Science.gov

Sample records for concretos espinelizados in-situ

  1. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  2. In Situ Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, T. F.; Schechter, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Describes research on in situ processing to develop necessary theory and understanding of the underground process to facilitate commercialization of a wide range of mineral deposits. Goal is to produce laboratory and computer-based tools to allow site evaluation based on field and laboratory measurements of mineral and associated overburdens.…

  3. In Situ Cometary Cosmochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, I. P.; Andrews, D. J.; Barber, S. J.; Sheridan, S.; Morgan, G. H.; Morse, A. D.

    2013-09-01

    In 2014 the Rosetta space mission arrives at comet 67P. Herein we describe the ambitions of one of the instruments, Ptolemy, included on the lander. Our aim is to make in situ measurements of isotopic compositions of elements such as H, C, N and O.

  4. In situ reactor

    DOEpatents

    Radtke, Corey William; Blackwelder, David Bradley

    2004-01-27

    An in situ reactor for use in a geological strata, is described and which includes a liner defining a centrally disposed passageway and which is placed in a borehole formed in the geological strata; and a sampling conduit is received within the passageway defined by the liner and which receives a geological specimen which is derived from the geological strata, and wherein the sampling conduit is in fluid communication with the passageway defined by the liner.

  5. In Situ Fabrication Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolin, Terry D.; Hammond, Monica

    2005-01-01

    A manufacturing system is described that is internal to controlled cabin environments which will produce functional parts to net shape with sufficient tolerance, strength and integrity to meet application specific needs such as CEV ECLS components, robotic arm or rover components, EVA suit items, unforeseen tools, conformal repair patches, and habitat fittings among others. Except for start-up and shut-down, fabrication will be automatic without crew intervention under nominal scenarios. Off-nominal scenarios may require crew and/or Earth control intervention. System will have the ability to fabricate using both provisioned feedstock materials and feedstock refined from in situ regolith.

  6. In Situ Surface Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G.; Leger, Patrick C.; Yanovsky, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Operation of in situ space assets, such as rovers and landers, requires operators to acquire a thorough understanding of the environment surrounding the spacecraft. The following programs help with that understanding by providing higher-level information characterizing the surface, which is not immediately obvious by just looking at the XYZ terrain data. This software suite covers three primary programs: marsuvw, marsrough, and marsslope, and two secondary programs, which together use XYZ data derived from in situ stereo imagery to characterize the surface by determining surface normal, surface roughness, and various aspects of local slope, respectively. These programs all use the Planetary Image Geometry (PIG) library to read mission-specific data files. The programs themselves are completely multimission; all mission dependencies are handled by PIG. The input data consists of images containing XYZ locations as derived by, e.g., marsxyz. The marsuvw program determines surface normals from XYZ data by gathering XYZ points from an area around each pixel and fitting a plane to those points. Outliers are rejected, and various consistency checks are applied. The result shows the orientation of the local surface at each point as a unit vector. The program can be run in two modes: standard, which is typically used for in situ arm work, and slope, which is typically used for rover mobility. The difference is primarily due to optimizations necessary for the larger patch sizes in the slope case. The marsrough program determines surface roughness in a small area around each pixel, which is defined as the maximum peak-to-peak deviation from the plane perpendicular to the surface normal at that pixel. The marsslope program takes a surface normal file as input and derives one of several slope-like outputs from it. The outputs include slope, slope rover direction (a measure of slope radially away from the rover), slope heading, slope magnitude, northerly tilt, and solar energy

  7. In situ zymography.

    PubMed

    George, Sarah J; Johnson, Jason L

    2010-01-01

    In situ zymography is a unique laboratory technique that enables the localisation of matrix-degrading metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in histological sections. Frozen sections are placed on glass slides coated with fluorescently labelled matrix proteins. After incubation MMP activity can be observed as black holes in the fluorescent background due to proteolysis of the matrix protein. Alternatively frozen sections can be incubated with matrix proteins conjugated to quenched fluorescein. Proteolysis of the substrate by MMPs leads to the release of fluorescence. This technique can be combined with immunohistochemistry to enable co-location of proteins such as cell type markers or other proteins of interest. Additionally, this technique can be adapted for use with cell cultures, permitting precise location of MMP activity within cells, time-lapse analysis of MMP activity and analysis of MMP activity in migrating cells. PMID:20135289

  8. In situ measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Lord, D.E.

    1980-11-24

    A multipurpose in situ underground measurement system comprising a plurality of long electrical resistance elements in the form of rigid reinforcing bars, each having an open loop hairpin configuration of shorter length than the other resistance elements. The resistance elements are arranged in pairs in a unitized structure, and grouted in place in the underground volume. Measurement means are provided for obtaining for each pair the electrical resistance of each element and the difference in electrical resistance of the paired elements, which difference values may be used in analytical methods involving resistance as a function of temperature. A scanner means sequentially connects the resistance-measuring apparatus to each individual pair of elements. A source of heating current is also selectively connectable for heating the elements to an initial predetermined temperature prior to electrical resistance measurements when used as an anemometer.

  9. Metallographic in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Powell, Richard D; Pettay, James D; Powell, William C; Roche, Patrick C; Grogan, Thomas M; Hainfeld, James F; Tubbs, Raymond R

    2007-08-01

    Metallographic methods, in which a target is visualized using a probe or antibody that deposits metal selectively at its binding site, offers many advantages for bright-field in situ hybridization (ISH) detection as well as for other labeling and detection methods. Autometallographically enhanced gold labeling procedures have demonstrated higher sensitivity than conventional enzyme chromogens. Enzyme metallography, a novel procedure in which an enzymatic probe is used to deposit metal directly from solution, has been used to develop bright-field ISH methods for HER2 gene determination in breast cancer and other biopsy specimens. It provides the highest level of sensitivity and resolution, both for visualizing endogenous gene copies in nonamplified tissues and for resolving multiple gene copies to allow copy enumeration in amplified tissues without the need for oil immersion or fluorescence optics. An automated enzyme metallography procedure, silver ISH, has been developed for use in slide-staining instruments. Metallographic staining also provides excellent results for immunohistochemistry and may be combined with other staining procedures for the simultaneous detection of more than one gene or combinations of genes and proteins. PMID:17640553

  10. Modeling in situ vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Mecham, D.C.; MacKinnon, R.J.; Murray, P.E.; Johnson, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    In Situ Vitrification (ISV) process is being assessed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to determine its applicability to transuranic and mixed wastes buried at INEL'S Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). This process uses electrical resistance heating to melt waste and contaminated soil in place to produce a durable glasslike material that encapsulates and immobilizes buried wastes. This paper outlines the requirements for the model being developed at the INEL which will provide analytical support for the ISV technology assessment program. The model includes representations of the electric potential field, thermal transport with melting, gas and particulate release, vapor migration, off-gas combustion and process chemistry. The modeling objectives are to help determine the safety of the process by assessing the air and surrounding soil radionuclides and chemical pollution hazards, the nuclear criticality hazard, and the explosion and fire hazards, help determine the suitability of the ISV process for stabilizing the buried wastes involved, and help design laboratory and field tests and interpret results. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. IN SITU STEAM EXTRACTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In situ steam extraction removes volatile and semivolatile hazardous contaminants from soil and groundwater without excavation of the hazardous waste. aste constituents are removed in situ by the technology and are not actually treated. he use of steam enhances the stripping of v...

  12. In Situ Nuclear Characterization Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Smith; J. Rory Kennedy

    2011-11-01

    To be able to evolve microstructure with a prescribed in situ process, an effective measurement infrastructure must exist. This interdisciplinary infrastructure needs to be developed in parallel with in situ sensor technology. This paper discusses the essential elements in an effective infrastructure.

  13. In situ mercury stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrmann, M.; Kalb, P.; Adams, J.

    2004-09-01

    BNL Royalty Project Internal Status Report. The funds from the allotment of royalty income were used to experimentally explore feasibility of related, potential new techniques based on the Environmental Sciences Department successful technology licensed for the ex situ treatment of mercury. Specifically, this work is exploring the concept of using Sulfur Polymer Cement (SPC) in an in situ application to stabilize and/or remove mercury (Hg) from surficial soil. Patent disclosure forms have been filed for this process. Soil was artificially spiked with 500 ppm Hg and a series of experiments were set up in which SPC rods were placed in the center of a mass of this soil. Some experiments were conducted at 20 C and others at 50 C. After times ranging from 11 to 24 days, these experiments were opened, photographed and the soil was sampled from discrete locations in the containers. The soil and SPC samples were analyzed for Fe and Hg by x-ray fluorescence. The Hg profile in the soil was significantly altered, with concentrations along the outer edge of the soil reduced by as much as 80% from the starting concentration. Conversely, closer to the treatment rod containing SPC, concentrations of Hg were significantly increased over the original concentration. Preliminary results for elevated temperature sample are shown graphically in Figure 2. Apparently the Hg had migrated toward the SPC and reacted with sulfur to form Hg S. This appears to be a reaction between gaseous phases of both S and Hg, with Hg having a greater vapor pressure. The concentration of low solubility HgS (i.e., low leaching properties) developed within 11 days at 50 C and 21 days at 20 C, confirming the potential of this concept.

  14. In Situ Activation of Microcapsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed are microcapsules comprising a polymer shell enclosing two or more immiscible liquid phases in which a drug, or a prodrug and a drug activator are partitioned into separate phases. or prevented from diffusing out of the microcapsule by a liquid phase in which the drug is poorly soluble. Also disclosed are methods of using the microcapsules for in situ activation of drugs where upon exposure to an appropriate energy source the internal phases mix and the drug is activated in situ.

  15. In situ microbial filter used for bioremediation

    DOEpatents

    Carman, M. Leslie; Taylor, Robert T.

    2000-01-01

    An improved method for in situ microbial filter bioremediation having increasingly operational longevity of an in situ microbial filter emplaced into an aquifer. A method for generating a microbial filter of sufficient catalytic density and thickness, which has increased replenishment interval, improved bacteria attachment and detachment characteristics and the endogenous stability under in situ conditions. A system for in situ field water remediation.

  16. Triplex in-situ hybridization

    DOEpatents

    Fresco, Jacques R.; Johnson, Marion D.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for detecting in situ the presence of a target sequence in a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment, which comprises: a) contacting in situ under conditions suitable for hybridization a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment with a detectable third strand, said third strand being capable of hybridizing to at least a portion of the target sequence to form a triple-stranded structure, if said target sequence is present; and b) detecting whether hybridization between the third strand and the target sequence has occured.

  17. In situ biofilm coupon device

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, Brent M.; Truex, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus for characterization of in-situ microbial biofilm populations in subsurface groundwater. The device permits biofilm-forming microorganisms to adhere to packing material while emplaced in a groundwater strata, so that the packing material can be later analyzed for quantity and type of microorganisms, growth rate, and nutrient requirements.

  18. In situ biofilm coupon device

    DOEpatents

    Peyton, B.M.; Truex, M.J.

    1997-06-24

    An apparatus is disclosed for characterization of in-situ microbial biofilm populations in subsurface groundwater. The device permits biofilm-forming microorganisms to adhere to packing material while emplaced in a groundwater strata, so that the packing material can be later analyzed for quantity and type of microorganisms, growth rate, and nutrient requirements. 3 figs.

  19. In situ vadose zone bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Höhener, Patrick; Ponsin, Violaine

    2014-06-01

    Contamination of the vadose zone with various pollutants is a world-wide problem, and often technical or economic constraints impose remediation without excavation. In situ bioremediation in the vadose zone by bioventing has become a standard remediation technology for light spilled petroleum products. In this review, focus is given on new in situ bioremediation strategies in the vadose zone targeting a variety of other pollutants such as perchlorate, nitrate, uranium, chromium, halogenated solvents, explosives and pesticides. The techniques for biostimulation of either oxidative or reductive degradation pathways are presented, and biotransformations to immobile pollutants are discussed in cases of non-degradable pollutants. Furthermore, research on natural attenuation in the vadose zone is presented. PMID:24863890

  20. Integrated in-situ remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Fustos, V.; Lieberman, P.

    1996-01-01

    This article presents an integrated approach to ex-situ and in-situ remediation. A sequence of processes, used successfully in their own right, but used synergistically in this approach, have achieved short-term, economic remediation. In addition the range of contaminants that can be treated is extended. The Process uses ozone, compressed oxygen, water vapor, heat, bioaugmentation and vapor extraction to remediate lower molecular weight hydrocarbons and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. 3 figs.

  1. Noise canceling in-situ detection

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, David O.

    2014-08-26

    Technologies applicable to noise canceling in-situ NMR detection and imaging are disclosed. An example noise canceling in-situ NMR detection apparatus may comprise one or more of a static magnetic field generator, an alternating magnetic field generator, an in-situ NMR detection device, an auxiliary noise detection device, and a computer.

  2. Developments in in situ hybridisation.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Andrew; Jones, Julia

    2014-11-01

    In situ hybridisation (ISH) is an established family of closely related methods for the detection and visualisation of specific nucleic acid sequences (DNA, RNA) in tissue sections, cytological preparations and whole organisms. The technique has a history of refinements and applications going back over several decades and is routinely employed in laboratories where visualisation of gene expression directly within the tissue of interest is necessary. This article will focus on ISH methods for the demonstration of messenger RNA (mRNA) and micro RNA (miRNA) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues with emphasis on non-radioactive signal detection strategies currently available. PMID:24747923

  3. In Situ Mosaic Brightness Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G.; Lorre, Jean J.

    2012-01-01

    In situ missions typically have pointable, mast-mounted cameras, which are capable of taking panoramic mosaics comprised of many individual frames. These frames are mosaicked together. While the mosaic software applies radiometric correction to the images, in many cases brightness/contrast seams still exist between frames. This is largely due to errors in the radiometric correction, and the absence of correction for photometric effects in the mosaic processing chain. The software analyzes the overlaps between adjacent frames in the mosaic and determines correction factors for each image in an attempt to reduce or eliminate these brightness seams.

  4. In situ trace element microanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    The use of particle-track-radiography and X-ray- fluorescence techniques in the in situ measurement of trace (less than 1000 ppm) elements in single mineral phases of polished sections is surveyed, and examples of their application to ordinary, carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites are provided. Radiographic methods surveyed include fission-track radiography (for U, Th, and Pu-244), alpha radiography using nuclear reactions (for Li and B), alpha autoradiography (for Bi and Pb), and beta autoradiography (for several elements in synthetic or biological samples). Two X-ray-fluorescence methods are compared: (1) photon-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), and (2) the potential use of synchrotron radiation. The latter is shown to allow much greater sensitivity than current PIXE technology and a much broader range of elements than particle-track radiography: the ppm analysis of 10-micron grains for all elements heavier than Na. These advantages are seen as balancing the high cost of accelerator use.

  5. In-situ spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, William S.

    1992-01-01

    A spectrophotometric probe for in situ absorption spectra measurements comprising a first optical fiber carrying light from a remote light source, a second optical fiber carrying light to a remote spectrophotometer, the proximal ends of the first and second optical fibers parallel and coterminal, a planoconvex lens to collimate light from the first optical fiber, a reflecting grid positioned a short distance from the lens to reflect the collimated light back to the lens for focussing on the second optical fiber. The lens is positioned with the convex side toward the optical fibers. A substrate for absorbing analyte or an analyte and reagent mixture may be positioned between the lens and the reflecting grid.

  6. In-situ spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, W.S.

    1992-12-15

    A spectrophotometric probe is described for in situ absorption spectra measurements comprising a first optical fiber carrying light from a remote light source, a second optical fiber carrying light to a remote spectrophotometer, the proximal ends of the first and second optical fibers parallel and co-terminal, a planoconvex lens to collimate light from the first optical fiber, a reflecting grid positioned a short distance from the lens to reflect the collimated light back to the lens for focusing on the second optical fiber. The lens is positioned with the convex side toward the optical fibers. A substrate for absorbing analyte or an analyte and reagent mixture may be positioned between the lens and the reflecting grid. 5 figs.

  7. In-situ measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Lord, David E.

    1983-01-01

    A multipurpose in situ underground measurement system comprising a plurality of long electrical resistance elements in the form of rigid reinforcing bars, each having an open loop "hairpin" configuration of shorter length than the other resistance elements. The resistance elements are arranged in pairs in a unitized structure, and grouted in place in the underground volume. The electrical resistance of each element and the difference in electrical resistance of the paired elements are obtained, which difference values may be used in analytical methods involving resistance as a function of temperature. A scanner sequentially connects the resistance-measuring apparatus to each individual pair of elements. A source of heating current is also selectively connectable for heating the elements to an initial predetermined temperature prior to electrical resistance measurements when used as an anemometer.

  8. Unintended and in situ amorphisation of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Priemel, P A; Grohganz, H; Rades, T

    2016-05-01

    Amorphisation of poorly water-soluble drugs is one approach that can be applied to improve their solubility and thus their bioavailability. Amorphisation is a process that usually requires deliberate external energy input. However, amorphisation can happen both unintentionally, as in process-induced amorphisation during manufacturing, or in situ during dissolution, vaporisation, or lipolysis. The systems in which unintended and in situ amorphisation has been observed normally contain a drug and a carrier. Common carriers include polymers and mesoporous silica particles. However, the precise mechanisms by which in situ amorphisation occurs are often not fully understood. In situ amorphisation can be exploited and performed before administration of the drug or possibly even within the gastrointestinal tract, as can be inferred from in situ amorphisation observed during in vitro lipolysis. The use of in situ amorphisation can thus confer the advantages of the amorphous form, such as higher apparent solubility and faster dissolution rate, without the disadvantage of its physical instability. PMID:26724250

  9. Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ

    DOEpatents

    Christian, Allen T.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Tucker, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ to increase the amount of DNA associated with a chromosome or chromosome region is described. The amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ provides for the synthesis of Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) painting probes from single dissected chromosome fragments, the production of cDNA libraries from low copy mRNAs and improved in Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) procedures.

  10. Method for in situ combustion

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Shuck, Lowell Z.; Overbey, Jr., William K.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved in situ combustion method for the recovery of hydrocarbons from subterranean earth formations containing carbonaceous material. The method is practiced by penetrating the subterranean earth formation with a borehole projecting into the coal bed along a horizontal plane and extending along a plane disposed perpendicular to the plane of maximum permeability. The subterranean earth formation is also penetrated with a plurality of spaced-apart vertical boreholes disposed along a plane spaced from and generally parallel to that of the horizontal borehole. Fractures are then induced at each of the vertical boreholes which project from the vertical boreholes along the plane of maximum permeability and intersect the horizontal borehole. The combustion is initiated at the horizontal borehole and the products of combustion and fluids displaced from the earth formation by the combustion are removed from the subterranean earth formation via the vertical boreholes. Each of the vertical boreholes are, in turn, provided with suitable flow controls for regulating the flow of fluid from the combustion zone and the earth formation so as to control the configuration and rate of propagation of the combustion zone. The fractures provide a positive communication with the combustion zone so as to facilitate the removal of the products resulting from the combustion of the carbonaceous material.

  11. In situ bioremediation in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Porta, A.; Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M.

    1993-06-01

    Site remediation activity in Europe is increasing, even if not at the forced pace of the US. Although there is a better understanding of the benefits of bioremediation than of other approaches, especially about in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils, relatively few projects have been carried out full-scale in Europe or in the US. Some engineering companies and large industrial companies in Europe are investigating bioremediation and biotreatment technologies, in some cases to solve their internal waste problems. Technologies related to the application of microorganisms to the soil, release of nutrients into the soil, and enhancement of microbial decontamination are being tested through various additives such as surfactants, ion exchange resins, limestone, or dolomite. New equipment has been developed for crushing and mixing or injecting and sparging the microorganisms, as have new reactor technologies (e.g., rotating aerator reactors, biometal sludge reactors, and special mobile containers for simultaneous storage, transportation, and biodegradation of contaminated soil). Some work has also been done with immobilized enzymes to support and restore enzymatic activities related to partial or total xenobiotic decontamination. Finally, some major programs funded by public and private institutions confirm that increasing numbers of firms have a working interest in bioremediation.

  12. In situ vitrification: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, L.L.; Fields, D.E.

    1989-11-01

    The in situ vitrification process (ISV) converts contaminated soils and sludges to a glass and crystalline product. The process appears to be ideally suited for on site treatment of both wet and dry wastes. Basically, the system requires four molybdenum electrodes, an electrical power system for vitrifying the soil, a hood to trap gaseous effluents, an off-gas treatment system, an off-gas cooling system, and a process control station. Mounted in three transportable trailers, the ISV process can be moved from site to site. The process has the potential for treating contaminated soils at most 13 m deep. The ISV project has won a number of outstanding achievement awards. The process has also been patented with exclusive worldwide rights being granted to Battelle Memorial Institute for nonradioactive applications. While federal applications still belong to the Department of Energy, Battelle transferred the rights of ISV for non-federal government, chemical hazardous wastes to a separate corporation in 1989 called Geosafe. This report gives a review of the process including current operational behavior and applications.

  13. Chemically enhanced in situ recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, T.; Pitts, M.; Wyatt, K.

    1996-08-01

    Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevant to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: IN SITU STEAM EXTRACTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In situ steam extraction removes volatile and semivolatile hazardous contaminants from soil and groundwater without excavation of the hazardous waste. Waste constituents are removed in situ by the technology and are not actually treated. The use of steam enhances the stripping of...

  15. Frontiers of in situ electron microscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zheng, Haimei; Zhu, Yimei; Meng, Shirley Ying

    2015-01-01

    In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has become an increasingly important tool for materials characterization. It provides key information on the structural dynamics of a material during transformations and the correlation between structure and properties of materials. With the recent advances in instrumentation, including aberration corrected optics, sample environment control, the sample stage, and fast and sensitive data acquisition, in situ TEM characterization has become more and more powerful. In this article, a brief review of the current status and future opportunities of in situ TEM is included. It also provides an introduction to the six articles covered by inmore » this issue of MRS Bulletin explore the frontiers of in situ electron microscopy, including liquid and gas environmental TEM, dynamic four-dimensional TEM, nanomechanics, ferroelectric domain switching studied by in situ TEM, and state-of-the-art atomic imaging of light elements (i.e., carbon atoms) and individual defects.« less

  16. In situ bioremediation using horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In Situ Bioremediation (ISB), which is the term used in this report for Gaseous Nutrient Injection for In Situ Bioremediation, remediates soils and ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) both above and below the water table. ISB involves injection of air and nutrients (sparging and biostimulation) into the ground water and vacuum extraction to remove .VOCs from the vadose zone concomitant with biodegradation of VOCs. The innovation is in the combination of 3 emerging technologies, air stripping, horizontal wells, and bioremediation via gaseous nutrient injection with a baseline technology, soil vapor extraction, to produce a more efficient in situ remediation system.

  17. ENHANCED BIODEGRADATION THROUGH IN-SITU AERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provided an overview of enhanced aerobic bioremediation using in-situ aeration or venting. The following topics were covered: (1) Basic discussion on biodegradation and respiration testing; (2) Basic discussion on volatilization, rate-limited mass transport, an...

  18. DOE In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. In situ manipulation technologies subprogram plan

    SciTech Connect

    Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1993-12-22

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRP) supports and manages a balanced portfolio of applied research and development activities in support of DOE environmental restoration and waste management needs. ISRP technologies are being developed in four areas: containment, chemical and physical treatment, in situ bioremediation, and in situ manipulation (including electrokinetics). the focus of containment is to provide mechanisms to stop contaminant migration through the subsurface. In situ bioremediation and chemical and physical treatment both aim to destroy or eliminate contaminants in groundwater and soils. In situ manipulation (ISM) provides mechanisms to access contaminants or introduce treatment agents into the soil, and includes other technologies necessary to support the implementation of ISR methods. Descriptions of each major program area are provided to set the technical context of the ISM subprogram. Typical ISM needs for major areas of in situ remediation research and development are identified.

  19. In-situ bioremediation via horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.C.; Looney, B.B.; Enzien, M.; Franck, M.M.; Fliermans, C.B.; Eddy, C.A.

    1993-12-31

    This project is designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of groundwater and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade TCE, PCE and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated zone. In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency and public and regulatory acceptability. Bioremediation has been found to be among the least costly technologies in applications where it will work (Radian 1989). Subsurface soils and water adjacent to an abandoned process sewer line at the SRS have been found to have elevated levels of TCE (Marine and Bledsoe 1984). This area of subsurface and groundwater contamination is the focus of a current integrated demonstration of new remediation technologies utilizing horizontal wells. Bioremediation has the potential to enhance the performance of in situ air stripping as well as offering stand-alone remediation of this and other contaminated sites (Looney et al. 1991). Horizontal wells could also be used to enhance the recovery of groundwater contaminants for bioreactor conversions from deep or inaccessible areas (e.g., under buildings) and to enhance the distribution of nutrient or microbe additions in an in situ bioremediation.

  20. The SMAP In Situ Soil Moisture Sensor Testbed: Comparing in situ sensors for satellite validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most valuable tools in validating satellite based soil moisture estimates, such as those from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission are large scale in situ networks. Global validation involves networks operated by many different organizations. Existing in situ soil moisture netw...

  1. In situ macromolecular crystallography using microbeams

    PubMed Central

    Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin L.; Aishima, Jun; Foadi, James; Morgan, Ann W.; Robinson, James I.; Nettleship, Joanne E.; Owens, Raymond J.; Moraes, Isabel; Fry, Elizabeth E.; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Harlos, Karl; Kotecha, Abhay; Ren, Jingshan; Sutton, Geoff; Walter, Thomas S.; Stuart, David I.; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant progress in high-throughput methods in macromolecular crystallography, the production of diffraction-quality crystals remains a major bottleneck. By recording diffraction in situ from crystals in their crystallization plates at room temperature, a number of problems associated with crystal handling and cryoprotection can be side-stepped. Using a dedicated goniometer installed on the microfocus macromolecular crystallography beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source, crystals have been studied in situ with an intense and flexible microfocus beam, allowing weakly diffracting samples to be assessed without a manual crystal-handling step but with good signal to noise, despite the background scatter from the plate. A number of case studies are reported: the structure solution of bovine enterovirus 2, crystallization screening of membrane proteins and complexes, and structure solution from crystallization hits produced via a high-throughput pipeline. These demonstrate the potential for in situ data collection and structure solution with microbeams. PMID:22525757

  2. In-situ thin films by MOCVD

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, P.E.; Orlando, G.W. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the growth of high quality yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) thin films by MOCVD. Three MOCVD processes have been studied: a two-step (growth/post anneal) process requiring O{sub 2} anneal at 950--980 C, an in-situ (one step, no post growth anneal) process at 800--850 C and a plasma-enhanced, in-situ process (PE-MOCVD), which is operable at still lower substrate temperatures. The in-situ PE-MOCVD process is of great interest since, to a substantial degree, the growth temperature determines the degree of compatibility of a process with substrate materials and existing device technologies, such as VLSI-SilicoVLSI-Silicon.

  3. In Situ Vitrification Treatability Study Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Charboneau, B.L.; Landon, J.L.

    1989-03-01

    The Buried Waste Program was established in October, 1987 to accelerate the studies needed to develop a recommended long-term management plan for the buried mixed waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The In Situ Vitrification Project is being conducted in a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Feasibility Study format to identify methods for the long-term management of the mixed waste buried. This In Situ Vitrification Treatability Study Work Plan gives a brief description of the site, work breakdown structure, and project organization: the in situ vitrification technology; the purpose of the tests and demonstrations; and the equipment and materials required for the tests and demonstration. 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. In Situ Imaging of Atomic Quantum Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chen-Lung; Chin, Cheng

    2015-09-01

    One exciting progress in recent cold atom experiments is the development of high resolution, in situ imaging techniques for atomic quantum gases.1-3 These new powerful tools provide detailed information on the distribution of atoms in a trap with resolution approaching the level of single atom and even single lattice site, and complement the welldeveloped time-of-flight method that probes the system in momentum space. In a condensed matter analogy, this technique is equivalent to locating electrons of a material in a snap shot. In situ imaging has offered a new powerful tool to study atomic gases and inspired many new research directions and ideas. In this chapter, we will describe the experimental setup of in situ absorption imaging, observables that can be extracted from the images, and new physics that can be explored with this technique.

  5. Current management of ductal carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Barth, A; Brenner, R J; Giuliano, A E

    1995-10-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ represents a biologically and histologically heterogeneous group of lesions characterized by the proliferation of neoplastic epithelial cells confined to the ducts of the breast. Before screening mammography, ductal carcinoma in situ was considered uncommon; patients were usually diagnosed by a breast mass or bloody nipple discharge, and their treatment was mastectomy. Today it represents 20% to 30% of mammographically detected breast cancers and 10% to 15% of all diagnosed breast cancers in the United States. The invariable progression of this cancer to invasive breast cancer requiring mastectomy has been challenged, but because most patients have been treated with mastectomy, knowledge about ductal carcinoma in situ is limited and primarily based on retrospective data. Further insight will emerge from randomized prospective studies that are near completion. Currently available data indicate that breast-conserving treatments are valid alternatives to mastectomy for most patients with this disease. PMID:7483593

  6. Scientific rationale for Saturn's in situ exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousis, O.; Fletcher, L. N.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Wurz, P.; Cavalié, T.; Coustenis, A.; Courtin, R.; Gautier, D.; Helled, R.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Morse, A. D.; Nettelmann, N.; Marty, B.; Rousselot, P.; Venot, O.; Atkinson, D. H.; Waite, J. H.; Reh, K. R.; Simon, A. A.; Atreya, S.; André, N.; Blanc, M.; Daglis, I. A.; Fischer, G.; Geppert, W. D.; Guillot, T.; Hedman, M. M.; Hueso, R.; Lellouch, E.; Lunine, J. I.; Murray, C. D.; O`Donoghue, J.; Rengel, M.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Schmider, F.-X.; Spiga, A.; Spilker, T.; Petit, J.-M.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Ali-Dib, M.; Altwegg, K.; Bolton, S. J.; Bouquet, A.; Briois, C.; Fouchet, T.; Guerlet, S.; Kostiuk, T.; Lebleu, D.; Moreno, R.; Orton, G. S.; Poncy, J.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing observations meet some limitations when used to study the bulk atmospheric composition of the giant planets of our solar system. A remarkable example of the superiority of in situ probe measurements is illustrated by the exploration of Jupiter, where key measurements such as the determination of the noble gases' abundances and the precise measurement of the helium mixing ratio have only been made available through in situ measurements by the Galileo probe. This paper describes the main scientific goals to be addressed by the future in situ exploration of Saturn placing the Galileo probe exploration of Jupiter in a broader context and before the future probe exploration of the more remote ice giants. In situ exploration of Saturn's atmosphere addresses two broad themes that are discussed throughout this paper: first, the formation history of our solar system and second, the processes at play in planetary atmospheres. In this context, we detail the reasons why measurements of Saturn's bulk elemental and isotopic composition would place important constraints on the volatile reservoirs in the protosolar nebula. We also show that the in situ measurement of CO (or any other disequilibrium species that is depleted by reaction with water) in Saturn's upper troposphere may help constraining its bulk O/H ratio. We compare predictions of Jupiter and Saturn's bulk compositions from different formation scenarios, and highlight the key measurements required to distinguish competing theories to shed light on giant planet formation as a common process in planetary systems with potential applications to most extrasolar systems. In situ measurements of Saturn's stratospheric and tropospheric dynamics, chemistry and cloud-forming processes will provide access to phenomena unreachable to remote sensing studies. Different mission architectures are envisaged, which would benefit from strong international collaborations, all based on an entry probe that would descend

  7. In situ ply strengths - An initial assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    The in situ ply strengths in several composites were calculated using a computational procedure developed for this purpose. Laminate fracture data for appropriate low modulus and high modulus fiber composites were used in the laminate analysis in conjunction with the method of least squares. The laminate fracture data were obtained from tests on Modmor-I graphite/epoxy, AS-graphite/epoxy, boron/epoxy and E-glass/epoxy. The results obtained show that the calculated in situ ply strengths can be considerably different from those measured in unidirectional composites, especially the transverse strengths and those in angleplied laminates with transply cracks.

  8. In-situ vitrification of waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.R.; Reich, M.; Barletta, R.

    1997-10-14

    A method for the in-situ vitrification of waste materials in a disposable can that includes an inner container and an outer container is disclosed. The method includes the steps of adding frit and waste materials to the inner container, removing any excess water, heating the inner container such that the frit and waste materials melt and vitrify after cooling, while maintaining the outer container at a significantly lower temperature than the inner container. The disposable can is then cooled to ambient temperatures and stored. A device for the in-situ vitrification of waste material in a disposable can is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  9. In-situ vitrification of waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, James R.; Reich, Morris; Barletta, Robert

    1997-11-14

    A method for the in-situ vitrification of waste materials in a disposable can that includes an inner container and an outer container is disclosed. The method includes the steps of adding frit and waste materials to the inner container, removing any excess water, heating the inner container such that the frit and waste materials melt and vitrify after cooling, while maintaining the outer container at a significantly lower temperature than the inner container. The disposable can is then cooled to ambient temperatures and stored. A device for the in-situ vitrification of waste material in a disposable can is also disclosed.

  10. Controlled in situ etch-back

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattauch, R. J.; Seabaugh, A. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A controlled in situ etch-back technique is disclosed in which an etch melt and a growth melt are first saturated by a source-seed crystal and thereafter etch-back of a substrate takes place by the slightly undersaturated etch melt, followed by LPE growth of a layer by the growth melt, which is slightly supersaturated.

  11. Protocol comparison for quantifying in situ mineralization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In situ mineralization methods are intended to quantify mineralization under realistic environmental conditions. This study was conducted to compare soil moisture and temperature in intake soil cores contained in cylinders to that in adjacent bulk soil, compare the effect of two resin bag techniques...

  12. In-Situ Burning of Spilled Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Alan A.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews in-situ burning with particular emphasis on how it can be applied in water-related oil spill situations. Presents and discusses the use of nomograms and development of techniques cited for safe and effective ignition and controlled burning of spilled oil. Includes representative oil spill scenarios and possible responses. (15 references)…

  13. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: IN SITU SOIL FLUSHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In situ soil flushing is the extraction of contaminants from the soil with water or other suitable aqueous solutions. Soil flushing is accomplished by passing the extraction fluid through in-place soils using an injection or infiltration process. Extraction fluids must be recover...

  14. Accelerated in situ bioremediation of groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, M.J.; Hooker, B.S.; Anderson, D.B.

    1996-07-01

    In situ bioremediation, as applied in this project, is based on the principal of biostimulation: supplying nutrients to indigenous microbes to stimulate their metabolic activity and subsequent degradation of contaminants. Typically, a network of injection and extraction wells are used to recirculate groundwater into which amendments are added and distributed within the aquifer. The objective of the in situ process is to create in the aquifer a microbially active zone that maximizes contaminant destruction while controlling the distribution of microbial growth. It is important to control microbial growth to avoid plugging the aquifer near the injection well and to establish and sustain maximum treatment zones for each injection well. Figure I illustrates this concept for in situ bioremediation. The technology described herein is innovative in its use of the computer-based Accelerated Bioremediation Design Tool (ABDT) to aid in selecting appropriate system designs and to determine optimal operating strategies. In addition, numerical simulations within the design tool proved to be valuable during remediation operations to determine appropriate changes in the` operating strategy as the bioremediation process progressed. This is particularly important because in situ bioremediation is not a steady- state process, and corrective actions to operating parameters are typically needed to maintain both rapid destruction rates and hydraulic containment.

  15. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: IN SITU VITRIFICATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In situ vitrification (ISV) uses electrical power to heat and melt soil, sludge, mine tailings, buried wastes, and sediments contaminated with organic, inorganic, and metal-bearing hazardous wastes. The molten material cools to form a hard, monolithic, chemically inert, stable...

  16. In situ calibration of sonar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luker, L. D.; Forsythe, S. E.

    2003-10-01

    The transmitting and receiving properties of the channels of sonar arrays can change with time resulting in a degradation of the array's performance. Fortunately, the degradation in performance can be minimized, perhaps even eliminated, if the changes in a channel's transmitting or receiving properties are compensated for in the array's beamformer electronics. However, this requires up-to-date knowledge of the acoustic performance of each of the array's channels. This paper describes a procedure for the in situ calibration of sonar arrays when the vessel they are installed on is in open water. It can be used to determine changes in the electroacoustic performance of the projecting and receiving channels of the array. The method used is based on a procedure for in situ comparison calibration of transducers [A. L. Van Buren, ``Procedure for the in situ calibration of sonar transducers,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 48-52 (1991)] that uses sound-propagation factors measured when the vessel is first deployed to account for the influence of the vessel's structure. Results are presented that show comparisons of the measured degradation of numerous channels in a planar array using an independent acoustic measurement and the in situ method. [Work supported by ONR.

  17. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: IN SITU BIODEGRADATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In situ biodegradation may be used to treat low-to-intermediate concentrations of organic contaminants in place without disturbing or displacing the contaminated media. Although this technology has been used to degrade a limited number of inorganics, specifically cyanide and nitr...

  18. Refueling with In-Situ Produced Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2014-01-01

    In-situ produced propellants have been identified in many architecture studies as key to implementing feasible chemical propulsion missions to destinations beyond lunar orbit. Some of the more noteworthy ones include: launching from Mars to return to Earth (either direct from the surface, or via an orbital rendezvous); using the Earth-Moon Lagrange point as a place to refuel Mars transfer stages with Lunar surface produced propellants; and using Mars Moon Phobos as a place to produce propellants for descent and ascent stages bound for the Mars surface. However successful implementation of these strategies require an ability to successfully transfer propellants from the in-situ production equipment into the propellant tankage of the rocket stage used to move to the desired location. In many circumstances the most desirable location for this transfer to occur is in the low-gravity environment of space. In support of low earth orbit propellant depot concepts, extensive studies have been conducted on transferring propellants in-space. Most of these propellant transfer techniques will be applicable to low gravity operations in other locations. Even ground-based transfer operations on the Moon, Mars, and especially Phobos could benefit from the propellant conserving techniques used for depot refueling. This paper will review the literature of in-situ propellants and refueling to: assess the performance benefits of the use in-situ propellants for mission concepts; review the parallels with propellant depot efforts; assess the progress of the techniques required; and provide recommendations for future research.

  19. Two cases of subungual melanoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Imakado, Sumihisa; Sato, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Kazutoshi

    2008-11-01

    Melanonychia, which is characterized by brown or black pigmentation within the nail plate, includes heterogeneous conditions such as pigmented nevus, subungual melanoma and lentigo. We treated two cases of subungual melanoma in situ. One case was a 58-year-old woman who suffered from a malignant melanoma in situ of the left third fingernail, who had also suffered from melanonychia of the fingers for more than 30 years. She had a past history of carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The other patient was a 42-year-old man, who suffered from a malignant melanoma in situ of the right fifth fingernail. He had a past history of carcinoma of the stomach for which he had undergone surgery 2 years earlier. Both cases were accompanied by Hutchinson's sign on the fingertip skin, and the presence of this sign led to the correct diagnosis of subungual melanoma in situ. Judging from previously reported cases, it is unlikely that patients with malignant melanoma have an increased risk of carcinoma of the uterine cervix or of the stomach. PMID:19120774

  20. IN SITU LEAD IMMOBILIZATION BY APATITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead contamination is of environmental concern due to its effect on human health. he purpose of this study was to develop a technology to immobilize Pb in situ in contaminated soils and wastes using apatite. ydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2]was reacted with aqueous Pb, resinexchang...

  1. TECHNICAL REFERENCE DOCUMENT: IN SITU THERMAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report will describe the state of practice and current capabilities of in-situ thermal treatment technologies. PLEASE NOTE: If peer review is needed, it will be conducted by the Army Corps of Engineers who is our partner in developing this report.

  2. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN SITU VITRIFICATION - GEOSAFE CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    in Situ Vitrification (ISV) is designed to treat soils, sludges, sediments, and mine tailings contaminated with organic and inorganic compounds. The process uses electrical current to heat (mett) and vitrify the soil in place. Organic contaminants are decomposed by the extreme h...

  3. STEREO In-situ Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, P. C.; Luhmann, J. G.; Davis, A. J.; Russell, C. T.

    2006-12-01

    STEREO's IMPACT (In-situ Measurements of Particles and CME Transients) investigation provides the first opportunity for long duration, detailed observations of 1 AU magnetic field structures, plasma and suprathermal electrons, and energetic particles at points bracketing Earth's heliospheric location. The PLASTIC instrument takes plasma ion composition measurements completing STEREO's comprehensive in-situ perspective. Stereoscopic/3D information from the STEREO SECCHI imagers and SWAVES radio experiment make it possible to use both multipoint and quadrature studies to connect interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICME) and solar wind structures to CMEs and coronal holes observed at the Sun. The uniqueness of the STEREO mission requires novel data analysis tools and techniques to take advantage of the mission's full scientific potential. An interactive browser with the ability to create publication-quality plots has been developed which integrates STEREO's in-situ data with data from a variety of other missions including WIND and ACE. Also, an application program interface (API) is provided allowing users to create custom software that ties directly into STEREO's data set. The API allows for more advanced forms of data mining than currently available through most web-based data services. A variety of data access techniques and the development of cross-spacecraft data analysis tools allow the larger scientific community to combine STEREO's unique in-situ data with those of other missions, particularly the L1 missions, and, therefore, to maximize STEREO's scientific potential in gaining a greater understanding of the heliosphere.

  4. IN SITU LEAD IMMOBILIZATION BY APATITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead contamination is of environmental concern due to its effect on human health. The purpose of this study was to develop a technology to immobilize Pb in situ in contaminated soils and wastes using apatite. Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(O...

  5. Fabrication Capabilities Utilizing In Situ Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLemore, Carole A.; Fikes, John C.; Darby, Charles A.; Good, James E.; Gilley, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a Space Exploration Policy that lays out a plan that far exceeds the earlier Apollo goals where landing on the moon and taking those first historic steps fulfilled the mission. The policy states that we will set roots on the moon by establishing an outpost. This outpost will be used as a test bed for residing in more distant locales, such as Mars. In order to become self-sufficient, the occupants must have the capability to fabricate component parts in situ. Additionally, in situ materials must be used to minimize valuable mission upmass and to be as efficient as possible. In situ materials can be found from various sources such as raw lunar regolith whereby specific constituents can be extracted from the regolith (such as aluminum, titanium, or iron), and existing hardware already residing on the moon from past Apollo missions. The Electron Beam Melting (EBM) process lends itself well to fabricating parts, tools, and other necessary items using in situ materials and will be discussed further in this paper.

  6. Contemporary management of ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Obeng-Gyasi, Samilia; Ong, Cecilia; Hwang, E Shelley

    2016-06-01

    The management of in situ lesions ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) continues to evolve. These diagnoses now comprise a large burden of mammographically diagnosed cancers, and with a global trend towards more population-based screening, the incidence of these lesions will continue to rise. Because outcomes following treatment for DCIS and LCIS are excellent, there is emerging controversy about what extent of treatment is optimal for both diseases. Here we review the current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of both DCIS and LCIS. In addition, we will consider potential directions for future management of these lesions. PMID:27197512

  7. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed.

  8. New in situ crosslinking chemistries for hydrogelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Meredith Colleen

    Over the last half century, hydrogels have found immense value as biomaterials in a vast number of biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. One subset of hydrogels receiving increased attention is in situ forming gels. Gelling by either bioresponsive self-assembly or mixing of binary crosslinking systems, these technologies are useful in minimally invasive applications as well as drug delivery systems in which the sol-to-gel transition aids the formulation's performance. Thus far, the field of in situ crosslinking hydrogels has received limited attention in the development of new crosslinking chemistries. Moreover, not only does the chemical nature of the crosslinking moieties allow these systems to perform in situ, but they contribute dramatically to the mechanical properties of the hydrogel networks. For example, reversible crosslinks with finite lifetimes generate dynamic viscoelastic gels with time-dependent properties, whereas irreversible crosslinks form highly elastic networks. The aim of this dissertation is to explore two new covalent chemistries for their ability to crosslink hydrogels in situ under physiological conditions. First, reversible phenylboronate-salicylhydroxamate crosslinking was implemented in a binary, multivalent polymeric system. These gels formed rapidly and generated hydrogel networks with frequency-dependent dynamic rheological properties. Analysis of the composition-structure-property relationships of these hydrogels---specifically considering the effects of pH, degree of polymer functionality, charge of the polymer backbone and polymer concentration on dynamic theological properties---was performed. These gels demonstrate diverse mechanical properties, due to adjustments in the binding equilibrium of the pH-sensitive crosslinks, and thus have the potential to perform in a range of dynamic or bioresponsive applications. Second, irreversible catalyst-free "click" chemistry was employed in the hydrogelation of multivalent azide

  9. In situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvents.

    PubMed Central

    Semprini, L

    1995-01-01

    Chlorinated solvents and their natural transformation products are the most frequently observed groundwater contaminants in the United States. In situ bioremediation using anaerobic or aerobic co-metabolic processes is a promising means of cleaning up contaminated aquifers. Studies show that under natural conditions trichloroethylene can be anaerobically degraded to dichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and ethylene. Pilot scale field studies of in situ aerobic co-metabolic transformations have shown that indigenous microbes grown on phenol are more effective at degrading trichloroethylene and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene than microbes grown on methane. Modeling studies support field observations and indicate that the removal of trichloroethylene and cis-dichloroethylene results from the biostimulation of an indigenous microbial population. Field tests and modeling studies indicate that, at high TCE concentration, degradation becomes stoichiometrically limited. PMID:8565895

  10. In situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Skeen, R.S.; Roberson, K.R.; Workman, D.J. ); Petersen, J.N.; Shouche, M. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-04-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl{sub 4}, nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on going effort to develop effective in situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations.

  11. In situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Skeen, R.S.; Roberson, K.R.; Workman, D.J.; Petersen, J.N.; Shouche, M.

    1992-04-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl{sub 4}, nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on going effort to develop effective in situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations.

  12. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.

    1997-02-01

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications.

  13. In situ, noninvasive characterization of superhydrophobic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepper, G. C.; Samaha, M. A.; Vahedi Tafreshi, H.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2011-11-01

    Light scattering was used to measure the time-dependent loss of air entrapped within a submerged microporous hydrophobic surface subjected to different environmental conditions. The loss of trapped air resulted in a measurable decrease in surface reflectivity and the kinetics of the process was determined in real time and compared to surface properties, such as porosity and morphology. The light-scattering results were compared with measurements of skin-friction drag, static contact angle, and contact-angle hysteresis. The In situ, noninvasive optical technique was shown to correlate well with the more conventional methods for quantifying surface hydrophobicity, such as flow slip and contact angle. In situ characterization of submerged hydrophobic surfaces using light scattering represents a new and useful tool for real-time estimation of hydrophobicity and drag reduction. Financial support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), contract number W91CRB-10-1-0003, is acknowledged.

  14. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  15. Acoustofluidic actuation of in situ fabricated microrotors.

    PubMed

    Kaynak, Murat; Ozcelik, Adem; Nama, Nitesh; Nourhani, Amir; Lammert, Paul E; Crespi, Vincent H; Huang, Tony Jun

    2016-09-21

    We have demonstrated in situ fabricated and acoustically actuated microrotors. A polymeric microrotor with predefined oscillating sharp-edge structures is fabricated in situ by applying a patterned UV light to polymerize a photocrosslinkable polyethylene glycol solution inside a microchannel around a polydimethylsiloxane axle. To actuate the microrotors by oscillating the sharp-edge structures, we employed piezoelectric transducers which generate tunable acoustic waves. The resulting acoustic streaming flows rotate the microrotors. The rotation rate is tuned by controlling the peak-to-peak voltage applied to the transducer. A 6-arm microrotor can exceed 1200 revolutions per minute. Our technique is an integration of single-step microfabrication, instant assembly around the axle, and easy acoustic actuation for various applications in microfluidics and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). PMID:27466140

  16. In-Situ Planetary Chemical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kounaves, S. P.; Buehler, M. G.; Grannan, S. M.; Hecht, M. H.; Kuhlman, K. R.

    2000-01-01

    Both, the search for evidence of life on Mars and the assessment of the Martian environment in respect to its compatibility with human explorers, will require the ability to measure and understand the aqueous chemistry of the Martian regolith. Direct in-situ chemical analysis is the only method by which chemical biosignatures can be reliably recognized and the toxicity of the regolith accurately assessed. Qualitative and quantitative determination of the aqueous ionic constituents and their concentrations is critical in developing kinetic and thermodynamic models that can be used to accurately predict the potential of the past or present Martian geochemical environment to have either generated or still sustain life. In-situ chemical characterization could provide evidence as to whether the chemical composition of the regolith or evaporates in suspected ancient water bodies have been biologically influenced.

  17. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment - various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field preliminary results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications.

  18. BEATRIX-II: In situ tritium test

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.E. ); Kuraswa, T. ); Miller, J.M. . Chalk River Nuclear Labs.); Slagle, O.D. )

    1990-01-01

    The BEATRIX-II irradiation experiment is an in-situ tritium release experiment being carried out in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor to evaluate the tritium release characteristics of fusion solid breeder materials. A sophisticated tritium gas handling system has been developed to continuously monitor the tritium recovery from the specimens and facilitate tritium removal from the experiment's sweep gas flow stream. The in-situ recovery experiment accommodates two different in-reactor specimen canisters with individual gas streams and temperature monitoring/control. Ionization chambers have been specifically designed to respond to the rapid changes in the tritium release rate at the anticipated tritium concentrations. Two ceramic electrolysis cells have proved effective in reducing the moisture in the gas streams to hydrogen/tritium. A tritium getter system, capable of reducing the tritium level by a factor greater than 4000, is used to reduce the tritium in the sweep gas to a level acceptable for release.

  19. In situ soil remediation using electrokinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Buehler, M.F.; Surma, J.E.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-11-01

    Electrokinetics is emerging as a promising technology for in situ soil remediation. This technique is especially attractive for Superfund sites and government operations which contain large volumes of contaminated soil. The approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The transport mechanisms include electroosmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. The feasibility of using electrokinetics to move radioactive {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, is discussed. A closed cell is used to provide in situ measurements of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results of ionic movement, along with the corresponding current response, are presented.

  20. In situ health monitoring of piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor); Drouant, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An in situ health monitoring apparatus may include an exciter circuit that applies a pulse to a piezoelectric transducer and a data processing system that determines the piezoelectric transducer's dynamic response to the first pulse. The dynamic response can be used to evaluate the operating range, health, and as-mounted resonance frequency of the transducer, as well as the strength of a coupling between the transducer and a structure and the health of the structure.

  1. Numerical simulation of in situ bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, B.J.

    1998-12-31

    Models that couple subsurface flow and transport with microbial processes are an important tool for assessing the effectiveness of bioremediation in field applications. A numerical algorithm is described that differs from previous in situ bioremediation models in that it includes: both vadose and groundwater zones, unsteady air and water flow, limited nutrients and airborne nutrients, toxicity, cometabolic kinetics, kinetic sorption, subgridscale averaging, pore clogging and protozoan grazing.

  2. In situ determination of salinity by PGNAA.

    PubMed

    Borsaru, M; Smith, C; Merritt, J; Aizawa, T; Rojc, A

    2006-05-01

    Salinity is a very important environmental issue all around the world. In many cases salinity was produced from human activities like farming and mining. Different soluble salts contribute to salinity, however, NaCl is the most common salt producing salinity. This work deals with the application of the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique for in situ determination of salinity. The technique is based on the measurement of chlorine, a component of the common salt, by PGNAA. PMID:16448819

  3. STEREO In-situ Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, P. C.; Luhmann, J. G.; Davis, A. J.; Russell, C. T.

    2007-05-01

    STEREO's IMPACT (In-situ Measurements of Particles and CME Transients) investigation provides the first opportunity for long duration, detailed observations of 1 AU magnetic field structures, plasma and suprathermal electrons, and energetic particles at points bracketing Earth's heliospheric location. The PLASTIC instrument takes plasma ion composition measurements completing STEREO's comprehensive in-situ perspective. Stereoscopic/3D information from the STEREO SECCHI imagers and SWAVES radio experiment make it possible to use both multipoint and quadrature studies to connect interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICME) and solar wind structures to CMEs and coronal holes observed at the Sun. The uniqueness of the STEREO mission requires novel data analysis tools and techniques to take advantage of the mission's full scientific potential. An interactive browser with the ability to create publication-quality plots has been developed which integrates STEREO's in-situ data with data from a variety of other missions including WIND and ACE. Static summary plots and a key-parameter type data set with a related online browser provide alternative data access. Finally, an application program interface (API) is provided allowing users to create custom software that ties directly into STEREO's data set. The API allows for more advanced forms of data mining than currently available through most web-based data services. A variety of data access techniques and the development of cross- spacecraft data analysis tools allow the larger scientific community to combine STEREO's unique in-situ data with those of other missions, particularly the L1 missions, and, therefore, to maximize STEREO's scientific potential in gaining a greater understanding of the heliosphere.

  4. In Situ Measurement of Aerosol Extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, Anthony W.; Castaneda, R.; Owano, T. G.; Bear, D.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Aerosols are important contributors to the radiative forcing in the atmosphere. Much of the uncertainty in our knowledge of climate forcing is due to uncertainties in the radiative forcing due to aerosols as illustrated in the IPCC reports of the last ten years. Improved measurement of aerosol optical properties, therefore, is critical to an improved understanding of atmospheric radiative forcing. Additionally, attempts to reconcile in situ and remote measurements of aerosol radiative properties have generally not been successful. This is due in part to the fact that it has been impossible to measure aerosol extinction in situ in the past. In this presentation we introduce a new instrument that employs the techniques used in cavity ringdown spectroscopy to measure the aerosol extinction and scattering coefficients in situ. A prototype instrument has been designed and tested in the lab and the field. It is capable of measuring aerosol extinction coefficient to 2x10(exp -6) per meter. This prototype instrument is described and results are presented.

  5. Biopulsing: An in situ aeration remediation strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, H.S.; Marshall, T.R.

    1997-12-31

    In situ soil aeration is an accepted technology for remediation of soil and groundwater impacted with petroleum hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons. This technology was utilized for remediating soil and groundwater at an aerospace components manufacturing facility located in southern California, Soil and groundwater had been impacted at the facility from historical releases of petroleum and halogenated hydrocarbons. Innovations in remediation system design, installation and monitoring strategies are described in this paper. The following tasks were conducted; (1) evaluation of the extent of impacted soil and groundwater; (2) collection of site-specific data necessary to evaluate and implement an appropriate remediation system to address the hydrocarbon-impacted soil; and (3) design, installation and operation of an in situ aeration system for remediation of soil and groundwater. The in situ aeration system operates on the principles of bioventing. Air was injected weekly into the subsurface by a system of wells placed at selected locations in short pulses lasting several hours. Oxygen utilization in the subsurface was monitored using subsurface sensors. Subsurface oxygen utilization rates of up to 1.5 percent resulted in an estimate of mass reduction of 71 pounds of hydrocarbons. The concentration of halogenated hydrocarbons was reduced in groundwater following commencement of aeration was observed in subsequent sampling events. The contribution of vadose zone aeration in reducing the concentrations of halogenated hydrocarbons in groundwater is currently being evaluated.

  6. Human activity and rest in situ.

    PubMed

    Roenneberg, Till; Keller, Lena K; Fischer, Dorothee; Matera, Joana L; Vetter, Céline; Winnebeck, Eva C

    2015-01-01

    Our lives are structured by the daily alternation of activity and rest, of wake and sleep. Despite significant advances in circadian and sleep research, we still lack answers to many of the most fundamental questions about this conspicuous behavioral pattern. We strongly believe that investigating this pattern in entrained conditions, real-life and daily contexts-in situ-will help the field to elucidate some of these central questions. Here, we present two common approaches for in situ investigation of human activity and rest: the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) and actimetry. In the first half of this chapter, we provide detailed instructions on how to use and interpret the MCTQ. In addition, we give an overview of the main insights gained with this instrument over the past 10 years, including some new findings on the interaction of light and age on sleep timing. In the second half of this chapter, we introduce the reader to the method of actimetry and share our experience in basic analysis techniques, including visualization, smoothing, and cosine model fitting of in situ recorded data. Additionally, we describe our new approach to automatically detect sleep from activity recordings. Our vision is that the broad use of such easy techniques in real-life settings combined with automated analyses will lead to the creation of large databases. The resulting power of big numbers will promote our understanding of such fundamental biological phenomena as sleep. PMID:25707281

  7. Autonomous in situ measurements of seawater alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Reggie S; DeGrandpre, Michael D; Beck, James C; Hart, Robert D; Peterson, Brittany; De Carlo, Eric H; Drupp, Patrick S; Hammar, Terry R

    2014-08-19

    Total alkalinity (AT) is an important parameter for describing the marine inorganic carbon system and understanding the effects of atmospheric CO2 on the oceans. Measurements of AT are limited, however, because of the laborious process of collecting and analyzing samples. In this work we evaluate the performance of an autonomous instrument for high temporal resolution measurements of seawater AT. The Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument for alkalinity (SAMI-alk) uses a novel tracer monitored titration method where a colorimetric pH indicator quantifies both pH and relative volumes of sample and titrant, circumventing the need for gravimetric or volumetric measurements. The SAMI-alk performance was validated in the laboratory and in situ during two field studies. Overall in situ accuracy was -2.2 ± 13.1 μmol kg(-1) (n = 86), on the basis of comparison to discrete samples. Precision on duplicate analyses of a carbonate standard was ±4.7 μmol kg(-1) (n = 22). This prototype instrument can measure in situ AT hourly for one month, limited by consumption of reagent and standard solutions. PMID:25051401

  8. In situ ion irradiation of zirconium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, Christopher J.; Motta, Arthur T.; Kirk, Mark A.

    2015-11-01

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is a candidate material for use in one of the layers of TRISO coated fuel particles to be used in the Generation IV high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor, and thus it is necessary to study the effects of radiation damage on its structure. The microstructural evolution of ZrCx under irradiation was studied in situ using the Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscope (IVEM) at Argonne National Laboratory. Samples of nominal stoichiometries ZrC0.8 and ZrC0.9 were irradiated in situ using 1 MeV Kr2+ ions at various irradiation temperatures (T = 20 K-1073 K). In situ experiments made it possible to continuously follow the evolution of the microstructure during irradiation using diffraction contrast imaging. Images and diffraction patterns were systematically recorded at selected dose points. After a threshold dose during irradiations conducted at room temperature and below, black-dot defects were observed which accumulated until saturation. Once created, the defect clusters did not move or get destroyed during irradiation so that at the final dose the low temperature microstructure consisted only of a saturation density of small defect clusters. No long-range migration of the visible defects or dynamic defect creation and elimination were observed during irradiation, but some coarsening of the microstructure with the formation of dislocation loops was observed at higher temperatures. The irradiated microstructure was found to be only weakly dependent on the stoichiometry.

  9. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN SITU ELECTROKINETIC EXTRACTION SYSTEM - SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed an in situ soil remediation system that uses electrokinetic principles to remediate hexavalent chromium-contaminated unsaturated or partially saturated soils. The technology involves the in situ application of direct current to the...

  10. Cystosarcoma phylloides with lobular and ductal carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, P J; Ostergaard, J

    1987-09-01

    Malignant change of the epithelium in cystosarcoma phylloides is a rare occurrence, the most frequent occurrence being infiltrating carcinoma of various types and lobular carcinoma in situ, while ductal carcinoma in situ is much more rare. We describe a case of lobular and ductal carcinoma in situ in the same case of cystosarcoma phylloides. PMID:2820345

  11. Bacterial colonization of enamel in situ investigated using fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, Ali; Follo, Marie; Selzer, Ann-Carina; Hellwig, Elmar; Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian

    2009-10-01

    Oral biofilms are one of the greatest challenges in dental research. The present study aimed to investigate initial bacterial colonization of enamel surfaces in situ using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) over a 12 h period. For this purpose, bovine enamel slabs were fixed on buccal sites of individual splints worn by six subjects for 2, 6 and 12 h to allow biofilm formation. Specimens were processed for FISH and evaluated with confocal laser-scanning microscopy, using probes for eubacteria, Streptococcus species, Veillonella species, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Actinomyces naeslundii. The number of adherent bacteria increased with time and all tested bacterial species were detected in the biofilm formed in situ. The general percentage composition of the eubacteria did not change over the investigated period, but the number of streptococci, the most frequently detected species, increased significantly with time (2 h: 17.7+/-13.8 %; 6 h: 20.0+/-16.6 %; 12 h: 24.7+/-16.1 %). However, < or =1 % of the surface was covered with bacteria after 12 h of biofilm formation in situ. In conclusion, FISH is an appropriate method for quantifying initial biofilm formation in situ, and the proportion of streptococci increases during the first 12 h of bacterial adherence. PMID:19528150

  12. TSSM: The in situ exploration of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Lebreton, J. P.; Matson, D.; Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.; Erd, C.

    2008-09-01

    The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) mission was born when NASA and ESA decided to collaborate on two missions independently selected by each agency: the Titan and Enceladus mission (TandEM), and Titan Explorer, a 2007 Flagship study. TandEM, the Titan and Enceladus mission, was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call. The mission concept is to perform remote and in situ investigations of Titan primarily, but also of Enceladus and Saturn's magentosphere. The two satellites are tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TSSM will study Titan as a system, including its upper atmosphere, the interactions with the magnetosphere, the neutral atmosphere, surface, interior, origin and evolution, as well as the astrobiological potential of Titan. It is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini- Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time for Titan, several close flybys of Enceladus). One overarching goal of the TSSM mission is to explore in situ the atmosphere and surface of Titan. In the current mission architecture, TSSM consists of an orbiter (under NASA's responsibility) with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus and Titan flybys before stabilizing in an orbit around Titan alone, therein delivering in situ elements (a Montgolfière, or hot air balloon, and a probe/lander). The latter are being studied by ESA. The balloon will circumnavigate Titan above the equator at an altitude of about 10 km for several months. The

  13. In-situ thermal testing program strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    In the past year the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project has implemented a new Program Approach to the licensing process. The Program Approach suggests a step-wise approach to licensing in which the early phases will require less site information than previously planned and necessitate a lesser degree of confidence in the longer-term performance of the repository. Under the Program Approach, the thermal test program is divided into two principal phases: (1) short-term in situ tests (in the 1996 to 2000 time period) and laboratory thermal tests to obtain preclosure information, parameters, and data along with bounding information for postclosure performance; and (2) longer-term in situ tests to obtain additional data regarding postclosure performance. This effort necessitates a rethinking of the testing program because the amount of information needed for the initial licensing phase is less than previously planned. This document proposes a revised and consolidated in situ thermal test program (including supporting laboratory tests) that is structured to meet the needs of the Program Approach. A customer-supplier model is used to define the Project data needs. These data needs, along with other requirements, were then used to define a set of conceptual experiments that will provide the required data within the constraints of the Program Approach schedule. The conceptual thermal tests presented in this document represent a consolidation and update of previously defined tests that should result in a more efficient use of Project resources. This document focuses on defining the requirements and tests needed to satisfy the goal of a successful license application in 2001, should the site be found suitable.

  14. Robust and efficient in situ quantum control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrie, Christopher; Moussa, Osama

    2015-05-01

    Precision control of quantum systems is the driving force for both quantum technology and the probing of physics at the quantum and nanoscale levels. We propose an implementation-independent method for in situ quantum control that leverages recent advances in the direct estimation of quantum gate fidelity. Our algorithm takes account of the stochasticity of the problem, is suitable for closed-loop control, and requires only a constant number of fidelity-estimating experiments per iteration independent of the dimension of the control space. It is efficient and robust to both statistical and technical noise.

  15. In Situ Preservation of Historic Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, R.; Brooks, R.

    The loss of the Mir space station is shown to symbolize a new consciousness of the value of space artefacts. The reasons why such artefacts as Mir become historic objects worthy of preservation are examined. Preservation of space vehicles in situ is discussed, with particular reference to safety, monitoring and long term costs. An argument is made for a wider definition for World Heritage designations to include material beyond the surface of the Earth, and for international bodies to assess, monitor and oversee these projects. Such heritage sites are seen as an economic driver for the development of space tourism in the 21st century.

  16. In situ hydrogen loading on zirconium powder

    PubMed Central

    Maimaitiyili, Tuerdi; Blomqvist, Jakob; Steuwer, Axel; Bjerkén, Christina; Zanellato, Olivier; Blackmur, Matthew S.; Andrieux, Jérôme; Ribeiro, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, various hydride phases in a zirconium–hydrogen system have been prepared in a high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation beamline and their transformation behaviour has been studied in situ. First, the formation and dissolution of hydrides in commercially pure zirconium powder were monitored in real time during hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, then whole pattern crystal structure analysis such as Rietveld and Pawley refinements were performed. All commonly reported low-pressure phases presented in the Zr–H phase diagram are obtained from a single experimental arrangement. PMID:26134803

  17. Spatially controlled, in situ synthesis of polymers

    DOEpatents

    Caneba, Gerard T.; Tirumala, Vijaya Raghavan; Mancini, Derrick C.; Wang, Hsien-Hau

    2005-03-22

    An in situ polymer microstructure formation method. The monomer mixture is polymerized in a solvent/precipitant through exposure to ionizing radiation in the absence any chemical mediators. If an exposure mask is employed to block out certain regions of the radiation cross section, then a patterned microstructure is formed. The polymerization mechanism is based on the so-called free-radical retrograde-precipitation polymerization process, in which polymerization occurs while the system is phase separating above the lower critical solution temperature. This method was extended to produce a crosslinked line grid-pattern of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide), which has been known to have thermoreversible properties.

  18. In situ determination of hydrocarbon characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, M.M.

    1990-01-02

    This patent describes a method for investigating in situ a characteristic of oil in an earth formation traversed by a borehole. It comprises: logging the earth formation with a borehole tool and determining an indication of the total formation content of at least one element other than oxygen, carbon, and uranium associated with the oil characteristic for at least one depth in the borehole; and deriving from the total formation content of the at least one element, a content of the at least one element in the oil at the depth in the borehole.

  19. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Tate, Lanetra C. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An in-situ system for detecting damage in an electrically conductive wire. The system includes a substrate at least partially covered by a layer of electrically conductive material forming a continuous or non-continuous electrically conductive layer connected to an electrical signal generator adapted to delivering electrical signals to the electrically conductive layer. Data is received and processed to identify damage to the substrate or electrically conductive layer. The electrically conductive material may include metalized carbon fibers, a thin metal coating, a conductive polymer, carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles or a combination thereof.

  20. In situ Characterization of Photoresist Dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itani, Toshiro; Santillan, Julius Joseph

    2010-06-01

    The dissolution process plays an important role in optimizing photoresist materials and processes for next-generation lithographic technologies. In this paper, we describe the application of high-speed atomic force microscopy for in situ analysis and characterization of photoresist dissolution. In particular, the physical changes in an exposed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoresist film are analyzed in real time - before, during, and after the development process. In this initial work, we report the dissolution characteristics of an EUV-exposed poly(4-hyrdroxystyrene)-based polymer resist processed with a tetramethylammonium hydroxide developer solution.

  1. In situ PEM fuel cell water measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Borup, Rodney L; Mukundan, Rangachary; Davey, John R; Spendelow, Jacob S; Hussey, Daniel S; Jacobson, David L; Arif, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Efficient PEM (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane) fuel cell performance requires effective water management. To achieve a deeper understanding of water transport and performance issues associated with water management, we have conducted in situ water examinations to help understand the effects of components and operations. High Frequency Resistance (HFR), AC Impedance and Neutron imaging were used to measure water content in operating fuel cells, with various conditions, including current density, relative humidity, inlet flows, flow orientation and variable Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) properties. High resolution neutron radiography was used to image fuel cells during a variety of conditions. The effect of specific operating conditions, including flow direction (co-flow or counter-flow) was examined. Counter-flow operation was found to result in higher water content than co-flow operation, which correlates to lower membrane resistivity. A variety of cells were used to quantify the membrane water in situ during exposure to saturated gases, during fuel cell operation, and during hydrogen pump operation. The quantitative results show lower membrane water content than previous results suggested.

  2. Natural attenuation processes during in situ capping.

    PubMed

    Himmelheber, David W; Pennell, Kurt D; Hughes, Joseph B

    2007-08-01

    Chlorinated solvents are common groundwater contaminants that threaten surface water quality and benthic health when present in groundwater seeps. Aquatic sediments can act as natural biobarriers to detoxify chlorinated solvent plumes via reductive dechlorination. In situ sediment capping, a remedial technique in which clean material is placed at the sediment-water interface, may alter sedimentary natural attenuation processes. This research explores the potential of Anacostia River sediment to naturally attenuate chlorinated solvents under simulated capping conditions. Results of microcosm studies demonstrated that intrinsic dechlorination of dissolved-phase PCE to ethene was possible, with electron donor availability controlling microbial activity. A diverse microbial community was present in the sediment, including multiple Dehalococcoides strains indicated by the amplification of the reductive dehalogenases tceA, vcrA, and bvcA. An upflow column simulating a capped sediment bed subject to PCE-contaminated groundwater seepage lost dechlorination activity with time and only achieved complete dechlorination when microorganisms present in the sediment were provided electron donor. Increases in effluent chloroethene concentrations during the period of biostimulation were attributed to biologically enhanced desorption and the formation of less sorptive dechlorination products. These findings suggest that in situ caps should be designed to account for reductions in natural biobarrier reactivity and for the potential breakthrough of groundwater contaminants. PMID:17822095

  3. Molecular cytogenetics using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.W.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Lucas, J.; Pinkel, D.; Weier, H-U.; Yu, Loh-Chung.

    1990-12-07

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific probes enables several new areas of cytogenetic investigation by allowing visual determination of the presence and normality of specific genetic sequences in single metaphase or interphase cells. in this approach, termed molecular cytogenetics, the genetic loci to be analyzed are made microscopically visible in single cells using in situ hybridization with nucleic acid probes specific to these loci. To accomplish this, the DNA in the target cells is made single stranded by thermal denaturation and incubated with single-stranded, chemically modified probe under conditions where the probe will anneal only with DNA sequences to which it has high DNA sequence homology. The bound probe is then made visible by treatment with a fluorescent reagent such as fluorescein that binds to the chemical modification carried by the probe. The DNA to which the probe does not bind is made visible by staining with a dye such as propidium iodide that fluoresces at a wavelength different from that of the reagent used for probe visualization. We show in this report that probes are now available that make this technique useful for biological dosimetry, prenatal diagnosis and cancer biology. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  5. GAS TURBINE REHEAT USING IN SITU COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    D.M. Bachovchin; T.E. Lippert; R.A. Newby P.G.A. Cizmas

    2004-05-17

    In situ reheat is an alternative to traditional gas turbine reheat design in which fuel is fed through airfoils rather than in a bulky discrete combustor separating HP and LP turbines. The goals are to achieve increased power output and/or efficiency without higher emissions. In this program the scientific basis for achieving burnout with low emissions has been explored. In Task 1, Blade Path Aerodynamics, design options were evaluated using CFD in terms of burnout, increase of power output, and possible hot streaking. It was concluded that Vane 1 injection in a conventional 4-stage turbine was preferred. Vane 2 injection after vane 1 injection was possible, but of marginal benefit. In Task 2, Combustion and Emissions, detailed chemical kinetics modeling, validated by Task 3, Sub-Scale Testing, experiments, resulted in the same conclusions, with the added conclusion that some increase in emissions was expected. In Task 4, Conceptual Design and Development Plan, Siemens Westinghouse power cycle analysis software was used to evaluate alternative in situ reheat design options. Only single stage reheat, via vane 1, was found to have merit, consistent with prior Tasks. Unifying the results of all the tasks, a conceptual design for single stage reheat utilizing 24 holes, 1.8 mm diameter, at the trailing edge of vane 1 is presented. A development plan is presented.

  6. In situ SU-8 silver nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Uthuppu, Basil; Jakobsen, Mogens H

    2015-01-01

    Summary Nanocomposite materials containing metal nanoparticles are of considerable interest in photonics and optoelectronics applications. However, device fabrication of such materials always encounters the challenge of incorporation of preformed nanoparticles into photoresist materials. As a solution to this problem, an easy new method of fabricating silver nanocomposites by an in situ reduction of precursors within the epoxy-based photoresist SU-8 has been developed. AgNO3 dissolved in acetonitrile and mixed with the epoxy-based photoresist SU-8 forms silver nanoparticles primarily during the pre- and post-exposure soft bake steps at 95 °C. A further high-temperature treatment at 300 °C resulted in the formation of densely homogeneously distributed silver nanoparticles in the photoresist matrix. No particle growth or agglomeration of nanoparticles is observed at this point. The reported new in situ silver nanocomposite materials can be spin coated as homogeneous thin films and structured by using UV lithography. A resolution of 5 µm is achieved in the lithographic process. The UV exposure time is found to be independent of the nanoparticle concentration. The fabricated silver nanocomposites exhibit high plasmonic responses suitable for the development of new optoelectronic and optical sensing devices. PMID:26425416

  7. In situ stabilization of entrapped elemental mercury.

    PubMed

    Devasena, M; Nambi, Indumathi M

    2013-11-30

    Elemental mercury is a dense immiscible fluid which gets entrapped as residual mercury in the pore spaces of the subsurface during improper disposals and accidental spills. This paper investigates in situ stabilization of entrapped elemental mercury to mercury sulphide using aqueous sodium polysulphide solution. Batch experiments showed 100% conversion efficiency of elemental mercury to mercury sulphide in a period of 96 h with sodium polysulphide/elemental mercury molar ratio of 1. XRD analysis identified the precipitate formed as mercury sulphide. Micromodel experiments, with glass beads as porous media, further demonstrated in situ stabilization of entrapped mercury under different residual mercury saturations. It was found that in a period of 10 days, 10% of entrapped mercury was stabilized as mercury sulphide, 0.088% was removed as dissolved mercury and the remaining elemental mercury was retained in porous media encapsulated by the newly formed mercury sulphide precipitate. However, there was no leaching of mercury from the micromodel effluent once stabilization was achieved. PMID:24080327

  8. In Situ Instruments: Overview of In Situ Instruments for Deployment in Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, M.; Cardell, G.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation reviews the design and specifications for several instruments for deployment in extreme environments. The instruments are: (1) In Situ Geochronology Instrument, (2) Laser Ablation Sampling Instrument, (3) Micro Hygrometer (4) Micro Lidar, (5) Atmospheric Electron X-Ray Spectrometer and (6) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer. Included in the descriptions are the contact people and the objective of each instrument.

  9. Radiological aspects of in situ uranium recovery

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, STEVEN H.

    2007-07-01

    In the last few years, there has been a significant increase in the demand for Uranium as historical inventories have been consumed and new reactor orders are being placed. Numerous mineralized properties around the world are being evaluated for Uranium recovery and new mining / milling projects are being evaluated and developed. Ore bodies which are considered uneconomical to mine by conventional methods such as tunneling or open pits, can be candidates for non-conventional recovery techniques, involving considerably less capital expenditure. Technologies such as Uranium in situ leaching in situ recovery (ISL / ISR), have enabled commercial scale mining and milling of relatively small ore pockets of lower grade, and may make a significant contribution to overall world wide uranium supplies over the next ten years. Commercial size solution mining production facilities have operated in the US since 1975. Solution mining involves the pumping of groundwater, fortified with oxidizing and complexing agents into an ore body, solubilizing the uranium in situ, and then pumping the solutions to the surface where they are fed to a processing plant. Processing involves ion exchange and may also include precipitation, drying or calcining and packaging operations depending on facility specifics. This paper presents an overview of the ISR process and the health physics monitoring programs developed at a number of commercial scale ISL / ISR Uranium recovery and production facilities as a result of the radiological character of these processes. Although many radiological aspects of the process are similar to that of conventional mills, conventional-type tailings as such are not generated. However, liquid and solid byproduct materials may be generated and impounded. The quantity and radiological character of these by products are related to facility specifics. Some special monitoring considerations are presented which are required due to the manner in which Radon gas is evolved in

  10. In situ grown quantum-wire lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coldren, L. A.; Gossard, A. C.; English, J. H.; Mui, D.; Corzine, S. W.

    1994-04-01

    This program concentrated on developing techniques to better understand and fabricate quantum-confined structures. The goal was to create the enabling technology for more efficient semiconductor lasers and integrated optoelectronic circuits. Over the contract period, significant advances occurred in the development of quantum-confined lasers, UHV in-situ processing technology, and the underlying theory for quantum-confined laser structures. The quantum-confined laser work included both quantum-wire laser and vertical-cavity laser development. This latter effort also required substantial improvements in the MBE growth technology. Much of this technology is now ready for transfer to industry. In fact, a number of joint projects with industry are underway, as a result of this program.

  11. IN SITU URANIUM STABILIZATION BY MICROBIAL METABOLITES

    SciTech Connect

    Turick, C; Anna Knox, A; Chad L Leverette,C; Yianne Kritzas, Y

    2006-11-29

    Soil contaminated with U was the focus of this study in order to develop in-situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >106 cells/g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U chelating and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in field tests demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments.

  12. In situ Fabrication of Monolithic Copper Azide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing; Li, Mingyu; Zeng, Qingxuan; Wu, Xingyu

    2016-04-01

    Fabrication and characterization of monolithic copper azide were performed. The monolithic nanoporous copper (NPC) with interconnected pores and nanoparticles was prepared by decomposition and sintering of the ultrafine copper oxalate. The preferable monolithic NPC can be obtained through decomposition and sintering at 400°C for 30 min. Then, the available monolithic NPC was in situ reacted with the gaseous HN3 for 24 h and the monolithic NPC was transformed into monolithic copper azide. Additionally, the copper particles prepared by electrodeposition were also reacted with the gaseous HN3 under uniform conditions as a comparison. The fabricated monolithic copper azide was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  13. Semiconductors: In Situ Processing of Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    Current proposals for developing an extended human presence on the Moon and Mars increasingly consider the processing of nonterrestrial materials essential for keeping the Earth launch burden reasonable. Utilization of in situ resources for construction of lunar and Mars bases will initially require assessment of resource availability followed by the development of economically acceptable and technically feasible extraction processes. In regard to materials processing and fabrication, the lower gravity level on the Moon (0.125 g) and Mars (0.367 g) will dramatically change the presently accepted hierarchy of materials in terms of specific properties, a factor that must be understood and exploited. Furthermore, significant changes are expected in the behavior of liquid materials during processing. In casting, for example, mold filling and associated solidification processes have to be reevaluated. Finally, microstructural development, and therefore material properties, presently being documented through ongoing research in microgravity science and applications, need to be understood and scaled to the reduced gravity environments.

  14. In situ soil remediation: Bacteria or fungi?

    SciTech Connect

    Cutright, T.J.; Lee, S.

    1995-07-01

    Contamination of the environment is not a new problem. For most of recorded history, the unwanted byproducts of industrial and residential processes have been dumped into unlined pits or nearby streams. Although disposal techniques have greatly improved, significant quantities of hazardous materials are still being released to the environment via accidental spills and leaking underground storage tanks. One particular group of contaminants of critical environmental concern is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAH-contaminated sites typically cover large areas; therefore, the development of in situ remediation techniques such as bioremediation is strongly emphasized. In situations when inherent microorganisms are not capable of degrading the contaminants, foreign strains must be used. Bioremediation experiments were conducted to compare the remediation efficiencies of a bacteria and a fungus for an industrially PAH contaminated soil. Specifically, the use of three supplemental nutrient solutions were investigated in conjunction with the bacteria Achromobacter sp. and fungus Cunninghamella echinulata var. elegans.

  15. In-situ Resources In Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    This tutorial is a primer on the motivational and materials science basis for utilizing space resources to lower the cost and increase the safety and reliability of human systems beyond Earth's orbit. Past research in materials processing in orbit will be briefly reviewed to emphasize the challenges and advantages inherent in processing materials in space. Data on resource availability from human Lunar and robotic/sensor missions beyond the Moon will be overviewed for resource relevance to human exploration and development of space. Specific scenarios such as propellant production on the Moon and Mars, and lunar photovoltaic power production from in-situ materials will be discussed in relation to exploration and commercialization of space. A conclusion will cover some of the visionary proposals for the use of space resources to extend human society and prosperity beyond Earth.

  16. Autofluorescence correction for fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Szoelloesi, J.; Balazs, M.; Waldman, F.C.

    1995-08-01

    Optimal sensitivity of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) requires bright signals and low background fluorescence. Use of locus-specific probes is especially dependent on high sensitivity. Some tissue preparations show high autofluorescence, masking small or dim signals. We have developed a new method for subtracting autofluorescence from digital images on a pixel-by-pixel basis. It is based on the observation that fluorescent labels for FISH have narrower excitation and emission spectra than the chemical components responsible for autofluorescence. Our new approach uses calculation of the ratio of autofluorescence between multiple color images for correction of autofluorescence in each individual image. By subtracting autofluorescence components, we were able to enhance centromeric signals and make previously indistiguishable cosmid signals clearly visible. This image-processing approach to autofluorescence correction may widen the applicability of gene-specific probes in FISH analysis of tumor material. 15 refs., 3 fig., 1 tab.

  17. In-situ continuous water analyzing module

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Cyril V.; Wise, Marcus B.

    1998-01-01

    An in-situ continuous liquid analyzing system for continuously analyzing volatile components contained in a water source comprises: a carrier gas supply, an extraction container and a mass spectrometer. The carrier gas supply continuously supplies the carrier gas to the extraction container and is mixed with a water sample that is continuously drawn into the extraction container. The carrier gas continuously extracts the volatile components out of the water sample. The water sample is returned to the water source after the volatile components are extracted from it. The extracted volatile components and the carrier gas are delivered continuously to the mass spectometer and the volatile components are continuously analyzed by the mass spectrometer.

  18. In-situ continuous water monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Cyril V.; Wise, Marcus B.

    1998-01-01

    An in-situ continuous liquid monitoring system for continuously analyzing volatile components contained in a water source comprises: a carrier gas supply, an extraction container and a mass spectrometer. The carrier gas supply continuously supplies the carrier gas to the extraction container and is mixed with a water sample that is continuously drawn into the extraction container by the flow of carrier gas into the liquid directing device. The carrier gas continuously extracts the volatile components out of the water sample. The water sample is returned to the water source after the volatile components are extracted from it. The extracted volatile components and the carrier gas are delivered continuously to the mass spectrometer and the volatile components are continuously analyzed by the mass spectrometer.

  19. In-situ continuous water monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, C.V.; Wise, M.B.

    1998-03-31

    An in-situ continuous liquid monitoring system for continuously analyzing volatile components contained in a water source comprises: a carrier gas supply, an extraction container and a mass spectrometer. The carrier gas supply continuously supplies the carrier gas to the extraction container and is mixed with a water sample that is continuously drawn into the extraction container by the flow of carrier gas into the liquid directing device. The carrier gas continuously extracts the volatile components out of the water sample. The water sample is returned to the water source after the volatile components are extracted from it. The extracted volatile components and the carrier gas are delivered continuously to the mass spectrometer and the volatile components are continuously analyzed by the mass spectrometer. 2 figs.

  20. Recent advances in in situ vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, W.F.; Luey, Ja-Kael.

    1992-05-01

    In Situ Vitrification (ISV) is an innovative mobile remediation technology for soils and other underground contamination: Developed by the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), ISV has advanced during the past decade from a laboratory concept to a remediation technology commercially available for contaminated soils. ISV technology is currently being developed for remediation of DOE waste sites at Hanford, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Idaho National Laboratory (INEL), and other sites. The incentives for application of ISV can convert contaminated sites to a solid, highly durable block similar to naturally occurring obsidian. The ISV product has been shown capable of passing US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) tests such as the Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP). Retrieval, handling and transport of untreated hazardous material would normally not be required after application of ISV. Therefore, costs, exposure to personnel, risk of releases to the environment, and generation of secondary wastes are greatly reduced compared with remove-and-treat technologies.

  1. Recent advances in in situ vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, W.F.; Luey, Ja-Kael

    1992-05-01

    In Situ Vitrification (ISV) is an innovative mobile remediation technology for soils and other underground contamination: Developed by the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), ISV has advanced during the past decade from a laboratory concept to a remediation technology commercially available for contaminated soils. ISV technology is currently being developed for remediation of DOE waste sites at Hanford, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Idaho National Laboratory (INEL), and other sites. The incentives for application of ISV can convert contaminated sites to a solid, highly durable block similar to naturally occurring obsidian. The ISV product has been shown capable of passing US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) tests such as the Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP). Retrieval, handling and transport of untreated hazardous material would normally not be required after application of ISV. Therefore, costs, exposure to personnel, risk of releases to the environment, and generation of secondary wastes are greatly reduced compared with remove-and-treat technologies.

  2. Support Routines for In Situ Image Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G.; Pariser, Oleg; Yeates, Matthew C.; Lee, Hyun H.; Lorre, Jean

    2013-01-01

    This software consists of a set of application programs that support ground-based image processing for in situ missions. These programs represent a collection of utility routines that perform miscellaneous functions in the context of the ground data system. Each one fulfills some specific need as determined via operational experience. The most unique aspect to these programs is that they are integrated into the large, in situ image processing system via the PIG (Planetary Image Geometry) library. They work directly with space in situ data, understanding the appropriate image meta-data fields and updating them properly. The programs themselves are completely multimission; all mission dependencies are handled by PIG. This suite of programs consists of: (1)marscahv: Generates a linearized, epi-polar aligned image given a stereo pair of images. These images are optimized for 1-D stereo correlations, (2) marscheckcm: Compares the camera model in an image label with one derived via kinematics modeling on the ground, (3) marschkovl: Checks the overlaps between a list of images in order to determine which might be stereo pairs. This is useful for non-traditional stereo images like long-baseline or those from an articulating arm camera, (4) marscoordtrans: Translates mosaic coordinates from one form into another, (5) marsdispcompare: Checks a Left Right stereo disparity image against a Right Left disparity image to ensure they are consistent with each other, (6) marsdispwarp: Takes one image of a stereo pair and warps it through a disparity map to create a synthetic opposite- eye image. For example, a right eye image could be transformed to look like it was taken from the left eye via this program, (7) marsfidfinder: Finds fiducial markers in an image by projecting their approximate location and then using correlation to locate the markers to subpixel accuracy. These fiducial markets are small targets attached to the spacecraft surface. This helps verify, or improve, the

  3. In situ PEM fuel cell water measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Borup, Rodney L; Mukundan, Rangachary; Davey, John R; Spendalow, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    Efficient PEM fuel cell performance requires effective water management. The materials used, their durability, and the operating conditions under which fuel cells run, make efficient water management within a practical fuel cell system a primary challenge in developing commercially viable systems. We present experimental measurements of water content within operating fuel cells. in response to operational conditions, including transients and freezing conditions. To help understand the effect of components and operations, we examine water transport in operating fuel cells, measure the fuel cell water in situ and model the water transport within the fuel cell. High Frequency Resistance (HFR), AC Impedance and Neutron imaging (using NIST's facilities) were used to measure water content in operating fuel cells with various conditions, including current density, relative humidity, inlet flows, flow orientation and variable GDL properties. Ice formation in freezing cells was also monitored both during operation and shut-down conditions.

  4. In situ uranium stabilization by microbial metabolites.

    PubMed

    Turick, Charles E; Knox, Anna S; Leverette, Chad L; Kritzas, Yianne G

    2008-06-01

    Microbial melanin production by autochthonous bacteria was explored in this study as a means to increase U immobilization in U contaminated soil. This article demonstrates the application of bacterial physiology and soil ecology for enhanced U immobilization in order to develop an in situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE), Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >10(6) cells per g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U complexing and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in a field test demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments. PMID:18222573

  5. Guiding neuronal development with in situ microfabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaehr, Bryan; Allen, Richard; Javier, David J.; Currie, John; Shear, Jason B.

    2004-11-01

    We report the ability to modify microscopic 3D topographies within dissociated cultures, providing a means to alter the development of neurons as they extend neurites and establish interconnections. In this approach, multiphoton excitation is used to focally excite noncytotoxic photosensitizers that promote protein crosslinking, such as BSA, into matrices having feature sizes 250 nm. Barriers, growth lanes, and pinning structures comprised of crosslinked proteins are fabricated under conditions that do not compromise the viability of neurons both on short time scales and over periods of days. In addition, the ability to fabricate functional microstructures from crosslinked avidin enables submicrometer localization of controllable quantities of biotinylated ligands, such as indicators and biological effectors. Feasibility is demonstrated for using in situ microfabrication to guide the contact position of cortical neurons with micrometer accuracy, opening the possibility for engineering well defined sets of synaptic interactions. biofabrication | multiphoton cell patterning | growth cone

  6. Condition of in situ unexploded ordnance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Bigl, Susan; Packer, Bonnie

    2015-02-01

    Unexploded ordnance (UXO) become point contamination sources when their casings fail and their explosive fill dissolve. To determine the modes of failure, we documented the condition of UXO found on military training ranges and sampled soils for explosives beneath 42 in situ UXO. We found that oxidation caused the metal UXO casings to swell and fail catastrophically. Unlike previous work, pitting of the metal casings was not found to be an important release route for explosives. Of the 42 UXO sampled, eight were leaking explosives into the soil and of these, four had perforated or cracked casings, three were corroded and one was a partially detonated round. We estimated a surface density of 74 UXO per hectare for a subset of UXO sampled. We used the relative concentrations of explosives and their transformation products in the soil to determine if the explosives had recently dissolved or were from past military training. PMID:25461079

  7. High resolution in situ ultrasonic corrosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, R.J.

    1984-01-10

    An ultrasonic corrosion monitor is provided which produces an in situ measurement of the amount of corrosion of a monitoring zone or zones of an elongate probe placed in the corrosive environment. A monitoring zone is preferably formed between the end of the probe and the junction of the zone with a lead-in portion of the probe. Ultrasonic pulses are applied to the probe and a determination made of the time interval between pulses reflected from the end of the probe and the junction referred to, both when the probe is uncorroded and while it is corroding. Corresponding electrical signals are produced and a value for the normalized transit time delay derived from these time interval measurements is used to calculate the amount of corrosion.

  8. High resolution in situ ultrasonic corrosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    An ultrasonic corrosion monitor is provided which produces an in situ measurement of the amount of corrosion of a monitoring zone or zones of an elongate probe placed in the corrosive environment. A monitoring zone is preferably formed between the end of the probe and the junction of the zone with a lead-in portion of the probe. Ultrasonic pulses are applied to the probe and a determination made of the time interval between pulses reflected from the end of the probe and the junction referred to, both when the probe is uncorroded and while it is corroding. Corresponding electrical signals are produced and a value for the normalized transit time delay derived from these time interval measurements is used to calculate the amount of corrosion.

  9. Mars in Situ Resource Utilization Technology Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Santago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2012-01-01

    We have examined the technologies required to enable Mars In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) because our understanding of Mars resources has changed significantly in the last five years as a result of recent robotic missions to the red planet. Two major developments, (1) confirmation of the presence of near-surface water in the form of ice in very large amounts at high latitudes by the Phoenix Lander and (2) the likely existence of water at lower latitudes in the form of hydrates or ice in the top one meter of the regolith, have the potential to change ISRU technology selection. A brief technology assessment was performed for the most promising Mars atmospheric gas processing techniques: Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) and Methanation (aka Sabatier), as well as an overview of soil processing technology to extract water from Martian soil.

  10. In situ secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Groenewold, G.S.; Applehans, A.D.; Ingram, J.C.; Delmore, J.E.; Dahl, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    The direct detection of tributyl phosphate (TBP) on rocks using molecular beam surface analysis [MBSA or in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)] is demonstrated. Quantities as low as 250 ng were detected on basalt and sandstone with little or no sample preparation. Detection of TBP on soil has proven to be more problematic and requires further study. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is more difficult to detect because it is very reactive with surfaces of interest. Nevertheless, it is possible to detect EDTA if the acidity of the surface is controlled. The detection of EDTA-metal complexes is currently an open question, but evidence is presented for the detection of ions arising from a EDTA-lead complex. Carboxylic acids (i.e., citric, ascorbic, malic, succinic, malonic, and oxalic) give characteristic SIM spectra, but their detection on sample surfaces awaits evaluation.

  11. Fungal biodegradation of phthalate plasticizer in situ.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, S; Faseela, P; Josh, M K Sarath; Balachandran, S; Devi, R Sudha; Benjamin, Sailas

    2013-04-01

    This unique study describes how Aspergillus japonicus, Penicillium brocae and Purpureocillium lilacinum, three novel isolates of our laboratory from heavily plastics-contaminated soil completely utilized the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) bound to PVC blood storage bags (BB) in simple basal salt medium (BSM) by static submerged growth (28 °C). Initial quantification as well as percentage utilization of DEHP blended to BB were estimated periodically by extracting it into n-hexane. A two-stage cultivation strategy was employed for the complete mycoremediation of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, about two-third parts of total (33.5% w/w) DEHP bound to BB were utilized in two weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass (~0.15-0.32 g per g BB) and sharp declining (to ~3) of initial pH (7.2). At this stagnant growth state (low pH), spent medium was replaced by fresh BSM (pH, 7.2), and thus in the second stage the remaining DEHP (one-third) in BB was utilized completely. The ditches and furrows seen from the topology of the BB as seen by the 3D AFM image further confirmed the bioremediation of DEHP physically bound to BB in situ. Of the three mycelial fungi employed, P. lilacinum independently showed highest efficiency for the complete utilization of DEHP bound to BB, whose activity was comparable to that of the consortium comprising all the three fungi described herein. To sum up, the two-stage cultivation strategy demonstrated in this study shows that a batch process would efficiently remediate the phthalic acid esters blended in plastics on a large scale, and thus it offers potentials for the management of plastics wastes. PMID:22903609

  12. In Situ Field Testing of Processes

    SciTech Connect

    J. Wang

    2001-12-14

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR.

  13. PERFORMANCE CONFIRMATION IN-SITU INSTRUMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    N.T. Raczka

    2000-05-23

    The purpose of this document is to identify and analyze the types of in-situ instruments and methods that could be used in support of the data acquisition portion of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The PC program will require geomechanical , geophysical, thermal, and hydrologic instrumentation of several kinds. This analysis is being prepared to document the technical issues associated with each type of measurement during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a) as its starting point. The scope of this analysis is primarily on the period after the start of waste package emplacement and before permanent closure of the repository, a period lasting between 15 and 300 years after last package emplacement (Stroupe 2000, Attachment 1, p. 1). The primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the design criteria as presented in the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a). The scope of this analysis will be limited to the instrumentation related to parameters that require continuous monitoring of the conditions underground. (2) Preliminary identification and listing of the data requirements and parameters as related to the current repository layout in support of PC monitoring. (3) Preliminary identification of methods and instrumentation for the acquisition of the required data. Although the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a) defines a broad range of data that must be obtained from a variety of methods, the focus of this analysis is on instrumentation related to the performance of the rock mass and the formation of water in the repository environment, that is obtainable from in-situ observation, testing, and monitoring.

  14. Comparisons of Remote And In-situ CME Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinard, Alysha; Mulligan, T.; Lynch, B.

    2011-05-01

    We present a comparison of remote and in-situ CME ejecta using data from the Ulysses and SOHO missions. Quadrature occurs when two spacecraft form a 90 degree angle with the Sun. Quadrature studies allow the comparison of visible features of limb CMEs and and in-situ ICME properties. We investigate several events, including so-called "cannibal" CMEs, and compare the relationship between CME morphology and in-situ structures such as magnetic field, composition, and plasma properties.

  15. DNA/DNA in situ hybridization with enzyme linked probes

    SciTech Connect

    Grillo, S.; Mosher, M.; Charles, P.; Henry, S.; Taub, F.

    1987-05-01

    A non-radioactive in situ nucleic acid hybridization method which requires no antibodies, haptens, avidin or biotin intermediateries is presented. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled nucleic acid probes are hybridized in situ for 2 hours or less, followed by brief washing of hybridized cells and the direct detection of in situ hybrids with diaminobenzidine (DAB). Application of this method to the detection of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in human cells is shown.

  16. Freeprocessing: Transparent in situ visualization via data interception

    PubMed Central

    Fogal, Thomas; Proch, Fabian; Schiewe, Alexander; Hasemann, Olaf; Kempf, Andreas; Krüger, Jens

    2014-01-01

    In situ visualization has become a popular method for avoiding the slowest component of many visualization pipelines: reading data from disk. Most previous in situ work has focused on achieving visualization scalability on par with simulation codes, or on the data movement concerns that become prevalent at extreme scales. In this work, we consider in situ analysis with respect to ease of use and programmability. We describe an abstraction that opens up new applications for in situ visualization, and demonstrate that this abstraction and an expanded set of use cases can be realized without a performance cost. PMID:25995996

  17. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    J.W. Berthold; L.A. Jeffers

    1998-04-15

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  18. Emerging issues after the recognition of in situ follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Antonino; Gloghini, Annunziata

    2014-03-01

    This article reviews knowledge derived from the introduction of the concept of in situ follicular lymphoma (FL). The following questions are addressed: (1) How should in situ lymphomas be defined and diagnosed? (2) Is in situ lymphoma an early step of lymphomagenesis? (3) Is the concept of early neoplasia applicable to the lymphoma setting? (4) How should patients with in situ lymphoma be managed? The commonly used term of in situ FL, also called FL in situ (FLIS), has been adopted to define a B-cell lymphoid neoplasia with an intrafollicular growth pattern. The neoplastic B cells are localized within the germinal center, without invasion of surrounding structures. Pathological diagnosis requires recognizing strong immunostaining of BCL2 and CD10 by neoplastic B cells inside the affected follicles. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for t(14;18) is mandatory in doubtful cases in which immunohistochemistry data are ambiguous. In situ FL is probably the earliest stage of development of FL, while the concept of "early" lymphoma is applicable when minimal disease extends beyond the boundaries of the follicular compartment. From a clinical point of view, in situ FL has an uncertain clinical behavior and unknown risk to progression to overt lymphoma. How to approach and monitor patients with in situ FL is currently uncertain. An asymptomatic patient with stage 1 in situ FL requires the same treatment plan as an asymptomatic patient with stage 1 conventional FL. For patients with concomitant overt malignancy, therapy must be applied according to the malignant counterpart. PMID:23713483

  19. Experimental Measurement of In Situ Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibbo, Maria; Milkereit, Bernd; Nasseri, Farzine; Schmitt, Douglas; Young, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The World Stress Map data is determined by stress indicators including earthquake focal mechanisms, in situ measurement in mining, oil and gas boreholes as well as the borehole cores, and geologic data. Unfortunately, these measurements are not only infrequent but sometimes infeasible, and do not provide nearly enough data points with high accuracy to correctly infer stress fields in deep mines around the world. Improvements in stress measurements of Earth's crust is fundamental to several industries such as oil and gas, mining, nuclear waste management, and enhanced geothermal systems. Quantifying the state of stress and the geophysical properties of different rock types is a major complication in geophysical monitoring of deep mines. Most stress measurement techniques involve either the boreholes or their cores, however these measurements usually only give stress along one axis, not the complete stress tensor. The goal of this project is to investigate a new method of acquiring a complete stress tensor of the in situ stress in the Earth's crust. This project is part of a comprehensive, exploration geophysical study in a deep, highly stressed mine located in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, and focuses on two boreholes located in this mine. These boreholes are approximately 400 m long with NQ diameters and are located at depths of about 1300 - 1600 m and 1700 - 2000 m. Two borehole logging surveys were performed on both boreholes, October 2013 and July 2015, in order to perform a time-lapse analysis of the geophysical changes in the mine. These multi-parameter surveys include caliper, full waveform sonic, televiewer, chargeability (IP), and resistivity. Laboratory experiments have been performed on borehole core samples of varying geologies from each borehole. These experiments have measured the geophysical properties including elastic modulus, bulk modulus, P- and S-wave velocities, and density. The apparatus' used for this project are geophysical imaging cells capable

  20. Primary Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba S.; Hassan, Mohammad J.; Madaan, Garima; Jain, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the endometrium, whether primary or secondary to cervical cancer, is a rare entity. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma in situ is even more uncommon; it usually occurs in postmenopausal women and has a strong association with pyometra. We report a 60-year-old multiparous postmenopausal woman who presented to the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, India, in May 2014 with a lower abdominal swelling corresponding in size to a pregnancy of 26 gestational weeks and vaginal discharge of one year’s duration. A total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral salpingooophorectomy was performed, which revealed an enlarged uterus with pyometra. Histopathology showed that the entire endometrial lining had been replaced with malignant squamous cells without invasion of the myometrium. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumour cells were positive for p63 with a high Ki-67 labelling index. No adjuvant therapy was required and the patient was disease-free at a seven-month follow-up. PMID:26629388

  1. Photonic MEMS for NIR in-situ

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, T C; Cole, G D; Goddard, L L; Behymer, E

    2007-07-03

    We report on a novel sensing technique combining photonics and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for the detection and monitoring of gas emissions for critical environmental, medical, and industrial applications. We discuss how MEMS-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) can be exploited for in-situ detection and NIR spectroscopy of several gases, such as O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, CO{sub x}, CH{sub 4}, HF, HCl, etc., with estimated sensitivities between 0.1 and 20 ppm on footprints {approx}10{sup -3} mm{sup 3}. The VCSELs can be electrostatically tuned with a continuous wavelength shift up to 20 nm, allowing for unambiguous NIR signature determination. Selective concentration analysis in heterogeneous gas compositions is enabled, thus paving the way to an integrated optical platform for multiplexed gas identification by bandgap and device engineering. We will discuss here, in particular, our efforts on the development of a 760 nm AlGaAs based tunable VCSEL for O{sub 2} detection.

  2. In situ measurements of ship tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radke, Lawrence F.; Lyons, Jamie H.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Coakley, James E.

    1990-01-01

    It has long been known that cloud droplet concentrations are strongly influenced by cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and that anthropogenic sources of pollution can affect CCN concentrations. More recently it has been suggested that CCN may play an important role in climate through their effect on cloud albedo. A interesting example of the effect of anthropogenic CCN on cloud albedo is the so-called 'ship track' phenomenon. Ship tracks were first observed in satellite imagery when the ship's emissions were evidently needed for the formation of a visible cloud. However, they appear more frequently in satellite imagery as modifications to existing stratus and stratocumulus clouds. The tracks are seen most clearly in satellite imagery by comparing the radiance at 3.7 microns with that at 0.63 and 11 microns. To account for the observed change in radiance, droplet concentrations must be high, and the mean size of the droplets small, in ship tracks. Researchers describe what they believe to be the first in situ measurements in what appears to have been a ship track.

  3. IN-SITU MINING OF PHOSPHATE ORES

    SciTech Connect

    H. El-Shall; R. Stana; A. El-Midany; S. Malekzadah

    2004-12-17

    Presently the mining of Florida phosphate requires the movement of over a 100-ton of materials (overburden, sand, clay) for every ton of phosphate concentrate recovered. Not only is this energy intensive, but it also causes significant stress on the environment. In 2003, the Department of Energy solicited ideas for innovative mining ideas that could significantly improve the efficiency of mining. An award was made to the University of Florida Engineering Research Center to evaluate the in situ mining of phosphates using an aqueous CO{sub 2} solution. Tests were carried out in a 15.2 cm (6-inch) diameter column, 1.83 meter (6 feet) long at pressures up to 117.2 kg/cm{sup 2} (40 psi). Results to date demonstrate that initially the MgO is leached from the ore and then the phosphate. While the tests are continuing, so far they have not demonstrated P{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentrations that are economically attractive.

  4. Cubesat in-situ degradation detector (CIDD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rievers, Benny; Milke, Alexander; Salden, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The design of the thermal control and management system (TCS) is a central task in satellite design. In order to evaluate and dimensionize the properties of the TCS, material parameters specifying the conductive and radiative properties of the different TCS components have to be known including their respective variations within the mission lifetime. In particular the thermo-optical properties of the outer surfaces including critical TCS components such as radiators and thermal insulation are subject to degradation caused by interaction with the space environment. The evaluation of these material parameters by means of ground testing is a time-consuming and expensive endeavor. Long-term in-situ measurements on board the ISS or large satellites not only realize a better implementation of the influence of the space environment but also imply high costs. Motivated by this we propose the utilization of low-cost nano-satellite systems to realize material tests within space at a considerably reduced cost. We present a nanosat-scale degradation sensor concept which realizes low power consumption and data rates compatible with nanosat boundaries at UHF radio. By means of a predefined measurement and messaging cycle temperature curves are measured and evaluated on ground to extract the change of absorptivity and emissivity over mission lifetime.

  5. Modeling enhanced in situ denitrification in groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Killingstad, M.W.; Widdowson, M.A.; Smith, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical solute transport model was developed for simulating an enhanced in situ denitrification experiment performed in a nitrate-contaminated aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. In this experiment, formate (HCOO-) was injected for a period of 26 days into the carbon-limited aquifer to stimulate denitrification. Calibration of the vertical-profile site model was demonstrated through error analysis and comparison with formate, nitrate, and nitrite concentration data monitored along a transect of three multilevel groundwater sampling wells for 75 days after initial injection. Formate utilization rates were approximately 142 and 38 ??M/day for nitrate and nitrite reduction, respectively. Nitrate and nitrite utilization rates were approximately 29 and 8 ??M/day, respectively. Nitrate utilization rates under enhanced conditions were 1 order of magnitude greater than previously reported naturally occurring rates. The nitrite production rate was approximately 29 ??M/day. Persistence of nitrite was attributed to a combination of factors, including electron donor (formate) limitation late in the experiment, preferential utilization of nitrate as an electron acceptor, and greater nitrite production relative to nitrite utilization.

  6. In situ vitrification: Process and products

    SciTech Connect

    Kindle, C.; Koegler, S.

    1991-06-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an electrically powered thermal treatment process that converts soil into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. It is similar in concept to bringing a simplified glass manufacturing process to a site and operating it in the ground, using the soil as a glass feed stock. Gaseous emissions are contained, scrubbed, and filtered. When the process is completed, the molten volume cools producing a block of glass and crystalline material that resembles natural obsidian commingled with crystalline phases. The product passes US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) leach resistance tests, and it can be classified as nonhazardous from a chemical hazard perspective. ISV was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) for application to contaminated soils. It is also being adapted for applications to buried waste, underground tanks, and liquid seepage sites. ISV's then-year development period has included tests on many different site conditions. As of January 1991 there have been 74 tests using PNL's ISV equipment; these tests have ranged from technology development tests using nonhazardous conditions to hazardous and radioactive tests. 2 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. In-situ Rb-Sr geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, F. S.; Nowicki, K.; Whitaker, T.

    This paper reports on the first rubidium-strontium (Rb-Sr) radiometric dates using a Laser Desorption Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDRIMS) instrument capable of being miniaturized for flight to another planet. The LDRIMS instrument produces dates in under 24 hours, requires minimal sample preparation, and avoids the interference and mass resolution issues associated with other geochronology measurements. We have begun testing the bench-top prototype on the Boulder Creek Granite (BCG), from Colorado, comprised primarily of a gneissic quartz monzonite and granodiorite; whole rock Rb-Sr TIMS measurements result in dates of 1700± 40 Ma [1]. Data reduction of the LDRIMS Rb-Sr measurements on calibrated repeat runs result in a date for the BCG of 1.727± 0.087 Ga (n=288, MSWD=1). Most geochronology applications are willing to accept an MSWD up to ~2.7; at MSWD=2, the precision improves to ± 0.062 Ga. This technology is moving from lab prototype to field deployable instrument, and provides an opportunity to directly address the science goals of Mars Sample Return (MSR) within the bounds posed by current scientific, fiscal, and political pressures on the Mars program. Additionally, LDRIMS could potentially be flown to the Moon under the Discovery or New Frontiers program. We posit that in-situ geochronology missions to Mars to triage and validate samples for Mars Sample Return (MSR) are technically feasible in the 2018-2022 time frame.

  8. Assessment of a biological in situ remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Wuerdemann, H.; Lund, N.C.; Gudehus, G.

    1995-12-31

    A field experiment using a bioventing technique has been conducted at the center of contamination at a former gasworks site for 3 years. The emphasis of this investigation is to determine the efficiency of in situ remediation. Due to an extremely heterogeneous distribution of contamination it was impossible to satisfactorily quantify the reduction of hydrocarbons. However, a comparison of highly contaminated soil samples shows a qualitative alteration. The analyses of pollutant composition reveal a significant decrease of low condensed PAHs up to anthracene. The relative increase of high condensed PAHs in the contaminant composition indicates a PAH degradation of 54%. Soil respiration is used to assess the course of remediation. Continuous monitoring of O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} in the used air leads to an amount of about 2,400 kg of decomposed organics. Large-scale elution tests show a reduction of the sum parameters for the organic pollution of the flushing water of 80%. The PAHs have dropped about 97%. The Microtox test indicates a detoxification of 98%.

  9. In Situ Burning of Oil Spills

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David D.; Mulholland, George W.; Baum, Howard R.; Walton, William D.; McGrattan, Kevin B.

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade NIST conducted research to understand, measure and predict the important features of burning oil on water. Results of that research have been included in nationally recognized guidelines for approval of intentional burning. NIST measurements and predictions have played a major role in establishing in situ burning as a primary oil spill response method. Data are given for pool fire burning rates, smoke yield, smoke particulate size distribution, smoke aging, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of the smoke for crude and fuel oil fires with effective diameters up to 17.2 m. New user-friendly software, ALOFT, was developed to quantify the large-scale features and trajectory of wind blown smoke plumes in the atmosphere and estimate the ground level smoke particulate concentrations. Predictions using the model were tested successfully against data from large-scale tests. ALOFT software is being used by oil spill response teams to help assess the potential impact of intentional burning. PMID:27500022

  10. In situ vitrification on buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, S.O.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is being evaluated as a remedial treatment technology for buried mixed and transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and can be related to buried wastes at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. There are numerous locations around the DOE Complex where wastes were buried in the ground or stored for future burial. The Buried Waste Program (BWP) is conducting a comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the Department of Energy - Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an ISV scoping study on the treatability of the SDA mixed low-level and mixed TRU waste is being performed for applicability to remediation of the waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The ISV project being conducted at the INEL by EG G Idaho, Inc. consists of a treatability investigation to collect data to satisfy nine CERCLA criteria with regards to the SDA. This treatability investigation involves a series of experiments and related efforts to study the feasibility of ISV for remediation of mixed and TRU waste disposed of at the SDA.

  11. In situ vitrification on buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, S.O.

    1992-08-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is being evaluated as a remedial treatment technology for buried mixed and transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and can be related to buried wastes at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. There are numerous locations around the DOE Complex where wastes were buried in the ground or stored for future burial. The Buried Waste Program (BWP) is conducting a comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the Department of Energy - Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an ISV scoping study on the treatability of the SDA mixed low-level and mixed TRU waste is being performed for applicability to remediation of the waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The ISV project being conducted at the INEL by EG&G Idaho, Inc. consists of a treatability investigation to collect data to satisfy nine CERCLA criteria with regards to the SDA. This treatability investigation involves a series of experiments and related efforts to study the feasibility of ISV for remediation of mixed and TRU waste disposed of at the SDA.

  12. In situ anion diffusion experiments using radiotracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, Mats; Eriksen, Trygve E.

    2004-02-01

    Diffusion experiments in compacted bentonite have been carried out in situ using the borehole laboratory CHEMLAB. The "ordinary" anion iodide and the redox-sensitive pertechnetate ion have been investigated. In spite of strongly reducing groundwater conditions, technetium was found to diffuse mostly unreduced as TcO 4-, although in some spots in the compacted clay, the activity was significantly higher, which may be explained by reduction of some TcO 4- by iron-containing minerals in the bentonite. The measured concentration profiles in the clay cannot be accommodated by assuming one single diffusion process. The experimental data are modeled assuming two diffusion paths, intralamellar diffusion and diffusion in external water. The apparent diffusivity for the intralamellar diffusion was found to be 8.6×10 -11 m 2 s -1 for iodide with a capacity factor of 0.1, while the apparent diffusivity for the diffusion in external water was found to be 5×10 -14 m 2 s -1 with α=2.26. The corresponding values for Tc were found to be Da=6×10 -11 m 2 s -1, α=0.1 and Da=1×10 -13 m 2 s -1, α=0.46, respectively. The diffusion constants and capacity factors obtained in this study are in accordance with data from laboratory experiments.

  13. In-situ measurements of total carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe, W.; Boryta, M.; Nelson, R.

    2009-04-01

    Quantitative assessment of the equilibration of biotic and pre-biotic materials and of the mechanisms leading to their presence in a planetary context requires knowledge of the relative concentrations of the organic species within a sample. The measurement of these relative concentrations is not practical for many remote sensing and in-situ techniques because of the large number of potential compounds having high variance in (for example) volatility, spectral response and/or molecular weight. One approach is to compare the concentration of identified materials to the total carbon and total organic carbon in a sample. The traditional two-stage approach for this measurement is acidification to convert "inorganic" carbon to CO2 and pyrolysis to convert the remaining "organic" carbon and carbon-based compounds the CO2. Measurement of the evolved CO2 provides a measure of organic and total carbon in the sample. These measurements are relatively successful in a laboratory context, but are difficult to implement robotically, particularly in challenging environments. A variety of alternative approaches for achieving total carbon measurements with acceptable accuracy are examined for feasibility of use in a field or robotic environment, with particular emphasis on soils on Mars.

  14. An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

    1992-08-01

    In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified.

  15. An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified.

  16. Development of the integrated in situ Lasagna process

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.; Athmer, C.; Sheridan, P.

    1995-12-31

    Contamination in deep, low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in uniform delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ methods such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, and pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites.

  17. In-situ soil carbon analysis using inelastic neutron scattering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In situ soil carbon analysis using inelastic neutron scattering (INS) is based on the emission of 4.43 MeV gamma rays from carbon nuclei excited by fast neutrons. This in-situ method has excellent potential for easily measuring soil carbon since it does not require soil core sampling and processing ...

  18. 30 CFR 828.11 - In situ processing: Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... prevent flow of the process recovery fluid: (1) Horizontally beyond the affected area identified in the... in situ processing activities shall comply with 30 CFR 817 and this section. (b) In situ processing...) Avoiding discharge of fluids into holes or wells, other than as approved by the regulatory authority;...

  19. 30 CFR 828.11 - In situ processing: Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in situ processing activities shall comply with 30 CFR 817 and this section. (b) In situ processing... processing activities shall submit for approval as part of the application for permit under 30 CFR 785.22... permit; and (2) Vertically into overlying or underlying aquifers. (e) Each person who conducts in...

  20. 30 CFR 828.11 - In situ processing: Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in situ processing activities shall comply with 30 CFR 817 and this section. (b) In situ processing... processing activities shall submit for approval as part of the application for permit under 30 CFR 785.22... permit; and (2) Vertically into overlying or underlying aquifers. (e) Each person who conducts in...

  1. 30 CFR 828.11 - In situ processing: Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in situ processing activities shall comply with 30 CFR 817 and this section. (b) In situ processing... processing activities shall submit for approval as part of the application for permit under 30 CFR 785.22... permit; and (2) Vertically into overlying or underlying aquifers. (e) Each person who conducts in...

  2. 30 CFR 828.11 - In situ processing: Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in situ processing activities shall comply with 30 CFR 817 and this section. (b) In situ processing... processing activities shall submit for approval as part of the application for permit under 30 CFR 785.22... permit; and (2) Vertically into overlying or underlying aquifers. (e) Each person who conducts in...

  3. Hydraulic calculations for a modified in-situ retort

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, W.G.

    1980-03-01

    This report contains brief descriptions of a numerical model and the aquifer-retort system used to investigate hydraulics in the vicinity of a modified in-situ retort. The model is used to analyze several cases involving different physical and geohydrological parameters, and possible applications of the model to in-situ oil shale recovery are discussed.

  4. Some implications of in situ uranium mining technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, C.E.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Cole, R.J.; Keller, D.; Mellinger, P.J.; Wallace, R.W.

    1980-09-01

    A technology assessment was initiated in March 1979 of the in-situ uranium mining technology. This report explores the impediments to development and deployment of this technology and evaluates the environmental impacts of a generic in-situ facility. The report is divided into the following sections: introduction, technology description, physical environment, institutional and socioeconomic environment, impact assessment, impediments, and conclusions. (DLC)

  5. Zebrafish Whole-Mount In Situ Hybridization Followed by Sectioning.

    PubMed

    Doganli, Canan; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    In situ hybridization is a powerful technique used for locating specific nucleic acid targets within morphologically preserved tissues and cell preparations. A labeled RNA or DNA probe hybridizes to its complementary mRNA or DNA sequence within a sample. Here, we describe RNA in situ hybridization protocol for whole-mount zebrafish embryos. PMID:26695046

  6. In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Capability Roadmap Progress Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Duke, Michael

    2005-01-01

    A progress review on In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) capability is presented. The topics include: 1) In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Capability Roadmap: Level 1; 2) ISRU Emphasized Architecture Overview; 3) ISRU Capability Elements: Level 2 and below; and 4) ISRU Capability Roadmap Wrap-up.

  7. Aluminum-Based Cast In Situ Composites: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramod, S. L.; Bakshi, Srinivasa R.; Murty, B. S.

    2015-06-01

    In situ composites are a class of composite materials in which the reinforcement is formed within the matrix by reaction during the processing. In situ method of composite synthesis has been widely followed by researchers because of several advantages over conventional stir casting such as fine particle size, clean interface, and good wettability of the reinforcement with the matrix and homogeneous distribution of the reinforcement compared to other processes. Besides this, in situ processing of composites by casting route is also economical and amenable for large scale production as compared to other methods such as powder metallurgy and spray forming. Commonly used reinforcements for Al and its alloys which can be produced in situ are Al2O3, AlN, TiB2, TiC, ZrB2, and Mg2Si. The aim of this paper is to review the current research and development in aluminum-based in situ composites by casting route.

  8. In situ containment and stabilization of buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.; Heiser, J.H.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of the project was to develop, demonstrate and implement advanced grouting materials for the in-situ installation of impermeable, durable subsurface barriers and caps around waste sites and for the in-situ stabilization of contaminated soils. Specifically, the work was aimed at remediation of the Chemical Waste (CWL) and Mixed Waste Landfills (MWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). This report documents this project, which was conducted in two subtasks. These were (1) Capping and Barrier Grouts, and (2) In-situ Stabilization of Contaminated Soils. Subtask 1 examined materials and placement methods for in-situ containment of contaminated sites by subsurface barriers and surface caps. In Subtask 2 materials and techniques were evaluated for in-situ chemical stabilization of chromium in soil.

  9. In Situ Probe Science at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David H.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Colaprete, Anthony; Coustenis, Athena; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Guillot, Tristan; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Mahaffy, Paul; Mousis, Olivier; Orton, Glenn S.; Reh, Kim; Spilker, Linda J.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Webster, Chris R.

    2014-05-01

    A fundamental goal of solar system exploration is to understand the origin of the solar system, the initial stages, conditions, and processes by which the solar system formed, how the formation process was initiated, and the nature of the interstellar seed material from which the solar system was born. Key to understanding solar system formation and subsequent dynamical and chemical evolution is the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. Several theories have been put forward to explain the process of solar system formation, and the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. Each theory offers quantifiable predictions of the abundances of noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe, and abundances of key isotopic ratios 4He/3He, D/H, 15N/14N, 18O/16O, and 13C/12C. Detection of certain disequilibrium species, diagnostic of deeper internal processes and dynamics of the atmosphere, would also help discriminate between competing theories. Many of the key atmospheric constituents needed to discriminate between alternative theories of giant planet formation and chemical evolution are either spectrally inactive or primarily located in the deeper atmosphere inaccessible to remote sensing from Earth, flyby, or orbiting spacecraft. Abundance measurements of these key constituents, including the two major molecular carriers of carbon, methane and carbon monoxide (neither of which condense in Saturn's atmosphere), sulfur which is expected to be well-mixed below the 4 to 5-bar ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH) cloud, and gradients of nitrogen below the NH4SH cloud and oxygen in the upper layers of the H2O and H2O-NH4 solution cloud, must be made in situ and can only be achieved by an entry probe descending through 10 bars. Measurements of the critical abundance profiles of these key constituents into the deeper well-mixed atmosphere must be complemented by measurements of the profiles of atmospheric structure and dynamics at high vertical

  10. in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshiko Fujita; Robert W. Smith

    2009-08-01

    in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization Yoshiko Fujita (Yoshiko.fujita@inl.gov) (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Robert W. Smith (University of Idaho-Idaho Falls, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Subsurface radionuclide and trace metal contaminants throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex pose one of DOE’s greatest challenges for long-term stewardship. One promising stabilization mechanism for divalent trace ions, such as the short-lived radionuclide strontium-90, is co-precipitation in calcite. Calcite, a common mineral in the arid western U.S., can form solid solutions with trace metals. The rate of trace metal incorporation is susceptible to manipulation using either abiotic or biotic means. We have previously demonstrated that increasing the calcite precipitation rate by stimulating the activity of urea hydrolyzing microorganisms can result in significantly enhanced Sr uptake. Urea hydrolysis causes the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity, and also by liberating the reactive cations from the aquifer matrix via exchange reactions involving the ammonium ion derived from urea: H2NCONH2 + 3H2O ? 2NH4+ + HCO3- + OH- urea hydrolysis >X:2Ca + 2NH4+ ? 2>X:NH4 + Ca2+ ion exchange Ca2+ + HCO3- + OH- ? CaCO3(s) + H2O calcite precipitation where >X: is a cation exchange site on the aquifer matrix. This contaminant immobilization approach has several attractive features. Urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which is produced by many indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Addition of foreign microbes is unnecessary. In turn the involvement of the native microbes and the consequent in situ generation of reactive components in the aqueous phase (e.g., carbonate and Ca or Sr) can allow dissemination of the reaction over a larger volume and/or farther away from an amendment injection point, as compared to direct addition of the reactants at

  11. MENDING THE IN SITU MANIPULATION BARRIER

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN, S.W.

    2006-02-06

    In early 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland and Fluor Hanford requested technical assistance from the DOE Headquarters EM-23 Technical Assistance Program to provide a team of technical experts to develop recommendations for mending the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Barrier in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. To accommodate this request, EM-23 provided support to convene a group of technical experts from industry, a national laboratory, and a DOE site to participate in a 2 1/2-day workshop with the objective of identifying and recommending options to enhance the performance of the 100-D Area reactive barrier and of a planned extension to the northeast. This report provides written documentation of the team's findings and recommendations. In 1995, a plume of dissolved hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], which resulted from operation of the D/DR Reactors at the Hanford site, was discovered along the Columbia River shoreline and in the 100-D Area. Between 1999 and 2003, a reactive barrier using the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology, was installed a distance of 680 meters along the river to reduce the Cr(VI) in the groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a treatment zone within the aquifer by injection of sodium dithionite, a strong reducing agent that scavenges dissolved oxygen (DO) from the aquifer and reduces ferric iron [Fe(III)], related metals, and oxy-ions. The reduction of Fe(III) to ferrous [Fe(II)] iron provides the primary reduction capacity to reduce Cr(VI) to the +3 state, which is less mobile and less toxic. Bench-scale and field-scale treatability tests were initially conducted to demonstrate proof-of principle and to provide data for estimation of barrier longevity. These calculations estimated barrier longevity in excess of twenty years. However, several years after initial and secondary treatment, groundwater in a number of wells has been found to contain elevated chromium (Cr) concentrations, indicating

  12. In-situ bioassays using caged bivalves

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.H.; Salazar, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    It is important to make the distinction between chemical measurements to assess bioaccumulation potential versus biological measurements to assess potential bioeffects because bioaccumulation is not a bioeffect. Caging provides a unique opportunity to make synoptic measurements of each and facilitates making these measurements over space and time. Measuring bioaccumulation in resident and transplanted bivalves has probably been the most frequently used form of an in-situ bioassay because bivalves concentrate chemicals in their tissues. They are also easy to collect, cage, and measure. The authors have refined bivalve bioassay methods by minimizing the size range of test animals, making repetitive measurements of the same individuals, and standardizing test protocols for a variety of applications. They are now attempting to standardize criteria for accepting and interpreting data in the same way that laboratory bioassays have been standardized. Growth measurements can serve two purposes in this assessment strategy: (1) An integrated biological response endpoint that is easily quantifiable and with significance to the population, and (2) A means of calibrating bioaccumulation by assessing the relative health and physiological state of tissues that have accumulated the chemicals. In general, the authors have found the highest bioconcentration factors associated with the highest growth rates, the highest concentrations ({micro}g/g) of chemicals in juvenile mussels, and the highest chemical content ({micro}g/animal) in adult mussels. Without accounting for possible dilution of chemical concentrations by tissue growth or magnification through degrowth, contaminant concentrations can be misleading. Examples are provided for the Sudbury River in Massachusetts (Elliptio complanata), San Diego Bay (Mytilus galloprovincialis), and the Harbor Island Superfund Site in Puget Sound (Mytilus trossulus).

  13. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Tate, Lanetra; Smith, Trent; Gibson, Tracy; Medelius, Pedro; Jolley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    An In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System (ISWDDS) has been developed that is capable of detecting damage to a wire insulation, or a wire conductor, or to both. The system will allow for realtime, continuous monitoring of wiring health/integrity and reduce the number of false negatives and false positives while being smaller, lighter in weight, and more robust than current systems. The technology allows for improved safety and significant reduction in maintenance hours for aircraft, space vehicles, satellites, and other critical high-performance wiring systems for industries such as energy production and mining. The integrated ISWDDS is comprised of two main components: (1) a wire with an innermost core conductor, an inner insulation film, a conductive layer or inherently conductive polymer (ICP) covering the inner insulation film, an outermost insulation jacket; and (2) smart connectors and electronics capable of producing and detecting electronic signals, and a central processing unit (CPU) for data collection and analysis. The wire is constructed by applying the inner insulation films to the conductor, followed by the outer insulation jacket. The conductive layer or ICP is on the outer surface of the inner insulation film. One or more wires are connected to the CPU using the smart connectors, and up to 64 wires can be monitored in real-time. The ISWDDS uses time domain reflectometry for damage detection. A fast-risetime pulse is injected into either the core conductor or conductive layer and referenced against the other conductor, producing transmission line behavior. If either conductor is damaged, then the signal is reflected. By knowing the speed of propagation of the pulse, and the time it takes to reflect, one can calculate the distance to and location of the damage.

  14. Cost performance assessment of in situ vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, W.E.; Letellier, B.C.; Booth, S.R.; Barnes-Smith, P.

    1992-09-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a thermal treatment technology with promise for the destruction or immobilization of hazardous materials in contaminated soils. It has developed over the past decade to a level of maturity where meaningful cost effectiveness studies may be performed. The ISV process melts 4 to 25 m{sup 2} of undisturbed soil to a maximum depth of 6 m into an obsidian-like glass waste form by applying electric current (3750 kill) between symmetrically spaced electrodes. Temperatures of approximately 2000{degree}C drive off and destroy complex organics which are captured in an off-gas treatment system, while radio-nuclides are incorporated into the homogeneous glass monolith. A comparative life-cycle cost evaluation between mobile rotary kiln incineration and ISV was performed to quantitatively identify appropriate performance regimes and components of cost which are sensitive to the implementation of each technology. Predictions of melt times and power consumption were obtained from an ISV performance model over ranges of several parameters including electrode spacing, soil moisture, melt depth, electrical resistivity, and soil density. These data were coupled with manpower requirements, capitalization costs, and a melt placement optimization routine to allow interpolation over a wide variety of site characteristics. For the purpose of this study, a single site scenario representative of a mixed waste evaporation pond was constructed. Preliminary comparisons between ISV and incineration show that while operating costs are comparable, ISV avoids secondary treatment and monitored storage of radioactive waste that would be required following conventional incineration. It is the long term storage of incinerated material that is the most expensive component.

  15. Cost performance assessment of in situ vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, W.E.; Letellier, B.C.; Booth, S.R. ); Barnes-Smith, P. )

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a thermal treatment technology with promise for the destruction or immobilization of hazardous materials in contaminated soils. It has developed over the past decade to a level of maturity where meaningful cost effectiveness studies may be performed. The ISV process melts 4 to 25 m{sup 2} of undisturbed soil to a maximum depth of 6 m into an obsidian-like glass waste form by applying electric current (3750 kill) between symmetrically spaced electrodes. Temperatures of approximately 2000{degree}C drive off and destroy complex organics which are captured in an off-gas treatment system, while radio-nuclides are incorporated into the homogeneous glass monolith. A comparative life-cycle cost evaluation between mobile rotary kiln incineration and ISV was performed to quantitatively identify appropriate performance regimes and components of cost which are sensitive to the implementation of each technology. Predictions of melt times and power consumption were obtained from an ISV performance model over ranges of several parameters including electrode spacing, soil moisture, melt depth, electrical resistivity, and soil density. These data were coupled with manpower requirements, capitalization costs, and a melt placement optimization routine to allow interpolation over a wide variety of site characteristics. For the purpose of this study, a single site scenario representative of a mixed waste evaporation pond was constructed. Preliminary comparisons between ISV and incineration show that while operating costs are comparable, ISV avoids secondary treatment and monitored storage of radioactive waste that would be required following conventional incineration. It is the long term storage of incinerated material that is the most expensive component.

  16. LONG TERM IN SITU DISPOSAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS; CARLSON; BROCKMAN

    2003-07-23

    Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a fission product inventory and has experienced plant, animal, and inadvertent than intrusion. Of the potential intrusive events and transport pathways at the site, potential human intrusion has been given primary consideration in barrier design. Intrusion by wind, plants, and animals has been given secondary consideration. Groundwater modeling for a number of barrier configurations has been carried out to help select a barrier that will minimize water infiltration and waste/water contact time. The estimated effective lifetime and cost of 20 barrier schemes, using a variety of materials, have been evaluated. The schemes studied include single component surface barriers, multicomponent barriers, and massively injected grout barriers. Five barriers with high estimated effective lifetimes and relatively low costs have been selected for detailed evaluation. They are basalt riprap barriers, massive soil barriers, salt basin barriers, multi-component fine/coarse barriers, and cemented basalt barriers. A variety of materials and configurations for marking the site have also been considered. A decision analysis was completed to select a barrier scheme for demonstration. The analysis indicated that the basalt riprap alternative would be the preferred choice for a full-scale demonstration. The recommended approach is to demonstrate the basalt riprap barrier at the 216-A-24 Crib as soon as possible. Methods and costs of assessing effectiveness of the demonstration are also described. Preliminary design modifications and costs for applying the five selected barrier schemes to other site types are

  17. MODIS comparisons with northeastern Pacific in situ stratocumulus microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Stephen R.; Hudson, James G.

    2015-08-01

    Vertical sounding measurements within stratocumuli during two aircraft field campaigns, Marine Stratus/stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) and Physics of Stratocumulus Top (POST), are used to validate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud optical thickness (COT), cloud liquid water path (LWP), and cloud effective radius (re). In situ COT, LWP, and re were calculated using 5 m vertically averaged droplet probe measurements of complete vertical cloud penetrations. MODIS COT, LWP, and re 1 km pixels were averaged along these penetrations. COT comparisons in POST showed strong correlations and a near 1:1 relationship. In MASE, comparisons showed strong correlations; however, MODIS COT exceeded in situ COT, likely due to larger temporal differences between MODIS and in situ measurements. LWP comparisons between two cloud probes show good agreement for POST but not MASE, giving confidence to POST data. Both projects provided strong LWP correlations but MODIS exceeded in situ by 14-36%. MODIS in situ re correlations were strong, but MODIS 2.1 µm re exceeded in situ re, which contributed to LWP bias; in POST, MODIS re was 20-30% greater than in situ re. Maximum in situ re near cloud top showed comparisons nearer 1:1. Other MODIS re bands (3.7 µm and 1.6 µm) showed similar comparisons. Temporal differences between MODIS and in situ measurements, airplane speed differences, and cloud probe artifacts were likely causes of weaker MASE correlations. POST COT comparison was best for temporal differences under 20 min. POST data validate MODIS COT but it also implies a positive MODIS re bias that propagates to LWP while still capturing variability.

  18. Evaluation of In Situ Combustion for Schrader Bluff

    SciTech Connect

    Sarathi, P.; Strycker, A.; Wang, S.

    1999-03-11

    The focus of this report is on the results related to evaluation of in situ combustion processes applied to Schrader Bluff. Initially, overall screening processes were applied to determine which of the EOR methods, were most appropriate for Schrader Bluff. In situ combustion was among the methods considered potentially favorable and was evaluated further. Laboratory scale tube runs were conducted to determine if the kinetic parameters for the crude oil were favorable. Additional sensitivity studies were conducted to evaluate the recovery potential. Described in this report are the results of the (1) initial screening,(2) experimental tube runs, and (3) simulation sensitivity studies as related to in situ combustion in Schrader Bluff.

  19. NOVEL IN-SITU METAL AND MINERAL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn O'Gorman; Hans von Michaelis; Gregory J. Olson

    2004-09-22

    This white paper summarizes the state of art of in-situ leaching of metals and minerals, and describes a new technology concept employing improved fragmentation of ores underground in order to prepare the ore for more efficient in-situ leaching, combined with technology to continuously improve solution flow patterns through the ore during the leaching process. The process parameters and economic benefits of combining the new concept with chemical and biological leaching are described. A summary is provided of the next steps required to demonstrate the technology with the goal of enabling more widespread use of in-situ leaching.

  20. [Clinical problems of the breast carcinoma in situ].

    PubMed

    Börner, P; Heidenreich, W; Majewski, A

    1976-11-01

    A report of carcinoma in situ of the breast, including problems of diagnosis and treatment. Over a 6-year period cut of a total of 743 carcinomas of the breast, 77 carcinomas in situ were observed. The difficulties of diagnosis are reviewed. Treatment consisted of simple mastectomy. In view of the inadequate therapeutic results it is recommended that a modified radical mastectomy should also be done in all cases of carcinoma in situ of the breast. The pros and cons of postoperative radiation are discussed. PMID:991684

  1. In Situ Probe Science at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, D.H.; Lunine, J.I.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Atreya, S. K.; Brinckerhoff, W.; Colaprete, A.; Coustenis, A.; Fletcher, L. N.; Guillot, T.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Mahaffy, P.; Mousis, O.; Orton, G. S.; Reh, K.; Spilker, L. J.; Spilker, T. R.; Webster, C.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental goal of solar system exploration is to understand the origin of the solar sys-tem, the initial stages, conditions, and processes by which the solar system formed, how the formation pro-cess was initiated, and the nature of the interstellar seed material from which the solar system was born. Key to understanding solar system formation and subsequent dynamical and chemical evolution is the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. Several theories have been put forward to explain the process of solar system formation, and the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. Each theory offers quantifiable predictions of the abundances of noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe, and abundances of key isotopic ratios 4He3He, DH, 15N14N, 18O16O, and 13C12C. Detection of certain dis-equilibrium species, diagnostic of deeper internal pro-cesses and dynamics of the atmosphere, would also help discriminate between competing theories. Measurements of the critical abundance profiles of these key constituents into the deeper well-mixed at-mosphere must be complemented by measurements of the profiles of atmospheric structure and dynamics at high vertical resolution and also require in situ explora-tion. The atmospheres of the giant planets can also serve as laboratories to better understand the atmospheric chem-istries, dynamics, processes, and climates on all planets including Earth, and offer a context and provide a ground truth for exoplanets and exoplanetary systems. Additionally, Giant planets have long been thought to play a critical role in the development of potentially habitable planetary systems. In the context of giant planet science provided by the Galileo, Juno, and Cassini missions to Jupiter and Sat-urn, a small, relatively shallow Saturn probe capable of measuring abundances and isotopic ratios of key at-mospheric constituents, and atmospheric structure in-cluding pressures, temperatures, dynamics, and cloud

  2. In Situ Measurements of Meteoric Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Aiken, Arthur C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Extraterrestrial material is the source of metal ions in the Earth's atmosphere, Each year approx. 10(exp 8) kg of material is intercepted by the Earth. The origin of this material is predominantly solar orbiting interplanetary debris from comets or asteroids that crosses the Earth's orbit. It contains a very small amount of interstellar material. On occasion the Earth passes through enhanced amounts of debris associated with the orbit of a decaying comet. This leads to enhanced meteor shower displays for up to several days. The number flux of shower material is typically several times the average sporadic background influx of material. Meteoric material is some of the earliest material formed in the solar system. By studying the relative elemental abundances of atmospheric metal ions, information can be gained on the chemical composition of cometary debris and the chemical makeup of the early solar system. Using in situ sampling with rocket-borne ion mass spectrometers; there have been approximately 50 flights that made measurements of the metal ion abundances at attitudes between 80 and 130 km. It is this altitude range where incoming meteoric particles am ablated, the larger ones giving rise to visible meteor. displays. In several rocket measurements isotopic ratios of different atomic ion mass components and metal molecular ion concentrations have been determined and used to identify unambiguously the measured species and to investigate the processes controlling the metal ion distributions The composition of the Earth's ionosphere was first sampled by an ion mass spectrometer flown an a rocket in 1956. In 1958 a rocket-borne ion spectrometer identified, fbr the first time, a layer of metal ions near 95 km. These data were interpreted as evidence of an extraterrestrial rather than a terrestrial source. Istomin predicted: "It seems probable that with some improvement in the method that analysis of the ion composition in the E-region may be used for determining

  3. GEOSAFE CORPORATION IN SITU VITRIFICATION: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the findings associated with a Demonstration of the Geosafe Corporation (Geosafe) In Situ Vitrification (ISV) Process. he Geosafe ISV Technology was evaluated under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program in conjuction with remedia...

  4. Pushing the envelope of in situ transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ramachandramoorthy, Rajaprakash; Bernal, Rodrigo; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2015-05-26

    Recent major improvements to the transmission electron microscope (TEM) including aberration-corrected electron optics, light-element-sensitive analytical instrumentation, sample environmental control, and high-speed and sensitive direct electron detectors are becoming more widely available. When these advances are combined with in situ TEM tools, such as multimodal testing based on microelectromechanical systems, key measurements and insights on nanoscale material phenomena become possible. In particular, these advances enable metrology that allows for unprecedented correlation to quantum mechanics and the predictions of atomistic models. In this Perspective, we provide a summary of recent in situ TEM research that has leveraged these new TEM capabilities as well as an outlook of the opportunities that exist in the different areas of in situ TEM experimentation. Although these advances have improved the spatial and temporal resolution of TEM, a critical analysis of the various in situ TEM fields reveals that further progress is needed to achieve the full potential of the technology. PMID:25942405

  5. ISHMAEL: In-Situ Sample Handling Modular Analytical Experimental Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, G. H.; Kossakovski, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    In-Situ instruments are an integral part of mission designs for exploration of planetary surfaces. A technology gap exists today between sample acquisition and sample analysis tools. Integrated science payload packages need an integrated sample handling system.

  6. Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Murdoch, L. |; Siegrist, B.; Meiggs, T.

    1997-12-31

    This article describes the use of hydraulic fracturing to increase permeability in geologic formations where in-situ remedial action of contaminant plumes will be performed. Several in-situ treatment strategies are discussed including the use of hydraulic fracturing to create in situ redox zones for treatment of organics and inorganics. Hydraulic fracturing methods offer a mechanism for the in-situ treatment of gently dipping layers of reactive compounds. Specialized methods using real-time monitoring and a high-energy jet during fracturing allow the form of the fracture to be influenced, such as creation of assymmetric fractures beneath potential sources (i.e. tanks, pits, buildings) that should not be penetrated by boring. Some examples of field applications of this technique such as creating fractures filled with zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate halogenated hydrocarbons, and the use of granular activated carbon to adsorb compounds are discussed.

  7. GEOSAFE CORPORATION IN SITU VITRIFICATION: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the findings associated with a Demonstration of the Geosafe Corporation (Geosafe) In Situ Vitrification (ISV) Process. The Geosafe ISV Technology was evaluated under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program in conjuction with remedi...

  8. Epoxy nanodielectrics fabricated with in situ and ex situ techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncer, Enis; Polyzos, Georgios; Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R; More, Karren Leslie

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we report fabrication and characterisation of a nanocomposite system composed of a commercial resin and extremely small (several nanometres in diameter) titanium dioxide particles. Nanoparticles were synthesised in situ with particle nucleation occurring inside the resin matrix. In this nanodielectric fabrication method, the nanoparticle precursor was mixed to the resin solution, and the nanoparticles were in situ precipitated. Note that no high shear mixing equipment was needed to improve particle dispersion - nanoparticles were distributed in the polymer matrix uniformly since particle nucleation occurs uniformly throughout the matrix. The properties of in situ nanodielectrics are compared to the unfilled resin and an ex situ nanocomposite. We anticipate that the presented in situ nanocomposite would be employed in high-temperature superconductivity applications. In additions, the improvement shown in the dielectric breakdown indicates that conventional high-voltage components and systems can be reduced in size with novel nanodielectrics.

  9. In situ quantification of genomic instability in breast cancer progression

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos; Chin, Koei; Gray, Joe W.; Lockett, Stephen J.

    2003-05-15

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of breast and other solid cancers. Presumably caused by critical telomere reduction, GI is responsible for providing the genetic diversity required in the multi-step progression of the disease. We have used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization and 3D image analysis to quantify genomic instability cell-by-cell in thick, intact tissue sections of normal breast epithelium, preneoplastic lesions (usual ductal hyperplasia), ductal carcinona is situ or invasive carcinoma of the breast. Our in situ-cell by cell-analysis of genomic instability shows an important increase of genomic instability in the transition from hyperplasia to in situ carcinoma, followed by a reduction of instability in invasive carcinoma. This pattern suggests that the transition from hyperplasia to in situ carcinoma corresponds to telomere crisis and invasive carcinoma is a consequence of telomerase reactivation afertelomere crisis.

  10. In situ transesterification of highly wet microalgae using hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bora; Im, Hanjin; Lee, Jae W

    2015-06-01

    This study addresses in situ transesterification of highly wet microalgae with hydrochloric acid (HCl) as a catalyst. In situ transesterification was performed by heating the mixture of wet algal cells, HCl, methanol, and solvent in one pot, resulting in the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield over 90% at 95°C. The effects of reaction variables of temperature, amounts of catalyst, reactant, and solvent, and type of solvents on the yield were investigated. Compared with the catalytic effect of H2SO4, in situ transesterification using HCl has benefits of being less affected by moisture levels that are as high as or above 80%, and requiring less amounts of catalyst and solvent. For an equimolar amount of catalyst, HCl showed 15wt.% higher FAME yield than H2SO4. This in situ transesterification using HCl as a catalyst would help to realize a feasible way to produce biodiesel from wet microalgae. PMID:25769690

  11. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: GEOSAFE CORPORATION IN SITU VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Geosafe In Situ Vitrification (ISV) Technology is designed to treat soils, sludges, sediments, and mine tallings contaminated with organic, inorganic, and radioactive compounds. The organic compounds are pyrolyzed and reduced to simple gases which are collected under a treatm...

  12. In situ hybridization for detection of HIV RNA.

    PubMed

    Fox, C H; Cottler-Fox, M

    2001-05-01

    In HIV studies, in situ hybridization can be used for identifying virion RNA, mRNA being produced for virion packaging, and proviral DNA in the cytoplasm or integrated in the nucleus. This unit focuses primarily on identifying virion RNA, because this is the most sensitive means by which in situ hybridization can be employed to detect HIV expression. In situ hybridization, as developed for HIV RNA detection, involves several protocols: (1) preparation of a radioactive or nonradioactive RNA probe; (2) in situ hybridization of probe to cells and paraffin sections of tissue; (3) detection of radiolabeled probe by emulsion autoradiography; (4) development, staining, and mounting of slides; and finally (5) examination of slides by bright-field, dark-field, specular reflectance, or laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The protocols presented in this unit describe a setup involving up to 150 slides. PMID:18432712

  13. In-situ polymerization PLOT columns I: divinylbenzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, T. C.

    1992-01-01

    A novel method for preparation of porous-layer open-tubular (PLOT) columns is described. The method involves a simple and reproducible, straight-forward in-situ polymerization of monomer directly on the metal tube.

  14. In situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvent with natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Rabold, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    A bioremediation system for the removal of chlorinated solvents from ground water and sediments is described. The system involves the the in-situ injection of natural gas (as a microbial nutrient) through an innovative configuration of horizontal wells.

  15. Miniature LIMS System for In Situ Detection of Biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedo, A.; Tulej, M.; Neuland, M. B.; Wurz, P.

    2016-05-01

    The current measurement capabilities of our miniature Laser Ablation Ionization Mass Spectrometer for sensitive and quantitative in situ chemical analyses (element, isotope and molecular) of solids on planetary surfaces will be presented.

  16. In situ bioremediation of contaminated unsaturated subsurface soils

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.L.; Sims, R.C.; Dupont, R.R.; Matthews, J.E.; Russell, H.H.

    1993-05-01

    An emerging technology for the remediation of unsaturated subsurface soils involves the use of microorganisms to degrade contaminants which are present in such soils. Understanding the processes which drive in situ bioremediation, as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of the utilization of these systems, are issues which have been identified by the Regional Superfund Engineering Forum as concerns of Superfund decision makers. Although in situ bioremediation has been used for a number of years in the restoration of ground water contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons, it has only been in recent years that in situ systems have been directed toward contaminants in unsaturated subsurface soils. Research has contributed greatly to understanding the biotic, chemical, and hydrologic parameters which contribute to or restrict the application of in-situ bioremediation and has been successful at a number of locations in demonstrating its effectiveness at field scale.

  17. IN-SITU TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Techniques were investigated for in-situ treatment of hazardous wastes that could be applied to contaminated soils. Included were chemical treatment methods, biological treatment, photochemical transformations and combination methods. Techniques were developed based on fundamenta...

  18. In Situ Instrument to Detect Prebiotic Compounds in Planetary Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; Dworkin, Jason; Glavin, Daniel P.; Southard, Adrian; Balvin, Manuel; Kotecki, Carl; Ferrance, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    The development of an in situ LC-MS instrument for future planetary science missions to icy surfaces that are of high astrobiology and astrochemistry potential will advance our understanding of organics in the solar system.

  19. Advanced and In Situ Analytical Methods for Solar Fuel Materials.

    PubMed

    Chan, Candace K; Tüysüz, Harun; Braun, Artur; Ranjan, Chinmoy; La Mantia, Fabio; Miller, Benjamin K; Zhang, Liuxian; Crozier, Peter A; Haber, Joel A; Gregoire, John M; Park, Hyun S; Batchellor, Adam S; Trotochaud, Lena; Boettcher, Shannon W

    2016-01-01

    In situ and operando techniques can play important roles in the development of better performing photoelectrodes, photocatalysts, and electrocatalysts by helping to elucidate crucial intermediates and mechanistic steps. The development of high throughput screening methods has also accelerated the evaluation of relevant photoelectrochemical and electrochemical properties for new solar fuel materials. In this chapter, several in situ and high throughput characterization tools are discussed in detail along with their impact on our understanding of solar fuel materials. PMID:26267386

  20. Orientation of in situ stresses in the oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newmark, R.L.; Zoback, M.D.; Anderson, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    Two in situ measurements of principal stress directions have been made in DSDP Holes 504B, south of the Costa Rica Rift on the Nazca plate, and 597C, west of the East Pacific Rise on the Pacific plate. In both cases, the orientations of in situ principal stresses determined from borehole breakouts are consistent with the stress directions inferred from intraplate earthquakes located near the sites. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  1. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU II) Technical Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, David (Compiler); Saunders, Stephen R. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains extended abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU II) Technical Interchange Meeting, November 18-19, 1997, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas. Included are topics which include: Extraterrestrial resources, in situ propellant production, sampling of planetary surfaces, oxygen production, water vapor extraction from the Martian atmosphere, gas generation, cryogenic refrigeration, and propellant transport and storage.

  2. Techniques for in situ HVEM mechanical deformation of nanostructural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, M.A.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Dahmen, U.

    1995-08-07

    We have developed two in-situ HVEM techniques which allow us to begin fundamental investigations into the mechanisms of deformation and fracture in nonstructured materials. A procedure for the observation of tensile deformation and failure in multilayers materials in cross-section is given and also the development of an in-situ HVEM nanoindentor of surfaces and films on surfaces in cross-section.

  3. In situ hybridization in the plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana.

    PubMed

    Garcês, Helena; Sinha, Neelima

    2009-10-01

    Here we describe in detail the detection of gene expression in plant tissues of Kalanchoë daigremontiana by in situ hybridization analyses. Included are methods for making RNA transcript probes, probe-tissue hybridization, and detection of antisense RNA probes. The in situ hybridization technique is used to determine which cells or group of cells in particular tissue(s) express a gene of interest. PMID:20147047

  4. NASA wind shear flight test in situ results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera, Rosa M.

    1992-01-01

    The main objectives in developing the NASA in situ windshear detection algorithm were to provide a measurement standard for validation of forward-look sensors under development, and to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to operate with a suitably low nuisance alert rate. It was necessary to know exactly how the algorithm was implemented and what parameters and filtering were used, in order to be able to fully test its effectiveness and correlate in situ results with forward-look sensor data.

  5. In Situ Nanomechanical Testing of Crystalline Nanowires in Electron Microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews in situ mechanical testing of crystalline nanowires in scanning and transmission electron microscopes, focusing on bottom-up synthesized, single-crystalline nanowires. Major experimental methods including resonance, bending, tension and buckling are summarized. In addition to commonly encountered experimental issues, deformation mechanisms learned from the in situ nanomechanical characterization are discussed highlighting the roles of free surfaces, internal planar defects and point defects.

  6. IN SITU FIELD TESTING OF PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    J.S.Y. YANG

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes REV 02. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in REV 02 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what conditions, the tests were conducted. The descriptions and

  7. In-situ observation of atmospheric particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, William Alan

    Airborne particulates play a central role in both the earth’s radiation balance and as a trigger for a wide range of health impacts. Air quality monitors are placed in networks across many cities globally. Typically these provide at best a few recording locations per city. However, large spatial variability occurs on the neighborhood scale. This study sets out to comprehensively characterize a full size distribution from 0.25 - 32 μm of airborne particulates on a fine spatial scale (meters). To fully characterize the impact of atmospheric particulates, global scale observations and data products are needed. Satellite products allow for this global coverage but require in situ validations. For the first part of this study data is gathered on a near daily basis over the month of May, 2014 in a 100 km2 area encompassing parts of Richardson, Texas, and Garland, Texas. Wind direction was determined to be the dominant factor in classifying the data. The highest mean PM2.5 concentration was 14.1 ± 5.7 μgm. -3 corresponding to periods when the wind was out of the south. The lowest PM2.5 concentrations were observed after several consecutive days of rainfall. The rainfall was found to not only “cleanse” the air, leaving a mean PM2.5 concentration as low as 3.0 ± 0.5 μgm. -3 , but to leave the region with a more uniform PM2.5 concentration. Variograms were used to determine an appropriate spatial scale for future sensor placement to provide measurements on a neighborhood scale and found that the spatial scales varied, depending on the synoptic weather pattern, from 0.8 km to 5.2 km, with a typical length scale of 1.7 km. This second part of this study used a zero emission remote-controlled aerial vehicle to look at the horizontal, vertical, and temporal variability of airborne particulates within the first 140 m of the atmosphere. Four flights where conducted on December 4, 2014 between 12:00 pm and 5:00 pm local time. The first three flights flew a pattern of

  8. Characterizing In Situ Uranium and Groundwater Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, J.; Newman, M. A.; Stucker, V.; Peacock, A.; Ranville, J.; Cabaniss, S.; Hatfield, K.; Annable, M. D.; Klammler, H.; Perminova, I. V.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a new sensor that incorporates the field-tested concepts of the passive flux meter to provide direct in situ measures of uranium and groundwater fluxes. The sensor uses two sorbents and resident tracers to measure uranium flux and specific discharge directly; but, sensor principles and design should also apply to fluxes of other radionuclides. Flux measurements will assist with obtaining field-scale quantification of subsurface processes affecting uranium transport (e.g., advection) and transformation (e.g., uranium attenuation) and further advance conceptual and computational models for field scale simulations. Project efforts will expand our current understanding of how field-scale spatial variations in uranium fluxes and those for salient electron donor/acceptors, and groundwater are coupled to spatial variations in measured microbial biomass/community composition, effective field-scale uranium mass balances, attenuation, and stability. The new sensor uses an anion exchange resin to measure uranium fluxes and activated carbon with resident tracers to measure water fluxes. Several anion-exchange resins including Dowex 21K and 21K XLT, Purolite A500, and Lewatit S6328 were tested as sorbents for capturing uranium on the sensor and Lewatit S6328 was determined to be the most effective over the widest pH range. Four branched alcohols proved useful as resident tracers for measuring groundwater flows using activated carbon for both laboratory and field conditions. The flux sensor was redesigned to prevent the discharge of tracers to the environment, and the new design was tested in laboratory box aquifers and the field. Geochemical modeling of equilibrium speciation using Visual Minteq and an up-to-date thermodynamic data base suggested Ca-tricarbonato-uranyl complexes predominate under field conditions, while calculated uranyl ion activities were sensitive to changes in pH, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkaline earth

  9. In situ measurement of conductivity during nanocomposite film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blattmann, Christoph O.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2016-05-01

    Flexible and electrically conductive nanocomposite films are essential for small, portable and even implantable electronic devices. Typically, such film synthesis and conductivity measurement are carried out sequentially. As a result, optimization of filler loading and size/morphology characteristics with respect to film conductivity is rather tedious and costly. Here, freshly-made Ag nanoparticles (nanosilver) are made by scalable flame aerosol technology and directly deposited onto polymeric (polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)) films during which the resistance of the resulting nanocomposite is measured in situ. The formation and gas-phase growth of such flame-made nanosilver, just before incorporation onto the polymer film, is measured by thermophoretic sampling and microscopy. Monitoring the nanocomposite resistance in situ reveals the onset of conductive network formation by the deposited nanosilver growth and sinternecking. The in situ measurement is much faster and more accurate than conventional ex situ four-point resistance measurements since an electrically percolating network is detected upon its formation by the in situ technique. Nevertheless, general resistance trends with respect to filler loading and host polymer composition are consistent for both in situ and ex situ measurements. The time lag for the onset of a conductive network (i.e., percolation) depends linearly on the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the host polymer. This is attributed to the increased nanoparticle-polymer interaction with decreasing Tg. Proper selection of the host polymer in combination with in situ resistance monitoring therefore enable the optimal preparation of conductive nanocomposite films.

  10. Incidental and Isolated Follicular Lymphoma In Situ and Mantle Cell Lymphoma In Situ Lack Clinical Significance.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Glenda; González de Villambrosía, Sonia; Martínez-López, Azahara; Batlle, Ana; Revert-Arce, José B; Cereceda Company, Laura; Ortega Bezanilla, César; Piris, Miguel A; Montes-Moreno, Santiago

    2016-07-01

    Follicular lymphoma in situ (FLIS) and mantle cell lymphoma in situ (MCLIS) are histopathologic findings of undetermined clinical significance. We studied a series of 341 consecutive lymph node resection specimens from patients diagnosed with colorectal (201 cases) and breast (140 cases) adenocarcinoma between 1998 and 2000. Incidental and isolated FLIS was identified in 11/341 patients (3.23%), whereas incidental and isolated MCLIS was found in 2/341 patients (0.59%). None of these cases developed overt lymphoma. A second series of 17 cases of FLIS (16 cases) and MCLIS (1 case) from consultation files was analyzed. Five cases with incidental and isolated FLIS were identified. None of these cases developed overt lymphoma. Overall, none of the 16 cases with incidental and isolated FLIS in both series developed overt FL after a median follow-up of 54 months (range, 7 to 187 mo). However, 12 of these cases with a clinical suspicion of lymphoproliferative disorder showed the association (in different lymph nodes) or combination (in the same sample) of FLIS or MCLIS with other lymphoid neoplasms (FL, splenic marginal zone lymphoma, nodal marginal zone lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, multiple myeloma). In conclusion, the clinical relevance of FLIS and MCLIS seems to strictly depend on the clinical context. Incidental FLIS or MCLIS seem to have a very low risk for transformation, which recommends careful clinical examination after histopathologic diagnosis and conservative management with follow-up for a limited period of time. PMID:26945339

  11. In situ Management and Domestication of Plants in Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Alejandro; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Pérez-Negrón, Edgar; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Ethnobotanical studies in Mexico have documented that Mesoamerican peoples practise systems of in situ management of wild and weedy vegetation directed to control availability of useful plants. In situ management includes let standing, encouraging growing and protection of individual plants of useful species during clearance of vegetation, which in some cases may involve artificial selection. The aim of this study was to review, complement and re-analyse information from three case studies which examined patterns of morphological, physiological and genetic effects of artificial selection in plant populations under in situ management in the region. Methods Information on wild and in situ managed populations of the herbaceous weedy plants Anoda cristata and Crotalaria pumila, the tree Leucaena esculenta subsp. esculenta and the columnar cacti Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe and Stenocereus stellatus from Central Mexico was re-analysed. Analyses compared morphology and frequency of morphological variants, germination patterns, and population genetics parameters between wild and managed in situ populations of the species studied. Species of columnar cacti are under different management intensities and their populations, including cultivated stands of P. chichipe and S. stellatus, were also compared between species. Key Results Significant differences in morphology, germination patterns and genetic variation documented between wild, in situ managed and cultivated populations of the species studied are associated with higher frequencies of phenotypes favoured by humans in managed populations. Genetic diversity in managed populations of E. chiotilla and P. chichipe is slightly lower than in wild populations but in managed populations of S. stellatus variation was higher than in the wild. However, genetic distance between populations was generally small and influenced more by geographic distance than by management. Conclusions Artificial

  12. In Situ Treatment of Chromium-Contaminated Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Fruchter, Jonathan S. )

    2002-12-01

    In Situ Treatment of Chromate Contaminated Groundwater Jonathan S. Fruchter Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Abstract of paper published in Environmental Science and Technology, 2002 Although not as common as solvent or fuel products contamination, chromate (chromium (VI)) contamination of groundwater is relatively widespread. Chromate has a variety of industrial uses, including chrome plating, steel making, and use as a corrosion inhibitor, wood preservative, well-drilling fluid additive, biocide, and as a pigment in paints and primers. EPA has estimated that as many as 1300 sites in the United States may have groundwater contaminated with chromate. The paper discusses a number of approaches to in situ treatment of chromate contamination in groundwater aquifers. The approaches include various types of chemical treatments, biological treatments and natural attenuation. The strengths and weaknesses of each method are discussed and compared. Field examples of two types of chemical treatment, in situ redox manipulation and chemically enhanced pump and treat are presented. It is concluded that in situ methods show promise, but can be difficult to implement due to site-specific conditions and limited long-term experience with these methods. As more performance and cost data are acquired for the demonstrations that are ongoing, and continuing research increases our understanding of subsurface processes, in situ treatment methods for chromium (VI) contamination in groundwater should gain wider acceptance.

  13. In situ follicular lymphoma: pathologic characteristics and diagnostic features.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Antonino; Gloghini, Annunziata; Santoro, Armando

    2012-03-01

    The diagnosis of in situ follicular lymphoma (FL) is feasible when immunohistochemical characterization is carried out and genetic abnormalities are assessed. We usually use a selected diagnostic panel of antibodies (CD10, CD20, CD23, BCL2, BCL6, and Ki67) in lymph nodes with follicular hyperplasia only when we analyze an unexplained lymphadenopathy. Molecular studies, for example, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for t(14;18), are restricted to doubtful cases in which immunohistochemistry data are ambiguous. Immunohistochemically, the involved follicles show strongly positive staining for BCL2 and CD10. The BCL2+ cells are confined only to germinal centers and are not seen in the interfollicular region or elsewhere in the lymph node. The BCL2 staining in the abnormal follicles is notable for its high-level and uniform intensity. In situ FL may be associated with overt FL or with lymphomas other than FL or with other malignancies. The crucial point relies on distinguishing in situ FL arising in asymptomatic patients from cases with presence of lymphoma at the same or other sites. Other open questions remain on the frequency with which in situ FLs occur and the frequency of concomitant systemic disease. PMID:21560142

  14. In-situ Data Analysis Framework for ACME Land Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Yao, C.; Jia, Y.; Steed, C.; Atchley, S.

    2015-12-01

    The realistic representation of key biogeophysical and biogeochemical functions is the fundamental of process-based ecosystem models. Investigating the behavior of those ecosystem functions within real-time model simulation can be a very challenging due to the complex of both model and software structure of an environmental model, such as the Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) Land Model (ALM). In this research, author will describe the urgent needs and challenges for in-situ data analysis for ALM simulations, and layouts our methods/strategies to meet these challenges. Specifically, an in-situ data analysis framework is designed to allow users interactively observe the biogeophyical and biogeochemical process during ALM simulation. There are two key components in this framework, automatically instrumented ecosystem simulation, in-situ data communication and large-scale data exploratory toolkit. This effort is developed by leveraging several active projects, including scientific unit testing platform, common communication interface and extreme-scale data exploratory toolkit. Authors believe that, based on advanced computing technologies, such as compiler-based software system analysis, automatic code instrumentation, and in-memory data transport, this software system provides not only much needed capability for real-time observation and in-situ data analytics for environmental model simulation, but also the potentials for in-situ model behavior adjustment via simulation steering.

  15. In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Leeuw, Thomas; Boss, Emmanuel S.; Wright, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger. PMID:23783738

  16. Frontiers of in situ electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Haimei; Zhu, Yimei; Meng, Shirley Ying

    2015-01-01

    In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has become an increasingly important tool for materials characterization. It provides key information on the structural dynamics of a material during transformations and the correlation between structure and properties of materials. With the recent advances in instrumentation, including aberration corrected optics, sample environment control, the sample stage, and fast and sensitive data acquisition, in situ TEM characterization has become more and more powerful. In this article, a brief review of the current status and future opportunities of in situ TEM is included. It also provides an introduction to the six articles covered by in this issue of MRS Bulletin explore the frontiers of in situ electron microscopy, including liquid and gas environmental TEM, dynamic four-dimensional TEM, nanomechanics, ferroelectric domain switching studied by in situ TEM, and state-of-the-art atomic imaging of light elements (i.e., carbon atoms) and individual defects.

  17. System for enhanced longevity of in situ microbial filter used for bioremediation

    DOEpatents

    Carman, M. Leslie; Taylor, Robert T.

    2000-01-01

    An improved method for in situ microbial filter bioremediation having increasingly operational longevity of an in situ microbial filter emplaced into an aquifer. A method for generating a microbial filter of sufficient catalytic density and thickness, which has increased replenishment interval, improved bacteria attachment and detachment characteristics and the endogenous stability under in situ conditions. A system for in situ field water remediation.

  18. Method for enhanced longevity of in situ microbial filter used for bioremediation

    DOEpatents

    Carman, M. Leslie; Taylor, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    An improved method for in situ microbial filter bioremediation having increasingly operational longevity of an in situ microbial filter emplaced into an aquifer. A method for generating a microbial filter of sufficient catalytic density and thickness, which has increased replenishment interval, improved bacteria attachment and detachment characteristics and the endogenous stability under in situ conditions. A system for in situ field water remediation.

  19. In-situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy for battery research.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, B Layla; Gu, Meng; Parent, Lucas R; Xu, Wu; Nasybulin, Eduard N; Chen, Xilin; Unocic, Raymond R; Xu, Pinghong; Welch, David A; Abellan, Patricia; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chong-Min; Arslan, Ilke; Evans, James; Browning, Nigel D

    2014-04-01

    The recent development of in-situ liquid stages for (scanning) transmission electron microscopes now makes it possible for us to study the details of electrochemical processes under operando conditions. As electrochemical processes are complex, care must be taken to calibrate the system before any in-situ/operando observations. In addition, as the electron beam can cause effects that look similar to electrochemical processes at the electrolyte/electrode interface, an understanding of the role of the electron beam in modifying the operando observations must also be understood. In this paper we describe the design, assembly, and operation of an in-situ electrochemical cell, paying particular attention to the method for controlling and quantifying the experimental parameters. The use of this system is then demonstrated for the lithiation/delithiation of silicon nanowires. PMID:24755142

  20. In-Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy for Battery Research

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdi, Beata L; Gu, Meng; Parent, Lucas; Xu, WU; Nasybulin, Eduard; Chen, Xilin; Unocic, Raymond R; Xu, Pinghong; Welch, David; Abellan, Patricia; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chongmin; Arslan, Ilke; Evans, James E; Browning, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of in-situ liquid stages for (scanning) transmission electron microscopes now makes it possible for us to study the details of electrochemical processes under operando conditions. As electrochemical processes are complex, care must be taken to calibrate the system before any in-situ/operando observations. In addition, as the electron beam can cause effects that look similar to electrochemical processes at the electrolyte/electrode interface, an understanding of the role of the electron beam in modifying the operando observations must also be understood. In this paper we describe the design, assembly, and operation of an in-situ electrochemical cell, paying particular attention to the method for controlling and quantifying the experimental parameters. The use of this system is then demonstrated for the lithiation/delithiation of silicon nanowires.

  1. Robot-Assisted Antegrade In-Situ Fenestrated Stent Grafting

    SciTech Connect

    Riga, Celia V. Bicknell, Colin D.; Wallace, Daniel; Hamady, Mohamad; Cheshire, Nicholas

    2009-05-15

    To determine the technical feasibility of a novel approach of in-situ fenestration of aortic stent grafts by using a remotely controlled robotic steerable catheter system in the porcine model. A 65-kg pig underwent robot-assisted bilateral antegrade in-situ renal fenestration of an abdominal aortic stent graft with subsequent successful deployment of a bare metal stent into the right renal artery. A 16-mm iliac extension covered stent served as the porcine aortic endograft. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the graft was punctured with a 20-G customized diathermy needle that was introduced and kept in place by the robotic arm. The needle was exchanged for a 4 x 20 mm cutting balloon before successful deployment of the renal stent. Robot-assisted antegrade in-situ fenestration is technically feasible in a large mammalian model. The robotic system enables precise manipulation, stable positioning, and minimum instrumentation of the aorta and its branches while minimizing radiation exposure.

  2. Robot-assisted antegrade in-situ fenestrated stent grafting.

    PubMed

    Riga, Celia V; Bicknell, Colin D; Wallace, Daniel; Hamady, Mohamad; Cheshire, Nicholas

    2009-05-01

    To determine the technical feasibility of a novel approach of in-situ fenestration of aortic stent grafts by using a remotely controlled robotic steerable catheter system in the porcine model. A 65-kg pig underwent robot-assisted bilateral antegrade in-situ renal fenestration of an abdominal aortic stent graft with subsequent successful deployment of a bare metal stent into the right renal artery. A 16-mm iliac extension covered stent served as the porcine aortic endograft. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the graft was punctured with a 20-G customized diathermy needle that was introduced and kept in place by the robotic arm. The needle was exchanged for a 4 x 20 mm cutting balloon before successful deployment of the renal stent. Robot-assisted antegrade in-situ fenestration is technically feasible in a large mammalian model. The robotic system enables precise manipulation, stable positioning, and minimum instrumentation of the aorta and its branches while minimizing radiation exposure. PMID:18972158

  3. In Situ Observations of PSCs Generated by Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Bui, Paul; Mahoney, M. J.; Gandrud, Bruce; Hipskind, K. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    During SOLVE, the bulk of the in-situ observations of PSCs are of large scale extended structures associated with synoptic scale cooling. The nature of these structures is also determined by layers of high relative NOy that have been stretched into thin layers by advective processes. Some of the in situ observations, however, are clearly correlated with gravity wave signatures. The first goal of this work is to examine these cases and evaluate gravity wave parameters. In particular, we are interested in the intrinsic periods of the waves and their temperature amplitude, which are key ingredients in the nucleation process. Secondly, we will examine some rudimentary properties of the particle size distributions and composition, comparing these with in situ observations of the more extended PSC features. Finally, we will attempt to ascertain the mechanism which generates the gravity waves.

  4. Manipulating Bacterial Communities by in situ Microbiome Engineering.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Ravi U; Cabral, Vitor; Chen, Sway P; Wang, Harris H

    2016-04-01

    Microbial communities inhabit our entire planet and have a crucial role in biogeochemical processes, agriculture, biotechnology, and human health. Here, we argue that 'in situ microbiome engineering' represents a new paradigm of community-scale genetic and microbial engineering. We discuss contemporary applications of this approach to directly add, remove, or modify specific sets of functions and alter community-level properties in terrestrial, aquatic, and host-associated microbial communities. Specifically, we highlight emerging in situ genome engineering approaches as tractable techniques to manipulate microbial communities with high specificity and efficacy. Finally, we describe opportunities for technological innovation and ways to bridge existing knowledge gaps to accelerate the development of in situ approaches for microbiome manipulations. PMID:26916078

  5. In Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy for Battery Research

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdi, Beata L.; Gu, Meng; Parent, Lucas R.; Xu, Wu; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Chen, Xilin; Unocic, Raymond R.; Xu, Pinghong; Welch, David A.; Abellan, Patricia; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chong M.; Arslan, Ilke; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-04-01

    The recent development of in situ liquid stages for (scanning) transmission electron microscopes now makes it possible for us to study the details of electrochemical processes under operando conditions. As electrochemical processes are complex, care must be taken to calibrate the system before any in situ/operando observations. In addition, as the electron beam can cause effects that look similar to electrochemical processes at the electrolyte/electrode interface, an understanding of the role of the electron beam in modifying the operando observations must also be understood. In this paper we describe the design, assembly, and operation of an in situ electrochemical cell, paying particular attention to the method for controlling and quantifying the experimental parameters. The use of this system is then demonstrated for the lithiation/delithiation of silicon nanowires.

  6. Production rates of terrestrial in-situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, R.C.; Tuniz, C.; Fink, D.

    1993-12-31

    Production rates of cosmogenic nuclides made in situ in terrestrial samples and how they are applied to the interpretation of measured radionuclide concentrations were discussed at a one-day Workshop held 2 October 1993 in Sydney, Australia. The status of terrestrial in-situ studies using the long-lived radionuclides {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, and {sup 41}Ca and of various modeling and related studies were presented. The relative uncertainties in the various factors that go into the interpretation of these terrestrial in-situ cosmogenic nuclides were discussed. The magnitudes of the errors for these factors were estimated and none dominated the final uncertainty.

  7. In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Jerry

    1998-01-01

    The question "Why In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU)?" is addressed in this presentation. The reasons given concentrate on Cost reduction, Mass reduction, Risk reduction, the expansion of human exploration and presence and the enabling of industrial exploitation. A review of the Martian and Lunar resources available for ISRU is presented. Other ISRU concepts (i.e., In-Situ Consumable production (ISCP) and In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP)) are introduced and further explained. The objectives of a Mars ISRU System Technology (MIST) include (1) the characterization of technology and subsystem performance for mission modeling and technology funding planning, (2) reduce risk and concerns arising from sample return and human missions utilizing ISRU, and (3) demonstrate the environmental suitability of ISRU components/processes and systems. A proof of concept demonstration schedule and a facility overview for MIST is presented.

  8. Drilling-induced core fractures and in situ stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongyi; Schmitt, Douglas R.

    1998-03-01

    The relationship between the shapes of drilling-induced core fractures and the in situ state of stress is developed. The stress concentrations at the well bore bottom are first determined using a complete three-dimensional finite element analysis. Existing in situ compressional stresses generate large tensions in the immediate vicinity of the bottom hole which are sufficient to rupture the rock. Tensile fracture trajectories within these concentrated stress fields are predicted using a simple model of fracture propagation. These modeled fracture trajectories resemble well the observed shapes of drilling-induced core disking, petal, and petal-centerline fractures. Further, this agreement suggests that both the shape of the drilling-induced fracture and the location at which it initiates depends on the in situ stress state existing in the rock mass prior to drilling; the core fractures contain substantial information on in situ stress conditions. In all faulting regimes the coring-induced fractures initiate near the bit cut except for most cases under thrust faulting regime where the fracture initiates on the well bore axis. Further, under thrust faulting conditions only disk fractures appear possible. Both petal and disking fractures can be produced in strike-slip and normal faulting regimes depending upon the relative magnitudes between the least compressive horizontal principal stress and the vertical overburden stress. The predicted fracture shapes are in good qualitative agreement with observations of drilling-induced fractures described in the literature from laboratory experiments and field programs in which in situ stresses are measured by other means. The relationship of the morphology of coring induced fractures and in situ stresses suggests that the fractures can be used as independent complementary indicators in identifying stress regimes.

  9. In-situ measurements of lunar heat flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langseth, M. B.; Keihm, S. J.

    1977-01-01

    During the Apollo program two successful heat flow measurements were made in situ on the lunar surface. At the Apollo 15 site a value of .0000031 W/sq cm was measured, and at the Apollo 17 site a value of .0000022 W/sq cm was determined. Both measurements have uncertainty limits of + or - 20 percent and have been corrected for perturbing topographic effects. The apparent difference between the observations may correlate with observed variations in the surface abundance of thorium. Comparison with earlier determinations of heat flow, using the microwave emission spectrum from the moon, gives support to the high gradients and heat flows observed in situ.

  10. Airborne in situ computation of the wind shear hazard index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera, Rosa M.; Bowles, Roland L.; Robinson, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    An algorithm for airborne in situ computation of the wind shear hazard index (F-factor) was developed and evaluated in simulation and verified in flight. The algorithm was implemented on NASA's B-737-100 airplane, and tested under severe maneuvering, nonhazardous wind conditions, and normal takeoffs and landings. The airplane was flown through actual microburst conditions in Orlando, FL, where the algorithm produced wind shear measurements which were confirmed by an independent, ground-based radar measurement. Flight test results indicated that the in situ F-factor algorithm correctly measured the effect of the wind environment on the airplane's performance, and produced no nuisance alerts.

  11. Subsurface In Situ Elemental Composition Measurements with PING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Ann; McClanahan, Timothy; Bodnarik, Julia; Evans, Larry; Nowicki, Suzanne; Schweitzer, Jeffrey; Starr, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Probing In situ with Neutron and Gamma rays (PING) instrument, that can measure the subsurface elemental composition in situ for any rocky body in the solar system without the need for digging into the surface. PING consists of a Pulsed Neutron Generator (PNG), a gamma ray spectrometer and neutron detectors. Subsurface elements are stimulated by high-energy neutrons to emit gamma rays at characteristic energies. This paper will show how the detection of these gamma rays results in a measurement of elemental composition. Examples of the basalt to granite ratios for aluminum and silicon abundance are provided.

  12. In-Situ Investigation of Advanced Structural Coatings and Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustundag, Ersan

    2003-01-01

    The premise of this project is a comprehensive study that involves the in-situ characterization of advanced coatings and composites by employing both neutron and x-ray diffraction techniques in a complementary manner. The diffraction data would then be interpreted and used in developing or validating advanced micromechanics models with life prediction capability. In the period covered by this report, basic work was conducted to establish the experimental conditions for various specimens and techniques. In addition, equipment was developed that will allow the in-situ studies under a range of conditions (stress, temperature, atmosphere, etc.).

  13. Glycal assembly by the in situ generation of glycosyl dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Padungros, Panuwat; Alberch, Laura; Wei, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Glycal assembly offers an expedient entry into β-linked oligosaccharides, but epoxyglycal donors can be capricious in their reactivities. Treatment with Et(2)NH and CS(2) enables their in situ conversion into glycosyl dithiocarbamates, which can be activated by copper triflate for coupling with complex or sterically congested acceptors. The coupling efficiency can be further enhanced by in situ benzoylation, as illustrated in an 11-step synthesis of a branched hexasaccharide from glucals in 28% isolated yield and just four chromatographic purifications. PMID:22686424

  14. Engineered approaches for in situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvent contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, B.C.; Leeson, A.

    1999-01-01

    Throughout the world there are sites contaminated with chlorinated compounds such as perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloromethene, carbon tetrachloride, pentachlorophenol, chlorinated benzenes, and various pesticide/herbicide compounds. Not only do these compounds carry health risks, but they also are challenging and often expensive to treat in the field. However, progress is being made, and this volume brings together the most up-to-date laboratory findings and the latest full-scale results from bioremediation efforts at actual field sites. Engineering approaches discussed include biobarriers, cometabolism, bioaugmentation, in situ oxidation, Genton's Reagent, in situ bioremediation, and more.

  15. Engineered approaches for in situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvent contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, B.C.; Leeson, A.

    1999-10-01

    Throughout the world there are sites contaminated with chlorinated compounds such as perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloromethene, carbon tetrachloride, pentachlorophenol, chlorinated benzenes, and various pesticide/herbicide compounds. Not only do these compounds carry health risks, but they also are challenging and often expensive to treat in the field. However, progress is being made, and this volume brings together the most up-to-date laboratory findings and the latest full-scale results from bioremediation efforts at actual field sites. Engineering approaches discussed include biobarriers, cometabolism, bioaugmentation, in situ oxidation, Fenton`s Reagent, in situ bioremediation, and more.

  16. Engineered approaches for in situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvent contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, B.C.; Leeson, A.

    1999-11-01

    Throughout the world there are sites contaminated with chlorinated compounds such as perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloromethene, carbon tetrachloride, pentachlorophenol, chlorinated benzenes, and various pesticide/herbicide compounds. Not only do these compounds carry health risks, but they also are challenging and often expensive to treat in the field. However, progress is being made, and this volume brings together the most up-to-date laboratory findings and the latest full-scale results from bioremediation efforts at actual field sites. Engineering approaches discussed include biobarriers, cometabolism, bioaugmentation, in situ oxidation, Genton`s Reagent, in situ bioremediation, and more.

  17. In-situ bioremediation drilling and characterization work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, K.J.

    1994-04-26

    This work plan describes the design and construction of proposed wells and outlines the characterization activities to be performed in support of the In Situ Bioremediation Task for FY 1994. The purpose of the well-design is to facilitate implementation and monitoring of in situ biodegradation of CCl{sub 4} in ground water. However, the wells will also be used to characterize the geology, hydrology, microbiology, and contaminant distribution, which will all feed into the design of the technology. Implementation and design of this remediation demonstration technology will be described separately in an integrated test plan.

  18. Electrochemical cell for in-situ x-ray characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, D.H.; Ingersoll, D.; Rodriguez, M.A.

    1998-08-04

    An electrochemical cell suitable for in-situ XRD analysis is presented. Qualitative information such as phase formation and phase stability can be easily monitored using the in-situ cell design. Quantitative information such as lattice parameters and kinetic behavior is also straightforward. Analysis of the LiMn&sub2;O&sub4; spinel using this cell design shows that the lattice undergoes two major structural shrinkages at approx. 4.0 V and approx. 4.07 V during charging. These shrinkages correlate well with the two electrochemical waves observed and indicate the likelihood of two separate redox processes which charging and discharging.

  19. A simplified In Situ cosmogenic 14C extraction system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, J.S.; Lifton, N.A.; Timothy, Jull A.J.; Quade, Jay

    2010-01-01

    We describe the design, construction, and testing of a new, simplified in situ radiocarbon extraction system at the University of Arizona. Blank levels for the new system are low ((234 ?? 11) ?? 103 atoms (1 ??; n = 7)) and stable. The precision of a given measurement depends on the concentration of 14C, but is typically <5% for concentrations of 100 ?? 103 atoms g-1 or more. The new system is relatively small and easy to construct, costs significantly less than the original in situ 14C extraction system at Arizona, and lends itself to future automation. ?? 2010 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

  20. In situ evaporation of lithium for LEVIS ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, B.; Lopez, M.; Lamppa, K.; Stearns, W.; Bieg, K.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the In Situ evaporation of pure lithium on the anode of PBFA II which then can be evaporated and ionized by Laser Evaporation and Ionization Source (LEVIS). Included in this report are the necessary calculations, light laboratory experiments and details of the hardware for PBFA II. This report gives all the details of In Situ evaporation for PBFA II so when a decision is made to provide an active lithium source for PBFA II, it can be fielded in a minimum of time.

  1. In-situ measurements of lunar heat flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langseth, M. G.; Keihm, S. J.

    1974-01-01

    During the Apollo program two successful heat flow measurements were made in situ on the lunar surface. At the Apollo 15 site a value of 0.0000031 watts/sqcm was measured and at the Apollo 17 site a value of 0.0000022 watts/sqcm was determined. Both measurements have uncertainty limits of + or - 20% and have been corrected for perturbing topographic effects. The apparent difference between the observations may correlate with observed variations in the surface abundance of thorium. Comparison with earlier determinations of heat flow, using the microwave emission spectrum from the moon, gives support to the high gradients and heat flows observed in situ.

  2. Continued Development of in Situ Geochronology for Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devismes, D.; Cohen, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    The instrument 'Potassium (K) Argon Laser Experiment' (KArLE) is developed and designed for in situ absolute dating of rocks on planetary surfaces. It is based on the K-Ar dating method and uses the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy - Laser Ablation - Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (LIBSLA- QMS) technique. We use a dedicated interface to combine two instruments similar to SAM of Mars Science Laboratory (for the QMS) and ChemCam (for the LA and LIBS). The prototype has demonstrated that KArLE is a suitable and promising instrument for in situ absolute dating.

  3. Triple redundant hydrogen sensor with in situ calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lantz, J. B.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Koszenski, E. P.

    1980-01-01

    To meet sensing and calibration needs, an in situ calibration technique was developed. It is based on electrolytic generation of a hydrogen/air atmosphere within a hydrogen sensor. The hydrogen is generated from water vapor in the air, and being electrical in nature, the in situ calibration can be performed completely automatically in remote locations. Triply redundant sensor elements are integrated within a single, compact housing, and digital logic provides inter-sensor comparisons to warn of and identify malfunctioning sensor elements. An evaluation of this concept is presented.

  4. New strategies for in-situ characterization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ertekin, T.; Sung, Wonmo; Mohaghegh, S.

    1988-01-01

    The overall objectives of the project are: To develop a methodology which uses the pressure transient analysis as a method for in situ characterization of permeability, porosity, and sorption properties of coal seam methane reservoirs. In the development, single-phase methane flow and two-phase methane/water flow are considered; to evaluate and verify the applicability of the developed methodology against a variety of appropriate field data which exist in the literature; and to present the engineering and scientific capabilities of the developed methodology which will improve the fundamental, scientific and technical understanding of the in situ measurement of coal properties. Progress is discussed.

  5. Strategies for In situ and Sample Return Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    There is general agreement that planetary exploration proceeds from orbital reconnaissance of a planet, to surface and near-surface in situ exploration, to sample return missions, which bring back samples for investigations in terrestrial laboratories, using the panoply of state-of-the-art analytical techniques. The applicable techniques may depend on the nature of the returned material and complementary and multi- disciplinary techniques can be used to best advantage. High precision techniques also serve to provide the "ground truth" and calibrate past and future orbital and in situ measurements on a planet. It is also recognized that returned samples may continue to be analyzed by novel techniques as the techniques become developed, in part to address specific characteristics of returned samples. There are geophysical measurements such as those of the moment of inertia of a planet, seismic activity, and surface morphology that depend on orbital and in-situ science. Other characteristics, such as isotopic ages and isotopic compositions (e.g., initial Sr and Nd) as indicators of planetary mantle or crust evolution and sample provenance require returned samples. In situ analyses may be useful for preliminary characterization and for optimization of sample selection for sample return. In situ analyses by Surveyor on the Moon helped identify the major element chemistry of lunar samples and the need for high precision mass spectrometry (e. g., for Rb-Sr ages, based on extremely low alkali contents). The discussion of in-situ investigations vs. investigations on returned samples must be directly related to available instrumentation and to instrumentation that can be developed in the foreseeable future. The discussion of choices is not a philosophical but instead a very practical issue: what precision is required for key investigations and what is the instrumentation that meets or exceeds the required precision. This must be applied to potential in situ instruments and

  6. Diagnosis of In Situ Metabolic State and Rates of Microbial Metabolism During In Situ Uranium Bioremediation with Molecular Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lovley, Derek R

    2012-11-28

    The goal of these projects was to develop molecule tools to tract the metabolic activity and physiological status of microorganisms during in situ uranium bioremediation. Such information is important in able to design improved bioremediation strategies. As summarized below, the research was highly successful with new strategies developed for estimating in situ rates of metabolism and diagnosing the physiological status of the predominant subsurface microorganisms. This is a first not only for groundwater bioremediation studies, but also for subsurface microbiology in general. The tools and approaches developed in these studies should be applicable to the study of microbial communities in a diversity of soils and sediments.

  7. Volcano Monitor: Autonomous Triggering of In-Situ Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Davies, Ashley; Tran, Daniel Q.; Boudreau, Kate; Cecava, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    In-situ sensors near volcanoes would be alerted by the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) craft to take more frequent data readings. This project involves developing a sulfur-dioxide-sensing volcano monitor that will be able to transmit its readings through an Iridium modem.

  8. SYSTEMS TO ACCELERATE IN SITU STABILIZATION OF WASTE DEPOSITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ systems to accelerate the stabilization of waste deposits involve three essential elements: selection of a chemical or biological agent (reactant) which can react with and stabilize the waste, a method for delivery of the reactant to the deposit and a method for recovery ...

  9. In situ hybridization for metalloproteinases and their inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hurskainen, Tiina L; Apte, Suneel S

    2010-01-01

    In situ hybridization (ISH) is an invaluable tool in understanding tissue-specific gene expression and gene regulation within a spatial context and at a resolution that is not possible by any other method. In this chapter, we provide ISH methodology that has successfully been applied to the detection of metalloproteinases and their inhibitors. PMID:20135283

  10. Bioprocessing of sweet sorghum with in situ-produced enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Tengerdy, R.P.; Szakacs, G.; Sipocz, J.

    1996-12-31

    Enzyme-assisted ensiling (ENLAC), using in situ-produced enzymes from Gliocladium sp. TUB-F-498, preserved 80% of the sugar content of sweet sorghum, and facilitated its extraction by countercurrent diffusion. The in situ enzyme was produced on the extracted sweet sorghum pulp by an 8-d solid substrate fermentation (SSF) with a yield of 4.6 cellulose and 400 IU/g dry wt xylanase. Two percent of the fermented substrate had cellulose and xylanase levels equivalent or superior to levels found in the commercial enzymes Celluclast and Viscozyme Novo at the 0.025% application level in ENLAC. The in situ-production of enzymes on recyclable substrates may reduce bioprocessing costs significantly. In this ENLAC process, the cost of the in situ enzymes is estimated to be about $0.12/metric ton (MT) substrate, compared to $9.5/metric ton for the commercial enzymes, a cost reduction of nearly 80-fold. 4 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.