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Sample records for concise total synthesis

  1. Concise total synthesis of glucosepane.

    PubMed

    Draghici, Cristian; Wang, Tina; Spiegel, David A

    2015-10-16

    Glucosepane is a structurally complex protein posttranslational modification that is believed to exist in all living organisms. Research in humans suggests that glucosepane plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of both diabetes and human aging, yet comprehensive biological investigations of this metabolite have been hindered by a scarcity of chemically homogeneous material available for study. Here we report the total synthesis of glucosepane, enabled by the development of a one-pot method for preparation of the nonaromatic 4H-imidazole tautomer in the core. Our synthesis is concise (eight steps starting from commercial materials), convergent, high-yielding (12% overall), and enantioselective. We expect that these results will prove useful in the art and practice of heterocyclic chemistry and beneficial for the study of glucosepane and its role in human health and disease. PMID:26472902

  2. Concise Enantiospecific Total Synthesis of Tubingensin A

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the enantiospecific total synthesis of (+)-tubingensin A. Our synthesis features an aryne cyclization to efficiently introduce the vicinal quaternary stereocenters of the natural product and proceeds in only nine steps (longest linear sequence) from known compounds. PMID:24524351

  3. Concise total synthesis of (±)-actinophyllic acid

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Brett A.; Jewett, Ivan T.; Butler, Jeffrey D.; Martin, Stephen F.

    2014-01-01

    A concise total synthesis of the complex indole alkaloid (±)-actinophyllic acid was accomplished by a sequence of reactions requiring only 10 steps from readily-available, known starting materials. The approach featured a Lewis acid-catalyzed cascade of reactions involving stabilized carbocations that delivered the tetracyclic core of the natural product in a single chemical operation. Optimal conversion of this key intermediate into (±)-actinophyllic acid required judicious selection of a protecting group strategy. PMID:24882888

  4. Concise total synthesis and structural revision of (+)-pestalazine B.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Balado, Carlos; de Lera, Angel R

    2010-11-21

    A convergent synthesis of the proposed structure of (+)-pestalazine B has been achieved in 4 steps using the N-alkylation of an unprotected tryptophan diketopiperazine with a 3a-bromopyrrolidinoindoline as the key step. Although its structure was confirmed by X-ray analysis, the spectroscopic data did not match those of the natural product. The versatility of the methodology allowed the preparation of several diastereomers, and the database generated led to the proposal of an isomeric structure for the natural alkaloid where the d-leucine and d-phenylalanine residues exchanged positions, which was corroborated by total synthesis. PMID:20848034

  5. Concise Asymmetric Construction of C2 -symmetric 1,9-Diarylnonanoids Using a Hypervalent Silicon Complex: Total Synthesis of (-)-Ericanone.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Shunsuke; Kai, Kosuke; Shimoda, Yasushi; Hu, Hao; Gao, Shen; Sugiura, Masaharu; Ogasawara, Masamichi; Nakajima, Makoto

    2016-02-01

    By using a phosphine oxide-catalyzed enantioselective double aldol reaction, we achieved the concise construction of C2 -symmetric 1,9-diarylnonanoids, enabling the synthesis of (-)-ericanone from p-hydroxybenzaldehyde in 6 steps with 65 % overall yield. The enantioselective double aldol reaction is useful for establishing C2 -symmetric 1,9-diaryl-3,7-dihydroxy-5-nonanones with a single operation. Furthermore, the use of o-nosyl-protected p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and a 4,4'-disubstituted BINAP dioxide catalyst dramatically improved the reactivity and selectivity in the double aldol reaction, enabling the total synthesis of (-)-ericanone with high yield and with excellent enantiopurity. PMID:26610889

  6. Concise total synthesis of water soluble metatacarboline A, C, D, E and F and its anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Naveen, Badher; Mudiraj, Anwita; Khamushavalli, Geeviman; Babu, Phanithi Prakash; Nagarajan, Rajagopal

    2016-05-01

    The simple, concise, protecting group free and first total synthesis of Metatacarboline alkaloids (abbreviated as Mc) Mc A, C, D, E and F are reported. The core structure of metatacarboline alkaloids has been constructed by the classical Wittig reaction as key step from easily accessible starting materials with 40-75% overall yields. These synthesized compounds have been subjected to evaluate for their anticancer activity using C6 glioma cell lines. Mc D and Mc F showed significant antiproliferative activity, which was confirmed by MTT and Clonogenic assay. FACS analysis showed that Mc D and Mc F arrested the cell cycle at sub G0/G1 and G2/M phase of cell cycle respectively. Further, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry of Mc D treated cells revealed activation of caspase dependent downstream signaling which led to apoptosis. PMID:26927685

  7. Concise Chemoenzymatic Three-Step Total Synthesis of Isosolenopsin through Medium Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Robert C; Fuchs, Christine S; Lechner, Horst; Zepeck, Ferdinand; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    A short and efficient total synthesis of the alkaloid isosolenopsin and its enantiomer has been achieved. The key step was a ω-transaminase-catalysed regioselective monoamination of the diketone pentadecane-2,6-dione, which was obtained in a single step through the application of a Grignard reaction. Initial low conversions in the biotransformation could be overcome by optimisation of the reaction conditions employing suitable cosolvents. In the presence of 20 vol.-% N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) or n-heptane the best results were obtained by employing two enantiocomplementary ω-transaminases originating from Arthrobacter at 30–40 °C; under these conditions, conversions of more than 99 % and perfect stereocontrol (ee > 99 %) were achieved. Diastereoselective chemical reduction (H2/Pd/C) of the biocatalytic product gave the target compound. The linear three-step synthesis provided the natural product isosolenopsin in diastereomerically pure form (ee > 99 %, dr = 99:1) with an overall yield of 64 %. PMID:25191103

  8. Concise Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Cardiotonic Steroids 19-Hydroxysarmentogenin and Trewianin Aglycone.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Will; Khatri, Hem Raj; Nagorny, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    The expedient and scalable approach to cardiotonic steroids carrying oxygenation at the C11- and C19-positions has been developed and applied to the total asymmetric synthesis of steroids 19-hydroxysarmentogenin and trewianin aglycone as well as to the assembly of the panogenin core. This new approach features enantioselective organocatalytic oxidation of an aldehyde, diastereoselective Cu(OTf)2-catalyzed Michael reaction/tandem aldol cyclizations, and one-pot reduction/transposition reactions allowing a rapid (7 linear steps) assembly of a functionalized cardenolide skeleton. The ability to quickly set this steroidal core with preinstalled functional handles and diversity elements eliminates the need for difficult downstream functionalizations and substantially improves the accessibility to the entire class of cardenolides and their derivatives for biological evaluation. PMID:27232585

  9. Concise Synthesis of Functionalized Benzocyclobutenones

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng-hao; Savage, Nikolas A.; Dong, Guangbin

    2014-01-01

    A concise approach to access functionalized benzocyclobutenones from 3-halophenol derivatives is described. This modified synthesis employs a [2+2] cycloaddition between benzynes generated from dehydrohalogenation of aryl halides using LiTMP and acetaldehyde enolate generated from n-BuLi and THF, followed by oxidation of the benzocyclobutenol intermediates to provide benzocyclobutenones. The [2+2] reaction can be run on a 10-gram scale with an increased yield. A number of functional groups including alkenes and alkynes are tolerated. Coupling of benzynes with ketene silyl acetals to give 8-substituted benzocyclobutenones is also demonstrated. PMID:24926108

  10. Concise Total Synthesis of Lundurines A–C Enabled by Gold Catalysis and a Homodienyl Retro-Ene/Ene Isomerization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The total synthesis of lundurines A–C has been accomplished in racemic and enantiopure forms in 11–13 and 12–14 steps, respectively, without protection/deprotection of functional groups, by a novel tandem double condensation/Claisen rearrangement, a gold(I)-catalyzed alkyne hydroarylation, a cyclopropanation via formal [3 + 2] cycloaddition/nitrogen extrusion, and a remarkable olefin migration through a vinylcyclopropane retro-ene/ene reaction that streamlines the endgame. PMID:26963149

  11. Concise Synthesis of v-Coelenterazines.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Takamitsu; Iimori, Rie; Yoshida, Suguru; Sumida, Yuto; Sahara-Miura, Yuiko; Sato, Jun-ichi; Inouye, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    A novel synthetic method for v-coelenterazine (v-CTZ), which is a vinylene-bridged analog of native CTZ with a large red-shifted luminescence property, is described. The synthesis was achieved in a concise way through the use of three sequential cross-coupling reactions and ring-closing metathesis (RCM). A newly synthesized C2-modified trifluoromethyl analog cf3-v-CTZ showed slightly more red-shifted luminescence than v-CTZ when it was used as a substrate for Renilla luciferases. PMID:26194904

  12. Total synthesis of atropurpuran.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Huan; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Xiu; Nie, Wei; Qin, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Due to their architectural intricacy and biological significance, the synthesis of polycyclic diterpenes and their biogenetically related alkaloids have been the subject of considerable interest over the last few decades, with progress including the impressive synthesis of several elusive targets. Despite tremendous efforts, conquering the unique structural types of this large natural product family remains a long-term challenge. The arcutane diterpenes and related alkaloids, bearing a congested tetracyclo[5.3.3.0(4,9).0(4,12)]tridecane unit, are included in these unsolved enigmas. Here we report a concise approach to the construction of the core structure of these molecules and the first total synthesis of (±)-atropurpuran. Pivotal features of the synthesis include an oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition cascade, sequential aldol and ketyl-olefin cyclizations to assemble the highly caged framework, and a chemoselective and stereoselective reduction to install the requisite allylic hydroxyl group in the target molecule. PMID:27387707

  13. Total synthesis of atropurpuran

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Huan; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Xiu; Nie, Wei; Qin, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Due to their architectural intricacy and biological significance, the synthesis of polycyclic diterpenes and their biogenetically related alkaloids have been the subject of considerable interest over the last few decades, with progress including the impressive synthesis of several elusive targets. Despite tremendous efforts, conquering the unique structural types of this large natural product family remains a long-term challenge. The arcutane diterpenes and related alkaloids, bearing a congested tetracyclo[5.3.3.04,9.04,12]tridecane unit, are included in these unsolved enigmas. Here we report a concise approach to the construction of the core structure of these molecules and the first total synthesis of (±)-atropurpuran. Pivotal features of the synthesis include an oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition cascade, sequential aldol and ketyl-olefin cyclizations to assemble the highly caged framework, and a chemoselective and stereoselective reduction to install the requisite allylic hydroxyl group in the target molecule. PMID:27387707

  14. Total Synthesis of (-)-Exiguolide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigao; Xie, Hengmu; Li, Hongze; Gao, Lu; Song, Zhenlei

    2015-10-01

    A concise total synthesis of (-)-exiguolide has been completed in an overall 2.8% yield over 20 steps in the longest linear path. The key strategies involve (1) Prins cyclization/homobromination of dienyl alcohol with the B ring-substituted aldehyde, prepared by Prins cyclization/bromination, to construct the A ring with excellent cis-Z stereochemical control and (2) an unusual side chain installation/macrocyclization strategy featuring Sonogashira cross-coupling followed by a ring-closing metathesis reaction to deliver the target. PMID:26371396

  15. A concise and stereoselective synthesis of squalamine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Hui; Cai, Feng; Zhou, Xiang-Dong; Zhou, Wei-Shan

    2003-09-01

    [reaction: see text] A short and highly stereoselective synthesis of the novel steroid squalamine (1) was accomplished in nine steps from easily available methyl chenodeoxylcholanate 2. Our synthesis featured improved dehydrogenation of 4 followed by conjugate reduction to construct the trans AB-ring system and efficient asymmetric isopropylation of aldehyde 6 to introduce the C-24R-hydroxyl group. PMID:12943401

  16. Concise Synthesis of Astellatol Core Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Xie, Shengling; Chen, Gui; Xu, Jing

    2016-08-26

    A ten-step, enantiospecific synthesis of the highly challenging core skeleton of sesterterpenoid astellatol has been achieved. Key transformations of this strategy include a facile, convergent construction of the tricyclic motif and a SmI2 -induced reductive radical cyclization that forms the pivotal cyclobutane ring. PMID:27398681

  17. Concise Total Synthesis of Ivorenolide B.

    PubMed

    Ungeheuer, Felix; Fürstner, Alois

    2015-08-01

    An expeditious route to the potential immunosuppressive lead compound ivorenolide B (1) is described, which relies on the formation of the distinctive 1,3-diyne subunit embedded into the 17-membered framework of this target by ring-closing alkyne metathesis (RCAM). This key transformation was accomplished with the aid of the molybdenum alkylidyne complex 7, which turned out to be compatible with the acid sensitive propargylic alcohol substituents as well as the terminal alkyne unit present in the cyclization precursor. As the presence of such functionality had been detrimental for alkyne metathesis until very recently, this example illustrates the excellent application profile of this new catalyst as well as the rapidly increasing scope of the transformation. Its structural outreach can be further increased by subjecting cyclo-1,3-diynes to appropriate post-metathetic transformations, most notably with the help of alkynophilic gold or palladium catalysts. This aspect is illustrated by the conversion of the model compound 4 into various cyclophane products. PMID:26140703

  18. Concise Total Synthesis of Enigmazole A.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, Andreas; de Haro, Teresa; Gabor, Barbara; Fürstner, Alois

    2016-01-22

    An efficient entry into the phosphorylated marine macrolide enigmazole A is described. Enigmazole A interferes with c-Kit signaling by an as yet unknown mode of action and is therefore a potential lead in the quest for novel anticancer agents. Key to success is a gold-catalyzed cascade comprising a [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of a propargyl acetate along the periphery of a macrocyclic scaffold, followed by a transannular hydroalkoxylation of the resulting transient allenyl acetate. This transformation mandated the use of a chiral gold catalyst to ensure a matching double-asymmetric setting. Other noteworthy steps are the preparation of the oxazole building block by a palladium-catalyzed C-H activation, as well as the smooth ring-closing alkyne metathesis of a diyne substrate bearing a propargylic leaving group, which has only little precedent. PMID:26663132

  19. Formal total synthesis of platencin.

    PubMed

    Varseev, Georgy N; Maier, Martin E

    2009-01-01

    The right bicycle: A concise formal synthesis of platencin was based on an efficient oxygen-mediated palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation of 1 to form a bicyclo[3.2.1]octane, and a deoxygenative rearrangement of tosylhydrazone 2 to construct the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane 3. The total yield of the core structure 4 of platencin was 17.5% for 13 steps from a commercially available compound. Ts = p-toluenesulfonyl, TBS = tert-butyldimethylsilyl, Piv = pivaloyl. PMID:19353600

  20. A Total Synthesis of Paeoveitol.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lun; Liu, Fengyi; Xu, Li-Wen; Gao, Ziwei; Zhao, Yu-Ming

    2016-08-01

    A four-step total synthesis of paeoveitol (1), a recently disclosed norditerpene natural product from Paeonia vetchii, is reported. This highly concise synthetic route was guided by biosynthetic considerations and enabled by an unusual intermolecular ortho-quinone methide [4 + 2]-cycloaddition reaction, which proceeded with excellent regio- and diastereoselectivity. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations point to a crucial intermolecular hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interaction that govern selectivity in this process. PMID:27389027

  1. Total Synthesis of the Akuammiline Alkaloid Picrinine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the first total synthesis of the complex akuammiline alkaloid picrinine, which was first isolated nearly five decades ago. Our synthetic approach features a concise assembly of the [3.3.1]-azabicyclic core, a key Fischer indolization reaction to forge the natural product’s carbon framework, and a series of delicate late-stage transformations to complete the synthesis. Our synthesis of picrinine also constitutes a formal synthesis of the related polycyclic alkaloid strictamine. PMID:24597784

  2. Concise synthesis of the A/BCD-ring fragment of gambieric acid A

    PubMed Central

    Fuwa, Haruhiko; Fukazawa, Ryo; Sasaki, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Gambieric acid A (GAA) and its congeners belong to the family of marine polycyclic ether natural products. Their highly complex molecular architecture and unique biological activities have been of intense interest within the synthetic community. We have previously reported the first total synthesis, stereochemical reassignment, and preliminary structure–activity relationships of GAA. Here we disclose a concise synthesis of the A/BCD-ring fragment of GAA. The synthesis started from our previously reported synthetic intermediate that represents the A/B-ring. The C-ring was synthesized via an oxiranyl anion coupling and a 6-endo cyclization, and the D-ring was forged by means of an oxidative lactonization and subsequent palladium-catalyzed functionalization of the lactone ring. In this manner, the number of linear synthetic steps required for the construction of the C- and D-rings was reduced from 22 to 11. PMID:25629027

  3. Concise Synthesis of (2R,4R)-Monatin.

    PubMed

    Amino, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Monatin, 4-hydroxy-4-(3-indolylmethyl)-glutamic acid, is a naturally occurring sweet amino acid. The (2R,4R)-monatin isomer has been found to be the sweetest among its four stereoisomers. A concise and efficient synthesis of (2R,4R)-monatin was accomplished by the alkylation of (4R)-N-tert-butoxycarbonyl (tBoc)-4-tert-butyldimethylsilyoxy-D-pyroglutamic acid methyl ester with tert-butyl 3-(bromomethyl)-1H-indole-1-carboxylate to give (4R)-N-tBoc-4-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-4-(N-tBoc-3-indolylmethyl)-D-pyroglutamic acid methyl ester, i.e., the lactam form of (2R,4R)-monatin with protecting groups. This was followed by the hydrolysis of the lactam ring and deprotection. The 4-hydroxyl D-pyroglutamic acid derivative was demonstrated to be a suitable precursor for the efficient preparation of (2R,4R)-monatin in high optical purity because the alkylation proceeded in regioselective and stereoselective manners at C4 to form appropriate asymmetric tetra-substituted carbon center; the resulting alkylated pyroglutamic acid derivative was then easily converted into the linear form of monatin. PMID:27477667

  4. Concise Total Syntheses of (+)-Haplocidine and (+)-Haplocine via Late-Stage Oxidation of (+)-Fendleridine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    White, Kolby L; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    We report the first total syntheses of (+)-haplocidine and its N1-amide congener (+)-haplocine. Our concise synthesis of these alkaloids required the development of a late-stage and highly selective C-H oxidation of complex aspidosperma alkaloid derivatives. A versatile, amide-directed ortho-acetoxylation of indoline amides enabled our implementation of a unified strategy for late-stage diversification of hexacyclic C19-hemiaminal ether structures via oxidation of the corresponding pentacyclic C19-iminium ions. An electrophilic amide activation of a readily available C21-oxygenated lactam, followed by transannular cyclization and in situ trapping of a transiently formed C19-iminium ion, expediently provided access to hexacyclic C19-hemiaminal ether alkaloids (+)-fendleridine, (+)-acetylaspidoalbidine, and (+)-propionylaspidoalbidine. A highly effective enzymatic resolution of a non-β-branched primary alcohol (E = 22) allowed rapid preparation of both enantiomeric forms of a C21-oxygenated precursor for synthesis of these aspidosperma alkaloids. Our synthetic strategy provides succinct access to hexacyclic aspidosperma derivatives, including the antiproliferative alkaloid (+)-haplocidine. PMID:27510728

  5. A General, Concise Strategy that Enables Collective Total Syntheses of over 50 Protoberberine and Five Aporhoeadane Alkaloids within Four to Eight Steps.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiqiang; Tong, Rongbiao

    2016-05-17

    A concise, catalytic, and general strategy that allowed efficient total syntheses of 22 natural 13-methylprotoberberines within four steps for each molecule is reported. This synthesis represents the most efficient and shortest route to date, featuring three catalytic processes: CuI-catalyzed redox-A(3) reaction, Pd-catalyzed reductive carbocyclization, and PtO2 -catalyzed hydrogenation. Importantly, this new strategy to the tetracyclic framework has also been applied to the collective concise syntheses of >30 natural protoberberines (without 13-methyl group) and five aporhoeadane alkaloids. PMID:26990887

  6. Total Synthesis of (+)-Acutiphycin

    PubMed Central

    Moslin, Ryan M.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic studies toward the total synthesis of (+)-acutiphycin (1) resulted in the discovery of additive-free, highly regioselective nickel-catalyzed reductive coupling reactions of aldehydes and 1,6-enynes and the construction of an advanced intermediate in studies directed toward the synthesis of 1. Ultimately, though not employing the nickel-catalyzed reaction, a highly convergent total synthesis of (+)-acutiphycin featuring an intermolecular SmI2-mediated Reformatsky coupling reaction and macrolactonization initiated by a retro-ene reaction of an alkoxyalkyne was achieved. The resulting synthesis was 18 steps in the longest linear sequence from either methyl acetoacetate or isobutyraldehyde. PMID:17985925

  7. Concise Total Syntheses of the Lycopodium Alkaloids (±)-Nankakurines A and B via Luciduline

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiayun; Waters, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01

    Total syntheses of the Lycopodium alkaloids nankakurines A and B have been accomplished in 6 and 7 steps, respectively, via a sequence that passes through a third Lycopodium alkaloid, luciduline, and forgoes the use of protecting groups on nitrogen. Key features include a short preparation of luciduline followed by a concise and stereoselective aminoallylation/ring-closing metathesis protocol to fashion the spiropiperidine ring common to nankakurines A and B. PMID:20014779

  8. Total Synthesis of (-)-Cardiopetaline.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yoshitake; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2016-05-20

    The total synthesis of (-)-cardiopetaline, an aconitine-type natural product, has been accomplished. Our synthesis involved a Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement of a sulfonyloxirane that enabled, in a single step, the construction of the bicyclo[3.2.1] system in the aconitine skeleton and effective introduction of oxygen functional groups at the appropriate positions. PMID:27166640

  9. Total Synthesis of Teixobactin.

    PubMed

    Giltrap, Andrew M; Dowman, Luke J; Nagalingam, Gayathri; Ochoa, Jessica L; Linington, Roger G; Britton, Warwick J; Payne, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    The first total synthesis of the cyclic depsipeptide natural product teixobactin is described. Synthesis was achieved by solid-phase peptide synthesis, incorporating the unusual l-allo-enduracididine as a suitably protected synthetic cassette and employing a key on-resin esterification and solution-phase macrolactamization. The synthetic natural product was shown to possess potent antibacterial activity against a range of Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, including a virulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:27191730

  10. Total synthesis of jiadifenolide.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Ian; Xuan, Mengyang; Dalby, Stephen M

    2014-07-01

    As a potent neurotrophic agent, the sesquiterpenoid jiadifenolide represents a valuable small-molecule lead for the potential therapeutic treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. A stereocontrolled total synthesis of this densely functionalized natural product is reported, central to which is an adventurous samarium-mediated cyclization reaction to establish the tricyclic core and the adjacent C5 and C6 quaternary stereocenters. PMID:24861364

  11. Total Synthesis of Jiadifenolide**

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Ian; Xuan, Mengyang; Dalby, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    As a potent neurotrophic agent, the sesquiterpenoid jiadifenolide represents a valuable small-molecule lead for the potential therapeutic treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. A stereocontrolled total synthesis of this densely functionalized natural product is reported, central to which is an adventurous samarium-mediated cyclization reaction to establish the tricyclic core and the adjacent C5 and C6 quaternary stereocenters. PMID:24861364

  12. Total Synthesis of (±)-7-epi-Nemorosone

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Porco, John A.

    2012-01-01

    A concise total synthesis of (±)-7-epi-nemorosone is reported. Our synthetic approach establishes a viable route to polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol natural products (PPAP’s) bearing a C-7 endo prenyl sidechain. Key steps include retro-aldol-vinyl cerium addition to a hydroxy adamantane core scaffold and palladium-mediated deoxygenation. PMID:22449198

  13. Enzymatic synthesis of C-11 formaldehyde: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Slegers, G.; Lambrecht, R.H.D.; Vandewalle, T.; Meulewaeter, L.; Vandecasteele, C.

    1984-03-01

    An enzymatic synthesis of C-11 formaldehyde from C-11 methanol is presented, with immobilized alcohol oxidase and catalase: a rapid, simple procedure, with a high and reproducible yield. Carbon-11 methanol is oxidized to C-11 formaldehyde by passage over a column on which the enzymes alcohol oxidase and catalase are immobilized. The catalase increases reaction velocity by recycling the oxygen, and prevents destruction of the alcohol oxidase by eliminating the excess of hydrogen peroxide. The yield of the enzyme-catalyzed oxidation was 80-95%. A specific activity of 400-450 mCi/..mu..mole was obtained at EOB + 20 min. Various immobilization techniques and the optimal reaction conditions of the immobilized enzymes are investigated.

  14. Total synthesis of clostrubin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Li, Jian; Li, Ang

    2015-01-01

    Clostrubin is a potent antibiotic against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant bacteria that was isolated from a strictly anaerobic bacterium Clostridium beijerinckii in 2014. This polyphenol possesses a fully substituted arene moiety on its pentacyclic scaffold, which poses a considerable challenge for chemical synthesis. Here we report the first total synthesis of clostrubin in nine steps (the longest linear sequence). A desymmetrization strategy is exploited based on the inherent structural feature of the natural product. Barton–Kellogg olefination forges the two segments together to form a tetrasubstituted alkene. A photo-induced 6π electrocyclization followed by spontaneous aromatization constructs the hexasubstituted B ring at a late stage. In total, 200 mg of clostrubin are delivered through this approach. PMID:25759087

  15. Total Synthesis of Millingtonine.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patrick D; Lawrence, Andrew L

    2016-07-11

    Millingtonine is a glycosidic alkaloid that exists as a pair of pseudo-enantiomeric diastereomers. Consideration of the likely biosynthetic origins of this unusual natural product has resulted in the development of a seven-step total synthesis. Results from this synthetic work provide evidence in support of a proposed network of biosynthetic pathways that can account for the formation of several phenylethanoid natural products. PMID:27249628

  16. Total synthesis of teixobactin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H.; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-08-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product.

  17. Total synthesis of teixobactin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-01-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product. PMID:27484680

  18. Total synthesis of teixobactin

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H.; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-01-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product. PMID:27484680

  19. Development of a Concise Synthesis of Ouabagenin and Hydroxylated Corticosteroid Analogues

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The natural product ouabagenin is a complex cardiotonic steroid with a highly oxygenated skeleton. This full account describes the development of a concise synthesis of ouabagenin, including the evolution of synthetic strategy to access hydroxylation at the C19 position of a steroid skeleton. In addition, approaches to install the requisite butenolide moiety at the C17 position are discussed. Lastly, methodology developed in this synthesis has been applied in the generation of novel analogues of corticosteroid drugs bearing a hydroxyl group at the C19 position. PMID:25594682

  20. Total Synthesis of Hyperforin.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J

    2015-08-26

    A 10-step total synthesis of the polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural product hyperforin from 2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is reported. This route was enabled by a diketene annulation reaction and an oxidative ring expansion strategy designed to complement the presumed biosynthesis of this complex meroterpene. The described work enables the preparation of a highly substituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-1,3,5-trione motif in only six steps and thus serves as a platform for the construction of easily synthesized, highly diverse PPAPs modifiable at every position. PMID:26252484

  1. Total Synthesis of (-)-Daphenylline.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Adachi, Yohei; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2016-05-10

    Total synthesis of (-)-daphenylline, a hexacyclic Daphniphyllum alkaloid, was achieved. Construction of the tricyclic DEF ring system was initiated by asymmetric Negishi coupling followed by an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reaction. Installation of a side chain onto the tricyclic core was carried out through Sonogashira coupling, stereocontrolled Claisen rearrangement by taking advantage of the characteristic conformation of the tricyclic DEF core, and the stereoselective alkylation of a lactone. After the introduction of a glycine unit, the ABC ring system was stereoselectively constructed through intramolecular cycloaddition of the cyclic azomethine ylide. PMID:27062676

  2. Total synthesis of pamamycin-649B.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Petra; Gruner, Margit; Jäger, Anne; Kataeva, Olga; Metz, Peter

    2011-11-18

    The first total synthesis of the macrodiolide antibiotic pamamycin-649B (1) was achieved by using sultone methodology. The diethyl substituted larger hydroxy acid fragment was constructed in a concise fashion through domino elimination/alkoxide-directed 1,6-additions of ethyllithium to sultones derived from intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of furan-containing vinylsulfonates. Intermolecular Yamaguchi esterification of the two hydroxy acid building blocks and subsequent Yamaguchi cyclization eventually provided the target macrocycle 1. Since the final lactonization with formation of the ester linkage between C1' and the C8 oxygen proceeded with complete C2' epimerization, the more readily available C2' epimeric smaller fragment could be used to streamline the synthetic sequence. PMID:22012748

  3. Total synthesis of diterpenoid steenkrotin A.

    PubMed

    Pan, Saiyong; Xuan, Jun; Gao, Beiling; Zhu, An; Ding, Hanfeng

    2015-06-01

    A concise and diastereoselective total synthesis of the diterpenoid (±)-steenkrotin A is described for the first time. The strategy mainly features three key ring formations: 1) a rhodium-catalyzed O-H bond insertion followed by an intramolecular carbonyl-ene reaction to build up the tetrahydrofuran subunit; 2) sequential SmI2 -mediated Ueno-Stork and ketyl-olefin cyclizations to construct the [5,7] spirobicyclic skeleton; and 3) an intramolecular aldol condensation/vinylogous retro-aldol/aldol sequence to form the final six-membered ring with inversion of the relative configuration at the C7 position. PMID:25891977

  4. Total Synthesis of Alkaloid 205B

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Concise and highly stereocontrolled total syntheses of racemic and enantiopure frog alkaloid 205B (1) were accomplished in 11 steps from 4-methoxypyridines 6 and 7 in overall yields of 8 and 8%, respectively. The assembly of the core of the natural product relies on a stereoselective Tsuji–Trost allylic amination reaction and a ring-closing metathesis. The synthesis features the use of an N-acylpyridinium salt reaction to introduce the first stereocenter and an unprecedented trifluoroacetic anhydride-mediated addition of an allylstannane to a vinylogous amide with complete facial selectivity. Deoxygenation of the C4 ketone proved difficult but was accomplished via a modified Barton–McCombie reaction in the presence of a catalytic amount of diphenyl diselenide. PMID:25180567

  5. Total synthesis of (-)-spinosyn A.

    PubMed

    Mergott, Dustin J; Frank, Scott A; Roush, William R

    2004-08-17

    A convergent, highly stereoselective total synthesis of (-)-spinosyn A (1) is described. Key features of the synthesis include the transannular Diels-Alder reaction of macrocyclic pentaene 11 and the transannular Morita-Baylis-Hillman cyclization of 12 that generates tetracycle 26. The total synthesis of (-)-spinosyn A was completed by a sequence involving the highly beta-selective glycosidation reaction of 13 and glycosyl imidate 30. PMID:15173590

  6. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (-)-Pironetin

    PubMed Central

    Crimmins, Michael T.; Dechert, Anne-Marie R.

    2009-01-01

    The enantioselective total synthesis of pironetin has been achieved in 11 steps from known aldehyde 2. The synthesis relies on the formation of 5 out of 6 stereocenters through titanium mediated iterative aldol reactions. Key steps in this synthesis include an acetal aldol reaction to establish the stereochemistry at C8 and C9, an acetate aldol reaction, and “Evans” syn aldol reaction. PMID:19281219

  7. Total synthesis of laidlomycin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonchul; Kang, Sungkyoung; Jung, Byunghyuck; Lee, Hee-Seung; Kang, Sung Ho

    2016-02-28

    The synthesis of laidlomycin is described. With an established stereocontrolled synthetic route to the aldehyde 5, the known β-keto phosphonate 4 was coupled with 5 and the resulting enone was subjected to a sequential hydrogenolysis/hydrogenation and equilibration process to effect the correct spiroketalization for the natural product. The stereogenic carbons were elaborated by desymmetrization for C12, allylation for C13, vanadyl-induced epoxidation for C16, Zn(BH4)2 reduction for C17, a chiral building block for C18 and C24, Shi epoxidation for C20 and C21, Myers' alkylation for C22, and thermodynamic control for C25. PMID:26842424

  8. Diastereoselective Total Synthesis of (-)-Galiellalactone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taewoo; Han, Young Taek; An, Hongchan; Kim, Kyeojin; Lee, Jeeyeon; Suh, Young-Ger

    2015-12-18

    An enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-galiellalactone has been accomplished. The key features of the synthesis involve the highly stereoselective construction of the cis-trisubstituted cyclopentane intermediate by a Pd(0)-catalyzed cyclization, the stereospecific introduction of an angular hydroxyl group by Riley oxidation, and the efficient construction of the tricyclic system of (-)-galiellalactone via a combination of diastereoselective Hosomi-Sakurai crotylation and ring-closing metathesis (RCM). PMID:26544529

  9. Total Synthesis of Gombamide A.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Lindsley, Craig W

    2016-08-01

    The first total synthesis of Gombamide A (1), a cytotoxic cyclic thiopeptide from the sponge Clathria gombawuiensis, has been achieved. Highlights of the convergent synthesis feature a disulfide bond forming cascade to close the 17-membered macrocycle and a selenoazidylation procedure to access the unusual para-hydroxystyrlyamide (pHSA) moiety. The synthesis required 18 steps, 11 steps in its longest linear sequence, and proceeded in 9.1% overall yield. This work will facilitate the study of the biological effects of Gombamide A and provide groundwork to explore the structure-activity relationship around this rare natural product. PMID:27442228

  10. Total Synthesis of Amphirionin-4.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Michael; Kwon, Daniel; Taron, Matthew; Britton, Robert

    2015-08-01

    The first total synthesis of amphirionin-4 has been achieved using a combination of cross-coupling strategies to access the polyene side chain and a chlorohydrin-based approach to construct the tetrahydrofuranol core. The remote C9-stereocenter was introduced through a Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi coupling that proceeded with remote stereoinduction. PMID:26172382

  11. The Total Synthesis of Neoamphimedine

    PubMed Central

    LaBarbera, Daniel V.; Bugni, Tim S.; Ireland, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    Neoamphimedine, a Pyridoacridine alkaloid from Xestospongia sp., is a potent antitumor agent both in vitro and in vivo. Neoamphimedine can efficiently induce topoisomerase II mediated catenation of plasmid DNA in vitro, and is the only member of more than one hundred pyridoacridines thus far to have this mechanism of action. Herein we report the first total synthesis of Neoamphimedine. PMID:17900144

  12. Synthesis of α-Chiral Butyrolactones by Highly Stereoselective Radical Transfer or Sequential Asymmetric Alkylations: Concise Preparation of Leupyrrin Moieties.

    PubMed

    Schrempp, Michael; Thiede, Sebastian; Herkommer, Daniel; Gansäuer, Andreas; Menche, Dirk

    2015-11-01

    Inspired by the bioactive natural metabolites leupyrrin A1 and B1 , two novel stereoselective methods for the highly concise synthesis of densely substituted α-chiral butyrolactones are reported. The first approach relies on an innovative three-step Ti(III) -catalyzed radical reaction that proceeds with excellent chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity. The alternative route utilizes sequential asymmetric alkylations and enables asymmetric synthesis of the authentic α-tetrasubstituted butyrolactone motif of the leupyrrins in only four steps from commercially available substrates. PMID:26354047

  13. Total synthesis of atrochamins F, H, I, and J through cascade reactions

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Lister, Troy; Denton, Ross M.; Gelin, Christine F.

    2008-01-01

    A concise and efficient cascade-based total synthesis of artochamins F, H, I, and J is described. The potential biogenetic connection between artochamin F, or a derivative thereof, and artochamins H, I, and J, through an unusual formal [2+2] cycloaddition process, was shown to be feasible. An alternative mechanism for this transformation is also proposed. PMID:19461992

  14. Total synthesis of (±)-leuconolam: intramolecular allylic silane addition to a maleimide carbonyl group

    PubMed Central

    Izgu, Enver Cagri

    2014-01-01

    A concise total synthesis of the plant alkaloid (±)-leuconolam (1) has been achieved. A regio- and diastereoselective Lewis-acid mediated allylative cyclization was used to establish, simultaneously, two adjacent tetrasubstituted carbon centers. Furthermore, an essential arene cross-coupling to a hindered haloalkene was enabled by the use of a novel 2-anilinostannane. PMID:25419448

  15. Short, Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Highly Oxidized Taxanes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Changxia; Jin, Yehua; Wilde, Nathan C; Baran, Phil S

    2016-07-11

    In the realm of natural product chemistry, few isolates have risen to the level of fame justifiably accorded to Taxol (1) and its chemical siblings. This report describes the most concise route to date for accessing the highly oxidized members of this family. As representative members of taxanes containing five oxygen atoms, decinnamoyltaxinine E (2) and taxabaccatin III (3), have succumbed to enantioselective total synthesis for the first time in only 18 steps from a simple olefin starting material. The strategy holistically mimics nature's approach (two-phase synthesis) and features a carefully choreographed sequence of stereoselective oxidations and a remarkable redox-isomerization to set the key trans-diol present in 2 and 3. This work lays the critical groundwork necessary to access even higher oxidized taxanes such as 1 in a more practical fashion, thus empowering a medicinal chemistry campaign that is not wedded to semi-synthesis. PMID:27240325

  16. Total synthesis of (-)-uniflorine A.

    PubMed

    Parmeggiani, Camilla; Martella, Daniele; Cardona, Francesca; Goti, Andrea

    2009-11-01

    Total synthesis of (-)-uniflorine A (3) has been accomplished in nine steps and 11% overall yield from carbohydrate-based nitrone 5. The key steps of the synthetic strategy were a high regio- and complete stereoselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of alkene 6 with nitrone 5, a Tamao-Fleming reaction for replacing the silicon substituent with a hydroxy group with retention of configuration, and a Mitsunobu reaction to establish the correct configuration of the target molecule at C-6. PMID:19835391

  17. Total synthesis of maoecrystal V.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Bin; Lin, Guang; Shao, Wen-Bin; Gong, Jian-Xian; Yang, Zhen

    2015-04-01

    Maoecrystal V (1) is a novel diterpenoid, which was originally isolated from the leaves of the Chinese medicinal herb Isodon eriocalyx in 2004 by Sun et al.1 It has been found to be selectively cytotoxic towards HeLa cells, with an IC50 value of 20 ng mL(-1) . Significant research efforts have been devoted to the synthesis of maoecrystal V because of its intriguing biological properties, rarity in nature, and complex structural features. Herein, we describe our recent investigations, which have culminated in the total synthesis of (±)-maoecrystal V. The current strategy involved three key steps for the successful construction of the key tetrahydrofuran oxa-bridge skeleton, including a Wessely oxidative dearomatization, a novel intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, and a Rh(II) -catalyzed O - H insertion reaction. PMID:25504983

  18. Modular Total Synthesis of Protein Kinase C Activator (-)-Indolactam V.

    PubMed

    Haynes-Smith, Jeremy; Diaz, Italia; Billingsley, Kelvin L

    2016-05-01

    A concise, eight-step total synthesis of (-)-indolactam V, a nanomolar agonist of protein kinase C, is reported. The synthesis relies upon an efficient copper-catalyzed amino acid arylation to establish the indole C4-nitrogen bond. This cross-coupling method is applicable to a range of hydrophobic amino acids, providing a platform for further diversification of indolactam alkaloid scaffolds and studies on their potent biological activity. PMID:27074538

  19. Total Synthesis of the Ammosamides

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Chambers C.; Fenical, William

    2010-01-01

    The ammosamides A-C are chlorinated pyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinoline metabolites isolated from the marine-derived Streptomyces strain CNR-698. The natural products, which possess a dense array of heteroatoms, were synthesized in 17–19 steps from 4-chloroisatin. That the five nitrogen atoms were introduced at the appropriate time and in a suitable oxidation state was key to the success of the total synthesis. Compared to synthetic deschloro ammosamide B, natural ammosamide B is much less susceptible to oxidative degradation. PMID:20131899

  20. Total Synthesis of Calophyline A.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Xie, Xiaoni; Zu, Liansuo

    2016-08-22

    Reported herein is the total synthesis of calophyline A, an indoline natural product possessing distinct ring connectivity which has not been synthesized previously. The synthetic route features several key transformations, including an aza-pinacol rearrangement to construct the nitrogen-containing bridged [3.2.2] bicycle, a Heck cyclization to assemble the fused 6/5/6/5 ring system, and a challenging late-stage aldol reaction to generate both a neopentyl quaternary stereogenic center and an oxygen-containing bridged [3.2.1] bicycle. PMID:27294980

  1. Total Synthesis of the Hamigerans.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojun; Xue, Dongsheng; Wang, Cheng; Gao, Shuanhu

    2016-08-16

    The first total synthesis of hamigerans D, G, L, and N-Q has been accomplished. A convergent approach was used to build the basic tricarbocyclic ring system bearing a 5-6-6 structure. A sequence of oxidative cleavage, homologation, and ring regeneration provided access to the 5-7-6 skeleton of hamigeran G. Based on the biogenetic hypothesis, elegant and highly efficient biomimetic transformations of hamigeran G into hamigerans D, N-Q, and L were achieved. PMID:27390907

  2. Tandem Electrocyclic Ring Opening/Radical Cyclization: Application to the Total Synthesis of Cribrostatin 6

    PubMed Central

    Knueppel, Daniel; Martin, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    A concise total synthesis ofcribrostatin 6 (1), an antimicrobial and antineoplastic agent,was accomplished using a tandem electrocyclic ring opening/radical cyclization sequence. Specifically, intermediate4 underwent a 4π-electrocyclic ring opening, radical cyclization, and homolytic aromatic substitution sequence followed by an oxidation to afford the natural product1in one pot. Owing to the rapid buildup of complexity in the key step, 1 could be synthesized from commercially available starting materials in only four linear steps. Application of this chemistry to the concise syntheses of analogs of cribrostatin 6 (1) is also reported. PMID:22125344

  3. A Nine-Step Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Vincorine

    PubMed Central

    Horning, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    A concise and highly enantioselective total synthesis of the akuammiline alkaloid (−)-vincorine has been accomplished. A key element of the synthesis is a stereoselective organocatalytic Diels–Alder, iminium cyclization cascade sequence, which serves to construct the tetracyclic alkaloid core architecture in one step from simple achiral precursors. The challenging seven-membered, azepanyl ring system is installed by way of a single electron-mediated cyclization event initiated from an acyl telluride precursor. The total synthesis of (−)-vincorine is achieved in nine steps and 9% overall yield from commercially available starting materials. PMID:23586842

  4. Concise synthesis of calystegines B2 and B3via intramolecular Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Yao; Kato, Atsushi; Kinami, Kyoko; Li, Yi-Xian; Fleet, George W J; Yu, Chu-Yi

    2016-06-01

    The key step in the concise syntheses of calystegine B2 and its C-2 epimer calystegine B3 was the construction of cycloheptanone 8via an intramolecular Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi (NHK) reaction of 9, an aldehyde containing a Z-vinyl iodide. Vinyl iodide 9 was obtained by the Stork olefination of aldehyde 10, derived from carbohydrate starting materials. Calystegines B2 (3) and B3 (4) were synthesized from d-xylose and l-arabinose derivatives respectively in 11 steps in excellent overall yields (27% and 19%). PMID:27161660

  5. Efficient total synthesis of novel bioactive microbial metabolites.

    PubMed

    Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Hirose, Tomoyasu; Omura, Satoshi

    2008-02-01

    Bioactive natural products produced by microbes have almost limitless potential in pharmaceutical applications, and the organic synthesis of such products as lead compounds will result in the creation of new and widely useful pharmaceutical products. A program of discovery of naturally occurring bioactive microbial metabolites has been ongoing at the Kitasato Institute. We have also developed efficient, rational, and highly flexible production methods for generation of target compounds, synthesis of related compounds, elucidation of their structure-activity relationships, and the possible creation of improved bioactive compounds. In this Account, the isolation and total synthesis of naturally occurring bioactive microbial metabolites in order to create novel medicines for specific illnesses is described. This covers diseases and conditions such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, inflammation, and osteoporosis, among others, and focuses on six specific compounds. Pyripyropenes were discovered from Aspergillus fumigatus FO-1289 through our screening of microbial metabolites that strongly inhibit acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) in order to develop a new class of cholesterol-lowering agents. These novel polyoxygenated mixed polyketide-terpenoid (meroterpenoid) metabolites contain a fused pyridyl alpha-pyrone moiety. We carried out the first total synthesis of (+)-pyripyropene A via a flexible, concise, and highly efficient route and also clarified the structure-activity relationships. Arisugacins were discovered from Penicillium sp. FO-4259 by our screening of microbial metabolites that strongly inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in order to create novel medicines for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Arisugacins are also meroterpenoids. We have achieved the first convergent total synthesis of arisugacins A and B. Lactacystin was isolated from Streptomyces sp. OM-6519 via our screening of microbial metabolites that promote the differentiation of the

  6. Intramolecular 1,5-H transfer reaction of aryl iodides through visible-light photoredox catalysis: a concise method for the synthesis of natural product scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Qiang; Wei, Yun-Long; Xu, Guo-Qiang; Liang, Yong-Min; Xu, Peng-Fei

    2016-05-11

    The intramolecular 1,5-H transfer reaction of the aryl radicals generated from unactivated aryl iodides by photocatalysis is described. The features of this transformation are operational simplicity, excellent yields, mild reaction conditions, and good functional group tolerance. With this approach, a more concise formal synthesis of (±)-coerulescine and (±)-physovenine is accomplished. PMID:27100267

  7. Total synthesis of cytotoxic metabolite ( ± )-desmethyldiaportinol from Ampelomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Aamer; Qasim, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    A concise total synthesis of ( ± )-desmethyldiaportinol isolated from Ampelomyces sp. is described. Microwave-assisted cyclocondensation of 3,5-dimethoxyhomopthalic acid with 3,4-dibromobutanoyl chloride afforded the 3-(2,3-dibromopropyl)-6, 8-dimethoxyisocoumarin in 2-3 min as the pivotal step. The 3,4-dibromobutanoyl chloride was itself synthesised from 3-butenoic acid via bromination in carbon tetrachloride at room temperature to yield 3,4-dibromobutanoic acid followed by reaction with thionyl chloride. The replacement of bromo- by hydroxyl substituent was achieved under mild conditions involving the refluxing in a mixture of acetone and water to provide ( ± )-3-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-6,8-dimethoxyisocoumarin which on complete demethylation furnished the title natural product. PMID:24303787

  8. Aryne insertion reactions leading to bioactive fused quinazolinones: diastereoselective total synthesis of cruciferane.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Sagar D; Argade, Narshinha P

    2013-08-01

    Insertion reactions of an in situ generated arynes to a variety of suitably substituted 1,3-quinazolin-4-ones have been demonstrated for a new efficient one-step approach to a diverse range of fused quinazolinone architectures. The present protocol has been effectively utilized to accomplish the concise total synthesis of recently isolated bioactive natural products tryptanthrin, phaitanthrins A-C, and cruciferane. PMID:23862684

  9. Total synthesis of solanoeclepin A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanino, Keiji; Takahashi, Motomasa; Tomata, Yoshihide; Tokura, Hiroshi; Uehara, Taketo; Narabu, Takashi; Miyashita, Masaaki

    2011-06-01

    Cyst nematodes are troublesome parasites that live on, and destroy, a range of important host vegetable plants. Damage caused by the potato cyst nematode has now been reported in over 50 countries. One approach to eliminating the problem is to stimulate early hatching of the nematodes, but key hatching stimuli are not naturally available in sufficient quantities to do so. Here, we report the first chemical synthesis of solanoeclepin A, the key hatch-stimulating substance for potato cyst nematode. The crucial steps in our synthesis are an intramolecular cyclization reaction for construction of the highly strained tricyclo[5.2.1.01,6]decane skeleton (DEF ring system) and an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of a furan derivative for the synthesis of the ABC carbon framework. The present synthesis has the potential to contribute to addressing one of the critical food issues of the twenty-first century.

  10. Scalable, enantioselective taxane total synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Abraham; Ishihara, Yoshihiro; Baran, Phil S.

    2011-01-01

    Taxanes are a large family of terpenes comprising over 350 members, the most famous of which is Taxol (paclitaxel) — a billion-dollar anticancer drug. Here, we describe the first practical and scalable synthetic entry to these natural products via a concise preparation of (+)-taxa-4(5),11(12)-dien-2-one, which possesses a suitable functional handle to access more oxidised members of its family. This route enabled a gram-scale preparation of the ”parent” taxane, taxadiene, representing the largest quantity of this naturally occurring terpene ever isolated or prepared in pure form. The taxane family’s characteristic 6-8-6 tricyclic system containing a bridgehead alkene is forged via a vicinal difunctionalisation/Diels–Alder strategy. Asymmetry is introduced by means of an enantioselective conjugate addition that forms an all-carbon quaternary centre, from which all other stereocentres are fixed via substrate control. This study lays a critical foundation for a planned access to minimally oxidised taxane analogs and a scalable laboratory preparation of Taxol itself. PMID:22169867

  11. Total Synthesis of Iejimalide B§

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qingshou; Schweitzer, Dirk; Kane, John; Jo Davisson, V.; Helquist, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Iejimalide B, a structurally unique 24-membered polyene macrolide having a previously underutilized mode of anticancer activity, was synthesized according to a strategy employing Julia-Kocienski olefinations, a palladium-catalyzed Heck reaction, a palladium-catalyzed Marshall propargylation, a Keck-type esterification, and a palladium-catalyzed macrolide-forming, intramolecular Stille coupling of a highly complex cyclization substrate. The overall synthesis is efficient (19.5% overall yield for 15 linear steps) and allows for more practical scaled-up synthesis than previously reported strategies that differed in the order of assembly of key subunits and in the method of macrocyclization. The present synthesis paves the way for efficient preparation of analogues for drug development efforts. PMID:21488673

  12. Concise synthesis and two-photon-excited deep-blue emission of 1,8-diazapyrenes.

    PubMed

    He, Tingchao; Too, Pei Chui; Chen, Rui; Chiba, Shunsuke; Sun, Handong

    2012-09-01

    Efficient violet-blue-emitting molecules are especially useful for applications in full-color displays, solid-state lighting, as well as in two-photon absorption (TPA) excited frequency-upconverted violet-blue lasing. However, the reported violet-blue-emitting molecules generally possess small TPA cross sections. In this work, new 1,8-diazapyrenes derivatives 3 with blue two-photon-excited fluorescence emission were concisely synthesized by the coupling reaction of readily available 1,4-naphthoquinone O,O-diacetyl dioxime (1) with internal alkynes 2 under the [{RhCl(2)Cp*}(2)]-Cu(OAc)(2) (Cp*=pentamethylcyclopentadienyl ligand) bimetallic catalytic system. Elongation of the π-conjugated length of 1,8-diazapyrenes 3 led to the increase of TPA cross sections without the expense of a redshift of the emission wavelength, probably due to the rigid planar structure of chromophores. It is especially noteworthy that 2,3,6,7-tetra(4-bromophenyl)-1,8-diazapyrene (3c) has a larger TPA cross section than those of other molecules reported so far. These experimental results are explained in terms of the effects of extension of the π-conjugated system, intramolecular charge transfer, and reduced detuning energy. PMID:22700525

  13. A concise synthesis of pyrazole analogues of combretastatin A1 as potent anti-tubulin agents.

    PubMed

    Zaninetti, Roberta; Cortese, Salvatore V; Aprile, Silvio; Massarotti, Alberto; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Sorba, Giovanni; Grosa, Giorgio; Genazzani, Armando A; Pirali, Tracey

    2013-04-01

    Combretastatin A1 (CA1) binds to the β-subunit at the colchicine binding site of tubulin and inhibits polymerization. As such, it is both an antitumor agent and a vascular disrupting agent. It has been shown to be at least tenfold more potent than combretastatin A4 (CA4) in terms of vascular shutdown, which correlates with its metabolism to reactive ortho-quinone species that are assumed to be directly cytotoxic in tumor cells. A series of 3,4-diarylpyrazoles were concisely synthesized, one of which, 3-methoxy-6-[4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]benzene-1,2-diol (27), proved to be a cytotoxic anti-tubulin agent with low nanomolar potency. We also report that combretastatins, including CA1, CA4, and 27, are effective against mesothelioma cell lines and therefore have significant clinical promise. Metabolism experiments demonstrate that 27 retains the ability to form ortho-quinone species, while the pyrazole ring shows high metabolic stability, suggesting that this compound might result in better pharmacokinetic profiles than CA1, with similar pharmacodynamic properties and clinical potential. PMID:23436706

  14. Total synthesis of bryostatins: the development of methodology for the atom-economic and stereoselective synthesis of the ring C subunit.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Frontier, Alison J; Thiel, Oliver R; Yang, Hanbiao; Dong, Guangbin

    2011-08-22

    Bryostatins, a family of structurally complicated macrolides, exhibit an exceptional range of biological activities. The limited availability and structural complexity of these molecules makes development of an efficient total synthesis particularly important. This article describes our initial efforts towards the total synthesis of bryostatins, in which chemoselective and atom-economical methods for the stereoselective assembly of the ring C subunit were developed. A Pd-catalyzed tandem alkyne-alkyne coupling/6-endo-dig cyclization sequence was explored and successfully pursued in the synthesis of a dihydropyran ring system. Elaboration of this methodology ultimately led to a concise synthesis of the ring C subunit of bryostatins. PMID:21793057

  15. Total synthesis of (-)-depyranoversicolamide B.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wen-Fang; Xiao, T; Zhang, D; Deng, Lin-Feng; Wang, Y; Qin, Y

    2015-11-18

    Starting from easily prepared (R)-C3-isoprenylated pyrroloindoline, the C3-isoprenylated indolyl diketopiperazine is prepared by an efficient reductive opening of the pyrrolo ring, and undergoes biomimetic Diels-Alder reaction to generate an anti-adduct as a sole stereoisomer. Oxidation of the indoline moiety to oxindole completes the synthesis of (-)-depyranoversicolamide B. PMID:26393932

  16. Total Synthesis of Solandelactone I.

    PubMed

    Eichenauer, Nils C; Tschersich, Roxanne; Pietruszka, Jörg

    2015-11-25

    Since the marine natural products solandelactones A-I were isolated from the hydroid Solanderia secunda and investigated by Seo et al. in 1996, considerable synthetic efforts toward these marine oxylipins followed. However, the structure elucidation of solandelactone I remained incomplete, and no synthesis has been reported. On the basis of our retrosynthetic analysis, the key building blocks were combined in a Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction to create two common intermediates for the stereodivergent synthesis of all four diastereomers 1-4 matching the proposed structure of solandelactone I. Comparison of the published analytical data of natural product solandelactone I and data obtained from the synthetic endeavor toward diastereomers 1-4 enabled the structure assignment of isomer 3; the proposed biosynthetic pathway for marine oxylipins also supports the result. PMID:26562358

  17. Total Synthesis of (-)-Luminacin D.

    PubMed

    Malassis, Julien; Bartlett, Nathan; Hands, Kane; Selby, Matthew D; Linclau, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    A second-generation synthesis of (-)-luminacin D based on an early stage introduction of the trisubstituted epoxide group is reported, allowing access to the natural product in an improved yield and a reduced number of steps (5.4%, 17 steps vs 2.6%, 19 steps). A full account of the optimization work is provided, with the reversal of stereoselection in the formation of the C4 alcohol in equally excellent diastereoselectivity as the key improvement. PMID:27054953

  18. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Reserpine

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksa, Naomi S.; McGowan, Meredeth A.; Rienzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    A catalytic, enantioselective synthesis of (+)-reserpine is reported. The route features a highly diastereoselective, chiral catalyst-controlled formal aza-Diels–Alder reaction between a 6-methoxytryptamine-derived dihydro-β-carboline and an enantioenriched α-substituted enone to form a key tetracyclic intermediate. This approach addresses the challenge of setting the C3 stereogenic center by using catalyst control. Elaboration of the tetracycle to (+)-reserpine includes an intramolecular aldol cyclization and a highly diastereoselective hydrogenation of a sterically hindered enoate. PMID:23331099

  19. "One-pot" reductive lactone alkylation provides a concise asymmetric synthesis of chiral isoprenoid targets.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jia; Perlmutter, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    An efficient method, based on nucleophilic addition to lactones followed by modified in situ Clemmensen reduction, provides a short synthetic route to chiral isoprenoid targets. The efficacy of this method has been exemplified through the synthesis of several targets including the commercial fragrance Rosaphen, the side chain of Zaragozic acid C, the cotton leaf sex pheromone, and the side chains of vitamin E. PMID:23957629

  20. Development of A Concise Synthesis of (−)-Oseltamivir (Tamiflu®)

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Zhang, Ting

    2011-01-01

    We report a full account of our work towards the development of an eight-step synthesis of anti-influenza drug (−)-oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) from commercially available starting material. The final synthetic route proceeds with an overall yield of 30 %. Key transformations include a novel palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation reaction (Pd-AAA) as well as a rhodium-catalyzed chemo-, regio-, and stereoselective aziridination reaction. PMID:21365707

  1. Syntheses of vinca alkaloids and related compounds. 104. A concise synthesis of (-)-vincapusine.

    PubMed

    Moldvai, Istvan; Gati, Tamas; Szantay, Csaba; Szantay, Csaba

    2006-05-12

    beta-Iodo-enamines with an eburnane skeleton (5a and 5c) were obtained with the aid of iodine from compounds 2a and 2c and were then transformed into hydroxyl lactams (6a and 6c) with CuSO4.5H2O in a mixture of DMF and water. Lactams (6a and 6c) were reduced selectively with BH3.SMe2 to result in the first synthesis of (-)-vincapusine (4a) as well as its natural 14-decarbomethoxy analogue (4c). PMID:16674048

  2. A concise synthesis of (+)-batzelladine B from simple pyrrole-based starting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parr, Brendan T.; Economou, Christos; Herzon, Seth B.

    2015-09-01

    Alkaloids, secondary metabolites that contain basic nitrogen atoms, are some of the most well-known biologically active natural products in chemistry and medicine. Although efficient laboratory synthesis of alkaloids would enable the study and optimization of their biological properties, their preparation is often complicated by the basicity and nucleophilicity of nitrogen, its susceptibility to oxidation, and its ability to alter reaction outcomes in unexpected ways--for example, through stereochemical instability and neighbouring group participation. Efforts to address these issues have led to the invention of a large number of protecting groups that temper the reactivity of nitrogen; however, the use of protecting groups typically introduces additional steps and obstacles into the synthetic route. Alternatively, the use of aromatic nitrogen heterocycles as synthetic precursors can attenuate the reactivity of nitrogen and streamline synthetic strategies. Here we use such an approach to achieve a synthesis of the complex anti-HIV alkaloid (+)-batzelladine B in nine steps (longest linear sequence) from simple pyrrole-based starting materials. The route uses several key transformations that would be challenging or impossible to implement using saturated nitrogen heterocycles and highlights some of the advantages of beginning with aromatic reagents.

  3. Total Synthesis of (−)-Calyciphylline N

    PubMed Central

    Shvartsbart, Artem; Smith, Amos B.

    2014-01-01

    The total synthesis of the architecturally complex Daphniphyllum alkaloid (−)-calyciphylline N has been achieved. Highlights of the synthesis include a Et2AlCl promoted, highly stereoselective susbtrate controlled intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, a transannular enolate alkylation, an effective Stille carbonylation/Nazarov cyclization sequence, and a high risk dia-stereoselective hydrogenation of a fully substituted conjugated diene ester. PMID:24319987

  4. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Psiguadial B.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Lauren M; Beck, Jordan C; Wu, Linglin; Reisman, Sarah E

    2016-08-10

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of the cytotoxic natural product (+)-psiguadial B is reported. Key features of the synthesis include (1) the enantioselective preparation of a key cyclobutane intermediate by a tandem Wolff rearrangement/asymmetric ketene addition, (2) a directed C(sp(3))-H alkenylation reaction to strategically forge the C1-C2 bond, and (3) a ring-closing metathesis to build the bridging bicyclo[4.3.1]decane terpene framework. PMID:27452034

  5. Short, Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Chatancin**

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    An enantioselective total synthesis of the polycyclic diterpene chatancin (1), a potent PAF antagonist, is reported. Proceeding in seven steps from dihydrofarnesal, this synthetic route was designed to circumvent macrocyclization-based strategies to complex, cyclized cembranoids. The described synthesis requires only six chromatographic purifications, is high yielding, and avoids protecting group chemistry. An X-ray crystal structure of this fragile marine natural product was obtained. PMID:25470723

  6. A concise synthesis of (+)-batzelladine B from simple pyrrole-based starting materials

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Brendan T.; Economou, Christos; Herzon, Seth B.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaloids, secondary metabolites that contain basic nitrogen atoms, are some of the most well-known biologically active natural products in chemistry and medicine1. Although the efficient laboratory syntheses of alkaloids would enable researchers to study and optimize their biological properties,2 the basicity and nucleophilicity of nitrogen, its susceptibility to oxidation, and its ability to alter reaction outcomes in unexpected ways – for example, through stereochemical instability and neighboring group participation – complicates their preparation in the laboratory. Efforts to address these issues have led to the invention of a large number of protecting groups that temper the reactivity of nitrogen3; however, the use of protecting groups typically introduce additional steps and obstacles into the synthetic route. Alternatively, the use of aromatic nitrogen heterocycles as synthetic precursors can attenuate the reactivity of nitrogen and streamline synthetic strategies4. In this manuscript, we use such an approach to achieve a synthesis of the complex anti-HIV alkaloid (+)-batzelladine B in nine steps (longest-linear sequence) from simple pyrrole-based starting materials. The route employs several key transformations that would be challenging or impossible to implement using saturated nitrogen heterocycles and highlights some of the advantages conferred by the use of aromatic starting materials. PMID:26375010

  7. The total synthesis of (-)-cryptocaryol A.

    PubMed

    Dias, L C; Kuroishi, P K; de Lucca, E C

    2015-03-28

    A stereoselective total synthesis of (-)-cryptocaryol A (1) is described. Key features of the 17-step route include the use of three boron-mediated aldol reaction-reduction sequences to control all stereocenters and an Ando modification of the Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination that permitted the installation of the Z double bond of the α-pyrone ring. PMID:25695350

  8. Total synthesis of (±)-hippolachnin A.

    PubMed

    Ruider, Stefan A; Sandmeier, Tobias; Carreira, Erick M

    2015-02-16

    The first total synthesis of the marine polyketide (±)-hippolachnin A has been achieved in nine linear steps and an overall yield of 9%. Rapid access to the oxacyclobutapentalene core structure was secured by strategic application of an ene cyclization. PMID:25476132

  9. Total synthesis of (S)-equol.

    PubMed

    Heemstra, Jennifer M; Kerrigan, Sean A; Doerge, Daniel R; Helferich, William G; Boulanger, William A

    2006-11-23

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of (S)-equol is reported. The described route relies on an Evans alkylation to form the stereocenter and an intramolecular Buchwald etherification to generate the chroman ring. Key features of this method include its brevity, its scalability, and the low cost of starting materials. [reaction: see text]. PMID:17107042

  10. The total synthesis of pantocin B.

    PubMed

    Sutton, A E; Clardy, J

    2000-02-10

    [reaction: see text] Pantocin B, an unusual antibiotic produced by Erwinia herbicola, effectively controls E. amylovora, the pathogen causing the plant disease fire blight. A total synthesis of pantocin B from L-alanine, glycine, and L-malic acid is reported. PMID:10814312

  11. Stereocontrolled total synthesis of hedyotol A.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Ryo; Akao, Yusuke; Yoshida, Atsushi; Inai, Makoto; Asakawa, Tomohiro; Hamashima, Yoshitaka; Kan, Toshiyuki

    2014-04-01

    The total synthesis of hedyotol A (1), a natural product isolated from Hedyotis lawsoniae (DC.) Wight et Arn. (Rubiaceae), was accomplished in a highly stereocontrolled manner. Key steps include an L-proline-catalyzed cross-aldol reaction and the biomimetic construction of a furofuran lignan skeleton through a quinomethide intermediate. PMID:24660822

  12. Total Synthesis of (±)-Gracilioether F.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin-Yue; Peng, Xiao-Shui; Wong, Henry N C

    2016-03-01

    Total synthesis of (±)-gracilioether F was achieved via a pivotal reductive cleavage of 1,2-dioxane from allenic ester in 11 steps. The key 1,2-dioxane species, derived from singlet oxygen and a diene, could be used as a common precursor for a stereocontrolled formation of the crucial 1,4-diol through a reductive cleavage. PMID:26878903

  13. Total Synthesis of (±)-Maoecrystal V

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Feng; Danishefsky, Samuel J.

    2012-01-01

    The total synthesis of racemic maoecrystal V has been accomplished. Key steps include an intramolecular Diels-Alder cyclization to rapidly construct the core system from simple starting materials and the creation of the A–C ring trans-fusion through intramolecular delivery of a hydrogen to the hindered β-face of the ring system. PMID:23126440

  14. Total Synthesis of (-)-Nemorosone and (+)-Secohyperforin.

    PubMed

    Sparling, Brian A; Tucker, James K; Moebius, David C; Shair, Matthew D

    2015-07-17

    A general strategy for the synthesis of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols is described in which a scalable, Lewis acid catalyzed epoxide-opening cascade cyclization is used to furnish common intermediate 4. The utility of this approach is exemplified by the total syntheses of both ent-nemorosone and (+)-secohyperforin, which were each accomplished in four steps from this intermediate. PMID:26125288

  15. Total Synthesis of Natural Products Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maertens, Gaetan; L'homme, Chloe; Canesi, Sylvain

    2014-12-01

    We present a review of natural product syntheses accomplished in our laboratory during the last five years. Each synthetic route features a phenol dearomatization promoted by an environmentally benign hypervalent iodine reagent. The dearomatizations demonstrate the “aromatic ring umpolung” concept, and involve stereoselective remodeling of the inert unsaturations of a phenol into a highly functionalized key intermediate that may contain a quaternary carbon center and a prochiral dienone system. Several new oxidative strategies were employed, including transpositions (1,3-alkyl shift and Prins-pinacol), a polycyclization, an ipso rearrangement, and direct nucleophilic additions at the phenol para position. Several alkaloids, heterocyclic compounds, and a polycyclic core have been achieved, including sceletenone (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor), acetylaspidoalbidine (an antitumor agent), fortucine (antiviral and antitumor), erysotramidine (curare-like effect), platensimycin (an antibiotic), and the main core of a kaurane diterpene (immunosuppressive agent and stimulator of apoptosis). These concise and in some cases enantioselective syntheses effectively demonstrate the importance of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of bioactive natural products.

  16. Total synthesis of natural products using hypervalent iodine reagents

    PubMed Central

    Maertens, Gaëtan; L'Homme, Chloé; Canesi, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of natural product syntheses accomplished in our laboratory during the last 5 years. Each synthetic route features a phenol dearomatization promoted by an environmentally benign hypervalent iodine reagent. The dearomatizations demonstrate the “aromatic ring umpolung” concept, and involve stereoselective remodeling of the inert unsaturations of a phenol into a highly functionalized key intermediate that may contain a quaternary carbon center and a prochiral dienone system. Several new oxidative strategies were employed, including transpositions (1,3-alkyl shift and Prins-pinacol), a polycyclization, an ipso rearrangement, and direct nucleophilic additions at the phenol para position. Several alkaloids, heterocyclic compounds, and a polycyclic core have been achieved, including sceletenone (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor), acetylaspidoalbidine (an antitumor agent), fortucine (antiviral and antitumor), erysotramidine (curare-like effect), platensimycin (an antibiotic), and the main core of a kaurane diterpene (immunosuppressive agent and stimulator of apoptosis). These concise and in some cases enantioselective syntheses effectively demonstrate the importance of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of bioactive natural products. PMID:25601909

  17. Total synthesis of (+)-zaragozic acid C.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, A; Barsanti, P A; Jones, L H; Ahmed, G

    2000-10-20

    A total synthesis of (+)-zaragozic acid C is described. Key features of the synthesis are the use of a double Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation reaction of diene 6 to control stereochemistry at four contiguous stereocenters from C3 to C6; the introduction of the C1-side chain by reaction between the anion derived from the dithiane monosulfoxide 27 and the core aldehyde 12; a high yielding, acid-mediated simultaneous acetonide deprotection-dithiane removal-ketalization procedure leading exclusively to the 2, 8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane core 34; and a novel triple oxidation procedure allowing installation of the tricarboxylic acid. PMID:11031024

  18. Total synthesis of brasoside and littoralisone.

    PubMed

    Mangion, Ian K; MacMillan, David W C

    2005-03-23

    The first total syntheses of littoralisone (1) and brasoside (2) have been achieved in 13 overall steps. Both natural products are forged from a common intermediate which is rapidly assembled using organocatalytic technology, including a proline-catalyzed alpha-aminoxylation and a contra-thermodynamic intramolecular Michael addition. Application of the two-step carbohydrate synthesis technology has enabled to access a selectively substituted glucose derivative for use as an intramolecular cycloaddition tether. This synthesis culminates with an intramolecular [2+2] photocycloaddition that serves to support the proposed biosynthetic origins of 1 from 2. PMID:15771494

  19. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Secalonic Acid E.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Dhandapani; Reiner, Johannes R; Löffler, Lorenz E; Ma, Ling; Gnanaprakasam, Boopathy; Niepötter, Benedikt; Koehne, Ingo; Tietze, Lutz F

    2015-11-16

    The first enantioselective synthesis of a secalonic acid containing a dimeric tetrahydroxanthenone skeleton is described, using a Wacker-type cyclization of a methoxyphenolic compound to form a chiral chroman with a quaternary carbon stereogenic center with >99% ee. Further steps are a Sharpless dihydroxylation and a Dieckmann condensation to give a tetrahydroxanthenone. A late-stage one-pot palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-dimerization reaction leads to the 2,2'-biphenol linkage to complete the enantioselective total synthesis of secalonic acid E in 18 steps with 8% overall yield. PMID:26447631

  20. An Efficient Total Synthesis of Ammosamide B

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, P. V. Narasimha; Banerjee, Biplab; Cushman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    A total synthesis of ammosamide B, a metabolite of the marine-derived Streptomyces strain CNR-698, has been executed in nine steps and 6.9% overall yield. The key step involves the condensation of a 4,6-diBoc protected 1,3,4,6-tetraaminobenzene derivative with dimethyl 2-ketoglutaconate, which effectively constructs the pyrrolidinone ring and the quinoline ring in a single step. This contributes a unique approach to the synthesis of pyrroloquinoline alkaloids that offers the advantages of brevity and relatively high overall yield. PMID:20515072

  1. The Catalytic Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Liphagal**

    PubMed Central

    Day, Joshua J.; McFadden, Ryan M.; Virgil, Scott C.; Kolding, Helene; Alleva, Jennifer L.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    Ring a ding: The first catalytic enantioselective total synthesis of the meroterpenoid natural product (+)-liphagal is disclosed. The approach showcases a variety of technology including enantioselective enolate alkylation, a photochemical alkyne-alkene [2+2] reaction, microwave-assisted metal catalysis, and an intramolecular aryne capture cyclization reaction. Pivotal to the successful completion of the synthesis was a sequence involving ring expansion from a [6-5-4] tricycle to a [6-7] bicyclic core followed by stereoselective hydrogenation of a sterically occluded tri-substituted olefin to establish the trans homodecalin system found in the natural product. PMID:21671325

  2. First Total Synthesis of Gliomasolide C and Formal Total Synthesis of Sch-725674.

    PubMed

    Seetharamsingh, B; Khairnar, Pankaj V; Reddy, D Srinivasa

    2016-01-01

    Syntheses of two 14-membered macrolides Sch-725674 and Gliomasolide C are described here. The first total synthesis of Gliomasolide C, the short synthesis of Sch-725674, and regioselective Wacker oxidation of internal olefin are the highlights of this disclosure. In addition, a key macrocycle with orthogonal functionalities was designed and synthesized on a gram scale for the generation of analogues. PMID:26633579

  3. Nineteen-step total synthesis of (+)-phorbol.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Shuhei; Chu, Hang; Felding, Jakob; Baran, Phil S

    2016-04-01

    Phorbol, the flagship member of the tigliane diterpene family, has been known for over 80 years and has attracted attention from many chemists and biologists owing to its intriguing chemical structure and the medicinal potential of phorbol esters. Access to useful quantities of phorbol and related analogues has relied on isolation from natural sources and semisynthesis. Despite efforts spanning 40 years, chemical synthesis has been unable to compete with these strategies, owing to its complexity and unusual placement of oxygen atoms. Purely synthetic enantiopure phorbol has remained elusive, and biological synthesis has not led to even the simplest members of this terpene family. Recently, the chemical syntheses of eudesmanes, germacrenes, taxanes and ingenanes have all benefited from a strategy inspired by the logic of two-phase terpene biosynthesis in which powerful C-C bond constructions and C-H bond oxidations go hand in hand. Here we implement a two-phase terpene synthesis strategy to achieve enantiospecific total synthesis of (+)-phorbol in only 19 steps from the abundant monoterpene (+)-3-carene. The purpose of this synthesis route is not to displace isolation or semisynthesis as a means of generating the natural product per se, but rather to enable access to analogues containing unique placements of oxygen atoms that are otherwise inaccessible. PMID:27007853

  4. Highly Efficient Formal [2+2+2] Strategy for the Rapid Construction of Polycyclic Spiroindolines: A Concise Synthesis of 11-Demethoxy-16-epi-myrtoidine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Cheng, Yu-Jing; Kuang, Xiao-Kang; Wang, Lijia; Zheng, Zhong-Bo; Tang, Yong

    2016-08-01

    A novel formal [2+2+2] strategy for the stereoselective elaboration of polycyclic indole alkaloids is described. Upon treatment with the catalyst InCl3 (5 mol %), tryptamine-derived enamides reacted readily with methylene malonate, thus enabling rapid and gram-scale access to versatile tetracyclic spiroindolines with excellent diastereoselectivity (21 examples, up to 95 % yield, up to d.r.>95:5). This strategy provides a concise approach to alkaloids isolated from Strychnos myrtoides, as demonstrated by a short synthesis of 11-demethoxy-16-epi-myrtoidine. PMID:27312730

  5. Scopariusicides, Novel Unsymmetrical Cyclobutanes: Structural Elucidation and Concise Synthesis by a Combination of Intermolecular [2 + 2] Cycloaddition and C-H Functionalization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Li, Xing-Ren; Tang, Jian-Wei; Liu, Yang; Li, Xiao-Nian; Wu, Bin; Qin, Hong-Bo; Du, Xue; Li, Li-Mei; Wang, Wei-Guang; Pu, Jian-Xin; Sun, Han-Dong

    2015-12-18

    Scopariusicides A (1) and B (2), two novel immunosuppressive unsymmetrical cyclobutane derivatives, were isolated from the aerial parts of Isodon scoparius. Moreover, based on the results of phytochemical investigation, a concise stereocontrolled synthesis of scopariusicide A and its analogues with enhanced biological activities was efficiently achieved using the main diterpenoid (3) isolated from this plant as a readily available starting material. A crossed intermolecular [2 + 2] photocycloaddition and a Pd-catalyzed sp(3) C-H bond β-arylation were used synergistically to access the highly congested unsymmetrical cyclobutane core with four contiguous stereocenters. PMID:26617269

  6. Total synthesis of palau'amine

    PubMed Central

    Namba, Kosuke; Takeuchi, Kohei; Kaihara, Yukari; Oda, Masataka; Nakayama, Akira; Nakayama, Atsushi; Yoshida, Masahiro; Tanino, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    Palau'amine has received a great deal of attention in the past two decades as an attractive synthetic target by virtue of its intriguing molecular architecture and significant immunosuppressive activity. Here we report the total synthesis of palau'amine characterized by the construction of an ABDE tetracyclic ring core including a trans-bicylo[3.3.0]octane skeleton at a middle stage of total synthesis. The ABDE tetracyclic ring core is constructed by a cascade reaction of a cleavage of the N–N bond, including simultaneous formation of imine, the addition of amide anion to the resulting imine (D-ring formation) and the condensation of pyrrole with methyl ester (B-ring formation) in a single step. The synthetic palau'amine is confirmed to exhibit excellent immunosuppressive activity. The present synthetic route has the potential to help elucidate a pharmacophore as well as the mechanistic details of immunosuppressive activity. PMID:26530707

  7. Total Synthesis and Stereochemical Assignment of Callyspongiolide.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingjing; Gao, Bowen; Xu, Zhengshuang; Ye, Tao

    2016-06-01

    Total synthesis of four callyspongiolide stereoisomers led to unambiguous assignment of relative and absolute stereochemistry of the natural product. Key features of the convergent, fully stereocontrolled route include the use of Krische allylation, Kiyooka Aldol reaction, Kociénski-Julia olefination, Still-Gennari olefination, Yamaguchi macrocyclization, and Sonogashira coupling reaction. Biological evaluation of the synthesized compounds against an array of cancer cells revealed that the stereochemistry of the macrolactone core played an important role. PMID:27227371

  8. Total Synthesis of (±)-Integrifolin.

    PubMed

    Shimomaki, Katsuya; Kusama, Hiroyuki; Iwasawa, Nobuharu

    2016-07-11

    The total synthesis of (±)-integrifolin has been achieved for the first time through the stereoselective preparation of the bicyclo[5.3.0]decane skeleton based on the tungsten-catalyzed cyclization of acyclic trienynes under photoirradiation conditions. Further key transformations of the cyclized product are the Tamao oxidation through cyclic silyl ether, the introduction of two oxygen functionalities by the oxidation of the diene and the construction of three exo-methylene moieties. PMID:27147582

  9. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (-)-Maoecrystal V.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-bin; Shao, Wen-bin; Li, Fu-zhuo; Gong, Jian-xian; Yang, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    The asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-maoecrystal V, a novel cytotoxic pentacyclic ent-kaurane diterpene, has been accomplished. Key steps of the current strategy involve an early-stage semipinacol rearrangement reaction for the construction of the C10 quaternary stereocenter, a rhodium-catalyzed intramolecular O-H insertion reaction, and a sequential Wessely oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction to forge the pentacyclic framework of maoecrystal V. PMID:26136342

  10. Total Synthesis of (−)- and ent-(+)-Vindoline and Related Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Hayato; Elliott, Gregory I.; Velcicky, Juraj; Choi, Younggi; Boger, Dale L.

    2008-01-01

    A concise 11-step total synthesis of (−)- and ent-(+)-vindoline (3) is detailed based on a unique tandem intramolecular [4+2]/[3+2] cycloaddition cascade of a 1,3,4-oxadiazole inspired by the natural product structure, in which three rings and four C–C bonds are formed central to the characteristic pentacyclic ring system setting all six stereocenters and introducing essentially all the functionality found in the natural product in a single step. As key elements of the scope and stereochemical features of the reaction were defined, a series of related natural products of increasing complexity were prepared by total synthesis including both enantiomers of minovine (4), 4-desacetoxy-6,7-dihydrovindorosine (5), 4-desacetoxyvindorosine (6), and vindorosine (7) as well as N-methylaspidospermidine (11). Subsequent extensions of the approach provided both enantiomers of 6,7-dihydrovindoline (8), 4-desacetoxyvindoline (9), and 4-desacetoxy-6,7-dihydrovindoline (10). PMID:16895428

  11. The total synthesis of Isodon diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Lazarski, Kiel E; Moritz, Benjamin J; Thomson, Regan J

    2014-09-26

    Families of structurally related molecules often provide stimulating targets for organic chemists that are engaged in the development of new methods and strategies for natural product synthesis. While typically focused on specific molecules, these synthetic investigations often lead to generalizable concepts and significant opportunities for learning in a greater sense. Historically well-investigated families of natural products, such as the prostanoids, indole alkaloids, and macrolide antibiotics, provide ample evidence for the enduring value of these collective activities. In this Minireview, we turn our attention to the polycyclic family of diterpenes isolated from the Isodon genus of plants and provide an account of the recent methods and strategies utilized for their total synthesis. PMID:25159338

  12. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Lyngbyabellin M

    PubMed Central

    Pirovani, Rodrigo V.; Brito, Gilmar A.; Barcelos, Rosimeire C.; Pilli, Ronaldo A.

    2015-01-01

    Lyngbyabellin M is a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthase derived metabolite isolated from the cyanobacterium M. bouillonii displaying thiazole rings and a distinct chlorinated octanoic acid chain. Its absolute configuration was proposed based on the comparison of its spectroscopic data with those of other representatives of this family of marine natural products, as well as degradation and derivatization studies. Here the first total synthesis of (+)-lyngbyabellin M is described based on the coupling of three key intermediates: two chiral thiazole moieties and an anti hydroxycarboxylic acid prepared stereoselectively via a boron enolate mediated aldol reaction directed by Masamune’s chiral auxiliary. PMID:26023838

  13. Time Economical Total Synthesis of (-)-Oseltamivir.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yujiro; Ogasawara, Shin

    2016-07-15

    A time economical 60 min total synthesis of (-)-oseltamivir was accomplished in a single reaction vessel over five steps. One of the key issues is reduction in the number of steps by eliminating lengthy reaction steps with substitution of a rapid epimerization step. A catalytic system consisting of three reagents, namely, diphenylprolinol silyl ether, thiourea, and acid, was developed for a rapid asymmetric Michael reaction with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities. All reactions were optimized in terms of not only yield and selectivity but also reaction time. PMID:27378379

  14. Biomimetic total synthesis of santalin Y.

    PubMed

    Strych, Sebastian; Journot, Guillaume; Pemberton, Ryan P; Wang, Selina C; Tantillo, Dean J; Trauner, Dirk

    2015-04-20

    A biomimetic total synthesis of santalin Y, a structurally complex but racemic natural product, is described. The key step is proposed to be a (3+2) cycloaddition of a benzylstyrene to a "vinylogous oxidopyrylium", which is followed by an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reaction. This cascade generates the unique oxafenestrane framework of the target molecule and sets its five stereocenters in one operation. Our work provides rapid access to santalin Y and clarifies its biosynthetic relationship with other colorants isolated from red sandalwood. PMID:25858797

  15. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (-)-Terengganensine A.

    PubMed

    Piemontesi, Cyril; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Jieping

    2016-05-23

    A seven-step enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-terengganensine A, a complex heptacyclic monoterpene indole alkaloid, was accomplished. Key steps included: a) Noyori's catalytic enantioselective transfer hydrogenation of the iminium salt to set up the absolute configuration at the C21 position; b) a highly diastereoselective C7 benzoyloxylation with dibenzoyl peroxide under mild conditions; and c) an integrated one-pot oxidative cleavage of cyclopentene/triple cyclization/hydrolysis sequence for the construction of the dioxa azaadamantane motif with complete control of four newly generated stereocenters. PMID:27094030

  16. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (+)-Ryanodol and (+)-Ryanodine.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Kengo; Koshimizu, Masaki; Nagatomo, Masanori; Inoue, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    (+)-Ryanodine (1) is the ester derivative of 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid and the complex terpenoid (+)-ryanodol (2), which possesses eleven contiguous stereogenic centers on the ABCDE-ring system. Compound 1 is known to be a potent modulator of intracellular calcium release channels, whereas the activity of 2 is significantly weaker. To chemically construct 1, the multiple oxygen functional groups must be installed on the fused pentacycle in stereoselective fashions and the extremely hindered C3-hydroxy group must be acylated in a site-selective manner. First, the total synthesis of 2 was accomplished by introducing the five stereocenters from the previously prepared enantiopure ABDE-ring 7. Stereoselective construction of the C3-secondary, C2- and C6-tertiary alcohols was achieved by three nucleophilic reactions. The C9- and C10-trisubstituted carbon centers were regio- and stereoselectively introduced by hydroboration/oxidation of the six-membered C-ring, which was formed by the ring-closing metathesis reaction. Direct esterification of the C3-alcohol with pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid proved unsuccessful; therefore, we developed a new, two-step protocol for attachment of the pyrrole moiety. The C3-hydroxy group was first converted into the less sterically cumbersome glycine ester, which was then transformed into the pyrrole ring through condensation with 1,3-bis(dimethylamino)allylium tetrafluoroborate. This procedure resulted in the first total synthesis of 1. PMID:26616265

  17. Novel approach to the zaragozic acids. Enantioselective total synthesis of 6,7-dideoxysqualestatin H5.

    PubMed

    Naito, Satoru; Escobar, Maya; Kym, Philip R; Liras, Spiros; Martin, Stephen F

    2002-06-14

    The total synthesis of 6,7-dideoxysqualestatin H5 (3) has been completed by a concise approach that features the stereoselective intramolecular vinylogous aldol reaction of the furoic ester 25a to give 30 or its trimethylsilyl ether derivative 34, which possess the requisite absolute stereochemistry at C(3)-C(5) of 3. Compound 34 was reduced to the saturated bislactone 39, and the C(1) side chain subunit 47 was introduced leading to a mixture of the hemiacetals 48 and the corresponding ketone 49. When this mixture was stirred with methanolic acid, transketalization occurred to give a mixture of 50 and the spirocyclic methyl acetals 51a,b. Oxidation of the primary alcohol group in 50 followed by saponification of the two remaining ester groups gave 3. The longest linear sequence in the synthesis commences with commercially available erythronolactone (26) and requires 17 chemical steps with only 10 isolated intermediates. PMID:12054955

  18. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Acutumine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Tartakoff, Samuel S.; Castle, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    An account of the total synthesis of the tetracyclic alkaloid (−)-acutumine is presented. A first-generation approach to the spirocyclic subunit was unsuccessful due to incorrect regioselectivity in a radical cyclization. However, this work spawned a second-generation strategy in which the spirocycle was fashioned via a radical–polar crossover reaction. This process merged an intramolecular radical conjugate addition with an enolate hydroxylation, and created two stereocenters with excellent diastereoselectivity. The reaction was promoted by irradiation with a sunlamp, and a ditin reagent was required for aryl radical formation. These facts suggest that the substrate may function as a sensitizer, thereby facilitating homolytic cleavage of the ditin reagent. The propellane motif of the target was then installed via annulation of a pyrrolidine ring onto the spirocycle. The sequence of reactions used included a phenolic oxidation, an asymmetric ketone allylation mediated by Nakamura’s chiral allylzinc reagent, an anionic oxy-Cope rearrangement, a one-pot ozonolysis–reductive amination, and a Lewis acid promoted cyclization of an amine onto an α,β-unsaturated dimethyl ketal. Further studies of the asymmetric ketone allylation demonstrated the ability of the Nakamura reagent to function well in a mismatched situation. A TiCl4-catalyzed regioselective methyl enol etherification of a 1,3-diketone completed the synthesis. PMID:19904909

  19. Total synthesis of the Daphniphyllum alkaloid daphenylline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhaoyong; Li, Yong; Deng, Jun; Li, Ang

    2013-08-01

    The Daphniphyllum alkaloids are a large class of natural products isolated from a genus of evergreen plants widely used in Chinese herbal medicine. They display a remarkable range of biological activities, including anticancer, antioxidant, and vasorelaxation properties as well as elevation of nerve growth factor. Daphenylline is a structurally unique member among the predominately aliphatic Daphniphyllum alkaloids, and contains a tetrasubstituted arene moiety mounted on a sterically compact hexacyclic scaffold. Herein, we describe the first total synthesis of daphenylline. A gold-catalysed 6-exo-dig cyclization reaction and a subsequent intramolecular Michael addition reaction, inspired by Dixon's seminal work, were exploited to construct the bridged 6,6,5-tricyclic motif of the natural product at an early stage, and the aromatic moiety was forged through a photoinduced olefin isomerization/6π-electrocyclization cascade followed by an oxidative aromatization process.

  20. The Total Synthesis of Inostamycin A.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guangri; Jung, Byunghyuck; Lee, Hee-Seung; Kang, Sung Ho

    2016-02-12

    The first total synthesis of inostamycin A is described. With efficient and stereoselective synthetic routes to aldehyde 3 and ketone 4 developed through asymmetric aldol reactions, addition reactions and reduction, and with chiral building blocks, the two large fragments were coupled with remarkable anti stereoselectivity and efficiency by aldol condensation. The coupling reaction provided the complete carbon skeleton with all the requisite functional groups and stereogenic centers for inostamycin A. The two quaternary carbons at C20 and C16 of ketone 4 were elaborated in a highly stereocontrolled manner by addition reactions of the transmetallated 5 to ethyl ketone 6 and the transmetallated 7 to methyl ketone 8, respectively, in which the use of LaCl3 for transmetallation was critical for high coupling efficiency. PMID:26800259

  1. A Direct, Concise, and Enantioselective Synthesis of 2-Substituted 4,4,4-Trifluorobutane-1,3-diols Based on the Organocatalytic In Situ Generation of Unstable Trifluoroacetaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Funabiki, Kazumasa; Furuno, Yudai; Yano, Yosuke; Sakaida, Yuta; Kubota, Yasuhiro; Matsui, Masaki

    2015-12-01

    A direct, concise, and enantioselective synthesis of 2-substituted 4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-diols based on the organocatalytic asymmetric direct aldol reaction of an ethyl hemiacetal of trifluoroacetaldehyde with various aldehydes was examined. A catalytic amount (30 mol %) of commercially available and inexpensive l-prolinamide is quite effective as an organocatalyst for the catalytic in situ generation of gaseous and unstable trifluoroacetaldehyde from its hemiacetal, and a successive asymmetric direct aldol reaction with various aldehydes in dichloromethane at 0 °C, followed by reduction with sodium borohydride, gives 2-substituted 4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-diols in moderate to good yields (31-84%) with low diastereoselectivities and good to excellent enantioselectivities (64-97% ee). PMID:26206587

  2. Total synthesis of legionaminic acid as basis for serological studies.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Stefan; Stallforth, Pierre; Seeberger, Peter H

    2015-03-01

    Legionaminic acid is a nine-carbon diamino monosaccharide that is found coating the surface of various bacterial human pathogens. Its unique structure makes it a valuable biological probe, but access via isolation is difficult and no practical synthesis has been reported. We describe a stereoselective synthesis that yields a legionaminic acid building block as well as linker-equipped conjugation-ready legionaminic acid starting from cheap d-threonine. To set the desired amino and hydroxyl group pattern of the target, we designed a concise sequence of stereoselective reactions. The key transformations rely on chelation-controlled organometallic additions and a Petasis multicomponent reaction. The legionaminic acid was synthesized in a form that enables attachment to surfaces. Glycan microarray containing legionaminic acid revealed that human antibodies bind the synthetic glycoside. The synthetic bacterial monosaccharide is a valuable probe to detect an immune response to bacterial pathogens such as Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaire's disease. PMID:25668389

  3. Total Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Irciniastatin A (a.k.a. Psymberin) and Irciniastatin B.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Shun-ichiro; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Imaizumi, Takamichi; Ota, Yu; Yoshida, Keisuke; Ebisu, Haruna; Chinen, Takumi; Nagumo, Yoko; Shibuya, Masatoshi; Kanoh, Naoki; Usui, Takeo; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu

    2015-12-18

    Irciniastatin A (a.k.a. psymberin) and irciniastatin B are members of the pederin natural product family, which have potent antitumor activity and structural complexity. Herein, we describe a full account of our total synthesis of (+)-irciniastatin A and (-)-irciniastatin B. Our synthesis features the highly regioselective Eu(OTf)3-catalyzed, DTBMP-assisted epoxide ring opening reaction with MeOH, which enabled a concise synthesis of the C1-C6 fragment, extensive use of AZADO (2-azaadamantane N-oxyl) and its related nitroxyl radical/oxoammonium salt-catalyzed alcohol oxidation throughout the synthesis, and a late-stage assembly of C1-C6, C8-C16, and C17-C25 fragments. In addition, for the synthesis of (-)-irciniastatin B, we achieved the C11-selective control of the oxidation stage via regioselective deprotection and AZADO-catalyzed alcohol oxidation. The synthetic irciniastatins showed high levels of cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells. Furthermore, chemical footprinting experiments using synthetic compounds revealed that the binding site of irciniastatins is the E-site of the ribosome. PMID:26544018

  4. Total Synthesis of Rubriflordilactone B.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Yao, Ming; Li, Jian; Li, Yong; Li, Ang

    2016-06-01

    Taking advantage of a 6π electrocyclization-aromatization strategy, we accomplished the first and asymmetric total synthesis of rubriflordilactone B, a heptacyclic Schisandraceae bisnortriterpenoid featuring a tetrasubstituted arene moiety. The left-hand fragment was accessed through a chiral-pool-based route, and linked to the right-hand fragment by a Sonogashira coupling. The cis geometry of the electrocyclization substrates was established by hydrogenation or hydrosilylation of the alkyne. An electrocyclization-aromatization sequence finally built the multisubstituted arene. The hydrosilylation approach was of significant advantage in terms of reaction scale, reproducibility, and intermediate stability. The structure of synthetic rubriflordilactone B was validated by X-ray crystallographic analysis, and found to be consistent with that reported for the authentic natural product based on an independent X-ray crystallographic analysis. However, obvious differences in the NMR spectra of the synthetic and authentic samples suggest that the authentic samples subjected to X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy were two different compounds. PMID:27121027

  5. A straightforward total synthesis of (-)-chaetominine.

    PubMed

    Malgesini, Beatrice; Forte, Barbara; Borghi, Daniela; Quartieri, Francesca; Gennari, Cesare; Papeo, Gianluca

    2009-08-10

    A total synthesis of the tripeptide alkaloid (-)-chaetominine (1) was achieved in 9.3% overall yield starting from commercially available D-tryptophan methyl ester, based on a short and straightforward (nine steps) sequence. The early stage introduction (first step) of the quinazolinone moiety and the late stage introduction (penultimate step) of the hydroxy group allowed a synthetic strategy devoid of protective groups. The key step of the process is the a-c tricyclic ring construction via an unprecedented NCS-mediated N-acyl cyclization on an indole ring to give tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole 11. In the penultimate step, oxidation of the tetracyclic intermediate 14 with oxaziridine 15 gave only one of the four possible diastereoisomers, the cis-diastereoisomer 16 resulting from the attack of the oxaziridine to the double bond face opposite to the c-d ring substituents. In the last step, the complete stereocontrol of the Et(3)SiH/TFA reduction of compound 16, probably involving a N-acyliminium ion, can be attributed to ring constrain, which forces the b-c ring junction in the more stable cis-orientation. (-)-Chaetominine (1) showed a negligible inhibitory activity on several cancer cell lines. PMID:19562787

  6. Total Synthesis of a Diacetonide Derivative of Thuggacin A.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Jhillu S; Dutta, Palash

    2016-03-01

    A highly stereoselective total synthesis of the diacetonide derivative of the antibiotic thuggacin A has been described. The synthesis features the stereoselective Stille cross-coupling reaction to set up the whole carbon framework, aldol condensation to construct the highly substituted conjugated diene, non-Evans syn aldol, CBS reduction, Hantzsch's thiazole synthesis, Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction, and Shiina's macrolactonization. PMID:26856208

  7. Biomimetic Total Synthesis of Hyperjapones A-E and Hyperjaponols A and C.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hiu C; Spence, Justin T J; George, Jonathan H

    2016-08-22

    Hyperjapones A-E and hyperjaponols A-C are complex natural products of mixed aromatic polyketide and terpene biosynthetic origin that have recently been isolated from Hypericum japonicum. We have synthesized hyperjapones A-E using a biomimetic, oxidative hetero-Diels-Alder reaction to couple together dearomatized acylphloroglucinol and cyclic terpene natural products. Hyperjapone A is proposed to be the biosynthetic precursor of hyperjaponol C through a sequence of: 1) epoxidation; 2) acid-catalyzed epoxide ring-opening; and 3) a concerted, asynchronous alkene cyclization and 1,2-alkyl shift of a tertiary carbocation. Chemical mimicry of this proposed biosynthetic sequence allowed a concise total synthesis of hyperjaponol C to be completed in which six carbon-carbon bonds, six stereocenters, and three rings were constructed in just four steps. PMID:27461748

  8. Protecting-Group-Free Total Synthesis of (-)-Jiadifenolide: Development of a [4 + 1] Annulation toward Multisubstituted Tetrahydrofurans.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Li, Linbin; Pan, Zhisheng; Wang, Yinglu; Li, Jundong; Wang, Kuangyu; Wang, Xiance; Zhang, Youyu; Hu, Tianhui; Zhang, Yandong

    2015-11-01

    A concise, protecting-group-free total synthesis of (-)-jiadifenolide, a synthetically challenging seco-prezizaane sesquiterpene with potent neurotrophic activity, is reported. The convergent route features a SmI2/H2O-mediated stereoselective reductive cyclization, an unprecedented formal [4 + 1] annulative tetrahydrofuran-forming reaction and programmed redox manipulations. The newly developed annulation of β-hydroxy aldehydes or ketones with lithium trimethylsilyldiazomethane provides access to a diverse array of multisubstituted tetrahydrofurans. The synthetic jiadifenolide exhibited weak cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines. PMID:26509873

  9. Total Synthesis of (-)-Nakadomarin A.

    PubMed

    Clark, J Stephen; Xu, Chao

    2016-03-18

    A highly efficient 12-step synthesis of the marine alkaloid (-)-nakadomarin A has been accomplished. The key advanced intermediate, a tetracyclic ketone derivative, was constructed in just seven steps using a sequence that includes an asymmetric Pauson-Khand reaction, an Overman rearrangement reaction, a ring-closing metathesis reaction, and an amination reaction. Late introduction of the furan ring during the synthesis of (-)-nakadomarin A means that the key tetracyclic ketone derivative has the potential to serve as an advanced intermediate for the synthesis of related marine alkaloids. PMID:26923079

  10. New enolate-carbodiimide rearrangement in the concise synthesis of 6-amino-2,3-dihydro-4-pyridinones from homoallylamines.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, N Yu; Tikhov, R M; Godovikov, I A; Khrustalev, V N; Bubnov, Yu N

    2016-05-01

    Three-step synthesis of 6-amino-2,3-dihydro-4-pyridinones from homoallylamines involving NBS-mediated cyclization of N-(3-butenyl)ureas to 6-(bromomethyl)-2-iminourethanes, dehydrohalogenation and a novel rearrangement as a key step has been developed. The scope and limitations of the method, as well as the mechanism of the rearrangement, supported by kinetic studies and the isolation of N-(1-adamantyl)carbodiimide, are discussed. The final products, imino-analogues of well known piperidine-2,4-diones, are promising building blocks in the synthesis of bio-/pharmacological compounds. PMID:27080757

  11. Concise Synthesis of Annulated Pyrido[3,4-b]indoles via Rh(I)-Catalyzed Cyclization.

    PubMed

    Varelas, Jonathan G; Khanal, Satyam; O'Donnell, Michael A; Mulcahy, Seann P

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis of pyridines bearing multiple ring fusions poses a considerable challenge for organic chemists. To address this problem, we describe the synthesis of a small library of pyrido[3,4-b]indoles via an efficient, five-step sequence. The key transformation is a Rh(I)-catalyzed [2 + 2 + 2] cyclization that forms three rings in one reaction flask. Our method is high yielding, accommodates a variety of functional groups, and suffers no entropic costs as ring size increases. PMID:26495834

  12. Copper-Catalyzed Formal [2+2+1] Heteroannulation of Alkenes, Alkylnitriles, and Water: Method Development and Application to a Total Synthesis of (±)-Sacidumlignan D.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tu M; Chatalova-Sazepin, Claire; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Jieping

    2016-08-01

    A copper-catalyzed three-component reaction of alkenes, alkylnitriles, and water affords γ-butyrolactones in good yields. The domino process involves an unprecedented hydroxy-cyanoalkylation of alkenes and subsequent lactonization with the creation of three chemical bonds and a quaternary carbon center. The synthetic potential of this novel [2+2+1] heteroannulation reaction was illustrated by a concise total synthesis of (±)-sacidumlignan D. PMID:27337057

  13. The antibody catalysis route to the total synthesis of epothilones

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Subhash C.; Barbas, Carlos F.; Lerner, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    An efficient monoclonal aldolase antibody that proceeds by an enamine mechanism was generated by reactive immunization. Here, this catalyst has been used in the total synthesis of epothilones A (1) and C (3). The starting materials for the synthesis of these molecules have been obtained by using antibody-catalyzed aldol and retro-aldol reactions. These precursors were then converted to epothilones A (1) and C (3) to complete the total synthesis. PMID:9843936

  14. Concise synthesis of rare pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-ones and related nitrogen-rich bicyclic scaffolds with a ring-junction nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Alanine, T A; Galloway, W R J D; Bartlett, S; Ciardiello, J J; McGuire, T M; Spring, D R

    2016-01-21

    Pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-ones represent a pharmaceutically interesting class of heterocycles. The structurally related pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-ones are associated with a broad range of useful biological properties. Furthermore, quinolizinone-type scaffolds of these sorts with a bridgehead nitrogen are expected to display interesting physico-chemical properties. However, pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-ones are largely under-represented in current small molecule screening libraries and the physical and biological properties of the pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-one scaffold have been poorly explored (indeed, the same can be said for unsaturated bicyclic compounds with a bridgehead nitrogen in general). Herein, we report the development of a new strategy for the concise synthesis of substituted pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-ones from readily available starting materials. The synthetic route involved the acylation of the lithium amide bases of 2-aminopyridines with alkynoate esters to form alkynamides, which were then cyclised under thermal conditions. The use of lithium amide anions ensured excellent regioselectivity for the 2-oxo-isomer over the undesired 4-oxo-isomer, which offers a distinct advantage over some existing methods for the synthesis of pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-ones. Notably, different aminoazines could also be employed in this approach, which enabled access to several very unusual bicyclic systems with higher nitrogen contents. This methodology thus represents an important contribution towards the synthesis of pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-2-ones and other rare azabicycles with a ring-junction nitrogen. These heterocycles represent attractive structural templates for drug discovery. PMID:26632452

  15. Boron-selective biaryl coupling approach to versatile dibenzoxaborins and application to concise synthesis of defucogilvocarcin M.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Yuto; Harada, Ryu; Kato-Sumida, Tomoe; Johmoto, Kohei; Uekusa, Hidehiro; Hosoya, Takamitsu

    2014-12-01

    An efficient synthetic method for versatile dibenzoxaborins based on boron-selective Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling between o-borylphenols and aryl halides or triflates bearing a 1,8-diaminonaphthalene-protected o-boryl group is reported. A short synthesis of defucogilvocarcin M was achieved using the proposed method in combination with several other boron-mediated transformations. PMID:25418801

  16. Scalable enantioselective total synthesis of taxanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Abraham; Ishihara, Yoshihiro; Baran, Phil S.

    2012-01-01

    Taxanes form a large family of terpenes comprising over 350 members, the most famous of which is Taxol (paclitaxel), a billion-dollar anticancer drug. Here, we describe the first practical and scalable synthetic entry to these natural products via a concise preparation of (+)-taxa-4(5),11(12)-dien-2-one, which has a suitable functional handle with which to access more oxidized members of its family. This route enables a gram-scale preparation of the ‘parent’ taxane—taxadiene—which is the largest quantity of this naturally occurring terpene ever isolated or prepared in pure form. The characteristic 6-8-6 tricyclic system of the taxane family, containing a bridgehead alkene, is forged via a vicinal difunctionalization/Diels-Alder strategy. Asymmetry is introduced by means of an enantioselective conjugate addition that forms an all-carbon quaternary centre, from which all other stereocentres are fixed through substrate control. This study lays a critical foundation for a planned access to minimally oxidized taxane analogues and a scalable laboratory preparation of Taxol itself.

  17. Total Synthesis of Spirotenuipesines A and B

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Spirotenuipesines A and B, isolated from the entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces tenuipes by Oshima and co-workers, have been synthesized. The synthesis features the highly stereoselective construction of two vicinal all-carbon quaternary centers (C5 and C6) via an intramolecular cyclopropanation/radical initiated fragmentation sequence and a diastereoselective intermolecular Diels−Alder reaction between α-methylenelactone dienophile 20 and synergistic diene 6a. Installation of the C9 tertiary alcohol occurred via nucleophilic methylation. An RCM reaction to produce a tetrasubstituted double bond in the presence of free allylic alcohol and homoallylic oxygenated functional group is also described. This route shortened the synthesis of 11 from 9 steps to 3 steps. We have further developed a strategy to gain access to optically active spirotenuipesines A and B through the synthesis of enantioenriched 10 from commercially available R-(−)-epichlorohydrin. PMID:18973385

  18. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Tricyclic Myrmicarin Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Movassaghi, Mohammad; Ondrus, Alison E.

    2010-01-01

    An enantioselective gram-scale synthesis of a key dihydroindolizine intermediate for the preparation of myrmicarin alkaloids is described. Key transformations in this convergent approach include a stereospecific palladium–catalyzed N-vinylation of a pyrrole with a vinyl triflate, a copper–catalyzed enantioselective conjugate reduction of a β-pyrrolyl enoate, and a regioselective Friedel-Crafts reaction. The synthesis of optically active and isomerically pure samples of (4aR)-myrmicarins 215A, 215B, and 217 in addition to their respective C4a-epimers is presented. PMID:16178549

  19. First total synthesis of prasinic acid and its anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Chakor, Narayan; Patil, Ganesh; Writer, Diana; Periyasamy, Giridharan; Sharma, Rajiv; Roychowdhury, Abhijit; Mishra, Prabhu Dutt

    2012-11-01

    The first total synthesis of prasinic acid is being reported along with its biological evaluation. The ten step synthesis involved readily available and cheap starting materials and can easily be transposed to large scale manufacturing. The crucial steps of the synthesis included the formation of two different aromatic units (7 and 9) and their coupling reaction. The synthetic prasinic acid exhibited moderate antitumor activity (IC(50) 4.3-9.1 μM) in different lines of cancer cells. PMID:23031589

  20. Studies Toward the Total Synthesis of Eletefine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugg, Kyle William

    Eletefine is a natural product of the stephaoxocane family of alkaloids. It possesses an isoquinoline moiety functionalized with three methoxy groups forming an electron rich aromatic system. Eletefine also possesses a ten-membered ring with a novel bridged vinyl ether functionality, and a remote chiral alcohol, making it a conspicuous and desirable target for the synthetic organic chemist. The plant from which eletefine was first isolated (Cissampelos glaberrima ) has been used in traditional medicine for the relief of symptoms from urinary tract infections and asthma. The proposed synthesis of eletefine is a convergent route which features a Sonogashira coupling and a novel alkyne hydration. Herein, methods towards the synthesis of the model system des-hydroxyeletefine are described, in particular attempts towards formation of the AB ring system of des-hydroxyeletefine, as well as C8-C9 bond formation methodology via acylation and Sonogashira coupling.

  1. The total synthesis of calcium atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Dias, Luiz C; Vieira, Adriano S; Barreiro, Eliezer J

    2016-02-21

    A practical and convergent asymmetric route to calcium atorvastatin (1) is reported. The synthesis of calcium atorvastatin (1) was performed using the remote 1,5-anti asymmetric induction in the boron-mediated aldol reaction of β-alkoxy methylketone (4) with pyrrolic aldehyde (3) as a key step. Calcium atorvastatin was obtained from aldehyde (3) after 6 steps, with a 41% overall yield. PMID:26795833

  2. Total Synthesis of the Antitumor Antibiotic Basidalin.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Jaime A M; Muddala, Ramesh; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Boukouvalas, John

    2016-08-01

    The first synthesis of the tetronamide antibiotic basidalin was accomplished in five steps and 39% overall yield from readily available 4-bromo-2-triisopropylsilyloxyfuran and 2-formyl-1,3-dithiane. Highlights include: (i) regio- and stereocontrolled assemblage of a pivotal (Z)-γ-ylidene-β-bromobutenolide intermediate by stereodirected vinylogous aldol condensation (SVAC), (ii) installation of the amino group via aza-Michael addition/elimination, and crucially (iii) facile access to basidalin by late-stage dithiane removal. PMID:27347696

  3. Total synthesis of the Isodon diterpene sculponeatin N.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Benjamin J; Mack, Daniel J; Tong, Liuchuan; Thomson, Regan J

    2014-03-10

    The total synthesis of sculponeatin N, a bioactive polycyclic diterpene isolated from Isodon sculponeatus, is reported. Key features of the synthesis include diastereoselective Nazarov and ring-closing metathesis reactions, and a highly efficient formation of the bicyclo[3.2.1]octane ring system by a reductive radical cyclization. PMID:24519748

  4. Catalytic Asymmetric Formal Total Synthesis of (-)-Triptophenolide and (+)-Triptolide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Dan; Li, Liang-Qun; Li, Ming-Ming; Geng, Hui-Chun; Qin, Hong-Bo

    2016-06-01

    Catalytic asymmetric formal synthesis of (-)-Triptophenolide and (+)-Triptolide have been achieved. Key reaction involves Palladium catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition of aryl boronic acid to 3-methyl cyclohexe-1-none to form quaternary carbon. Claisen rearrangement and subsequent aldol reaction furnished trans-decaline key intermediate, which assured a formal total synthesis of (-)-Triptophenolide and (+)-Triptolide. PMID:27095015

  5. Recruiting the Students to Fight Cancer: Total Synthesis of Goniothalamin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahra, Fady; Riant, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A modified total synthesis of (S)-goniothalamin is described for an advanced course in organic chemistry. This experiment gives students an opportunity to handle organometallic reagents and perform an enzymatic kinetic resolution and a metathesis reaction, all in the same synthesis. Furthermore, students learn flame-drying techniques for the…

  6. Total synthesis and complete stereostructure of gambieric acid A.

    PubMed

    Fuwa, Haruhiko; Ishigai, Kazuya; Hashizume, Keisuke; Sasaki, Makoto

    2012-07-25

    Total synthesis of gambieric acid A, a potent antifungal polycyclic ether metabolite, has been accomplished for the first time, which firmly established the complete stereostructure of this natural product. PMID:22779404

  7. A Formal Total Synthesis of (−)-Brevisamide

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amos B.; Kutsumura, Noriki; Potuzak, Justin

    2011-01-01

    A formal total synthesis of (−)-brevisamide has been achieved. The synthetic approach highlights a chemoselective asymmetric dihydroxylation and a one-pot Fraser-Reid epoxidation/PMB protection reaction sequence. PMID:21572531

  8. Total synthesis of a thromboxane receptor antagonist, terutroban.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Wasim; Mainkar, Prathama S; Pabbaraja, Srihari; Chandrasekhar, Srivari

    2015-03-14

    A total synthesis of terutroban is achieved using the Claisen rearrangement, Friedel-Crafts acylation and Heck coupling as key reactions, avoiding the classical Diels-Alder approach used before. PMID:25611989

  9. Structure Elucidation of Nigricanoside A Through Enantioselective Total Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Koswatta, Panduka; DeBergh, J. Robb; Fu, Peng; Pan, Ende; MacMillan, John B.; Ready, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Nigricanoside A was isolated from green alga, and its dimethyl ester was found to display potent cytotoxicity. Its scarcity prevented a full structure elucidation, leaving total synthesis as the only means to determine its relative and absolute stereochemistry and to explore its biological activity. Here we assign the stereochemistry of the natural product through enantioselective total synthesis and provide initial studies of its cytotoxicity. PMID:26877863

  10. Total syntheses of hyperforin and papuaforins A-C, and formal synthesis of nemorosone through a gold(I)-catalyzed carbocyclization.

    PubMed

    Bellavance, Gabriel; Barriault, Louis

    2014-06-23

    The remarkable biological activities of polyprenylated polycyclic acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) combined with their highly decorated bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-2,4,9-trione frameworks have inspired synthetic organic chemists over the last decade. The concise total syntheses of four natural products PPAPs; hyperforin and papuaforins A-C, and the formal synthesis of nemorosone are reported. Key to the realization of this strategy is the short and scalable synthesis of densely substituted PPAP scaffolds through a gold(I)-catalyzed 6-endo-dig carbocyclization of cyclic enol ethers for late-stage functionalization. PMID:24838522

  11. Recent progress on the total synthesis of acetogenins from Annonaceae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nianguang; Shi, Zhihao; Tang, Yuping; Chen, Jianwei

    2008-01-01

    Summary An overview of recent progress on the total synthesis of acetogenins from Annonaceae during the past 12 years is provided. These include mono-tetrahydrofurans, adjacent bis-tetrahydrofurans, nonadjacent bis-tetrahydrofurans, tri-tetrahydrofurans, adjacent tetrahydrofuran-tetrahydropyrans, nonadjacent tetrahydrofuran-tetrahydropyrans, mono-tetrahydropyrans, and acetogenins containing only γ-lactone. This review emphasizes only the first total synthesis of molecules of contemporary interest and syntheses that have helped to correct structures. In addition, some significant results on the novel synthesis and structure–activity relationship studies of annonaceous acetogenins are also introduced. PMID:19190742

  12. Samarium Diiodide-Mediated Reactions in Total Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Ellery, Shelby P.; Chen, Jason S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduced by Henri Kagan more than three decades ago, samarium diiodide (SmI2) has found increasing applications in chemical synthesis. This single-electron reducing agent has been particularly useful in C–C bond formations, including those found in total synthesis endeavors. This Review highlights selected applications of SmI2 in total synthesis, with special emphasis on novel transformations and mechanistic considerations. The examples discussed are both illustrative of the power of this reagent in complex molecule construction and inspirational for the design of synthetic strategies toward such targets, both natural and designed. PMID:19714695

  13. Synthesis of Polycyclic Benzofused Nitrogen Heterocycles via a Tandem Ynamide Benzannulation/Ring Closing Metathesis Strategy. Application in a Formal Total Synthesis of (+)-FR900482

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Xiao Yin; Crombie, Aimee L.; Danheiser, Rick L.

    2011-01-01

    A two-stage “tandem strategy” for the synthesis of benzofused nitrogen heterocycles is described that is particularly useful for the construction of systems with a high level of substitution on the benzenoid ring. The first stage in the strategy involves a benzannulation based on the reaction of cyclobutenones with ynamides. This cascade process proceeds via a sequence of four pericyclic reactions and furnishes a multiply substituted aniline derivative which can bear a variety of functionalized substituents at the position ortho to the nitrogen. In the second stage of the tandem strategy, ring closing metathesis generates the nitrogen heterocyclic ring. This two-step sequence provides efficient access to highly substituted dihydroquinolines, benzazepines, benzazocines, and related benzofused nitrogen heterocyclic systems. The application of this chemistry in a concise formal total synthesis of the anticancer agents (+)- FR900482 and (+)-FR66979 is described. PMID:21322545

  14. Total synthesis: Towards artificial terpene cyclases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willot, Matthieu; Christmann, Mathias

    2010-07-01

    The plant-derived sesquiterpene englerin A is a potent inhibitor of several renal cancer cell lines. Two recent total syntheses have utilized cationic gold(I)-complexes to coax readily available open-chain precursors into englerin's challenging oxotricyclic core with enzyme-like precision.

  15. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of RQN-18690A (18-Deoxyherboxidiene).

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasunobu; Hibino, Kazuhiro; Yonaga, Masahiro; Kakeya, Hideaki; Hayashi, Yujiro

    2016-07-15

    The first total synthesis of RQN-18690A (18-deoxyherboxidiene) and the determination of its absolute stereochemical configuration are described. The synthesis features an organocatalytic aldol reaction for the first step, 1,4- and 1,2- dual reductions of α,β-unsaturated δ-lactone followed by a domino reaction in a one-pot operation, and diastereoselective epoxidation with kinetic resolution. PMID:27377811

  16. Total synthesis and stereochemical revision of (+)-aeruginosin 298-A.

    PubMed

    Wipf, P; Methot, J L

    2000-12-28

    [structure:see text] Novel routes toward both enantiomers of the bicyclic proline surrogate 2-carboxy-6-hydroxyoctahydroindole, i.e., Choi, were developed on the basis of the oxidative cyclization of L-tyrosine. Synthesis of the proposed sequence of (+)-aeruginosin 298-A did not provide the natural product. Incorporation of a D-leucine residue, in contrast, led to the total synthesis of this thrombin inhibitor. PMID:11150202

  17. Total Synthesis of Brevisamide Using an Oxiranyl Anion Strategy.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Takeo; Fukuta, Ayumi; Nakamura, Kumiko; Nakano, Masato; Mori, Yuji

    2016-05-01

    A total synthesis of brevisamide, a marine monocyclic ether amide isolated from the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, has been achieved in 18 steps starting from 4-(benzyloxy)butanol. The synthesis involves oxiranyl anion coupling between an epoxy sulfone and a triflate, intramolecular etherification of a hydroxy-bromoketone, diastereoselective introduction of the axial methyl group by hydroxyl-directed hydrogenation of an exocyclic olefin, and installation of an acetamide side chain by nucleophilic substitution of an N-acetyl carbamate. The dienal side chain is assembled using a Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction to complete the synthesis. PMID:27057586

  18. Total Synthesis of Tetrahydrolipstatin and Stereoisomers via a Highly Regio- and Diastereoselective Carbonylation of Epoxyhomoallylic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A concise enantioselective synthesis of tetrahydrolipstatin (THL) and seven stereoisomers has been achieved. The synthesis of THL was accomplished in 10 steps and 31% overall yield from an achiral ynone. Key to the success of the approach is the use of a bimetallic [Lewis acid]+[Co(CO)4]− catalyst for a late-stage regioselective carbonylation of an enantiomerically pure cis-epoxide to a trans-β-lactone. The success of this route to THL and its stereoisomers also demonstrated the practicality of the carbonylation catalyst for complex molecule synthesis as well as its functional group compatibility. PMID:25004122

  19. β-Keto-dioxinones and β,δ-diketo-dioxinones in biomimetic resorcylate total synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cookson, Rosa; Barrett, Tim N; Barrett, Anthony G M

    2015-03-17

    Resorcylates are a large group of bioactive natural products that are biosynthesized from acetate and malonate units via the intermediacy of polyketides. These polyketides undergo cyclization reactions to introduce the aromatic core. The bioactivities of the resorcylates including resorcylate macrocyclic lactones include anticancer, antimalarial, mycotoxicity, antifungal, and antibiotic properties, and several compounds in the series are already in use in medicine. Examples are prodrugs derived from mycophenolic acid as immunosuppressants and the Hsp-90 inhibitor, AT13387, which is in phase-II clinical trials for the treatment of small cell lung cancer and melanoma. In consequence of these biological activities, methods for the concise synthesis of diverse resorcylates are of considerable importance. In natural product chemistry, biomimetic total synthesis can have significant advantages including functional group tolerance in key steps, the minimization of the use of protection and deprotection reactions and the shortening of the total number of synthetic steps. This Account provides a description of our adaption of the dioxinone chemistry of Hyatt, Clemens, and Feldman for the synthesis and retro-Diels-Alder reactions of diketo-dioxinones. Such dioxinones, which were synthesized by a range of C-acylation reactions, were found to undergo retro-Diels-Alder reactions on heating to provide the corresponding triketo-ketenes with the loss of acetone. The ketene reactive intermediates were rapidly trapped both inter- and intramolecularly with alcohols to provide the corresponding β,δ,ζ-triketo-esters. These compounds, which consist of keto-enol mixtures, readily undergo cycloaromatization to produce resorcylate esters and macrocyclic lactones. We have established the use of diketo-dioxinones as key general intermediates for the synthesis of diverse resorcylate natural products and for the synthesis of new classes of compounds for the generation of medicinal chemistry

  20. Double-addition reaction of aryl methyl sulfones with N-tert-butylsulfinyl imines: diastereoselective and concise synthesis of 2-sulfonylated 1,3-diamines.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Li, Desheng; Zheng, Tao; Li, Hongsen; Ren, Xinfeng

    2014-11-10

    We report a double-addition reaction of methyl phenyl sulfone and methyl 2-pyridyl sulfone with N-tert-butylsulfinyl imines. This method provides concise access to 2-sulfonylated 1,3-anti diamines with good to excellent diastereoselectivities. This protocol has the benefit of using readily accessible starting materials and is operationally simple. PMID:25288374

  1. Strategies for the Total Synthesis of Clavicipitic Acid.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mamoru; Tahara, Yu-Ki; Shibata, Takanori

    2016-04-11

    Clavicipitic acid is an ergot alkaloid, which was isolated from Claviceps strain and Claviceps fusiformis. Its unique tricyclic azepinoindole skeleton has attracted synthetic chemists, and various strategies have been developed for its total synthesis. These strategies can be generally categorized into two types based on the synthetic intermediates, namely, 4-substituted gramine derivatives and 4-substituted tryptophan derivatives. This Minireview summarizes the reported total syntheses from the point of these two key intermediates. PMID:26822254

  2. Rifamycin Biosynthetic Congeners: Isolation and Total Synthesis of Rifsaliniketal and Total Synthesis of Salinisporamycin and Saliniketals A and B.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Liu, Jun; Carrasco, Yazmin P; MacMillan, John B; De Brabander, Jef K

    2016-06-01

    We describe the isolation, structure elucidation, and total synthesis of the novel marine natural product rifsaliniketal and the total synthesis of the structurally related variants salinisporamycin and saliniketals A and B. Rifsaliniketal was previously proposed, but not observed, as a diverted metabolite from a biosynthetic precursor to rifamycin S. Decarboxylation of rifamycin provides salinisporamycin, which upon truncation with loss of the naphthoquinone ring leads to saliniketals. Our synthetic strategy hinged upon a Pt(II)-catalyzed cycloisomerization of an alkynediol to set the dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane ring system and a fragmentation of an intermediate dihydropyranone to forge a stereochemically defined (E,Z)-dienamide unit. Multiple routes were explored to assemble fragments with high stereocontrol, an exercise that provided additional insights into acyclic stereocontrol during stereochemically complex fragment-assembly processes. The resulting 11-14 step synthesis of saliniketals then enabled us to explore strategies for the synthesis and coupling of highly substituted naphthoquinones or the corresponding naphthalene fragments. Whereas direct coupling with naphthoquinone fragments proved unsuccessful, both amidation and C-N bond formation tactics with the more electron-rich naphthalene congeners provided an efficient means to complete the first total synthesis of rifsaliniketal and salinisporamycin. PMID:27232659

  3. Total Synthesis of Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids by Combining Iodoaminocyclization with Free Radical Cyclization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gong-Qing; Reimann, Marcel; Opatz, Till

    2016-07-15

    A concise and modular synthesis of phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids was achieved by combining iodoaminocylization with a free radical cyclization approach. The route described allowed the preparation of (±)-tylophorine, (±)-antofine, and (±)-deoxypergularinine in six steps. When commercially available l-prolinol was used as a chiral building block, (S)-(+)-tylophorine was also synthesized in 49% yield and >99% ee over five linear steps. PMID:27314476

  4. First total synthesis of (+)-broussonetine W: glycosidase inhibition of natural product & analogs.

    PubMed

    Song, Ying-Ying; Kinami, Kyoko; Kato, Atsushi; Jia, Yue-Mei; Li, Yi-Xian; Fleet, George W J; Yu, Chu-Yi

    2016-06-14

    The first total synthesis of (+)-broussonetine W (4), a naturally-occurring pyrrolidine iminosugar isolated from the traditional Chinese medical plant Broussonetia kazinoki SIEB (Moraceae), has been completed through a concise synthetic route starting from the readily available d-arabinose derived cyclic nitrone 10 in 11 steps and 31% overall yield, with regioselective installation of the α,β-unsaturated ketone functional group by the elimination of HBr from α-bromoketone as the key step. A number of analogs of (+)-broussonetine W (4) with variable side chain length, different polyhydroxylated pyrrolidine core configurations or saturated cyclohexanones have also been prepared to explore the glycosidase inhibition and the preliminary structure-activity relationship of this intriguing class of compounds. Glycosidase inhibition studies identified the natural product (+)-broussonetine W (4) as a selective and potent inhibitor of β-galactosidase (IC50 = 0.03 μM), while its enantiomer was a selective and potent inhibitor of α-glucosidase (IC50 = 0.047 μM). It was found that the configuration of the polyhydroxylated pyrrolidine ring played a key role on their glycosidase inhibitory activities. The length of side chain and α,β-unsaturated ketone functional group also exhibited some effect on their glycosidase inhibition. PMID:27184090

  5. Protecting-group-free and catalysis-based total synthesis of the ecklonialactones.

    PubMed

    Hickmann, Volker; Alcarazo, Manuel; Fürstner, Alois

    2010-08-18

    A concise and protecting-group-free total synthesis of optically pure ecklonialactones A (1) and B (2) is described. The successful route to these oxylipins isolated from various brown algae involves five transition-metal-catalyzed transformations in the longest linear sequence of 13 steps. The first chiral center was set by a rhodium-catalyzed 1,4-addition of an alkenyl boronate to the commercial butenolide 11, which was controlled by Carreira's carvone-derived diene ligand 21. Other key steps involve a ring-closing olefin metathesis effected by the ruthenium indenylidene complex 22 for the formation of the five-membered carbocycle, a vanadium-catalyzed, hydroxy-directed epoxidation, and a ring-closing alkyne metathesis (RCAM) to forge the macrocyclic ring. Because of the unusually high propensity of the oxirane of the ecklonialactones for ring-opening, this transformation was best achieved with [(Ph(3)SiO)(3)Mo[triple bond]CPh].OEt(2) (34) as the catalyst, which is a representative of a new generation of highly tolerant yet remarkably efficient molybdenum alkylidyne complexes. The ancillary triphenylsilanolate ligands in 34 temper the Lewis acidity of the molybdenum center and are not able to nucleophilically open the fragile epoxide ring. The final reduction of the cycloalkyne formed in the RCAM step to the required (Z)-alkene was accomplished either by Lindlar reduction or with the aid of nickel boride. PMID:20698670

  6. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Lansai B and (+)- Nocardioazines A and B **

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoxuan; Reisman, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    The concise total syntheses of the bis(pyrroloindolines) (−)-lansai B and (+)- nocardioazines A and B are reported. The key pyrroloindoline building blocks are rapidly prepared by enantioselective formal (3 + 2) cycloaddition reactions. The macrocycle of (+)-nocardioazine A is constructed by an unusual intramolecular diketopiperazine formation. PMID:24777757

  7. Studies for the Total Synthesis of Amphidinolide P†

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Myers, Brian J.; Mi, Liang; Binder, Randall J.

    2013-01-01

    A convergent, enantiocontrolled total synthesis of the 15-membered macrolide, amphidinolide P, is described. The synthesis utilizes three nonracemic components for an efficient assembly of the macrolactone in 12 steps via the longest linear pathway. Key developments include studies of the Hosomi–Sakurai reaction for the formation of the C6–C7 bond, a “ligandless” palladium-mediated Stille cross-coupling of the vinylic stannane 4 and the alkenyl bromide 5 to produce a highly functionalized dienol, and a thermally induced, intramolecular lactonization via the late-stage formation of an intermediate α-acylketene. PMID:23590535

  8. Catalytic Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Hedyosumins A, B, and C.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wang-Bin; Wang, Xuan; Sun, Bing-Feng; Zou, Jian-Ping; Lin, Guo-Qiang

    2016-03-18

    The first and asymmetric total synthesis of hedyosumins A, B, and C was accomplished in 13-14 steps from simple starting materials. The essential tools that allow us to access the tetracyclic skeleton include an organocatalytic [4 + 3] cycloaddition reaction, an intramolecular aldol condensation, and an intramolecular carboxymercuration/demercuration enabled lactonization. A CBS-catalyzed asymmetric reduction was employed to boost the ee of the synthetic natural products to an excellent level. This synthesis established the absolute configurations of hedyosumins A, B, and C. PMID:26925758

  9. Total Synthesis of Putative 11-epi-Lyngbouilloside Aglycon

    PubMed Central

    Kolleth, Amandine; Gebauer, Julian; ElMarrouni, Abdelatif; Lebeuf, Raphael; Prévost, Céline; Brohan, Eric; Arseniyadis, Stellios; Cossy, Janine

    2016-01-01

    We report here the total synthesis of 11-epi-lyngbouilloside aglycon. Our strategy features a Boeckman-type esterification followed by a RCM to form the 14-membered ring macrolactone and a late-stage side chain introduction via a Wittig olefination. Overall, the final product was obtained in 20 steps and 2% overall yield starting from commercially available 3-methyl-but-3-enol. Most importantly, the strategy employed is versatile enough to eventually allow us to complete the synthesis of the natural product and irrevocably confirm its structure. PMID:27556024

  10. Manganese dioxide mediated one-pot synthesis of methyl 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1-carboxylate: Concise synthesis of alangiobussinine.

    PubMed

    Baiget, Jessica; Llona-Minguez, Sabin; Lang, Stuart; Mackay, Simon P; Suckling, Colin J; Sutcliffe, Oliver B

    2011-01-01

    The carboline ring system is an important pharmacophore found in a number of biologically important targets. Development of synthetic routes for the preparation of these compounds is important in order to prepare a range of analogues containing the carboline heterocyclic moiety. A manganese dioxide mediated one-pot method starting with an activated alcohol and consisting of alcohol oxidation, Pictet-Spengler cyclisation, and oxidative aromatisation, offers a convenient process that allows access to β-carbolines. This one-pot process for the preparation of methyl 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1-carboxylate has subsequently been used as the key step in the synthesis of alangiobussinine and a closely related analogue. PMID:22043251

  11. Manganese dioxide mediated one-pot synthesis of methyl 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1-carboxylate: Concise synthesis of alangiobussinine

    PubMed Central

    Baiget, Jessica; Llona-Minguez, Sabin; MacKay, Simon P; Suckling, Colin J; Sutcliffe, Oliver B

    2011-01-01

    Summary The carboline ring system is an important pharmacophore found in a number of biologically important targets. Development of synthetic routes for the preparation of these compounds is important in order to prepare a range of analogues containing the carboline heterocyclic moiety. A manganese dioxide mediated one-pot method starting with an activated alcohol and consisting of alcohol oxidation, Pictet–Spengler cyclisation, and oxidative aromatisation, offers a convenient process that allows access to β-carbolines. This one-pot process for the preparation of methyl 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1-carboxylate has subsequently been used as the key step in the synthesis of alangiobussinine and a closely related analogue. PMID:22043251

  12. Synthesis of the Enantiomers of Tedanalactam and the First Total Synthesis and Configurational Assignment of (+)-Piplaroxide.

    PubMed

    Romero-Ibañez, Julio; Xochicale-Santana, Leonardo; Quintero, Leticia; Fuentes, Lilia; Sartillo-Piscil, Fernando

    2016-04-22

    Highlighting the recently established methodology for the direct synthesis of glycidic amides from tertiary allyl amines, the synthesis of the enantiomers of tedanalactam were completed in two steps from the corresponding chiral dihydropiperidine. Additionally, the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of piplaroxide were obtained from their respective tedanalactam precursor, and the absolute configuration of the naturally occurring (+)-piplaroxide was determined. The present approach represents not only the shortest synthesis of (-)-tedanalactam but also the first total synthesis of (+)-piplaroxide, a repellent against the leafcutter ant Atta cephalotes. PMID:26913637

  13. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Propindilactone G, Part 1: Initial Attempts towards the Synthesis of Schiartanes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling-Ming; You, Lin; Shan, Zhen-Hua; Yu, Ruo-Cheng; Zhang, Bo; Li, Yuan-He; Shi, Ying; Chen, Jia-Hua; Yang, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    Our first-generation synthetic study towards the total synthesis of propindilactone G (1) and its analogues is reported. The key synthetic steps were an intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction (PKR) and a vinylogous Mukaiyama reaction (VMAR). The stereoselective synthesis of the CDE ring moiety with an all-carbon quaternary center through a PKR was difficult, whilst a VMAR afforded a product with the opposite stereochemistry at the C20 position on the side chain. These results led us to redesign our synthetic strategy for the total synthesis of compound 1. PMID:26991268

  14. Inspirations, Discoveries, and Future Perspectives in Total Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.

    2009-01-01

    The last one hundred years have witnessed a dramatic increase in the power and reach of total synthesis. The pantheon of accomplishments in the field includes the total synthesis of molecules of unimaginable beauty and diversity such as the four discussed in this article: endiandric acids (1982), calicheamicin γ1I (1992), Taxol® (1994), and brevetoxin B (1995). Chosen from the collection of the molecules synthesized in the author’s laboratories, these structures are but a small fraction of the myriad constructed in laboratories around the world over the last century. Their stories, and the background on which they were based, should serve to trace the evolution of the art of chemical synthesis to its present sharp condition, an emergence that occurred as a result of new theories and mechanistic insights, new reactions, new reagents and catalysts, and new synthetic technologies and strategies. Indeed, the advent of chemical synthesis as a whole must be considered as one of the most influential developments of the twentieth century in terms of its impact on society. PMID:19152273

  15. Concise Asymmetric Synthesis and Pharmacological Characterization of All Stereoisomers of Glutamate Transporter Inhibitor TFB-TBOA and Synthesis of EAAT Photoaffinity Probes.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, Michele; Ritler, Andreas; Simonin, Alexandre; Hediger, Matthias A; Lochner, Martin

    2016-05-18

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. Its rapid clearance after the release into the synaptic cleft is vital in order to avoid toxic effects and is ensured by several transmembrane transport proteins, so-called excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). Impairment of glutamate removal has been linked to several neurodegenerative diseases and EAATs have therefore received increased attention as therapeutic targets. O-Benzylated l-threo-β-hydroxyaspartate derivatives have been developed previously as highly potent inhibitors of EAATs with TFB-TBOA ((2S,3S)-2-amino-3-((3-(4-(trifluoromethyl)benzamido)benzyl)oxy)succinic acid) standing out as low-nanomolar inhibitor. We report the stereoselective synthesis of all four stereoisomers of TFB-TBOA in less than a fifth of synthetic steps than the published route. For the first time, the inhibitory activity and isoform selectivity of these TFB-TBOA enantio- and diastereomers were assessed on human glutamate transporters EAAT1-3. Furthermore, we synthesized potent photoaffinity probes based on TFB-TBOA using our novel synthetic strategy. PMID:26918289

  16. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of ent-Pyripyropene A.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Shinichiro; Ikebe, Ayako; Oosumi, Kazuya; Karasawa, Tomoya; Matsumura, Keisuke; Izumikawa, Miho; Johmoto, Kohei; Uekusa, Hidehiro; Shin-ya, Kazuo; Doi, Takayuki; Takahashi, Takashi

    2015-06-22

    An asymmetric total synthesis of ent-pyripyropene A was achieved by a convergent synthetic route. We used our originally developed Ti(III) -catalyzed radical cyclization to construct an AB-ring portion that consisted of a trans-decalin skeleton with five contiguous stereogenic centers. The coupling between the AB-ring and the DE-ring portions, and a subsequent C-ring cyclization, led to the total synthesis of ent-pyripyropene A. An evaluation of the insecticidal activity of ent-pyripyropene A against two aphid species revealed that ent-pyripyropene A was 35-175 times less active than naturally occurring pyripyropene A. This result indicated that the biological target of pyripyropene A recognizes the absolute configuration of pyripyropene A. PMID:26014374

  17. The Daphniphyllum Alkaloids: Total Synthesis of (−)-Calyciphylline N

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Presented here is a full account on the development of a strategy culminating in the first total synthesis of the architecturally complex daphniphyllum alkaloid, (−)-calyciphylline N. Highlights of the approach include a highly diastereoselective, intramolecular Diels–Alder reaction of a silicon-tethered acrylate; an efficient Stille carbonylation of a sterically encumbered vinyl triflate; a one-pot Nazarov cyclization/proto-desilylation sequence; and the chemoselective hydrogenation of a fully substituted diene ester. PMID:25756504

  18. Total synthesis of an oxepine natural product, (±)-janoxepin.

    PubMed

    Doveston, Richard G; Steendam, René; Jones, Stuart; Taylor, Richard J K

    2012-02-17

    The total synthesis of (±)-janoxepin, a novel antiplasmodial d-leucine derived oxepine-pyrimidinone-ketopiperazine isolated from the fungus Aspergillus janus, is described. The cornerstones of the synthetic route are pyrimidinone preparation, ring-closing metathesis, aldol introduction of the enamide, and dihydro-oxepine elaboration. This synthetic route proved very efficient for the formation of a number of janoxepin analogues, including dihydro-janoxepin and tetrahydro-janoxepin. PMID:22288766

  19. The daphniphyllum alkaloids: total synthesis of (-)-calyciphylline N.

    PubMed

    Shvartsbart, Artem; Smith, Amos B

    2015-03-18

    Presented here is a full account on the development of a strategy culminating in the first total synthesis of the architecturally complex daphniphyllum alkaloid, (-)-calyciphylline N. Highlights of the approach include a highly diastereoselective, intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of a silicon-tethered acrylate; an efficient Stille carbonylation of a sterically encumbered vinyl triflate; a one-pot Nazarov cyclization/proto-desilylation sequence; and the chemoselective hydrogenation of a fully substituted diene ester. PMID:25756504

  20. Total Synthesis of (−)-Nodulisporic Acid D

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yike; Melvin, Jason E.; Gonzales, Stephen S.; Spafford, Matthew J.; Smith, Amos B.

    2015-01-01

    A convergent total synthesis of the architecturally complex indole diterpenoid (−)-nodulisporic acid D has been achieved. Key synthetic transformations include vicinal difunctionalization of an advanced α,β-unsaturated aldehyde to form the E,F-transfused 5,6-ring system of the eastern hemisphere and a cascade cross-coupling/indolization protocol leading to the CDE multisubstituted indole core. PMID:26029849

  1. Alumina-on-alumina total hip arthroplasty: a concise follow-up, at a minimum of ten years, of a previous report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Kyun; Ha, Yong-Chan; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Koo, Kyung-Hoi; Yoon, Kang Sup; Kim, Hee Joong

    2010-07-21

    We previously reported the five-to-six-year results of the use of third-generation alumina-on-alumina bearings in a consecutive series of 100 primary cementless total hip arthroplasties. This report presents the longer-term outcomes of these same bearings, at a minimum of ten years postoperatively. Eighty-six of eighty-eight hips available for the study retained the original bearings at the time of the latest follow-up. Thirteen hips were associated with noise, and six hips demonstrated fretting of the femoral neck on radiographs. Two hips required a change of the bearings because of a ceramic head fracture. The ten-year survival rate of the alumina-on-alumina total hip prostheses, with revision of any implant for any reason as the end point, was 99.0%. On the basis of those results, we concluded that the rate of survival of primary cementless total hip prostheses with third-generation alumina-on-alumina bearings is excellent at ten years. However, the risk of ceramic fracture, noise, and impingement between the metal neck and the ceramic liner should be a concern to surgeons, and patients should be informed of these risks before surgery. PMID:20660234

  2. Total synthesis of antimicrobial and antitumor cyclic depsipeptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhua; Schlecker, Andreas; Ma, Dawei

    2010-08-14

    The total synthesis of natural products "has to be viewed as an art and a science that needs to be advanced for its own sake" (K. C. Nicolaou) and indeed, the achievements within this field of chemistry during the last decades are astonishing. However, besides its inherent beauty, total synthesis also opens the gates widely to a better understanding of biological processes and the development of pharmaceutical interesting substances. Cyclic depsipeptides form one of the compound classes that have attracted tremendous attention from synthetic chemists. They often feature non-proteinogenic amino acids and various types of structural unique building blocks, which make them challenging targets for synthetic efforts. Their total synthesis offers the chance to implement the use of newly developed synthetic tools in a complex environment. Synthetic dead-ends have shown the limitations of today's chemistry as well as triggering the development of new methodologies to circumvent the observed problems. Cyclic depsipeptides also often possess biological properties, especially antimicrobial and antitumor activity, that make them promising candidates for further pharmaceutical investigations and thus have a value at their own. Furthermore, through construction from scratch, ambiguities regarding the structure of several members of that compound class could be successfully clarified and derivatives for structure-activity-relationship (SAR) studies obtained. PMID:20544117

  3. Cementless total hip arthroplasty with the rectangular titanium Zweymuller stem. A concise follow-up, at a minimum of fifteen years, of a previous report.

    PubMed

    Grübl, Alexander; Chiari, Catharina; Giurea, Alexander; Gruber, Martin; Kaider, Alexandra; Marker, Martina; Zehetgruber, Harald; Gottsauner-Wolf, Florian

    2006-10-01

    Between October 1986 and November 1987, 208 total hip arthroplasties were performed with use of the cementless Zweymüller stem and a threaded cup in 200 consecutive patients. Of 102 patients (108 hips) who were available for follow-up at a minimum of 180 months postoperatively, eighty-three (eighty-nine hips) had the primary joint replacement still intact. No stem had been revised because of aseptic loosening, but we found various degrees of osteolysis around sixteen (18%) of the implants. The probability of survival of the stem at fifteen years was 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.00). The probability of survival of the cup was 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 0.91). PMID:17015598

  4. Evolution of an Oxidative Dearomatization Enabled Total Synthesis of Vinigrol

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qingliang; Draghici, Cristian; Li, Fang; Smith, Brandon R.; Das, Pradipta

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the synthetic strategy resulting in a total synthesis of vinigrol is presented. Oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition has served as the successful cornerstone for all of the approaches. Extensive radical cyclization efforts to form the tetracyclic core resulted in interesting and surprising reaction outcomes, none of which could be advanced to vinigrol. These cyclization obstacles were successfully overcome by using Heck instead of radical cyclizations. The total synthesis features a trifluoroethyl ether protecting group being used for the first time in organic synthesis. The logic of its selection and the group’s importance beyond protecting the C8a hydroxyl group is presented along with a discussion of strategies for its removal. Because of the compact tetracyclic cage the route is built around many unusual reaction observations and solutions have emerged. For example, a first of its kind Grob fragmentation reaction featuring a trifluoroethyl leaving group has been uncovered, interesting interrupted selenium dioxide allylic oxidations have been observed as well as intriguing catalyst and counterion dependent directed hydrogenations. PMID:24258093

  5. Cementless total hip arthroplasty with the rectangular titanium Zweymüller stem: a concise follow-up, at a minimum of twenty years, of previous reports.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Alexander; Grübl, Alexander; Schneckener, Charlotte-Dorothé; Chiari, Catharina; Kaider, Alexandra; Lass, Richard; Windhager, Reinhard

    2012-09-19

    In 2002 and 2006, we reported the long-term results of 208 total hip replacements performed with the Zweymüller stem and a threaded cup in 200 patients. The present study gives an update on this patient cohort. At a minimum of twenty years postoperatively, seventy-three patients (seventy-five hips) were available for follow-up; twelve patients were lost to follow-up. The key findings of our previous reports were the absence of aseptic femoral stem loosening and a poor rate of survival of the threaded cup. Since then, two revisions have been performed because of aseptic stem loosening. We observed osteolytic lesions around the proximal part of the femoral component on twenty-four (47%) of fifty-one radiographs, but no stem was deemed at risk for loosening. The probability of survival of the stem at twenty years was 0.96 (95% confidence interval, 0.91 to 0.99), and the probability of survival of the cup at twenty years was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.75). The Zweymüller femoral stem, a tapered, rectangular implant, continues to give excellent long-term results. PMID:22992879

  6. Total Synthesis and Stereochemical Assignment of (±)-Sorbiterrin A

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A concise, biomimetic approach to sorbiterrin A has been developed employing consecutive Michael additions of a 4-hydroxypyrone to a sorbicillinol derivative and silver nanoparticle-mediated bridged aldol/dehydration to construct the [3.3.1] ring system. The relative stereochemistry of sorbiterrin A was unambiguously confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. PMID:24547688

  7. Total Synthesis of the Antiviral Natural Product Houttuynoid B.

    PubMed

    Kerl, Thomas; Berger, Florian; Schmalz, Hans-Günther

    2016-02-24

    The first total synthesis of houttuynoid B, a powerful antiviral flavonoid glycoside from the Chinese plant Houttuynia cordata, is described. In a key step, a Baker-Venkataraman rearrangement employing an already glycosylated substrate was used to efficiently set up the fully functionalized carbon skeleton. The required benzofuran building block was prepared through a domino Sonogashira coupling/5-endo-dig cyclization and converted into a stable 1-hydroxybenzotriazole-derived active ester prior to linking with a galactosylated hydroxyacetophenone unit. The elaborated synthesis requires only nine steps (11 % overall yield) along the longest linear sequence and paves the way for the preparation of structurally related compounds for further biological evaluation. PMID:26748612

  8. Total Synthesis of the Antimitotic Marine Macrolide (−)-Leiodermatolide**

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Ian; Ng, Kenneth K-H; Williams, Simon; Millican, David C; Dalby, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Leiodermatolide is an antimitotic macrolide isolated from the marine sponge Leiodermatium sp. whose potentially novel tubulin-targeting mechanism of action makes it an exciting lead for anticancer drug discovery. In pursuit of a sustainable supply, we report a highly stereocontrolled total synthesis (3.2 % yield) based on a convergent sequence of palladium-mediated fragment assembly and macrolactonization. Boron-mediated aldol reactions were used to configure the three key fragments 2, 5, and 6 by employing the appropriate enantiomer of the lactate-derived ketone 7. PMID:24481746

  9. Isolation and Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Perforanoid A.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chao; Yan, Xiaohui; Tu, Qian; Di, Yingtong; Yuan, Chunmao; Fang, Xin; Ben-David, Yaacove; Xia, Lei; Gong, Jianxian; Shen, Yuemao; Yang, Zhen; Hao, Xiaojiang

    2016-06-20

    A novel limonoid, perforanoid A, was isolated, and an asymmetric total synthesis was achieved in 10 steps. The key steps are chiral tertiary aminonaphthol mediated enantioselective alkenylation of an aldehyde to an allylic alcohol, Pd-catalyzed coupling of the allylic alcohol with vinyl ether to form the γ-lactone ring, and cyclopentenone ring formation through a Rh-catalyzed Pauson-Khand reaction. Preliminary studies show that perforanoid A is cytotoxic towards HEL, K562, and CB3 tumor cell lines. PMID:27167098

  10. Perylenequinone Natural Products: Total Synthesis of Hypocrellin A

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Erin M.; Morgan, Barbara J.; Mulrooney, Carol A.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Kozlowski, Marisa C.

    2009-01-01

    An efficient and stereoselective total synthesis of the perylenequinone natural product hypocrellin A (1) is described. The key features include a potentially biomimetic 1,8-diketone aldol cyclization to set the centrochiral C7,C7’-stereochemistry, bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodobenzene mediated oxygenation, a palladium-catalyzed decarboxylation, and an enantioselective catalytic oxidative 2-naphthol coupling to establish the biaryl axial chirality. The helical stereochemistry is formed from an axial chiral intermediate and is then utilized in a dynamic stereochemical transfer to dictate the stereochemistry of the C7,C7’-seven membered ring formed during the aldol cyclization. PMID:19894741

  11. First total synthesis of mycothiol and mycothiol disulfide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungwon; Rosazza, John P N

    2004-02-01

    [reaction: see text] The first total synthesis of mycothiol and mycothiol disulfide was achieved by linking D-2,3,4,5,6-penta-O-acetyl-myo-inositol, O-(3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl)-2-azido-2-deoxy-alpha,beta-D-glucopyranosyl) trichloroacetimidate, and N,S-diacetyl-L-cysteine and deprotecting peracetylated mycothiol. The first full spectral characterization is reported for underivatized mycothiol. The structure of mycothiol was confirmed by spectral analysis of the known bimane derivative. PMID:14748594

  12. Total Synthesis and Biological Assessment of Mandelalide A.

    PubMed

    Brütsch, Tobias Michael; Bucher, Pascal; Altmann, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-22

    A new convergent total synthesis of the marine macrolide mandelalide A (1) has been developed that is based on macrocyclic ring closure by a Shiina-type macrolactonization and the construction of the requisite precursor seco acid by a highly efficient Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction between two fragments of comparable complexity. Key steps in the elaboration of the acid building block were the enantioselective, catalytic addition of a protected acetylene to crotonaldehyde and the construction of the tetrahydropyran unit that is embedded in the macrocycle by means of an acid-catalyzed Prins reaction. The synthesis of the alcohol fragment features the formation of the trisubstituted tetrahydrofuran ring through an acetal cleavage/epoxide opening cascade reaction and a rarely used radical alkynylation of a primary alkyl iodide. Intriguingly, the dihydroxylation of a terminal double bond as part of the synthesis of this building block gave the same major product for both the α- and β-AD-mix reagents, albeit with moderate or low selectivity. Synthetic mandelalide A (1) was a potent proliferation inhibitor of A549, HT460, and H1299 human lung cancer cells in vitro, but not of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. However, in no case did we observe complete cell kill even at the highest compound concentration tested (5 μm). PMID:26639765

  13. Total synthesis and configurational assignment of chondramide A.

    PubMed

    Schmauder, Anke; Sibley, L David; Maier, Martin E

    2010-04-12

    The first total synthesis of the cyclodepsipeptide chondramide A (2 b) is described. This depsipeptide is composed of four subunits, namely L-alanine, N-Me-D-tryptophan, 3-amino-2-methoxy-propionic acid (beta-tyrosine derivative), and a 7-hydroxy-alkenoic acid. While the configuration of the stereogenic centers in the 7-hydroxy-alkenoic acid were known, the configuration of the tyrosine derivative required clarification and turned out to be (2S,3R) or (2L,3L), respectively. The synthesis of the 3-amino-2-methoxy-3-arylpropanoic ester 20 b relied on an asymmetric dihydroxylation yielding diol ent-15 a followed by a regioselective Mitsunobu substitution leading to 3-azido-2-hydroxypropanoate 18 b. We could also show that the ester bond in the seco compound 26 b can be fashioned by a Mitsunobu esterification by using hydroxy ester (7S)-7 and the tripeptide acid 25 b. This synthesis should allow for the preparation of various analogues. PMID:20222097

  14. Total Synthesis of Circular Bacteriocins by Butelase 1.

    PubMed

    Hemu, Xinya; Qiu, Yibo; Nguyen, Giang K T; Tam, James P

    2016-06-01

    Circular bacteriocins, ranging from 35 to 70 amino acids, are the largest cyclic peptides produced by lactic acid bacteria to suppress growth of other bacteria. Their end-to-end cyclized backbone that enhances molecular stability is an advantage to survive in pasteurization and cooking processes in food preservation, but becomes a disadvantage and challenge in chemical synthesis. They also contain unusually long and highly hydrophobic segments which pose an additional synthetic challenge. Here we report the total synthesis of the three largest circular bacteriocins, AS-48, uberolysin, and garvicin ML, by an efficient chemoenzymatic strategy. A key feature of our synthetic scheme is the use of an Asn-specific butelase-mediated cyclization of their linear precursors, prepared by microwave stepwise synthesis. Antimicrobial assays showed that the AS-48 linear precursor is inactive at concentrations up to 100 μM, whereas the macrocyclic AS-48 is potently active against pathogenic and drug-resistant bacteria, with minimal inhibitory concentrations in a sub-micromolar range. PMID:27206099

  15. Total Synthesis, Stereochemical Revision, and Biological Reassessment of Mandelalide A: Chemical Mimicry of Intrafamily Relationships.

    PubMed

    Willwacher, Jens; Heggen, Berit; Wirtz, Conny; Thiel, Walter; Fürstner, Alois

    2015-07-13

    Mandelalide A and three congeners had recently been isolated as the supposedly highly cytotoxic principles of an ascidian collected off the South African coastline. Since these compounds are hardly available from the natural source, a concise synthesis route was developed, targeting structure 1 as the purported representation of mandelalide A. The sequence involves an iridium-catalyzed two-directional Krische allylation and a cobalt-catalyzed carbonylative epoxide opening as entry points for the preparation of the major building blocks. The final stages feature the first implementation of terminal acetylene metathesis into natural product total synthesis, which is remarkable in that this class of substrates had been beyond the reach of alkyne metathesis for decades. Synthetic 1, however, proved not to be identical with the natural product. In an attempt to clarify this issue, NMR spectra were simulated for 20 conceivable diastereomers by using DFT followed by DP4 analysis; however, this did not provide a reliable assignment either. The puzzle was ultimately solved by the preparation of three diastereomers, of which compound 6 proved identical with mandelalide A in all analytical and spectroscopic regards. As the entire "northern sector" about the tetrahydrofuran ring in 6 shows the opposite configuration of what had originally been assigned, it is highly likely that the stereostructures of the sister compounds mandelalides B-D must be corrected analogously; we propose that these natural products are accurately represented by structures 68-70. In an attempt to prove this reassignment, an entry into mandelalides C and D was sought by subjecting an advanced intermediate of the synthesis of 6 to a largely unprecedented intramolecular Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction, which furnished the γ-lactone derivative 74 as a mixture of diastereomers. Whereas (24R)-74 was amenable to a hydroxyl-directed dihydroxylation by using OsO4 /TMEDA as the reagent, the sister

  16. Approaches to the total synthesis of chaetochalasin A.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Eric J; Willis, Mark

    2014-10-14

    Chaetochalasin A is a complex natural product whose biosynthesis may involve two domino Diels-Alder reactions. Approaches to the total synthesis of chaetochalasin A using this approach have been studied. Methyl (6R,8S,2Z,4E,10E,12E,14E)-6,8,10,14-tetramethylhexadeca-2,4,10,12,14-pentaenoate was identified as a key intermediate and was synthesized from (E)-1-bromo-4-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-2-methylbut-2-ene using diastereoselective alkylations of derivatives of (+)-pseudoephedrine to introduce the stereogenic centres, a modified Julia reaction to prepare the conjugated triene and a phosphonate condensation to provide the (2Z)-alkene. However, during the synthesis, facile geometrical isomerisation of the (14E)-trisubstituted and (2Z)-double-bonds was observed and attempts to incorporate this pentaene into a synthesis of chaetochalasin A led to the formation of mixtures of products. The analogous ethyl 6,8,10,14-tetramethylhexadeca-4,10,12,14-tetraenoate [that lacks the (2Z)-double-bond] was incorporated into a Diels-Alder precursor by acylation of a valine-derived N-acylpyrrolidinone followed by oxidative elimination of the corresponding 3-(phenylselanyl)pyrrolidinone. However, preliminary studies of the macrocycle-forming Diels-Alder reaction for a synthesis of chaetochalasin A were complicated by (E,Z)-isomerisation of the (10E)-double-bond of the conjugated triene and three Diels-Alder adducts were isolated and characterised. Further studies of this approach to chaetochalasin A will require an alternative procedure for the generation of the acylpyrrolinone in the presence of the acid sensitive conjugated triene. PMID:25119649

  17. Cobalt-catalyzed diastereoselective synthesis of C-furanosides. Total synthesis of (-)-isoaltholactone.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Lionel; Izquierdo, Eva; Angibaud, Patrick; Stansfield, Ian; Meerpoel, Lieven; Reymond, Sébastien; Cossy, Janine

    2013-12-01

    An array of C-aryl and C-vinyl furanosides were prepared in good yields and diastereoselectivities from C-halogeno furanosides either with aryl Grignard or with vinyl Grignard using the convenient Co(acac)3/TMEDA catalytic system. This method is illustrated by the total synthesis of the (-)-isoaltholactone. PMID:24127819

  18. First Atroposelective Total Synthesis of Enantiomerically Pure Ancistrocladidine and Ancistrotectorine.

    PubMed

    Bringmann, Gerhard; Manchala, Narasimhulu; Büttner, Tobias; Hertlein-Amslinger, Barbara; Seupel, Raina

    2016-07-01

    The first regio- and stereoselective total synthesis of the axially chiral 7,3'-coupled naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids ancistrocladidine (1) and ancistrotectorine (2) has been described. Both possess a 7,3'-coupled axis, which before now, was difficult to attain synthetically. Moreover, target 2 has a sensitive relative cis-array of the two methyl groups at C1 and C3 in the tetrahydroisoquinoline part. The key step in the chosen strategy was the construction of the biaryl axis in accordance with the "lactone method": the two molecular halves, which were activated in an "inverse-halogenated" form, were prefixed by an ester bridge, followed by intramolecular coupling, and atroposelective cleavage of the lactone auxiliary bridge delivered the desired biaryl scaffold. PMID:27273153

  19. Total synthesis of (−)-kopsinine and ent-(+)-kopsinine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kiyoun; Boger, Dale L.

    2014-01-01

    The total synthesis of (−)-kopsinine and its unnatural enantiomer is detailed, enlisting a late-stage SmI2-mediated transannular free radical conjugate addition reaction for construction of the core bicyclo[2.2.2]octane ring system with strategic C21–C2 bond formation. Key to the approach is assemblage of the underlying skeleton by an intramolecular [4+2]/[3+2] cycloaddition cascade of a 1,3,4-oxadiazole that provided the precursor C21 functionalized pentacyclic ring system 1 in a single step in which the C3 methyl ester found in the natural product served as a key 1,3,4-oxadiazole substituent, activating it for participation in the initiating Diels–Alder reaction and stabilizing the intermediate 1,3-dipole. PMID:26074629

  20. Catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-galanthamine and (-)-lycoramine.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Yang, Qiao; Wang, Yuan; Jia, Yanxing

    2015-05-18

    The catalytic asymmetric total syntheses of (-)-galanthamine (1) and (-)-lycoramine (2) have been achieved by using a conceptually new strategy featuring two metal-catalyzed reactions as the key steps. A new method for the construction of 3,4-fused benzofurans has been developed through a palladium-catalyzed intramolecular Larock annulation reaction, which was successfully applied to the construction of the ABD tricyclic skeleton of 1 and 2. To achieve the asymmetric synthesis of 1 and 2, a Sc(III)/N,N'-dioxide complex was used to catalyze the enantioselective conjugate addition of 3-alkyl-substituted benzofuranone to methyl vinyl ketone for the construction of a chiral quaternary carbon center. PMID:25847447

  1. Total Synthesis of Verruculogen and Fumitremorgin A Enabled by Ligand-Controlled C-H Borylation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Holte, Dane; Zoller, Jochen; Umemiya, Shigenobu; Simke, Leah R; Baran, Phil S

    2015-08-19

    Verruculogen and fumitremorgin A are bioactive alkaloids that contain a unique eight-membered endoperoxide. Although related natural products such as fumitremorgins B and C have been previously synthesized, we report the first synthesis of the more complex, endoperoxide-containing members of this family. A concise route to verruculogen and fumitremorgin A relied not only on a hydroperoxide/indole hemiaminal cyclization, but also on the ability to access the seemingly simple starting material, 6-methoxytryptophan. An iridium-catalyzed C-H borylation/Chan-Lam procedure guided by an N-TIPS group enabled the conversion of a tryptophan derivative into a 6-methoxytryptophan derivative, proving to be a general way to functionalize the C6 position of an N,C3-disubstituted indole for the synthesis of indole-containing natural products and pharmaceuticals. PMID:26256033

  2. Total synthesis of the squalene synthase inhibitor zaragozic acid C.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Seiichi

    2005-01-01

    Zaragozic acids and squalestatins were documented by Merck, Glaxo, and Tokyo Noko University/Mitsubishi Kasei Corporation as part of a program aimed at identifying novel inhibitors of squalene synthase, as well as farnesyl transferase. These natural products have attracted considerable attention from numerous synthetic chemists because of their therapeutic potential and novel architecture. This review highlights our total syntheses of zaragozic acid C by two convergent strategies. The key steps in our first-generation synthesis involve 1) simultaneous creation of the C4 and C5 quaternary stereocenters through the Sn(OTf)2-promoted aldol coupling reaction between the alpha-keto ester and silyl ketene thioacetal derived from L- and D-tartaric acids, respectively; and 2) construction of the bicyclic core structure via acid-catalyzed internal ketalization under kinetically controlled conditions. The second-generation strategy relies on a tandem carbonyl ylide formation/1,3-dipolar cycloaddition approach and features elongation of the C1 alkyl side chain through an olefin cross-metathesis as well as high convergency and flexibility. PMID:15635219

  3. Amphidinolide B: Total Synthesis, Structural Investigation and Biological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Nam, Sangkil; Horne, David A.; Jove, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The total synthesis of amphidinolide B1 and the proposed structure of amphidinolide B2 has been accomplished. Key aspects of this work include the development of a practical, non-transition metal mediated method for the construction of the C13-C15 diene, the identification of α-chelation and dipole minimization models for diastereoselective methyl ketone aldol reactions, the discovery of a spontaneous Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons macrocyclization strategy and the development of a novel late stage method for construction of an allylic epoxide moiety. The originally proposed structure for amphidinolide B2 and diastereomers thereof display potent anti-tumor activities with IC50 values ranging from 3.3 nM to 94.5 nM against human solid and blood tumor cells. Of the different stereoisomers, the proposed structure of amphidinolide B2 is over 12-fold more potent than the C8,9-epimer and C18-epimer in human DU145 prostate cancer cells. These data suggest that the epoxide stereochemistry is a significant factor for anticancer activity. PMID:23406192

  4. Biomimetic total synthesis of (±)-doitunggarcinone A and (+)-garcibracteatone.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Henry P; Tulip, Stephen J; Nakano, Yuji; George, Jonathan H

    2014-03-21

    A full account of our oxidative radical cyclization approach to the synthesis of garcibracteatone and doitunggarcinone A is presented. This includes the first enantioselective synthesis of garcibracteatone, which allowed the absolute configuration of the natural compound to be determined. The first synthesis of doitunggarcinone A is also described, which confirms our reassignment of the relative configuration of this molecule. Novel syntheses of monoterpene fragments used to construct the target molecules are also reported. PMID:24575789

  5. Two Ene-Yne Metathesis Approaches to the Total Synthesis of Amphidinolide P.

    PubMed

    Jecs, Edgars; Diver, Steven T

    2015-07-17

    The total synthesis of amphidinolide P was achieved through two different ene-yne metathesis approaches. In each approach, the metathesis step was performed at late stages in the synthesis with all other functionality present. By forging two successful pathways to the synthesis of 1, some of the strengths and weaknesses of metathesis-intensive synthetic strategies were identified. PMID:26114894

  6. Total Synthesis, Stereochemical Assignment, and Biological Activity of All Known (−)-Trigonoliimines

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sunkyu; Morrison, Karen C.; Hergenrother, Paul J.; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    A full account of our concise and enantioselective total syntheses of all known (−)-trigonoliimine alkaloids is described. Our retrobiosynthetic analysis of these natural products enabled identification of a single bistryptamine precursor as a precursor to all known trigonoliimines through a sequence of transformations involving asymmetric oxidation and reorganization. Our enantioselective syntheses of these alkaloids enabled the revision of the absolute stereochemistry of (−)-trigonoliimines A, B, and C. We report that trigonoliimines A, B, C, and structurally related compounds showed weak anticancer activities against HeLa and U-937 cells. PMID:24127681

  7. Concise synthesis of carbazole-1,4-quinones and evaluation of their antiproliferative activity against HCT-116 and HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Takashi; Hatae, Noriyuki; Yoshimura, Teruki; Takaki, Sawa; Abe, Takumi; Ishikura, Minoru; Hibino, Satoshi; Choshi, Tominari

    2016-10-01

    We report a convenient synthesis of carbazole-1,4-quinone alkaloid koeniginequinones A and B using a tandem ring-closing metathesis with the dehydrogenation reaction sequence under an O2 atmosphere as an important step. Using this method, carbazole-1,4-quinones substituted at the 5-, 6-, 7-, and/or 8-positions have been synthesized. Moreover, 24 compounds, including koeniginequinones A and B, have been evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against HCT-116 and HL-60 cells, and the 6-nitro analog exhibited the most potent activity against both tumor cell types. PMID:27318980

  8. Substrate-Controlled Asymmetric Total Synthesis and Structure Revision of (-)-Bisezakyne A.

    PubMed

    Shin, Iljin; Lee, Dongjoo; Kim, Hyoungsu

    2016-09-01

    The first asymmetric total synthesis and subsequent structure revision of (-)-bisezakyne A, a Laurencia C15 acetogenin from Alpysia oculifera, has been accomplished. Our substrate-controlled synthesis of this oxolane natural product features a highly stereoselective "protecting-group-dependent" intramolecular amide enolate alkylation strategy for the synthesis of the key 9,10-trans-9,12-cis-10-hydroxytetrahydrofuran intermediate through "nonchelate" control. In addition, our synthesis determined the absolute configuration of the halogenated marine natural product. PMID:27551943

  9. Synthesis of 1-Substituted Isoquinolines by Heterocyclization of TosMIC Derivatives: Total Synthesis of Cassiarin A.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Sara; Coppola, Anna; Sucunza, David; Burgos, Carolina; Vaquero, Juan J

    2016-07-15

    A new method for the synthesis of 1-substituted isoquinolines by a heterocyclization that involves α-benzyl TosMIC derivatives and different electrophiles has been developed. This methodology has been successfully applied to a total synthesis of cassiarin A, an alkaloid with potent antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:27351205

  10. Concise Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2-Aroyl-5-Amino Benzo[b]thiophene Derivatives As a Novel Class of Potent Antimitotic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Romagnoli, Romeo; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Lopez-Cara, Carlota; Preti, Delia; Tabrizi, Mojgan Aghazadeh; Balzarini, Jan; Bassetto, Marcella; Brancale, Andrea; Fu, Xian-Hua; Gao, Yang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Su-Zhan; Hamel, Ernest; Bortolozzi, Roberta; Basso, Giuseppe; Viola, Giampietro

    2014-01-01

    The biological importance of microtubules make them an interesting target for the synthesis of antitumor agents. The 2-(3′,4′,5′-trimethoxybenzoyl)-5-aminobenzo[b]thiophene moiety was identified as a novel scaffold for the preparation of potent inhibitors of microtubule polymerization acting through the colchicine site of tubulin. The position of the methoxy group on the benzo[b]thiophene was important for maximal antiproliferative activity. Structure–activity relationship analysis established that the best activities were obtained with amino and methoxy groups placed at the C-5 and C-7 positions, respectively. Compounds 3c–e showed more potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization than combretastatin A-4 and strong binding to the colchicine site. These compounds also demonstrated substantial antiproliferative activity, with IC50 values ranging from 2.6 to 18 nM in a variety of cancer cell lines. Importantly, compound 3c (50 mg/kg), significantly inhibited the growth of the human osteosarcoma MNNG/HOS xenograft in nude mice. PMID:24164557

  11. Synthesis of Rumphellaone A and Hushinone by a Gold-Catalyzed [2 + 2] Cycloaddition

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The enantioselective total synthesis of rumphellaone A has been accomplished in 12 steps via a diastereoselective gold(I)-catalyzed [2 + 2] macrocyclization of a 1,10-enyne as the key step to build the cyclobutene moiety. This concise approach has also led to the total synthesis of husinone. PMID:26974011

  12. The CP molecule labyrinth: a paradigm of how endeavors in total synthesis lead to discoveries and inventions in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, K C; Baran, Phil S

    2002-08-01

    Imagine an artist carving a sculpture from a marble slab and finding gold nuggets in the process. This thought is not a far-fetched description of the work of a synthetic chemist pursuing the total synthesis of a natural product. At the end of the day, he or she will be judged by the artistry of the final work and the weight of the gold discovered in the process. However, as colorful as this description of total synthesis may be, it does not entirely capture the essence of the endeavor, for there is much more to be told, especially with regard to the contrast of frustrating failures and exhilarating moments of discovery. To fully appreciate the often Herculean nature of the task and the rewards that accompany it, one must sense the details of the enterprise behind the scenes. A more vivid description of total synthesis as a struggle against a tough opponent is perhaps appropriate to dramatize these elements of the experience. In this article we describe one such endeavor of total synthesis which, in addition to reaching the target molecule, resulted in a wealth of new synthetic strategies and technologies for chemical synthesis. The total synthesis of the CP molecules is compared to Theseus' most celebrated athlos (Greek for exploit, accomplishment): the conquest of the dreaded Minotaur, which he accomplished through brilliance, skill, and bravery having traversed the famous labyrinth with the help of Ariadne. This story from Greek mythology comes alive in modern synthetic expeditions toward natural products as exemplified by the total synthesis of the CP molecules which serve as a paradigm for modern total synthesis endeavors, where the objectives are discovery and invention in the broader sense of organic synthesis. PMID:12203464

  13. 10 Step Asymmetric Total Synthesis and Stereochemistry of (+)-Dragmacidin D

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jeffrey J.; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Steffens, Sophia D.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric synthesis of dragmacidin D (1) has been completed in 10 steps. Its sole stereocenter was set using direct asymmetric alkylation enabled by a C2-symmetric tetramine and lithium N-(trimethylsilyl)-tert-butylamide as the enolization reagent. A central Larock indole synthesis was employed in a convergent assembly of heterocyclic subunits. The stereochemical evidence from this work strongly supports the predicted S configuration at 6′″ position consistent with other members of the dragmacidin family of natural products. PMID:26130270

  14. The total chemical synthesis of polymer/graphene nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Salvatierra, Rodrigo V; Cava, Carlos E; Roman, Lucimara S; Oliveira, Marcela M; Zarbin, Aldo J G

    2016-01-28

    A versatile and room temperature synthesis of thin films of polymer/graphene is reported. Drastically differing from other methods, not only the polymer but also the graphene are completely built from their simplest monomers (thiophene and benzene) in a one-pot polymerization reaction at a liquid-liquid interface. The materials were characterized and electronic properties are presented. PMID:26658554

  15. Total Synthesis of Laulimalide: Synthesis of the Northern and Southern Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Seganish, W. Michael; Chung, Cheol K.; Amans, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    The first stage of the development of a synthetic route for the total synthesis of laulimalide (1) is described. Our retrosynthetic analysis envisioned a novel macrocyclization route to the natural product using a Ru-catalyzed alkene-alkyne coupling. This would be preceded by an esterification of the C19 hydroxyl group, joining together two equally sized synthons, the northern fragment 7 and the southern fragment 8. Our first generation approach to the northern fragment entailed a key sequential Ru-Pd coupling sequence to assemble the dihydropyran. The key reactions proceeded smoothly, however, the inability to effect a key olefin migration led to the development of an alternative route based on an asymmetric dinuclear Zn-catalyzed aldol reaction of a hydroxyl acylpyrrole. This key reaction led to the desired diol adduct 66 with excellent syn:anti selectivity (10:1), and allowed for the successful completion of the northern fragment 7. The key step for the synthesis of the southern fragment was a chemoselective Rh-catalyzed cycloisomerization reaction to form the dihydropyran ring from a diyne precursor. This reaction proved to be selective for the formation of a six-membered ring, over a seven. The use of an electron-deficient bidentate phosphine allowed for the reaction to proceed with a reduced catalyst loading. PMID:22307837

  16. Expedient access to enantiopure cyclopentanic natural products: total synthesis of (-)-cyclonerodiol.

    PubMed

    Pérez Morales, Carmen; Mar Herrador, M; Quílez del Moral, José F; Barrero, Alejandro F

    2015-01-01

    Following the principles of collective total synthesis, a number of natural products sharing an optically pure, multifunctional, cyclopentanic core were synthesized from a common precursor: plinol A (1). This intermediate was efficiently obtained in only four steps from (-)-linalool (2) using as the key step a Ti(III)-mediated diastereoselective radical cyclization. The feasibility of this approach was confirmed with the expedient enantiospecific synthesis of cyclonerodiol (3), and the formal synthesis of chocol G (4) and piperitone (5). PMID:25920207

  17. Synthetic Studies on Et-743. Assembly of the Pentacyclic Core and a Formal Total Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Fishlock, Dan; Williams, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    A formal total synthesis of the potent anticancer agent Et-743 is described. The tetrahydroisoquinoline core is stereoselectively constructed using a novel radical cyclization of a glyoxalimine. Further elaboration of this core rapidly accessed the pentacyclic core of Et-743, but a mixture of regiosisomers was obtained in the key Pictet-Spengler ring closure. A known advanced intermediate in the synthesis of Et-743 was intercepted, constituting a formal synthesis of the molecule. PMID:18687003

  18. Scalable Total Synthesis of rac-Jungermannenones B and C.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weilong; Li, Houhua; Cai, Pei-Jun; Wang, Zhen; Yu, Zhi-Xiang; Lei, Xiaoguang

    2016-02-24

    Reported is the first scalable synthesis of rac-jungermannenones B and C starting from the commercially available and inexpensive geraniol in 10 and 9 steps, respectively. The unique jungermannenone framework is rapidly assembled by an unprecedented regioselective 1,6-dienyne reductive cyclization reaction which proceeds through a vinyl radical cyclization/allylic radical isomerization mechanism. DFT calculations explain the high regioselectivity observed in the 1,6-dienyne reductive radical cyclization. PMID:26823176

  19. Total Synthesis of Kealiinines A-C, Kealiiquinone, 2-Deoxy-2-aminokealiiquinone and Study Towards Total Synthesis of Spirocalcaridines A-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Jayanta Kumar

    Our group is mainly interested in the total synthesis of imidazole-containing alkaloids along with other kinds of alkaloids. A new family of imidazole alkaloids, the Leucetta alkaloids, is a group of 60 or so 2-aminoimidazole natural products found in marine sponges, which have received substantial attention recently because of their challenging structures and strong biological activities. Over the past few years, our laboratory has developed several synthetic methods for the total synthesis of 2-aminoimidazole alkaloids using site selective functionalization of polyhaloimidazoles. By using the above synthetic strategy, the development of high yielding and protecting group-free total syntheses of the reported structures of the Leucetta alkaloids kealiinine A-C has been accomplished. In addition to the challenging syntheses of these, our data unequivocally prove that the reported structures of those natural products did not match synthetic material due to discrepancies in the interpretation of spectroscopic data during initial isolation and characterization. Finally, the correct structure assignment was achieved with the help of extensive experimentation using 2D NMR spectroscopy (HMBC, HSQC and ROESY) and X-ray crystallography of these synthetic natural products. A second set of targets was accessed using a biosynthetic guided strategy according to which, kealiinine C would serve as a precursor to kealiiquinone and 2-deoxy-2-aminokealiiquinone. The synthesis of both alkaloids was completed from a late stage intermediate from the kealiinine C synthesis by oxidation. Although the first total synthesis of kealiiquinone was accomplished by Ohta et al. in 1995, the current method was protecting group-free and required only 6 steps in comparison to 12 steps by the Japanese group. The first total synthesis of the 2-amino congener was also accomplished. After successful syntheses of those natural products, in collaboration with Dr. Mandal's group, the cytotoxicity of these

  20. Total synthesis and structural revision of mycalol, an anticancer natural product from the marine source.

    PubMed

    Seetharamsingh, B; Rajamohanan, P R; Reddy, D Srinivasa

    2015-04-01

    The total synthesis of an anticancer (anaplastic thyroid) natural lipid mycalol has been accomplished for the first time. Synthesis of originally proposed structure necessitated the revision of structure in which the position of acetate group moved from C20 to C19 and a change in stereochemistry of the glycerol unit. PMID:25763453

  1. Enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-Lingzhiol via tandem semipinacol rearrangement/Friedel-Crafts type cyclization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Xu, Wen-Dan; Liu, Hao-Miao; Li, Ming-Ming; Yan, Yong-Min; Li, Xiao-Nian; Li, Yan; Cheng, Yong-Xian; Qin, Hong-Bo

    2016-06-30

    Enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-Lingzhiol has been achieved. It is the first example of in tandem semipinacol rearrangement reactions, the migrated aryl group further reacting with the carbonyl oxonium electrophile to furnish a polycyclic skeleton. Our synthesis involves 13 steps and proceeds in 6% overall yield. PMID:27321202

  2. Total Synthesis and Structural Revision of Antibiotic CJ-16,264**

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Shah, Akshay A.; Korman, Henry; Khan, Tabrez; Shi, Lei; Worawalai, Wisuttaya; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.

    2015-01-01

    The total synthesis and structural revision of antibiotic CJ-16,264 is described. Starting with citronellal, the quest for the target molecule featured a novel bis-transannular Diels–Alder reaction that casted stereoselectively the decalin system and included the synthesis of six isomers before demystification of its true structure. PMID:26096055

  3. Enantioselective and regioselective pyrone Diels-Alder reactions of vinyl sulfones: total synthesis of (+)-cavicularin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Beaudry, Christopher M

    2014-09-22

    The total synthesis of (+)-cavicularin is described. The synthesis features an enantio- and regioselective pyrone Diels-Alder reaction of a vinyl sulfone to construct the cyclophane architecture of the natural product. The Diels-Alder substrate was prepared by a regioselective one-pot three-component Suzuki reaction of a non-symmetric dibromoarene. PMID:25082270

  4. Asymmetric total synthesis of smyrindiol employing an organocatalytic aldol key step

    PubMed Central

    Fronert, Jeanne; Bisschops, Tom; Boeck, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Summary The first organocatalytic asymmetric synthesis of smyrindiol, by using an (S)-proline catalyzed enantioselective intramolecular aldol reaction as the key step, is described. Smyrindiol was synthesized from commercially available 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde in 15 steps, with excellent stereoselectivity (de = 99%, ee = 99%). In the course of this total synthesis a new and mild coumarin assembly was developed. PMID:23019438

  5. Total synthesis of the putative structure of the proposed Banyasin A

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xuguang; Ren, Qi; Choi, Sun; Xu, Zhengshuang; Ye, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The first total synthesis of four possible isomers of a molecule possessing the configuration proposed for Banyasin A is described. The structure synthesized appears to be different from that of the natural product. PMID:25853121

  6. Total Synthesis of Enantiopure (+)-γ -Lycorane Using Highly Efficient Pd-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Chapsal, Bruno D.; Ojima, Iwao

    2008-01-01

    Highly efficient short total synthesis of γ -lycorane (>99% ee, 41% overall yield) was achieved by using the asymmetric allylic alkylation in the key step catalyzed by palladium complexes with novel chiral biphenol-based monodentate phosphoramidite ligands. PMID:16562900

  7. Bioinspired total synthesis and structural revision of yuremamine, an alkaloid from the entheogenic plant Mimosa tenuiflora.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Matthew B; Sperry, Jonathan

    2015-04-11

    Guided by a biosynthetic hypothesis, a serendipitous total synthesis of yuremamine has resulted in its structural revision from the putative pyrroloindole (1) to the flavonoidal indole (2), which was initially proposed as a biosynthetic intermediate. PMID:25756921

  8. 11-Step Total Synthesis of Pallambins C and D

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The structurally intriguing terpenes pallambins C and D have been assembled in only 11 steps from a cheap commodity chemical: furfuryl alcohol. This synthesis, which features a redox-economic approach free of protecting-group manipulations, assembles all four-ring systems via a sequential cyclization strategy. Of these four-ring constructing operations, two are classical (Robinson annulation and Mukaiyama aldol) and two are newly devised. During the course of this work a method for the difunctionalization of enol ethers was developed, and the scope of this transformation was explored. PMID:27284962

  9. 11-Step Total Synthesis of Pallambins C and D.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Luisruben P; Umemiya, Shigenobu; Wengryniuk, Sarah E; Baran, Phil S

    2016-06-22

    The structurally intriguing terpenes pallambins C and D have been assembled in only 11 steps from a cheap commodity chemical: furfuryl alcohol. This synthesis, which features a redox-economic approach free of protecting-group manipulations, assembles all four-ring systems via a sequential cyclization strategy. Of these four-ring constructing operations, two are classical (Robinson annulation and Mukaiyama aldol) and two are newly devised. During the course of this work a method for the difunctionalization of enol ethers was developed, and the scope of this transformation was explored. PMID:27284962

  10. Total Synthesis of Leupyrrin B1: A Potent Inhibitor of Human Leukocyte Elastase.

    PubMed

    Thiede, Sebastian; Wosniok, Paul R; Herkommer, Daniel; Schulz-Fincke, Anna-Christina; Gütschow, Michael; Menche, Dirk

    2016-08-19

    The total synthesis of leupyrrin B1 was accomplished by an expedient strategy that involves an optimized HATU-mediated amide coupling protocol of elaborate substrates. The generally useful procedure was also successfully applied in an improved total synthesis of leupyrrin A1. Finally, leupyrrins A1 and B1 were evaluated toward a panel of proteases, and human leukocyte elastase was discovered as a molecular target of the leupyrrins. PMID:27486674

  11. Spongipyran Synthetic Studies. Total Synthesis of (+)-Spongistatin 2.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amos B; Lin, Qiyan; Doughty, Victoria A; Zhuang, Linghang; McBriar, Mark D; Kerns, Jeffrey K; Boldi, Armen M; Murase, Noriaki; Moser, William H; Brook, Christopher S; Bennett, Clay S; Nakayama, Kiyoshi; Sobukawa, Masao; Lee Trout, Robert E

    2009-08-15

    Evolution of a convergent synthetic strategy to access (+)-spongistatin 2 (2), a potent cytotoxic marine macrolide, is described. Highlights of the synthesis include: development of a multicomponent dithiane-mediated linchpin union tactic, devised and implemented specifically for construction of the spongistatin AB and CD spiro ring systems; application of a Ca(II) ion controlled acid promoted equilibration to set the thermodynamically less stable axial-equitorial stereogenicity in the CD spiroketal; use of sulfone addition/Julia methylenation sequences to unite the AB and CD fragments and introduce the C(44)-C(51) side chain; and fragment union and final elaboration to (+)-spongistatin 2 (2) exploiting Wittig olefination to unite the advanced ABCD and EF fragments, followed by regioselective Yamaguchi macrolactonization and global deprotection. Correction of the CD spiro ring stereogenicity was subsequently achieved via acid equilibration in the presence of Ca(II) ion to furnish (+)-spongistatin 2 (2). The synthesis proceeded with a longest linear sequence of 41 steps. PMID:20161196

  12. Total Synthesis of Laulimalide: Assembly of the Fragments and Completion of the Synthesis of the Natural Product and a Potent Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Amans, Dominique; Seganish, W. Michael; Chung, Cheol K.

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we report the full account of our efforts to couple the northern and the southern building blocks, whose synthesis were described in the preceding paper, along with the modifications required which ultimately lead to a successful synthesis of laulimalide. Key highlights include an exceptionally efficient and atom-economical intramolecular ruthenium-catalyzed alkene-alkyne coupling to build the macrocycle followed by a highly stereoselective 1,3-allylic isomerization promoted by a rhenium complex. Interestingly, the designed synthetic route also allowed us to prepare an analogue of the natural product that possesses significant cytotoxic activity. We also report in this paper a second generation route which provided a more concise synthesis of the natural product. PMID:22307856

  13. Tandem Allylboration–Prins Reaction for the Rapid Construction of Substituted Tetrahydropyrans: Application to the Total Synthesis of (−)‐Clavosolide A

    PubMed Central

    Millán, Alba; Smith, James R.; Chen, Jack L.‐Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tetrahydropyrans are common motifs in natural products and have now been constructed with high stereocontrol through a three‐component allylboration‐Prins reaction sequence. This methodology has been applied to a concise (13 steps) and efficient (14 % overall yield) synthesis of the macrolide (−)‐clavosolide A. The synthesis also features an early stage glycosidation reaction to introduce the xylose moiety and a lithiation‐borylation reaction to attach the cyclopropyl‐containing side chain. PMID:26766494

  14. Biogenetically-Inspired Total Synthesis of Epidithiodiketopiperazines and Related Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Natural products chemistry has historically been the prime arena for the discovery of new chemical transformations and the fountain of insights into key biological processes. It remains a fervent incubator of progress in the fields of chemistry and biology and an exchange mediating the flow of ideas between these allied fields of science. It is with this ethos that our group has taken an interest in and pursued the synthesis of a complex family of natural products termed the dimeric epipolythiodiketopiperazine (ETP) alkaloids. We present here an Account of the highly complex target molecules to which we pegged our ambitions, our systematic and relentless efforts toward those goals, the chemistry we developed in their pursuit, and the insight we have gained for their translational potential as potent anticancer molecules. The dimeric ETP alkaloids are fungal metabolites that feature a highly complex molecular architecture comprising a densely functionalized core structure with many stereogenic centers, six of which are fully substituted, and a pair of vicinal quaternary carbon stereocenters, decorated on polycyclic architectures in addition to the unique ETP motif that has been recognized as acid-, base-, and redox-sensitive. A cyclo-dipeptide consisting of an essential tryptophan residue and a highly variable ancillary amino acid lies at the core of these structures; investigation of the transformations that take this simplistic core to the complex alkaloids lies at the heart of our research program. The dimeric epidithiodiketopiperazine alkaloids have largely resisted synthesis on account of their complexity since the 1970s when the founding members of this class, chaetocin A (HauserD. et al. Helv. Chim. Acta1970, 53, 10615448218) and verticillin A (KatagiriK. et al. J. Antibiot.1970, 23, 4205465723), were first isolated. This was despite their potent cytotoxic and bacteriostatic activities, which were well appreciated at the time of their discovery. In

  15. Biogenetically-inspired total synthesis of epidithiodiketopiperazines and related alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Justin; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2015-04-21

    Natural products chemistry has historically been the prime arena for the discovery of new chemical transformations and the fountain of insights into key biological processes. It remains a fervent incubator of progress in the fields of chemistry and biology and an exchange mediating the flow of ideas between these allied fields of science. It is with this ethos that our group has taken an interest in and pursued the synthesis of a complex family of natural products termed the dimeric epipolythiodiketopiperazine (ETP) alkaloids. We present here an Account of the highly complex target molecules to which we pegged our ambitions, our systematic and relentless efforts toward those goals, the chemistry we developed in their pursuit, and the insight we have gained for their translational potential as potent anticancer molecules. The dimeric ETP alkaloids are fungal metabolites that feature a highly complex molecular architecture comprising a densely functionalized core structure with many stereogenic centers, six of which are fully substituted, and a pair of vicinal quaternary carbon stereocenters, decorated on polycyclic architectures in addition to the unique ETP motif that has been recognized as acid-, base-, and redox-sensitive. A cyclo-dipeptide consisting of an essential tryptophan residue and a highly variable ancillary amino acid lies at the core of these structures; investigation of the transformations that take this simplistic core to the complex alkaloids lies at the heart of our research program. The dimeric epidithiodiketopiperazine alkaloids have largely resisted synthesis on account of their complexity since the 1970s when the founding members of this class, chaetocin A ( Hauser , D. et al. Helv. Chim. Acta 1970 , 53 , 1061 ) and verticillin A ( Katagiri , K. et al. J. Antibiot. 1970 , 23 , 420 ), were first isolated. This was despite their potent cytotoxic and bacteriostatic activities, which were well appreciated at the time of their discovery. In the past

  16. Total (Bio)Synthesis: Strategies of Nature and of Chemists

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Alexandra A.; Ryan, Katherine S.

    2011-01-01

    The biosynthetic pathways to a number of natural products have been reconstituted in vitro using purified enzymes. Many of these molecules have also been synthesized by organic chemists. Here we compare the strategies used by nature and by chemists to reveal the underlying logic and success of each total synthetic approach for some exemplary molecules with diverse biosynthetic origins. PMID:21495259

  17. Total synthesis of amiclenomycin, an inhibitor of biotin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Mann, Stéphane; Carillon, Sophie; Breyne, Olivier; Marquet, Andrée

    2002-01-18

    We describe the first synthesis of amiclenomycin, a natural product that has been found to inhibit biotin biosynthesis and, as a consequence, to exhibit antibiotic properties. Structure 1, with a trans relationship between the ring substituents. had previously been proposed for amiclenomycin on the basis of its 1H NMR spectrum. We have prepared the trans and cis isomers 1 and 2 by unequivocal routes and we conclude that the natural product is in fact the cis isomer 2. The properly substituted cyclohexadienyl rings were constructed first. A cycloaddition reaction between 1,2-di(phenylsulfonyl)ethylene and the N-allyloxycarbonyl diene 13, followed by reductive elimination of the phenylsulfinyl groups, gave the cis isomer 15. To obtain the trans isomer, the O-trimethylsilyl diene was used to give the cis hydroxylated Diels-Alder adduct 33, which was transformed into the corresponding trans amino derivative by means of a Mitsunobu reaction. The L-alpha-amino acid functionality was introduced by means of a Strecker reaction on the aldehydes 16 and 42, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with immobilised pronase. PMID:11843156

  18. A Continuum of Progress: Applications of N-Hetereocyclic Carbene Catalysis in Total Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Javier; Hutson, Gerri E.; Cohen, Daniel T.; Scheidt, Karl A.

    2013-01-01

    N-Heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalyzed transformations have emerged as powerful tactics for the construction of complex molecules. Since Stetter’s report in 1975 of the total synthesis of cis-jasmon and dihydrojasmon by using carbene catalysis, the use of NHCs in total synthesis has grown rapidly, particularly over the last decade. This renaissance is undoubtedly due to the recent developments in NHC-catalyzed reactions, including new benzoin, Stetter, homoenolate, and aroylation processes. These transformations employ typical as well as Umpolung types of bond disconnections and have served as the key step in several new total syntheses. This Minireview highlights these reports and captures the excitement and emerging synthetic utility of carbene catalysis in total synthesis. PMID:23074146

  19. Total Synthesis and Structural Revision of Vannusals A and B. Synthesis of the True Structures of Vannusals A and B

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Adrian; Zhang, Hongjun; Guella, Graziano

    2010-01-01

    Having determined, through total synthesis, that the originally assigned structure of vannusals A and B were incorrect, we set out to uncover the identity of the true structures of these novel marine natural products. Our search was based on intelligence gathered by NMR spectroscopy and chemical synthesis and took us through the total synthesis of eight diastereomeric vannusal B structures [2, d-2, 3, d-3, 4, d-4, 5, and d-5, Figure 1]. The true structures of vannusals A and B were finally determined to be d-5 and d-1, respectively. Their total synthesis was based on a highly convergent and efficient strategy that involved fragments vinyl iodide (−)-6 and aldehyde (±)-94, and featured a stereoselective lithium-mediated coupling reaction and a samarium-induced cyclization process that forged the final ring of the carbon framework. The synthetic strategies and technologies developed in these investigations expand the scope of chemical synthesis and render these compounds readily available for biological evaluation, while the NMR spectroscopic insights gained should prove useful in future structural determination endeavors. PMID:20443558

  20. The Total Synthesis Problem of linear multivariable control. II - Unity feedback and the design morphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.; Antsaklis, P. J.; Gejji, R. R.; Wyman, B. F.; Peczkowski, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Zames (1981) has observed that there is, in general, no 'separation principle' to guarantee optimality of a division between control law design and filtering of plant uncertainty. Peczkowski and Sain (1978) have solved a model matching problem using transfer functions. Taking into consideration this investigation, Peczkowski et al. (1979) proposed the Total Synthesis Problem (TSP), wherein both the command/output-response and command/control-response are to be synthesized, subject to the plant constraint. The TSP concept can be subdivided into a Nominal Design Problem (NDP), which is not dependent upon specific controller structures, and a Feedback Synthesis Problem (FSP), which is. Gejji (1980) found that NDP was characterized in terms of the plant structural matrices and a single, 'good' transfer function matrix. Sain et al. (1981) have extended this NDP work. The present investigation is concerned with a study of FSP for the unity feedback case. NDP, together with feedback synthesis, is understood as a Total Synthesis Problem.

  1. Constructing Molecular Complexity and Diversity: Total Synthesis of Natural Products of Biological and Medicinal Importance

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Hale, Christopher R. H.; Nilewski, Christian; Ioannidou, Heraklidia A.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of organic synthesis and the understanding of the molecule as they occurred in the nineteenth century and were refined in the twentieth century constitute two of the most profound scientific developments of all time. These discoveries set in motion a revolution that shaped the landscape of the molecular sciences and changed the world. Organic synthesis played a major role in this revolution through its ability to construct the molecules of the living world and others like them whose primary element is carbon. Although the early beginnings of organic synthesis came about serendipitously, organic chemists quickly recognized its potential and moved decisively to advance and exploit it in myriad ways for the benefit of mankind. Indeed, from the early days of the synthesis of urea and the construction of the first carbon-carbon bond, the art of organic synthesis improved to impressively high levels of sophistication. Through its practice, today chemists can synthesize organic molecules—natural and designed—of all types of structural motifs and for all intents and purposes. The endeavor of constructing natural products—the organic molecules of nature—is justly called both a creative art and an exact science. Often called simply total synthesis, the replication of nature’s molecules in the laboratory reflects and symbolizes the state of the art of synthesis in general. In the last few decades a surge in total synthesis endeavors around the world led to a remarkable collection of achievements that covers a wide ranging landscape of molecular complexity and diversity. In this article, we present highlights of some of our contributions in the field of total synthesis of natural products of biological and medicinal importance. For perspective, we also provide a listing of selected examples of additional natural products synthesized in other laboratories around the world over the last few years. PMID:22743704

  2. Short and Scalable Total Synthesis of Myrioneuron Alkaloids (±)-α,β-Myrifabral A and B.

    PubMed

    Song, Dengpeng; Wang, Zhengshen; Mei, Ruoming; Zhang, Weiwei; Ma, Donghui; Xu, Dengyu; Xie, Xingang; She, Xuegong

    2016-02-19

    The first total synthesis of the Myrioneuron alkaloids (±)-α,β-myrifabral A and B has been accomplished in only four steps from conveniently available starting materials. This short synthesis relied on the use of a key tandem Mannich/amidation reaction to rapidly construct the core framework and two carbon stereocenters. The synthetic route allows for large scale preparation of these promising natural products against the hepatitis C virus (HCV). PMID:26848989

  3. Asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-lundurine B and determination of its absolute stereochemistry.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Masaya; Arai, Shigeru; Nishida, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    A total synthesis of the Kopsia tenuis alkaloid (-)-lundurine B has been achieved. A quaternary chiral carbon has been created by an asymmetric deprotonation using a symmetric spiro cyclohexanone intermediate with a chiral lithium amide. The hexacyclic skeleton was sequentially constructed through metal-mediated reactions. The absolute stereochemistry of intermediate 5 has been unambiguously established by X-ray crystallographic analysis. This is the first description of the absolute stereochemistry of Kopsia tenuis alkaloids based on chemical synthesis. PMID:25601233

  4. Stereoselective total synthesis of (-)-perrottetinene and assignment of its absolute configuration.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanling; Hwang, Soonho; Gong, Ping; Kim, Deukjoon; Kim, Sanghee

    2008-01-17

    The first stereoselective total synthesis of the bibenzyl tetrahydrocannabinol, (-)-perrottetinene, has been achieved from readily available starting materials. The absolute stereochemistry is derived from a chiral gamma-hydroxy vinylstannane. The key reaction is the synthesis of the cis-disubstituted cyclohexene ring of perrottetinene by diastereoselective Ireland-Claisen rearrangement and a ring-closing metathesis reaction. The absolute configuration of (-)-perrottetinene is proposed. PMID:18085788

  5. Gold-catalyzed Hosomi-Sakurai type reaction for the total synthesis of herboxidiene.

    PubMed

    Thirupathi, Barla; Mohapatra, Debendra K

    2016-07-14

    Total synthesis of herboxidiene/GEX1A/TAN-1609 has been accomplished in the 22 longest linear sequences starting from 2-butyne-1,4-diol following our recently developed gold-catalyzed Hosomi-Sakurai type of reaction on lactols with allyltrimethyl silane and Stille cross coupling to assemble the advanced fragment. The synthesis of the C10-C19 fragment was accomplished by means of Sharpless epoxidation and asymmetric alkylation reactions starting from (R)-methyl lactate. PMID:27193332

  6. Total Synthesis of Notoamides F, I, and R and Sclerotiamide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Benxiang; Zheng, Weifeng; Wang, Xiaoqing; Sun, Deqian; Li, Chaozhong

    2016-08-22

    The total synthesis of the natural indole alkaloids (+)-notoamide F, I, and R and (-)-sclerotiamide is described. The four heptacyclic compounds were synthesized in 10-12 steps in a convergent and highly stereoselective manner from the readily available Seebach acetal. Key steps of the synthesis include a stereoselective oxidative aza-Prins cyclization to construct the bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane, and a cobalt-catalyzed radical cycloisomerization to create the cyclohexenyl ring. PMID:27443750

  7. Short total synthesis of indolizidine alkaloids using the atmospheric nitrogen fixation method

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Miwako; Hori, Masanori; Sato, Yoshihiro, Sato

    1995-12-31

    The authors have already reported the nitrogen fixation method using N{sub 2}-TiCl{sub 4}-TMSCl-Li system. Now they have succeeded in the incorporation of atmospheric nitrogen into organic compounds and the total synthesis of monomorine I using. From triketone 2 and molecular nitrogen, pyrolizidine and indolizidine derivatives were obtained in good yields. For the synthesis of natural product, monomorine I, using molecular nitrogen, triketone 6 was required, which was easily obtained from cyclopentene derivative 7.

  8. Enantioselective modular synthesis of cyclohexenones: total syntheses of (+)-crypto- and (+)-infectocaryone.

    PubMed

    Franck, Géraldine; Brödner, Kerstin; Helmchen, Günter

    2010-09-01

    A modular synthesis of cyclohexenones is described and applied to the first enantioselective total syntheses of (+)-crypto- and (+)-infectocaryone. Key steps in the synthesis of cyclohexenones are an iridium-catalyzed allylic alkylation, nucleophilic allylation, and ring-closing metathesis. On the way to (+)-cryptocaryone, a catch and release strategy involving an iodolactonization/elimination and a regioselective C-acylation were used. PMID:20677804

  9. Structure Revision of Similanamide to PF1171C by Total Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yuichi; Tanaka, Ren; Ganesan, A; Doi, Takayuki

    2015-09-25

    The total synthesis of the proposed structure of similanamide, a cyclic hexapeptide recently isolated from the marine sponge-associated fungus Aspergillus similanensis KUFA 0013, was achieved by solid-phase synthesis of a linear precursor and solution-phase macrolactamization. The NMR spectra of our synthetic final product were not identical to those of the isolated material and led us to conclude that similanamide is identical to PF1171C, a previously reported diastereomeric hexapeptide. PMID:26348363

  10. Total Synthesis of Ionic Liquid Systems for Dissolution of Lunar Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, Robert J.; Karr, Laurel J.; Paley, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    For purposes of Space Resource Utilization, work in the total synthesis of a new ionic liquid system for the extraction of oxygen and metals from lunar soil is studied and described. Reactions were carried out according to procedures found in the chemical literature, analyzed via Thin-Layer Chromatography and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and purified via vacuum distillation and rotary evaporation. Upon final analysis via 1H NMR, it was found that while the intermediates of the synthesis had been achieved, unexpected side products were also present. The mechanisms and constraints of the synthesis are described as well as the final results of the project and recommendations for continued study

  11. Undergraduate Research as Chemical Education--A Symposium: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: The Total Synthesis of Maytansine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Thomas E.

    1984-01-01

    An undergraduate research program in natural product synthesis was established at a small liberal arts college. Discusses program goals (including the total synthesis of maytansine), objectives, and accomplishments to date. Guidelines for establishing such programs are offered. (JN)

  12. Streamlined Total Synthesis of Uncialamycin and Its Application to the Synthesis of Designed Analogues for Biological Investigations.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, K C; Wang, Yanping; Lu, Min; Mandal, Debashis; Pattanayak, Manas R; Yu, Ruocheng; Shah, Akshay A; Chen, Jason S; Zhang, Hongjun; Crawford, James J; Pasunoori, Laxman; Poudel, Yam B; Chowdari, Naidu S; Pan, Chin; Nazeer, Ayesha; Gangwar, Sanjeev; Vite, Gregory; Pitsinos, Emmanuel N

    2016-07-01

    From the enediyne class of antitumor antibiotics, uncialamycin is among the rarest and most potent, yet one of the structurally simpler, making it attractive for chemical synthesis and potential applications in biology and medicine. In this article we describe a streamlined and practical enantioselective total synthesis of uncialamycin that is amenable to the synthesis of novel analogues and renders the natural product readily available for biological and drug development studies. Starting from hydroxy- or methoxyisatin, the synthesis features a Noyori enantioselective reduction, a Yamaguchi acetylide-pyridinium coupling, a stereoselective acetylide-aldehyde cyclization, and a newly developed annulation reaction that allows efficient coupling of a cyanophthalide and a p-methoxy semiquinone aminal to forge the anthraquinone moiety of the molecule. Overall, the developed streamlined synthesis proceeds in 22 linear steps (14 chromatographic separations) and 11% overall yield. The developed synthetic strategies and technologies were applied to the synthesis of a series of designed uncialamycin analogues equipped with suitable functional groups for conjugation to antibodies and other delivery systems. Biological evaluation of a select number of these analogues led to the identification of compounds with low picomolar potencies against certain cancer cell lines. These compounds and others like them may serve as powerful payloads for the development of antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) intended for personalized targeted cancer therapy. PMID:27266267

  13. Isolation and Structure of Kurahyne B and Total Synthesis of the Kurahynes.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shinichiro; Iwasaki, Arihiro; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2015-11-25

    Kurahyne B (2), a new analogue of kurahyne (1), was isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Okeania sp. Its gross structure was elucidated based on spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configuration was established by total synthesis. Kurahyne B (2) inhibited the growth of both HeLa and HL60 cells, with IC50 values of 8.1 and 9.0 μM, respectively. The growth-inhibitory activity of kurahyne B was the same as kurahyne (1). In parallel, the first total synthesis of kurahyne (1) was also achieved. PMID:26539973

  14. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Steenkrotin A and Determination of Its Absolute Configuration.

    PubMed

    Pan, Saiyong; Gao, Beiling; Hu, Jialei; Xuan, Jun; Xie, Hujun; Ding, Hanfeng

    2016-01-18

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-steenkrotin A has been achieved in 18 steps and 4.2 % overall yield. The key features of the strategy entail a Rh-catalyzed O-H bond insertion followed by an intramolecular carbonyl-ene reaction, two sequential SmI2 -mediated Ueno-Stork and ketyl-olefin cyclizations, and a cascade intramolecular aldol condensation/vinylogous retro-aldol/aldol process with inversion of the relative configuration at the C7 position. The absolute configuration of (+)-steenkrotin A was determined based on the stepwise construction of the stereocenters during the total synthesis. PMID:26660855

  15. Total Synthesis of (+)-Nankakurines A and B and (±)-5-epi-Nankakurine A

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Ryan A.; Nilsson, Bradley L.; Overman, Larry E.; de Alaniz, Javier Read; Rohde, Jason M.; Taupin, Veronique

    2010-01-01

    The first total syntheses of the Lycopodium alkaloids (+)-nankakurine A (2), (+)-nankakurine B (3) and the originally purported structure 1 of nankakurine A were accomplished. The syntheses of 2 and 3 feature a demanding intramolecular azomethine imine cycloaddition as the key step for generating the octahydro-3,5-ethanoquinoline moiety and installing the correct relative configuration at the spiro piperidine ring juncture. The cyclization precursor was prepared from octahydronaphthalene ketone 50, which was assembled from enone (+)-9 and diene 48 by a cationic Diels–Alder reaction. The Diels–Alder reactants were synthesized from 5-hexyn-1-ol (16) and (+)-pulegone (49), respectively. The tetracyclic ring system of 1 was generated using an unprecedented nitrogen-terminated aza-Prins cyclization cascade. The enantioselective total syntheses of (+)-nankakurine A (2) and (+)-nankakurine B (3) establish the relative and absolute configuration of these alkaloids, and are sufficiently concise that substantial quantities of 2 and 3 were prepared for biological studies. (+)-Nankakurine A and (+)-nankakurine B showed no effect on neurite outgrowth in rat hippocampal H-19 cells over a concentration range of 0.3–10 μM. PMID:20958075

  16. Intestinal mucosa in diabetes: synthesis of total proteins and sucrase-isomaltase

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, W.A.; Perchellet, E.; Malinowski, R.L.

    1986-06-01

    The effects of insulin deficiency on nitrogen metabolism in muscle and liver have been extensively studied with recent in vivo demonstration of impaired protein synthesis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Despite the significant contribution of small intestinal mucosa to overall protein metabolism, the effect of insulin deficiency on intestinal protein synthesis have not been completely defined. The authors studied the effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on total protein synthesis by small intestinal mucosa and on synthesis of a single enzyme protein of the enterocyte brush-border membrane sucrase-isomaltase. They used the flood-dose technique to minimize the difficulties of measuring specific radioactivity of precursor phenylalanine and determined incorporation into mucosal proteins and sucrase-isomaltase 20 min after injection of the labeled amino acid. Diabetes did not alter mucosal mass as determined by weight and content of protein and DNA during the 5 days after injection of streptozotocin. Increased rates of sucrase-isomaltase synthesis developed beginning on day 3, and those of total protein developed on day 5. Thus intestinal mucosal protein synthesis is not an insulin-sensitive process.

  17. Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Quaternary Mannich Adducts by Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic Alkylation: Total Synthesis of (+)-Sibirinine

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A catalytic enantioselective method for the synthesis of α-quaternary Mannich-type products is reported. The two-step sequence of (1) Mannich reaction followed by (2) decarboxylative enantioselective allylic alkylation serves as a novel strategy to in effect access asymmetric Mannich-type products of “thermodynamic” enolates of substrates possessing additional enolizable positions and acidic protons. Palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative allylic alkylation enables the enantioselective synthesis of five-, six-, and seven-membered ketone, lactam, and other heterocyclic systems. The mild reaction conditions are notable given the acidic free N–H groups and high functional group tolerance in each of the substrates. The utility of this method is highlighted in the first total synthesis of (+)-sibirinine. PMID:25578104

  18. The Woodward-Doering/Rabe-Kindler total synthesis of quinine: setting the record straight.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Jeffrey I

    2007-01-01

    In 1918, Paul Rabe and Karl Kindler reported the three-step conversion of d-quinotoxine into quinine. In 1944 Robert B. Woodward and William von Eggers Doering reported the total synthesis of homomeroquinene and d-quinotoxine from 7-hydroxyisoquinoline. Based on the transformations by Rabe and Kindler, Woodward and Doering asserted the "Total Synthesis of Quinine" (the title of their 1944 and 1945 papers). In 2000 and 2001, Gilbert Stork concluded that the claim by Woodward and Doering is a "myth" because they had synthesized only homomeroquinene and d-quinotoxine; no synthetic quinine had been made in Cambridge. In fact, Rabe and Kindler never published the experimental details of their conversion of d-quinotoxine into quinine. This Review presents the results of a detailed examination of the synthesis of cinchona alkaloids, and previously unpublished material combined with unpublished material and numerous interviews give insight into the lives of the personalities in this nearly 100-year saga. PMID:17294412

  19. Formal Total Synthesis of Diazonamide A by Indole Oxidative Rearrangement.

    PubMed

    David, Nadège; Pasceri, Raffaele; Kitson, Russell R A; Pradal, Alexandre; Moody, Christopher J

    2016-07-25

    A short formal total synthesis of the marine natural product diazonamide A is described. The route is based on indole oxidative rearrangement, and a number of options were investigated involving migration of tyrosine or oxazole fragments upon oxidation of open chain or macrocyclic precursors. The final route proceeds from 7-bromoindole by sequential palladium-catalysed couplings of an oxazole fragment at C-2, followed by a tyrosine fragment at C-3. With the key 2,3-disubstituted indole readily in hand, formation of a macrocyclic lactam set the stage for the crucial oxidative rearrangement to a 3,3-disubstituted oxindole. Notwithstanding the concomitant formation of the unwanted indoxyl isomer, the synthesis successfully delivered, after deprotection, the key oxindole intermediate, thereby completing a formal total synthesis of diazonamide A. PMID:27346186

  20. [Total Synthesis of Biologically Active Natural Products toward Elucidation of the Mode of Action].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    Total synthesis of biologically active cyclodepsipeptide destruxin E using solid- and solution-phase synthesis is described. The solid-phase synthesis of destruxin E was initially investigated for the efficient synthesis of destruxin analogues. Peptide elongation from polymer-supported β-alanine was efficiently performed using DIC/HOBt or PyBroP/DIEA, and subsequent cleavage from the polymer-support under weakly acidic conditions furnished a cyclization precursor in moderate yield. Macrolactonization of the cyclization precursor was smoothly performed using 2-methyl-6-nitrobenzoic anhydride (MNBA)/4-(dimethylamino)pyridine N-oxide (DMAPO) to afford macrolactone in moderate yield. Finally, formation of the epoxide in the side chain via three steps provided destruxin E, and the stereochemistry of the epoxide was determined to be S. Its diastereomer, epi-destruxin E, was also synthesized in the same manner used to synthesize the natural product. The stereochemistry of the epoxide was critical for the V-ATPase inhibition; natural product destruxin E exhibited 10-fold more potent V-ATPase inhibition than epi-destruxin E. Next, the scalable synthesis of destruxin E for in vivo study was also performed via solution-phase synthesis. The scalable synthesis of a key component, (S)-HA-Pro-OH, was achieved using osmium-catalyzed diastereoselective dihydroxylation with (DHQD)2PHAL as a chiral ligand; peptide synthesis using Cbz-protected amino acid derivatives furnished the cyclization precursor on a gram-scale. Macrolactonization smoothly provided the macrolactone without forming a dimerized product, even at 6 mM, and the synthesis of destruxin E was achieved via three steps on a gram scale in high purity (>98%). PMID:26423864

  1. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Kopsiyunnanine K, a Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloid with a Rearranged Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Ryoko; Okamoto, Yoshiki; Koyama, Tetsuya; Kogure, Noriyuki; Kitajima, Mariko; Takayama, Hiromitsu

    2016-07-15

    A new monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, kopsiyunnanine K, was isolated from Kopsia arborea. Its intriguing rearranged structure and absolute configuration, which were inferred from spectral data and a possible biosynthetic pathway, were determined on the basis of a 13-step asymmetric total synthesis. PMID:27355591

  2. Total synthesis of the cyanobacterial metabolite nostodione A: discovery of its antiparasitic activity against Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    McNulty, J; Keskar, K; Bordón, C; Yolken, R; Jones-Brando, L

    2014-08-18

    A total synthesis of the cyanobacterial natural product nostodione A is reported involving a convergent, diversity-oriented route. A small assemblage of structural analogues were prepared and their cytotoxicity and anti-invasion activity against the protozoal parasite Toxoplasma gondii is reported for the first time. PMID:24970332

  3. Catalytic Macrocyclization Strategies Using Continuous Flow: Formal Total Synthesis of Ivorenolide A.

    PubMed

    de Léséleuc, Mylène; Godin, Éric; Parisien-Collette, Shawn; Lévesque, Alexandre; Collins, Shawn K

    2016-08-01

    A formal total synthesis of ivorenolide A has been accomplished employing a Z-selective olefin cross metathesis and a macrocyclic Glaser-Hay coupling as key steps. The macrocyclization protocol employed a phase separation/continuous flow manifold whose advantages include catalysis, fast reaction times, high concentrations, and facile scale-up. PMID:27404899

  4. Total Synthesis and Complete Stereostructure of a Marine Macrolide Glycoside, (-)-Lyngbyaloside B.

    PubMed

    Fuwa, Haruhiko; Yamagata, Naoya; Okuaki, Yuta; Ogata, Yuya; Saito, Asami; Sasaki, Makoto

    2016-05-10

    We have described in detail the total synthesis of both the proposed and correct structures of (-)-lyngbyaloside B, which facilitated the elucidation of the complete stereostructure of this natural product. Our study began with the total synthesis of 13-demethyllyngbyaloside B, in which an esterification/ring-closing metathesis (RCM) strategy was successfully used for the efficient construction of the macrocycle. We also established reliable methods for the introduction of the conjugated diene side chain and the l-rhamnose residue onto the macrocyclic framework. However, the esterification/RCM strategy proved ineffective for the parent natural product because of the difficulties in acylating the sterically encumbered C-13 tertiary alcohol; macrolactionization of a seco-acid was also extensively investigated under various conditions without success. We finally completed the total synthesis of the proposed structure of (-)-lyngbyaloside B by means of a macrolactonization that involves an acyl ketene as the reactive species. However, the NMR spectroscopic data of our synthetic material did not match those of the authentic material, which indicated that the proposed structure must be re-examined. Inspection of the NMR spectroscopic data of the natural product and molecular mechanics calculations led us to postulate that the configuration of the C-10, C-11, and C-13 stereogenic centers had been incorrectly assigned in the proposed structure. Finally, our revised structure of (-)-lyngbyaloside B was unambiguously verified through total synthesis. PMID:27112323

  5. Selective bromochlorination of a homoallylic alcohol for the total synthesis of (−)-anverene

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Frederick J

    2016-01-01

    Summary The scope of a recently reported method for the catalytic enantioselective bromochlorination of allylic alcohols is expanded to include a specific homoallylic alcohol. Critical factors for optimization of this reaction are highlighted. The utility of the product bromochloride is demonstrated by the first total synthesis of an antibacterial polyhalogenated monoterpene, (−)-anverene. PMID:27559385

  6. Enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-asteriscanolide via Rh(I)-catalyzed [(5+2)+1] reaction.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yong; Jiang, Xing; Yu, Zhi-Xiang

    2011-06-21

    The total synthesis of (+)-asteriscanolide starting from two commercially available materials has been accomplished in 19 steps with a 3.8% overall yield. The key reaction is a chiral ene-vinylcyclopropane substrate induced Rh(I)-catalyzed [(5+2)+1] cycloaddition that efficiently constructs the [6.3.0] carbocyclic core with complete asymmetric induction. PMID:21509378

  7. Total synthesis of a cyclopropane-fatty acid α-glucosyl diglyceride from Lactobacillus plantarum and identification of its ability to signal through Mincle.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; Nagata, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Sho; Williams, Spencer J

    2016-09-18

    We report a concise synthesis of glycolipid GL1 from Lactobacillus plantarum commencing from methyl α-d-glucopyroside. A Jacobsen hydrolytic kinetic resolution is used to generate a diastereomerically-pure glycidyl glucoside that was elaborated to the diglyceride by stepwise brominolysis, acylation with oleoyl chloride, and bromide-substitution by the tetrabutylammonium salt of 9S,10R-dihydrosterculic acid. GL1 and analogues were shown to signal through the glycolipid pattern recognition receptor Mincle. PMID:27533919

  8. Contemporary Strategies for the Synthesis of Tetrahydropyran Derivatives: Application to Total Synthesis of Neopeltolide, a Marine Macrolide Natural Product

    PubMed Central

    Fuwa, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Tetrahydropyrans are structural motifs that are abundantly present in a range of biologically important marine natural products. As such, significant efforts have been paid to the development of efficient and versatile methods for the synthesis of tetrahydropyran derivatives. Neopeltolide, a potent antiproliferative marine natural product, has been an attractive target compound for synthetic chemists because of its complex structure comprised of a 14-membered macrolactone embedded with a tetrahydropyran ring, and twenty total and formal syntheses of this natural product have been reported so far. This review summarizes the total and formal syntheses of neopeltolide and its analogues, highlighting the synthetic strategies exploited for constructing the tetrahydropyran ring. PMID:27023567

  9. Total synthesis and in vitro bioevaluation of clavaminols A, C, H & deacetyl clavaminol H as potential chemotherapeutic and antibiofilm agents.

    PubMed

    Vijai Kumar Reddy, T; Jyotsna, A; Prabhavathi Devi, B L A; Prasad, R B N; Poornachandra, Y; Ganesh Kumar, C

    2016-09-14

    A highly concise and expedient total synthesis of bioactive clavaminols (1-4) has been executed using commercially available achiral compound decanol. The synthetic strategy relied on trans-Wittig olefination, Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, regioselective azidolysis and in situ detosylation followed by reduction as key reactions with good overall yield. Based on biological evaluation studies of all the synthesized compounds, it was observed that the clavaminol A (1) exhibited good cytotoxicity against DU145 and SKOV3 cell lines with IC50 value of 10.8 and 12.5 μM, respectively. Clavaminol A (1) and deacetyl clavaminol H (3) displayed selective promising inhibition towards Gram-positive pathogenic bacterial strains and showed good antifungal activity against the tested Candida strains. In addition, compounds 1 and 3 have demonstrated significant bactericidal activity. Compound 3 was found to be equipotent to the standard drug Miconazole displaying MFC value of 15.6 μg/mL against Candida albicans MTCC 854, C. albicans MTCC 1637, C. albicans MTCC 3958 and Candida glabrata MTCC 3019. Compounds 1 and 3 were also able to inhibit the biofilm formation of Micrococcus luteus MTCC 2470 and Staphylococcus aureus MLS16 MTCC 2940. Clavaminol A (1) increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in M. luteus MTCC 2470. PMID:27187861

  10. Divergent total synthesis of the Lycopodium alkaloids huperzine A, huperzine B, and huperzine U.

    PubMed

    Ding, Rui; Fu, Jian-Guo; Xu, Guang-Qiang; Sun, Bing-Feng; Lin, Guo-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Huperzine A, huperzine B, and huperzine U are congeners isolated from the Chinese herb Huperzia serrata (= Lycopodium serratum ) in minuscule amounts. The most efficient total synthesis of huperzine A, the first asymmetric total syntheses of huperzine B, and the first total synthesis of huperzine U have been achieved efficiently in overall yields of 17%, 10%, and 9%, respectively, each spanning 10-13 steps from (R)-pulegone. The featured steps include palladium-catalyzed Buchwald-Hartwig coupling and Heck cyclization reactions and an Ir-catalyzed olefin isomerization reaction. This work has established the absolute configurations of huperzine B and huperzine U and revealed that natural huperzine A, huperzine B, and huperzine U possess the same set of absolute stereochemistries, thus providing support for the potential role of huperzine B and huperzine U in the biosynthesis of huperzine A. PMID:24299147

  11. Development of an Enantioselective Route towards the Lycopodium Alkaloids: Total Synthesis of Lycopodine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Carter, Rich G.

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of a C15-desmethyl tricycle core of lycopodine has been accomplished. Key steps in the synthetic sequence include organocatalytic, intramolecular Michael addition of a keto sulfone and a tandem 1,3-sulfonyl shift / Mannich cyclization to construct the tricyclic core ring system. Synthetic work towards this natural product family led to the development of N-(p-dodecylphenylsulfonyl)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamide – an organocatalyst which facilitiates enantioselective, intramolecular Michael additions. A detailed mechanistic discussion is provided for both the intramolecular Michael addition and the sulfone rearrangement. Finally, the application of these discoveries to the enantioselective total synthesis of alkaloid lycopodine is described. PMID:20586477

  12. A Pot-Economical Approach to the Total Synthesis of Sch-725674.

    PubMed

    Bodugam, Mahipal; Javed, Salim; Ganguly, Arghya; Torres, Jessica; Hanson, Paul R

    2016-02-01

    A pot-economical total synthesis of antifungal Sch-725674, 1, is reported. The approach takes advantage of a number of one-pot, sequential transformations, including a phosphate tether-mediated one-pot, sequential RCM/CM/chemoselective hydrogenation protocol, a one-pot tosylation/acrylation sequence, and a one-pot, sequential Finkelstein reaction/Boord olefination/acetonide deprotection procedure to streamline the synthesis route by reducing isolation and purification procedures, thus saving time. Overall, an asymmetric route has been developed that is efficiently accomplished in seven pots from phosphate (S,S)-triene and with minimal purification. PMID:26760683

  13. Rapid Access to Orthogonally Functionalized Naphthalenes: Application to the Total Synthesis of the Anticancer Agent Chartarin.

    PubMed

    Unzner, Teresa A; Grossmann, Adriana S; Magauer, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis of orthogonally functionalized naphthalenes from simple, commercially available indanones in four steps. The developed method proceeds through a two-step process that features a thermally induced fragmentation of a cyclopropane indanone with simultaneous 1,2-chloride shift. Migration of the chloride substituent occurs in a regioselective manner to preferentially afford the para-chloronaphthol substitution pattern. The obtained naphthols are versatile building blocks that can be selectively modified and used for the efficient construction of biologically active molecules. This has enabled the total synthesis of the potent anticancer natural product chartarin through a highly convergent retrosynthetic bond disconnection. PMID:27355517

  14. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Citrinadin A and Revision of its Stereochemical Structure

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Zhiguo; Marvin, Christopher C.; Martin, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    The first enantioselective total synthesis of (−)-citrinadin A has been accomplished in 20 steps from commercially available materials via an approach that minimizes refunctionalization and protection/deprotection operations. The cornerstone of this synthesis features an asymmetric vinylogous Mannich addition of a dienolate to a chiral pyridinium salt to set the initial chiral center. A sequence of substrate-controlled reactions, including a highly stereoselective epoxidation/ring opening sequence and an oxidative rearrangement of an indole to furnish a spirooxindole, are then used to establish the remaining stereocenters in the pentacyclic core of (−)-citrinadin A. The successful synthesis of citrinadin A led to a revision of the stereochemical structure of the core substructure of the citrinadins. PMID:23837457

  15. Poor mid-term survival of the low-carbide metal-on-metal Zweymüller-plus total hip arthroplasty system: a concise follow-up, at a minimum of ten years, of a previous report*.

    PubMed

    Repantis, Thomas; Vitsas, Vasilis; Korovessis, Panagiotis

    2013-03-20

    Between 1994 and 1999, 217 metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties with a low-carbide bearing surface were performed with use of the cementless Zweymüller SL-Plus stem and the Bicon-Plus threaded cup in 194 consecutive patients. After a minimum follow-up of ten years, 181 living patients (203 hips) were available for evaluation. The revision rate after an average of twelve years was 18% (thirty-six hips in thirty-six patients were revised). The main reason for revision was aseptic loosening of one or both components. The probability of survival of the stem at fifteen years was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65% to 86%). The probability of survival of the cup was 80% (95% CI, 62% to 90%). These high failure rates at mid-term follow-up led us to abandon the use of low-carbide metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty components. PMID:23515994

  16. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Propindilactone G, Part 3: The Final Phase and Completion of the Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xin-Ting; You, Lin; Li, Yuan-He; Yu, Hai-Xin; Chen, Jia-Hua; Yang, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    Two independent synthetic approaches were evaluated for the final phase of the asymmetric total synthesis of propindilactone G (1). The key steps that led to the completion of the asymmetric total synthesis included: 1) an intermolecular oxidative heterocoupling reaction of enolsilanes to link the core structure to the side chain; 2) an intermolecular Wittig reaction for the formation of the α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated ester; and 3) a regio- and stereoselective OsO4 -catalyzed dihydroxylation of an α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated enone, followed by an intramolecular lactonization reaction to afford the final product. These reactions enabled the synthesis of (+)-propindilactone G in only 20 steps. As a consequence of our synthetic studies, the structure of (+)-propindilactone G has been revised. Furthermore, the direct oxidative coupling strategy for ligation of the core of propindilactone G with its side chain may find application in the syntheses of other natural products and complex molecules. PMID:26991640

  17. Total synthesis of (+)-gelsemine via an organocatalytic Diels-Alder approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoming; Duan, Shengguo; Tao, Cheng; Zhai, Hongbin; Qiu, Fayang G

    2015-01-01

    The structurally complex alkaloid gelsemine was previously thought to have no significant biological activities, but a recent study has shown that it has potent and specific antinociception in chronic pain. While this molecule has attracted significant interests from the synthetic community, an efficient synthetic strategy is still the goal of many synthetic chemists. Here we report the asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-gelsemine, including a highly diastereoselective and enantioselective organocatalytic Diels-Alder reaction, an efficient intramolecular trans-annular aldol condensation furnishing the prolidine ring and establishing the configuration of the C20 quaternary carbon stereochemical centre. The entire gelsemine skeleton was constructed through a late-stage intramolecular SN2 substitution. The enantiomeric excess of this total synthesis is over 99%, and the overall yield is around 5%. PMID:25995149

  18. Total synthesis of (+)-gelsemine via an organocatalytic Diels–Alder approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoming; Duan, Shengguo; Tao, Cheng; Zhai, Hongbin; Qiu, Fayang G.

    2015-01-01

    The structurally complex alkaloid gelsemine was previously thought to have no significant biological activities, but a recent study has shown that it has potent and specific antinociception in chronic pain. While this molecule has attracted significant interests from the synthetic community, an efficient synthetic strategy is still the goal of many synthetic chemists. Here we report the asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-gelsemine, including a highly diastereoselective and enantioselective organocatalytic Diels–Alder reaction, an efficient intramolecular trans-annular aldol condensation furnishing the prolidine ring and establishing the configuration of the C20 quaternary carbon stereochemical centre. The entire gelsemine skeleton was constructed through a late-stage intramolecular SN2 substitution. The enantiomeric excess of this total synthesis is over 99%, and the overall yield is around 5%. PMID:25995149

  19. Total Synthesis of (+)-Sieboldine A: Evolution of A Pinacol-Terminated Cyclization Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Canham, Stephen M.; France, David J.; Overman, Larry E.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes synthetic studies that culminated in the first total synthesis of the Lycopodium alkaloid sieboldine A. During this study a number of pinacol-terminated cationic cyclizations were examined to form the cis-hydrindanone core of sieboldine A. Of these, a mild Au(I)-promoted 1,6-enyne cyclization that was terminated by a semipinacol rearrangement proved to be most efficient. Fashioning the unprecedented N-hydroxyazacyclononane ring embedded within the bicyclo[5.2.1]decane-N,O-acetal moiety of sieboldine A was a formidable challenge. Ultimately, the enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-sieboldine A was completed by forming this ring in good yield by cyclization of a protected-hydroxylamine thioglycoside precursor. PMID:22734821

  20. Enantioselective total synthesis of callipeltoside A: two approaches to the macrolactone fragment

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David A.; Burch, Jason D.; Hu, Essa; Jaeschke, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The enantioselective total synthesis of callipeltoside A is described. Two syntheses of the macrolactone subunit are included: the first relies upon an Ireland–Claisen rearrangement to generate the trisubstituted olefin geometry and the second utilizes an enantioselective vinylogous aldol reaction for this purpose. Enantioselective syntheses of the sugar and chlorocyclopropane side chain fragments are also disclosed. The relative and absolute stereochemistry of this natural product was determined by fragment coupling with the two enantiomers of the side chain fragment. PMID:22859865

  1. Studies toward the Total Synthesis of Itralamide B and Biological Evaluation of Its Structural Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoji; Lv, Chanshan; Feng, Junmin; Tang, Linjun; Wang, Zhuo; Liu, Yuqing; Meng, Yi; Ye, Tao; Xu, Zhengshuang

    2015-01-01

    Itralamides A and B were isolated from the lipophilic extract of Lyngbya majuscula collected from the eastern Caribbean. Itralamide B (1) showed cytotoxic activity towards human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293, IC50 = 6 μM). Preliminary studies disapproved the proposed stereochemistry of itralamide. In this paper, we will provide a full account of the total synthesis of four stereoisomers of itralamide B and the results derived from biological tests of these structural congeners. PMID:25871289

  2. Total Synthesis of (±)-Paroxetine by Diastereoconvergent Cobalt-Catalysed Arylation

    PubMed Central

    Despiau, Carole F; Dominey, Andrew P; Harrowven, David C; Linclau, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    A total synthesis of paroxetine is reported, with a diastereoselective and diastereoconvergent cobalt-catalysed sp3–sp2 coupling reaction involving a 3-substituted 4-bromo-N-Boc-piperidine (Boc = tert-butoxycarbonyl) substrate as a key step. A 9:1 diastereoselectivity was obtained, while a control experiment involving a conformationally locked 3-substituted 4-bromo-tert-butyl cyclohexane ring proceeded with essentially complete stereoselectivity. PMID:25505371

  3. Total Synthesis of Chiral Biaryl Natural Products by Asymmetric Biaryl Coupling ‡

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowski, Marisa C.; Morgan, Barbara J.; Linton, Elizabeth C.

    2010-01-01

    This tutorial review highlights the use of catalytic asymmetric 2-naphthol couplings in total synthesis. The types of chirality, chiral biaryl natural products, prior approaches to chiral biaryl natural products, and other catalytic asymmetric biaryl couplings are outlined. The three main categories of chiral catalysts for 2-naphthol coupling (Cu, V, Fe) are described with discussion of their limitations and advantages. Applications of the copper catalyzed couplings in biomimetic syntheses are discussed including nigerone, hypocrellin, calphostin D, phleichrome, and cercosporin. PMID:19847351

  4. Total Synthesis of (+)-Minfiensine: Construction of the Tetracyclic Core Structure by an Asymmetric Cascade Cyclization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ze-Xin; Chen, Si-Cong; Jiao, Lei

    2016-07-01

    A new method for one-step construction of the tetracyclic core structure of the indole alkaloid (+)-minfiensine was developed utilizing a palladium-catalyzed asymmetric indole dearomatization/iminium cyclization cascade. An efficient total synthesis of (+)-minfiensine was realized using this strategy. The present method enables access to the common core structure of a series of monoterpene indole alkaloids, such as vincorine, echitamine, and aspidosphylline A. PMID:27172972

  5. Total synthesis of plagiochin G and derivatives as potential cancer chemopreventive agents

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui-Juan; Zhao, Yu; Tokuda, Harukuni; Yang, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Yue-Hu; Shi, Qian; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    A new and efficient total synthesis has been developed to obtain plagiochin G (22), a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl, and four derivatives. The key 16-membered ring containing biphenyl ether and biaryl units was closed via an intramolecular SNAr reaction. All synthesized macrocyclic bisbibenzyls inhibited Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBVEA) activation induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells and, thus, are potential cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:25574060

  6. First total synthesis of the marine natural products clavulolactones II and III.

    PubMed

    Miller, Charlotte M; Benneche, Tore; Tius, Marcus A

    2015-04-01

    The first total synthesis of the marine prostanoids clavulolactones II and III is presented from an easily accessible chiral, non-racemic cyclopentenone intermediate. Key steps involve selective TBDMS deprotection, selective reduction of the β-side chain and aldol condensation. Clavulolactones II and III were successfully prepared from (S)-4-((tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy) cyclopent-2-en-1-one over nine steps, in overall yields of 21 and 7% respectively. PMID:25733336

  7. Organisational culture, organisational learning and total quality management: a literature review and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bloor, G

    1999-01-01

    As health services face increasing pressure to meet the expectations of different stakeholders, they must continuously improve and learn from their experience. Many fail in attempts at continuous improvement programs because managers have not understood the complexity of making changes in organisations with multiple subcultures and interests. This article examines the related concepts of organisational culture, organisational learning and total quality management and shows how a synthesis of this knowledge can assist in developing continuous organisational learning and improvement. PMID:10662226

  8. Total synthesis and biological evaluation of tubulysin U, tubulysin V, and their analogues.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Ranganathan; Raghavan, Bhooma; Begaye, Adrian; Sackett, Dan L; Fecik, Robert A

    2009-01-22

    A stereoselective total synthesis of the cytotoxic natural products tubulysin U, tubulysin V, and its unnatural epimer epi-tubulysin V, is reported. Simplified analogues containing N,N-dimethyl-D-alanine as a replacement for the N-terminal N-Me-pipecolinic acid residue of the tubulysins are also disclosed. Biological evaluation of these natural products and analogues provided key information with regard to structural and stereochemical requirements for antiproliferative activity and tubulin polymerization inhibition. PMID:19102699

  9. Comparison of Whole-Blood Metal Ion Levels Among Four Types of Large-Head, Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty Implants: A Concise Follow-up, at Five Years, of a Previous Report.

    PubMed

    Hutt, Jonathan; Lavigne, Martin; Lungu, Eugen; Belzile, Etienne; Morin, François; Vendittoli, Pascal-André

    2016-02-17

    Few studies of total hip arthroplasty (THA) implants with a large-diameter femoral head and metal-on-metal design have directly compared the progression of metal ion levels over time and the relationship to complications. As we previously reported, 144 patients received one of four types of large-diameter-head, metal-on-metal THA designs (Durom, Birmingham, ASR XL, or Magnum implants). Cobalt, chromium, and titanium ion levels were measured over five years. We compared ion levels and clinical results over time. The Durom group showed the highest levels of cobalt (p ≤ 0.002) and titanium ions (p ≤ 0.03). Both the Durom and Birmingham groups demonstrated significant ongoing cobalt increases up to five years. Eight patients (seven with a Durom implant and one with a Birmingham implant) developed adverse local tissue reaction. Six Durom implants and one Birmingham implant required revision, with one pseudotumor under surveillance at the time of the most recent follow-up. We found that ion generation and related complications varied among designs. More concerning was that, for some designs, ion levels continued to increase. Coupling a cobalt-chromium adapter sleeve to an unmodified titanium femoral trunnion along with a large metal-on-metal bearing may explain the poor performances of two of the designs in the current study. PMID:26888673

  10. Total synthesis and biological evaluation of (+)-gambieric acid A and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Ishigai, Kazuya; Fuwa, Haruhiko; Hashizume, Keisuke; Fukazawa, Ryo; Cho, Yuko; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari; Sasaki, Makoto

    2013-04-22

    In this study, we report the first total synthesis and complete stereostructure of gambieric acid A, a potent antifungal polycyclic ether metabolite, in detail. The A/B-ring exocyclic enol ether 32 was prepared through a Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of the B-ring vinyl iodide 18 and the alkylborate 33 and subsequent closure of the A-ring by using diastereoselective bromoetherification as the key transformation. Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of 32 with acetate-derived enol phosphate 49, followed by ring-closing metathesis of the derived diene, produced the D-ring. Subsequent closure of the C-ring through a mixed thioacetalization completed the synthesis of the A/BCD-ring fragment 8. The A/BCD- and F'GHIJ-ring fragments (i.e., 8 and 9) were assembled through Suzuki-Miyaura coupling. The C25 stereogenic center was elaborated by exploiting the intrinsic conformational property of the seven-membered F'-ring. After the oxidative cleavage of the F'-ring, the E-ring was formed as a cyclic mixed thioacetal (i.e., 70) and then stereoselectively allylated by using glycosylation chemistry. Ring-closing metathesis of the diene 3 thus obtained closed the F-ring and completed the polycyclic ether skeleton. Finally, the J-ring side chain was introduced by using a Julia-Kocienski olefination in the presence of CeCl3 to complete the total synthesis of gambieric acid A (1), thereby unambiguously establishing its complete stereostructure. The present total synthesis enabled us to evaluate the antifungal and antiproliferative activities of 1 and several synthetic analogues. PMID:23554126

  11. Total Synthesis, Structure Revision, and Absolute Configuration of (−)-Brevenal

    PubMed Central

    Fuwa, Haruhiko; Ebine, Makoto; Bourdelais, Andrea J.; Baden, Daniel G.; Sasaki, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    Total synthesis of structure 1 originally proposed for brevenal, a nontoxic polycyclic ether natural product isolated from the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, was accomplished. The key features of the synthesis involved (i) convergent assembly of the pentacyclic polyether skeleton based on our developed Suzuki–Miyaura coupling chemistry and (ii) stereoselective construction of the multi-substituted (E,E)-dienal side chain by using copper(I) thiophen-2-carboxylate (CuTC)-promoted modified Stille coupling. The disparity of NMR spectra between the synthetic material and the natural product required a revision of the proposed structure. Detailed spectroscopic comparison of synthetic 1 with natural brevenal, coupled with the postulated biosynthetic pathway for marine polyether natural products, suggested that the natural product was most likely represented by 2, the C26 epimer of the proposed structure 1. The revised structure was finally validated by completing the first total synthesis of (−)-2, which also unambiguously established the absolute configuration of the natural product. PMID:17177450

  12. Total Synthesis of Viridicatumtoxin B and Analogues Thereof: Strategy Evolution, Structural Revision, and Biological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The details of the total synthesis of viridicatumtoxin B (1) are described. Initial synthetic strategies toward this intriguing tetracycline antibiotic resulted in the development of key alkylation and Lewis acid-mediated spirocyclization reactions to form the hindered EF spirojunction, as well as Michael–Dieckmann reactions to set the A and C rings. The use of an aromatic A-ring substrate, however, was found to be unsuitable for the introduction of the requisite hydroxyl groups at carbons 4a and 12a. Applying these previous tactics, we developed stepwise approaches to oxidize carbons 12a and 4a based on enol- and enolate-based oxidations, respectively, the latter of which was accomplished after systematic investigations that revealed critical reactivity patterns. The herein described synthetic strategy resulted in the total synthesis of viridicatumtoxin B (1), which, in turn, formed the basis for the revision of its originally assigned structure. The developed chemistry facilitated the synthesis of a series of viridicatumtoxin analogues, which were evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, including drug-resistant pathogens, revealing the first structure–activity relationships within this structural type. PMID:25317739

  13. Natural Product Total Synthesis in the Organic Laboratory: Total Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE), a Potent 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor from Honeybee Hives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touaibia, Mohamed; Guay, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Natural products play a critical role in modern organic synthesis and learning synthetic techniques is an important component of the organic laboratory experience. In addition to traditional one-step organic synthesis laboratories, a multistep natural product synthesis is an interesting experiment to challenge students. The proposed three-step…

  14. Total Synthesis of (±)-Phomactin A. Lessons Learned from Respecting a Challenging Structural Topology

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Grant S.; Cole, Kevin P.; Tang, Yu; Hsung, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Our struggles and ultimate success in achieving a total synthesis of phomactin A are described. Our strategy features an intramolecular oxa-[3 + 3] annulation to construct its unique ABD-tricyclic manifold. Although the synthesis would constitute a distinctly new approach with the 12-membered D-ring of phomactin A being assembled simultaneously with the 1-oxadecalin at an early stage, the ABD-tricycle represents a unique structural topology that would pose a number of unprecedented challenges. One challenge concerned elaborating this tricycle to have oxygenation at the proper carbon atoms. To overcome this, we would utilize a Kornblum-DeLaMare ring-opening of a peroxide bridge as well as a challenging late-stage 1,3-allylic alcohol transposition. Further, the structural intricacies of the ABD-tricycle were uncovered by a conformational analysis that would be critical for the C5a-homologation. PMID:21819039

  15. Studies Toward the Syntheses of Pluramycin Natural Products. The First Total Synthesis of Isokidamycin.

    PubMed Central

    O'Keefe, B. Michael; Mans, Douglas M.; Kaelin, David E.; Martin, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first total synthesis of the complex C-aryl glycoside isokidamycin, the epimer of the naturally-occurring pluramycin antibiotic kidamycin. The synthesis features a highly efficientDiels-Alder reaction between a substituted naphthyne and a glycosylatedfuran to form the anthracene core bearing a pendant angolosamine C-glycoside. The regiochemical outcome of the Diels-Alder reaction was controlled by employing a disposable silicon-tether to link the reactive napthyne and the glycosyl furan, rendering the cycloaddition intramolecular. The benzopyranone moietyof the aromatic nucleus was appended by cyclization of a functionalized vinylogous amide onto an advanced anthrol intermediate. The vancosamine amino glycoside was introduced by an O→C-glycoside rearrangement that produced the β-anomer. Subsequent refunctionalizations then led to isokidamycin. PMID:21804649

  16. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (-)-Englerin A through Catalytic Diastereo- and Enantioselective Carbonyl Ylide Cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Hanari, Taiki; Shimada, Naoyuki; Kurosaki, Yasunobu; Thrimurtulu, Neetipalli; Nambu, Hisanori; Anada, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Shunichi

    2015-08-10

    An asymmetric total synthesis of the guaiane sesquiterpene (-)-englerin A, a potent and selective inhibitor of the growth of renal cancer cell lines, was accomplished. The basis of the approach is a highly diastereo- and enantioselective carbonyl ylide cycloaddition with an ethyl vinyl ether dipolarophile under catalysis by dirhodium(II) tetrakis[N-tetrachlorophthaloyl-(S)-tert-leucinate], [Rh2 (S-TCPTTL)4 ], to construct the oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane framework with concomitant introduction of the oxygen substituent at C9 on the exo-face. Another notable feature of the synthesis is ruthenium tetraoxide-catalyzed chemoselective oxidative conversion of C9 ethyl ether to C9 acetate. PMID:26179743

  17. Total synthesis of Elisabethin A: intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction under biomimetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Heckrodt, Thilo J; Mulzer, Johann

    2003-04-23

    We describe the first total synthesis of the marine diterpenoid elisabethin A. The synthesis uses (S)-hydroxy-2-methyl-propionate as the chiral starting material, which is elaborated into a dienyl-iodide and added to an aryl acetic acid ester via enolate alkylation. The hydroquinoid system is oxidized to the quinone which serves as the dienophile in a highly stereocontrolled intramolecular Diels-Alder addition. This IMDA reaction, which to our knowledge is the first one to employ a terminal (Z)-diene, proceeds under biomimetic conditions (water, ferrichloride as the oxidant, room temperature) with high yield and stereoselectivity. The Diels-Alder adduct is transformed into the natural product via a three-step sequence including selective hydrogenation, base-catalyzed epimerization of the cis- into the trans-decalin system and O-demethylation. PMID:12696865

  18. Total synthesis of Herbarin A and B, determination of their antioxidant properties and toxicity in zebrafish embryo model.

    PubMed

    Heimberger, Julia; Cade, Hannah C; Padgett, Jihan; Sittaramane, Vinoth; Shaikh, Abid

    2015-03-15

    Herbarin A and B were isolated from the fungal strains of Cladosporium herbarum found in marine sponges Aplysina aerophoba and Callyspongia aerizusa. Total synthesis of Herbarin A and B was achieved by carrying out a multi-step synthesis approach, and the antioxidant properties were evaluated using FRAP assay. Toxicity of these compounds was determined using a zebrafish embryo model. PMID:25690788

  19. Development of the Concise Data Processing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, James; Bonn, Doug

    2011-01-01

    The Concise Data Processing Assessment (CDPA) was developed to probe student abilities related to the nature of measurement and uncertainty and to handling data. The diagnostic is a ten question, multiple-choice test that can be used as both a pre-test and post-test. A key component of the development process was interviews with students, which…

  20. Concise encyclopedia of bioresource technology: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Journal of Environmental Quality requested a review of the book “The Concise Encyclopedia of Biotechnology” from the perspective of a scientist. Biotechnology is an emerging field and has rapidly become a buzzword in popular culture and politics today, yet it is not possible to be an expert in ...

  1. Total Synthesis of (-)-Lepadiformine A Utilizing Hg(OTf)2-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization Reaction.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Keisuke; Kikuchi, Seiho; Ezaki, Shinnosuke; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Nokubo, Haruka; Kodama, Takeshi; Tachi, Yoshimitsu; Morimoto, Yoshiki

    2015-12-01

    A cytotoxic marine alkaloid (-)-lepadiformine A (1) possesses a unique structure characterized by the trans-1-azadecalin AB ring system fused with the AC spiro-cyclic ring. In this research, we found that a cycloisomerization reaction from amino ynone 2 to a 1-azaspiro[4.5]decane skeleton 3, corresponding to the AC ring system of 1, is promoted by Hg(OTf)(2). Thus, we have accomplished the efficient total synthesis of (-)-lepadiformine A in 28% overall yield by featuring the novel Hg(OTf)(2)-catalyzed cycloisomerization. PMID:26584002

  2. Total Synthesis of Laspartomycin C and Characterization of Its Antibacterial Mechanism of Action.

    PubMed

    Kleijn, Laurens H J; Oppedijk, Sabine F; 't Hart, Peter; van Harten, Roel M; Martin-Visscher, Leah A; Kemmink, Johan; Breukink, Eefjan; Martin, Nathaniel I

    2016-04-14

    Laspartomycin C is a lipopeptide antibiotic with activity against a range of Gram-positive bacteria including drug-resistant pathogens. We report the first total synthesis of laspartomycin C as well as a series of structural variants. Laspartomycin C was found to specifically bind undecaprenyl phosphate (C55-P) and inhibit formation of the bacterial cell wall precursor lipid II. While several clinically used antibiotics target the lipid II pathway, there are no approved drugs that act on its C55-P precursor. PMID:26967152

  3. Studies Culminating in the Total Synthesis and Determination of the Absolute Configuration of (-)-Saudin

    PubMed Central

    Boeckman, Robert K.; del Rosario Ferreira, Maria Rico; Mitchell, Lorna H.; Shao, Pengcheng; Neeb, Michael J.; Fang, Yue

    2011-01-01

    A full account of studies that culminated in the total synthesis of both antipodes and the assignment of its absolute configuration of Saudin, a hypoglycemic natural product. Two approaches are described, the first proceeding though bicyclic lactone intermediates and related second monocyclic esters. The former was obtained via asymmetric Diels-Alder cycloaddition and the latter by an asymmetric annulation protocol. Both approaches employ a Lewis acid promoted Claisen rearrangement, with the successful approach taking advantage of bidentate chelation to control the facial selectivity of the key Claisen rearrangement PMID:22523435

  4. Flexible Total Synthesis of (±)-Aureothin, a Potent Antiproliferative Agent.

    PubMed

    Henrot, Matthias; Jean, Alexandre; Peixoto, Philippe A; Maddaluno, Jacques; De Paolis, Michaël

    2016-06-17

    Amenable to late-stage preparation of analogues, a flexible and convergent total synthesis of (±)-aureothin is presented. The strategy was based on a desymmetrization of α,α'-dimethoxy-γ-pyrone by a process combining 1,4-addition and alkylation of vinylogous enolate to stereoselectively reach the backbone of the target. Palladium-catalyzed cyanation of an elaborated and isomerizable E,Z dienyl motif followed by Pinner cyclization enabled the construction of the tetrahydrofuran motif while a first approach based on a late-stage oxidation was unsuccessful. PMID:27213834

  5. Total synthesis of leopolic acid A, a natural 2,3-pyrrolidinedione with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Dhavan, Atul A; Kaduskar, Rahul D; Musso, Loana; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Martino, Piera Anna; Dallavalle, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The first total synthesis of leopolic acid A, a fungal metabolite with a rare 2,3-pyrrolidinedione nucleus linked to an ureido dipeptide, was designed and carried out. Crucial steps for the strategy include a Dieckmann cyclization to obtain the 2,3-pyrrolidinedione ring and a Wittig olefination to install the polymethylene chain. An oxazolidinone-containing leopolic acid A analogue was also synthesized. The antibacterial activity showed by both compounds suggests that they could be considered as promising candidates for future developments. PMID:27559415

  6. Total synthesis of leopolic acid A, a natural 2,3-pyrrolidinedione with antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Dhavan, Atul A; Kaduskar, Rahul D; Musso, Loana; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Martino, Piera Anna

    2016-01-01

    Summary The first total synthesis of leopolic acid A, a fungal metabolite with a rare 2,3-pyrrolidinedione nucleus linked to an ureido dipeptide, was designed and carried out. Crucial steps for the strategy include a Dieckmann cyclization to obtain the 2,3-pyrrolidinedione ring and a Wittig olefination to install the polymethylene chain. An oxazolidinone-containing leopolic acid A analogue was also synthesized. The antibacterial activity showed by both compounds suggests that they could be considered as promising candidates for future developments. PMID:27559415

  7. Total Synthesis of Fellutamide B and Deoxy-Fellutamides B, C, and D

    PubMed Central

    Giltrap, Andrew M.; Cergol, Katie M.; Pang, Angel; Britton, Warwick J.; Payne, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    The total syntheses of the marine-derived lipopeptide natural product fellutamide B and deoxy-fellutamides B, C, and D are reported. These compounds were accessed through a novel solid-phase synthetic strategy using Weinreb amide-derived resin. As part of the synthesis, a new enantioselective route to (3R)-hydroxy lauric acid was developed utilizing a Brown allylation reaction followed by an oxidative cleavage-oxidation sequence as the key steps. The activity of these natural products, and natural product analogues was also assessed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro. PMID:23880930

  8. Solid-Phase Total Synthesis of Kahalalide A and Related Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Bourel-Bonnet, Line; Rao, Karumanchi V.; Hamann, Mark T.; Ganesan, A.

    2016-01-01

    The marine natural product kahalalide A, a cyclic depsipeptide, was prepared by total synthesis on solid-phase. A backbone cyclization strategy was followed, using the Kenner sulfonamide safety-catch linker. By NMR comparison of synthetic and naturally isolated material, the stereochemistry of the methylbutyrate side chain was established as (S). Several analogues were synthesized and tested for antimycobacterial activity. The results indicate that the alcohol functional group in the serine and threonine residues is important, while the methylbutyrate side chain can be replaced by an achiral hexanoate with an increase in activity. PMID:15743176

  9. Total Synthesis and Stereochemical Revision of the Anti-Tuberculosis Peptaibol Trichoderin A.

    PubMed

    Kavianinia, Iman; Kunalingam, Lavanya; Harris, Paul W R; Cook, Gregory M; Brimble, Margaret A

    2016-08-01

    The first total synthesis of the postulated structure of the aminolipopeptide trichoderin A and its epimer are reported. A late-stage solution phase C-terminal coupling was employed to introduce the C-terminal aminoalcohol moiety. This methodology provides a foundation to prepare analogues of trichoderin A to establish a structure-activity relationship. NMR spectroscopic analysis established that the C-6 position of the 2-amino-6-hydroxy-4-methyl-8-oxodecanoic acid (AHMOD) residue in trichoderin A possesses an (R)-configuration as opposed to the originally proposed (S)-configuration. PMID:27467118

  10. Solid-phase total synthesis of (-)-apratoxin A and its analogues and their biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Doi, Takayuki; Numajiri, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Takashi; Takagi, Motoki; Shin-ya, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Two approaches for the solid-phase total synthesis of apratoxin A and its derivatives were accomplished. In synthetic route A, the peptide was prepared by the sequential coupling of the corresponding amino acids on trityl chloride SynPhase Lanterns. After cleavage from the polymer-support, macrolactamization of 10, followed by thiazoline formation, provided apratoxin A. This approach, however, resulted in low yield because the chemoselectivity was not sufficient for the formation of the thiazoline ring though its analogue 33 was obtained. However, in synthetic route B, a cyclization precursor was prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis by using amino acids 13-15 and 18. The final macrolactamization was performed in solution to provide apratoxin A in high overall yield. This method was then successfully applied to the synthesis of apratoxin analogues. The cytotoxic activity of the synthetic derivatives was then evaluated. The epimer 34 was as potent as apratoxin A, and O-methyl tyrosine can be replaced by 7-azidoheptyl tyrosine without loss of activity. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of 38 with phenylacetylene was performed in the presence of a copper catalyst without affecting the thiazoline ring. PMID:21080404

  11. Spongipyran Synthetic Studies. Evolution of a Scalable Total Synthesis of (+)-Spongistatin 1.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amos B; Sfouggatakis, Chris; Risatti, Christina A; Sperry, Jeffrey B; Zhu, Wenyu; Doughty, Victoria A; Tomioka, Takashi; Gotchev, Dimitar B; Bennett, Clay S; Sakamoto, Satoshi; Atasoylu, Onur; Shirakami, Shohei; Bauer, David; Takeuchi, Makoto; Koyanagi, Jyunichi; Sakamoto, Yasuharu

    2009-09-15

    Three syntheses of the architecturally complex, cytotoxic marine macrolide (+)-spongistatin 1 (1) are reported. Highlights of the first-generation synthesis include: use of a dithiane multicomponent linchpin coupling tactic for construction of the AB and CD spiroketals, and their union via a highly selective Evans boron-mediated aldol reaction en route to an ABCD aldehyde; introduction of the C(44)-C(51) side chain via a Lewis acid-mediated ring opening of a glucal epoxide with an allylstannane to assemble the EF subunit; and final fragment union via Wittig coupling of the ABCD and EF subunits to form the C(28)-C(29) olefin, followed by regioselective Yamaguchi macrolactonization and global deprotection. The second- and third- generation syntheses, designed with the goal of accessing one gram of (+)-spongistatin 1 (1), maintain both the first-generation strategy for the ABCD aldehyde and final fragment union, while incorporating two more efficient approaches for construction of the EF Wittig salt. The latter combine the original chelation-controlled dithiane union of the E- and F-ring progenitors with application of a highly efficient cyanohydrin alkylation to append the F-ring side chain, in conjunction with two independent tactics to access the F-ring pyran. The first F-ring synthesis showcases a Petasis-Ferrier union/rearrangement protocol to access tetrahydropyrans, permitting the preparation of 750 mgs of the EF Wittig salt, which in turn was converted to 80 mg of (+)-spongistatin 1, while the second F-ring strategy, incorporates an organocatalytic aldol reaction as the key construct, permitting completion of 1.009 g of totally synthetic (+)-spongistatin 1 (1). A brief analysis of the three syntheses alongside our earlier synthesis of (+)-spongistatin 2 is also presented. PMID:20640040

  12. Enantioselective Synthesis of 3a-Amino-Pyrroloindolines by Copper-Catalyzed Direct Asymmetric Dearomative Amination of Tryptamines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuan; Yi, Ji-Cheng; Zheng, Zhong-Bo; Tang, Yong; Dai, Li-Xin; You, Shu-Li

    2016-01-11

    A direct asymmetric dearomative amination of tryptamines with O-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)hydroxylamine (DPH) was achieved using CuBr-bisoxazoline complex as a catalyst, affording 3a-amino-pyrroloindolines in good to excellent enantioselectivity under mild reaction conditions. Furthermore, the synthetic value of this method was demonstrated in the total synthesis of (-)-psychotriasine in a highly concise manner. PMID:26603145

  13. Ru Catalyzed Alkene-Alkyne Coupling. Total Synthesis of Amphidinolide P

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Papillon, Julien P. N.; Nussbaumer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A coordinatively unsaturated ruthenium complex catalyzed the formation of a carbon-carbon bond between two judiciously chosen alkene and alkyne partners in good yield, and in a chemo- and regioselective fashion, in spite of the significant degree of unsaturation of the substrates. The resulting 1,4-diene forms the backbone of the cytotoxic marine natural product amphidinolide P. The alkene partner was rapidly assembled from (R)-glycidyl tosylate, which served as a linchpin in a one-flask, sequential three-components coupling process using vinyllithium and a vinyl cyanocuprate. The synthesis of the alkyne partner made use of an unusual anti-selective addition under chelation control conditions of an allyltin reagent derived from tiglic acid. In addition, a remarkably E-selective E2 process using the azodicarboxylate-triphenylphosphine system is featured. Also featured is the first example of the use of a β-lactone as a thermodynamic spring to effect macrolactonization. The oxetanone ring was thus used as a productive protecting group that increased the overall efficiency of this total synthesis. This work was also an opportunity to further probe the scope of the ruthenium-catalyzed alkene-alkyne coupling, in particular using enynes, and studies using various functionalized substrates are described. PMID:16351124

  14. Total Synthesis of Epothilones B and D: Stannane Equivalents for β-Keto Ester Dianions

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Gary E.; Giles, Robert L.; Cee, Victor J.; Wager, Carrie A.; Yu, Tao; Kraft, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Studies leading to a total synthesis of Epothilones B and D are described. The overall synthetic plan was based on late stage fragment assembly of two segments representing C1-C9 and C10-C21 of the structure. The C1-C9 fragment was prepared by elaboration of commercially available (2R)-3-hydroxy-2-methylpropanoate at both ends of the three carbon unit. Introduction of carbons 1–4 containing the gem-dimethyl unit was achieved in a convergent manner using a diastereoselective addition of a stannane equivalent of a β-keto ester dianion. An enantioselective addition of such a stannane equivalent for a β-keto ester dianion was also used to fashion one version of the C10-C21 subunit; however, the fragment assembly (using bimolecular esterification followed by ring-closing metathesis) with this subunit failed. Therefore, fragment assembly was achieved using a Wittig reaction; this was followed by macrolactonization to close the macrocycle. The C10-C21 subunit needed for this approach was prepared in an efficient manner using the Corey-Kim reaction as a key element. Other key reactions in the synthesis include a stereoselective SmI2 reduction of a β-hydroxy ketone and a critical opening of a valerolactone with aniline which required extensive investigation. PMID:18991385

  15. Total Synthesis of Δ(12) -Prostaglandin J3 : Evolution of Synthetic Strategies to a Streamlined Process.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, K C; Pulukuri, Kiran Kumar; Yu, Ruocheng; Rigol, Stephan; Heretsch, Philipp; Grove, Charles I; Hale, Christopher R H; ElMarrouni, Abdelatif

    2016-06-13

    The total synthesis of Δ(12) -prostaglandin J3 (Δ(12) -PGJ3 , 1), a reported leukemia stem cell ablator, through a number of strategies and tactics is described. The signature cross-conjugated dienone structural motif of 1 was forged by an aldol reaction/dehydration sequence from key building blocks enone 13 and aldehyde 14, whose lone stereocenters were generated by an asymmetric Tsuji-Trost reaction and an asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol reaction, respectively. During this program, a substituent-governed regioselectivity pattern for the Rh-catalyzed C-H functionalization of cyclopentenes and related olefins was discovered. The evolution of the synthesis of 1 from the original strategy to the final streamlined process proceeded through improvements in the construction of both fragments 13 and 14, exploration of the chemistry of the hitherto underutilized chiral lactone synthon 57, and a diastereoselective alkylation of a cyclopentenone intermediate. The described chemistry sets the stage for large-scale production of Δ(12) -PGJ3 and designed analogues for further biological and pharmacological studies. PMID:27187634

  16. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Propindilactone G, Part 2: Enantioselective Construction of the Fully Functionalized BCDE Ring System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Jun; You, Lin; Wang, Yue-Fan; Li, Yuan-He; Liang, Xin-Ting; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Shou-Liang; Su, Qi; Chen, Jia-Hua; Yang, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of the fully functionalized BCDE tetracyclic ring system of propindilactone G (A) is reported. Several synthetic methods were developed and applied to achieve this goal, including: 1) an asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction in the presence of Hayashi's catalyst for the synthesis of optically pure key intermediate 3; 2) an intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction (PKR) for the stereoselective synthesis of the BCDE ring with an all-carbon chiral quaternary center at the C13 position by using the TMS-substituted acetylene as the substrate; and 3) Pd-catalyzed reductive hydrogenolysis for the stereoselective synthesis of the fully functionalized BCDE tetracyclic ring system. The chemistry developed herein provided a greater understanding of the total synthesis propindilactone G (A) and its analogues. PMID:26991420

  17. Total Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Palmarumycin CP17 and Its Methoxy Analogues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruina; Liu, Guoyue; Yang, Mingyan; Wang, Mingan; Zhou, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    Total synthesis of naturally occurring spirobisnaphthalene palmarumycin CP17 and its methoxy analogues was first achieved through Friedel-Crafts acylation, Wolff-Kishner reduction, intramolecular cyclization, ketalization, benzylic oxidation, and demethylation using the inexpensive and readily available methoxybenzene, 1,2-dimethoxybenzene and 1,4-dimethoxybenzene and 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene as raw materials. Demethylation with (CH₃)₃SiI at ambient temperature resulted in ring A aromatization and acetal cleavage to give rise to binaphthyl ethers. The antifungal activities of these spirobisnaphthalene derivatives were evaluated, and the results revealed that 5 and 9b exhibit EC50 values of 9.34 µg/mL and 12.35 µg/mL, respectively, against P. piricola. PMID:27164077

  18. Total Synthesis of (±)–Rocaglamide via Oxidation-Initiated Nazarov Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    Malona, John A.; Cariou, Kevin; Spencer, William T.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of a Nazarov cyclization-based synthetic strategy targeting the anticancer, antiinflammatory, and insecticidal natural product (±)–rocaglamide. Initial pursuit of a polarized heteroaromatic Nazarov cyclization to construct the congested cyclopentane core revealed an unanticipated electronic bias in the pentadienyl cation. This reactivity was harnessed in a successful second-generation approach using an oxidation-initiated Nazarov cyclization of a heteroaryl alkoxyallene. Full details of these two approaches are given, as well as the characterization of undesired reaction pathways available to the Nazarov cyclization product. A sequence of experiments that led to an understanding of the unexpected reactivity of this key intermediate is described, which culminated in the successful total synthesis of (+)-rocaglamide. PMID:22283818

  19. Total synthesis of biotinylated N domain of human hepatocyte growth factor.

    PubMed

    Raibaut, Laurent; Vicogne, Jérome; Leclercq, Bérénice; Drobecq, Hervé; Desmet, Rémi; Melnyk, Oleg

    2013-06-15

    Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is the high affinity ligand of MET tyrosine kinase receptor. We report here the total synthesis of a biotinylated analogue of human HGF/SF N domain. Functionally, N domain is part of the HGF/SF high affinity binding site for MET and also the main HGF/SF binding site for heparin. The 97 Aa linear chain featuring a C-terminal biotin group was assembled in high yield using an N-to-C one-pot three segments assembly strategy relying on a sequential Native Chemical Ligation (NCL)/bis(2-sulfanylethyl)amido (SEA) native peptide ligation process. The folded protein displayed the native disulfide bond pattern and showed the ability to bind heparin. PMID:23523386

  20. Isolation, Structure Elucidation and Total Synthesis of Lajollamide A from the Marine Fungus Asteromyces cruciatus

    PubMed Central

    Gulder, Tobias A. M.; Hong, Hanna; Correa, Jhonny; Egereva, Ekaterina; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F.; Gross, Harald

    2012-01-01

    The marine-derived filamentous fungus Asteromyces cruciatus 763, obtained off the coast of La Jolla, San Diego, USA, yielded the new pentapeptide lajollamide A (1), along with the known compounds regiolone (2), hyalodendrin (3), gliovictin (4), 1N-norgliovicitin (5), and bis-N-norgliovictin (6). The planar structure of lajollamide A (1) was determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in combination with mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of lajollamide A (1) was unambiguously solved by total synthesis which provided three additional diastereomers of 1 and also revealed that an unexpected acid-mediated partial racemization (2:1) of the L-leucine and L-N-Me-leucine residues occurred during the chemical degradation process. The biological activities of the isolated metabolites, in particular their antimicrobial properties, were investigated in a series of assay systems. PMID:23342379

  1. The Total Synthesis of Starfish Ganglioside GP3 Bearing a Unique Sialyl Glycan Architecture.

    PubMed

    Goto, Kenta; Sawa, Maki; Tamai, Hideki; Imamura, Akihiro; Ando, Hiromune; Ishida, Hideharu; Kiso, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    The total synthesis of ganglioside GP3, which is found in the starfish Asterina pectinifera, has been accomplished through stereoselective and effective glycosylation reactions. The sialic acid embedded octasaccharide moiety of the target compound was constructed by [4+4] convergent coupling. A tetrasaccharyl donor and acceptor that contained internal sialic acid residues were synthesized with an orthogonally protected N-Troc sialic acid donor as the key common synthetic unit, and they underwent highly stereoselective glycosidation. The resulting sialosides were subsequently transformed into reactive glycosyl acceptors. [4+4] coupling furnished the octasaccharide framework in 91 % yield as a single stereoisomer. Final conjugation of the octasaccharyl donor and glucosyl ceramide acceptor produced the protected target compound in high yield, which underwent global deprotection to successfully deliver ganglioside GP3. PMID:27172064

  2. Total synthesis of the spirocyclic imine marine toxin (-)-gymnodimine and an unnatural C4-epimer.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ke; Moussa, Ziad; Lee, Changsuk; Romo, Daniel

    2011-12-14

    The first total synthesis of the marine toxin (-)-gymnodimine (1) has been accomplished in a convergent manner. A highly diastereo- and enantioselective exo-Diels-Alder reaction catalyzed by a bis-oxazoline Cu(II) catalyst enabled rapid assembly of the spirocyclic core of gymnodimine. The preparation of the tetrahydrofuran fragment utilized a chiral auxiliary based anti-aldol reaction. Two major fragments, spirolactam 56 and tetrahydrofuran 55, were then coupled through an efficient Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi reaction. An unconventional, ambient temperature t-BuLi-initiated intramolecular Barbier reaction of alkyl iodide 64 was employed to form the macrocycle. A late stage vinylogous Mukaiyama aldol addition of a silyloxyfuran to a complex cyclohexanone 83 appended the butenolide, and a few additional steps provided (-)-gymnodimine (1). A diastereomer of the natural product was also synthesized, C4-epi-gymnodimine (90), derived from the vinylogous Mukaiyama aldol addition. PMID:22023219

  3. Total Synthesis and Selective Activity of a NewClass of Conformationally Restrained Epothilones

    PubMed Central

    Alhamadsheh, Mamoun M.; Gupta, Shuchi; Hudson, Richard A.; Perera, Lalith

    2009-01-01

    Stereoselective total syntheses of two novel conformationally restrained epothilone analogues are described. Evans asymmetric alkylation, Brown allylation, and a diastereoselective aldol reaction served as the key steps in the stereoselective synthesis of one of the two key fragments of the convergent synthetic approach.Enzyme resolution was employed to obtain the second fragment as a single enantiomer. The molecules were assembled by esterification, followed by ring-closing metathesis. In preliminary cytotoxicity studies, one of the analogues showed strong and selective growth inhibitory activity against two leukemia cell lines over solid human tumor cell lines. The precise biological mechanism of action and high degree of selectivity of this analogue remain to be examined. PMID:17955508

  4. Asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-lingzhiol via a Rh-catalysed [3+2] cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Long, Rong; Huang, Jun; Shao, Wenbin; Liu, Song; Lan, Yu; Gong, Jianxian; Yang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The development of efficient reactions for the one-pot construction of bicyclic ring systems bearing two quaternary carbon centres at their bridgehead positions represents a significant challenge to synthetic chemistry. The development of new methods capable of overcoming this challenge is highly desirable, because this motif can be found in a wide range of natural products with significant biological activities. Herein, we report an efficient [3+2] cycloaddition reaction between an enal and an alleno rhodium species, which was generated in situ from the corresponding enynol via a retro metal-propargylation reaction, to give [3.3.0] and [3.4.0] bicyclic systems bearing two quaternary atoms at their bridgehead positions. The developed chemistry has been successfully applied to the asymmetric total synthesis of natural product (-)-lingzhiol (4) for the first time in 17 steps. PMID:25483390

  5. Stereoselective Total Synthesis of Atractylodemayne A, a Conjugated 2(E),8(Z),10(E)-Triene-4,6-diyne.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Bernd; Audörsch, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    The first total synthesis of the polyacetylene natural product atractylodemayne A is reported. Stereoselective construction of the conjugated 8(Z),10(E)-diene moiety was achieved through a tethered ring-closing metathesis approach, comprising a Ru-catalyzed RCM followed by a base-induced elimination. A Pd-catalyzed Cadiot-Chodkiewicz coupling was used for the synthesis of the diyne. Overall, atractylodemayne A was synthesized in nine steps for the longest linear sequence. PMID:26886865

  6. Approaches to Polycyclic 1,4-Dioxygenated Xanthones. Application to Total Synthesis of the Aglycone of IB-00208

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hexacyclic xanthone natural products such as IB-00208 present a formidable challenge in organic synthesis. A new approach to polycyclic 1,4-dioxygenated xanthones from benzocyclobutenones has been developed and applied to the first total synthesis of the aglycone of IB-00208. The 22-step synthesis features an acetylide stitching process that joins an aryl aldehyde with an angularly fused benzocyclobutenone, which was prepared by a ring-closing metathesis reaction. The resulting acetylenic benzocyclobutenone diol underwent a Moore rearrangement to give an intermediate that was further elaborated to the aglycone of IB-00208 as a mixture of hydroquinone–quinone tautomers. PMID:25513888

  7. Concise Catalog of Deep-Sky Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, Warren H.

    This book is intended to give a concise summary of some of the more interesting astrophysical facts that are known about objects commonly observed by amateur astronomers. Pondering this information while viewing an object in the field has added a new level to the author's enjoyment of deep-sky observing, and it is hoped this information will be similarly enjoyed by other amateur astronomers. The book is not intended to be read cover to cover, but rather is designed so that each object entry can be read individually one at a time and in no particular order, perhaps while at the eyepiece.

  8. A total synthesis of estrone based on a novel cascade of radical cyclizations

    PubMed Central

    Pattenden, Gerald; Gonzalez, Miguel A.; McCulloch, Stuart; Walter, Affo; Woodhead, Steven J.

    2004-01-01

    Two conceptually different and novel radical-mediated cascade reactions leading to a total synthesis of the steroid (±)-estrone 1 and to a synthesis of 14-epiestrone 40 are described. Treatment of the iododienynone 23 with Bu3SnH/2,2′-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) triggers a 13-endo-dig radical macrocyclization followed by two sequential radical transannulation reactions leading to the crystalline estrane 24 in 50% yield. The x-ray crystal structure of 24 established its trans, syn, stereochemistry. Transposition of the enone functionality in 24 next led to 38, which was then converted into 39 by reductive methylation. Deprotection of the methyl ether 39 finally gave 14-epiestone 40. When the substituted iodovinylcyclopropane 55 was treated similarly with Bu3SnH/AIBN, the resulting radical center underwent a different sequence of cascade macrocyclization-transannulation reactions producing the trans, anti, trans estrane 56 in 12% overall yield. Oxidation of 56, using CrO3-H2SO4 next led to the cyclopentanone 57, which, on deprotection using BBr3 gave (±)-estrone 1. A number of alternative substituted iodopolyenynones and iodovinylcyclopropanes, i.e., 8a, 8b, 33, 49a, and 49b, underwent similar radical-mediated cascade cyclizations leading to other estranes, i.e., 21a, 21b, 35, and 50, and, in one case, to the 6,6,5,6-tetracycle 51, in variable overall yields. The structures and stereochemistries of several estranes were established by using x-ray crystal structure measurements in combination with analysis of their NMR spectroscopic data and correlation with literature precedent. PMID:15304654

  9. Total synthesis, structural, and biological evaluation of stylissatin A and related analogs.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Farzana; Jabeen, Almas; Ashraf, Samreen; Nadeem-Ul-Haque, Muhammad; Shah, Zafar Ali; Ziaee, Muhammad Asad; Dastagir, Nida; Ganesan, A

    2016-09-01

    The natural product cyclic peptide stylissatin A (1a) was reported to inhibit nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. In the current study, solid-phase total synthesis of stylissatin A was performed by using a safety-catch linker and yielded the peptide with a trans-Phe(7) -Pro(6) linkage, whereas the natural product is the cis rotamer at this position as evidenced by a marked difference in NMR chemical shifts. In order to preclude the possibility of 1b being an epimer of the natural product, we repeated the synthesis using d-allo-Ile in place of l-Ile and a different site for macrocyclization. The resulting product (d-allo-Ile(2) )-stylissatin A (1c) was also found to have the trans-Phe(7) -Pro(6) peptide conformations like rotamer 1b. Applying the second route to the synthesis of stylissatin A itself, we obtained stylissatin A natural rotamer 1a accompanied by rotamer 1b as the major product. Rotamers 1a, 1b, and the epimer 1c were separable by HPLC, and 1a was found to match the natural product in structure and biological activity. Six related analogs 2-7 of stylissatin A were synthesized on Wang resin and characterized by spectral analysis. The natural product (1a), the rotamer (1b), and (d-allo-Ile(2) )-stylissatin A (1c) exhibited significant inhibition of NO(.) . Further investigations were focused on 1b, which also inhibited proliferation of T-cells and inflammatory cytokine IL-2 production. The analogs 2-7 weakly inhibited NO(.) production, but strongly inhibited IL-2 cytokine production compared with synthetic peptide 1b. All analogs inhibited the proliferation of T-cells, with analog 7 having the strongest effect. In the analogs, the Pro(6) residue was replaced by Glu/Ala, and the SAR indicates that the nature of this residue plays a role in the biological function of these peptides. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27526945

  10. Development of a strategy for the asymmetric synthesis of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols via N-amino cyclic carbamate hydrazones: application to the total synthesis of (+)-clusianone.

    PubMed

    Garnsey, Michelle R; Lim, Daniel; Yost, Julianne M; Coltart, Don M

    2010-11-19

    A broadly applicable asymmetric synthetic strategy utilizing N-amino cyclic carbamate alkylation that provides access to the various stereochemical permutations of a common structural motif found in many polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols is described. The utility of this methodology is demonstrated through the first asymmetric total synthesis of the antiviral agent (+)-clusianone. PMID:20977254

  11. Total synthesis and structural confirmation of the marine natural product Dysinosin A: a novel inhibitor of thrombin and Factor VIIa.

    PubMed

    Hanessian, Stephen; Margarita, Roberto; Hall, Adrian; Johnstone, Shawn; Tremblay, Martin; Parlanti, Luca

    2002-11-13

    The structure and absolute configuration of the marine antithrombotic product dysinosin A was confirmed by total synthesis. The strategy involved disconnections to three subunits, of which two were synthesized from the readily available l-glutamic acid, d-leucine, and d-mannitol. The Grubbs olefin metathesis carbocyclization reaction was utilized to prepare two intermediates. PMID:12418860

  12. Enzymatic kinetic resolution of primary allenic alcohols. Application to the total synthesis and stereochemical assignment of striatisporolide A.

    PubMed

    Deska, Jan; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2009-09-01

    Crude Porcine pancreatic lipase was successfully used for the kinetic resolution of axially chiral primary allenic alcohols providing very high enantioselectivities with E values above 200. This simple access to optically active allenes was applied to the total synthesis of the fungal metabolite (-)-striatisporolide A, allowing its unambiguous stereochemical assignment. PMID:19675888

  13. Strategies toward the Total Synthesis of Calyciphylline B-type Alkaloids: A Computational Perspective Aided by DFT Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Amit Kumar; Berger, Gilles; Hanessian, Stephen

    2016-06-17

    Herein we describe synthetic efforts toward the total synthesis of calyciphylline B-type alkaloids. In the process, we disclose a detailed DFT study of equilibrium geometries and transition states that explains the stereochemical outcome during the formation of critical intermediates. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals interesting conformational features in the naturally occurring deoxycalyciphylline B and its synthetic congeners. PMID:27251014

  14. Total Synthesis of (±)-Glyceollin II and a Dihydro Derivative.

    PubMed

    Malik, Neha; Zhang, Zhaoqi; Erhardt, Paul

    2015-12-24

    Stressed soybeans produce a group of phytoalexins that belong to the 6a-hydroxypterocarpan family of flavonoids. Certain of the more prominent members, such as the glyceollins I, II, and III, have demonstrated potential antidiabetic properties and promising cytotoxicity in both human breast and prostate cancer cell cultures with preliminary studies in animals further demonstrating antitumor effects in estrogen-dependent, human breast cancer cell implants. Although syntheses of glyceollin I have been reported previously, this work constitutes the first total directed synthesis of (±)-glyceollin II. It involves 12 steps with an overall yield of 7% using practical methods that should be readily scalable to produce quantities needed for advanced biological characterization. Highlights include a novel intramolecular benzoin condensation, a chelation-controlled lithium aluminum hydride-mediated reduction, and an intramolecular cyclization via the formation of a transient epoxide intermediate to cap the construction of the 6a-hydroxypterocarpan system. Additionally, a dihydro analogue has been obtained, and several isolated intermediates have been made available for evaluation of their biological properties and possible contributions toward elaborating key structure-activity relationship data among this family of promising phytoalexins elicited from stressed soybeans. PMID:26654660

  15. Total synthesis of periploside A, a unique pregnane hexasaccharide with potent immunosuppressive effects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaheng; Zhou, Yu; Zuo, Jianping; Yu, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Periploside A is a pregnane hexasaccharide identified from the Chinese medicinal plant Periploca sepium, which features a unique seven-membered formyl acetal bridged orthoester (FABO) motif and potent immunosuppressive activities. Here, we show the synthesis of this molecule in a total of 76 steps with the longest linear sequence of 29 steps and 9.2% overall yield. The FABO motif is constructed via a combination of Sinaÿ’s and Crich’s protocol for the formation of orthoester and acetal glycosides, respectively. The 2-deoxy-β-glycosidic linkages are assembled stereoselectively with judicious choice of the glycosylation methods. The epimer at the spiro-quaternary carbon in the FABO motif has also been elaborated in a stereo-controlled manner. This epimer, as well as the synthetic analogues bearing the FABO motif, retain largely the inhibitory activities of periploside A against the proliferation of T-lymphocyte, indicating the importance of the chemical connection of the FABO motif to their immunosuppressive activity. PMID:25600477

  16. A total-synthesis framework for the construction of high-order colloidal hybrid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Matthew R.; Bondi, James F.; Schaak, Raymond E.

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal hybrid nanoparticles contain multiple nanoscale domains fused together by solid-state interfaces. They represent an emerging class of multifunctional lab-on-a-particle architectures that underpin future advances in solar energy conversion, fuel-cell catalysis, medical imaging and therapy, and electronics. The complexity of these ‘artificial molecules’ is limited ultimately by the lack of a mechanism-driven design framework. Here, we show that known chemical reactions can be applied in a predictable and stepwise manner to build complex hybrid nanoparticle architectures that include M-Pt-Fe3O4 (M = Au, Ag, Ni, Pd) heterotrimers, MxS-Au-Pt-Fe3O4 (M = Pb, Cu) heterotetramers and higher-order oligomers based on the heterotrimeric Au-Pt-Fe3O4 building block. This synthetic framework conceptually mimics the total-synthesis approach used by chemists to construct complex organic molecules. The reaction toolkit applies solid-state nanoparticle analogues of chemoselective reactions, regiospecificity, coupling reactions and molecular substituent effects to the construction of exceptionally complex hybrid nanoparticle oligomers.

  17. Stereospecific Total Synthesis of the Indole Alkaloid Ervincidine. Establishment of the C-6 Hydroxyl Stereochemistry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The total synthesis of the indole alkaloid ervincidine (3) is reported. This research provides a general entry into C-6 hydroxy-substituted indole alkaloids with either an α or a β configuration. This study corrects the errors in Glasby’s book (GlasbyJ. S.Encyclopedia of the Alkaloids; Plenum Press: New York, 1975) and Lounasmaa et al.’s review (LounasmaaM.; HanhinenP.; WestersundM. In The Alkaloids; CordellG. A., Ed.; Academic Press: San Diego, CA, 1999; Vol. 52, pp 103–195) as well as clarifies the work of Yunusov et al. (MalikovV. M.; SharipovM. R.; YunusovS. Yu.Khim. Prir. Soedin.1972, 8, 760−761. RakhimovD. A.; SharipovM. R.; AripovKh. N.; MalikovV. M.; ShakirovT. T.; YunusovS. Yu.Khim. Prir. Soedin.1970, 6, 724–725). It establishes the correct absolute configuration of the C-6 hydroxyl function in ervincidine. This serves as a structure proof and corrects the misassigned structure reported in the literature. PMID:24697213

  18. Terpenoid-Alkaloids: Their Biosynthetic Twist of Fate and Total Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cherney, Emily C.; Baran, Phil S.

    2015-01-01

    Terpenes and alkaloids are ever-growing classes of natural products that provide new molecular structures which inspire chemists and possess a broad range of biological activity. Terpenoid-alkaloids originate from the same prenyl units that construct terpene skeletons. However, during biosynthesis, a nitrogen atom (or atoms) is introduced in the form of β-aminoethanol, ethylamine, or methylamine. Nitrogen incorporation can occur either before, during, or after the cyclase phase. The outcome of this unique biosynthesis is the formation of natural products containing unprecedented structures. These complex structural motifs expose current limitations in organic chemistry, thus providing opportunities for invention. This review focuses on total syntheses of terpenoid-alkaloids and unique issues presented by this class of natural products. More specifically, it examines how these syntheses relate to the way terpenoid-alkaloids are made in Nature. Developments in chemistry that have facilitated these syntheses are emphasized, as well as chemical technology needed to conquer those that evade synthesis. PMID:26207071

  19. Stereoselective total synthesis of the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Murakata, C; Ogawa, T

    1992-11-01

    The total synthesis of O-(O-[6-O-(2-aminoethylphosphono)-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl]-(1-->2)- O-alpha- D-mannopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-[O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-alpha-D- galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-(1-->4)-2-amino-2-deo xy- alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1-->6)-[1-O-(1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosp hono) - 1D-myo-inositol], the GPI anchor of Trypanosoma brucei was achieved for the first time. The core structure of the GPI molecule, the glycoheptaosyl part, was constructed in a highly stereocontrolled manner from O-[O-(2,4-di-O-benzyl-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-(1-->4)-2-azido-3,6-di-O-be nzyl- 2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosyl]-(1-->6)-2,3,4,5-tetra-O-benzyl-1-O-(4- methoxybenzyl)-D-myo-inositol, O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->6)-2,3,4-tri-O- benzyl-D-galactopyranosyl fluoride, 2-O-acetyl-3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl chloride, and 6-O-acetyl-2,3,4-tri-O-benzyl-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl fluoride. The introduction of two phosphodiester functions was efficiently achieved using the H-phosphonate method. PMID:1473115

  20. Toward the Total Synthesis of Scleritodermin A: Preparation of the C1-N15 Fragment

    PubMed Central

    Sellanes, Diver; Manta, Eduardo; Serra, Gloria

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of the C1-N15 fragment of the marine natural product Scleritodermin A has been accomplished through a short and stereocontrolled sequence. Highlights of this route include the synthesis of the novel ACT fragment and the formation of the α-keto amide linkage by the use of a highly activated α, β-ketonitrile. PMID:18320006

  1. Application of cyclic phosphonamide reagents in the total synthesis of natural products and biologically active molecules

    PubMed Central

    Focken, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    Summary A review of the synthesis of natural products and bioactive compounds adopting phosphonamide anion technology is presented highlighting the utility of phosphonamide reagents in stereocontrolled bond-forming reactions. Methodologies utilizing phosphonamide anions in asymmetric alkylations, Michael additions, olefinations, and cyclopropanations will be summarized, as well as an overview of the synthesis of the employed phosphonamide reagents. PMID:25246946

  2. Protecting-Group-Free Total Synthesis of (-)-Lycopodine via Phosphoric Acid Promoted Alkyne Aza-Prins Cyclization.

    PubMed

    Ma, Donghui; Zhong, Zhuliang; Liu, Zaimin; Zhang, Mingjie; Xu, Shiyan; Xu, Dengyu; Song, Dengpeng; Xie, Xingang; She, Xuegong

    2016-09-01

    A protecting-group-free route for the total synthesis of (-)-lycopodine was demonstrated in only 8 steps from Wade's fawcettimine enone (12 steps from commercial availiable (R)-(+)-pulegone). The key core of this alkaloid was constructed through a phosphoric acid promoted and highly stereocontrolled alkyne aza-Prins cyclization reaction, synchronously establishing the bridged B-ring and the C13 quaternary stereocenter. Importantly, the synthesis further features a new efficient approach for the preparation of other lycopodine-type alkaloids. PMID:27529730

  3. Biomimetic Collective Total Synthesis of Bioactive Carbazole Alkaloids Indizoline, Mafaicheenamine A, Claulamine A, Claulansine A, and the Proposed Claulamine E.

    PubMed

    Markad, Shivaji B; Argade, Narshinha P

    2016-06-17

    The common precursor 1-methoxy-2-prenyl-3-carbomethoxycarbazole was synthesized from dimethyl indolylmethylenesuccinate in four steps. Well-planned reductive and/or oxidative transformations and intramolecular cyclizations were performed on a pivotal common precursor to accomplish collective first total synthesis of titled natural products and proposed claulamine E. Burgess reagent induced formation of kinetically controlled product claulamine A, and intramolecular cyclizations to form bicyclic claulansine A were the key reactions. An alternatively attempted synthesis failed to provide the structural isomer of proposed claulamine E. PMID:27227838

  4. Total synthesis and evaluation of iso-duocarmycin SA and iso-yatakemycin.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Karen S; Nguyen, Trinh; Nguyen, Trihn; Hwang, Inkyu; Boger, Dale L

    2009-01-28

    The total synthesis and evaluation of iso-duocarmycin SA (5) and iso-yatakemycin (6), representing key analogues of the corresponding natural products incorporating an isomeric alkylation subunit, are detailed. This pyrrole isomer of the natural alkylation subunit displayed an enhanced reaction regioselectivity and a 2-fold diminished stability. Although still exceptionally potent, the iso-duocarmycin SA derivatives and natural product analogues exhibited a corresponding approximate 3-5-fold reduction in cytotoxic activity [L1210 IC(50) for (+)-iso-duocarmycin SA = 50 pM and for (+)-iso-yatakemycin = 15 pM] consistent with their placement on a parabolic relationship correlating activity with reactivity. The DNA alkylation selectivity of the resulting key natural product analogues was unaltered by the structure modification in spite of the minor-groove presentation of a potential H-bond donor. Additionally, a unique ortho-spirocyclization with such derivatives was explored via the preparation, characterization, and evaluation of 34 that is incapable of the more conventional para-spirocyclization. Although 34 proved sufficiently stable for isolation and characterization, it displayed little stability in protic solvents (t(1/2) = 0.19 h at pH 3, t(1/2) = 0.20 h at pH 7), a pH-independent (H(+) independent) solvolysis rate profile at pH 3/4-7, and a much reduced cytotoxic potency, but a DNA alkylation selectivity and efficiency comparable to those of duocarmycin SA and iso-duocarmycin SA. The implications of these observations on the source of the DNA alkylation selectivity and catalysis for this class of natural products are discussed. PMID:19154178

  5. Total Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship Study of the Potent cAMP Signaling Agonist (-)-Alotaketal A

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinhua; Yang, Jessica R.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed account of the first total synthesis of alotaketal A, a tricyclic spiroketal sesterterpenoid that potently activates the cAMP signaling pathway, is provided. The synthesis employs both intra- and intermolecular reductive allylation of esters for assembling one of the fragments and their coupling. A Hg(OAc)2-mediated allylic mercuration is used to introduce the C22-hydroxyl group. The subtle influence of substituents over the course of the spiroketalization process is revealed. The synthesis confirms the relative and absolute stereochemistry of (-)-alotaketal A and allows verification of alotaketal A’s effect over cAMP signaling using reporter-based FRET imaging assays with HEK 293T cells. Our studies also revealed alotaketal A’s unique activity in selectively targeting nuclear PKA signaling in living cells. PMID:23584129

  6. Total Synthesis of Clavosolide A via Tandem Allylic Oxidation/Oxa-Conjugate Addition Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph B.; Kim, Hyoungsu; Hong, Jiyong

    2015-01-01

    The tandem allylic oxidation/oxa-conjugate addition reaction promoted by the gem-disubstituent effect in conjunction with the NHC-mediated oxidative esterification was explored for the facile synthesis of clavosolide A. PMID:26236051

  7. Predictive Bioinformatic Assignment of Methyl-Bearing Stereocenters, Total Synthesis, and an Additional Molecular Target of Ajudazol B.

    PubMed

    Essig, Sebastian; Schmalzbauer, Björn; Bretzke, Sebastian; Scherer, Olga; Koeberle, Andreas; Werz, Oliver; Müller, Rolf; Menche, Dirk

    2016-02-19

    Full details on the evaluation and application of an easily feasible and generally useful method for configurational assignments of isolated methyl-bearing stereocenters are reported. The analytical tool relies on a bioinformatic gene cluster analysis and utilizes a predictive enoylreductase alignment, and its feasibility was demonstrated by the full stereochemical determination of the ajudazols, highly potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Furthermore, a full account of our strategies and tactics that culminated in the total synthesis of ajudazol B, the most potent and least abundant of these structurally unique class of myxobacterial natural products, is presented. Key features include an application of an asymmetric ortholithiation strategy for synthesis of the characteristic anti-configured hydroxyisochromanone core bearing three contiguous stereocenters, a modular oxazole formation, a flexible cross-metathesis approach for terminal allyl amide synthesis, and a late-stage Z,Z-selective Suzuki coupling. This total synthesis unambiguously proves the correct stereochemistry, which was further corroborated by comparison with reisolated natural material. Finally, 5-lipoxygenase was discovered as an additional molecular target of ajudazol B. Activities against this clinically validated key enzyme of the biosynthesis of proinflammatory leukotrienes were in the range of the approved drug zileuton, which further underlines the biological importance of this unique natural product. PMID:26796481

  8. Concise Care Bundles In Acute Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kivlin, Jude; Altemimi, Harith

    2015-01-01

    The Queen Elizabeth Hospital in King's Lynn, Norfolk is a 488 bed hospital providing services to approximately 331,000 people across 750 square miles. In 2012 a need was recognised for documentation (pathways) in a practical format to increase usage of national guidelines and facilitate adherence to best practice (gold standards of care) that could be easily version controlled, auditable and provide support in clinical decision-making by junior doctors. BMJ Action Sets[1] fulfilled the brief with expert knowledge, version control and support, though they were deemed too lengthy and unworkable in fast paced settings like the medical assessment unit; they formed the base creation of concise care bundles (CCB). CCB were introduced for 21 clinical presentations and one procedure. Outcomes were fully audited and showed significant improvement in a range of measures, including an increase in completions of CHADVASC score in atrial fibrillation, antibiotics prescribed per protocol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and Blatchford score recorded for patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleed. PMID:26734437

  9. Concise theory of chiral lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Z. C.; Seifert, U.

    2007-09-01

    A theory of chiral lipid membranes is proposed on the basis of a concise free energy density which includes the contributions of the bending and the surface tension of membranes, as well as the chirality and orientational variation of tilting molecules. This theory is consistent with the previous experiments [J.M. Schnur , Science 264, 945 (1994); M.S. Spector , Langmuir 14, 3493 (1998); Y. Zhao, , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7438 (2005)] on self-assembled chiral lipid membranes of DC8,9PC . A torus with the ratio between its two generated radii larger than 2 is predicted from the Euler-Lagrange equations. It is found that tubules with helically modulated tilting state are not admitted by the Euler-Lagrange equations and that they are less energetically favorable than helical ripples in tubules. The pitch angles of helical ripples are theoretically estimated to be about 0° and 35°, which are close to the most frequent values 5° and 28° observed in the experiment [N. Mahajan , Langmuir 22, 1973 (2006)]. Additionally, the present theory can explain twisted ribbons of achiral cationic amphiphiles interacting with chiral tartrate counterions. The ratio between the width and pitch of twisted ribbons is predicted to be proportional to the relative concentration difference of left- and right-handed enantiomers in the low relative concentration difference region, which is in good agreement with the experiment [R. Oda , Nature (London) 399, 566 (1999)].

  10. [3,3]-Sigmatropic rearrangements: recent applications in the total synthesis of natural products†

    PubMed Central

    Ilardi, Elizabeth A.; Stivala, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    Among the fundamental chemical transformations in organic synthesis, the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement occupies a unique position as a powerful, reliable, and well-defined method for the stereoselective construction of carbon–carbon or carbon–heteroatom bonds. While many other reactions can unite two subunits and create a new bond, the strengths of sigmatropic rearrangements derive from their ability to enable structural reorganization with unmatched build-up of complexity. Recent applications that illustrate [3,3]-sigmatropic processes as a key concept in the synthesis of complex natural products are described in this tutorial review, covering literature from about 2001 through early 2009. PMID:19847347

  11. Short Route to the Total Synthesis of Natural Muricadienin and Investigation of Its Cytotoxic Properties.

    PubMed

    Dzhemilev, Usein M; D'yakonov, Vladimir A; Tuktarova, Regina A; Dzhemileva, Lilya U; Ishmukhametova, Svetlana R; Yunusbaeva, Milyausha M; de Meijere, Armin

    2016-08-26

    An original synthesis of the acetogenin muricadienin, the bioprecursor of solamin, has been developed. The key step in the five-step 41% overall yield synthesis is the catalytic cross-cyclomagnesiation reaction of functionally substituted 1,2-dienes with EtMgBr in the presence of Cp2TiCl2 and magnesium metal. It has been demonstrated for the first time that muricadienin exhibits a moderate in vitro inhibitory activity against topoisomerases I and IIα, key cell cycle enzymes. Using flow cytometry, muricadienin was shown to have high cytotoxicity toward the HEK293 kidney cancer cells (IC50 0.39 μM). PMID:27533261

  12. Concise synthesis of ether analogues of lysobisphosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guowei; Xu, Yong; Falguières, Thomas; Gruenberg, Jean; Prestwich, Glenn D

    2005-09-01

    We describe a versatile, efficient method for the preparation of ether analogues of (S,S)-lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) and its enantiomer from (S)-solketal. Phosphorylation of a protected sn-2-O-octadecenyl glyceryl ether with 2-cyanoethyl bis-N,N-diisopropylamino phosphine and subsequent deprotection generated the bisether LBPA analogues. By simply changing the sequence of deprotection steps, we obtained the (R,R)- and (S,S)-enantiomers of 2,2'-bisether LBPA. An ELISA assay with anti-LBPA monoclonal antibodies showed that the bisether LBPAs were recognized with the same affinity as the natural 2,2'-bisoleolyl LBPA. [reaction: see text] PMID:16119911

  13. Total Synthesis of Linckosides A and B, the Representative Starfish Polyhydroxysteroid Glycosides with Neuritogenic Activities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dapeng; Yu, Biao

    2015-12-01

    Linckosides A and B, two starfish metabolites with promising neuritogenic activities, are synthesized in a longest linear sequence of 32 steps and 0.5% overall yield; this represents the first synthesis of members of the polyhydroxysteroid glycoside family, which occur widely in starfishes. PMID:26595819

  14. Total synthesis of desoxycyclomarin C and the cyclomarazines A and B.

    PubMed

    Barbie, Philipp; Kazmaier, Uli

    2016-07-01

    Removing the β-hydroxy group from the prenylated tryptophan moiety of cyclomarins simplifies the synthesis of these interesting natural products significantly, without having a noteworthy effect on the anti-tuberculosis activity of the cyclomarins. In contrast, cyclomarazines did not show biological activity. PMID:27241664

  15. Total Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship of Glycoglycerolipids from Marine Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Chunxia; Yu, Guangli; Guan, Huashi

    2014-01-01

    Glycoglycerolipids occur widely in natural products, especially in the marine species. Glycoglycerolipids have been shown to possess a variety of bioactivities. This paper will review the different methodologies and strategies for the synthesis of biological glycoglycerolipids and their analogs for bioactivity assay. In addition, the bioactivities and structure-activity relationship of the glycoglycerolipids are also briefly outlined. PMID:24945415

  16. Microwave assisted total synthesis of a benzothiophene-based new chemical entity (NCE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pharmaceutical scientists are required to generate diverse arrays of complex targets in short span of time, which can now be achieved by microwave-assisted organic synthesis. New chemical entities (NCE) can be built in a fraction of the time using this technique. However, there a...

  17. Total synthesis and complete structural assignment of gambieric acid A, a large polycyclic ether marine natural product.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Makoto; Fuwa, Haruhiko

    2014-08-01

    More than thirty years after the discovery of polycyclic ether marine natural products, they continue to receive intense attention from the chemical, biological, and pharmacological communities because of their potent biological activities and highly complex molecular architectures. Gambieric acids are intriguing polycyclic ethers that exhibit potent antifungal activity with minimal toxicity against mammals. Despite the recent advances in the synthesis of this class of natural products, gambieric acids remain unconquered due to their daunting structural complexity, which poses a formidable synthetic challenge to organic chemists. This paper reviews our long-term studies on the total synthesis, complete configurational reassignment, and structure-activity relationships of gambieric acid A over the last decade. PMID:25092231

  18. Generating a Generation of Proteasome Inhibitors: From Microbial Fermentation to Total Synthesis of Salinosporamide A (Marizomib) and Other Salinosporamides

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Barbara C.; Lam, Kin S.

    2010-01-01

    The salinosporamides are potent proteasome inhibitors among which the parent marine-derived natural product salinosporamide A (marizomib; NPI-0052; 1) is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of various cancers. Methods to generate this class of compounds include fermentation and natural products chemistry, precursor-directed biosynthesis, mutasynthesis, semi-synthesis, and total synthesis. The end products range from biochemical tools for probing mechanism of action to clinical trials materials; in turn, the considerable efforts to produce the target molecules have expanded the technologies used to generate them. Here, the full complement of methods is reviewed, reflecting remarkable contributions from scientists of various disciplines over a period of 7 years since the first publication of the structure of 1. PMID:20479958

  19. Total synthesis, stereochemical assignment, and biological activity of chamuvarinin and structural analogues.

    PubMed

    Florence, Gordon J; Morris, Joanne C; Murray, Ross G; Vanga, Raghava R; Osler, Jonathan D; Smith, Terry K

    2013-06-17

    A highly stereocontrolled synthesis of (+)-chamuvarinin has been completed in 1.5% overall yield over 20 steps. The key fragment coupling reactions were the addition of alkyne 8 to aldehyde 7 (under Felkin-Anh control), followed by the two step activation/cyclization to close the C20-C23 2,5-cis-substituted tetrahydrofuran ring and a Julia-Kocienski olefination at C8-C9 to introduce the terminal butenolide. The inherent flexibility of our coupling strategy led to a streamlined synthesis with 17 steps in the longest sequence (2.2% overall yield), in which the key bond couplings are reversed. In addition, a series of structural analogues of chamuvarinin have been prepared and screened for activity against HeLa cancer cell lines and both the bloodstream and insect forms of Trypanosoma brucei, the parasitic agent responsible for African sleeping sickness. PMID:23630031

  20. The total synthesis of (+)-tedanolide--A macrocyclic polyketide from marine sponge Tedania ignis.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Gunnar; Hassfeld, Jorma; Eggert, Ulrike; Kalesse, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Tedanolide, which was isolated by Schmitz in 1984 from the marine sponge Tedania ignis, is a highly cytotoxic macrolide leading to strong growth inhibition of P338 tumor cells in bioassays. A unique structural feature of the known tedanolides is the primary hydroxyl group incorporated in the macrolactone. This unusual motif for macrolactones originated from PKS biosynthesis might arise through lactonizations others than those derived by the thioesterase reaction. First experimental data that support this hypothesis and reflect the inherent preference of PKS-induced macrolactonization were obtained during this synthesis. The inherent preference for the formation of a 14-membered macrocyclization is discussed together with the pivotal steps in the synthesis. PMID:18165955

  1. Trends in applying C-H oxidation to the total synthesis of natural products.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yuanyou; Gao, Shuanhu

    2016-04-30

    Covering: 2006 to 2015C-H functionalization remains one of the frontier challenges in organic chemistry and drives quite an active area of research. It has recently been applied in various novel strategies for the synthesis of natural products. It can dramatically increase synthetic efficiency when incorporated into retrosynthetic analyses of complex natural products, making it an essential part of current trends in organic synthesis. In this Review, we focus on selected case studies of recent applications of C-H oxidation methodologies in which the C-H bond has been exploited effectively to construct C-O and C-N bonds in natural product syntheses. Examples of syntheses representing different types of C-H oxidation are discussed to illustrate the potential of this approach and inspire future applications. PMID:26847167

  2. Synthesis of Polycyclic Natural Products

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan Hoang Nguyen

    2003-05-31

    With the continuous advancements in molecular biology and modern medicine, organic synthesis has become vital to the support and extension of those discoveries. The isolations of new natural products allow for the understanding of their biological activities and therapeutic value. Organic synthesis is employed to aid in the determination of the relationship between structure and function of these natural products. The development of synthetic methodologies in the course of total syntheses is imperative for the expansion of this highly interdisciplinary field of science. In addition to the practical applications of total syntheses, the structural complexity of natural products represents a worthwhile challenge in itself. The pursuit of concise and efficient syntheses of complex molecules is both gratifying and enjoyable.

  3. Total Synthesis of the Aristolochic Acids, Their Major Metabolites, and Related Compounds

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Plants from the Aristolochia genus have been recommended for the treatment of a variety of human ailments since the time of Hippocrates. However, many species produce the highly toxic aristolochic acids (AAs), which are both nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. For the purposes of extensive biological studies, a versatile approach to the synthesis of the AAs and their major metabolites was devised based primarily on a Suzuki–Miyaura coupling reaction. The key to success lies in the preparation of a common ring-A precursor, namely, the tetrahydropyranyl ether of 2-nitromethyl-3-iodo-4,5-methylendioxybenzyl alcohol (27), which was generated in excellent yield by oxidation of the aldoxime precursor 26. Suzuki–Miyaura coupling of 27 with a variety of benzaldehyde 2-boronates was accompanied by an aldol condensation/elimination reaction to give the desired phenanthrene intermediate directly. Deprotection of the benzyl alcohol followed by two sequential oxidation steps gave the desired phenanthrene nitrocarboxylic acids. This approach was used to synthesize AAs I–IV and several other related compounds, including AA I and AA II bearing an aminopropyloxy group at position-6, which were required for further conversion to fluorescent biological probes. Further successful application of the Suzuki–Miyaura coupling reaction to the synthesis of the N-hydroxyaristolactams of AA I and AA II then allowed the synthesis of the putative, but until now elusive, N-acetoxy- and N-sulfonyloxy-aristolactam metabolites. PMID:24877584

  4. Biogenetically Inspired Synthesis of Lingzhiol.

    PubMed

    Sharmah Gautam, Krishna; Birman, Vladimir B

    2016-04-01

    A concise stereo- and enantioselective synthesis of lingzhiol has been achieved featuring a biogenetically inspired Brønsted acid catalyzed semipinacol rearrangement of a glycidyl alcohol intermediate. PMID:26974229

  5. Total Synthesis of K777: Successful Application of Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Alkyne Hydrothiolation toward the Modular Synthesis of a Potent Cysteine Protease Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kiemele, Erica R; Wathier, Matthew; Bichler, Paul; Love, Jennifer A

    2016-02-01

    We report the total synthesis of K777 and a series of analogues via alkyne hydrothiolation catalyzed by Wilkinson's complex (ClRh(PPh3)3). The alkyne hydrothiolation reactions proceeded with excellent regio- and diastereoselectivity to generate the desired E-linear vinyl sulfides in high yield. The use of Ellman's auxiliary generates the requisite propargyl amines in excellent enantiomeric excess (ee) and obviates the use of L-homophenylalanine, an expensive unnatural amino acid. The vinyl sulfone derivatives exhibit a large difference in rate toward Michael addition. Kinetic data are consistent with rate-limiting nucleophilic attack to generate the carbanion intermediate. PMID:26811991

  6. Palladium-Catalyzed Decarbonylative Dehydration for the Synthesis of α-Vinyl Carbonyl Compounds and Total Synthesis of (-)-Aspewentins A, B, and C.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiyang; Virgil, Scott C; Grubbs, Robert H; Stoltz, Brian M

    2015-09-28

    The direct α-vinylation of carbonyl compounds to form a quaternary stereocenter is a challenging transformation. It was discovered that δ-oxocarboxylic acids can serve as masked vinyl compounds and be unveiled by palladium-catalyzed decarbonylative dehydration. The carboxylic acids are readily available through enantioselective acrylate addition or asymmetric allylic alkylation. A variety of α-vinyl quaternary carbonyl compounds are obtained in good yields, and an application in the first enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-aspewentins A, B, and C is demonstrated. PMID:26230413

  7. General Approach to the Total Synthesis of 9-Methoxy Substituted Indole Alkaloids: Synthesis of Mitragynine, as well as 9-Methoxygeissoschizol and 9-Methoxy-Nb-methylgeissoschizol

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Yin, Wenyuan; Zhou, Hao; Liao, Xuebin; Cook, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Herein the full details of the synthesis of the 9-methoxy-substituted Corynanthe indole alkaloids mitragynine (1), 9-methoxygeissoschizol (3) and 9-methoxy-Nb-methylgeissoschizol (4) are described. Initially an efficient synthetic route to the optically active 4-methoxytryptophan ethyl ester 20 on a multigram scale was developed via a Mori-Ban-Hegedus indole synthesis. The ethyl ester of (D)-4-methoxytryptophan 20 was obtained with a radical-mediated regioselective bromination of indoline 12 serving as a key step. Alternatively, the key 4-methoxytryptophan intermediate 22 could be synthesized by the Larock heteroannulation of aryl iodide 10b with the internal alkyne 21a. The use of the Boc protected aniline 10b was crucial to the success of this heteroannulation. The α,β-unsaturated ester 6 was synthesized via the Pictet-Spengler reaction as the pivotal step. This was followed by a Ni(COD)2 mediated cyclization to set up the stereocenter at C-15. The benzyloxy group in 31 was removed to provide the intermediate ester 5. This chiral tetracyclic ester 5 was employed to accomplish the first total synthesis of 9-methoxygeissoschizol (3) and 9-methoxy-Nb-methylgeisso-schizol (4) as well as the opioid agonistic indole alkaloid mitragynine (1). PMID:19046119

  8. Total Synthesis of Plakilactones C, B and des-Hydroxyplakilactone B by the Oxidative Cleavage of Gracilioether Furanylidenes.

    PubMed

    Norris, Matthew D; Perkins, Michael V

    2016-08-01

    A chemoselective oxidative cleavage of synthetic gracilioether B, 11-epi-gracilioether C benzoate, and des-hydroxygracilioether C with pyridinium chlorochromate, which proceeds with loss of the furanyl acetate, has enabled total synthesis and stereochemical elucidation of the marine sponge metabolites (4R,6R)-plakilactone C, (4R,6R,9R)-plakilactone B, and (4R,6R)-des-hydroxyplakilactone B. des-Hydroxygracilioether C, the putative biosynthetic precursor to hippolachnin A, was also found to undergo a facile ene cyclization on treatment with SnCl4. PMID:27359169

  9. Total Synthesis of the Resveratrol Oligomers (±)‐Ampelopsin B and (±)‐ϵ‐Viniferin

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Anders E. G.; Öberg, Christopher T.; Hillgren, J. Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The total synthesis of the resveratrol dimers (±)‐ampelopsin B and (±)‐ϵ‐viniferin is reported. Highlights of the approach include the use of cyclopropylmethyl groups to protect aromatic alcohols. This group allows an acid promoted three‐step, one‐pot deprotection–epimerization–cyclization of an advanced intermediate to give (±)‐ampelopsin B. An important advantage with our strategy is the possibility of synthesizing analogs to these natural products to further study the chemistry and biology of resveratrol oligomers.

  10. Tanjungides A and B: New Antitumoral Bromoindole Derived Compounds from Diazona cf formosa. Isolation and Total Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Murcia, Carmen; Coello, Laura; Fernández, Rogelio; Martín, María Jesús; Reyes, Fernando; Francesch, Andrés; Munt, Simon; Cuevas, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Tanjungides A (1) (Z isomer) and B (2) (E isomer), two novel dibrominated indole enamides, have been isolated from the tunicate Diazona cf formosa. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including HRMS, and extensive 1D and 2D NMR. The stereochemistry of the cyclised cystine present in both compounds was determined by Marfey’s analysis after chemical degradation and hydrolysis. We also report the first total synthesis of these compounds using methyl 1H-indole-3-carboxylate as starting material and a linear sequence of 11 chemical steps. Tanjungides A and B exhibit significant cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines. PMID:24566261

  11. Diastereodivergent Reverse Prenylation of Indole and Tryptophan Derivatives: Total Synthesis of Amauromine, Novoamauromine, and epi-Amauromine.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jonas M; Stark, Christian B W

    2016-04-01

    A regio- and stereoselective reverse prenylation of indole and tryptophan derivatives is presented. All four possible stereoisomers are accessible through this iridium-catalyzed reaction. The stereoselectivity is controlled by a chiral phosphoramidite ligand in combination with an achiral borane additive and can be switched by changing the nature of the borane. One enantiomer of the ligand is thus sufficient to prepare all possible isomers. The synthetic potential of this method was demonstrated by a short total synthesis of amauromine and its two natural diastereomers. PMID:26969898

  12. Studies toward the Total Synthesis of Dihydrolycolucine. Preparation of AB and CEF Ring Fragments

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A strategy for the synthesis of the lycopodium alkaloid dihydrolycolucine (1) has been investigated. Synthetic routes were developed based on N-acylpyridinium salt chemistry to prepare target fragments 3 and 4 that could ultimately converge to the natural product. Key reactions include IMDA cycloadditions and retro-Mannich ring-openings to form both the AB and the EF ring fragments. The ring C precursor was prepared using pyridine substitution and directed lithiation chemistry. A Suzuki cross-coupling of rings C and EF led to the CEF ring fragment. Initial attempts at closure of the seven-membered D ring were unsuccessful. PMID:24841361

  13. Total synthesis of tetraacylated phosphatidylinositol hexamannoside and evaluation of its immunomodulatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Pratap S.; Cheng, Ting-Jen Rachel; Zulueta, Medel Manuel L.; Yang, Shih-Ting; Lico, Larry S.; Hung, Shang-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis, aggravated by drug-resistant strains and HIV co-infection of the causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a global problem that affects millions of people. With essential immunoregulatory roles, phosphatidylinositol mannosides are among the cell-envelope components critical to the pathogenesis and survival of M. tuberculosis inside its host. Here we report the first synthesis of the highly complex tetraacylated phosphatidylinositol hexamannoside (Ac2PIM6), having stearic and tuberculostearic acids as lipid components. Our effort makes use of stereoelectronic and steric effects to control the regioselective and stereoselective outcomes and minimize the synthetic steps, particularly in the key desymmetrization and functionalization of myo-inositol. A short synthesis of tuberculostearic acid in six steps from the Roche ester is also described. Mice exposed to the synthesized Ac2PIM6 exhibit increased production of interleukin-4 and interferon-γ, and the corresponding adjuvant effect is shown by the induction of ovalbumin- and tetanus toxoid-specific antibodies. PMID:26037164

  14. Enantioselective Approach to Quinolizidines: Total Synthesis of Cermizine D and Formal Syntheses of Senepodine G & Cermizine C

    PubMed Central

    Veerasamy, Nagarathanam; Carlson, Erik C.; Collett, Nathan D.; Saha, Mrinmoy

    2013-01-01

    The formal total syntheses of C5-epi-senepodine G and C5-epi-cermizine C have been accomplished through a novel diastereoselecetive, intramolecular amide Michael addition process. The total synthesis of cermizine D has been achieved through use of an organocatalyzed, heteroatom Michael addition to access a common intermediate. Additional key steps of this sequence include a matched, diastereoselective alkylation with an iodomethylphenyl sulfide and sulfone-aldehyde coupling/reductive desulfurization sequence to combine the major subunits. The utility of a Hartwig-style C-N coupling has been explored on functionally dense coupling partners. Diastereoselective conjugate additions to α,β-unsaturated sulfones has been investigated which provided the key sulfone intermediate in just six steps from commercially available starting materials. The formal syntheses of senepodine G and cermizine C have been accomplished through an intramolecular cyclization process of a N-Boc protected piperidine sulfone. PMID:23627426

  15. Total synthesis of marinomycin A using salicylate as a molecular switch to mediate dimerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, P. Andrew; Huang, Mu-Hua; Lawler, Michael J.; Maroto, Sergio

    2012-08-01

    Antibiotics play a significant role in human health because of their ability to treat life-threatening bacterial infections. The growing problems with antibiotic resistance have made the development of new antibiotics a World Health Organization priority. Marinomycin A is a member of a new class of bis-salicylate-containing polyene macrodiolides, which have potent antibiotic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Herein, we describe a triply convergent synthesis of this agent using the salicylate as a novel molecular switch for the chemoselective construction of the macrodiolide. This strategy raises new questions regarding the biosynthetic role of the salicylate and its potential impact on the mechanism of action of these types of agents. For instance, in contrast to penicillin, which enhances the electrophilicity of the cyclic amide through ring strain, salicylates reduce the electrophilicity of the aryl ester through an intramolecular resonance-assisted hydrogen bond to provide an amide surrogate.

  16. A novel and practical asymmetric synthesis of dapoxetine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yijun; Liu, Zhenren; Li, Hongyan; Ye, Deyong; Zhou, Weicheng

    2015-01-01

    A novel and practical asymmetric synthesis of dapoxetine hydrochloride by using the chiral auxiliary (S)-tert-butanesulfinamide was explored. The synthesis was concise, mild, and easy to perform. The overall yield and stereoselectivity were excellent. PMID:26734109

  17. A novel and practical asymmetric synthesis of dapoxetine hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yijun; Liu, Zhenren; Li, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Summary A novel and practical asymmetric synthesis of dapoxetine hydrochloride by using the chiral auxiliary (S)-tert-butanesulfinamide was explored. The synthesis was concise, mild, and easy to perform. The overall yield and stereoselectivity were excellent. PMID:26734109

  18. Total synthesis of proanthocyanidin A1, A2, and their stereoisomers.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pradeep K; Romanczyk, Leo J; Kondaveti, Leelakrishna; Reddy, Bollu; Arumugasamy, Jeeva; Lombardy, Richard; Gou, Yanni; Schroeter, Hagen

    2015-05-15

    The first novel stereoselective synthesis of naturally occurring A1 (1) and A2 proanthocyanidins (2) has been achieved. The key synthetic steps involved (a) the formation of a coupled product (13 or 14) between an open chain C-ring C-4 hydroxyethoxy analogue of either (+)-catechin or (-)-epicatechin with 5,7,3',3'-tetra-O-benzyl-(+)-catechin/-(-)-epicatechin in the presence of bentonite clay K-10, (b) removal of benzyl protecting groups under mild catalytic hydrogenation conditions to form the desired A-type compound in situ as a mixture of diastereomers via ketal/oxonium ion/carbonium ion formation, and (c) separation of the diasteromers via silica gel column chromatography. The structures of A1 and A2 proanthocyanidins were unequivocally established by analytical comparison to the natural products. Following this methodology, an additional six diastereomers of proanthocyanidins A1 and A2 have been synthesized. A plausible mechanism for the formation of the A-type linkage in proanthocyanidins has been proposed. PMID:25927567

  19. Total synthesis of the large non-ribosomal peptide polytheonamide B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masayuki; Shinohara, Naoki; Tanabe, Shintaro; Takahashi, Tomoaki; Okura, Ken; Itoh, Hiroaki; Mizoguchi, Yuki; Iida, Maiko; Lee, Nayoung; Matsuoka, Shigeru

    2010-04-01

    Polytheonamide B is by far the largest non-ribosomal peptide known at present, and displays extraordinary cytotoxicity (EC50 = 68 pg ml-1, mouse leukaemia P388 cells). Its 48 amino-acid residues include a variety of non-proteinogenic D- and L-amino acids, and the absolute stereochemistry of these amino acids alternate in sequence. These structural features induce the formation of a stable β-strand-type structure, giving rise to an overall tubular structure over 30 Å in length. In a biological setting, this fold is believed to transport cations across the lipid bilayer through a pore, thereby acting as an ion channel. Here, we report the first chemical construction of polytheonamide B. Our synthesis relies on the combination of four key stages: syntheses of non-proteinogenic amino acids, a solid-phase assembly of four fragments of polytheonamide B, silver-mediated connection of the fragments and, finally, global deprotection. The synthetic material now available will allow studies of the relationships between its conformational properties, channel functions and cytotoxicity.

  20. Sol-gel auto-combustion synthesis of totally immiscible NiAg alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yuwen; Yang, Shaoguang; Hua, Zhenghe; Gong, Jiangfeng; Zhao, Xiaoning

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemically synthesized immiscible NiAg alloy nanoparticles without protecting matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A chemical method providing both a nonequilibrium thermal process and a good mixing of precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Observation of extinction planes in NiAg alloy. -- Abstract: Immiscible crystalline NiAg alloy was successfully synthesized by the newly developed sol-gel auto-combustion method. The structure and composition were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). All evidence supports that homogeneous NiAg alloy with FCC structure was synthesized. The differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry (DTA-TG) measurement shows that the alloy has a good thermal stability until 315 Degree-Sign C. Unusually some extinction planes are observed in the XRD pattern and HRTEM images. The random distribution of atoms and the large difference between Ni and Ag atom form factors should be regarded as the main reasons for the observation of the extinction planes. The quenching like nonequilibrium thermal process in the combustion is taken as the key factor in the synthesis of immiscible alloy. And the addition of ethylene glycol in the precursors is found to benefit the formation of NiAg alloy.

  1. Total synthesis of asperlicin C, circumdatin F, demethylbenzomalvin A, demethoxycircumdatin H, sclerotigenin, and other fused quinazolinones.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ming-Chung; Yang, Huei-Yun; Chu, Yen-Ho

    2010-01-21

    Using scandium triflate and microwaves, the direct double dehydrocyclization of anthranilate-containing tripeptides was achieved, affording the total syntheses of (i) quinazolino[3,2-a]benzodiazepinediones (), (ii) diazepino[2,1-b]quinazolinediones (), and (iii) pyrazino[2,1-b]quinazolinediones () with good overall isolated yields (23-43%, 37-47% and 31-56%, respectively). Among the quinazolino[3,2-a]benzodiazepinediones synthesized, (sclerotigenin), (circumdatin F), and (asperlicin C) are natural products. PMID:20066279

  2. Total Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of (+)- and (–)-Bisanthraquinone Antibiotic BE-43472B and Related Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Becker, Jochen; Lim, Yee Hwee; Lemire, Alexandre; Neubauer, Thomas; Montero, Ana

    2009-01-01

    The bisanthraquinone antibiotic BE-43472B [(+)-1] was isolated by Rowley and coworkers from a streptomycete strain found in a green algae associated with the ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata and has shown promising antibacterial activity against clinically derived isolates of methicillin-susceptible, methicillin-resistant, and tetracyclin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, MRSA, and TRSA, respectively), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE). Described herein is the first total synthesis of both enantiomers of this bisanthraquinone antibiotic, the determination of its absolute configuration, as well as the biological evaluation of these and related compounds. The developed synthesis relies on a highly efficient cascade sequence involving an intermolecular Diels–Alder reaction between diene (R)-61 and dienophile 55 followed by an intramolecular nucleophilic aromatic ipso substitution. Late stage transformations included a remarkable photochemical α,β-epoxyketone rearrangement [80 → (+)-1]. Interestingly, the unnatural enantiomer [(–)-1] of antibiotic BE-43472B exhibited comparable antibacterial properties to those of the natural enantiomer [(+)-1]. PMID:19778008

  3. Efficient Total Chemical Synthesis of (13) C=(18) O Isotopomers of Human Insulin for Isotope-Edited FTIR.

    PubMed

    Dhayalan, Balamurugan; Fitzpatrick, Ann; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Whittaker, Jonathan; Weiss, Michael A; Tokmakoff, Andrei; Kent, Stephen B H

    2016-03-01

    Isotope-edited two-dimensional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (2 D FTIR) can potentially provide a unique probe of protein structure and dynamics. However, general methods for the site-specific incorporation of stable (13) C=(18) O labels into the polypeptide backbone of the protein molecule have not yet been established. Here we describe, as a prototype for the incorporation of specific arrays of isotope labels, the total chemical synthesis-via a key ester insulin intermediate-of 97 % enriched [(1-(13) C=(18) O)Phe(B24) ] human insulin: stable-isotope labeled at a single backbone amide carbonyl. The amino acid sequence as well as the positions of the disulfide bonds and the correctly folded structure were unambiguously confirmed by the X-ray crystal structure of the synthetic protein molecule. In vitro assays of the isotope labeled [(1-(13) C=(18) O)Phe(B24) ] human insulin showed that it had full insulin receptor binding activity. Linear and 2 D IR spectra revealed a distinct red-shifted amide I carbonyl band peak at 1595 cm(-1) resulting from the (1-(13) C=(18) O)Phe(B24) backbone label. This work illustrates the utility of chemical synthesis to enable the application of advanced physical methods for the elucidation of the molecular basis of protein function. PMID:26715336

  4. Isolation and Total Synthesis of Stolonines A-C, Unique Taurine Amides from the Australian Marine Tunicate Cnemidocarpa stolonifera.

    PubMed

    Tran, Trong D; Pham, Ngoc B; Ekins, Merrick; Hooper, John N A; Quinn, Ronald J

    2015-07-01

    Cnemidocarpa stolonifera is an underexplored marine tunicate that only occurs on the tropical to subtropical East Coast of Australia, with only two pyridoacridine compounds reported previously. Qualitative analysis of the lead-like enhanced fractions of C. stolonifera by LC-MS dual electrospray ionization coupled with PDA and ELSD detectors led to the identification of three new natural products, stolonines A-C (1-3), belonging to the taurine amide structure class. Structures of the new compounds were determined by NMR and MS analyses and later verified by total synthesis. This is the first time that the conjugates of taurine with 3-indoleglyoxylic acid, quinoline-2-carboxylic acid and β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid present in stolonines A-C (1-3), respectively, have been reported. An immunofluorescence assay on PC3 cells indicated that compounds 1 and 3 increased cell size, induced mitochondrial texture elongation, and caused apoptosis in PC3 cells. PMID:26204949

  5. Quasi-Racemic X-ray Structures of K27-Linked Ubiquitin Chains Prepared by Total Chemical Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Man; Gao, Shuai; Zheng, Yong; Tan, Xiaodan; Lan, Huan; Tan, Xianglong; Sun, Demeng; Lu, Lining; Wang, Tian; Zheng, Qingyun; Huang, Yichao; Wang, Jiawei; Liu, Lei

    2016-06-15

    Quasi-racemic crystallography has been used to determine the X-ray structures of K27-linked ubiquitin (Ub) chains prepared through total chemical synthesis. Crystal structures of K27-linked di- and tri-ubiquitins reveal that the isopeptide linkages are confined in a unique buried conformation, which provides the molecular basis for the distinctive function of K27 linkage compared to the other seven Ub chains. K27-linked di- and triUb were found to adopt different structural conformations in the crystals, one being symmetric whereas the other triangular. Furthermore, bioactivity experiments showed that the ovarian tumor family de-ubiquitinase 2 significantly favors K27-linked triUb than K27-linked diUb. K27-linked triUb represents the so-far largest chemically synthesized protein (228 amino acids) that has been crystallized to afford a high-resolution X-ray structure. PMID:27268299

  6. The cobalt way to angucyclinones: asymmetric total synthesis of the antibiotics (+)-rubiginone B2, (-)-tetrangomycin, and (-)-8-O-methyltetrangomycin.

    PubMed

    Kesenheimer, Christian; Kalogerakis, Aris; Meissner, Anja; Groth, Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    A cobalt(I)-mediated convergent and asymmetric total synthesis of angucyclinones with an aromatic B ring has been developed. In the course of our research, we synthesized three naturally occurring anguclinone derivatives, namely, (+)-rubiginone B(2) (1), (-)-8-O-methyltetrangomycin (2), and (-)-tetrangomycin (3). By combining 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3-methoxybenzoic acid, citronellal, and geraniol as starting materials in a convergent way, we were able to synthesize chiral triyne chains, which were cyclized with [CpCo(C(2)H(4))(2)] (Cp=cyclopentadienyl) by means of an intramolecular [2+2+2] cycloaddition to their corresponding tetrahydrobenzo[a]anthracenes. Successive oxidation and deprotection steps led to the above-mentioned natural products 1-3. PMID:20575121

  7. D-Glucosamine-Derived Synthons for Assembly of L-threo-Sphingoid Bases. Total Synthesis of Rhizochalinin C

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Jaeyoung; Molinski, Tadeusz F.

    2012-01-01

    A five-step transformation of D-glucosamine – commencing with indium-mediated Barbier reaction, without isolation of intermediates – into (R,R)-2-aminohex-5-en-1,3-diol is described. The latter is a useful synthon for assembly of L-threo-sphingoid bases; long-chain aminoalkanols and aminoalkanediols with configurations antipodal to that found in mammalian D-erythro-sphingosine, but prevalent among invertebrate-derived sphingolipids. The utility of the method is demonstated by the first total synthesis of rhizochalinin C, the long-chain, ‘two-headed’ sphingoid base aglycone of the natural product rhizochalin C from the marine sponge Rhizochalina incrustata. PMID:23227909

  8. Isolation and Total Synthesis of Stolonines A–C, Unique Taurine Amides from the Australian Marine Tunicate Cnemidocarpa stolonifera

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Trong D.; Pham, Ngoc B.; Ekins, Merrick; Hooper, John N. A.; Quinn, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Cnemidocarpa stolonifera is an underexplored marine tunicate that only occurs on the tropical to subtropical East Coast of Australia, with only two pyridoacridine compounds reported previously. Qualitative analysis of the lead-like enhanced fractions of C. stolonifera by LC-MS dual electrospray ionization coupled with PDA and ELSD detectors led to the identification of three new natural products, stolonines A–C (1–3), belonging to the taurine amide structure class. Structures of the new compounds were determined by NMR and MS analyses and later verified by total synthesis. This is the first time that the conjugates of taurine with 3-indoleglyoxylic acid, quinoline-2-carboxylic acid and β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid present in stolonines A–C (1–3), respectively, have been reported. An immunofluorescence assay on PC3 cells indicated that compounds 1 and 3 increased cell size, induced mitochondrial texture elongation, and caused apoptosis in PC3 cells. PMID:26204949

  9. Total Synthesis of the Spirocyclic Imine Marine Toxin (−)-Gymnodimine and an Unnatural C4-Epimer

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ke; Moussa, Ziad; Lee, Changsuk

    2011-01-01

    The first total synthesis of the marine toxin (−)-gymnodimine (1) has been accomplished in a convergent manner. A highly diastereo- and enantioselective exo-Diels–Alder reaction catalyzed by a bis-oxazoline Cu(II) catalyst enabled rapid assembly of the spirocyclic core of gymnodimine. The preparation of the tetrahydrofuran fragment utilized a chiral auxiliary based anti-aldol reaction. Two major fragments, spirolactam 56 and tetrahydrofuran 55, were then coupled through an efficient Nozaki–Hiyama–Kishi reaction. An unconventional, ambient temperature t-BuLi-initiated intramolecular Barbier reaction of alkyl iodide 64 was employed to form the macrocycle. A late stage vinylogous Mukaiyama aldol addition of a silyloxyfuran to a complex cyclohexanone 83 appended the butenolide and a few additional steps provided (−)-gymnodimine (1). A diastereomer of the natural product was also synthesized, C4-epi-gymnodimine (90), derived from the vinylogous Mukaiyama aldol addition. PMID:22023219

  10. Total Synthesis of 4,5-Didehydroguadiscine: A Potent Melanogenesis Inhibitor from the Brazilian Medicinal Herb, Hornschuchia obliqua.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Genzoh; Sugano, Youta; Shirato, Miki; Sonoda, Naoki; Tsutsui, Nozomi; Morikawa, Toshio; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2015-07-24

    The first total synthesis of the 7,7-dimethylaporphinoid, 4,5-didehydroguadiscine (6), originally isolated from the stems and roots of Hornschuchia oblique (Annonaceae), was achieved by the condensation of homopiperonylamine (7) with an α,α-dimethylphenylacetic acid derivative (8) and subsequent Pschorr reaction of the resulting benzylisoquinoline intermediate (22). The reported (13)C NMR data were partially revised on the basis of the analysis of HMBC spectra measured under different conditions. The melanogenesis inhibitory activity (IC50 = 4.7 μM) of 6 was 40 times stronger than that of arbutin (174 μM), which was used as reference standard. Furthermore, 6 was the most potent natural melanogenesis inhibitor within this class of compounds. PMID:26135746

  11. Total Synthesis of (±)-Englerin A Using An Intermolecular [3+2] Cycloaddition Reaction of Platinum-Containing Carbonyl Ylide.

    PubMed

    Kusama, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Aoi; Ishida, Kento; Iwasawa, Nobuharu

    2016-01-01

    Total synthesis of (±)-Englerin A has been achieved starting from γ,δ-ynone 5 in 14 steps. The key feature of this synthesis is the highly efficient and stereoselective preparation of 8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane derivative 6, a core skeleton of Englerin A, based on an inverse electron-demand [3+2] cycloaddition reaction of the platinum-containing carbonyl ylide, which was developed in our laboratory. PMID:26377511

  12. The Dirty Dozen: A Concise Measure of the Dark Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonason, Peter K.; Webster, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    There has been an exponential increase of interest in the dark side of human nature during the last decade. To better understand this dark side, the authors developed and validated a concise, 12-item measure of the Dark Triad: narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism. In 4 studies involving 1,085 participants, they examined its structural…

  13. The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Catalytic receptors.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen Ph; Fabbro, Doriano; Kelly, Eamonn; Marrion, Neil; Peters, John A; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Southan, Christopher; Davies, Jamie A

    2015-12-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 1750 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.13353/full. G protein-coupled receptors are one of the eight major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being: G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, voltage-gated ion channels, other ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, enzymes and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The Concise Guide is published in landscape format in order to facilitate comparison of related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2015, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in the previous Guides to Receptors & Channels and the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and GRAC and provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:26650444

  14. The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Overview.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen Ph; Kelly, Eamonn; Marrion, Neil; Peters, John A; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Southan, Christopher; Buneman, O Peter; Catterall, William A; Cidlowski, John A; Davenport, Anthony P; Fabbro, Doriano; Fan, Grace; McGrath, John C; Spedding, Michael; Davies, Jamie A

    2015-12-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 1750 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.13347/full. This compilation of the major pharmacological targets is divided into eight areas of focus: G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, voltage-gated ion channels, other ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors, enzymes and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The Concise Guide is published in landscape format in order to facilitate comparison of related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2015, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in the previous Guides to Receptors & Channels and the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and GRAC and provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:26650438

  15. Total Synthesis of Purported Cephalosporolides H and I, Penisporolide B, and Their Stereoisomers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Tong, Rongbiao

    2016-05-20

    Development of a unified, bioinspired synthetic strategy to access four possible diastereomers of unique 2,2-dimethyl-[5,5]-spiroacetal-cis-fused-γ-lactone (Me2SAFL) is reported, featuring pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC)-promoted oxidative ring expansion of β-hydroxy cyclic ethers and dehydrative ring-contraction rearrangement of 10-membered lactones. Synthetic utility of this strategy was demonstrated by total syntheses of 12 Me2SAFLs, corresponding to the purported cephalosporolide H (CesH), cephalosporolide I (CesI), and penisporolide B (PenB) and their possible diastereomers. Comprehensive NMR data analysis suggested that the tricyclic Me2SAFL core of CesH, CesI, and PenB should be revised to the same relative (3R*, 4R*, 6S*, 9R*) configuration and that the side chains required an unknown constitutional structure revision. PMID:27137949

  16. A Strategy for Complex Dimer Formation When Biomimicry Fails: Total Synthesis of Ten Coccinellid Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although dimeric natural products can often be synthesized in the laboratory by directly merging advanced monomers, these approaches sometimes fail, leading instead to non-natural architectures via incorrect unions. Such a situation arose during our studies of the coccinellid alkaloids, when attempts to directly dimerize Nature’s presumed monomeric precursors in a putative biomimetic sequence afforded only a non-natural analogue through improper regiocontrol. Herein, we outline a unique strategy for dimer formation that obviates these difficulties, one which rapidly constructs the coccinellid dimers psylloborine A and isopsylloborine A through a terminating sequence of two reaction cascades that generate five bonds, five rings, and four stereocenters. In addition, a common synthetic intermediate is identified which allows for the rapid, asymmetric formal or complete total syntheses of eight monomeric members of the class. PMID:24959981

  17. A strategy for complex dimer formation when biomimicry fails: total synthesis of ten coccinellid alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Trevor C; Trotta, Adam H; Snyder, Scott A

    2014-07-01

    Although dimeric natural products can often be synthesized in the laboratory by directly merging advanced monomers, these approaches sometimes fail, leading instead to non-natural architectures via incorrect unions. Such a situation arose during our studies of the coccinellid alkaloids, when attempts to directly dimerize Nature's presumed monomeric precursors in a putative biomimetic sequence afforded only a non-natural analogue through improper regiocontrol. Herein, we outline a unique strategy for dimer formation that obviates these difficulties, one which rapidly constructs the coccinellid dimers psylloborine A and isopsylloborine A through a terminating sequence of two reaction cascades that generate five bonds, five rings, and four stereocenters. In addition, a common synthetic intermediate is identified which allows for the rapid, asymmetric formal or complete total syntheses of eight monomeric members of the class. PMID:24959981

  18. Total synthesis and antiviral activity of indolosesquiterpenoids from the xiamycin and oridamycin families

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Zhanchao; Yu, Haixin; Li, Li; Tao, Wanyin; Chen, Hao; Wan, Ming; Yang, Peng; Edmonds, David J.; Zhong, Jin; Li, Ang

    2015-01-01

    Indolosesquiterpenoids are a growing class of natural products that exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Here, we report the total syntheses of xiamycin A and oridamycins A and B, indolosesquiterpenoids isolated from Streptomyces. Two parallel strategies were exploited to forge the carbazole core: 6π-electrocyclization/aromatization and indole C2–H bond activation/Heck annulation. The construction of their trans-decalin motifs relied on two diastereochemically complementary radical cyclization reactions mediated by Ti(III) and Mn(III), respectively. The C23 hydroxyl of oridamycin B was introduced by an sp3 C–H bond oxidation at a late stage. On the basis of the chemistry developed, the dimeric congener dixiamycin C has been synthesized for the first time. Evaluation of the antiviral activity of these compounds revealed that xiamycin A is a potent agent against herpes simplex virus–1 (HSV-1) in vitro. PMID:25648883

  19. Total Observed Organic Carbon (TOOC): A Synthesis of North American Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heald, C. L.; Goldstein, A. H.; Allan, J. D.; Aiken, A. C.; Apel, E.; Atlas, E. L.; Baker, A. K.; Bates, T. S.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D. R.; Campos, T.; Coe, H.; Crounse, J. D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; de Gouw, J. A.; Dunlea, E. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Goldan, P.; Griffin, R. J.; Herndon, S. C.; Holloway, J. S.; Holzinger, R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Junkermann, W.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of organic carbon compounds in both the gas and particle phases made upwind, over and downwind of North America are synthesized to examine the total observed organic carbon (TOOC) in the atmosphere over this region. These include measurements made aboard the NOAA WP-3 and BAe-146 aircraft, the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown, and at the Thompson Farm and Chebogue Point surface sites during the summer 2004 ICARTT campaign. Both winter and summer 2002 measurements during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study are also included. Lastly, the spring 2002 observations at Trinidad Head, CA, surface measurements made in March 2006 in Mexico City and coincidentally aboard the C-130 aircraft during the MILAGRO campaign and later during the IMPEX campaign off the northwestern United States are incorporated. Concentrations of TOOC in these datasets span more than two orders of magnitude. The daytime mean TOOC ranges from 4.0 to 456 microg C/cubic m from the cleanest site (Trinidad Head) to the most polluted (Mexico City). Organic aerosol makes up 3-17% of this mean TOOC, with highest fractions reported over the northeastern United States, where organic aerosol can comprise up to 50% of TOOC. Carbon monoxide concentrations explain 46 to 86% of the variability in TOOC, with highest TOOC/CO slopes in regions with fresh anthropogenic influence, where we also expect the highest degree of mass closure for TOOC. Correlation with isoprene, formaldehyde, methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein also indicates that biogenic activity contributes substantially to the variability of TOOC, yet these tracers of biogenic oxidation sources do not explain the variability in organic aerosol observed over North America. We highlight the critical need to develop measurement techniques to routinely detect total gas phase VOCs, and to deploy comprehensive suites of TOOC instruments in diverse environments to quantify the ambient evolution of organic carbon from source to sink.

  20. Research synthesis of recommended acetabular cup orientations for total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Claire L; Thomson, Avril I; Cutts, Steven; Rowe, Philip J; Riches, Philip E

    2014-02-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is regarded as one of the most successful surgical procedures of modern times yet continues to be associated with a small but significant complication rate. Many early failures may be associated with poor component positioning with, in particular, acetabular component orientation dependent on the subjective judgement of the surgeon. In this paper, we compare the manufacturers' instructions on acetabular cup orientation with the literature-based recommended safety zones and surgical technique, by transforming them onto a single, clinically-relevant framework in which the different reference systems, safety guidelines and current instrumentation surgical techniques can be evaluated. The observed limited consensus between results reflects ongoing uncertainty regarding the optimum acetabular component positioning. As malpositioning of the acetabular cup increases the risk of revision surgery, any ambiguity over the correct position can have a causal effect. Our analysis highlights the need for a surgical reference system which can be used to describe the position of the acetabular cup intra-operatively. PMID:23958234

  1. Total Synthesis of Macrocarpines D and E via an Enolate-Driven Copper-Mediated Cross-Coupling Process: Replacement of Catalytic Palladium with Copper Iodide.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Toufiqur; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Imler, Gregory H; Schwabacher, Alan W; Cook, James M

    2016-09-01

    An enolate driven copper-mediated cross-coupling process enabled cheaper and greener access to the key pentacyclic intermediates required for the enantiospecific total synthesis of a number of C-19 methyl substituted sarpagine/macroline indole alkaloids. Replacement of palladium (60-68%) with copper iodide (82-89%) resulted in much higher yields. The formation of an unusual 7-membered cross-coupling product was completely inhibited by using TEMPO as a radical scavenger. Further functionalization led to the first enantiospecific total synthesis of macrocarpines D and E. PMID:27526647

  2. A concise method for mine soils analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, S.; Wildeman, T.; Robinson, R.; Herron, J.

    1999-07-01

    A large number of abandoned hard rock mines exist in Colorado and other mountain west states, many on public property. Public pressure and resulting policy changes have become a driving force in the reclamation of these sites. Two of the key reclamation issues for these sites in the occurrence of acid forming materials (AFMs) in mine soils, and acid mine drainage (AMD) issuing from mine audits. An AMD treatment system design project for the Forest Queen mine in Colorado's San Juan mountains raised the need for a simple, useable method for analysis of mine land soils, both for suitability as a construction material, and to determine the AFM content and potential for acid release. The authors have developed a simple, stepwise, go - no go test for the analysis of mine soils. Samples were collected from a variety of sites in the Silverton, CO area, and subjected to three tiers of tests including: paste pH, Eh, and 10% HCl fizz test; then total digestion in HNO{sub 3}/HCl, neutralization potential, exposure to meteoric water, and toxicity content leaching procedure (TCLP). All elemental analyses were performed with an inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometer. Elimination of samples via the first two testing tiers left two remaining samples, which were subsequently subjected to column and sequential batch tests, with further elemental analysis by ICP. Based on these tests, one sample was chosen for suitability as a constructing material for the Forest Queen treatment system basins. Further simplification, and testing on two pairs of independent soil samples, has resulted in a final analytical method suitable for general use.

  3. General Strategy for Synthesis of C-19 Methyl-Substituted Sarpagine/Macroline/Ajmaline Indole Alkaloids Including Total Synthesis of 19(S),20(R)-Dihydroperaksine, 19(S),20(R)-Dihydroperaksine-17-al, and Peraksine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A detailed account of the development of a general strategy for synthesis of the C-19 methyl-substituted alkaloids including total synthesis of 19(S),20(R)-dihydroperaksine-17-al (1), 19(S),20(R)-dihydroperaksine (2), and peraksine (6) is presented. Efforts directed toward the total synthesis of macrosalhine chloride (5) are also reported. Important to success is the sequence of chemical reactions which include a critical haloboration reaction, regioselective hydroboration, and controlled oxidation (to provide sensitive enolizable aldehydes at C-20). In addition, the all-important Pd-catalyzed α-vinylation reaction has been extended to a chiral C-19 alkyl-substituted substrate for the first time. Synthesis of the advanced intermediate 64 completes an improved formal total synthesis of talcarpine (26) and provides a starting point for synthesis of macroline-related alkaloids 27–31. Similarly, extension of this synthetic strategy in the ring A oxygenated series should provide easy access to the northern hemisphere 32b of the bisindoles angustricraline, alstocraline, and foliacraline (Figure 4). PMID:25247616

  4. Total synthesis of the Lycopodium alkaloid serratezomine A using free radical-mediated vinyl amination to prepare a β-stannyl enamine linchpin.

    PubMed

    Pigza, Julie A; Han, Jeong-Seok; Chandra, Aroop; Mutnick, Daniel; Pink, Maren; Johnston, Jeffrey N

    2013-02-01

    Serratezomine A is a member of the structurally diverse class of compounds known as the Lycopodium alkaloids. The key supporting studies and successful total synthesis of serratezomine A are described in this account. Significant features of the synthesis include the first application of free radical mediated vinyl amination and Hwu's oxidative allylation in a total synthesis and an intramolecular lactonization via a transannular S(N)i reaction. Minimal use of protecting groups and the highly diastereoselective formation of a hindered, quaternary stereocenter using an umpolung allylation are also highlights from a strategy perspective. Observation of quaternary carbon epimerization via a retro-Mannich/Mannich sequence highlights the additional challenge presented by the axial alcohol at C8 in serratezomine A. PMID:23273261

  5. Total Synthesis of the Lycopodium Alkaloid Serratezomine A Using Free Radical-Mediated Vinyl Amination to Prepare a β-Stannyl Enamine Linchpin

    PubMed Central

    Pigza, Julie A.; Han, Jeong-Seok; Chandra, Aroop; Mutnick, Daniel; Pink, Maren; Johnston, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Serratezomine A is a member of the structurally diverse class of compounds known as the Lycopodium alkaloids. The key supporting studies and successful total synthesis of serratezomine A are described in this account. Significant features of the synthesis include the first application of free radical mediated vinyl amination and Hwu’s oxidative allylation in a total synthesis, and an intramolecular lactonization via a transannular SNi reaction. Minimal use of protecting groups and the highly diastereoselective formation of a hindered, quaternary stereocenter using an umpolung allylation are also highlights from a strategy perspective. Observation of quaternary carbon epimerization via a retro-Mannich/Mannich sequence highlights the additional challenge presented by the axial alcohol at C8 in serratezomine A. PMID:23273261

  6. The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Transporters.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen Ph; Kelly, Eamonn; Marrion, Neil; Peters, John A; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Southan, Christopher; Davies, Jamie A

    2015-12-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 1750 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.13355/full. G protein-coupled receptors are one of the eight major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being: G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, voltage-gated ion channels, other ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The Concise Guide is published in landscape format in order to facilitate comparison of related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2015, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in the previous Guides to Receptors & Channels and the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and GRAC and provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:26650446

  7. The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen Ph; Fabbro, Doriano; Kelly, Eamonn; Marrion, Neil; Peters, John A; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Southan, Christopher; Davies, Jamie A

    2015-12-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 1750 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.13354/full. G protein-coupled receptors are one of the eight major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being: G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, voltage-gated ion channels, other ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The Concise Guide is published in landscape format in order to facilitate comparison of related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2015, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in the previous Guides to Receptors & Channels and the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and GRAC and provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:26650445

  8. Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic etherification using chiral biphenol-based diphosphinite ligands and its application for the formal total synthesis of (-)-galanthamine.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yang; Ojima, Iwao

    2013-04-19

    A library of novel chiral biphenol-based diphosphinite (BOP) ligands was designed and created. These BOP ligands were applied to a Pd-catalyzed intermolecular allylic etherification reaction, which provided a key intermediate for the formal total synthesis of (-)-galanthamine with 97% ee in 97% yield. PMID:23472673

  9. Stereocontrolled total synthesis of the potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediator resolvin D3 and its aspirin-triggered 17R-epimer.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Jeremy W; Uddin, Jasim; Serhan, Charles N; Petasis, Nicos A

    2013-04-01

    The first total synthesis of stereochemically pure resolvin D3 and aspirin-triggered resolvin D3 is reported. These enzymatic metabolites of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. The convergent synthetic strategy is based on enantiomerically pure starting materials, and it is highly stereocontrolled. PMID:23510485

  10. Total synthesis of protosappanin A and its derivatives via palladium catalyzed ortho C-H activation/C-C cyclization under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiaqi; Zhou, Xuan; Wang, Chenglong; Fu, Wanyong; Chu, Wenyi; Sun, Zhizhong

    2016-04-14

    A total synthesis method for protosappanin A, which is a complex natural product with many biological activities, was developed with 6 linear steps. Dibenzo[b,d]oxepinones as the key intermediates of the synthetic route were prepared by a palladium-catalyzed ortho C-H activation/C-C cyclization under microwave irradiation. 25 derivatives of protosappanin A were obtained. PMID:26997503

  11. Effect of supplementing orchardgrass herbage with a total mixed ration or flaxseed fermentation profile and bacterial protein synthesis in continuous culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to evaluate the effects of herbage, a total mixed ration (TMR) and flaxseed on nutrient digestibility and microbial N synthesis. Treatments were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Each fermentor was fed a to...

  12. Isolation, structure elucidation, and biomimetic total synthesis of versicolamide B and the isolation of antipodal (-)-stephacidin A and (+)-notoamide B from Aspergillus versicolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new prenylated indole alkaloid, versicolamide B, was isolated from cultures of Aspergillus versicolor NRRL 35600. The structure was assigned by 2D NMR data, and confirmed by a biomimetic total synthesis. Versicolamide B is the first member of the paraherquamide-stephacidin family of alkaloids fo...

  13. Total synthesis, proof of absolute configuration, and biosynthetic origin of stylopsal, the first isolated sex pheromone of strepsiptera.

    PubMed

    Lagoutte, Roman; Šebesta, Petr; Jiroš, Pavel; Kalinová, Blanka; Jirošová, Anna; Straka, Jakub; Černá, Kateřina; Šobotník, Jan; Cvačka, Josef; Jahn, Ullrich

    2013-06-24

    The asymmetric total synthesis of the diastereomers of stylopsal establishes the absolute configuration of the first reported sex pheromone of the twisted-wing parasite Stylops muelleri as (3R,5R,9R)-trimethyldodecanal. The key steps for the diastereo- and enantiodivergent introduction of the methyl groups are two different types of asymmetric conjugate addition reactions of organocopper reagents to α,β-unsaturated esters, whereas the dodecanal skeleton is assembled by Wittig reactions. The structure of the natural product was confirmed by chiral gas chromatography (GC) techniques, GC/MS and GC/electroantennography (EAD) as well as field tests. An investigation into the biosynthesis of the pheromone revealed that it is likely to be produced by decarboxylation of a 4,6,10-trimethyltridecanoic acid derivative, which was found in substantial amounts in the fat body of the female, but not in the host bee Andrena vaga. This triple-branched fatty acid precursor thus seems to be biosynthesized de novo through a polyketide pathway with two consecutive propionate-propionate-acetate assemblies to form the complete skeleton. The simplified, motionless and fully host-dependent female exploits a remarkable strategy to maximize its reproductive success by employing a relatively complex and potent sex pheromone. PMID:23630024

  14. Indole diterpene synthetic studies. Total synthesis of (+)-nodulisporic acid F and construction of the heptacyclic cores of (+)-nodulisporic acids A and B and (-)-nodulisporic acid D.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amos B; Davulcu, Akin H; Cho, Young Shin; Ohmoto, Kazuyuki; Kürti, László; Ishiyama, Haruaki

    2007-06-22

    A first-generation strategy for construction of (+)-nodulisporic acids A (1) and B (2) is described. The strategy entails union of the eastern and western hemisphere subtargets via the indole synthesis protocol developed in our laboratory. Subsequent elaboration of rings E and F, however, revealed the considerable acid instability of the C(24) hydroxyl, thereby preventing further advancement. Nonetheless, preparation of the heptacyclic core of (+)-nodulisporic acids A and B, the total synthesis of (+)-nodulisporic acid F, the simplest member of the nodulisporic acid family, and elaboration of the heptacyclic core of (-)-nodulisporic acid D were achieved. PMID:17511507

  15. Approach to cis-Phlegmarine Alkaloids via Stereodivergent Reduction: Total Synthesis of (+)-Serratezomine E and Putative Structure of (-)-Huperzine N.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Caroline; Fiser, Béla; Gómez-Bengoa, Enrique; Bradshaw, Ben; Bonjoch, Josep

    2015-10-16

    A unified strategy for the synthesis of the cis-phlegmarine group of alkaloids is presented, leading to the first synthesis of serratezomine E (1) as well as the putative structure of huperzine N (2). A contrasteric hydrogenation method was developed based on the use of Wilkinson's catalyst, which allowed the facial selectivity of standard hydrogenation to be completely overturned. Calculations were performed to determine the mechanism, and structures for huperzines M and N are reassigned. PMID:26406568

  16. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (+)- and (−)-Clusianone and (+)- and (−)Clusianone Methyl Enol Ether via ACC Alkylation and Evaluation of their Anti-HIV Activity

    PubMed Central

    Garnsey, Michelle R.; Matous, James A.; Kwiek, Jesse J.; Coltart, Don M.

    2011-01-01

    The total asymmetric synthesis of (+)- and (−)-clusianone and (+)- and (−)-clusianone methyl enol ether is reported. Asymmetric induction is achieved through the use of ACC alkylation, providing the key intermediates with an er of 99:1. The four synthetic compounds were evaluated for their anti-HIV activity. Both (+)- and (−)-clusianone displayed significant anti-HIV activity. PMID:21414776

  17. Kinetic resolution of 2-substituted 2,3-dihydro-4-pyridones by palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation: catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of indolizidine (-)-209I.

    PubMed

    Lei, Bai-Lin; Zhang, Qing-Song; Yu, Wei-Hua; Ding, Qiu-Ping; Ding, Chang-Hua; Hou, Xue-Long

    2014-04-01

    The kinetic resolution of 2-substituted-2,3-dihydro-4-pyridones was realized via a Pd-catalyzed allylic substitution reaction using a commercially available (S)-P-Phos as a ligand, affording optically active dihydropyridones and C-allylated dihydropyridones in high yields and good enantioselectivities with the S-factor up to 43. With this protocol, a catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of indolizidine (-)-209I was realized for the first time. PMID:24661080

  18. Total Synthesis of cis-Clavicipitic Acid from Asparagine via Ir-Catalyzed C-H bond Activation as a Key Step.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Yu-ki; Ito, Mamoru; Kanyiva, Kyalo Stephen; Shibata, Takanori

    2015-08-01

    4-Substituted tryptophan derivatives and the total synthesis of cis-clavicipitic acid were achieved in reactions in which Ir-catalyzed C-H bond activation was a key step. The starting material for these reactions is asparagine, which is a cheap natural amino acid. The reductive amination step from the 4-substituted tryptophan derivative gave cis-clavicipitic acid with perfect diastereoselectivity. PMID:26178075

  19. The Concise Guide to Pharmacology 2013/14: Overview

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Stephen PH; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; McGrath, John C; Catterall, William A; Spedding, Michael; Peters, John A; Harmar, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties from the IUPHAR database. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12444/full. This compilation of the major pharmacological targets is divided into seven areas of focus: G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, ion channels, catalytic receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, transporters and enzymes. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. A new landscape format has easy to use tables comparing related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2013, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in previous Guides to Receptors & Channels. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and GRAC and provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:24528237

  20. The Concise Guide to Pharmacology 2013/14: Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Stephen PH; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Spedding, Michael; Peters, John A; Harmar, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12444/full. Transporters are one of the seven major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, ion channels, catalytic receptors, nuclear hormone receptors and enzymes. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. A new landscape format has easy to use tables comparing related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2013, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and the Guide to Receptors and Channels, providing a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:24528242

  1. The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14: overview.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen P H; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; McGrath, John C; Catterall, William A; Spedding, Michael; Peters, John A; Harmar, Anthony J; Abul-Hasn, N; Anderson, C M; Anderson, C M H; Araiksinen, M S; Arita, M; Arthofer, E; Barker, E L; Barratt, C; Barnes, N M; Bathgate, R; Beart, P M; Belelli, D; Bennett, A J; Birdsall, N J M; Boison, D; Bonner, T I; Brailsford, L; Bröer, S; Brown, P; Calo, G; Carter, W G; Catterall, W A; Chan, S L F; Chao, M V; Chiang, N; Christopoulos, A; Chun, J J; Cidlowski, J; Clapham, D E; Cockcroft, S; Connor, M A; Cox, H M; Cuthbert, A; Dautzenberg, F M; Davenport, A P; Dawson, P A; Dent, G; Dijksterhuis, J P; Dollery, C T; Dolphin, A C; Donowitz, M; Dubocovich, M L; Eiden, L; Eidne, K; Evans, B A; Fabbro, D; Fahlke, C; Farndale, R; Fitzgerald, G A; Fong, T M; Fowler, C J; Fry, J R; Funk, C D; Futerman, A H; Ganapathy, V; Gaisnier, B; Gershengorn, M A; Goldin, A; Goldman, I D; Gundlach, A L; Hagenbuch, B; Hales, T G; Hammond, J R; Hamon, M; Hancox, J C; Hauger, R L; Hay, D L; Hobbs, A J; Hollenberg, M D; Holliday, N D; Hoyer, D; Hynes, N A; Inui, K-I; Ishii, S; Jacobson, K A; Jarvis, G E; Jarvis, M F; Jensen, R; Jones, C E; Jones, R L; Kaibuchi, K; Kanai, Y; Kennedy, C; Kerr, I D; Khan, A A; Klienz, M J; Kukkonen, J P; Lapoint, J Y; Leurs, R; Lingueglia, E; Lippiat, J; Lolait, S J; Lummis, S C R; Lynch, J W; MacEwan, D; Maguire, J J; Marshall, I L; May, J M; McArdle, C A; McGrath, J C; Michel, M C; Millar, N S; Miller, L J; Mitolo, V; Monk, P N; Moore, P K; Moorhouse, A J; Mouillac, B; Murphy, P M; Neubig, R R; Neumaier, J; Niesler, B; Obaidat, A; Offermanns, S; Ohlstein, E; Panaro, M A; Parsons, S; Pwrtwee, R G; Petersen, J; Pin, J-P; Poyner, D R; Prigent, S; Prossnitz, E R; Pyne, N J; Pyne, S; Quigley, J G; Ramachandran, R; Richelson, E L; Roberts, R E; Roskoski, R; Ross, R A; Roth, M; Rudnick, G; Ryan, R M; Said, S I; Schild, L; Sanger, G J; Scholich, K; Schousboe, A; Schulte, G; Schulz, S; Serhan, C N; Sexton, P M; Sibley, D R; Siegel, J M; Singh, G; Sitsapesan, R; Smart, T G; Smith, D M; Soga, T; Stahl, A; Stewart, G; Stoddart, L A; Summers, R J; Thorens, B; Thwaites, D T; Toll, L; Traynor, J R; Usdin, T B; Vandenberg, R J; Villalon, C; Vore, M; Waldman, S A; Ward, D T; Willars, G B; Wonnacott, S J; Wright, E; Ye, R D; Yonezawa, A; Zimmermann, M

    2013-12-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties from the IUPHAR database. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12444/full. This compilation of the major pharmacological targets is divided into seven areas of focus: G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, ion channels, catalytic receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, transporters and enzymes. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. A new landscape format has easy to use tables comparing related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2013, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in previous Guides to Receptors & Channels. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and GRAC and provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:24528237

  2. The Concise Guide to Pharmacology 2013/14: Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Stephen PH; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Catterall, William A; Spedding, Michael; Peters, John A; Harmar, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12444/full. Ion channels are one of the seven major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, catalytic receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, transporters and enzymes. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. A new landscape format has easy to use tables comparing related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2013, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and the Guide to Receptors and Channels, providing a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:24528239

  3. The Concise Guide to Pharmacology 2013/14: Catalytic Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Stephen PH; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Spedding, Michael; Peters, John A; Harmar, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12444/full. Catalytic receptors are one of the seven major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, transporters and enzymes. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. A new landscape format has easy to use tables comparing related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2013, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and the Guide to Receptors and Channels, providing a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:24528241

  4. The Concise Guide to Pharmacology 2013/14: Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Stephen PH; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Spedding, Michael; Peters, John A; Harmar, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12444/full. Enzymes are one of the seven major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. A new landscape format has easy to use tables comparing related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2013, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and the Guide to Receptors and Channels, providing a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:24528243

  5. Synthesis of dibenzoxepine lactams via a Cu-catalyzed one-pot etherification/aldol condensation cascade reaction: application toward the total synthesis of aristoyagonine.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hye Sun; Choi, Young Lok; Heo, Jung-Nyoung

    2013-09-20

    A general synthesis of dibenzoxepine lactams has been developed using a one-pot Cu-catalyzed etherification/aldol condensation cascade reaction. The reaction of 4-hydroxyisoindolin-1-one with a wide range of 2-bromobenzaldehydes in the presence of a copper catalyst provided various aristoyagonine derivatives in good yields. PMID:24000941

  6. A stereoselective and short total synthesis of the polyhydroxylated gamma-amino acid (-)-detoxinine, based on stereoselective preparation of dihydropyrrole derivatives from lithiated alkoxyallenes.

    PubMed

    Flögel, Oliver; Okala Amombo, Marlyse Ghislaine; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich; Zahn, Gernot; Brüdgam, Irene; Hartl, Hans

    2003-03-17

    Based on our earlier results employing lithiated methoxyallene 2 as C(3) building block and imines 3 for the synthesis of dihydropyrrole derivatives 5, we have investigated chiral imines 6, 10, and 15 as electrophilic components. Combined with lithiated alkoxyallenes, these imines provide the corresponding primary adducts and finally the dihydropyrrole derivatives 8, 12, 17, 20, and 22 in good yields and with high to excellent syn selectivities. This stereochemical outcome is interpreted as a result of alpha-chelate control. Treatment with hydrochloric acid converted syn-8 and syn-12 into bicyclic compounds 9 and 13, whereas under more mildly acidic conditions adduct syn-17 was transformed into diol syn-18. The total synthesis of the uncommon gamma-amino acid (-)-detoxinine could be achieved by starting from (S)-malic acid, which was converted into imine 15 in four steps. Lithiated benzyloxyallene added to imine 15 and efficiently furnished the crucial dihydropyrrole derivative syn-22. The hydrogenolysis of this compound did not directly provide the protected triol 29 as anticipated, but a stepwise protocol made the triol available in a fairly satisfactory manner. A second crucial step of the synthesis was the selective oxidation of 29, which could be achieved by employing platinum dioxide and oxygen. The resulting bicyclic lactone 30 was smoothly transformed into enantiopure (-)-detoxinine. Thus, a fairly short synthesis of this natural product based on a lithiated alkoxyallene could be performed, demonstrating the potential of these intermediates for syntheses of interesting functionalized heterocyclic compounds. PMID:12645030

  7. Stereoselective 6-exo radical cyclization using cis-vinyl sulfoxide: practical total synthesis of CTX3C.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shuji; Ishihara, Yuuki; Morita, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Junichi; Takeuchi, Katsutoshi; Inoue, Masayuki; Hirama, Masahiro

    2011-03-25

    Ciguatoxins, the principal causative toxins of ciguatera seafood poisoning, are large ladder-like polycyclic ethers. We report a highly stereoselective 6-exo radical cyclization/ring-closing olefin metathesis sequence to construct the syn/trans-fused polyether system. The new method was applied to the practical synthesis of ciguatoxin CTX3C. PMID:21250701

  8. Total Synthesis of Cyclomarin A, a Marine Cycloheptapeptide with Anti-Tuberculosis and Anti-Malaria Activity.

    PubMed

    Barbie, Philipp; Kazmaier, Uli

    2016-01-15

    An efficient synthetic protocol for the stereoselective synthesis of cyclomarin A is reported. Key steps in the syntheses of the building blocks are an asymmetric chelate-enolate Claisen rearrangement, an asymmetric hydrogenation, and highly diastereoselective additions of organozinc and -titanium reagents. PMID:26699807

  9. Catalyst-Controlled Formal [4 + 3] Cycloaddition Applied to the Total Synthesis of (+)-Barekoxide and (−)-Barekol

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Yajing; Miller, Laura C.; Born, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The tandem cyclopropanation/Cope rearrangement between bicyclic dienes and siloxyvinyldiazoacetate, catalyzed by the dirhodium catalyst Rh2(R-PTAD)4 effectively accomplishes enantiodivergent [4 + 3] cycloadditions. The reaction proceeds by a cyclopropanation followed by a Cope rearrangement of the resulting divinylcyclopropane. This methodology was applied to the synthesis (+)-barekoxide (1) and (−)-barekol (2). PMID:20704267

  10. Total synthesis of (+)-asteriscanolide: further exploration of the rhodium(I)-catalyzed [(5+2)+1] reaction of ene-vinylcyclopropanes and CO.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yong; Jiang, Xing; Fu, Xu-Fei; Ye, Siyu; Wang, Tao; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Zhi-Xiang

    2012-03-01

    The total synthesis of (+)-asteriscanolide is reported. The synthetic route features two key reactions: 1) the rhodium(I)-catalyzed [(5+2)+1] cycloaddition of a chiral ene-vinylcyclopropane (ene-VCP) substrate to construct the [6.3.0] carbocyclic core with excellent asymmetric induction, and 2) an alkoxycarbonyl-radical cyclization that builds the bridging butyrolactone ring with high efficiency. Other features of this synthetic route include the catalytic asymmetric alkynylation of an aldehyde to synthesize the chiral ene-VCP substrate, a highly regioselective conversion of the [(5+2)+1] cycloadduct into its enol triflate, and the inversion of the inside-outside tricycle to the outside-outside structure by an ester-reduction/elimination to enol-ether/hydrogenation procedure. In addition, density functional theory (DFT) rationalization of the chiral induction of the [(5+2)+1] reaction and the diastereoselectivity of the radical annulation has been presented. Equally important is that we have also developed other routes to synthesize asteriscanolide using the rhodium(I)-catalyzed [(5+2)+1] cycloaddition as the key step. Even though these routes failed to achieve the total synthesis, these experiments gave further useful information about the scope of the [(5+2)+1] reaction and paved the way for its future application in synthesis. PMID:22223465

  11. Completion of the statement of fitness for work: concise guidance.

    PubMed

    Thornhill, Simon; Williams, Nerys

    2012-02-01

    Doctors are required to issue Form Med 3 (the Statements of Fitness for Work, commonly known as the fit note) where appropriate to patients for whom they provide clinical care. Much sickness absence is attributed to mild or moderate mental ill health, musculoskeletal or cardiorespiratory conditions. The effects of these conditions and others can often be accommodated at work, with appropriate adjustments, adaptations or support if necessary. Employers have a crucial role in achieving this; however, they need advice on the functional effects of the condition to do so. Evidence shows that work can be therapeutic and help promote recovery and rehabilitation. Conversely, unemployment is generally harmful to health and can lead to increased morbidity and poorer physical and mental health, as well as poverty, health inequalities and social exclusion. This concise guideline has been developed to aid doctors in understanding when and how to issue a fit note to the greatest benefit for their patients. PMID:22372227

  12. Extraintestinal manifestations of Helicobacter pylori: A concise review

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Frank; Rayner-Hartley, Erin; Byrne, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been clearly linked to peptic ulcer disease and some gastrointestinal malignancies. Increasing evidence demonstrates possible associations to disease states in other organ systems, known as the extraintestinal manifestations of H. pylori. Different conditions associated with H. pylori infection include those from hematologic, cardiopulmonary, metabolic, neurologic, and dermatologic systems. The aim of this article is to provide a concise review of the evidence that supports or refutes the associations of H. pylori and its proposed extraintestinal manifestations. Based on data from the literature, PUD, mucosal associated lymphoid tumors lymphoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma has well-established links. Current evidence most supports extraintestinal manifestations with H. pylori in immune thrombocytopenic purpura, iron deficiency anemia, urticaria, Parkinson’s, migraines and rosacea; however, there is still plausible link with other diseases that requires further research. PMID:25232230

  13. Pathophysiology of acquired von Willebrand disease: a concise review.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Shrimati; Kasatkar, Priyanka; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2011-08-01

    Acquired von Willebrand disease (AVWD) is a rare, underdiagnosed hemorrhagic disorder, which is similar to congenital VWD with regard to the clinical and laboratory parameters; however, it is found in individuals with no positive family history and has no genetic basis. The etiology is varied, the commonest being hematoproliferative disorders and cardiovascular disorders. Other disorders associated with AVWD are autoimmune disorders such as systematic lupus erythematosus, hypothyroidism, and neoplasia, or it may also be drug induced. In quite a few cases, the etiology is unknown. The pathogenic mechanisms are different in different underlying disorders or they may be overlapping among these disorders. Some of the proposed mechanisms include the development of autoantibodies, selective absorption of high molecular weight von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers, non-selective absorption of VWF, mechanical destruction of VWF under high shear stress, and increased proteolysis. This report presents a concise review of the pathophysiological mechanisms of AVWD in these various underlying conditions. PMID:21535159

  14. The second demographic transition: A concise overview of its development

    PubMed Central

    Lesthaeghe, Ron

    2014-01-01

    This article gives a concise overview of the theoretical development of the concept of the “second demographic transition” since it was coined in 1986, its components, and its applicability, first to European populations and subsequently also to non-European societies as well. Both the demographic and the societal contrasts between the first demographic transition (FDT) and the second demographic transition (SDT) are highlighted. Then, the major criticisms of the SDT theory are outlined, and these issues are discussed in the light of the most recent developments in Europe, the United States, the Far East, and Latin America. It turns out that three major SDT patterns have developed and that these evolutions are contingent on much older systems of kinship and family organization. PMID:25453112

  15. Predicting microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle: relationship to intakes of total digestible nutrients and crude protein.

    PubMed

    Galyean, M L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-11-01

    Prediction of microbial CP (MCP) synthesis in the rumen is an integral part of the MP system. For the NRC beef model, MCP is calculated as 0.13 multiplied by TDN intake (TDNI), with adjustment for physically effective NDF (peNDF) concentrations less than 20%. Despite its application for nearly 2 decades, MCP predictions using this approach have not been extensively evaluated. We assembled a database of 285 treatment means from 66 published papers using beef cattle and dairy or dairy × beef crossbred steers, fed diets with a wide range of TDN, CP, and ether extract (EE) concentrations, in which MCP synthesis was measured. Fat-free TDN (FFTDN) concentration was calculated by subtracting 2.25 × percent EE from the TDN concentration. Based on initial model selection procedures indicating that DMI and concentrations of TDN, FFTDN, and CP were significantly (P < 0.04) related to MCP synthesis, linear and quadratic effects of TDNI and FFTDN intake (FFTDNI) and CP intake (CPI) were considered as potential independent variables. Mixed model regression methods were used to fit 1-, 2-, and 3-independent-variable models based on either TDNI or FFTDNI (e.g., TDNI only, TDNI and CPI, and TDNI, CPI, and the quadratic effect of TDNI; or FFTDNI only, FFTDNI and CPI, and FFTDNI, CPI, and the quadratic effect of FFTDNI). True ruminal OM digested (TROMD; g/d) was highly related (r(2) = 0.84 using citation-adjusted data) to MCP synthesis. Similarly, both TDNI and FFTDNI were highly related to citation-adjusted TROMD (r(2) > 0.96) and MCP synthesis (r(2) > 0.89). Models with FFTDNI were slightly more precise with slightly smaller prediction errors than those with TDNI. Randomly dividing the citations into Development (60%) and Evaluation (40%) data sets indicated that models such as those derived from the overall database accounted for 46 to 56% of the variation in MCP synthesis, with neither mean nor linear bias (P ≥ 0.26). In contrast, calculating MCP as 0.13 × TDNI, with or

  16. First total synthesis and antiprotozoal activity of (Z)-17-methyl-13-octadecenoic acid, a new marine fatty acid from the sponge Polymastia penicillus

    PubMed Central

    Carballeira, Néstor M.; Montano, Nashbly; Balaña-Fouce, Rafael; Prada, Christopher Fernández

    2009-01-01

    The first total synthesis for the (Z)-17-methyl-13-octadecenoic acid was accomplished in seven steps and in a 45% overall yield. The use of (trimethylsilyl)acetylene was key in the synthesis. Based on a previous developed strategy in our laboratory the best synthetic route towards the title compound was first acetylide coupling of (trimethylsilyl)acetylene to the long-chain protected 12-bromo-1-dodecanol followed by a second acetylide coupling to the short-chain 3-methyl-1-bromobutane, which resulted in higher yields. Complete spectral data is also presented for the first time for this recently discovered fatty acid. The title compound displayed antiprotozoal activity against Leishmania donovani (EC50 = 19.8 μg/ml) and inhibited the leishmania DNA topoisomerase IB at concentrations of 50 μM. PMID:19527698

  17. Total Synthesis of the Antitumor Antibiotic (±)-Streptonigrin: First- and Second-Generation Routes for de Novo Pyridine Formation Using Ring-Closing Metathesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The total synthesis of (±)-streptonigrin, a potent tetracyclic aminoquinoline-5,8-dione antitumor antibiotic that reached phase II clinical trials in the 1970s, is described. Two routes to construct a key pentasubstituted pyridine fragment are depicted, both relying on ring-closing metathesis but differing in the substitution and complexity of the precursor to cyclization. Both routes are short and high yielding, with the second-generation approach ultimately furnishing (±)-streptonigrin in 14 linear steps and 11% overall yield from inexpensive ethyl glyoxalate. This synthesis will allow for the design and creation of druglike late-stage natural product analogues to address pharmacological limitations. Furthermore, assessment of a number of chiral ligands in a challenging asymmetric Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reaction has enabled enantioenriched (up to 42% ee) synthetic streptonigrin intermediates to be prepared for the first time. PMID:24328139

  18. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Heronamides A-C: Stereochemical Confirmation and Impact of Long-Range Stereochemical Communication on the Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Kanoh, Naoki; Itoh, Shunya; Fujita, Kohei; Sakanishi, Kohei; Sugiyama, Ryosuke; Terajima, Yuta; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu; Nishimura, Shinichi; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2016-06-13

    Heronamides are biosynthetically related metabolites isolated from marine-derived actinomycetes. Heronamide C shows potent antifungal activity by targeting membrane phospholipids possessing saturated hydrocarbon chains with as-yet-unrevealed modes of action. In spite of their curious hypothesized biosynthesis and fascinating biological activities, there have been conflicts in regard to the reported stereochemistries of heronamides. Here, we describe the asymmetric total synthesis of the originally proposed and revised structures of heronamide C, which unambiguously confirmed the chemical structure of this molecule. We also demonstrated nonenzymatic synthesis of heronamides A and B from heronamide C, which not only proved the postulated biosynthesis, but also confirmed the correct structures of heronamides A and B. Investigation of the structure-activity relationship of synthetic and natural heronamides revealed the importance of both long-range stereochemical communication and the 20-membered macrolactam ring for the biological activity of these compounds. PMID:27171897

  19. Total synthesis of buckminsterfullerene (C60) and endohedral metal complexes. Final report, 1 March 1994-28 February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Y.F.

    1997-08-11

    A summary of our work aimed at the synthesis of a variety of endohedral metal complexes of fullerenes is presented. The completion of the synthesis of suitable highly unsaturated macrocyclic precursors containing 60 carbon atoms is described. These compounds were required to study their rearrangement to a fullerene framework in a process analogous to the gas-phase rearrangement of mono- and polycyclic polyynes (acetylenic rings) in the formation of C60 and higher fullerenes. Three types of synthetic acetylenic precursors were targeted, namely triply-linked bis-benzene-cyclophanes with octayne linking units, sextuply-linked bis-benzene-cyclophanes with tetrayne linkers, and deca-alkynylated metallocenes which include a metal in their structure early in the synthesis. The rearrangement to C60 of the first examples of these compounds has been studied in the gas phase by LDMS and in solution by various chemical reactions. Another aspect of our work was initiated by the successful opening of the largest orifice on the framework of C60 known to date in the form of a cobalt(III) complex of ethenobisfulleroid C64H4. This strategy is being applied in a double fashion on adjacent sites of the surface of C60 to form an even larger opening, aimed at eventual metal insertion inside the cage.

  20. Radical Beckmann Rearrangement and Its Application in the Formal Total Synthesis of Antimalarial Natural Product Isocryptolepine via C-H Activation.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Pankaj S; Humne, Vivek T; Tanpure, Subhash D; Mhaske, Santosh B

    2016-07-15

    The Beckmann rearrangement of ketoximes, mediated by ammonium persulfate-dimethyl sulfoxide as a reagent, has been achieved under neutral conditions. Based on the radical trapping and (18)O-labeling experiments, the transformation follows a mechanism involving a radical pathway. The scope and generality of the developed protocol has been demonstrated by 19 examples. The developed protocol and Pd-catalyzed intramolecular double C-H activation were used as key steps in the formal total synthesis of antimalarial natural product isocryptolepine. PMID:27377995

  1. Diverted Total Synthesis of Promysalin Analogs Demonstrates That an Iron-Binding Motif Is Responsible for Its Narrow-Spectrum Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Steele, Andrew D; Keohane, Colleen E; Knouse, Kyle W; Rossiter, Sean E; Williams, Sierra J; Wuest, William M

    2016-05-11

    Promysalin is a species-specific Pseudomonad metabolite with unique bioactivity. To better understand the mode of action of this natural product, we synthesized 16 analogs utilizing diverted total synthesis (DTS). Our analog studies revealed that the bioactivity of promysalin is sensitive to changes within its hydrogen bond network whereby alteration has drastic biological consequences. The DTS library not only yielded three analogs that retained potency but also provided insights that resulted in the identification of a previously unknown ability of promysalin to bind iron. These findings coupled with previous observations hint at a complex multifaceted role of the natural product within the rhizosphere. PMID:27096543

  2. Total Synthesis and Biological Studies of TMC-205 and Analogues as Anticancer Agents and Activators of SV40 Promoter

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    TMC-205 is a natural fungal metabolite with antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines. The light- and air-sensitivity prevented in-depth exploitation of this novel indole derivative. Herein, we report the first synthesis of TMC-205. On the basis of its reactivity with reactive oxygen species, we developed air-stable analogues of TMC-205. These analogues are 2–8-fold more cytotoxic than TMC-205 against HCT-116 colon cancer cell line. Importantly, at noncytotoxic dose levels, these analogues activated the transcription of luciferase reporter gene driven by simian virus 40 promoter (SV40). Further, these small molecules also inhibit firefly luciferase, presumably by direct interaction. PMID:25147604

  3. Improved Total Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Potent Apratoxin S4 Based Anticancer Agents with Differential Stability and Further Enhanced Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Apratoxins are cytotoxic natural products originally isolated from marine cyanobacteria that act by preventing cotranslational translocation early in the secretory pathway to downregulate receptor levels and inhibit growth factor secretion, leading to potent antiproliferative activity. Through rational design and total synthesis of an apratoxin A/E hybrid, apratoxin S4 (1a), we have previously improved the antitumor activity and tolerability in vivo. Compound 1a and newly designed analogues apratoxins S7–S9 (1b–d), with various degrees of methylation at C34 (1b,c) or epimeric configuration at C30 (1d), were efficiently synthesized utilizing improved procedures. Optimizations have been applied to the synthesis of key intermediate aldehyde 7 and further include the application of Leighton’s silanes and modifications of Kelly’s methods to induce thiazoline ring formation in other crucial steps of the apratoxin synthesis. Apratoxin S9 (1d) exhibited increased activity with subnanomolar potency. Apratoxin S8 (1c) lacks the propensity to be deactivated by dehydration and showed efficacy in a human HCT116 xenograft mouse model. PMID:24660812

  4. Total Chemical Synthesis of a Heterodimeric Interchain Bis-Lactam-Linked Peptide: Application to an Analogue of Human Insulin-Like Peptide 3

    PubMed Central

    Karas, John; Shabanpoor, Fazel; Hossain, Mohammed Akhter; Wade, John D.; Scanlon, Denis B.

    2013-01-01

    Nonreducible cystine isosteres represent important peptide design elements in that they can maintain a near-native tertiary conformation of the peptide while simultaneously extending the in vitro and in vivo half-life of the biomolecule. Examples of these cystine mimics include dicarba, diselenide, thioether, triazole, and lactam bridges. Each has unique physicochemical properties that impact upon the resulting peptide conformation. Each also requires specific conditions for its formation via chemical peptide synthesis protocols. While the preparation of peptides containing two lactam bonds within a peptide is technically possible and reported by others, to date there has been no report of the chemical synthesis of a heterodimeric peptide linked by two lactam bonds. To examine the feasibility of such an assembly, judicious use of a complementary combination of amine and acid protecting groups together with nonfragment-based, total stepwise solid phase peptide synthesis led to the successful preparation of an analogue of the model peptide, insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3), in which both of the interchain disulfide bonds were replaced with a lactam bond. An analogue containing a single disulfide-substituted interchain lactam bond was also prepared. Both INSL3 analogues retained significant cognate RXFP2 receptor binding affinity. PMID:24288548

  5. Chitosan as a sustainable organocatalyst: a concise overview.

    PubMed

    El Kadib, Abdelkrim

    2015-01-01

    Increased demand for more sustainable materials and chemical processes has tremendously advanced the use of polysaccharides, which are natural biopolymers, in domains such as adsorption, catalysis, and as an alternative chemical feedstock. Among these biopolymers, the use of chitosan, which is obtained by deacetylation of natural chitin, is on the increase due to the presence of amino groups on the polymer backbone that makes it a natural cationic polymer. The ability of chitosan-based materials to form open-network, macroporous, high-surface-area hydrogels with accessible basic surface sites has enabled their use not only as macrochelating ligands for active metal catalysts and as a support to disperse nanosized particles, but also as a direct organocatalyst. This review provides a concise overview of the use of native and modified chitosan, possessing different textural properties and chemical properties, as organocatalysts. Organocatalysis with chitosan is primarily focused on carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, multicomponent heterocycle formation reactions, biodiesel production, and carbon dioxide fixation through [3+2] cycloaddition. Furthermore, the chiral, helical organization of the chitosan skeleton lends itself to use in enantioselective catalysis. Chitosan derivatives generally display reactivity similar to homogeneous bases, ionic liquids, and organic and inorganic salts. However, the introduction of cooperative acid-base interactions at active sites substantially enhances reactivity. These functional biopolymers can also be easily recovered and reused several times under solvent-free conditions. These accomplishments highlight the important role that natural biopolymers play in furthering more sustainable chemistry. PMID:25470553

  6. Facile Access to Sterically Hindered Aryl Ketones via Carbonylative Cross-Coupling: Application to the Total Synthesis of Luteolin

    PubMed Central

    O’Keefe, B. Michael; Simmons, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    A general and mild protocol for achieving the carbonylative cross-coupling of sterically-hindered, ortho-disubstituted aryl ketones is reported. The commercially available PEPPSI-IPr catalyst is shown to efficiently promote the carbonylative cross-coupling of hindered ortho-disubstituted aryl iodides to give diaryl ketones; traditional phosphine catalysts are less effective. Carbonylative Suzuki-Miyaura cross-couplings provide a diverse array of biaryl ketones in good to excellent yields. The same catalyst is also shown to catalyze a carbonylative Negishi cross-coupling reaction, utilizing a variety of alkynyl zinc reagents to give the corresponding alkynyl aryl ketones. Application of this new methodology to the synthesis of the natural product luteolin is reported. PMID:21712966

  7. Catalytic asymmetric Claisen rearrangement of Gosteli-type allyl vinyl ethers: total synthesis of (-)-9,10-dihydroecklonialactone B.

    PubMed

    Becker, Julia; Butt, Lena; von Kiedrowski, Valeska; Mischler, Elisabeth; Quentin, Florian; Hiersemann, Martin

    2014-04-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of (-)-9,10-dihydroecklonialactone B is described. The catalytic asymmetric Claisen rearrangement of a Gosteli-type allyl vinyl ether was utilized to afford an acyclic α-keto ester building block endowed with functionality amenable to the preparation of the carbocyclic target molecule by suitable postrearrangement transformations: A highly diastereoselective Corey-Bakshi-Shibata reduction of a β-chiral α-keto ester and a reductive homologation of an α-hydroxy ester. A transprotection tactic by a chemoselective intramolecular 6-exo-trig iodoetherification enabled regioselective ring-closing alkene metatheses to afford the 5- as well as the 14-membered ring, however, with mixed success in terms of E/Z selectivity. PMID:24621347

  8. Total Synthesis, Stereochemical Assignment, and Field-Testing of the Sex Pheromone of the Strepsipteran Xenos peckii.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Huimin; Hrabar, Michael; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard; Britton, Robert

    2016-04-25

    The sex pheromone of the endoparasitoid insect Xenos peckii (Strepsiptera: Xenidae) was recently identified as (7E,11E)-3,5,9,11-tetramethyl-7,11-tridecadienal. Herein we report the asymmetric synthesis of three candidate stereostructures for this pheromone using a synthetic strategy that relies on an sp(3) -sp(2) Suzuki-Miyaura coupling to construct the correctly configured C7-alkene function. Comparison of (1) H NMR spectra derived from the candidate stereostructures to that of the natural sex pheromone indicated a relative configuration of (3R*,5S*,9R*). Chiral gas chromatographic (GC) analyses of these compounds supported an assignment of (3R,5S,9R) for the natural product. Furthermore, in a 16-replicate field experiment, traps baited with the synthetic (3R,5S,9R)-enantiomer alone or in combination with the (3S,5R,9S)-enantiomer captured 23 and 18 X. peckii males, respectively (mean±SE: 1.4±0.33 and 1.1±0.39), whereas traps baited with the synthetic (3S,5R,9S)-enantiomer or a solvent control yielded no captures of males. These strong field trapping data, in combination with spectroscopic and chiral GC data, unambiguously demonstrate that (3R,5S,9R,7E,11E)-3,5,9,11-tetramethyl-7,11-tridecadienal is the X. peckii sex pheromone. PMID:27001535

  9. Total Synthesis of Pinnatoxins A and G and Revision of the Mode of Action of Pinnatoxin A

    PubMed Central

    Araoz, Romulo; Servent, Denis; Molgó, Jordi; Iorga, Bogdan I.; Fruchart-Gaillard, Carole; Benoit, Evelyne; Gu, Zhenhua; Stivala, Craig; Zakarian, Armen

    2012-01-01

    Pinnatoxins belong to an emerging class of potent marine toxins of the cyclic imine group. Detailed studies of their biological effects have been impeded by unavailability of the complex natural product from natural sources. This work describes the development of a robust, scalable synthetic sequence relying on a convergent strategy that delivered a sufficient amount of the toxin for detailed biological studies and its commercialization for use by other research groups and regulatory agencies. A central transformation in the synthesis is the highly diastereoselective Ireland–Claisen rearrangement of a complex α,α-disubstituted allylic ester based on a unique mode for stereoselective enolization through a chirality match between the substrate and the lithium amide base. With synthetic pinnatoxin A, a detailed study has been performed that provides conclusive evidence for its mode of action as a potent inhibitor of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors selective for the human neuronal α7 subtype. The comprehensive electrophysiological, biochemical, and computational studies support the view that the spiroimine subunit of pinnatoxins is critical for blocking nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes, as evidenced by analyzing the effect of a synthetic analogue of pinnatoxin A containing an open form of the imine ring. Our studies have paved the way for the production of certified standards to be used for mass-spectrometric determination of these toxins in marine matrices and for the development of tests to detect these toxins in contaminated shellfish. PMID:21644584

  10. Total synthesis of pinnatoxins A and G and revision of the mode of action of pinnatoxin A.

    PubMed

    Araoz, Romulo; Servent, Denis; Molgó, Jordi; Iorga, Bogdan I; Fruchart-Gaillard, Carole; Benoit, Evelyne; Gu, Zhenhua; Stivala, Craig; Zakarian, Armen

    2011-07-13

    Pinnatoxins belong to an emerging class of potent marine toxins of the cyclic imine group. Detailed studies of their biological effects have been impeded by unavailability of the complex natural product from natural sources. This work describes the development of a robust, scalable synthetic sequence relying on a convergent strategy that delivered a sufficient amount of the toxin for detailed biological studies and its commercialization for use by other research groups and regulatory agencies. A central transformation in the synthesis is the highly diastereoselective Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of a complex α,α-disubstituted allylic ester based on a unique mode for stereoselective enolization through a chirality match between the substrate and the lithium amide base. With synthetic pinnatoxin A, a detailed study has been performed that provides conclusive evidence for its mode of action as a potent inhibitor of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors selective for the human neuronal α7 subtype. The comprehensive electrophysiological, biochemical, and computational studies support the view that the spiroimine subunit of pinnatoxins is critical for blocking nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes, as evidenced by analyzing the effect of a synthetic analogue of pinnatoxin A containing an open form of the imine ring. Our studies have paved the way for the production of certified standards to be used for mass-spectrometric determination of these toxins in marine matrices and for the development of tests to detect these toxins in contaminated shellfish. PMID:21644584

  11. Total Synthesis of Aurantoside G, an N-β-Glycosylated 3-Oligoenoyltetramic Acid from Theonella swinhoei.

    PubMed

    Petermichl, Markus; Loscher, Sebastian; Schobert, Rainer

    2016-08-16

    The first synthesis of a natural N-glycosylated 3-acyltetramic acid is reported. Aurantoside G (1 g), a deep-red metabolite of the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei, is highly delicate in the pure state. It features a chlorinated dodecapentaenoyl side chain at an l-asparagine-derived tetramic acid, the ring nitrogen atom of which is linked to a β-configured d-xylose. The side chain was built through consecutive Wittig and HWE reactions and used to N-acylate the amino group of an asparaginate that had already been N-xylosylated through a Fukuyama-Mitsunobu reaction. This N-acylation step fixes the β-configuration of the xylose, which is essential for the antifungal activity, but only if the sugar carries bulky, electron-rich protecting groups such as PMB. In the final step, the heterocycle was closed quantitatively through a basic Lacey-Dieckmann condensation of an entirely unprotected precursor. PMID:27304208

  12. Total synthesis of 8-(6″-umbelliferyl)-apigenin and its analogs as anti-diabetic reagents.

    PubMed

    Pan, Guojun; Zhao, Lianbo; Xiao, Na; Yang, Ke; Ma, Yantao; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Yongmin; Yao, Qingwei; Lu, Kui; Yu, Peng

    2016-10-21

    The naturally occurring flavone 8-(6″-umbelliferyl)apigenin, a hybrid structure of apigenin and coumarin, as well as seven of its analogues were synthesized for the first time by using iodination and Suzuki coupling reactions as key steps. The synthesis of 8-(6″-umbelliferyl)-apigenin was achieved in seven linear steps from the commercially available 1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)ethan-1-one and 7-hydroxyl coumarine with 31% overall yield. Effects of these compounds on glucose disposal were investigated in adipocytes. All of the flavonoid and coumarin hydrids were found to have better bioactivities than their corresponding flavonoid cores. The most potent compound 15 (10 μΜ) could promote glucose consumption by 57% which exhibited similar effect as the positive control metformin at 1 mM. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy showed that four 8-(6″-umbelliferyl)apigenin analogues 2, 15, 30 and 31 could promote the 2-NBDG uptake into 3T3-L1 cells, which consist with those observed in the regulation of glucose. PMID:27448923

  13. Enantioselective cyclization of enamide-ynes and application to the synthesis of the kopsifoline core

    PubMed Central

    Corkey, Britton K.; Heller, Stephen T.; Wang, Yi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    We report the palladium-catalyzed enantioselective cyclization of 1,6-enamidynes to form spirocyclic ring systems. We applied this methodology to the concise synthesis of the skeletal core of the kopsifoline alkaloids. PMID:23772095

  14. Synthesis of labeled meropenem for the analysis of M. tuberculosis transpeptidases

    PubMed Central

    Kastrinsky, David B.; Barry, Clifton E.

    2009-01-01

    A concise synthesis of 14C labeled meropenem prepared from 14C dimethylamine hydrochloride is described. Using a similar reaction sequence, the meropenem nucleus was also attached to biotin providing a probe for protein interaction studies. PMID:20161438

  15. Enantiospecific total synthesis of the important biogenetic intermediates along the ajmaline pathway, (+)-polyneuridine and (+)-polyneuridine aldehyde, as well as 16-epivellosimine and macusine A.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wenyuan; Kabir, M Shahjahan; Wang, Zhijian; Rallapalli, Sundari K; Ma, Jun; Cook, James M

    2010-05-21

    The first stereospecific synthesis of polyneuridine aldehyde (6), 16-epivellosimine (7), (+)-polyneuridine (8), and (+)-macusine A (9) has been accomplished from commercially available d-(+)-tryptophan methyl ester. d-(+)-Tryptophan has served here both as the chiral auxiliary and the starting material for the synthesis of the common intermediate, (+)-vellosimine (13). This alkaloid was available in enantiospecific fashion in seven reaction vessels in 27% overall yield from d-(+)-trytophan methyl ester (14) via a combination of the asymmetric Pictet-Spengler reaction, Dieckmann cyclization, and a stereocontrolled intramolecular enolate-driven palladium-mediated cross-coupling reaction. A new process for this stereocontrolled intramolecular cross-coupling has been developed via a copper-mediated process. The initial results of this investigation indicated that an enolate-driven palladium-mediated cross-coupling reaction can be accomplished by a copper-mediated process which is less expensive and much easier to work up. An enantiospecific total synthesis of (+)-polyneuridine aldehyde (6), which has been proposed as an important biogenetic intermediate in the biosynthesis of quebrachidine (2), was then accomplished in an overall yield of 14.1% in 13 reaction vessels from d-(+)-tryptophan methyl ester (14). Aldehyde 13 was protected as the N(a)-Boc aldehyde 32 and then converted into the prochiral C(16)-quaternary diol 12 via the practical Tollens' reaction and deprotection. The DDQ-mediated oxidative cyclization and TFA/Et(3)SiH reductive cleavage served as protection/deprotection steps to provide a versatile entry into the three alkaloids polyneuridine aldehyde (6), polyneuridine (8), and macusine A (9) from the quarternary diol 12. The oxidation of the 16-hydroxymethyl group present in the axial position was achieved with the Corey-Kim reagent to provide the desired beta-axial aldehydes, polyneuridine aldehyde (6), and 16-epivellosimine (7) with 100

  16. A Unified Strategy for Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Cladiellin and Briarellin Diterpenes: Total Synthesis of Briarellins E and F, and the Putative Structure of Alcyonin and Revision of Its Structure Assignment

    PubMed Central

    Corminboeuf, Olivier; Overman, Larry E.; Pennington, Lewis D.

    2009-01-01

    Enantioselective total syntheses of briarellin E (12) and briarellin F (13), as well as the structure originally proposed for the cladiellin diterpene alcyonin (10), have been realized. Comparison of the spectral data for synthetic 10, natural alcyonin, cladiellisin (33), and cladiellaperoxide (34), as well as chemical transformations of 10 and natural alcyonin, suggest that the structure of this coral metabolite is allylic peroxide 11. The unified approach detailed herein can be used to access both C4-deoxygenated and C4-oxygenated cladiellins and briarellins. The central step in these syntheses is acid-promoted condensation of (Z)-α,β-unsaturated aldehydes 17 with cyclohexadienyl diols 18, to form intermediates 16 incorporating the hexahydroisobenzofuran core and five stereocenters of these marine diterpenes (Scheme 1). PMID:19534538

  17. Stereospecific Approach to the Synthesis of Ring-A Oxygenated Sarpagine Indole Alkaloids. Total Synthesis of the Dimeric Indole Alkaloid P-(+)-Dispegatrine and Six Other Monomeric Indole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Edwankar, Chitra R.; Edwankar, Rahul V.; Namjoshi, Ojas A.; Liao, Xuebin

    2013-01-01

    The first regio- and stereocontrolled total synthesis of the bisphenolic, bisquaternary alkaloid (+)-dispegatrine (1) has been accomplished in an overall yield of 8.3% (12 reaction vessels) from 5-methoxy-D-tryptophan ethyl ester (17). A crucial late-stage thallium(III) mediated intermolecular oxidative dehydrodimerization was employed in the formation of the C9-C9′ biaryl axis in 1. The complete stereocontrol observed in this key biaryl coupling step is due to the asymmetric induction by the natural sarpagine configuration of the monomer lochnerine (6) and was confirmed by both the Suzuki and the oxidative dehydrodimerization model studies on the tetrahydro β-carboline (35). The axial chirality of the lochnerine dimer (40) and in turn dispegatrine (1) was established by X-ray crystallography and was determined to be P(S). Additionally, the first total synthesis of the monomeric indole alkaloids (+)-spegatrine (2), (+)-10-methoxyvellosimine (5), (+)-lochnerine (6), lochvinerine (7), (+)-sarpagine (8), and (+)-lochneram (11) were also achieved via the common pentacyclic intermediate 16. PMID:23721107

  18. Stereospecific approach to the synthesis of ring-A oxygenated sarpagine indole alkaloids. Total synthesis of the dimeric indole alkaloid P-(+)-dispegatrine and six other monomeric indole alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Edwankar, Chitra R; Edwankar, Rahul V; Namjoshi, Ojas A; Liao, Xuebin; Cook, James M

    2013-07-01

    The first regio- and stereocontrolled total synthesis of the bisphenolic, bisquaternary alkaloid (+)-dispegatrine (1) has been accomplished in an overall yield of 8.3% (12 reaction vessels) from 5-methoxy-d-tryptophan ethyl ester (17). A crucial late-stage thallium(III) mediated intermolecular oxidative dehydrodimerization was employed in the formation of the C9-C9' biaryl axis in 1. The complete stereocontrol observed in this key biaryl coupling step is due to the asymmetric induction by the natural sarpagine configuration of the monomer lochnerine (6) and was confirmed by both the Suzuki and the oxidative dehydrodimerization model studies on the tetrahydro β-carboline (35). The axial chirality of the lochnerine dimer (40) and in turn dispegatrine (1) was established by X-ray crystallography and was determined to be P(S). Additionally, the first total synthesis of the monomeric indole alkaloids (+)-spegatrine (2), (+)-10-methoxyvellosimine (5), (+)-lochnerine (6), lochvinerine (7), (+)-sarpagine (8), and (+)-lochneram (11) were also achieved via the common pentacyclic intermediate 16. PMID:23721107

  19. First total synthesis and antileishmanial activity of (Z)-16-methyl-11-heptadecenoic acid, a new marine fatty acid from the sponge Dragmaxia undata

    PubMed Central

    Carballeira, Néstor M.; Montano, Nashbly; Cintrón, Gabriel A.; Márquez, Carmary; Rubio, Celia Fernández; Prada, Christopher Fernández; Balaña-Fouce, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    The first total synthesis for the (Z)-16-methyl-11-heptadecenoic acid, a novel fatty acid from the sponge Dragmaxia undata, was accomplished in seven steps and in a 44% overall yield. The use of (trimethylsilyl)acetylene was key in the synthesis. Based on a previous developed strategy in our laboratory the best synthetic route towards the title compound was first acetylide coupling of (trimethylsilyl)acetylene to the long-chain protected 10-bromo-1-decanol followed by a second acetylide coupling to the short-chain 1-bromo-4-methylpentane, which resulted in higher yields. Complete spectral data is also presented for the first time for this recently discovered fatty acid and the cis double bond stereochemistry of the natural acid was established. The title compound displayed antiprotozoal activity against Leishmania donovani (IC50 = 165.5 ± 23.4 µM) and inhibited the leishmania DNA topoisomerase IB enzyme (LdTopIB) with an IC50 = 62.3 ± 0.7 µM. PMID:21129369

  20. Discovery, Total Synthesis and Key Structural Elements for the Immunosuppressive Activity of Cocosolide, a Symmetrical Glycosylated Macrolide Dimer from Marine Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Gunasekera, Sarath P; Li, Yang; Ratnayake, Ranjala; Luo, Danmeng; Lo, Jeannette; Reibenspies, Joseph H; Xu, Zhengshuang; Clare-Salzler, Michael J; Ye, Tao; Paul, Valerie J; Luesch, Hendrik

    2016-06-01

    A new dimeric macrolide xylopyranoside, cocosolide (1), was isolated from the marine cyanobacterium preliminarily identified as Symploca sp. from Guam. The structure was determined by a combination of NMR spectroscopy, HRMS, X-ray diffraction studies and Mosher's analysis of the base hydrolysis product. Its carbon skeleton closely resembles that of clavosolides A-D isolated from the sponge Myriastra clavosa, for which no bioactivity is known. We performed the first total synthesis of cocosolide (1) along with its [α,α]-anomer (26) and macrocyclic core (28), thus leading to the confirmation of the structure of natural 1. The convergent synthesis featured Wadsworth-Emmons cyclopropanation, Sakurai annulation, Yamaguchi macrocyclization/dimerization reaction, α-selective glycosidation and β-selective glycosidation. Compounds 1 and 26 potently inhibited IL-2 production in both T-cell receptor dependent and independent manners. Full activity requires the presence of the sugar moiety as well as the intact dimeric structure. Cocosolide also suppressed the proliferation of anti-CD3-stimulated T-cells in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:27139508

  1. Design, Synthesis, and Investigation of Protein Kinase C Inhibitors: Total Syntheses of (+)-Calphostin D, (+)- Phleichrome, Cercosporin and New Photoactive Perylenequinones

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Barbara J.; Dey, Sangeeta; Johnson, Steven W.; Kozlowski, Marisa C.

    2010-01-01

    The total syntheses of the PKC inhibitors (+)-calphostin D, (+)-phleichrome, cercosporin, and 10 novel perylenequinones are detailed. The highly convergent and flexible strategy developed employed an enantioselective oxidative biaryl coupling and a double cuprate epoxide opening, allowing the selective syntheses of all the possible stereoisomers in pure form. In addition, this strategy permitted rapid access to a broad range of analogs, including those not accessible from the natural products. These compounds provided a powerful means for evaluation of the perylenequinones structural features necessary to PKC activity. Simpler analogs were discovered with superior PKC inhibitory properties and superior photopotentiation in cancer cell lines relative to the more complex natural products. PMID:19489582

  2. Discovery and Total Synthesis of Streptoaminals: Antimicrobial [5,5]-Spirohemiaminals from the Combined-Culture of Streptomyces nigrescens and Tsukamurella pulmonis.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Shinichi; Ozaki, Taro; Asamizu, Shumpei; Onaka, Hiroyasu; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2016-08-22

    A series of lipidic spirohemiaminals, designated streptoaminals, is reported. These were discovered by surveying the unique molecular signatures identified in the mass spectrometry data of the combined-culture broth of Streptomyces nigrescens HEK616 and Tsukamurella pulmonis TP-B0596. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that streptoaminals appeared as a cluster of ion peaks, which were separated by 14 mass unit intervals, implying the presence of alkyl chains of different lengths. The chemical structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and total synthesis. Streptoaminals with globular structures showed broad antimicrobial activities, whereas the planar structures of the 5-alkyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines found in the same combined-culture did not. This work shows the application of microbes as reservoirs for a range of chemical scaffolds. PMID:27459894

  3. Scalable asymmetric total syntheses of (+)-Psoracorylifol B and (+)-ent-Psoracorylifol C.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingyun; Liu, Yuan; Song, Liyan; Tong, Rongbiao

    2014-06-01

    The first, asymmetric total syntheses of potent antimicrobial Psoracorylifol B (>1.3 g obtained, dr 10.5:1) with a 9.4% overall yield on a gram scale in 14 steps and ent-Psoracorylifol C with a 4.3% yield in 16 steps were achieved. The key features of our synthesis include (i) sequential, rarely explored Achmatowicz rearrangement/bicycloketalization to construct the 6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane core, and (ii) Cu-mediated SN2' methylation or Johnson-Claisen rearrangement to stereoselectively install the all-carbon quaternary stereocenter. This concise, highly efficient, and scalable synthetic route may provide expedited and practical access to psoracorylifols and their analogues for further biological activity evaluation. PMID:24819702

  4. Total Synthesis of the Galbulimima Alkaloids Himandravine and GB17 Using Biomimetic Diels–Alder Reactions of Double Diene Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Reed T.; Pemberton, Ryan P.; Franke, Jenna M.; Tantillo, Dean J.; Thomson, Regan J.

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective total syntheses of himandravine and GB17 were completed through a common biomimetic strategy involving Diels–Alder reactions of unusual double diene containing linear precursors. The double diene precursors, containing or lacking a C12 substituent as required to produce GB17 or himandravine, respectively, were found to undergo Diels–Alder reactions to afford mixtures of regioisomeric cycloadducts that map onto the alternative carbocyclic frameworks of both himandravine and GB17. Computational investigations revealed that these Diels–Alder reactions proceed via transition state structures of similar energy that have a high degree of bispericyclic character and that the low levels of regioselectivity observed in the reactions are a consequence of competing orbital interaction and distortion energies. The combined experimental and computational results provide valuable insights into the biosynthesis of the Galbulimima alkaloids. PMID:26305231

  5. Total Synthesis of the Galbulimima Alkaloids Himandravine and GB17 Using Biomimetic Diels-Alder Reactions of Double Diene Precursors.

    PubMed

    Larson, Reed T; Pemberton, Ryan P; Franke, Jenna M; Tantillo, Dean J; Thomson, Regan J

    2015-09-01

    The enantioselective total syntheses of himandravine and GB17 were completed through a common biomimetic strategy involving Diels-Alder reactions of unusual double diene containing linear precursors. The double diene precursors, containing or lacking a C12 substituent as required to produce GB17 or himandravine, respectively, were found to undergo Diels-Alder reactions to afford mixtures of regioisomeric cycloadducts that map onto the alternative carbocyclic frameworks of both himandravine and GB17. Computational investigations revealed that these Diels-Alder reactions proceed via transition state structures of similar energy that have a high degree of bispericyclic character and that the low levels of regioselectivity observed in the reactions are a consequence of competing orbital interaction and distortion energies. The combined experimental and computational results provide valuable insights into the biosynthesis of the Galbulimima alkaloids. PMID:26305231

  6. A versatile and stereocontrolled total synthesis of dihydroxylated docosatrienes containing a conjugated E,E,Z-triene.

    PubMed

    Dayaker, Gandrath; Durand, Thierry; Balas, Laurence

    2014-03-01

    A versatile strategy featuring a Colvin rearrangement, hydrozirconation, a Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction and a Z-selective Wittig olefination, was successfully developed for the construction of a conjugated E,E,Z-triene subunit, flanked on both sides by two Z-allylic hydroxyl groups. This chemical pattern is found in many endogenous lipid metabolites such as maresin 1 (MaR1), neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), and its aspirin triggered-isomer AT-NPD1, which not only counter-regulate inflammation but also actively orchestrate (at nanomolar doses) the resolution and termination program of acute inflammation while promoting wound healing, return to homeostasis and neuroprotection. Unlike previous approaches, the advantages of the present strategy are obvious, as it allows us to modify the nonpolar tail, the carboxylated head or both ends of the molecule without repeating the whole synthetic sequence (about 26-34 steps according to the literature). Thus, the first total syntheses of NPD1 methyl ester epimer (which can also be considered as an enantiomer of AT-NPD1) and its n-3 docosapentaenoic acid derived analogue were achieved from a highly functionalized and late advanced pivotal intermediate. This innovative route may be easily adapted to gain access to other dihydroxylated metabolites and analogues of polyunsaturated fatty acids containing a conjugated E,E,Z-triene subunit. Different epimers/diastereoisomers may be obtained by purchasing the suitable optically pure (S)- and/or (R)-1,2,4-butanetriol(s) as a chiral pool for both stereogenic centers. PMID:24520010

  7. Total synthesis of gracilioether F. Development and application of Lewis acid promoted ketene–alkene [2+2] cycloadditions and late-stage C—H oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Rasik, Christopher M.; Brown, M. Kevin

    2014-12-22

    The first synthesis of gracilioether F, a polyketide natural product with an unusual tricyclic core and five contiguous stereocenters, is described. Key steps of the synthesis include a Lewis acid promoted ketene–alkene [2+2] cycloaddition and a late-stage carboxylic acid directed C(sp³)—H oxidation. The synthesis requires only eight steps from norbornadiene.

  8. Revealing the Mechanisms behind SnO[subscript 2] Nanoparticle Formation and Growth during Hydrothermal Synthesis: An In Situ Total Scattering Study

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Kirsten M.Ø.; Christensen, Mogens; Juhas, Pavol; Tyrsted, Christoffer; Bøjesen, Espen D.; Lock, Nina; Billinge, Simon J.L.; Iversen, Bo B.

    2012-05-09

    The formation and growth mechanisms in the hydrothermal synthesis of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles from aqueous solutions of SnCl{sub 4} {center_dot} 5H{sub 2}O have been elucidated by means of in situ X-ray total scattering (PDF) measurements. The analysis of the data reveals that when the tin(IV) chloride precursor is dissolved, chloride ions and water coordinate octahedrally to tin(IV), forming aquachlorotin(IV) complexes of the form [SnCl{sub x}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6-x}]{sup (4-x)+} as well as hexaaquatin(IV) complexes [Sn(H{sub 2}O){sub 6-y}(OH){sub y}]{sup (4-y)+}. Upon heating, ellipsoidal SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles are formed uniquely from hexaaquatin(IV). The nanoparticle size and morphology (aspect ratio) are dependent on both the reaction temperature and the precursor concentration, and particles as small as 2 nm can be synthesized. Analysis of the growth curves shows that Ostwald ripening only takes place above 200 C, and in general the growth is limited by diffusion of precursor species to the growing particle. The c-parameter in the tetragonal lattice is observed to expand up to 0.5% for particle sizes down to 2-3 nm as compared to the bulk value. SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles below 3-4 nm do not form in the bulk rutile structure, but as an orthorhombic structural modification, which previously has only been reported at pressures above 5 GPa. Thus, adjustment of the synthesis temperature and precursor concentration not only allows control over nanoparticle size and morphology but also the structure.

  9. Total synthesis of vinblastine, related natural products, and key analogues and development of inspired methodology suitable for the systematic study of their structure-function properties.

    PubMed

    Sears, Justin E; Boger, Dale L

    2015-03-17

    Biologically active natural products composed of fascinatingly complex structures are often regarded as not amenable to traditional systematic structure-function studies enlisted in medicinal chemistry for the optimization of their properties beyond what might be accomplished by semisynthetic modification. Herein, we summarize our recent studies on the Vinca alkaloids vinblastine and vincristine, often considered as prototypical members of such natural products, that not only inspired the development of powerful new synthetic methodology designed to expedite their total synthesis but have subsequently led to the discovery of several distinct classes of new, more potent, and previously inaccessible analogues. With use of the newly developed methodology and in addition to ongoing efforts to systematically define the importance of each embedded structural feature of vinblastine, two classes of analogues already have been discovered that enhance the potency of the natural products >10-fold. In one instance, remarkable progress has also been made on the refractory problem of reducing Pgp transport responsible for clinical resistance with a series of derivatives made accessible only using the newly developed synthetic methodology. Unlike the removal of vinblastine structural features or substituents, which typically has a detrimental impact, the additions of new structural features have been found that can enhance target tubulin binding affinity and functional activity while simultaneously disrupting Pgp binding, transport, and functional resistance. Already analogues are in hand that are deserving of full preclinical development, and it is a tribute to the advances in organic synthesis that they are readily accessible even on a natural product of a complexity once thought refractory to such an approach. PMID:25586069

  10. Stereoselective and Regiodivergent Allylic Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling of 2-Ethoxydihydropyranyl Boronates: Synthesis and Confirmation of Absolute Stereochemistry of Diospongin B.

    PubMed

    Rybak, Taras; Hall, Dennis G

    2015-09-01

    Oxygen-containing heterocycles such as pyrans are a common substructure present in a variety of natural products and pharmaceutical drugs. Highly functionalized 4- and 6-aryl/heteroaryl dihydropyran derivatives are assembled by a highly stereoselective, ligand-controlled regiodivergent sp(3)-sp(2) Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of a 2-ethoxy dihydropyranyl boronate derived from a catalytic enantioselective inverse-electron-demand oxa[4 + 2] cycloaddition. The scope and selectivity of this method were assessed along with an application to a concise total synthesis of the diarylheptanoid natural product diospongin B. PMID:26291472

  11. Hydrogen Sulfide, Oxidative Stress and Periodontal Diseases: A Concise Review.

    PubMed

    Greabu, Maria; Totan, Alexandra; Miricescu, Daniela; Radulescu, Radu; Virlan, Justina; Calenic, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    In the past years, biomedical research has recognized hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) not only as an environmental pollutant but also, along with nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, as an important biological gastransmitter with paramount roles in health and disease. Current research focuses on several aspects of H₂S biology such as the biochemical pathways that generate the compound and its functions in human pathology or drug synthesis that block or stimulate its biosynthesis. The present work addresses the knowledge we have to date on H₂S production and its biological roles in the general human environment with a special focus on the oral cavity and its involvement in the initiation and development of periodontal diseases. PMID:26805896

  12. Hydrogen Sulfide, Oxidative Stress and Periodontal Diseases: A Concise Review

    PubMed Central

    Greabu, Maria; Totan, Alexandra; Miricescu, Daniela; Radulescu, Radu; Virlan, Justina; Calenic, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    In the past years, biomedical research has recognized hydrogen sulfide (H2S) not only as an environmental pollutant but also, along with nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, as an important biological gastransmitter with paramount roles in health and disease. Current research focuses on several aspects of H2S biology such as the biochemical pathways that generate the compound and its functions in human pathology or drug synthesis that block or stimulate its biosynthesis. The present work addresses the knowledge we have to date on H2S production and its biological roles in the general human environment with a special focus on the oral cavity and its involvement in the initiation and development of periodontal diseases. PMID:26805896

  13. A concise review on smart polymers for controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Aghabegi Moghanjoughi, Arezou; Khoshnevis, Dorna; Zarrabi, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Design and synthesis of efficient drug delivery systems are of critical importance in health care management. Innovations in materials chemistry especially in polymer field allows introduction of advanced drug delivery systems since polymers could provide controlled release of drugs in predetermined doses over long periods, cyclic and tunable dosages. To this end, researchers have taken advantages of smart polymers since they can undergo large reversible, chemical, or physical fluctuations as responses to small changes in environmental conditions, for instance, in pH, temperature, light, and phase transition. The present review aims to highlight various kinds of smart polymers, which are used in controlled drug delivery systems as well as mechanisms of action and their applications. PMID:26744179

  14. An improved high yield total synthesis and cytotoxicity study of the marine alkaloid neoamphimedine: an ATP-competitive inhibitor of topoisomerase IIα and potent anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Li, Linfeng; Abraham, Adedoyin D; Zhou, Qiong; Ali, Hadi; O'Brien, Jeremy V; Hamill, Brayden D; Arcaroli, John J; Messersmith, Wells A; LaBarbera, Daniel V

    2014-09-01

    Recently, we characterized neoamphimedine (neo) as an ATP-competitive inhibitor of the ATPase domain of human Topoisomerase IIα. Thus far, neo is the only pyridoacridine with this mechanism of action. One limiting factor in the development of neo as a therapeutic agent has been access to sufficient amounts of material for biological testing. Although there are two reported syntheses of neo, both require 12 steps with low overall yields (≤6%). In this article, we report an improved total synthesis of neo achieved in 10 steps with a 25% overall yield. In addition, we report an expanded cytotoxicity study using a panel of human cancer cell lines, including: breast, colorectal, lung, and leukemia. Neo displays potent cytotoxicity (nM IC50 values) in all, with significant potency against colorectal cancer (lowest IC50 = 6 nM). We show that neo is cytotoxic not cytostatic, and that neo exerts cytotoxicity by inducing G2-M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. PMID:25244109

  15. An Improved High Yield Total Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Study of the Marine Alkaloid Neoamphimedine: An ATP-Competitive Inhibitor of Topoisomerase IIα and Potent Anticancer Agent

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linfeng; Abraham, Adedoyin D.; Zhou, Qiong; Ali, Hadi; O’Brien, Jeremy V.; Hamill, Brayden D.; Arcaroli, John J.; Messersmith, Wells A.; LaBarbera, Daniel V.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we characterized neoamphimedine (neo) as an ATP-competitive inhibitor of the ATPase domain of human Topoisomerase IIα. Thus far, neo is the only pyridoacridine with this mechanism of action. One limiting factor in the development of neo as a therapeutic agent has been access to sufficient amounts of material for biological testing. Although there are two reported syntheses of neo, both require 12 steps with low overall yields (≤6%). In this article, we report an improved total synthesis of neo achieved in 10 steps with a 25% overall yield. In addition, we report an expanded cytotoxicity study using a panel of human cancer cell lines, including: breast, colorectal, lung, and leukemia. Neo displays potent cytotoxicity (nM IC50 values) in all, with significant potency against colorectal cancer (lowest IC50 = 6 nM). We show that neo is cytotoxic not cytostatic, and that neo exerts cytotoxicity by inducing G2-M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. PMID:25244109

  16. Truly Absorbed Microbial Protein Synthesis, Rumen Bypass Protein, Endogenous Protein, and Total Metabolizable Protein from Starchy and Protein-Rich Raw Materials: Model Comparison and Predictions.

    PubMed

    Parand, Ehsan; Vakili, Alireza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh; van Duinkerken, Gert; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-07-29

    This study was carried out to measure truly absorbed microbial protein synthesis, rumen bypass protein, and endogenous protein loss, as well as total metabolizable protein, from starchy and protein-rich raw feed materials with model comparisons. Predictions by the DVE2010 system as a more mechanistic model were compared with those of two other models, DVE1994 and NRC-2001, that are frequently used in common international feeding practice. DVE1994 predictions for intestinally digestible rumen undegradable protein (ARUP) for starchy concentrates were higher (27 vs 18 g/kg DM, p < 0.05, SEM = 1.2) than predictions by the NRC-2001, whereas there was no difference in predictions for ARUP from protein concentrates among the three models. DVE2010 and NRC-2001 had highest estimations of intestinally digestible microbial protein for starchy (92 g/kg DM in DVE2010 vs 46 g/kg DM in NRC-2001 and 67 g/kg DM in DVE1994, p < 0.05 SEM = 4) and protein concentrates (69 g/kg DM in NRC-2001 vs 31 g/kg DM in DVE1994 and 49 g/kg DM in DVE2010, p < 0.05 SEM = 4), respectively. Potential protein supplies predicted by tested models from starchy and protein concentrates are widely different, and comparable direct measurements are needed to evaluate the actual ability of different models to predict the potential protein supply to dairy cows from different feedstuffs. PMID:26118653

  17. Concise relation of substitution energy to macroscopic deformation in a deformed system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Wei-Lu; Fang, Q. F.; Liu, C. S.; Huang, Qun-Ying; Wu, Yi-Can

    2011-12-01

    An ab initio study of the effect of macroscopic deformation on energetics of twelve alloying elements in bcc Fe has been performed under three specially designed strain modes. A concise relation of the macroscopic deformation effect on the substitution energy of alloying elements with linear dependences on defect formation volume and relative volume change was found. Based on this concise relationship, the following behaviors can be predicted by comparing defect formation volumes: the strain-induced solubility change of alloying atoms and then the degree or possibility of redistribution and segregation of alloying atoms, the stability transition between monovacancy and divacancy, and self-interstitial atom reorientation under heavy loading.

  18. Total Radiosynthesis: Thinking outside “the box”

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Steven H.; Vasdev, Neil

    2016-01-01

    . As with the vast majority of drugs, most radiotracers also fail, therefore expeditious evaluation of tracers in preclinical models prior to optimization or derivatization of the lead molecules/drugs is necessary. Furthermore the exact position of the 11C and 18F radionuclide in tracers is often critical for metabolic considerations, and flexible methodologies to introduce the radiolabel are needed. Using the principles of total synthesis our laboratory and others have shown that multi-step radiochemical reactions are indeed suitable for preclinical and even clinical use. As the goal of total synthesis is to be concise, we have also simplified the syntheses of radiopharmaceuticals. We are presently developing new strategies via [11C]CO2 fixation which has enabled library radiosynthesis as well as labeling non-activated arenes using [18F]fluoride via iodonium ylides. Both of which have proven to be suitable for human PET imaging. We concurrently utilize state-of-the-art automation technologies including microfluidic flow chemistry and rapid purification strategies for radiopharmaceutical production. In this account we highlight how total radiosynthesis has impacted our radiochemistry program, with prominent examples from others, focusing on its impact towards preclinical and clinical research studies. PMID:27512156

  19. Synthesis-atomic structure-properties relationships in metallic nanoparticles by total scattering experiments and 3D computer simulations: case of Pt-Ru nanoalloy catalysts.

    PubMed

    Prasai, Binay; Ren, Yang; Shan, Shiyao; Zhao, Yinguang; Cronk, Hannah; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Petkov, Valeri

    2015-05-01

    An approach to determining the 3D atomic structure of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) in fine detail and using the unique knowledge obtained for rationalizing their synthesis and properties targeted for optimization is described and exemplified on Pt-Ru alloy NPs of importance to the development of devices for clean energy conversion such as fuel cells. In particular, PtxRu100-x alloy NPs, where x = 31, 49 and 75, are synthesized by wet chemistry and activated catalytically by a post-synthesis treatment involving heating under controlled N2-H2 atmosphere. So-activated NPs are evaluated as catalysts for gas-phase CO oxidation and ethanol electro-oxidation reactions taking place in fuel cells. Both as-synthesized and activated NPs are characterized structurally by total scattering experiments involving high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction coupled to atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs) analysis. 3D structure models both for as-synthesized and activated NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modelling Sutton-Chen method. Models are refined against the experimental PDF data by reverse Monte Carlo simulations and analysed in terms of prime structural characteristics such as metal-to-metal bond lengths, bond angles and first coordination numbers for Pt and Ru atoms. Analysis indicates that, though of a similar type, the atomic structure of as-synthesized and respective activated NPs differ in several details of importance to NP catalytic properties. Structural characteristics of activated NPs and data for their catalytic activity are compared side by side and strong evidence found that electronic effects, indicated by significant changes in Pt-Pt and Ru-Ru metal bond lengths at NP surface, and practically unrecognized so far atomic ensemble effects, indicated by distinct stacking of atomic layers near NP surface and prevalence of particular configurations of Pt and Ru atoms in these layers, contribute to the

  20. A concise synthesis and evaluation of new malonamide derivatives as potential α-glucosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Barakat, Assem; Al-Majid, Abdullah M; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Rahman, A F M Motiur; Javaid, Kulsoom; Imad, Rehan; Yousuf, Sammer; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2016-04-15

    A series of new malonamide derivatives were synthesized by Michael addition reaction of N(1),N(3)-di(pyridin-2-yl)malonamide into α,β-unsaturated ketones mediated by DBU in DCM at ambient temperature. The inhibitory potential of these compounds in vitro, against α-glucosidase enzyme was evaluated. Result showed that most of malonamide derivatives were identified as a potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase enzyme. Among all the compounds, 4K (IC50=11.7±0.5μM) was found out as the most active one compared to standard drug acarbose (IC50=840±1.73μM). Further cytotoxicity of 4a-4m were also evaluated against a number of cancer and normal cell lines and interesting results were obtained. PMID:26972921

  1. Cu/Mn co-oxidized cyclization for the synthesis of highly substituted pyrrole derivatives from amino acid esters: a strategy for the biomimetic syntheses of lycogarubin C and chromopyrrolic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nini; Xie, Tao; Liu, Lin; Xie, Zhixiang

    2014-07-01

    An effective and concise approach to synthesis of tetrasubstituted pyrroles from readily available amino acid esters by the promotion of Cu(OAc)2 in conjunction with Mn(OAc)3 has been developed. This reaction proceeds through multiple dehydrogenations, deamination, and oxidative cyclization. This oxidized system tolerates substrates bearing various electron-donating or electron-withdrawing groups. With this methodology, several key intermediates of natural products have been effectively prepared, and the total syntheses of lycogarubin C and chromopyrrolic acid have been completed in high efficiency. PMID:24921938

  2. Synthesis-atomic structure-properties relationships in metallic nanoparticles by total scattering experiments and 3D computer simulations: case of Pt-Ru nanoalloy catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasai, Binay; Ren, Yang; Shan, Shiyao; Zhao, Yinguang; Cronk, Hannah; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Petkov, Valeri

    2015-04-01

    An approach to determining the 3D atomic structure of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) in fine detail and using the unique knowledge obtained for rationalizing their synthesis and properties targeted for optimization is described and exemplified on Pt-Ru alloy NPs of importance to the development of devices for clean energy conversion such as fuel cells. In particular, PtxRu100-x alloy NPs, where x = 31, 49 and 75, are synthesized by wet chemistry and activated catalytically by a post-synthesis treatment involving heating under controlled N2-H2 atmosphere. So-activated NPs are evaluated as catalysts for gas-phase CO oxidation and ethanol electro-oxidation reactions taking place in fuel cells. Both as-synthesized and activated NPs are characterized structurally by total scattering experiments involving high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction coupled to atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs) analysis. 3D structure models both for as-synthesized and activated NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modelling Sutton-Chen method. Models are refined against the experimental PDF data by reverse Monte Carlo simulations and analysed in terms of prime structural characteristics such as metal-to-metal bond lengths, bond angles and first coordination numbers for Pt and Ru atoms. Analysis indicates that, though of a similar type, the atomic structure of as-synthesized and respective activated NPs differ in several details of importance to NP catalytic properties. Structural characteristics of activated NPs and data for their catalytic activity are compared side by side and strong evidence found that electronic effects, indicated by significant changes in Pt-Pt and Ru-Ru metal bond lengths at NP surface, and practically unrecognized so far atomic ensemble effects, indicated by distinct stacking of atomic layers near NP surface and prevalence of particular configurations of Pt and Ru atoms in these layers, contribute to the

  3. 22 CFR 216.9 - Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues. 216.9 Section 216.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... United States and one or more foreign countries or by an international body or organization in which...

  4. 22 CFR 216.9 - Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reviews of environmental issues. 216.9 Section 216.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... environmental issues. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in these procedures, the Administrator may... United States is a member or participant; or (b) Concise reviews of the environmental issues...

  5. 22 CFR 216.9 - Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... reviews of environmental issues. 216.9 Section 216.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... environmental issues. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in these procedures, the Administrator may... United States is a member or participant; or (b) Concise reviews of the environmental issues...

  6. 22 CFR 216.9 - Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... reviews of environmental issues. 216.9 Section 216.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... environmental issues. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in these procedures, the Administrator may... United States is a member or participant; or (b) Concise reviews of the environmental issues...

  7. The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen Ph; Davenport, Anthony P; Kelly, Eamonn; Marrion, Neil; Peters, John A; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Southan, Christopher; Davies, Jamie A

    2015-12-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 1750 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.13348/full. G protein-coupled receptors are one of the eight major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being: ligand-gated ion channels, voltage-gated ion channels, other ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors, enzymes and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The Concise Guide is published in landscape format in order to facilitate comparison of related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2015, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in the previous Guides to Receptors & Channels and the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and GRAC and provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:26650439

  8. The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Nuclear hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen Ph; Cidlowski, John A; Kelly, Eamonn; Marrion, Neil; Peters, John A; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Southan, Christopher; Davies, Jamie A

    2015-12-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 1750 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.13352/full. Nuclear hormone receptors are one of the eight major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being: G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, voltage-gated ion channels, other ion channels, catalytic receptors, enzymes and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The Concise Guide is published in landscape format in order to facilitate comparison of related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2015, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in the previous Guides to Receptors & Channels and the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and GRAC and provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:26650443

  9. The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Voltage-gated ion channels.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen Ph; Catterall, William A; Kelly, Eamonn; Marrion, Neil; Peters, John A; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Southan, Christopher; Davies, Jamie A

    2015-12-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 1750 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.13350/full. Voltage-gated ion channels are one of the eight major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being: G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, other ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors, enzymes and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The Concise Guide is published in landscape format in order to facilitate comparison of related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2015, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in the previous Guides to Receptors & Channels and the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and GRAC and provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:26650441

  10. The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Other ion channels.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen Ph; Kelly, Eamonn; Marrion, Neil; Peters, John A; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Southan, Christopher; Davies, Jamie A

    2015-12-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 1750 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.13351/full. Other ion channels are one of the eight major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being: G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, voltage-gated ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors, enzymes and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The Concise Guide is published in landscape format in order to facilitate comparison of related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2015, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in the previous Guides to Receptors & Channels and the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and GRAC and provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:26650442

  11. The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Ligand-gated ion channels.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen Ph; Peters, John A; Kelly, Eamonn; Marrion, Neil; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Sharman, Joanna L; Southan, Christopher; Davies, Jamie A

    2015-12-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 1750 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.13349/full. Ligand-gated ion channels are one of the eight major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being: ligand-gated ion channels, voltage-gated ion channels, other ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors, enzymes and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The Concise Guide is published in landscape format in order to facilitate comparison of related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2015, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in the previous Guides to Receptors & Channels and the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and GRAC and provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. PMID:26650440

  12. The Affective Reactivity Index: A Concise Irritability Scale for Clinical and Research Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringaris, Argyris; Goodman, Robert; Ferdinando, Sumudu; Razdan, Varun; Muhrer, Eli; Leibenluft, Ellen; Brotman, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Irritable mood has recently become a matter of intense scientific interest. Here, we present data from two samples, one from the United States and the other from the United Kingdom, demonstrating the clinical and research utility of the parent- and self-report forms of the Affective Reactivity Index (ARI), a concise dimensional measure…

  13. 22 CFR 216.9 - Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues. 216.9 Section 216.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... United States and one or more foreign countries or by an international body or organization in which...

  14. Total synthesis of cyclomarins A, C and D, marine cyclic peptides with interesting anti-tuberculosis and anti-malaria activities.

    PubMed

    Barbie, Philipp; Kazmaier, Uli

    2016-07-01

    Cyclomarins are cyclic heptapeptides containing four unusual amino acids. New synthetic protocols toward their synthesis have been developed, leading to the synthesis and biological evaluation of three natural occurring cyclomarins. Interestingly, cyclomarins address two completely different targets: Clp C1, a subunit of the caseinolytic protease of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), as well as PfAp3Ase of Plasmodium falciparum. Therefore, cyclomarins are interesting lead structures for the development of drugs against tuberculosis and malaria. PMID:27241518

  15. Acute hemorrhagic edema of young children: a concise narrative review.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Elisabetta; Rizzi, Mattia; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Garzoni, Luca; Bianchetti, Mario G; Bettinelli, Alberto

    2011-12-01

    Acute hemorrhagic edema of young children is an uncommon but likely underestimated cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The condition typically affects infants 6-24 months of age with a history of recent respiratory illness with or without course of antibiotics. The diagnosis is made in children, mostly nontoxic in appearance, presenting with nonpruritic, large, round, red to purpuric plaques predominantly over the cheeks, ears, and extremities, with relative sparing of the trunk, often with a target-like appearance, and edema of the distal extremities, ears, and face that is mostly non-pitting, indurative, and tender. In boys, the lesions sometimes involve the scrotum and, more rarely, the penis. Fever, typically of low grade, is often present. Involvement of body systems other than skin is uncommon, and spontaneous recovery usually occurs within 6-21 days without sequelae. In this condition, laboratory tests are non-contributory: total blood cell count is often normal, although leukocytosis and thrombocytosis are sometimes found, clotting studies are normal, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein test are normal or slightly elevated, complement level is normal, autoantibodies are absent, and urinalysis is usually normal. Experienced physicians rapidly consider the possible diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic edema when presented with a nontoxic young child having large targetoid purpuric lesions and indurative swelling, which is non-pitting in character, and make the diagnosis either on the basis of clinical findings alone or supported by a skin biopsy study. PMID:21674141

  16. Dimerization of functional pyrroloindolizines for the synthesis of complex myrmicarin alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Ondrus, Alison E.; Kaniskan, H. Ümit; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The union of functionalized pyrroloindolizines for the synthesis of heterodimeric products relevant to myrmicarin alkaloids is described. Design and synthesis of tricyclic substrates and new methods for their union enable the investigation of late-stage cyclopentannulation strategies. The rapid assembly of dimeric structures using unique modes of pyrroloindolizine reactivity presents a concise approach to the dimeric myrmicarins and relevant derivatives. PMID:20798891

  17. Regioselective and stereoselective cyclizations of chloropolyols in water: rapid synthesis of hydroxytetrahydrofurans.

    PubMed

    Kang, Baldip; Chang, Stanley; Decker, Shannon; Britton, Robert

    2010-04-16

    A concise, stereoselective synthesis of functionalized tetrahydrofuranols has been developed that involves heating readily available chloropolyols in water. These reactions are operationally straightforward and chemoselective for the formation of tetrahydrofurans, obviating the need for complicated protecting group strategies. The efficiency of this process is demonstrated in a short asymmetric synthesis of the natural product (+)-goniothalesdiol. PMID:20297827

  18. Enantioselective synthesis of (-)-chloramphenicol via silver-catalysed asymmetric isocyanoacetate aldol reaction.

    PubMed

    Franchino, Allegra; Jakubec, Pavol; Dixon, Darren J

    2016-01-01

    The highly enantio- and diastereoselective aldol reaction of isocyanoacetates catalysed by Ag2O and cinchona-derived amino phosphines applied to the synthesis of (-)- and (+)-chloramphenicol is described. The concise synthesis showcases the utility of this catalytic asymmetric methodology for the preparation of bioactive compounds possessing α-amino-β-hydroxy motifs. PMID:26510469

  19. Surgical Management of Stuttering Ischemic Priapism: A Case Report and Concise Clinical Review.

    PubMed

    Raslan, M; Hiew, K; Hoyle, A; Ross, D G; Betts, C D; Maddineni, S B

    2016-03-01

    Stuttering priapism is an extremely rare and poorly understood entity. We present a rare case of a 47-year-old Afro-Caribbean gentleman who required proximal shunt procedure to treat his ischemic stuttering priapism after he had failed medical management. We provided a concise review of the literature on the surgical management of ischemic priapism. This case highlighted the importance of prompt surgical intervention in prolonged stuttering priapism to avoid serious psychological and functional complications. PMID:26977408

  20. Quasi-Biomimetic Ring Contraction Catalyzed by a Cysteine-Based Nucleophile: Total Synthesis of Sch-642305, Some Analogs and their Putative anti-HIV Activities

    PubMed Central

    Dermenci, Alpay; Selig, Philipp S.; Domaoal, Robert A.; Spasov, Krasimir A.; Anderson, Karen S.

    2013-01-01

    Cysteine plays a number of important functional and structural roles in Nature, often in the realm of catalysis. Herein, we present an example of a cysteine-catalyzed Rauhut-Currier reaction for a potentially biomimetic synthesis of Sch-642305 and related analogs. In this key step of the synthesis we discuss interesting new discoveries and the importance of substrate-catalyst recognition, as well as cysteine’s structural features. Also, we investigate the activity of Sch-642305 and four analogs in HIV-infected T-cells. PMID:24179673