levels of teaching expertise across the three conceptual dimensions using written assessment plans gathered from a study on secondary science pre-service teachers' assessment growth. The contribution of this paper lies in its further conceptual development of assessment expertise, instantiated in a rubric, which can spark discussion about how to capture the range of assessment practices that might be found in science classrooms as well as move toward a potential learning progression of assessment expertise.

  12. Modelo de accesibilidad de conceptos matematicos aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales en la UPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidro Villamizar, Gloria Maria

    Este estudio utiliza metodologia de investigacion cualitativa, con el proposito de describir, analizar y evaluar los procesos de diseno y desarrollo de un modelo de accesibilidad que consiste en estrategias de ensenanza de las matematicas para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales matriculados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva en la UPR. Se utilizaron las siguientes estrategias para recopilar la informacion, 1) reflexiones de la investigadora en el proceso de diseno y desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas, que se registraron en un diario reflexivo. 2) entrevista semiestructurada luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas con los participantes. 3) observaciones y notas de la investigadora del trabajo de los participantes. Para obtener la informacion de los participantes se obtuvo los permisos institucionales necesarios; se seleccionaron los participantes y se validaron los instrumentos; se realizo el desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas con los participantes; y finalmente, se analizo la informacion obtenida. El diseno de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas se hizo siguiendo las recomendaciones curriculares de los temas de matematicas aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva realizado por la investigadora durante su semestre de internado. El testimonio de las voces de los participantes se obtuvo del proceso de desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas de temas seleccionados de conceptos matematicos requeridos en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva y de la entrevista semiestructurada con los participantes, luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje. Para el desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje, se utilizaron materiales tactiles adaptados, materiales tactiles disenados y materiales disponibles comercialmente. Los textos de las lecciones se imprimieron en tinta y en Braille. Se exhorta a disenar y desarrollar estrategias de ensenanza accesibles, considerando como recursos para evaluar su efectividad a

  13. Effects of Conceptual Assignments and Conceptual Change Discussions on Students' Misconceptions and Achievement Regarding Force and Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on high school students' achievement and misconceptions about force and motion. Analyzes pretest and posttest data from the Force Misconception and Force Achievement Tests (FMFAT). Discusses the effects on the conceptual change discussion on reducing…

  14. The Flexibility of Conceptual Pacts: Referring Expressions Dynamically Shift to Accommodate New Conceptualizations

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Alyssa; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    In a classic paper, Brennan and Clark argued that when interlocutors agree on a name for an object, they are forming a temporary agreement on how to conceptualize that object; that is, they are forming a conceptual pact. The literature on conceptual pacts has largely focused on the costs and benefits of breaking and maintaining lexical precedents, and the degree to which they might be partner-specific. The research presented here focuses on a question about conceptual pacts that has been largely neglected in the literature: To what extent are conceptual pacts specific to the local context of the interaction? If conceptual pacts are indeed temporary, then when the local context changes in ways that are accessible to participants, we would expect participants to seamlessly shift to referential expressions that reflect novel conceptualizations. Two experiments examined how referential forms change across context in collaborative, task-oriented dialog between naïve participants. In Experiment 1, names for parts of an unknown object were established in an “item” identification stage (e.g., a shape that looked like a wrench was called “the wrench”). In a second “build” stage, that name was often supplanted by an object-oriented name, e.g., the “leg.” These changes happened abruptly and without negotiation. In Experiment 2, interlocutors manipulated clip art and more abstract tangram pictures in a “slider” puzzle to arrange the objects into a target configuration. On some trials moving an object revealed a picture that could be construed as a contrast competitor, e.g., a clip art picture of a camel after “the camel” had been negotiated as a name for a tangram shape, or vice versa. As would be expected, modification rates increased when a potential contrast was revealed. More strikingly, the degree to which a name had been negotiated or the frequency with which it had been used did not affect the likelihood that the revealed shape would be

  15. The Flexibility of Conceptual Pacts: Referring Expressions Dynamically Shift to Accommodate New Conceptualizations.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Alyssa; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    In a classic paper, Brennan and Clark argued that when interlocutors agree on a name for an object, they are forming a temporary agreement on how to conceptualize that object; that is, they are forming a conceptual pact. The literature on conceptual pacts has largely focused on the costs and benefits of breaking and maintaining lexical precedents, and the degree to which they might be partner-specific. The research presented here focuses on a question about conceptual pacts that has been largely neglected in the literature: To what extent are conceptual pacts specific to the local context of the interaction? If conceptual pacts are indeed temporary, then when the local context changes in ways that are accessible to participants, we would expect participants to seamlessly shift to referential expressions that reflect novel conceptualizations. Two experiments examined how referential forms change across context in collaborative, task-oriented dialog between naïve participants. In Experiment 1, names for parts of an unknown object were established in an "item" identification stage (e.g., a shape that looked like a wrench was called "the wrench"). In a second "build" stage, that name was often supplanted by an object-oriented name, e.g., the "leg." These changes happened abruptly and without negotiation. In Experiment 2, interlocutors manipulated clip art and more abstract tangram pictures in a "slider" puzzle to arrange the objects into a target configuration. On some trials moving an object revealed a picture that could be construed as a contrast competitor, e.g., a clip art picture of a camel after "the camel" had been negotiated as a name for a tangram shape, or vice versa. As would be expected, modification rates increased when a potential contrast was revealed. More strikingly, the degree to which a name had been negotiated or the frequency with which it had been used did not affect the likelihood that the revealed shape would be considered as a potential

  16. Conceptualizing Telehealth in Nursing Practice: Advancing a Conceptual Model to Fill a Virtual Gap.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Daniel A; Penner, Jamie L

    2016-03-01

    Increasingly nurses use various telehealth technologies to deliver health care services; however, there has been a lag in research and generation of empirical knowledge to support nursing practice in this expanding field. One challenge to generating knowledge is a gap in development of a comprehensive conceptual model or theoretical framework to illustrate relationships of concepts and phenomena inherent to adoption of a broad range of telehealth technologies to holistic nursing practice. A review of the literature revealed eight published conceptual models, theoretical frameworks, or similar entities applicable to nursing practice. Many of these models focus exclusively on use of telephones and four were generated from qualitative studies, but none comprehensively reflect complexities of bridging nursing process and elements of nursing practice into use of telehealth. The purpose of this article is to present a review of existing conceptual models and frameworks, discuss predominant themes and features of these models, and present a comprehensive conceptual model for telehealth nursing practice synthesized from this literature for consideration and further development. This conceptual model illustrates characteristics of, and relationships between, dimensions of telehealth practice to guide research and knowledge development in provision of holistic person-centered care delivery to individuals by nurses through telehealth technologies. PMID:25858897

  17. Towards a Conceptual Profile: Rethinking Conceptual Mediation in the Light of Recent Cognitive and Neuroscientific Findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Chris

    2014-06-01

    One important focus for science education researchers over many years has been the attempts to replace students' commonsense and non-scientific explanations of various phenomena by scientific explanations. The approach we adopted almost three decades ago was conceptual mediation, and this was shown to have a considerable level of success with both conceptual and attitudinal change. However, since that time, advances have been made in the application of both cognitive science and neuroscience to science learning. In particular, evidence has accumulated that, rather than the replacement of the commonsense view, the reality is that learners develop a conceptual profile which includes both the commonsense and the scientific. If this is the case, instead of focussing on conceptual replacement, science educators need to aim more actively at strengthening the learner's executive processes which select contextually appropriate responses and inhibit inappropriate ones. In this paper, the initial development, theoretical basis and the practical applications of conceptual mediation are introduced, following which, these are re-examined in the light of more recent findings. Within this discussion, several potential links to recent cognitive and neuroscientific research are drawn, and these raise issues for further research into the most appropriate teaching approaches for tackling existing non-scientific conceptions.

  18. Estudio de los Efectos Gravitomagnéticos en Cuerpos Masivos Rotantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velandia Heredia, N.; Tejeiro, J. M.

    2008-03-01

    A partir del estudio de los Efectos Gravitomagnéticos en cuerpos masivos rotantes, planteamos la expresión para medir el desfase en el tiempo, para diferentes observadores, que se dan cuando viajan dos rayos de luz por una guía de onda o de manera libre (geodésicas), en el plano azimutal y en el plano polar. Con lo anterior queremos abordar el experimento tipo Michelson y Morley, de forma que podamos involucrar el valor de la densidad del momento angular (a) en el retraso temporal para los dos haces de luz que viajan por los brazos del interferómetro, cuando este último es ubicado en el plano ecuatorial.

  19. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Avila, María Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH. PMID:21874154

  20. Towards to An Explanation for Conceptual Change: A Mechanistic Alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari

    2014-07-01

    Conceptual change is one of the most studied fields in science education and psychology of learning. However, there are still some foundational issues in conceptual change research on which no clear consensus has emerged. Firstly, there is no agreement on what changes in belief and concept systems constitute conceptual change and what changes do not. Secondly, there is no consensus on what the specific mechanisms of conceptual change are. Thirdly, there is no common explanatory framework of how to explain conceptual change. In this paper a sketch for explanations of conceptual change is outlined. According to this account, the explanation for conceptual change requires (1) a description for the information processing task and (2) a sufficiently accurate and detailed description of the cognitive mechanisms responsible for the task. The scope and limits of this type of explanation are discussed.

  1. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos. Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  2. Conceptual Structure within and between Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Dilkina, Katia; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Current views of semantic memory share the assumption that conceptual representations are based on multimodal experience, which activates distinct modality-specific brain regions. This proposition is widely accepted, yet little is known about how each modality contributes to conceptual knowledge and how the structure of this contribution varies across these multiple information sources. We used verbal feature lists, features from drawings, and verbal co-occurrence statistics from latent semantic analysis to examine the informational structure in four domains of knowledge: perceptual, functional, encyclopedic, and verbal. The goals of the analysis were three-fold: (1) to assess the structure within individual modalities; (2) to compare structures between modalities; and (3) to assess the degree to which concepts organize categorically or randomly. Our results indicated significant and unique structure in all four modalities: perceptually, concepts organize based on prominent features such as shape, size, color, and parts; functionally, they group based on use and interaction; encyclopedically, they arrange based on commonality in location or behavior; and verbally, they group associatively or relationally. Visual/perceptual knowledge gives rise to the strongest hierarchical organization and is closest to classic taxonomic structure. Information is organized somewhat similarly in the perceptual and encyclopedic domains, which differs significantly from the structure in the functional and verbal domains. Notably, the verbal modality has the most unique organization, which is not at all categorical but also not random. The idiosyncrasy and complexity of conceptual structure across modalities raise the question of how all of these modality-specific experiences are fused together into coherent, multifaceted yet unified concepts. Accordingly, both methodological and theoretical implications of the present findings are discussed. PMID:23293593

  3. Time distortion between "conceptual" and "preconceptual" traumas.

    PubMed

    López-Corvo, Rafael E

    2013-04-01

    Two forms of traumas are considered in this paper: "preconceptual" and "conceptual"; the former is ubiquitous and the latter, accidental. Preconceptual traumas represent "preconceptions" that take place during the first years of life, when there is not a mind capable of containing and endowing them with a sensible meaning, as distinguished from "conceptual traumas," which occur at a time when there is a mind already, which fails to contain the traumatic facts. There is always a continuous emotional entanglement between conceptual and preconceptual traumas. Preconceptual traumas are a consequence of the discrepancy present between the natural helplessness of the child and the supremacy of the parents. They split the mind in two opposite states that continuously interact: the "traumatized" and the "nontraumatized." The "traumatized state" is a consequence of the preconceptual trauma that takes place during the first years of life, which repeats compulsively and continuously. The "nontraumatized state," on the other hand, represents the mental development that will normally take place from birth to adulthood. All existing forms of psychopathology are always traumatic. The traumatized state is always minutely split and continuously projected everywhere, together with the part of the mind that contains it. A clinical case is considered in order to investigate how preconceptual traumas obstruct the possibility of dealing with the ensuing emotions that a true and violent threat of death can produce. Intense feelings linked to the phenomenology of early traumatic events obscured the true facts of the condition present at the time of the patient's analysis. Some aspects related to death and the death drive are examined prior to the clinical material. PMID:23566007

  4. A multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katie; Adams, Vanessa M; Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R; Polyakov, Maksym; Mills, Morena; Biggs, Duan; Knight, Andrew T; Game, Edward T; Raymond, Christopher M

    2014-12-01

    An opportunity represents an advantageous combination of circumstances that allows goals to be achieved. We reviewed the nature of opportunity and how it manifests in different subsystems (e.g., biophysical, social, political, economic) as conceptualized in other bodies of literature, including behavior, adoption, entrepreneur, public policy, and resilience literature. We then developed a multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity. We identified 3 types of conservation opportunity: potential, actors remove barriers to problem solving by identifying the capabilities within the system that can be manipulated to create support for conservation action; traction, actors identify windows of opportunity that arise from exogenous shocks, events, or changes that remove barriers to solving problems; and existing, everything is in place for conservation action (i.e., no barriers exist) and an actor takes advantage of the existing circumstances to solve problems. Different leverage points characterize each type of opportunity. Thus, unique stages of opportunity identification or creation and exploitation exist: characterizing the system and defining problems; identifying potential solutions; assessing the feasibility of solutions; identifying or creating opportunities; and taking advantage of opportunities. These stages can be undertaken independently or as part of a situational analysis and typically comprise the first stage, but they can also be conducted iteratively throughout a conservation planning process. Four types of entrepreneur can be identified (business, policy, social, and conservation), each possessing attributes that enable them to identify or create opportunities and take advantage of them. We examined how different types of conservation opportunity manifest in a social-ecological system (the Great Barrier Reef) and how they can be taken advantage of. Our multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity strengthens and

  5. Relational conceptual change in solution chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebenezer, Jazlin V.; Gaskell, P. James

    This study explores changes to students' conceptions about solution chemistry in the context of instruction based on collaboration between a researcher and an experienced teacher attempting to implement strategies from the literature on conceptual change. Conceptual change for students and teachers is viewed not just as a process of replacement of old concepts but also as a process of learning to relate ideas to appropriate contexts. The process of instruction and collaboration was influenced by institutional limits on time, the press to cover the curriculum, and the teacher's prior beliefs and practices. The study uses phenomenography to conceptualize students' understandings of solubility. Six categories of description were constructed: (a) physical transformation from solid to liquid; (b) chemical transformation of solute; (c) density of solute; (d) amount of space available in solution; (e) properties of solute; and (f) size of solute. After instruction students showed evidence of two additional ways of talking about solubility: (a) chemical structure of components; and (b) solution equilibrium. The new language, however, did not necessarily replace initial ideas about what happens in particular instances of solution chemistry. A careful analysis of the students' conceptions of solubility revealed important factors influencing the nature of student learning in this area of chemistry. These factors include: (a) ambiguities of chemical theories about dissolving: (b) explanations of the observable; and (c) students' chemical language. It is argued, in conclusion, that the goals for instruction are to assist students to appreciate contexts where everyday conceptions of chemical phenomenon are appropriate and contexts where particular conceptions from the community of chemists are more appropriate.

  6. Conceptual design of a Disk Chopper Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Copley, J.R.D.

    1997-09-01

    We describe methods that we have used for the conceptual design of the Disk Chopper Spectrometer at the Cold Neutron Research Facility, National Institute of Standards and Technology. Most of the discussion concerns the multiple chopper system. No single design method is best in every situation. We believe that an analytical approach is preferable, whenever possible. Graphical methods of expressing problems have been very instructive. We have also found it useful, and occasionally invaluable, to cross-check results obtained using different methods, such as analytical integration and ray-tracing.

  7. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-05-13

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  8. Uncertainty and the Conceptual Site Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, V.; Nicholson, T. J.

    2007-12-01

    Our focus is on uncertainties in the underlying conceptual framework upon which all subsequent steps in numerical and/or analytical modeling efforts depend. Experienced environmental modelers recognize the value of selecting an optimal conceptual model from several competing site models, but usually do not formally explore possible alternative models, in part due to incomplete or missing site data, as well as relevant regional data for establishing boundary conditions. The value in and approach for developing alternative conceptual site models (CSM) is demonstrated by analysis of case histories. These studies are based on reported flow or transport modeling in which alternative site models are formulated using data that were not available to, or not used by, the original modelers. An important concept inherent to model abstraction of these alternative conceptual models is that it is "Far better an approximate answer to the right question, which is often vague, than the exact answer to the wrong question, which can always be made precise." (Tukey, 1962) The case histories discussed here illustrate the value of formulating alternative models and evaluating them using site-specific data: (1) Charleston Naval Site where seismic characterization data allowed significant revision of the CSM and subsequent contaminant transport modeling; (2) Hanford 300-Area where surface- and ground-water interactions affecting the unsaturated zone suggested an alternative component to the site model; (3) Savannah River C-Area where a characterization report for a waste site within the modeled area was not available to the modelers, but provided significant new information requiring changes to the underlying geologic and hydrogeologic CSM's used; (4) Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) where re-interpretation of resistivity sounding data and water-level data suggested an alternative geologic model. Simple 2-D spreadsheet modeling of the ADRS with the revised CSM provided an improved

  9. Conceptual Coordination Bridges Information Processing and Neurophysiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Norrig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Information processing theories of memory and skills can be reformulated in terms of how categories are physically and temporally related, a process called conceptual coordination. Dreaming can then be understood as a story understanding process in which two mechanisms found in everyday comprehension are missing: conceiving sequences (chunking categories in time as a categorization) and coordinating across modalities (e.g., relating the sound of a word and the image of its meaning). On this basis, we can readily identify isomorphisms between dream phenomenology and neurophysiology, and explain the function of dreaming as facilitating future coordination of sequential, cross-modal categorization (i.e., REM sleep lowers activation thresholds, "unlearning").

  10. Conceptual, self-assembling graphene nanocontainers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boothroyd, Simon; Anwar, Jamshed

    2015-07-01

    We show that graphene nano-sheets, when appropriately functionalised, can form self-assembling nanocontainers which may be opened or closed using a chemical trigger such as pH or polarity of solvent. Conceptual design rules are presented for different container structures, whose ability to form and encapsulate guest molecules is verified by molecular dynamics simulations. The structural simplicity of the graphene nanocontainers offers considerable scope for scaling the capacity, modulating the nature of the internal environment, and defining the trigger for encapsulation or release of the guest molecule(s). This design study will serve to provide additional impetus to developing synthetic approaches for selective functionalisation of graphene.

  11. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location.

  12. Structural Optimization of Conceptual Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrinda, Glenn Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Aerospace vehicle structures must be optimized for mass to maximize the mission payload. During the conceptual design phase, structures must be optimized to accurately predict the mass of the design. Analysis methods that are used in sizing members should allow for the selection of a variety of metallic and composite materials and user-defined geometry constraints. Rapid vehicle structural analysis is often necessary to improve the fidelity and the results that are obtained during the preliminary design. Recent experiences are highlighted that utilize the Collier Research Corporation's Hypersizer toolset to optimize structural concepts.

  13. A Conceptual Model of Referee Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Félix; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model of referee efficacy, defines the concept, proposes sources of referee specific efficacy information, and suggests consequences of having high or low referee efficacy. Referee efficacy is defined as the extent to which referees believe they have the capacity to perform successfully in their job. Referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to be influenced by mastery experiences, referee knowledge/education, support from significant others, physical/mental preparedness, environmental comfort, and perceived anxiety. In turn, referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to influence referee performance, referee stress, athlete rule violations, athlete satisfaction, and co-referee satisfaction. PMID:21713174

  14. ATA diagnostic beam dump conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    A diagnostic beam dump, able to withstand 72,000 pulses (10 kA, 50 MeV/pulse) per shift was designed and analyzed. The analysis shows that the conceptual beam dump design consisting of 80 vitreous carbon plate-foam elements is able to withstand the thermal and mechanical stresses generated. X-rays produced by bremsstrahlung are absorbed by a three element copper plate-foam x-ray absorber. Cooling between bursts of electron pulses is provided by pressurized helium.

  15. Conceptualizing Debates in Learning and Educational Research: Toward a Complex Systems Conceptual Framework of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael J.; Kapur, Manu; Reimann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a conceptual framework of learning based on perspectives and methodologies being employed in the study of complex physical and social systems to inform educational research. We argue that the contexts in which learning occurs are complex systems with elements or agents at different levels--including neuronal, cognitive,…

  16. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  17. Towards a Conceptual Profile: Rethinking Conceptual Mediation in the Light of Recent Cognitive and Neuroscientific Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Chris

    2014-01-01

    One important focus for science education researchers over many years has been the attempts to replace students' commonsense and non-scientific explanations of various phenomena by scientific explanations. The approach we adopted almost three decades ago was conceptual mediation, and this was shown to have a considerable level of success with…

  18. Conceptual Change Text: A Supplementary Material To Facilitate Conceptual Change in Electrochemical Cell Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuruk, Nejla; Geban, Omer

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of conceptual change text (CCT) oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on students' understanding of electrochemical (galvanic and electrolytic) cell concepts. The subjects of the study consisted of 64 students from the two classes of a high school in Turkey.…

  19. Social amplification of risk: a conceptual framework

    SciTech Connect

    Kasperson, R.E.; Renn, O.; Slovic, P.; Brown, H.S.; Emel, J.; Goble, R.; Kasperson, J.X.; Ratick, S.

    1988-06-01

    One of the most perplexing problems in risk analysis is why some relatively minor risks or risk events, as assessed by technical experts, often elicit strong public concerns and result in substantial impacts upon society and economy. This article sets forth a conceptual framework that seeks to link systematically the technical assessment of risk with psychological, sociological, and cultural perspectives of risk perception and risk-related behavior. The main thesis is that hazards interact with psychological, social, institutional, and cultural processes in ways that may amplify or attenuate public responses to the risk or risk event. A structural description of the social amplification of risk is now possible. Amplification occurs at two stages: in the transfer of information about the risk, and in the response mechanisms of society. Signals about risk are processed by individual and social amplification stations, including the scientist who communicates the risk assessment, the news media, cultural groups, interpersonal networks, and others. Key steps of amplifications can be identified at each stage. The amplified risk leads to behavioral responses, which, in turn, result in secondary impacts. Models are presented that portray the elements and linkages in the proposed conceptual framework.

  20. Understanding psychiatric institutionalization: a conceptual review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since Goffman’s seminal work on psychiatric institutions, deinstitutionalization has become a leading term in the psychiatric debate. It described the process of closure or downsizing of large psychiatric hospitals and the establishment of alternative services in the community. Yet, there is a lack of clarity on what exactly the concept of institutionalization means in present-day psychiatry. This review aims to identify the meaning of psychiatric institutionalization since the early 1960s to present-day. Method A conceptual review of institutionalization in psychiatry was conducted. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize the findings. Results Four main themes were identified in conceptualizing institutionalization: bricks and mortar of care institutions; policy and legal frameworks regulating care; clinical responsibility and paternalism in clinician-patient relationships; and patients’ adaptive behavior to institutionalized care. Conclusions The concept of institutionalization in psychiatry reflects four distinct themes. All themes have some relevance for the contemporary debate on how psychiatric care should develop and on the role of institutional care in psychiatry. PMID:23773398

  1. Historical trauma: politics of a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Prussing, Erica

    2014-06-01

    The concept of historical trauma (HT) is compelling: Colonialism has set forth cumulative cycles of adversity that promote morbidity and mortality at personal and collective levels, with especially strong mental health impacts. Yet as ongoing community-based as well as scholarly discussions attest, lingering questions continue to surround HT as a framework for understanding the relationships between colonialism and indigenous mental health. Through an overview of 30 recent peer-reviewed publications that aim to clarify, define, measure, and interpret how HT impacts American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) mental health, this paper examines how the conceptual framework of HT has circulated in ways shaped by interactions among three prominent research approaches: evidence-based, culturally relevant, and decolonizing. All define current approaches to AIAN mental health research, but each sets forth different conceptualizations of the connections between colonialism and psychological distress. The unfolding trajectory of research about HT reflects persistent tensions in how these frameworks interact, but also possibilities for better integrating them. These considerations aim to advance conversations about the politics of producing knowledge about AIAN mental health, and support ongoing calls for greater political pluralism in mental health research. PMID:24787478

  2. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2015-12-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.

  3. Conceptual Surveys for Zooniverse Citizen Science Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Lintott, C.; Gay, P. L.; Raddick, J.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2012-01-01

    The Citizen Science projects developed by Zooniverse allow volunteers to contribute to scientific research in a meaningful way by working with actual scientific data. In the Moon Zoo Citizen Science project volunteers classify geomorphological features in images from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, and in the Galaxy Zoo project volunteers classify galaxies from SDSS-III and Hubble images. We created two surveys, the Lunar Cratering Concept Inventory (LCCI), and the Zooniverse Astronomy Concept Inventory (ZACS) to measure the impact that participation in Moon Zoo has on user conceptual knowledge. We describe how the survey was developed and validated in collaboration with education researchers and astronomers. The instrument was administered to measure changes to user conceptual knowledge as they gain experience with Moon Zoo. We discuss preliminary data analysis and how these results were used to change implementation of the survey to improve results. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  4. Harmonising Nursing Terminologies Using a Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Kay; Kim, Tae Youn; Coenen, Amy; Saba, Virginia; Hardiker, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®) and the Clinical Care Classification (CCC) System are standardised nursing terminologies that identify discrete elements of nursing practice, including nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes. While CCC uses a conceptual framework or model with 21 Care Components to classify these elements, ICNP, built on a formal Web Ontology Language (OWL) description logic foundation, uses a logical hierarchical framework that is useful for computing and maintenance of ICNP. Since the logical framework of ICNP may not always align with the needs of nursing practice, an informal framework may be a more useful organisational tool to represent nursing content. The purpose of this study was to classify ICNP nursing diagnoses using the 21 Care Components of the CCC as a conceptual framework to facilitate usability and inter-operability of nursing diagnoses in electronic health records. Findings resulted in all 521 ICNP diagnoses being assigned to one of the 21 CCC Care Components. Further research is needed to validate the resulting product of this study with practitioners and develop recommendations for improvement of both terminologies. PMID:27332245

  5. Conceptual and practical problems of moral enhancement.

    PubMed

    Beck, Birgit

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the debate on human enhancement has shifted from familiar topics like cognitive enhancement and mood enhancement to a new and - to no one's surprise - controversial subject, namely moral enhancement. Some proponents from the transhumanist camp allude to the 'urgent need' of improving the moral conduct of humankind in the face of ever growing technological progress and the substantial dangers entailed in this enterprise. Other thinkers express more sceptical views about this proposal. As the debate has revealed so far, there is no shared opinion among philosophers (or scientists) about the meaning, prospects, and ethical evaluation of moral enhancement. In this article I will address several conceptual and practical problems of this issue, in order to encourage discussion about the prospects of (thinking about) moral enhancement in the future. My assumption is that (i) for the short term, there is little chance of arriving at an agreement on the proper understanding of morality and the appropriateness of one single (meta-)ethical theory; (ii) apart from this, there are further philosophical puzzles loosely referred to in the debate which add to theoretical confusion; and (iii) even if these conceptual problems could be solved, there are still practical problems to be smoothed out if moral enhancement is ever to gain relevance apart from merely theoretical interest. My tentative conclusion, therefore, will be that moral enhancement is not very likely to be made sense of - let alone realized - in the medium-term future. PMID:24654942

  6. The effect of prosody on conceptual combination.

    PubMed

    Lynott, Dermot; Connell, Louise

    2010-08-01

    Research into people's comprehension of novel noun-noun phrases has long neglected the possible influences of prosody during meaning construction. At the same time, work in conceptual combination has disagreed about whether different classes of interpretation emerge from single or multiple processes; for example, whether people use distinct mechanisms when they interpret octopus apartment as property-based (e.g., an apartment with eight rooms) or relation-based (e.g., an apartment where an octopus lives). In two studies, we manipulate the prosodic emphasis patterns of novel noun-noun combinations (placing stress on the modifier noun, the head noun, or dual stress on both nouns) and ask participants to generate an interpretation for the novel phrase. Results show that people are faster to generate property-based interpretations when dual emphasis stresses both nouns equally, with prosody having little effect on the speed of relation-based interpretations. These findings highlight a role for prosody during meaning construction and underline important differences between relation- and property-based interpretations that are difficult to reconcile with unitary process views of conceptual combination. PMID:21564245

  7. A conceptual holding model for veterinary applications.

    PubMed

    Ferrè, Nicola; Kuhn, Werner; Rumor, Massimo; Marangon, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Spatial references are required when geographical information systems (GIS) are used for the collection, storage and management of data. In the veterinary domain, the spatial component of a holding (of animals) is usually defined by coordinates, and no other relevant information needs to be interpreted or used for manipulation of the data in the GIS environment provided. Users trying to integrate or reuse spatial data organised in such a way, frequently face the problem of data incompatibility and inconsistency. The root of the problem lies in differences with respect to syntax as well as variations in the semantic, spatial and temporal representations of the geographic features. To overcome these problems and to facilitate the inter-operability of different GIS, spatial data must be defined according to a \\"schema\\" that includes the definition, acquisition, analysis, access, presentation and transfer of such data between different users and systems. We propose an application \\"schema\\" of holdings for GIS applications in the veterinary domain according to the European directive framework (directive 2007/2/EC--INSPIRE). The conceptual model put forward has been developed at two specific levels to produce the essential and the abstract model, respectively. The former establishes the conceptual linkage of the system design to the real world, while the latter describes how the system or software works. The result is an application \\"schema\\" that formalises and unifies the information-theoretic foundations of how to spatially represent a holding in order to ensure straightforward information-sharing within the veterinary community. PMID:24893036

  8. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    PubMed Central

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false memory for suggested events. Results showed that conceptual elaboration of suggested events more often resulted in high confidence false memories (Experiment 1) and false memories that were accompanied by the phenomenal experience of remembering them (Experiment 2) than did surface-level processing. Moreover, conceptual elaboration consistently led to higher rates of false memory than did perceptual elaboration. The false memory effects that resulted from conceptual elaboration were highly dependent on the organization of the postevent interview questions, such that conceptual elaboration only increased false memory beyond surface level processing when participants evaluated both true and suggested information in relation to the same theme or dimension. PMID:21103451

  9. Conceptual fluency increases recollection: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Li, Bingbing; Gao, Chuanji; Xu, Huifang; Guo, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    It is widely established that fluency can contribute to recognition memory. Previous studies have found that enhanced fluency increases familiarity, but not recollection. The present study was motivated by a previous finding that conceptual priming affected recollection. We used event-related potentials to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of these effects with conceptually related two-character Chinese words. We found that previous conceptual priming effects on conceptual fluency only increased the incidence of recollection responses. We also found that enhanced conceptual fluency was associated with N400 attenuation, which was also correlated with the behavioral indicator of recollection. These results suggest that the N400 effect might be related to the impact of conceptual fluency on recollection recognition. These study findings provide further evidence for the relationship between fluency and recollection. PMID:26175678

  10. The Medial Temporal Lobe Supports Conceptual Implicit Memory

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Chun; Lazzara, Michele M.; Ranganath, Charan; Knight, Robert T.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The medial temporal lobe (MTL) is generally thought to be critical for explicit, but not implicit, memory. Here, we demonstrate that the perirhinal cortex (PRc), within the MTL, plays a role in conceptually-driven implicit memory. Amnesic patients with MTL lesions that converged on the left PRc exhibited deficits on two conceptual implicit tasks (i.e., exemplar generation and semantic decision). A separate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in healthy subjects indicated that PRc activation during encoding of words was predictive of subsequent exemplar generation. Moreover, across subjects, the magnitude of the fMRI and behavioral conceptual priming effects were directly related. Additionally, the PRc region implicated in the fMRI study was the same region of maximal lesion overlap in the patients with impaired conceptual priming. These patient and imaging results converge to suggest that the PRc plays a critical role in conceptual implicit memory, and possibly conceptual processing in general. PMID:21144998

  11. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume I. Rationale, process, equipment, performance, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Neuls, A.S.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawing, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  12. Los Alamos plutonium facility applied systems integration project status report for period ending August 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Shirk, D.G.; Bearse, R.C.; Marshall, R.S.; Baker, A.L.; Thomas, C.C. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The conceptual design of an on-line, near-real-time nondestructive assay instrumentation network for the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility is complete. Analysis of instrument history data indicates that the instrument certification procedures need improvement. Analysis of exhaust filter data has led to the derivation of a buildup prediction equation that is a function of throughput. This suggests that development of a generalized model is possible. A number of routine reports are now available from the Plutonium Facility/Los Alamos Safeguards System including inventories and active reports.

  13. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-10-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  14. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

  15. Los manuales de quimica en Espana (1788--1845): Protagonistas, terminologia, clasificaciones y orden pedagogico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Bello, Maria Rosa

    La presente tesis doctoral es una investigacion sobre los manuales de quimica utilizados en Espana de 1788 a 1845. Este trabajo proporciona una perspectiva general de un tema relevante en las ultimas decadas en Historia de la Ciencia, el estudio de los libros de texto. De acuerdo con las ultimas investigaciones realizadas en este terreno, el acto pedagogico es considerado como un proceso creativo, como espacio de encuentro de actores e intereses muy diversos, matizando las ideas defendidas por Thomas S. Kuhn. Recordemos que segun Kuhn, los libros de texto ofrecen una vision consensuada y normalizada del estado de la ciencia de su epoca, por lo que sus autores eliminan deliberadamente toda controversia y presentan asi una imagen distorsionada de la actividad cientifica. En cambio, se ha mostrado, por ejemplo, que en la ensenanza participan no solamente profesores y alumnos sino tambien otros muchos actores y todos ellos no unicamente con intereses puramente pedagogicos sino tambien con diversos intereses politicos y economicos que pueden conocerse a traves del estudio de los manuales. En esta tesis se pretende analizar los manuales de quimica en Espana desde 1788 hasta 1845. Para poder llevar a cabo la investigacion ha sido necesario precisar el objeto de estudio (libro de texto de quimica) durante el periodo estudiado (1788-1845) ya que no es adecuado adoptar la imagen actual de una disciplina que sufrio sustanciales cambios durante la epoca estudiada. Esta investigacion se centra en un momento especialmente importante para la quimica y que algunos historiadores han llegado a considerar "revolucionario". Durante estos anos se produjo un cambio importante en las teorias quimicas sobre la combustion y el concepto de elemento, asi como una reforma terminologica que originaron la aparicion de importantes controversias. Ademas, debido a la relacion de la quimica con otras disciplinas como la historia natural o la fisica ha sido necesario restringir el objeto de estudio

  16. Conceptual Commitments of AGI Systems: Editorial, Commentaries, and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-06-01

    Editorial: Conceptual Commitments of AGI Systems Haris Dindo / James Marshall / Giovanni Pezzulo 23 General Problems of Unified Theories of Cognition, and Another Conceptual Commitment of LIDA Benjamin Angerer / Stefan Schneider 26 LIDA, Committed to Consciousness Antonio Chella 28 The Radical Interactionism Conceptual Commitment Olivier L. Georgeon / David W. Aha 31 Commitments of the Soar Cognitive Architecture John E. Laird 36 Conceptual Commitments of AGI Projects Pei Wang 39 Will (dis)Embodied LIDA Agents be Socially Interactive? Travis J. Wiltshire / Emilio J. C. Lobato / Florian G. Jentsch / Stephen M. Fiore 42 Author's Response to Commentaries Steve Strain / Stan Franklin 48

  17. The Role of Conceptual Frameworks in Collecting Multisite Qualitative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotto, Linda S.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the use of conceptual frameworks in collecting qualitative data from multiple sites. Presents strategies for devising frameworks that are flexible and general without sacrificing specificity. (JOW)

  18. Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dogliani, Harold O

    2011-01-19

    The purpose of the briefing is to describe general laboratory technical capabilities to be used for various groups such as military cadets or university faculty/students and post docs to recruit into a variety of Los Alamos programs. Discussed are: (1) development and application of high leverage science to enable effeictive, predictable and reliability outcomes; (2) deter, detect, characterize, reverse and prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their use by adversaries and terrorists; (3) modeling and simulation to define complex processes, predict outcomes, and develop effective prevention, response, and remediation strategies; (4) energetic materials and hydrodynamic testing to develop materials for precise delivery of focused energy; (5) materials cience focused on fundamental understanding of materials behaviors, their quantum-molecular properties, and their dynamic responses, and (6) bio-science to rapidly detect and characterize pathogens, to develop vaccines and prophylactic remedies, and to develop attribution forensics.

  19. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, Reza

    . Considering the strength and limitations of both methodologies, the question to be answered in this thesis is: How valuable and compatible are the classical analytical methods in today's conceptual design environment? And can these methods complement each other? To answer these questions, this thesis investigates the pros and cons of classical analytical structural analysis methods during the conceptual design stage through the following objectives: Illustrate structural design methodology of these methods within the framework of Aerospace Vehicle Design (AVD) lab's design lifecycle. Demonstrate the effectiveness of moment distribution method through four case studies. This will be done by considering and evaluating the strength and limitation of these methods. In order to objectively quantify the limitation and capabilities of the analytical method at the conceptual design stage, each case study becomes more complex than the one before.

  20. Optimal combinations of specialized conceptual hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayastha, Nagendra; Lal Shrestha, Durga; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2010-05-01

    In hydrological modelling it is a usual practice to use a single lumped conceptual model for hydrological simulations at all regimes. However often the simplicity of the modelling paradigm leads to errors in represent all the complexity of the physical processes in the catchment. A solution could be to model various hydrological processes separately by differently parameterized models, and to combine them. Different hydrological models have varying performance in reproducing catchment response. Generally it cannot be represented precisely in different segments of the hydrograph: some models performed well in simulating the peak flows, while others do well in capturing the low flows. Better performance can be achieved if a model being applied to the catchment using different model parameters that are calibrated using criteria favoring high or low flows. In this work we use a modular approach to simulate hydrology of a catchment, wherein multiple models are applied to replicate the catchment responses and each "specialist" model is calibrated according to a specific objective function which is chosen in a way that forces the model to capture certain aspects of the hydrograph, and outputs of models are combined using so-called "fuzzy committee". Such multi-model approach has been already previously implemented in the development of data driven and conceptual models (Fenicia et al., 2007), but its perfomance was considered only during the calibration period. In this study we tested an application to conceptual models in both calibration and verification period. In addition, we tested the sensitivity of the result to the use of different weightings used in the objective functions formulations, and memberbship functions used in the committee. The study was carried out for Bagamati catchment in Nepal and Brue catchment in United Kingdoms with the MATLAB-based implementation of HBV model. Multi-objective evolutionary optimization genetic algorithm (Deb, 2001) was used to

  1. Aplicación del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mecánica Celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Núñez, J.; Brunini, A.

    En Mecánica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinación de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un método para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables acción-ángulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotación tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separación en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

  2. Conceptual Barriers to Progress Within Evolutionary Biology

    PubMed Central

    Laland, Kevin N.; Odling-Smee, John; Feldman, Marcus W.; Kendal, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    In spite of its success, Neo-Darwinism is faced with major conceptual barriers to further progress, deriving directly from its metaphysical foundations. Most importantly, neo-Darwinism fails to recognize a fundamental cause of evolutionary change, “niche construction”. This failure restricts the generality of evolutionary theory, and introduces inaccuracies. It also hinders the integration of evolutionary biology with neighbouring disciplines, including ecosystem ecology, developmental biology, and the human sciences. Ecology is forced to become a divided discipline, developmental biology is stubbornly difficult to reconcile with evolutionary theory, and the majority of biologists and social scientists are still unhappy with evolutionary accounts of human behaviour. The incorporation of niche construction as both a cause and a product of evolution removes these disciplinary boundaries while greatly generalizing the explanatory power of evolutionary theory. PMID:21572912

  3. A conceptual model of intentional comfort touch.

    PubMed

    Connor, Ann; Howett, Maeve

    2009-06-01

    This article discusses the application and integration of intentional comfort touch as a holistic nursing practice. A review of the literature on touch and its related concepts is included. Although nurses use touch frequently in patient encounters, it is not always used intentionally or deliberately to enhance care. The article compares and contrasts intentional comfort touch with nonintentional or procedural touch. The use of intentional comfort touch in innovative clinical settings with diverse and at-risk populations is described. Based on clinical experiences and the current literature, a conceptual model of intentional comfort touch is proposed. The application of touch is discussed as is the meaning and importance of intentional touch for students, faculty, and patients. PMID:19443699

  4. LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Akerib, D. S.

    2015-03-09

    The design and performance of the LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) detector is described as of March 2015 in this Conceptual Design Report. LZ is a second-generation dark-matter detector with the potential for unprecedented sensitivity to weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) of masses from a few GeV/c2 to hundreds of TeV/c2. With total liquid xenon mass of about 10 tonnes, LZ will be the most sensitive experiment for WIMPs in this mass region by the end of the decade. This report describes in detail the design of the LZ technical systems. Expected backgrounds are quantified and the performance of the experiment is presented. The LZ detector will be located at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota. The organization of the LZ Project and a summary of the expected cost and current schedule are given.

  5. Conceptual Aspects of Gauge/Gravity Duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Haro, Sebastian; Mayerson, Daniel R.; Butterfield, Jeremy N.

    2016-07-01

    We give an introductory review of gauge/gravity duality, and associated ideas of holography, emphasising the conceptual aspects. The opening sections gather the ingredients, viz. anti-de Sitter spacetime, conformal field theory and string theory, that we need for presenting, in Sect. 5, the central and original example: Maldacena's AdS/CFT correspondence. Sections 6 and 7 develop the ideas of this example, also in applications to condensed matter systems, QCD, and hydrodynamics. Sections 8 and 9 discuss the possible extensions of holographic ideas to de Sitter spacetime and to black holes. Section 10 discusses the bearing of gauge/gravity duality on two philosophical topics: the equivalence of physical theories, and the idea that spacetime, or some features of it, are emergent.

  6. Conceptual design of the FRIB cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect

    Weisend II, J G; Bull, Brad; Burns, Chris; Fila, Adam; Kelley, Patrick; Laumer, Helmut; Mann, Thomas; McCartney, Allyn; Jones, S; Zeller, A

    2012-06-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a new nuclear science facility funded by the DOE Office of Science and Michigan State University (MSU). FRIB is currently under design and will be located on the MSU campus. The centerpiece of FRIB is a heavy ion linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities and magnets which in turn requires a large cryogenic system. The cryogenic system consists of a commercially produced helium refrigeration plant and an extensive distribution system. Superconducting components will operate at both 4.5 K and 2 K. This paper describes the conceptual design of the system including the expected heat loads and operating modes. The strategy for procuring a custom turnkey helium refrigeration plant from industry, an overview of the distribution system, the interface of the cryogenic system to the conventional facilities and the project schedule are also described.

  7. Conceptual second-generation lunar equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The spring 1990 Introduction to Design class was asked to conceptually design second-generation lunar vehicles and equipment as a semester design project. The basic assumption made in designing second-generation lunar vehicles and equipment was that a network of permanent lunar bases already existed. The designs were to facilitate the transportation of personnel and materials. The eight topics to choose from included flying vehicles, ground-based vehicles, robotic arms, and life support systems. Two teams of two or three members competed on each topic and results were exhibited at a formal presentation. A clean-propellant powered lunar flying transport vehicle, an extra-vehicular activity life support system, a pressurized lunar rover for greater distances, and a robotic arm design project are discussed.

  8. Esoteric healing traditions: a conceptual overview.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, a comprehensive scholarly examination of the history and principles of major traditions of esoteric healing. After a brief conceptual overview of esoteric religion and healing, summaries are provided of eight major esoteric traditions, including descriptions of beliefs and practices related to health, healing, and medicine. These include what are termed the kabbalistic tradition, the mystery school tradition, the gnostic tradition, the brotherhoods tradition, the Eastern mystical tradition, the Western mystical tradition, the shamanic tradition, and the new age tradition. Next, commonalities across these traditions are summarized with respect to beliefs and practices related to anatomy and physiology; nosology and etiology; pathophysiology; and therapeutic modalities. Finally, the implications of this survey of esoteric healing are discussed for clinicians, biomedical researchers, and medical educators. PMID:18316053

  9. On the conceptual foundations of psychological measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maul, Andrew; Wilson, Mark; Torres Irribarra, David

    2013-09-01

    Measurement has long been an important element of epistemology in the physical sciences and natural philosophy. More recently, the psychological sciences have developed a variety of techniques that purport to be instances of measurement as well. However, it is not clear how the understanding of measurement invoked in psychological science applications accords with the understanding of measurement found in other scientific disciplines. A sharper focus on conceptual clarity and coherence across the psychological and physical sciences has the potential to add a great deal to efforts to improve such practices. In this paper, we argue that it is possible to formulate a philosophically coherent account of how measurement works in both the physical and the human sciences.

  10. Conceptual models for cumulative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Linder, Stephen H; Sexton, Ken

    2011-12-01

    In the absence of scientific consensus on an appropriate theoretical framework, cumulative risk assessment and related research have relied on speculative conceptual models. We argue for the importance of theoretical backing for such models and discuss 3 relevant theoretical frameworks, each supporting a distinctive "family" of models. Social determinant models postulate that unequal health outcomes are caused by structural inequalities; health disparity models envision social and contextual factors acting through individual behaviors and biological mechanisms; and multiple stressor models incorporate environmental agents, emphasizing the intermediary role of these and other stressors. The conclusion is that more careful reliance on established frameworks will lead directly to improvements in characterizing cumulative risk burdens and accounting for disproportionate adverse health effects. PMID:22021317

  11. Conceptual Hierarchies in a Flat Attractor Network

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Christopher M.; Cree, George S.; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The structure of people’s conceptual knowledge of concrete nouns has traditionally been viewed as hierarchical (Collins & Quillian, 1969). For example, superordinate concepts (vegetable) are assumed to reside at a higher level than basic-level concepts (carrot). A feature-based attractor network with a single layer of semantic features developed representations of both basic-level and superordinate concepts. No hierarchical structure was built into the network. In Experiment and Simulation 1, the graded structure of categories (typicality ratings) is accounted for by the flat attractor-network. Experiment and Simulation 2 show that, as with basic-level concepts, such a network predicts feature verification latencies for superordinate concepts (vegetable ). In Experiment and Simulation 3, counterintuitive results regarding the temporal dynamics of similarity in semantic priming are explained by the model. By treating both types of concepts the same in terms of representation, learning, and computations, the model provides new insights into semantic memory. PMID:19543434

  12. Evaluation of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh-Ai Cheong, Irene; Treagust, David; Kyeleve, Iorhemen J.; Oh, Peck-Yoke

    2010-12-01

    In this study, a two-tier diagnostic test for understanding malaria was developed and administered to 314 Bruneian students in Year 12 and in a nursing diploma course. The validity, reliability, difficulty level, discriminant indices, and reading ability of the test were examined and found to be acceptable in terms of measuring students' understanding and identifying alternative conceptions with respect to malaria. Results showed that students' understanding of malaria was high for content, low for reasons, and limited and superficial for both content and reasons. The instrument revealed several common alternative conceptual understandings students' hold about malaria. The MalariaTT2 instrument developed could be used in classroom lessons for challenging alternative conceptions and enhancing conceptions of malaria.

  13. Solving Problems in Genetics II: Conceptual restructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez Orcajo, Teresa; Martínez Aznar, Mercedes

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents the results of part of an investigation carried out with fourth-level Spanish secondary education students (15 years old), in which we implemented a teaching unit based on problem-solving methodology as an investigation to teach genetics and human inheritance curricular contents. By solving open problems, the students experienced a conceptual restructuring that stayed with them over time and involved the following specific theories: the location of hereditary information, the transmission of hereditary information, and the appearance of new characteristic. The learning connections between these specific theories were also studied. Furthermore, these results were compared with a control group that worked with closed problems, the usual approach to genetics teaching in Spanish classrooms. Consequently, we were able to verify that our methodology results in better learning.

  14. PRAYER AND MARITAL INTERVENTION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

    PubMed Central

    BEACH, STEVEN R. H.; FINCHAM, FRANK D.; HURT, TERA R.; MCNAIR, LILY M.; STANLEY, SCOTT M.

    2009-01-01

    Discomfort with the integration of spiritual activities into marital interventions may be a response by practitioners to the weakness of available conceptual frameworks. We offer a framework that allows for integration of prayer into marital interventions (educational or therapeutic), and argue that when culturally appropriate, prayer can serve multiple functions in interventions that are consistent with traditional goals of skill-based approaches. Several specific ways in which prayer can be either an alternative or an addition to existing intervention strategies are outlined. The potential negative effects of prayer for couples and the dangers of integrating prayer into programs are also discussed. We conclude that effective skill-based family intervention and prevention with some traditionally underserved groups may require increased attention to integration of spiritual practices that are common in those groups. PMID:20054450

  15. A Conceptual Model of Learning Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koper, Rob

    In the TENCompetence project a set of UML models (Booch et al. 1999) have been developed to specify the core concepts for Learning Networks Services that support professional competence development. The three most important, high-level models are (a) the use case model, (b) the conceptual model, and (c) the domain model. The first model identifies the primary use cases we need in order to support professional competence development. The second model describes the concept of competence and competence development from a theoretical point of view. What is a competence? How does it relate to the cognitive system of an actor? How are competences developed? The third model is a UML Domain Model that defines, among other things, the components of a Learning Network, defines the concepts and relationships between the concepts in a Learning Network and provides a starting point for the design of the overall architecture for Learning Network Services, including the data model.

  16. Detecting hydrological changes through conceptual model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Francesco; Caracciolo, Domenico; Pumo, Dario; Francipane, Antonio; Valerio Noto, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    Natural changes and human modifications in hydrological systems coevolve and interact in a coupled and interlinked way. If, on one hand, climatic changes are stochastic, non-steady, and affect the hydrological systems, on the other hand, human-induced changes due to over-exploitation of soils and water resources modifies the natural landscape, water fluxes and its partitioning. Indeed, the traditional assumption of static systems in hydrological analysis, which has been adopted for long time, fails whenever transient climatic conditions and/or land use changes occur. Time series analysis is a way to explore environmental changes together with societal changes; unfortunately, the not distinguishability between causes restrict the scope of this method. In order to overcome this limitation, it is possible to couple time series analysis with an opportune hydrological model, such as a conceptual hydrological model, which offers a schematization of complex dynamics acting within a basin. Assuming that model parameters represent morphological basin characteristics and that calibration is a way to detect hydrological signature at a specific moment, it is possible to argue that calibrating the model over different time windows could be a method for detecting potential hydrological changes. In order to test the capabilities of a conceptual model in detecting hydrological changes, this work presents different "in silico" experiments. A synthetic-basin is forced with an ensemble of possible future scenarios generated with a stochastic weather generator able to simulate steady and non-steady climatic conditions. The experiments refer to Mediterranean climate, which is characterized by marked seasonality, and consider the outcomes of the IPCC 5th report for describing climate evolution in the next century. In particular, in order to generate future climate change scenarios, a stochastic downscaling in space and time is carried out using realizations of an ensemble of General

  17. Toward Right-Fidelity Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinsay, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    The aviation Advanced Design Office (ADO) of the US Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AMRDEC) performs conceptual design of advanced Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) concepts in support of the Army's development and acquisition of new aviation systems. In particular, ADO engages in system synthesis to assess the impact of new technologies and their application to satisfy emerging warfighter needs and requirements. Fundamental to ADO being successful in accomplishing its role; is the ability to evaluate a wide array of proposed air vehicle concepts, and independently synthesize new concepts to inform Army and DoD decision makers about the tradespace in which decisions will be made (Figure 1). ADO utilizes a conceptual design (CD) process in the execution of its role. Benefiting from colocation with NASA rotorcraft researchers at the Ames Research Center, ADO and NASA have engaged in a survey of the current rotorcraft PD practices and begun the process of improving those capabilities to enable effective design and development of the next generation of VTOL systems. A unique aspect of CD in ADO is the fact that actual designs developed in-house are not intended to move forward in the development process. Rather, they are used as reference points in discussions about requirements development and technology impact. The ultimate products of ADO CD efforts are technology impact assessments and specifications which guide industry design activity. The fact that both the requirement and design are variables in the tradespace adds to the complexity of the CD process. A frequent need is ability to assess the relative "cost" of variations in requirement for a diverse set of VTOL configurations. Each of these configurations may have fundamentally different response characteristics to this requirement variation, and such insight into how different requirements drive different designs is a critical insight ADO attempts to provide decision makers. The processes and tools

  18. ITER fuel storage system conceptual design description

    SciTech Connect

    Nasise, J.E.; Anderson, J.L.; Bartlit, J.R.; Muller, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel, in the form of hydrogen isotopes Q{sub 2} (where Q is H, D, or T), is required to be stored and assayed in a safe manner at the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Two subsystems are proposed for this task: Fuel Storage (FS) and Fuel Management (FM). The combined system, Fuel Storage and Management System (FSMS), will provide fuel storage, tritium inventory, gas analysis, transfer pumping, and flow measurements. Presented is a Conceptual Design Description (CDD) of only the FS portion of the FSMS. The proposed FS system permits tritium and its associated isotopes to be stored within ZrCo storage beds, as a solid metal-hydride, or as a gas stored in tanks. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Propulsion System Models for Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual design code NDARC (NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft) was initially implemented to model conventional rotorcraft propulsion systems, consisting of turboshaft engines burning jet fuel, connected to one or more rotors through a mechanical transmission. The NDARC propulsion system representation has been extended to cover additional propulsion concepts, including electric motors and generators, rotor reaction drive, turbojet and turbofan engines, fuel cells and solar cells, batteries, and fuel (energy) used without weight change. The paper describes these propulsion system components, the architecture of their implementation in NDARC, and the form of the models for performance and weight. Requirements are defined for improved performance and weight models of the new propulsion system components. With these new propulsion models, NDARC can be used to develop environmentally-friendly rotorcraft designs.

  20. CONCEPTUAL MODELS FOR THE LASSEN HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Sorey, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Lassen hydrothermal system, like a number of other systems in regions of moderate to great topographic relief, includes steam-heated features at higher elevations and high-chloride springs at lower elevations, connected to and fed by a single circulation system at depth. Two conceptual models for such systems are presented. They are similar in several ways: however, there are basic differences in terms of the nature and extent of vapor-dominated conditions beneath the steam-heated features. For some Lassen-like systems, these differences could have environmental and economic implications. Available data do not make it possible to establish a single preferred model for the Lassen system, and the actual system is complex enough that both models may apply to different parts of the system.

  1. Conceptual Challenges and Directions for Social Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Social neuroscience has been enormously successful and is making major contributions to fields ranging from psychiatry to economics. Yet deep and interesting conceptual challenges abound. Is social information processing domain specific? Is it universal or susceptible to individual differences and effects of culture? Are there uniquely human social cognitive abilities? What is the “social brain,” and how do we map social psychological processes onto it? Animal models together with fMRI and other cognitive neuroscience approaches in humans are providing an unprecedented level of detail and many surprising results. It may well be that social neuroscience in the near future will give us an entirely new view of who we are, how we evolved, and what might be in store for the future of our species. PMID:20346753

  2. Conceptual designs for antiproton space propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cassenti, B.N.

    1989-01-01

    Five conceptual designs for antimatter space propulsion systems were compared in terms of their performance characteristics. The systems examined included solid-core liquid-propellant rockets; magnetically confined gaseous-core rockets using liquid or solid propellants; plasma-core rockets; pion rockets, which are driven directly by the mass annihilation products; and ram-augmented rockets, in which antiproton annihilation is used to heat hydrogen collected in interstellar space. It was found that, in general, as the specific impulse of the propulsion system increases, the thrust decreases. The comparison between designs showed that only fusion rockets have the capability to compete in performance with mass annihilation rockets. For very-high-speed interstellar missions, pion rockets, which can have a specific impulse of 20 million sec (although with a thrust-to-engine mass ratios of only 0.01 G) will offer best performance. 36 refs.

  3. Conceptual spacecraft systems design and synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L.; Deryder, D. D.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive systems design and synthesis is performed on future spacecraft concepts using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Systems (IDEAS) computer-aided design and analysis system. The capabilities and advantages of the systems-oriented interactive computer-aided design and analysis system are described. The synthesis of both large antenna and space station concepts, and space station evolutionary growth designs is demonstrated. The IDEAS program provides the user with both an interactive graphics and an interactive computing capability which consists of over 40 multidisciplinary synthesis and analysis modules. Thus, the user can create, analyze, and conduct parametric studies and modify earth-orbiting spacecraft designs (space stations, large antennas or platforms, and technologically advanced spacecraft) at an interactive terminal with relative ease. The IDEAS approach is useful during the conceptual design phase of advanced space missions when a multiplicity of parameters and concepts must be analyzed and evaluated in a cost-effective and timely manner.

  4. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, F.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage.

  5. Grief, consolation, and religions: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Klass, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Consolation is grief's traditional amelioration, but contemporary bereavement theory lacks a conceptual framework to include it. The article begins to develop that framework. The article argues that grief is inter-subjective, even at the biological level. Consolation and grief happen in the same inter-subjective space. Material from the histories of several religions sets the article in a cross-cultural and historical environment. The article examines consolation in interpersonal relationships, and then moves to consolation in cultural/religious resources that range from the literal image of God as an idealized parent to the abstract architecture of Brahm's Requiem. The most common consolation in the histories of religions comes within continuing bonds that are accessed in a wide variety of beliefs, rituals, and devotional objects. The article closes by briefly drawing the connection between consolation and faith. PMID:25084706

  6. Conceptual Learning: Enhancing Student Understanding of Physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltz, Micah J.

    Students are leaving undergraduate science programs without the knowledge and skills they are expected to have. This is apparent in professional programs, such as medical and veterinary school, where students do not possess the critical thinking skills necessary to be successful. Physiology is a required discipline for these professional programs and often before, as a pre-requisite. Physiology classrooms are an excellent place to teach critical thinking skills because the content consists of integrated processes. Therefore, in one study, it was investigated whether focusing on physiological concepts improved student understanding of physiology in both a non-physiological science course, Invertebrate Zoology, and in an undergraduate physiology course. An educational intervention was used in Invertebrate Zoology, where students were exposed to human physiology concepts that were similar to comparative physiology concepts they had learned during the semester. A pre-/post-test was used to assess learning gains. In a second study, the use of multimedia file usage was correlated to student exam scores in a physiology course. This was done to see if providing additional study materials that focused on specific concepts improved student understanding, as assessed using exam scores. Overall these studies indicate that encouraging assimilation of new concepts that expand upon material from lecture may help students gain a more complete understanding of a concept. The integration of these concepts into pre-existing conceptual frameworks may serve to teach students valuable critical thinking skills such as evaluation of new ideas within their current understanding and synthesizing the new content with the existing information. Focusing on this type of conceptual learning may enable students to apply content knowledge and think through problems. Additionally, focusing on concepts may enable students to improve their understanding of material without being overwhelmed by

  7. Turnaround Time Modeling for Conceptual Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nix, Michael; Staton, Eric J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have brought about a paradigm shift within NASA and the Space Launch Community regarding the performance of conceptual design. Reliability, maintainability, supportability, and operability are no longer effects of design; they have moved to the forefront and are affecting design. A primary focus of this shift has been a planned decrease in vehicle turnaround time. Potentials for instituting this decrease include attacking the issues of removing, refurbishing, and replacing the engines after each flight. less, it is important to understand the operational affects of an engine on turnaround time, ground support personnel and equipment. One tool for visualizing this relationship involves the creation of a Discrete Event Simulation (DES). A DES model can be used to run a series of trade studies to determine if the engine is meeting its requirements, and, if not, what can be altered to bring it into compliance. Using DES, it is possible to look at the ways in which labor requirements, parallel maintenance versus serial maintenance, and maintenance scheduling affect the overall turnaround time. A detailed DES model of the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) has been developed. Trades may be performed using the SSME Processing Model to see where maintenance bottlenecks occur, what the benefits (if any) are of increasing the numbers of personnel, or the number and location of facilities, in addition to trades previously mentioned, all with the goal of optimizing the operational turnaround time and minimizing operational cost. The SSME Processing Model was developed in such a way that it can easily be used as a foundation for developing DES models of other operational or developmental reusable engines. Performing a DES on a developmental engine during the conceptual phase makes it easier to affect the design and make changes to bring about a decrease in turnaround time and costs.

  8. Conceptual design report for site drainage control

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, M.R.

    1996-07-01

    The Mound Plant (Mound), located in Miamisburg, Ohio, is a Department of Energy (DOE) development and production facility performing support work for DOE`s weapons and energy-related programs. EG&G Mound Applied Technologies, Inc. (EG&G) is the Operating Contractor (OC) for this Government-Owned, Contractor-Operated (GOCO) facility. The work performed at Mound emphasizes nuclear energy and explosives technology. Mound is currently implementing an Environmental, Safety & Health (ES&H) Upgrades Program designed to protect its employees, the public, and the environment from adverse effects caused by facility activities. The first project of this multiphase program is now in the final stages of construction, and the second project is currently under design. Four additional projects, one of which is presented in this report, are in the conceptual design stage. At Mound, 22 soil zones have become contaminated with radioactive material. These zones cover approximately 20 percent of the total area of developed property at the site. During a storm event, the rainwater washes contaminated soil from these zones into the storm sewer system. These radioactive contaminants may then be discharged along with the stormwater into the Great Miami River via the Miami Erie Canal. This conceptual design report (CDR), Site Drainage Control, the fourth project in the ES&H program, describes a project that will provide improvements and much needed repairs to inadequate and deteriorating portions of the storm drainage system on the developed property. The project also will provide a stormwater retention facility capable of storing the stormwater runoff, from the developed property, resulting from a 100-year storm event. These improvements will permit the effective control and monitoring of stormwater to prevent the spread of radioactive contaminants from contaminated soil zones and will provide a means to collect and contain accidental spills of hazardous substances.

  9. Consumers' conceptualization of ultra-processed foods.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Vidal, Leticia; Allegue, Gimena; Giménez, Ana; Bandeira, Elisa; Moratorio, Ximena; Molina, Verónika; Curutchet, María Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Consumption of ultra-processed foods has been associated with low diet quality, obesity and other non-communicable diseases. This situation makes it necessary to develop educational campaigns to discourage consumers from substituting meals based on unprocessed or minimally processed foods by ultra-processed foods. In this context, the aim of the present work was to investigate how consumers conceptualize the term ultra-processed foods and to evaluate if the foods they perceive as ultra-processed are in concordance with the products included in the NOVA classification system. An online study was carried out with 2381 participants. They were asked to explain what they understood by ultra-processed foods and to list foods that can be considered ultra-processed. Responses were analysed using inductive coding. The great majority of the participants was able to provide an explanation of what ultra-processed foods are, which was similar to the definition described in the literature. Most of the participants described ultra-processed foods as highly processed products that usually contain additives and other artificial ingredients, stressing that they have low nutritional quality and are unhealthful. The most relevant products for consumers' conceptualization of the term were in agreement with the NOVA classification system and included processed meats, soft drinks, snacks, burgers, powdered and packaged soups and noodles. However, some of the participants perceived processed foods, culinary ingredients and even some minimally processed foods as ultra-processed. This suggests that in order to accurately convey their message, educational campaigns aimed at discouraging consumers from consuming ultra-processed foods should include a clear definition of the term and describe some of their specific characteristics, such as the type of ingredients included in their formulation and their nutritional composition. PMID:27349706

  10. ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-06-01

    Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

  11. Los biocombustibles y el futuro

    NASA Video Gallery

    ¿Cómo podremos utilizar los biocombustibles en el futuro? La ingeniera aeroespacial de la NASA, Diana Centeno Gómez nos explica el futuro de los biocombustibles y cómo un día podrías trabajar con d...

  12. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C., (translator); Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  13. Experiments at Scale with In-Situ Visualization Using ParaView/Catalyst in RAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Kares, Robert John

    2014-10-31

    In this paper I describe some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation on the Cielo supercomputer at Los Alamos. The detailed procedures for the creation of the visualizations using ParaView/Catalyst are discussed and several images sequences from the ICF simulation problem produced with the in-situ method are presented. My impressions and conclusions concerning the use of the in-situ visualization method in RAGE are discussed.

  14. Design and Validation of the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKagan, S. B.; Perkins, K. K.; Wieman, C. E.

    2010-01-01

    The Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey (QMCS) is a 12-question survey of students' conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. It is intended to be used to measure the relative effectiveness of different instructional methods in modern physics courses. In this paper, we describe the design and validation of the survey, a process that included…

  15. Students' Conceptual Difficulties in Quantum Mechanics: Potential Well Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozcan, Ozgur; Didis, Nilufer; Tasar, Mehmet Fatih

    2009-01-01

    In this study, students' conceptual difficulties about some basic concepts in quantum mechanics like one-dimensional potential well problems and probability density of tunneling particles were identified. For this aim, a multiple choice instrument named Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Test has been developed by one of the researchers of this study…

  16. Describing Teachers' Conceptual Ecologies for the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southerland, Sherry A.; Johnston, Adam; Sowell, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This research focused on the interactionist conceptual ecologies of inservice teachers and how these ecologies influenced these teachers' conceptual frameworks for the nature of science (NOS). The participants in the study were five teachers enrolled in a graduate course focused on NOS. Data included participants' responses to open-ended and…

  17. Conceptual Change and Physics Instruction: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searle, Peter; Gunstone, Richard F.

    This paper reports an action study of conceptual change in mechanics using an instructional strategy based on a constructivist view of learning. The aims of the study were to determine: (1) what effect the instructional strategy had on achieving conceptual change; (2) what devices or strategies students used in their attempts to understand…

  18. The Logic of School Restructuring: A Conceptual Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bob L., Jr.

    This paper offers a new conceptual framework for thinking about school restructuring by examining the meaning and implications of restructuring as a school improvement strategy. Conceptualization efforts are organized around a set of fundamental questions: (1) What is the meaning of restructuring? (2) What makes restructuring necessary? (3) What…

  19. Quantum Mechanics and Conceptual Change in High School Chemistry Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiland, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the presentation of quantum mechanics in eight secondary chemistry texts for elements associated with a conceptual change model: (1) dissatisfaction; (2) intelligibility; (3) plausibility; and (4) fruitfulness. Reports that these elements were not present in sufficient quantities to promote conceptual change. Presents recommendations for…

  20. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false…

  1. Conceptual Understanding of Multiplicative Properties through Endogenous Digital Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Andre

    2012-01-01

    This study purposed to determine the effect of an endogenously designed instructional game on conceptual understanding of the associative and distributive properties of multiplication. Additional this study sought to investigate if performance on measures of conceptual understanding taken prior to and after game play could serve as predictors of…

  2. Two Kinds of Conceptual Problems in Chemistry Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halakova, Zuzana; Proska, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    The pictorial and verbal forms of conceptual problems found while teaching chemistry are discussed. These forms did not have any great influence on student success, but their experiences and knowledge are important in determining whether they consider a question conceptual or algorithmic.

  3. LEADERSHIP IN NEGOTIATIONS AND THE COMPLEXITY OF CONCEPTUAL STRUCTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STREUFERT, SIEGFRIED; AND OTHERS

    TO DETERMINE THE THEORETICAL IMPORT OF TWO KINDS OF LEADERS, SIMPLE AND COMPLEX, A GAME EXPERIMENT SIMULATING INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS WAS CONDUCTED WITH 20 DYAD NEGOTIATION TEAMS (10 HAVING MEMBERS WITH SIMPLE CONCEPTUAL STRUCTURE AND 10 HAVING MEMBERS WITH COMPLEX CONCEPTUAL STRUCTURE) SELECTED FROM 350 MALE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN AN…

  4. Model of Conceptual Change for INQPRO: A Bayesian Network Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Choo-Yee; Sam, Yok-Cheng; Wong, Chee-Onn

    2013-01-01

    Constructing a computational model of conceptual change for a computer-based scientific inquiry learning environment is difficult due to two challenges: (i) externalizing the variables of conceptual change and its related variables is difficult. In addition, defining the causal dependencies among the variables is also not trivial. Such difficulty…

  5. Assessing Undergraduate Students' Conceptual Understanding and Confidence of Electromagnetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppavirta, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    The study examines how students' conceptual understanding changes from high confidence with incorrect conceptions to high confidence with correct conceptions when reasoning about electromagnetics. The Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism test is weighted with students' self-rated confidence on each item in order to infer how strongly…

  6. TOCUSO: Test of Conceptual Understanding on High School Optics Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2012-01-01

    Physics educators around the world often need reliable diagnostic materials to measure students' understanding of physics concept in high school. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a new diagnostic tool on High School Optics concept. Test of Conceptual Understanding on High School Optics (TOCUSO) consists of 25 conceptual items that…

  7. Traditional Instruction of Differential Equations and Conceptual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Selahattin

    2010-01-01

    Procedural and conceptual learning are two types of learning, related to two types of knowledge, which are often referred to in mathematics education. Procedural learning involves only memorizing operations with no understanding of underlying meanings. Conceptual learning involves understanding and interpreting concepts and the relations between…

  8. Review of "Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoliar, Stephen W.

    This review of the book, "Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine," by John F. Sowa, argues that anyone who plans to get involved with issues of knowledge representation should have at least a passing acquaintance with Sowa's conceptual graphs for a database interface. (Used to model the underlying semantics of a…

  9. Teaching Conceptual Paragraphs in EST Courses: A Practical Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drobnic, Karl

    One portion of a course in English for Science and Technology (EST) designed for foreign nuclear engineers studying at Oregon State University dealt with the conceptual paragraph, considered a basic unit of discourse in EST. The conceptual paragraph is defined as a group of rhetorically related concepts developing a generalization to form a…

  10. Undergraduate Students' Performance and Confidence in Procedural and Conceptual Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Harding, Ansie; Potgieter, Marietjie

    2005-01-01

    The general perception is that high school teaching of mathematics in South Africa tends to be fairly procedural and that students that enter university are better equipped to deal with procedural problems rather than conceptual. This study compares the conceptual and procedural skills of first-year calculus students in life sciences. Also…

  11. Role of Overtraining in Reversal and Conceptual Shift Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Charles L.

    1973-01-01

    Sixty college students formed mixed conceptual categories in original learning (e.g., PEACH, SHIRT, PANTS, and PEAR; and SHOE, ORANGE, DRESS, and APPLE). They were then required to perform either a reversal shift or a conceptual shift. Results are discussed in relation with mediation theory. (Editor/RK)

  12. Conceptual Change among Teachers Involved in Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucinski, Daisy Arredondo; Franco, Josefina Beas; Nocetti, Viviana Gomez; Queirolo, Paulina Thomsen; Daniel, Gloria Carranza

    2009-01-01

    This article reports findings from a multi-year study of teachers' conceptual change coincident with the development of instructional expertise among teachers involved in educational reform efforts in schools in Santiago, Chile. Conceptual change in teachers is important because recent research indicates that students of teachers who function at…

  13. Remediating Misconceptions Concerning Chemical Bonding through Conceptual Change Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabuccu, Aybuke; Geban, Omer

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of conceptual change texts oriented instruction on 9th grade students' understanding of chemical bonding concepts. In this study, the main aim of the preparation of conceptual change texts was to activate students' prior knowledge and misconceptions and to help them to understand the chemical…

  14. Conceptualizations of Professional Competencies in School Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to contribute to the conceptualization and discussion of professional competencies needed for supporting the development of the whole-school approach in school health promotion (SHP). Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a conceptual synthesis of literature, guided by a theoretical perspective on…

  15. Developing a Conceptual Article for Publication in Counseling Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to help authors better understand the purpose, process, and procedures for developing a conceptual manuscript for publication in counseling journals. The author explains the basis of a conceptual article, discusses how authors may generate ideas for writing such articles, and describes a process for developing a conceptual…

  16. Using the Conceptual Change Instruction To Improve Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alparslan, Cem; Tekkaya, Ceren; Geban, Omer

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effect of conceptual change instruction on grade 11 students' understanding of respiration. The Respiration Concept Test was developed and used to test students' misconceptions. Results indicate that the conceptual change instruction that explicitly addressed students' misconceptions produced significantly greater achievement in…

  17. A Cross-Cultural Comparison: Teachers' Conceptualizations of Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Ji; Shen, Jiliang; Wang, Xinghua; Neber, Heinz; Johji, Ikuma

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand teachers' conceptualizations of creativity and its difference among 3 countries. The conceptualization of creativity denotes the concept and exhibition of creativity, the traits of creative students, and the fostering and hindering factors for creativity in school settings. A questionnaire was…

  18. Plausibility Judgments in Conceptual Change and Epistemic Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Nussbaum, E. Michael; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2016-01-01

    Plausibility judgments rarely have been addressed empirically in conceptual change research. Recent research, however, suggests that these judgments may be pivotal to conceptual change about certain topics where a gap exists between what scientists and laypersons find plausible. Based on a philosophical and empirical foundation, this article…

  19. Examining the Conceptualizations, Perceptions, and Practices of Adolescent Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werderich, Donna E.; Armstrong, Sonya L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a mixed-methods study in which an adapted Motivation to Write Profile (MWP)--the CLMWP--was used to investigate the conceptualizations, perceptions, and practices of adolescent writers. Results of this study suggested that participants held differing conceptualizations of writing, depending on the context. In…

  20. The Instrumental Value of Conceptual Frameworks in Educational Technology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonenko, Pavlo D.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars from diverse fields and research traditions agree that the conceptual framework is a critically important component of disciplined inquiry. Yet, there is a pronounced lack of shared understanding regarding the definition and functions of conceptual frameworks, which impedes our ability to design effective research and mentor novice…

  1. Understanding Genetics: Analysis of Secondary Students' Conceptual Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David F.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the conceptual change of students in Grades 10 and 12 in three Australian senior high schools when the teachers included computer multimedia to a greater or lesser extent in their teaching of a genetics course. The study, underpinned by a multidimensional conceptual-change framework, used an interpretive approach and a…

  2. A Conceptual Framework and Empirical Research for Classifying Visual Descriptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Corinne; Jaimes, Alejandro; Benitez, Ana B.; Chang, Shih-Fu

    2001-01-01

    Presents exploratory research evaluating a conceptual structure for the description of visual content of images. The structure classifies visual attributes into a "Pyramid" containing four syntactic levels and six semantic levels. Experiments performed suggest the Pyramid is conceptually robust and can be used to: organize visual content for…

  3. Conceptual Similarity Promotes Generalization of Higher Order Fear Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; White, Allison J.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that conceptual similarity promotes generalization of conditioned fear. Using a sensory preconditioning procedure, three groups of subjects learned an association between two cues that were conceptually similar, unrelated, or mismatched. Next, one of the cues was paired with a shock. The other cue was then reintroduced to…

  4. Knowledge, Expectations, and Inductive Reasoning within Conceptual Hierarchies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, John D.; Hayes, Brett; Lawson, Christopher; Moloney, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Previous research (e.g. "Cognition" 64 (1997) 73) suggests that the privileged level for inductive inference in a folk biological conceptual hierarchy does not correspond to the ''basic'' level (i.e. the level at which concepts are both informative and distinct). To further explore inductive inference within conceptual hierarchies, we examine…

  5. Naming Analog Clocks Conceptually Facilitates Naming Digital Clocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeuwissen, Marjolein; Roelofs, Ardi; Levelt, Willem J. M.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates how speakers of Dutch compute and produce relative time expressions. Naming digital clocks (e.g., 2:45, say ''quarter to three'') requires conceptual operations on the minute and hour information for the correct relative time expression. The interplay of these conceptual operations was investigated using a repetition…

  6. Understanding Nursing Home Worker Conceptualizations about Good Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Gawon

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how direct care workers in nursing homes conceptualize good care and how their conceptualizations are influenced by external factors surrounding their work environment and the relational dynamics between them and residents. Study participants were drawn from a local service employees' union, and in-depth interviews were…

  7. Conceptual Development: Piaget's Legacy. Jean Piaget Symposium Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholnick, Ellin K., Ed.; Nelson, Katherine, Ed.; Gelman, Susan A., Ed.; Miller, Patricia H., Ed.

    Based on the papers presented at the 1996 Symposium of the Jean Piaget Society and highlighting the extent to which Piaget's ideas have served to scaffold contemporary thinking about every aspect of conceptual development, this volume examines the nature of conceptual development, its foundations, and the sources of its novelties. The chapters…

  8. Community College Students' Conceptual Understanding of Statistical Measures of Spread

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turegun, Mikhail; Reeder, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the conceptual understanding of measures of spread among community college students in an introductory statistics course. The course is centered around deemphasizing computational skills and focused, rather, on development of conceptual understanding. Open-ended questions were developed to explore and assess students'…

  9. Training the Practitioner Scientist: Bridging Case Conceptualization, Assessment, and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Scott T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes didactic material linking assessment, case conceptualization, and analysis of intervention effects. Analyses were conducted with data provided by 131 students who completed a counseling process course where this material was taught. Results indicate that students increased their self-efficacy for conceptualization and assessment tasks…

  10. What Influences Children's Conceptualizations of Language Input?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca; Moody, Amanda; Gerken, LouAnn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Children learning language conceptualize the nature of input they receive in ways that allow them to understand and construct utterances they have never heard before. This study was designed to illuminate the types of information children with and without specific language impairment (SLI) focus on to develop their conceptualizations and…

  11. A Conceptual Framework for Monitoring Children's Services. Discussion Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiene, Richard

    This discussion draft of a conceptual framework for monitoring children's services was prepared by Peat, Marwick and Co. for the Children's Services Monitoring Transfer Consortium (CFMCS), an organization spanning five states: California, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Texas, and West Virginia. The primary purpose of this conceptual framework was to…

  12. Sinking Maps: A Conceptual Tool for Visual Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giampa, Joan Marie

    2012-01-01

    Sinking maps, created by Northern Virginia Community College professor Joan Marie Giampa, are tools that teach fine art students how to construct visual metaphor by conceptually mapping sensory perceptions. Her dissertation answers the question, "Can visual metaphor be conceptually mapped in the art classroom?" In the Prologue, Giampa…

  13. Student Engagement: Developing a Conceptual Framework and Survey Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Gerald F.; Heller, Nathan A.; Burch, Jana J.; Freed, Rusty; Steed, Steve A.

    2015-01-01

    Student engagement is considered to be among the better predictors of learning, yet there is growing concern that there is no consensus on the conceptual foundation. The authors propose a conceptualization of student engagement grounded in A. W. Astin's (1984) Student Involvement Theory and W. A. Kahn's (1990) employee engagement research where…

  14. Diagnostic and Remedial Learning Strategy Based on Conceptual Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jong, BinShyan; Lin, TsongWuu; Wu, YuLung; Chan, Teyi

    2004-01-01

    Numerous scholars have applied conceptual graphs for explanatory purposes. This study devised the Remedial-Instruction Decisive path (RID path) algorithm for diagnosing individual student learning situation. This study focuses on conceptual graphs. According to the concepts learned by students and the weight values of relations among these…

  15. L2 Effects on L1 Event Conceptualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, Emanuel; Jarvis, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The finding that speakers of aspect languages encode event endpoints to a lesser extent than do speakers of non-aspect languages has led to the hypothesis that there is a relationship between grammatical aspect and event conceptualization (e.g., von Stutterheim and Nuse, 2003). The present study concerns L1 event conceptualization in 40 L1…

  16. The Application of Pedagogic Knowledge to Teaching: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sai Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses a conceptual approach to understand how qualified teachers in England with occupational experience use pedagogic and occupational knowledge and experiences in their teaching practices. The conceptual approach consists of two parts: (1.) "Putting Knowledge to Work" (PKtW), a generic concept which uses "recontextualisation"…

  17. Enhancing Case Conceptualization through Film: The Addiction Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jane; Stech, Matt; Douglas, Kristin; Lambert, Serena

    2010-01-01

    Self-reflection, creativity, and experiential education are effective teaching strategies for counselor educators. Understanding and conceptualizing client cases can feel overwhelming for counselors-in-training. This article describes how the process of case conceptualization can be enhanced through the use of film. A case example is provided of…

  18. Conceptual Structure and Semantic Variation for Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khetarpal, Naveen Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Semantic categories across languages appear to reflect both universal conceptual tendencies and linguistic convention. To accommodate this pattern of constrained variation, many theories assume the existence of a universal conceptual space and explain cross-language variation in category extension as language-specific partitions of that space.…

  19. Building Conceptual Knowledge in a Fourth-Grade Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primeaux, Joan; Raney, Paige

    2003-01-01

    Describes how the authors implemented a plan that involved building conceptual knowledge through the use of manipulatives and common threads in literature to teach a week-long unit on Rosa Parks. Notes that the students were guided to build conceptual knowledge as they personally connected with fictional heroes and real heroes, such as Rosa Parks,…

  20. Promoting Conceptual Coherence within Context-Based Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ummels, Micha H. J.; Kamp, Marcel J. A.; De Kroon, Hans; Boersma, Kerst Th.

    2015-01-01

    In secondary science education, the learning and teaching of coherent conceptual understanding are often problematic. Context-based education has been proposed as a partial solution to this problem. This study aims to gain insight into the development of conceptual coherence and how context-embedded learning-teaching activities (LT) can promote…

  1. Using Conceptual Change Theories to Model Position Concepts in Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chih-Chiang; Hung, Jeng-Fung

    2012-01-01

    The roles of conceptual change and model building in science education are very important and have a profound and wide effect on teaching science. This study examines the change in children's position concepts after instruction, based on different conceptual change theories. Three classes were chosen and divided into three groups, including a…

  2. Conceptual Change through the Lens of Newtonian Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Stuart; Graham, Ted; Berry, John; McWilliam, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Throughout its long history, the conceptual change literature assumed that student "misconceptions" in mechanics have been formed prior to instruction. As an attempt to shed light on conceptual change, this paper examines some of the trends in the literature and argues that misconceptions may be spontaneous rather than preformed, that schema…

  3. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  4. The Role of Facial Microexpression State (FMES) Change in the Process of Conceptual Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Mei-Hung; Chou, Chin-Cheng; Wu, Wen-Lung; Liaw, Hongming

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores whether facial microexpression state (FMES) changes can be used to identify moments of conceptual conflict, one of the pathways to conceptual change. It is known that when the preconditions of conceptual conflicts are met and conceptual conflicts are detected in students, it is then possible for conceptual change to take place.…

  5. Contextual and Conceptual Information Retrieval and Navigation on the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Grand, Bénédicte; Aufaure, Marie-Aude; Soto, Michel

    The goal of this chapter is to propose a methodology and tools to enhance information retrieval and navigation on the Web through contextual and conceptual help. This methodology provides users with an extended navigation space by adding a conceptual and a semantic layer above Web data. The conceptual layer is made of Galois lattices which cluster Web pages into concepts according to their common features (in particular their textual content). These lattices represent the Global Conceptual Context of Web pages. An additional navigation layer is provided by ontologies which are connected to the conceptual level through specific concepts of the lattices. Users may navigate transparently within each of these three layers and go from one to another very easily.

  6. Challenges in Requirements Engineering: A Research Agenda for Conceptual Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, Salvatore T.; Allen, Gove N.

    Domains for which information systems are developed deal primarily with social constructions—conceptual objects and attributes created by human intentions and for human purposes. Information systems play an active role in these domains. They document the creation of new conceptual objects, record and ascribe values to their attributes, initiate actions within the domain, track activities performed, and infer conclusions based on the application of rules that govern how the domain is affected when socially-defined and identified causal events occur. Emerging applications of information technologies evaluate such business rules, learn from experience, and adapt to changes in the domain. Conceptual modeling grammars aimed at representing their system requirements must include conceptual objects, socially-defined events, and the rules pertaining to them. We identify challenges to conceptual modeling research and pose an ontology of the artificial as a step toward meeting them.

  7. Estudio de NIH señala que la sigmoidoscopia reduce los índices de cáncer colorrectal

    Cancer.gov

    Estudio señala que la sigmoidoscopia flexible es efectiva para reducir los índices de casos nuevos y de muertes por cáncer colorrectal. Los investigadores encontraron que la mortalidad general por cáncer colorrectal se redujo 26% y que la incidencia se re

  8. Informe a la nación indica que los índices de muertes por cáncer siguen bajando

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices de mortalidad por todos los cánceres combinados para hombres, mujeres y niños siguieron bajando en Estados Unidos entre 2004 y 2008, según el Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer de 1975 a 2008. El índice general de diagnóstico

  9. Dynamic Multicriteria Evaluation of Conceptual Hydrological Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, N. J.; Rientjes, T. H.; Fenicia, F.; Gupta, H. V.

    2007-12-01

    Accurate and precise forecasts of river streamflows are crucial for successful management of water resources and under the threat of hydrological extremes such as floods and droughts. Conceptual rainfall-runoff models are the most popular approach in flood forecasting. However, the calibration and evaluation of such models is often oversimplified by the use of performance statistics that largely ignore the dynamic character of a watershed system. This research aims to find novel ways of model evaluation by identifying periods of hydrologic similarity and customizing evaluation within each period using multiple criteria. A dynamic approach to hydrologic model identification, calibration and testing can be realized by applying clustering algorithms (e.g., Self-Organizing Map, Fuzzy C-means algorithm) to hydrological data. These algorithms are able to identify clusters in the data that represent periods of hydrological similarity. In this way, dynamic catchment system behavior can be simplified within the clusters that are identified. Although clustering requires a number of subjective choices, new insights into the hydrological functioning of a catchment can be obtained. Finally, separate model multi-criteria calibration and evaluation is performed for each of the clusters. Such a model evaluation procedure shows to be reliable and gives much-needed feedback on exactly where certain model structures fail. Several clustering algorithms were tested on two data sets of meso-scale and large-scale catchments. The results show that the clustering algorithms define categories that reflect hydrological process understanding: dry/wet seasons, rising/falling hydrograph limbs, precipitation-driven/ non-driven periods, etc. The results of various clustering algorithms are compared and validated using expert knowledge. Calibration results on a conceptual hydrological model show that the common practice of single-criteria calibration over the complete time series fails to perform

  10. Wholistic Health Care: Evolutionary Conceptual Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ziebarth, Deborah Jean

    2016-10-01

    mobilize volunteers to support and promote individual, family, and community health. A gap existed in literature regarding the definition of wholistic health care. In addition, a lack of clarity was identified due to the use of the concept, similar or related concepts. Conceptual clarity was sought through identification and definitions of attributes, Powered by Editorial Manager(®) and ProduXion Manager(®) from Aries Systems Corporation antecedents, and consequences. The theoretical definition of wholistic health care and conceptual model can be used to support the presence of the concept, develop model-based applications, and consistently test effectiveness. PMID:26895235

  11. Conceptual Design For Interplanetary Spaceship Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Mark G.

    2006-01-01

    With the recently revived national interest in Lunar and Mars missions, this design study was undertaken by the author in an attempt to satisfy the long-term space exploration vision of human travel ``to the Moon, Mars, and beyond'' with a single design or family of vehicles. This paper describes a conceptual design for an interplanetary spaceship of the not-to-distant future. It is a design that is outwardly similar to the spaceship Discovery depicted in the novel ``2001 - A Space Odyssey'' and film of the same name. Like its namesake, this spaceship could one day transport a human expedition to explore the moons of Jupiter. This spaceship Discovery is a real engineering design that is capable of being implemented using technologies that are currently at or near the state-of-the-art. The ship's main propulsion and electrical power are provided by bi-modal nuclear thermal rocket engines. Configurations are presented to satisfy four basic Design Reference Missions: (1) a high-energy mission to Jupiter's moon Callisto, (2) a high-energy mission to Mars, (3) a low-energy mission to Mars, and (4) a high-energy mission to the Moon. The spaceship design includes dual, strap-on boosters to enable the high-energy Mars and Jupiter missions. Three conceptual lander designs are presented: (1) Two types of Mars landers that utilize atmospheric and propulsive braking, and (2) a lander for Callisto or Earth's Moon that utilizes only propulsive braking. Spaceship Discovery offers many advantages for human exploration of the Solar System: (1) Nuclear propulsion enables propulsive capture and escape maneuvers at Earth and target planets, eliminating risky aero-capture maneuvers. (2) Strap-on boosters provide robust propulsive energy, enabling flexibility in mission planning, shorter transit times, expanded launch windows, and free-return abort trajectories from Mars. (3) A backup abort propulsion system enables crew aborts at multiple points in the mission. (4) Clustered NTR

  12. A CONCEPTUAL 3-GEV LANSCE LINAC UPGRADE FOR ENHANCED PROTON RADIOGRAPHY

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, Robert W; Rybarcyk, Lawrence J.; Merrill, Frank E.; O'Hara, James F.; Rees, Daniel E.; Walstrom, Peter L.

    2012-05-14

    A conceptual design of a 3-GeV linac upgrade that would enable enhanced proton radiography at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is presented. The upgrade is based on the use of superconducting accelerating cavities to increase the present LANSCE linac output energy from 800 MeV to 3 GeV. The LANSCE linac currently provides negative hydrogen ion (H{sup -}) and proton (H{sup +}) beams to several user facilities that support Isotope Production, NNSA Stockpile Stewardship, and Basic Energy Science programs. Required changes to the front-end, the accelerating structures, and to the RF systems to meet the new performance goals, and changes to the existing beam switchyard to maintain operations for a robust user program are also described.

  13. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE1

    PubMed Central

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Ávila, María Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Resumen A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH. PMID:21874154

  14. Infiltration into soils: Conceptual approaches and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, Shmuel

    2013-04-01

    Infiltration is a key process in aspects of hydrology, agricultural and civil engineering, irrigation design, and soil and water conservation. It is complex, depending on soil and rainfall properties and initial and boundary conditions within the flow domain. During the last century, a great deal of effort has been invested to understand the physics of infiltration and to develop quantitative predictors of infiltration dynamics. Jean-Yves Parlange and Wilfried Brutsaert have made seminal contributions, especially in the area of infiltration theory and related analytical solutions to the flow equations. This review retraces the landmark discoveries and the evolution of the conceptual approaches and the mathematical solutions applied to the problem of infiltration into porous media, highlighting the pivotal contributions of Parlange and Brutsaert. A historical retrospective of physical models of infiltration is followed by the presentation of mathematical methods leading to analytical solutions of the flow equations. This review then addresses the time compression approximation developed to estimate infiltration at the transition between preponding and postponding conditions. Finally, the effects of special conditions, such as the presence of air and heterogeneity in soil properties, on infiltration are considered.

  15. Drug withdrawal conceptualized as a stressor

    PubMed Central

    Chartoff, Elena H.; Carlezon, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Drug withdrawal is often conceptualized as an aversive state that motivates drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in humans. Stress is more difficult to define, but is also frequently associated with aversive states. Here we describe evidence for the simple theory that drug withdrawal is a stress-like state, on the basis of common effects on behavioral, neurochemical, and molecular endpoints. We also describe data suggesting a more complex relationship between drug withdrawal and stress. As one example, we will highlight evidence that, depending on drug class, components of withdrawal can produce effects that have characteristics consistent with mood elevation. In addition, some stressors can act as positive reinforcers, defined as having the ability to increase the probability of a behavior that produces it. As such, accumulating evidence supports the general principles of opponent process theory, whereby processes that have an affective valence are followed in time by an opponent process that has the opposite valence. Throughout, we identify gaps in knowledge and propose future directions for research. A better understanding of the similarities, differences, and overlaps between drug withdrawal and stress will lead to the development of improved treatments for addiction, as well as for a vast array of neuropsychiatric conditions that are triggered or exacerbated by stress. PMID:25083570

  16. Pursuing Scalability for hypre's Conceptual Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Falgout, R D; Jones, J E; Yang, U M

    2004-07-21

    The software library hypre provides high performance preconditioners and solvers for the solution of large, sparse linear systems on massively parallel computers as well as conceptual interfaces that allow users to access the library in the way they naturally think about their problems. These interfaces include a stencil-based structured interface (Struct); a semi-structured interface (semiStruct), which is appropriate for applications that are mostly structured, e.g. block structured grids, composite grids in structured adaptive mesh refinement applications, and overset grids; a finite element interface (FEI) for unstructured problems, as well as a conventional linear-algebraic interface (IJ). It is extremely important to provide an efficient, scalable implementation of these interfaces in order to support the scalable solvers of the library, especially when using tens of thousands of processors. This paper describes the data structures, parallel implementation and resulting performance of the IJ, Struct and semiStruct interfaces. It investigates their scalability, presents successes as well as pitfalls of some of the approaches and suggests ways of dealing with them.

  17. ITER TCWS Conceptual Design Chit Resolution Report

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jan

    2012-02-01

    Design Chits resulted from the External Conceptual Design Review (CDR) held at Cadarache on July 21-23, 2009 (Reference [5.1.3]). Those Chits were categorized into 3 categories in accordance with the following rules: Category 1 - Chits to be resolved before proceeding with preliminary design; Category 2 - Chits to be resolved during preliminary design; and Category 3 - Chits already resolved or covered by higher category Chits such that no further action is required. Prior to the preliminary design, all the category 1 chits were resolved and the category chit 1 resolution report was approved (Reference [5.1.4]). However, as the design has been evolving, one of the category 1 chits needs to be re-addressed. The purpose of this report is to present the resolutions to one CDR Category 1 Chit (Cat 1 Chit No.5) and twenty-three CDR Category 2 Chits. The Category 2 Chit resolutions presented are listed in order from item number one to item number twenty-three.

  18. Control/structure interaction conceptual design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.

    1990-01-01

    The JPL Control/Structure Interaction Program is developing new analytical methods for designing micro-precision spacecraft with controlled structures. One of these, the Conceptual Design Tool, will illustrate innovative new approaches to the integration of multi-disciplinary analysis and design methods. The tool will be used to demonstrate homogeneity of presentation, uniform data representation across analytical methods, and integrated systems modeling. The tool differs from current 'integrated systems' that support design teams most notably in its support for the new CSI multi-disciplinary engineer. The design tool will utilize a three dimensional solid model of the spacecraft under design as the central data organization metaphor. Various analytical methods, such as finite element structural analysis, control system analysis, and mechanical configuration layout, will store and retrieve data from a hierarchical, object oriented data structure that supports assemblies of components with associated data and algorithms. In addition to managing numerical model data, the tool will assist the designer in organizing, stating, and tracking system requirements.

  19. Conceptual design of a data reduction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A telemetry data processing system was defined of the Data Reduction. Data reduction activities in support of the developmental flights of the Space Shuttle were used as references against which requirements are assessed in general terms. A conceptual system design believed to offer significant throughput for the anticipated types of data reduction activities is presented. The design identifies the use of a large, intermediate data store as a key element in a complex of high speed, single purpose processors, each of which performs predesignated, repetitive operations on either raw or partially processed data. The recommended approach to implement the design concept is to adopt an established interface standard and rely heavily on mature or promising technologies which are considered main stream of the integrated circuit industry. The design system concept, is believed to be implementable without reliance on exotic devices and/or operational procedures. Numerical methods were employed to examine the feasibility of digital discrimination of FDM composite signals, and of eliminating line frequency noises in data measurements.

  20. Advanced turbine systems: Studies and conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    van der Linden, S.; Gnaedig, G.; Kreitmeier, F.

    1993-11-01

    The ABB selection for the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) includes advanced developments especially in the hot gas path of the combustion turbine and new state-of-the-art units such as the steam turbine and the HRSG. The increase in efficiency by more than 10% multiplicative compared to current designs will be based on: (1) Turbine Inlet Temperature Increase; (2) New Cooling Techniques for Stationary and Rotating Parts; and New Materials. Present, projected component improvements that will be introduced with the above mentioned issues will yield improved CCSC turbine performance, which will drive the ATS selected gas-fired reference CC power plant to 6 % LHV or better. The decrease in emission levels requires a careful optimization of the cycle design, where cooling air consumption has to be minimized. All interfaces of the individual systems in the complete CC Plant need careful checks, especially to avoid unnecessary margins in the individual designs. This study is an important step pointing out the feasibility of the ATS program with realistic goals set by DOE, which, however, will present challenges for Phase II time schedule of 18 months. With the approach outlined in this study and close cooperation with DOE, ATS program success can be achieved to deliver low emissions and low cost of electricity by the year 2002. The ABB conceptual design and step approach will lead to early component demonstration which will help accelerate the overall program objectives.

  1. A Conceptual Modeling Approach for OLAP Personalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrigós, Irene; Pardillo, Jesús; Mazón, Jose-Norberto; Trujillo, Juan

    Data warehouses rely on multidimensional models in order to provide decision makers with appropriate structures to intuitively analyze data with OLAP technologies. However, data warehouses may be potentially large and multidimensional structures become increasingly complex to be understood at a glance. Even if a departmental data warehouse (also known as data mart) is used, these structures would be also too complex. As a consequence, acquiring the required information is more costly than expected and decision makers using OLAP tools may get frustrated. In this context, current approaches for data warehouse design are focused on deriving a unique OLAP schema for all analysts from their previously stated information requirements, which is not enough to lighten the complexity of the decision making process. To overcome this drawback, we argue for personalizing multidimensional models for OLAP technologies according to the continuously changing user characteristics, context, requirements and behaviour. In this paper, we present a novel approach to personalizing OLAP systems at the conceptual level based on the underlying multidimensional model of the data warehouse, a user model and a set of personalization rules. The great advantage of our approach is that a personalized OLAP schema is provided for each decision maker contributing to better satisfy their specific analysis needs. Finally, we show the applicability of our approach through a sample scenario based on our CASE tool for data warehouse development.

  2. Transportation node space station conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A number of recent studies have addressed the problem of a transportation node space station. How things would change or what addition facilities would be needed to support a major lunar or Mars initiative is a much often asked question. The support of a lunar base, requiring stacks on the order of 200 metric tons each to land 25 m tons on the lunar surface with reusable vehicles is addressed. The problem of maintaining and reusing large single stage Orbit Transfer Vehicles (OTVs) and single stage lander/launchers in space are examined. The required people and equipment needed, to maintain these vehicles are only vaguely known at present. The people and equipment needed depend on how well the OTV and lander/launcher can be designed for easy reuse. Since the OTV and lander/launcher are only conceptually defined at present, the real maintenance and refurbishment requirements are unobtainable. An estimate of what is needed, based on previous studies and obvious requirements was therefore made. An attempt was made to err on the conservative side.

  3. Conceptual Problems in Land Surface Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A land data assimilation system (LDAS) merges observations (or satellite retrievals) of land surface hydrological conditions, including soil moisture, snow, and terrestrial water storage (TWS), into a numerical model of land surface processes. In theory, the output from such a system is superior to estimates based on the observations or the model alone, thereby enhancing our ability to understand, monitor, and predict key elements of the terrestrial water cycle. In practice, however, several conceptual problems can interfere with realizing the potential improvements from data assimilation. Of particular concern is the frequent mismatch between the assimilated observations and the land surface model variables of interest. The seminar will discuss recent research with the ensemble-based NASA GEOS-S LDAS to address various aspects of this mismatch. These aspects include (i) the assimilation of coarse-scale observations into higher-resolution land surface models, (ii) the partitioning of satellite observations (such as TWS retrievals) into their constituent water cycle components, (iii) the forward modeling of microwave brightness temperatures over land for radiance-based land surface data aSSimilation, and (iv) the selection of the most relevant types of observations for the analysis of a specific water cycle variable (such as root zone soil moisture). At its core, the solution to the above challenges involves the careful construction of an observation operator that maps from the land surface model variables of interest to the space of the assimilated observations.

  4. Conceptual approaches to avian navigation systems.

    PubMed

    Wallraff, H G

    1991-01-01

    The general basis of migratory orientation in birds is most probably an endogenous time-and-direction programme. Directions are selected with respect to celestial as well as geomagnetic clues. These clues appear to be integrated within a system that profits from the special advantages of either kind of environmental signal, and thereby can cope with their limitations. Using these clues, and following a genetically determined intended direction (or sequence of directions) over a genetically determined period of time, a bird may reach a larger population-specific area. However, it will hardly be able to find a particular location, such as, for instance, its previous breeding site. Homing to a familiar site over several hundred kilometers of unfamiliar terrain is substantially based on the smelling of atmospheric trace compounds. At shorter distances from home, orientation by means of--presumably visual--familiar landmarks completes the repertoire of mechanisms guiding a bird back home. These mechanisms are considered to be based on different kinds of 'maps' and 'compasses'. Conceptual approaches to the properties of an 'olfactory map' have as yet only reached an early state of speculation. PMID:1838512

  5. Learning environment, learning styles and conceptual understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Lourdes M.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there have been many studies on learners developing conceptions of natural phenomena. However, so far there have been few attempts to investigate how the characteristics of the learners and their environment influence such conceptions. This study began with an attempt to use an instrument developed by McCarthy (1981) to describe learners in Malaysian primary schools. This proved inappropriate as Asian primary classrooms do not provide the same kind of environment as US classrooms. It was decided to develop a learning style checklist to suit the local context and which could be used to describe differences between learners which teachers could appreciate and use. The checklist included four dimensions — perceptual, process, self-confidence and motivation. The validated instrument was used to determine the learning style preferences of primary four pupils in Penang, Malaysia. Later, an analysis was made regarding the influence of learning environment and learning styles on conceptual understanding in the topics of food, respiration and excretion. This study was replicated in the Philippines with the purpose of investigating the relationship between learning styles and achievement in science, where the topics of food, respiration and excretion have been taken up. A number of significant relationships were observed in these two studies.

  6. Identifiability analysis in conceptual sewer modelling.

    PubMed

    Kleidorfer, M; Leonhardt, G; Rauch, W

    2012-01-01

    For a sufficient calibration of an environmental model not only parameter sensitivity but also parameter identifiability is an important issue. In identifiability analysis it is possible to analyse whether changes in one parameter can be compensated by appropriate changes of the other ones within a given uncertainty range. Parameter identifiability is conditional to the information content of the calibration data and consequently conditional to a certain measurement layout (i.e. types of measurements, number and location of measurement sites, temporal resolution of measurements etc.). Hence the influence of number and location of measurement sites on the number of identifiable parameters can be investigated. In the present study identifiability analysis is applied to a conceptual model of a combined sewer system aiming to predict the combined sewer overflow emissions. Different measurement layouts are tested and it can be shown that only 13 of the most sensitive catchment areas (represented by the model parameter 'effective impervious area') can be identified when overflow measurements of the 20 highest overflows and the runoff to the waste water treatment plant are used for calibration. The main advantage of this method is very low computational costs as the number of required model runs equals the total number of model parameters. Hence, this method is a valuable tool when analysing large models with a long runtime and many parameters. PMID:22864432

  7. Conceptual Drivers for an Exploration Medical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonsen, E.; Canga, M.

    2016-01-01

    Interplanetary spaceflight provides unique challenges that have not been encountered in prior spaceflight experience. Extended distance and timeframes introduce new challenges such as an inability to resupply medications and consumables, inability to evacuate injured or ill crew, and communication delays that introduce a requirement for some level of autonomous medical capability. Because of these challenges the approaches used in prior programs have limited application to a proposed three year Mars mission. This paper proposes a paradigm shift in the approach to medical risk mitigation for crew health and mission objectives threatened by inadequate medical capabilities in the setting of severely limited resources. A conceptual approach is outlined to derive medical system and vehicle needs from an integrated vision of how medical care will be provided within this new paradigm. Using NASA Design Reference Missions this process assesses each mission phase to deconstruct medical needs at any point during a mission. Two operational categories are proposed, nominal operations (pre-planned activities) and contingency operations (medical conditions requiring evaluation) that meld clinical needs and research needs into a single system. These definitions are used to derive a task level analysis to support quantifiable studies into a medical capabilities trade. This trade allows system design to proceed from both a mission centric and ethics-based approach to medical limitations in an exploration class mission.

  8. Latino terminology: conceptual bases for standardized terminology.

    PubMed Central

    Hayes-Bautista, D E; Chapa, J

    1987-01-01

    Conceptually, the only element that all Latin American countries share is not language, race, or culture, but political: the presence of United States foreign policy as pronounced in the Monroe Doctrine in 1823. The political relation between the US and Latin America has colored US domestic policy toward its populations of Latin American origin. From the beginning of US-Latin American relations, there has been a constant confusion of race for national origin, compounded by the adoption of euphemistic terms such as "Spanish surname." The term "Latino", derived from "Latin American," is offered as the term that best reflects both the diverse national origins and the nearly unitary treatment of Latinos in the US. The term Latino is operationalized to include all persons of Latin American origin or descent, irrespective of language, race, or culture. Specifically excluded are individuals of Spanish national origin outside the Western Hemisphere. When a synthetic sample has been derived, the term should be modified to reflect the basis upon which the sample was derived, e.g., "Latino (Spanish surname)." When working with Latinos from a specific national origin, that should be noted, e.g., "Mexican origin Latinos." PMID:3789240

  9. Conceptual design for a Mercury relativity satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, P. L.; Ashby, N.; Wahr, J. M.; Vincent, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    It was shown earlier that 1 x 10 to the -14th Doppler data and 3 cm accuracy range measurements to a small Mercury Relativity Satellite in a polar orbit with four-hour period can give high-accuracy tests of gravitational theory. A particular conceptual design has been developed for such a satellite, which would take less than 10 percent of the approach mass for a possible future Mercury Orbiter Mission. The spacecraft is similar to the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, but scaled down by about a factor four in linear dimensions. A despun antenna 30 cm in diameter is used for tracking. The transmitted power is roughly 0.2 watts at K-band and 0.5 watts at X-band. The orbit parameters for individual eight-hour arcs and the gravity field of Mercury through degree and order 10 are determined mainly from the Doppler data. A 50 MHz K-band sidetone system provides the basic ranging accuracy. The spacecraft mass is 50 kg or less.

  10. Expanding the conceptual toolkit of organ gifting.

    PubMed

    M Shaw, Rhonda

    2015-07-01

    In jurisdictions where the sale of body tissue and organs is illegal, organ transplantation is often spoken of as a gift of life. In the social sciences and bioethics this concept has been subject to critique over the course of the last two decades for failing to reflect the complexities of organ and tissue exchange. I suggest that a new ethical model of organ donation and transplantation is needed to capture the range of experiences in this domain. The proposed model is both analytical and empirically oriented, and draws on research findings linking a series of qualitative sociological studies undertaken in New Zealand between 2007 and 2013. The studies were based on document analysis, field notes and 127 semi-structured in-depth interviews with people from different cultural and constituent groups directly involved in organ transfer processes. The aim of the article is to contribute to sociological knowledge about organ exchange and to expand the conceptual toolkit of organ donation to include the unconditional gift, the gift relation, gift exchange, body project, and body work. The rationale for the proposed model is to provide an explanatory framework for organ donors and transplant recipients and to assist the development of ethical guidelines and health policy discourse. PMID:25728628

  11. Advanced heat receiver conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesseli, James; Saunders, Roger; Batchelder, Gary

    1988-01-01

    Solar Dynamic space power systems are candidate electrical power generating systems for future NASA missions. One of the key components of the solar dynamic power system is the solar receiver/thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem. Receiver development was conducted by NASA in the late 1960's and since then a very limited amount of work has been done in this area. Consequently the state of the art (SOA) receivers designed for the IOC space station are large and massive. The objective of the Advanced Heat Receiver Conceptual Design Study is to conceive and analyze advanced high temperature solar dynamic Brayton and Stirling receivers. The goal is to generate innovative receiver concepts that are half of the mass, smaller, and more efficient than the SOA. It is also necessary that these innovative receivers offer ease of manufacturing, less structural complexity and fewer thermal stress problems. Advanced Brayton and Stirling receiver storage units are proposed and analyzed in this study which can potentially meet these goals.

  12. Conceptual aspects of geometric quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöqvist, Erik; Azimi Mousolou, Vahid; Canali, Carlo M.

    2016-07-01

    Geometric quantum computation is the idea that geometric phases can be used to implement quantum gates, i.e., the basic elements of the Boolean network that forms a quantum computer. Although originally thought to be limited to adiabatic evolution, controlled by slowly changing parameters, this form of quantum computation can as well be realized at high speed by using nonadiabatic schemes. Recent advances in quantum gate technology have allowed for experimental demonstrations of different types of geometric gates in adiabatic and nonadiabatic evolution. Here, we address some conceptual issues that arise in the realizations of geometric gates. We examine the appearance of dynamical phases in quantum evolution and point out that not all dynamical phases need to be compensated for in geometric quantum computation. We delineate the relation between Abelian and non-Abelian geometric gates and find an explicit physical example where the two types of gates coincide. We identify differences and similarities between adiabatic and nonadiabatic realizations of quantum computation based on non-Abelian geometric phases.

  13. A Conceptual Framework for Quality of Care

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive research on defining and measuring health care quality, little attention has been given to different stakeholders’ perspectives of high-quality health care services. The main purpose of this study was to explore the attributes of quality healthcare in the Iranian context. Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with key healthcare stakeholders including clients, providers, managers, policy makers, payers, suppliers and accreditation panel members to identify the healthcare service quality attributes and dimensions. Data analysis was carried out by content analysis, with the constant comparative method. Over 100 attributes of quality healthcare service were elicited and grouped into five categories. The dimensions were: efficacy, effectiveness, efficiency, empathy, and environment. Consequently, a comprehensive model of service quality was developed for health care context. The findings of the current study led to a conceptual framework of healthcare quality. This model leads to a better understanding of the different aspects of quality in health care and provides a better basis for defining, measuring and controlling quality of health care services. PMID:23922534

  14. Cryogenic Propellant Management Device: Conceptual Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollen, Mark; Merino, Fred; Schuster, John; Newton, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Concepts of Propellant Management Devices (PMDs) were designed for lunar descent stage reaction control system (RCS) and lunar ascent stage (main and RCS propulsion) missions using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4). Study ground rules set a maximum of 19 days from launch to lunar touchdown, and an additional 210 days on the lunar surface before liftoff. Two PMDs were conceptually designed for each of the descent stage RCS propellant tanks, and two designs for each of the ascent stage main propellant tanks. One of the two PMD types is a traditional partial four-screen channel device. The other type is a novel, expanding volume device which uses a stretched, flexing screen. It was found that several unique design features simplified the PMD designs. These features are (1) high propellant tank operating pressures, (2) aluminum tanks for propellant storage, and (3) stringent insulation requirements. Consequently, it was possible to treat LO2 and LCH4 as if they were equivalent to Earth-storable propellants because they would remain substantially subcooled during the lunar mission. In fact, prelaunch procedures are simplified with cryogens, because any trapped vapor will condense once the propellant tanks are pressurized in space.

  15. Conceptual design of an orbital debris collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonoghue, Peter (Editor); Brenton, Brian; Chambers, Ernest; Schwind, Thomas; Swanhart, Christopher; Williams, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The current Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) environment has become overly crowded with space debris. An evaluation of types of debris is presented in order to determine which debris poses the greatest threat to operation in space, and would therefore provide a feasible target for removal. A target meeting these functional requirements was found in the Cosmos C-1B Rocket Body. These launchers are spent space transporters which constitute a very grave risk of collision and fragmentation in LEO. The motion and physical characteristics of these rocket bodies have determined the most feasible method of removal. The proposed Orbital Debris Collector (ODC) device is designed to attach to the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), which provides all propulsion, tracking, and power systems. The OMV/ODC combination, the Rocket Body Retrieval Vehicle (RBRV), will match orbits with the rocket body, use a spin table to match the rotational motion of the debris, capture it, despin it, and remove it from orbit by allowing it to fall into the Earth's atmosphere. A disposal analysis is presented to show how the debris will be deorbited into the Earth's atmosphere. The conceptual means of operation of a sample mission is described.

  16. Heteromodal conceptual processing in the angular gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Michael F.; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Cook, Philip A.; Grossman, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Concepts bind together the features commonly associated with objects and events to form networks in long-term semantic memory. These conceptual networks are the basis of human knowledge and underlie perception, imagination, and the ability to communicate about experiences and the contents of the environment. Although it is often assumed that this distributed semantic information is integrated in higher-level heteromodal association cortices, open questions remain about the role and anatomic basis of heteromodal representations in semantic memory. Here we used combined neuroimaging evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize the cortical networks underlying concept representation. Using a lexical decision task, we examined the processing of concepts in four semantic categories that varied on their sensory-motor feature associations (sight, sound, manipulation, and abstract). We found that the angular gyrus was activated across all categories regardless of their modality-specific feature associations, consistent with a heteromodal account for the angular gyrus. Exploratory analyses suggested that categories with weighted sensory-motor features additionally recruited modality-specific association cortices. Furthermore, DTI tractography identified white matter tracts connecting these regions of modality-specific functional activation with the angular gyrus. These findings are consistent with a distributed semantic network that includes a heteromodal, integrative component in the angular gyrus in combination with sensory-motor feature representations in modality-specific association cortices. PMID:23333416

  17. Improving Medical Practice: A Conceptual Framework

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Leif I.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this article is to produce a relatively simple conceptual framework for guiding and studying practice improvement. METHODS I summarize the lessons from my experience with a variety of quality improvement research studies during the last 30 years, supplemented with relevant literature from both medicine and other industries about the issues associated with successful quality improvement. RESULTS My experience suggests that organizational leadership with an urgent vision for change, ability to manage the change process, and selection of systematic changes capable of fulfilling the vision are each critical for successful quality improvement. Published literature from other industries emphasizes the importance of a goal-directed change process managed by leaders who recognize the need to engage their employees and other leaders in a disciplined but flexible way that accommodates external and internal factors and uses teams and group learning. It also suggests the importance of organizational context and the level of external and internal barriers and facilitators for change. The resulting model proposes that priority, change process, and care process content are necessary for measurable improvements in quality of care and patient outcomes, although internal and external barriers must also be attended to and addressed. CONCLUSION This framework may provide a guide to those in the front lines of care who would like to make the care transformations that are needed to greatly improve care. It may also be helpful to those who are developing or testing interventions and recruiting medical practices for such change efforts. PMID:17548853

  18. Attachment and cancer: a conceptual integration.

    PubMed

    Tacón, Anna M

    2002-12-01

    Cancer traditionally has been explained by the biomedical model; however, it is limited in comprehensively accounting for all factors in this disease. Recently, it has been suggested that a broader theoretical framework that includes psychosocial components in cancer is needed to complement the traditional approach. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to explore the utility of attachment theory as a biopsychosocial model of both development and health. Attachment, a developmental theory, explains how repeated interactions between caregiver and child in the early years establish lifelong psychosocial, physiological, affective, and cognitive patterns as well as enduring patterns of stress response to threat or illness. Despite attachment theory's biopsychosocial foundation, the application of attachment security as a factor in physical health and psychosomatic medicine is relatively recent. The current work reviews attachment theory and psychosocial literature with regard to cancer and follows with a novel attempt to conceptually integrate both bodies of literature. A concluding integrative model of attachment theory and the type C behavior pattern is provided to illustrate potential links and integrative processes that may lead to disease resilience or vulnerability. PMID:14664730

  19. Conceptualization in pigeons: The evolution of a paradigm.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Edward A

    2016-02-01

    Keller and Schoenfeld (1950) proposed a unique behavioral perspective on conceptualization. They suggested that concepts refer solely to an organism's behavior and to the conditions under which it occurs; as such, conceptual behavior need be neither verbal nor uniquely human. Herrnstein and Loveland (1964) advanced that behavioral perspective by deploying an elegant training procedure to teach visual concepts to pigeons. Keller and Schoenfeld's perspective and Herrnstein and Loveland's methodology have inspired my own research into conceptualization by pigeons. Using a system of arbitrary visual tokens, my colleagues and I have built ever-expanding nonverbal "vocabularies" in pigeons through a variety of different concept learning tasks. Pigeons have reliably categorized as many as 2000 individual photographs from as many as 16 different human object categories, even without the benefit of seeing an item twice. Our formal model of conceptualization effectively embraces 25 years of empirical evidence as well as generates novel predictions for both pigeon and human conceptual behavior. Comparative study should continue to elucidate the commonalities and disparities between human and nonhuman conceptual behavior; it should also explicate the relationship between associative learning, object recognition, conceptualization, and language. PMID:26424489

  20. Modelizacion, control e implementacion de un procesador energetico paralelo para aplicacion en sistemas multisalida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreres Sabater, Agustin

    Cualquier sistema electronico que incluya un procesado o tratamiento de la senal, y ademas, algun tipo de actuador mecanico generalmente necesita, como minimo, dos tensiones diferentes de alimentacion. Excluyendo los sistemas de alimentacion distribuida, la solucion tecnica mas utilizada para proporcionar dos o mas tensiones consiste en las fuentes de alimentacion multisalida. En una fuente de alimentacion multisalida los diferentes circuitos que conforman cada salida comparten un mismo transformador de potencia optimizando coste, masa, y volumen. Las ventajas obtenidas con este procedimiento tienen en su contra el efecto que sobre cada salida individual provocan las demas en su conjunto debido, principalmente, a los efectos de los elementos parasitos de los componentes. Un cambio de carga en una de las salidas produce un transitorio que es visto por todas las demas como un efecto de impedancia cruzada, y al final del transitorio, la tension de cada salida es diferente respecto a la que tenian antes del transitorio. Este ultimo resultado se conoce como regulacion cruzada. La disminucion de los efectos de la regulacion cruzada ha sido objeto de estudio durante los ultimos anos. El objetivo ha sido el desarrollo de distintas estrategias que permiten, desde disminuir los efectos de la regulacion cruzada hasta los niveles deseables, a eliminarla completamente. El resultado final suele suponer una penalizacion sobre el diseno del sistema directamente proporcional al grado de regulacion a conseguir en las distintas salidas. Entre las soluciones propuestas para eliminar la regulacion cruzada las tecnicas de post-regulacion se han consolidado como la opcion mas aceptada ya que, pueden aplicarse a cualquier convertidor y no suponen ninguna complejidad adicional a la hora de plantear el diseno. En esta Tesis Doctoral se abordara el estudio de la tecnica conocida como postregulacion mediante transformador controlado, que si bien se ha empleado en convertidores resonantes, su

  1. Los Alamos National Laboratory Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Neu, Mary

    2010-06-02

    Mary Neu, Associate Director for Chemistry, Life and Earth Sciences at Los Alamos National Laboratory, delivers opening remarks at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  2. LCLS Ultrafast Science Instruments:Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, J.; Boutet, S.; Castagna, J-C.; Chapman, H.; Feng, Y.; Foyt, W.; Fritz, D.M.; Gaffney, K.J.; Gr|bel, G.; Hajdu, J.; Hastings, J.B.; Kurita, N.; Larsson, J.; Ludwig, K.; Messerschmidt, M.; Miao, J.; Reis, D.A.; Robert, A.; Stephenson, G.B.; Tschentscher, Th.; van Bakel, N.; /SLAC /LLNL, Livermore /DESY /Lund Inst. Tech. /Boston U. /UCLA /Michigan U. /Argonne

    2007-10-16

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), along with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), is constructing a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility, which will operate in the wavelength range 1.5 nm - 0.15 nm. This FEL, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC linac and will produce sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength X-rays with very high peak brightness and almost complete transverse coherence. The final one-third of the SLAC linac will be used as the source of electrons for the LCLS. The high energy electrons will be transported across the SLAC Research Yard, into a tunnel which will house a long undulator. In passing through the undulator, the electrons will be bunched by the force of their own synchrotron radiation and produce an intense, monochromatic, spatially coherent beam of X-rays. By varying the electron energy, the FEL X-ray wavelength will be tunable from 1.5 nm to 0.15 nm. The LCLS will include two experimental halls as well as X-ray optics and infrastructure necessary to create a facility that can be developed for research in a variety of disciplines such as atomic physics, materials science, plasma physics and biosciences. This Conceptual Design Report, the authors believe, confirms the feasibility of designing and constructing three X-ray instruments in order to exploit the unique scientific capability of this new LCLS facility. The technical objective of the LCLS Ultrafast Science Instruments (LUSI) project is to design, build, and install at the LCLS three hard X-ray instruments that will complement the initial instrument included in the LCLS construction. As the science programs advance and new technological challenges appear, instrumentation needs to be developed and ready to conquer these new opportunities. The LCLS instrument concepts have been developed in close consultation with the scientific community through a

  3. Learner factors associated with radical conceptual change among undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Joanne Kay

    Students frequently enter learning situations with knowledge inconsistent with scientific views. One goal of science instruction is to enable students to construct scientifically accepted ideas while rejecting inaccurate constructs. This process is called conceptual change. This study examined factors associated with students at three levels of conceptual change to elucidate possible influences on the conceptual change process. Factors studied included motivation (including utility value, interest, attainment value, mood, self efficacy, and task difficulty), prior experiences with science, perceptions of the nature of science, connections to objects or events outside the classroom, and specific activities that helped students learn. Four science classes for undergraduate preservice elementary teachers participated in the study, conducted during a three week unit on electricity. Data sources included concept maps, drawings, reflective journal entries, quizzes, a science autobiography assignment, and interviews. Concept maps, drawings, and quizzes were analyzed, and students were placed into high, moderate, and low conceptual change groups. Of the ninety-eight students in the study, fifty-seven were interviewed. Perhaps the most important finding of this study relates to the assessment of conceptual change. Interviews were conducted two months after the unit, and many items on the concept maps had decayed from students' memories. This indicates that time is an important factor. In addition, interview-derived data demonstrated conceptual change levels; concept maps were insufficient to indicate the depth of students' understanding. Factors associated with conceptual change include self efficacy and interest in topic. In addition, moderate conceptual change students cited specific activities as having helped them learn. Low and high students focused on the method of instruction rather than specific activities. Factors not found to be associated with conceptual change

  4. NADM Conceptual Model 1.0 -- A Conceptual Model for Geologic Map Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    North American Geologic Map Data Model (NADM) Steering Committee Data Model Design Team

    2004-01-01

    Executive Summary -- The NADM Data Model Design Team was established in 1999 by the North American Geologic Map Data Model Steering Committee (NADMSC) with the purpose of drafting a geologic map data model for consideration as a standard for developing interoperable geologic map-centered databases by state, provincial, and federal geological surveys. The model is designed to be a technology-neutral conceptual model that can form the basis for a web-based interchange format using evolving information technology (e.g., XML, RDF, OWL), and guide implementation of geoscience databases in a common conceptual framework. The intended purpose is to allow geologic information sharing between geologic map data providers and users, independent of local information system implementation. The model emphasizes geoscience concepts and relationships related to information presented on geologic maps. Design has been guided by an informal requirements analysis, documentation of existing databases, technology developments, and other standardization efforts in the geoscience and computer-science communities. A key aspect of the model is the notion that representation of the conceptual framework (ontology) that underlies geologic map data must be part of the model, because this framework changes with time and understanding, and varies between information providers. The top level of the model distinguishes geologic concepts, geologic representation concepts, and metadata. The geologic representation part of the model provides a framework for representing the ontology that underlies geologic map data through a controlled vocabulary, and for establishing the relationships between this vocabulary and a geologic map visualization or portrayal. Top-level geologic classes in the model are Earth material (substance), geologic unit (parts of the Earth), geologic age, geologic structure, fossil, geologic process, geologic relation, and geologic event.

  5. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  6. A Logical Model of Conceptual Integrity in Data Integration

    PubMed Central

    Flater, David

    2003-01-01

    Conceptual integrity is required for the result of data integration to be cohesive and sensible. Compromised conceptual integrity results in “semantic faults,” which are commonly blamed for latent integration bugs. A logical model of conceptual integrity in data integration and a simple example application are presented. Unlike constructive models that attempt to prevent semantic faults, this model allows both correct and incorrect integrations to be described. Imperfect legacy systems can therefore be modeled, allowing a more formal analysis of their flaws and the possible remedies.

  7. Conceptual change, crucial experiments and auxiliary hypotheses. A theoretical contribution.

    PubMed

    Levinas, Marcelo Leonardo; Carretero, Mario

    2010-12-01

    Theories about conceptual change have been generally related to historical and philosophical analysis of science. Yet, there is still much debate on how ideas coming from the history of science and their implications can be applied in this field. Our study intends to investigate the complex structure of conceptual change, by making use of some particularly representative features of the History and Philosophy of science, while considering the structure of so-called crucial experiments and the specific role of implicit hypotheses. Due to their historical importance and logical reasoning aspects, examining these issues may contribute to understand how conceptual change may take place. PMID:20676827

  8. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA.

    PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos.Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  9. Conceptual issues with risk analysis in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolet, Pierrick; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Lévy, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    frequency corresponding the next return period, to consider each magnitude only once). The consequence of this is that the risk is underestimated in-between the classes bounds, since the 30 years return periods applies from 30 to 100 years and so on. These examples show that conceptual errors are easily made in risk analysis and affect the results. In addition, even when accounting for the uncertainty on the input variables (e.g. using a Monte-Carlo approach) it is not sure that the fluctuation range assigned to the inputs will be large enough to include the 'correct' output. Furthermore, since calibration data are often not available, and since input variables suffers from deep uncertainties, it is generally difficult to assess the result quality and a conceptual mistake can go unnoticed. As a conclusion, the uncertainty assessment needs not only to consider the uncertainty on the inputs, but needs to carefully review the model structure to ensure a good match with the context.

  10. Evolutionary conceptual analysis: faith community nursing.

    PubMed

    Ziebarth, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to report an evolutionary concept analysis of faith community nursing (FCN). FCN is a source of healthcare delivery in the USA which has grown in comprehensiveness and complexity. With increasing healthcare cost and a focus on access and prevention, FCN has extended beyond the physical walls of the faith community building. Faith communities and healthcare organizations invest in FCN and standardized training programs exist. Using Rodgers' evolutionary analysis, the literature was examined for antecedents, attributes, and consequences of the concept. This design allows for understanding the historical and social nature of the concept and how it changes over time. A search of databases using the keywords FCN, faith community nurse, parish nursing, and parish nurse was done. The concept of FCN was explored using research and theoretical literature. A theoretical definition and model were developed with relevant implications. The search results netted a sample of 124 reports of research and theoretical articles from multiple disciplines: medicine, education, religion and philosophy, international health, and nursing. Theoretical definition: FCN is a method of healthcare delivery that is centered in a relationship between the nurse and client (client as person, family, group, or community). The relationship occurs in an iterative motion over time when the client seeks or is targeted for wholistic health care with the goal of optimal wholistic health functioning. Faith integrating is a continuous occurring attribute. Health promoting, disease managing, coordinating, empowering and accessing health care are other essential attributes. All essential attributes occur with intentionality in a faith community, home, health institution and other community settings with fluidity as part of a community, national, or global health initiative. A new theoretical definition and corresponding conceptual model of FCN provides a basis for future nursing

  11. The conceptual foundation of environmental decision support.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Peter; Langhans, Simone D; Lienert, Judit; Schuwirth, Nele

    2015-05-01

    Environmental decision support intends to use the best available scientific knowledge to help decision makers find and evaluate management alternatives. The goal of this process is to achieve the best fulfillment of societal objectives. This requires a careful analysis of (i) how scientific knowledge can be represented and quantified, (ii) how societal preferences can be described and elicited, and (iii) how these concepts can best be used to support communication with authorities, politicians, and the public in environmental management. The goal of this paper is to discuss key requirements for a conceptual framework to address these issues and to suggest how these can best be met. We argue that a combination of probability theory and scenario planning with multi-attribute utility theory fulfills these requirements, and discuss adaptations and extensions of these theories to improve their application for supporting environmental decision making. With respect to (i) we suggest the use of intersubjective probabilities, if required extended to imprecise probabilities, to describe the current state of scientific knowledge. To address (ii), we emphasize the importance of value functions, in addition to utilities, to support decisions under risk. We discuss the need for testing "non-standard" value aggregation techniques, the usefulness of flexibility of value functions regarding attribute data availability, the elicitation of value functions for sub-objectives from experts, and the consideration of uncertainty in value and utility elicitation. With respect to (iii), we outline a well-structured procedure for transparent environmental decision support that is based on a clear separation of scientific prediction and societal valuation. We illustrate aspects of the suggested methodology by its application to river management in general and with a small, didactical case study on spatial river rehabilitation prioritization. PMID:25748599

  12. Conceptual model for heart failure disease management.

    PubMed

    Andrikopoulou, Efstathia; Abbate, Kariann; Whellan, David J

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this review is to propose a conceptual model for heart failure (HF) disease management (HFDM) and to define the components of an efficient HFDM plan in reference to this model. Articles that evaluated 1 or more of the following aspects of HFDM were reviewed: (1) outpatient clinic follow-up; (2) self-care interventions to enhance patient skills; and (3) remote evaluation of worsening HF either using structured telephone support (STS) or by monitoring device data (telemonitoring). The success of programs in reducing readmissions and mortality were mixed. Outpatient follow-up programs generally resulted in improved outcomes, including decreased readmissions. Based on 1 meta-analysis, specialty clinics improved outcomes and nonspecialty clinics did not. Results from self-care programs were inconsistent and might have been affected by patient cognitive status and educational level, and intervention intensity. Telemonitoring, despite initially promising meta-analyses demonstrating a decrease in the number and duration of HF-related readmissions and all-cause mortality rates at follow-up, has not been shown in randomized trials to consistently reduce readmissions or mortality. However, evidence from device monitoring trials in particular might have been influenced by technology and design issues that might be rectified in future trials. Results from the literature suggest that the ideal HFDM plan would include outpatient follow-up at an HF specialty clinic and continuous education to improve patient self-care. The end result of this plan would lead to better understanding on the part of the patient and improved patient ability to recognize and respond to signs of decompensation. PMID:24565255

  13. A conceptual framework for hydropeaking mitigation.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Andreas; Tonolla, Diego; Schweizer, Steffen P; Vollenweider, Stefan; Langhans, Simone D; Wüest, Alfred

    2016-10-15

    Hydropower plants are an important source of renewable energy. In the near future, high-head storage hydropower plants will gain further importance as a key element of large-scale electricity production systems. However, these power plants can cause hydropeaking which is characterized by intense unnatural discharge fluctuations in downstream river reaches. Consequences on environmental conditions in these sections are diverse and include changes to the hydrology, hydraulics and sediment regime on very short time scales. These altered conditions affect river ecosystems and biota, for instance due to drift and stranding of fishes and invertebrates. Several structural and operational measures exist to mitigate hydropeaking and the adverse effects on ecosystems, but estimating and predicting their ecological benefit remains challenging. We developed a conceptual framework to support the ecological evaluation of hydropeaking mitigation measures based on current mitigation projects in Switzerland and the scientific literature. We refined this framework with an international panel of hydropeaking experts. The framework is based on a set of indicators, which covers all hydrological phases of hydropeaking and the most important affected abiotic and biotic processes. Effects of mitigation measures on these indicators can be predicted quantitatively using prediction tools such as discharge scenarios and numerical habitat models. Our framework allows a comparison of hydropeaking effects among alternative mitigation measures, to the pre-mitigation situation, and to reference river sections. We further identified key issues that should be addressed to increase the efficiency of current and future projects. They include the spatial and temporal context of mitigation projects, the interactions of river morphology with hydropeaking effects, and the role of appropriate monitoring to evaluate the success of mitigation projects. PMID:27267718

  14. Stormwater infiltration trenches: a conceptual modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, limitations linked to traditional urban drainage schemes have been pointed out and new approaches are developing introducing more natural methods for retaining and/or disposing of stormwater. These mitigation measures are generally called Best Management Practices or Sustainable Urban Drainage System and they include practices such as infiltration and storage tanks in order to reduce the peak flow and retain part of the polluting components. The introduction of such practices in urban drainage systems entails an upgrade of existing modelling frameworks in order to evaluate their efficiency in mitigating the impact of urban drainage systems on receiving water bodies. While storage tank modelling approaches are quite well documented in literature, some gaps are still present about infiltration facilities mainly dependent on the complexity of the involved physical processes. In this study, a simplified conceptual modelling approach for the simulation of the infiltration trenches is presented. The model enables to assess the performance of infiltration trenches. The main goal is to develop a model that can be employed for the assessment of the mitigation efficiency of infiltration trenches in an integrated urban drainage context. Particular care was given to the simulation of infiltration structures considering the performance reduction due to clogging phenomena. The proposed model has been compared with other simplified modelling approaches and with a physically based model adopted as benchmark. The model performed better compared to other approaches considering both unclogged facilities and the effect of clogging. On the basis of a long-term simulation of six years of rain data, the performance and the effectiveness of an infiltration trench measure are assessed. The study confirmed the important role played by the clogging phenomenon on such infiltration structures. PMID:19587416

  15. Los manuales de quimica en Espana (1788--1845): Protagonistas, terminologia, clasificaciones y orden pedagogico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Bello, Maria Rosa

    La presente tesis doctoral es una investigacion sobre los manuales de quimica utilizados en Espana de 1788 a 1845. Este trabajo proporciona una perspectiva general de un tema relevante en las ultimas decadas en Historia de la Ciencia, el estudio de los libros de texto. De acuerdo con las ultimas investigaciones realizadas en este terreno, el acto pedagogico es considerado como un proceso creativo, como espacio de encuentro de actores e intereses muy diversos, matizando las ideas defendidas por Thomas S. Kuhn. Recordemos que segun Kuhn, los libros de texto ofrecen una vision consensuada y normalizada del estado de la ciencia de su epoca, por lo que sus autores eliminan deliberadamente toda controversia y presentan asi una imagen distorsionada de la actividad cientifica. En cambio, se ha mostrado, por ejemplo, que en la ensenanza participan no solamente profesores y alumnos sino tambien otros muchos actores y todos ellos no unicamente con intereses puramente pedagogicos sino tambien con diversos intereses politicos y economicos que pueden conocerse a traves del estudio de los manuales. En esta tesis se pretende analizar los manuales de quimica en Espana desde 1788 hasta 1845. Para poder llevar a cabo la investigacion ha sido necesario precisar el objeto de estudio (libro de texto de quimica) durante el periodo estudiado (1788-1845) ya que no es adecuado adoptar la imagen actual de una disciplina que sufrio sustanciales cambios durante la epoca estudiada. Esta investigacion se centra en un momento especialmente importante para la quimica y que algunos historiadores han llegado a considerar "revolucionario". Durante estos anos se produjo un cambio importante en las teorias quimicas sobre la combustion y el concepto de elemento, asi como una reforma terminologica que originaron la aparicion de importantes controversias. Ademas, debido a la relacion de la quimica con otras disciplinas como la historia natural o la fisica ha sido necesario restringir el objeto de estudio

  16. Un nuevo fármaco puede ser una opción de tratamiento para algunos cánceres de mama

    Cancer.gov

    Los resultados de un estudio clínico internacional permiten suponer que, en poco tiempo, habrá otra opción de tratamiento para las mujeres con cáncer de mama metastásico HER2 positivo que deja de responder a los tratamientos dirigidos con trastuzumab.

  17. Comunicación en la atención del cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la comunicación con el paciente de cáncer y su familia, incluso los aspectos distintivos de la comunicación con pacientes de cáncer, los factores que afectan la comunicación y el entrenamiento de las aptitudes para la comunicación.

  18. Planificar la transición a la etapa final de la vida (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la preparación necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atención de la salud, los pacientes y sus familias para la transición a la atención del cáncer avanzado en la etapa final de la vida.

  19. Planificar la transición en la etapa final de la vida (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la preparación necesaria por parte de los proveedores de atención de la salud, los pacientes y sus familas para la transición a la atención del cáncer avanzado en la etapa final de la vida.

  20. Size before numbers: conceptual size primes numerical value.

    PubMed

    Gabay, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Henik, Avishai; Gronau, Nurit

    2013-10-01

    The present work examined the influence of conceptual object size on numerical processing. In two experiments, pictures of conceptually large or small animals of equal retinal size served as prime stimuli appearing before numerically big or small integer targets. Participants were instructed to perform an unbiased parity judgment task on the target integers. When the prime's conceptual size was congruent with the target's numerical value, participants' reaction time was faster than when the two were incongruent with each other. This influence of conceptual object size on numerical value perception suggests that both types of magnitudes share similar mental representations. Our results are in accord with recent theories (e.g., Cantlon, Platt, & Brannon, 2009; Henik, Leibovich, Naparstek, Diesendruck, & Rubinsten, 2012) that emphasize the evolutionary importance of evaluation and perception of sizes to the development of the numerical system. PMID:23811178

  1. Development of an Ontology to Recommend Exercises from Conceptual Maps.

    PubMed

    Ito, Márcia; Ciriaco Pereira, Débora Lina N

    2015-01-01

    The recommendation of exercise plans requires several variables to be considered (e.g., patient's conditions and preferences) and are normally complex to analyze. To facilitate this analysis we proposed the creation of an ontology to assist professionals to recommend exercises. We interviewed 2 experts and this resulted in IDEF diagram and conceptual map. The conceptual map proved to be the preferred way that experts gained more understanding compared with the IDEF diagram. In addition, we also used the conceptual map to validate the formal structure of experts' ideas. From the conceptual map we created an ontology that is being reviewed. After this, we plan to incorporate the ontology into a decision support system that will assist professionals to recommend exercises for their patients. PMID:26262394

  2. Back to Basics: Exploring the Conceptual Basis of Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scammell, J.; Miller, S.

    1999-01-01

    Supports the need for study of the foundational concepts of nursing. Evaluates nursing teachers' experiences in implementing a foundations unit, showing that it raised conceptual awareness and helped students link theory and practice. (SK)

  3. Surveying Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Electricity and Magnetism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, David P.; O'Kuma, Thomas L.; Hieggelke, Curtis J.; Van Heuvelen, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) which was developed to assess students' knowledge of topics in electricity and magnetism. Reports on the number of student difficulties in electricity and magnetism. (Contains 23 references.) (Author/YDS)

  4. Magnetic nanoparticle-supported glutathione: a conceptually sustainable organocatalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    A conceptually novel nanoparticle-supported and magnetically recoverable organocatalyst has been developed, which is readily prepared from inexpensive starting materials in a truly sustainable manner; which catalyzes Paal-Knorr reaction with high yield in pure aqueous medium that...

  5. Conceptual design study for a teleoperator visual system, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, D.; Grant, C.; Johnson, C.; Meirick, R.; Polhemus, C.; Ray, A.; Rittenhouse, D.; Skidmore, R.

    1972-01-01

    Results are reported for work performed during the first phase of the conceptual design study for a teleoperator visual system. This phase consists of four tasks: General requirements, concept development, subsystem requirements and analysis, and concept evaluation.

  6. CONCEPTUAL DESIGNS FOR A NEW HIGHWAY VEHICLE EMISSIONS ESTIMATION METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses six conceptual designs for a new highway vehicle emissions estimation methodology and summarizes the recommendations of each design for improving the emissions and activity factors in the emissions estimation process. he complete design reports are included a...

  7. A Review of Behavioral Conceptualizations and Treatments of Child Noncompliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlihan, Daniel; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This review of behavioral conceptualizations and approaches to the treatment of child noncompliance includes discussion of behavioral definitions, methods of assessment, types of behavioral interventions, generalization of treatment effects, future research directions, and potential ethical concerns. (Author/JDD)

  8. Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    TUCK, J.A.

    1998-11-06

    This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks.

  9. An Integrative-Interactive Conceptual Model for Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ibrahim, Abdul Rahman H.

    1982-01-01

    The Integrative-Interactive Conceptual Model for Curriculum Development calls for curriculum reform and innovation to be cybernetic so that all aspects of curriculum planning get adequate attention. (CJ)

  10. Conceptual Knowledge Acquisition in Biomedicine: A Methodological Review

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Philip R.O.; Mendonça, Eneida A.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Starren, Justin B.

    2007-01-01

    The use of conceptual knowledge collections or structures within the biomedical domain is pervasive, spanning a variety of applications including controlled terminologies, semantic networks, ontologies, and database schemas. A number of theoretical constructs and practical methods or techniques support the development and evaluation of conceptual knowledge collections. This review will provide an overview of the current state of knowledge concerning conceptual knowledge acquisition, drawing from multiple contributing academic disciplines such as biomedicine, computer science, cognitive science, education, linguistics, semiotics, and psychology. In addition, multiple taxonomic approaches to the description and selection of conceptual knowledge acquisition and evaluation techniques will be proposed in order to partially address the apparent fragmentation of the current literature concerning this domain. PMID:17482521

  11. Organizing conceptual knowledge in humans with a gridlike code.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Alexandra O; O'Reilly, Jill X; Behrens, Timothy E J

    2016-06-17

    It has been hypothesized that the brain organizes concepts into a mental map, allowing conceptual relationships to be navigated in a manner similar to that of space. Grid cells use a hexagonally symmetric code to organize spatial representations and are the likely source of a precise hexagonal symmetry in the functional magnetic resonance imaging signal. Humans navigating conceptual two-dimensional knowledge showed the same hexagonal signal in a set of brain regions markedly similar to those activated during spatial navigation. This gridlike signal is consistent across sessions acquired within an hour and more than a week apart. Our findings suggest that global relational codes may be used to organize nonspatial conceptual representations and that these codes may have a hexagonal gridlike pattern when conceptual knowledge is laid out in two continuous dimensions. PMID:27313047

  12. Conceptual knowledge acquisition in biomedicine: A methodological review.

    PubMed

    Payne, Philip R O; Mendonça, Eneida A; Johnson, Stephen B; Starren, Justin B

    2007-10-01

    The use of conceptual knowledge collections or structures within the biomedical domain is pervasive, spanning a variety of applications including controlled terminologies, semantic networks, ontologies, and database schemas. A number of theoretical constructs and practical methods or techniques support the development and evaluation of conceptual knowledge collections. This review will provide an overview of the current state of knowledge concerning conceptual knowledge acquisition, drawing from multiple contributing academic disciplines such as biomedicine, computer science, cognitive science, education, linguistics, semiotics, and psychology. In addition, multiple taxonomic approaches to the description and selection of conceptual knowledge acquisition and evaluation techniques will be proposed in order to partially address the apparent fragmentation of the current literature concerning this domain. PMID:17482521

  13. CONCEPTUAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK FOR DIAGNOSTICS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conceptual model development will focus on the effects of habitat alteration, nutrients,suspended and bedded sediments, and toxic chemicals on appropriate endpoints (individuals, populations, communities, ecosystems) across spatial scales (habitats, water body, watershed, region)...

  14. A Conceptual Framework for Teaching about Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Willard; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Concepts which represent the minimal conceptual essentials for the study of nuclear weapons in secondary level social studies classes are discussed, and issues and controversies which may rise during such a study are examined. (RM)

  15. Creative Writing and Learning in a Conceptual Astrophysics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenson, R.

    2012-08-01

    Creative writing assignments in a conceptual astrophysics course for liberal arts students can reduce student anxiety. This study demonstrates that such assignments also can aid learning as demonstrated by significantly improved performance on exams.

  16. Uso de exámenes de detección como oportunidad para ayudar a fumadores a dejar el tabaco

    Cancer.gov

    El NCI ha publicado un anuncio de financiamiento para ayudar a estimular la investigación sobre métodos óptimos para dejar de fumar cigarrillos que se entreguen junto con los exámenes de detección.

  17. Conceptual design for the ZEPHYR neutral-beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W.S.; Elischer, V.P.; Goldberg, D.A.; Hopkins, D.B.; Jacobson, V.L.; Lou, K.H.; Tanabe, J.T.

    1981-03-01

    In June 1980, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory began a conceptual design study for a neutral beam injection system for the ZEPHYR ignition tokamak proposed by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The ZEPHYR project was cancelled, and the LBL design effort concluded prematurely in January 1981. This report describes the conceptual design as it existed at that time, and gives brief consideration to a schedule, but does not deal with costs.

  18. Preguntas para hacerle al doctor acerca del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Serie de preguntas, organizadas por tema, que los pacientes con cáncer pueden hacer al médico o a otros miembros de su equipo de atención médica para conocer más acerca de su tipo de cáncer y lo que pueden esperar.

  19. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer, como la náusea y el vómito.

  20. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer como la náusea y el vómito.

  1. Cáncer colorrectal—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de colon y recto, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas.

  2. Cáncer de útero—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer uterino, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas.

  3. Tumores extracraneales de células germinativas—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor extracraneal de células germinativas en los niños, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  4. Cáncer de testículo—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de testículo, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas.

  5. Cáncer de vejiga—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de vejiga, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas.

  6. Poblaciones de los niveles atómicos en condiciones de no equilibrio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzado, A.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es encontrar la distribución de los átomos en los diferentes niveles de energía. Con el propósito de encontrar resultados generales y de amplia aplicación, hemos planteado las ecuaciones de equilibrio estadístico como función del número atómico del elemento a considerar y de las condiciones físicas del medio (temperatura y densidad). Así también se ha intentado tener en cuenta todos los niveles atómicos considerando explícitamente aquellos con un número cuántico principal menor que un cierto valor n y calculando una expresión aproximada para estimar la influencia de los demás.

  7. Understanding genetics: Analysis of secondary students' conceptual status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David F.

    2007-02-01

    This article explores the conceptual change of students in Grades 10 and 12 in three Australian senior high schools when the teachers included computer multimedia to a greater or lesser extent in their teaching of a genetics course. The study, underpinned by a multidimensional conceptual-change framework, used an interpretive approach and a case-based design with multiple data collection methods. Over 4-8 weeks, the students learned genetics in classroom lessons that included BioLogica activities, which feature multiple representations. Results of the online tests and interview tasks revealed that most students improved their understanding of genetics as evidenced in the development of genetics reasoning. However, using Thorley's (1990) status analysis categories, a cross-case analysis of the gene conceptions of 9 of the 26 students interviewed indicated that only 4 students' postinstructional conceptions were intelligible-plausible-fruitful. Students' conceptual change was consistent with classroom teaching and learning. Findings suggested that multiple representations supported conceptual understanding of genetics but not in all students. It was also shown that status can be a viable hallmark enabling researchers to identify students' conceptual change that would otherwise be less accessible. Thorley's method for analyzing conceptual status is discussed.

  8. Epistemic Beliefs and Conceptual Understanding in Biotechnology: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebello, Carina M.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; McClure, Bruce A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore students' epistemic beliefs and conceptual understanding of biotechnology. Epistemic beliefs can influence reasoning, how individuals evaluate information, and informed decision making abilities. These skills are important for an informed citizenry that will participate in debates regarding areas in science such as biotechnology. We report on an in-depth case study analysis of three undergraduate, non-science majors in a biotechnology course designed for non-biochemistry majors. We selected participants who performed above average and below average on the first in-class exam. Data from multiple sources—interviews, exams, and a concept instrument—were used to construct (a) individual profiles and (b) a cross-case analysis of our participants' conceptual development and epistemic beliefs from two different theoretical perspectives—Women's Ways of Knowing and the Reflective Judgment Model. Two independent trained researchers coded all case records independently for both theoretical perspectives, with resultant initial Cohen's kappa values above .715 (substantial agreement), and then reached consensus on the codes. Results indicate that a student with more sophisticated epistemology demonstrated greater conceptual understandings at the end of the course than a student with less sophisticated epistemology, even though the latter performed higher initially. Also a student with a less sophisticated epistemology and low initial conceptual performance does not demonstrate gains in their overall conceptual understanding. Results suggest the need for instructional interventions fostering epistemological development of learners in order to facilitate their conceptual growth.

  9. Analysis of Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model and Parameter Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Philip D.; Nicholson, Thomas J.; Mishra, Srikanta

    2003-06-24

    A systematic methodology for assessing hydrogeologic conceptual model, parameter, and scenario uncertainties is being developed to support technical reviews of environmental assessments related to decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The first major task being undertaken is to produce a coupled parameter and conceptual model uncertainty assessment methodology. This task is based on previous studies that have primarily dealt individually with these two types of uncertainties. Conceptual model uncertainty analysis is based on the existence of alternative conceptual models that are generated using a set of clearly stated guidelines targeted at the needs of NRC staff. Parameter uncertainty analysis makes use of generic site characterization data as well as site-specific characterization and monitoring data to evaluate parameter uncertainty in each of the alternative conceptual models. Propagation of parameter uncertainty will be carried out through implementation of a general stochastic model of groundwater flow and transport in the saturated and unsaturated zones. Evaluation of prediction uncertainty will make use of Bayesian model averaging and visualization of model results. The goal of this study is to develop a practical tool to quantify uncertainties in the conceptual model and parameters identified in performance assessments.

  10. A conceptual, distributed snow redistribution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, S.; Holzmann, H.

    2015-11-01

    When applying conceptual hydrological models using a temperature index approach for snowmelt to high alpine areas often accumulation of snow during several years can be observed. Some of the reasons why these "snow towers" do not exist in nature are vertical and lateral transport processes. While snow transport models have been developed using grid cell sizes of tens to hundreds of square metres and have been applied in several catchments, no model exists using coarser cell sizes of 1 km2, which is a common resolution for meso- and large-scale hydrologic modelling (hundreds to thousands of square kilometres). In this paper we present an approach that uses only gravity and snow density as a proxy for the age of the snow cover and land-use information to redistribute snow in alpine basins. The results are based on the hydrological modelling of the Austrian Inn Basin in Tyrol, Austria, more specifically the Ötztaler Ache catchment, but the findings hold for other tributaries of the river Inn. This transport model is implemented in the distributed rainfall-runoff model COSERO (Continuous Semi-distributed Runoff). The results of both model concepts with and without consideration of lateral snow redistribution are compared against observed discharge and snow-covered areas derived from MODIS satellite images. By means of the snow redistribution concept, snow accumulation over several years can be prevented and the snow depletion curve compared with MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data could be improved, too. In a 7-year period the standard model would lead to snow accumulation of approximately 2900 mm SWE (snow water equivalent) in high elevated regions whereas the updated version of the model does not show accumulation and does also predict discharge with more accuracy leading to a Kling-Gupta efficiency of 0.93 instead of 0.9. A further improvement can be shown in the comparison of MODIS snow cover data and the calculated depletion curve, where

  11. Overtraining and recovery. A conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Kenttä, G; Hassmén, P

    1998-07-01

    importance of active measures to improve the recovery process. Furthermore, directing attention to psychophysiological cues serves the same purpose as in RPE, i.e. increasing self-awareness. This article reviews and conceptualises the whole overtraining process. In doing so, it (i) aims to differentiate between the types of stress affecting an athlete's performance: (ii) identifies factors influencing an athlete's ability to adapt to physical training: (iii) structures the recovery process. The TQR method to facilitate monitoring of the recovery process is then suggested and a conceptual model that incorporates all of the important parameters for performance gain (adaptation) and loss (maladaptation). PMID:9739537

  12. Mayo de Los Capomos, Sinaloa (Mayo of Los Capomos, Sinaloa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeze, Ray A.

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Mayo, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in Los Capomos, in the state of Sinaloa. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of the…

  13. Identifying students' mental models of sound propagation: The role of conceptual blending in understanding conceptual change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrepic, Zdeslav; Zollman, Dean A.; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2010-07-01

    We investigated introductory physics students’ mental models of sound propagation. We used a phenomenographic method to analyze the data in the study. In addition to the scientifically accepted Wave model, students used the “Entity” model to describe the propagation of sound. In this latter model sound is a self-standing entity, different from the medium through which it propagates. All other observed alternative models contain elements of both Entity and Wave models, but at the same time are distinct from each of the constituent models. We called these models “hybrid” or “blend” models. We discuss how students use these models in various contexts before and after instruction and how our findings contribute to the understanding of conceptual change. Implications of our findings for teaching are summarized.

  14. Block 2 SRM conceptual design studies. Volume 1, Book 1: Conceptual design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brad; Williams, Neal; Miller, John; Ralston, Joe; Richardson, Jennifer; Moore, Walt; Doll, Dan; Maughan, Jeff; Hayes, Fred

    1986-01-01

    The conceptual design studies of a Block 2 Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) require the elimination of asbestos-filled insulation and was open to alternate designs, such as case changes, different propellants, modified burn rate - to improve reliability and performance. Limitations were placed on SRM changes such that the outside geometry should not impact the physical interfaces with other Space Shuttle elements and should have minimum changes to the aerodynamic and dynamic characteristics of the Space Shuttle vehicle. Previous Space Shuttle SRM experience was assessed and new design concepts combined to define a valid approach to assured flight success and economic operation of the STS. Trade studies, preliminary designs, analyses, plans, and cost estimates are documented.

  15. The Conceptual Grouping Effect: Categories Matter (and Named Categories Matter More)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupyan, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Do conceptual categories affect basic visual processing? A conceptual grouping effect for familiar stimuli is reported using a visual search paradigm. Search through conceptually-homogeneous non-targets was faster and more efficient than search through conceptually-heterogeneous non-targets. This effect cannot be attributed to perceptual factors…

  16. Validacion de un Inventario Sobre La Percepcion de Los Padres de Superdotados Respecto a Los Servicios Educativos Disponibles Para Estos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina Munoz, Arlette Zamarie

    2013-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, there isn't a survey that collects the parent's perception of the available services for gifted children. Considering this, in this investigation an instrument was created and scientifically validated to collect the parents' perception of the educational services available. The instrument was validated using internal…

  17. Parents Ask about Parent Involvement Policies = Los padres preguntan acerca del plan de accion para la participacion de los padres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Portsmouth, NH.

    This guide, which includes both English and Spanish versions, discusses parent involvement policies, which explain how the school district or the school itself supports the important role of parents in the education of their children. Every school district that receives money from Title I of the Improving America's Schools Act, the federal aid…

  18. Compartiendo la Ciencia con los Ninos: Una Guia para los Padres (Sharing Science with Children: A Guide for Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Museum of Life and Science, Durham.

    This guide offers Spanish-speaking parents ways in which they can help their children learn about science at home and in the community. Science is a way of looking at the world. It uses everyday techniques such as observation and classification to give us information about things and how they work. Advice to parents that want to support their…

  19. Personal Safety for Children: A Guide for Parents = Una guia para los padres sobre la seguridad personal de los ninos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    Noting that parents and teachers have the responsibility of safeguarding children and teaching them the skills they need to be safe, this pamphlet, in Spanish and English versions, is designed to help parents talk to their children about how to protect themselves against abduction and exploitation. The pamphlet is organized into six sections.…

  20. Palace Revolt in Los Angeles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Antonio Villaraigosa, the mayor of Los Angeles, comes alive when recalling his start in local politics--as a labor organizer agitating for reform inside decrepit and overcrowded schools. In his quest to turn around the schools, the mayor has united working-class Latino parents, civil rights leaders, and big-money Democrats to challenge union…