Sample records for concurrent systemic chemotherapy

  1. Guardians for Concurrent Systems

    E-print Network

    Hewitt, Carl

    In this paper we survey the current state of the art on fundamental aspects of concurrent systems. We discuss the notion of concurrency and discuss a model of computation which unifies the lambda calculus model and the ...

  2. Proton Beam Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy for Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Steven H., E-mail: shlin@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wei, Caimiao [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Myles, Bevan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Guo Xiaomao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, Shanghai (China); Palmer, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Swisher, Stephen G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a promising modality for the management of thoracic malignancies. We report our preliminary experience of treating esophageal cancer patients with concurrent chemotherapy (CChT) and PBT (CChT/PBT) at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: This is an analysis of 62 esophageal cancer patients enrolled on a prospective study evaluating normal tissue toxicity from CChT/PBT from 2006 to 2010. Patients were treated with passive scattering PBT with two- or three-field beam arrangement using 180 to 250 MV protons. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to assess time-to-event outcomes and compared the distributions between groups using the log-rank test. Results: The median follow-up time was 20.1 months for survivors. The median age was 68 years (range, 38-86). Most patients were males (82%) who had adenocarcinomas (76%) and Stage II-III disease (84%). The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (RBE [relative biologic equivalence]) (range, 36-57.6). The most common grade 2 to 3 acute toxicities from CChT/PBT were esophagitis (46.8%), fatigue (43.6%), nausea (33.9%), anorexia (30.1%), and radiation dermatitis (16.1%). There were two cases of grade 2 and 3 radiation pneumonitis and two cases of grade 5 toxicities. A total of 29 patients (46.8%) received preoperative CChT/PBT, with one postoperative death. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate for the surgical cohort was 28%, and the pCR and near CR rates (0%-1% residual cells) were 50%. While there were significantly fewer local-regional recurrences in the preoperative group (3/29) than in the definitive CChT/PBT group (16/33) (log-rank test, p = 0.005), there were no differences in distant metastatic (DM)-free interval or overall survival (OS) between the two groups. Conclusions: This is the first report of patients treated with PBT/CChT for esophageal cancer. Our data suggest that this modality is associated with a few severe toxicities, but the pathologic response and clinical outcomes are encouraging. Prospective comparison with more traditional approach is warranted.

  3. Immunomodulated anterior chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced tongue cancer: An Institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Chhatui, Bappaditya; Devleena; Roy, Sanjoy; Maji, Tapas; Lahiri, Debarshi; Biswas, Jaydip

    2015-01-01

    Context: Sequential induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (PF) along with interferon-alpha2b and concurrent chemoradiation offers superior loco-regional control for locally advanced carcinoma of oral tongue. Aims: The study was designed to evaluate the beneficial role of induction PF chemotherapy and interferon-alpha2b followed by chemoradiation over definitive chemoradiation only for patients with locally advanced carcinoma of oral tongue. Settings and Design: Phase II randomized, prospective, open-labeled, single-institutional study. Methods and Material: Fifty patients were randomized into 2 arms. Arm A patients were treated with induction chemotherapy with PF regimen for 3 cycles and interferon alpha 2b, 3MU biweekly for 6 such followed by chemoradiation with cisplatin 30 mg/ m2/ week and external radiotherapy. Arm B patients received chemoradiation only, in the same dose schedule as in Arm A. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test was done to find out the statistical correlation between the two arms. For plotting the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) for the two arms, Kaplan-Meier method was used. Results: The loco-regional response rate of patients treated with interferon containing induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation was superior to concurrent chemoradiation only. However the toxicities and treatment interruption were more in patients treated with induction chemotherapy. Conclusions: In locally advanced carcinoma of oral tongue, induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (PF) along with interferon alpha 2b followed by concurrent chemoradiation may produce superior loco-regional control with manageable toxicities that needs to be validated by more randomized trials with adequate number of patients.

  4. Administration of Concurrent Vaginal Brachytherapy During Chemotherapy for Treatment of Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nagar, Himanshu; Boothe, Dustin; Parikh, Amar; Yondorf, Menachem; Parashar, Bhupesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Gupta, Divya; Holcomb, Kevin; Caputo, Thomas [Division of Gynecological Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Chao, K. S. Clifford; Nori, Dattatreyudu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); Wernicke, A. Gabriella, E-mail: gaw9006@med.cornell.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the tolerability and toxicity of administering vaginal brachytherapy (VB) concurrently during chemotherapy compared with the sequential approach for patients with endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of 372 surgically staged patients with endometrial cancer American Joint Committee on Cancer 2009 stages I to IV treated with adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy (RT) at our institution from 2001 to 2012 was conducted. All patients received VB + external beam RT (EBRT) + 6 cycles of adjuvant carboplatin- and paclitaxel-based chemotherapy. The VB mean dose was 15.08 Gy (range, 15-20 Gy), with 3 to 4 weekly applications, and the EBRT mean dose was 45 Gy delivered with 3-dimensional or intensity modulated RT techniques. Hematologic, gastrointestinal (GI), and genitourinary (GU) toxicities were assessed by Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and compared between sequential and concurrent chemotherapy and VB schedules. Results: Among patients who received RT and adjuvant chemotherapy, 180 of 372 patients (48%) received RT sandwiched between cycles 3 and 4 of chemotherapy. A separate group of 192 patients (52%) were treated with VB during the first 3 cycles of chemotherapy, with a weekly application on nonchemotherapy days, and received the EBRT portion in a sandwiched fashion. Patients treated with VB during chemotherapy had a decreased overall treatment time by 4 weeks (P<.001; 95% confidence interval: 3.99-4.02) and sustained no difference in CTC-graded acute hematologic, GI, or GU toxicities in comparison with the patients treated with VB and chemotherapy in a sequential manner (P>.05). CTC grade 3 or 4 hematologic, GI, and GU toxicities were zero. Conclusions: VB during chemotherapy is well tolerated, decreases overall treatment time, and does not render more toxicity than the sequential regimen.

  5. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy as Preoperative Treatment for Localized Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarty, Twisha; Crane, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mansfield, Paul F. [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Briere, Tina M.; Beddar, A. Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mok, Henry; Reed, Valerie K.; Krishnan, Sunil; Delclos, Marc E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Das, Prajnan, E-mail: PrajDas@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate dosimetric parameters, acute toxicity, pathologic response, and local control in patients treated with preoperative intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for localized gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods: Between November 2007 and April 2010, 25 patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma were treated with induction chemotherapy, followed by preoperative IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy and, finally, surgical resection. The median radiation therapy dose was 45 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin in 18 patients, capecitabine in 3, and other regimens in 4. Subsequently, resection was performed with total gastrectomy in 13 patients, subtotal gastrectomy in 7, and other surgeries in 5. Results: Target coverage, expressed as the ratio of the minimum dose received by 99% of the planning target volume to the prescribed dose, was a median of 0.97 (range, 0.92-1.01). The median V{sub 30} (percentage of volume receiving at least 30 Gy) for the liver was 26%; the median V{sub 20} (percentage of volume receiving at least 20 Gy) for the right and left kidneys was 14% and 24%, respectively; and the median V{sub 40} (percentage of volume receiving at least 40 Gy) for the heart was 18%. Grade 3 acute toxicity developed in 14 patients (56%), including dehydration in 10, nausea in 8, and anorexia in 5. Grade 4 acute toxicity did not develop in any patient. There were no significant differences in the rates of acute toxicity, hospitalization, or feeding tube use in comparison to those in a group of 50 patients treated with preoperative three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy. R0 resection was obtained in 20 patients (80%), and pathologic complete response occurred in 5 (20%). Conclusions: Preoperative IMRT for gastric adenocarcinoma was well tolerated, accomplished excellent target coverage and normal structure sparing, and led to appropriate pathologic outcomes.

  6. Efficient Concurrent Simulation of DEVS Systems Based on Concurrent Inference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Cabarcos; Ramón P. Otero; Silvia Gómez Pose

    1999-01-01

    \\u000a This paper studies the concurrent simulation of DEVS systems by using their encoding into a formalism for dynamic systems\\u000a called Generalized Magnitudes (GM). When represented with GMs, the internal parallelism of a DEVS model is foregrounded and\\u000a the concurrent inference techniques developed for the GMs formalism can be applied to speed up simulation. This approach is\\u000a used for both atomic

  7. Accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a phase II study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Fischer; Georg Stüben; Mareen Klahold; Martin Stuschke; Volker Budach; Horst Sack; Klaus Jahnke

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Germany is relatively low in comparison with certain regions in south-east Asia.\\u000a However, standardised therapeutical regimes are required in the treatment of these tumours. Methods: Between August 1990 and December 1997, 25 patients with stage III and IV nasopharyngeal carcinoma received an accelerated\\u000a and hyperfractionated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy (5-FU and mitomycin C).

  8. Acute Esophagus Toxicity in Lung Cancer Patients After Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kwint, Margriet [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Uyterlinde, Wilma [Department of Thoracic Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Thoracic Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nijkamp, Jasper; Chen, Chun; Bois, Josien de; Sonke, Jan-Jakob [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heuvel, Michel van den [Department of Thoracic Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Thoracic Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Knegjens, Joost; Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belderbos, Jose, E-mail: j.belderbos@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-effect relation between acute esophageal toxicity (AET) and the dose-volume parameters of the esophagus after intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: One hundred thirty-nine patients with inoperable NSCLC treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy were prospectively analyzed. The fractionation scheme was 66 Gy in 24 fractions. All patients received concurrently a daily dose of cisplatin (6 mg/m Superscript-Two ). Maximum AET was scored according to Common Toxicity Criteria 3.0. Dose-volume parameters V5 to V70, D{sub mean} and D{sub max} of the esophagus were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the dose-effect relation between these parameters and grade {>=}2 and grade {>=}3 AET. The outcome was compared with the clinically used esophagus V35 prediction model for grade {>=}2 after radical 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) treatment. Results: In our patient group, 9% did not experience AET, and 31% experienced grade 1 AET, 38% grade 2 AET, and 22% grade 3 AET. The incidence of grade 2 and grade 3 AET was not different from that in patients treated with CCRT using 3DCRT. The V50 turned out to be the most significant dosimetric predictor for grade {>=}3 AET (P=.012). The derived V50 model was shown to predict grade {>=}2 AET significantly better than the clinical V35 model (P<.001). Conclusions: For NSCLC patients treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy, the V50 was identified as most accurate predictor of grade {>=}3 AET. There was no difference in the incidence of grade {>=}2 AET between 3DCRT and IMRT in patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy.

  9. Systemic Chemotherapy for Advanced Bladder Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bex; T. Otto; M. Goepel; H. Rübben

    1996-01-01

    Summary The influence of systemic chemotherapy on advanced bladder carcinoma is limited. Apparently patients do not benefit from cytostatic treatment prior to surgical removal of the bladder (neoadjuvant chemotherapy). Combination chemotherapy subsequent to radical cystectomy is currently being investigated in several clinical trials, at present, however, adjuvant chemotherapy cannot be regarded as standard treatment. In metastatic disease responses following application

  10. Multi-microprocessor system for concurrent LISP

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto, S.; Agusa, K.; Tabata, K.; Ohno, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Recent advances of VLSI technologies have made multi-microprocessor systems feasible to construct. This paper presents a multi-microprocessor system for a LISP-based concurrent programming language, concurrent LISP. Concurrent LISP is designed for user oriented concurrent programs, especially for artificial intelligence programs. The authors had developed concurrent lisp on single processor systems. The multi-microprocessor system proposed is constructed on the basis of these experiences. The multi-microprocessor system is constructed using general purpose microprocessors and it has the language oriented system configuration. 5 references.

  11. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, D.W.; Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.

    1987-12-15

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder is disclosed. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws. 5 figs.

  12. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, D.W.; Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.

    1985-09-04

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws.

  13. High-dose Helical Tomotherapy With Concurrent Full-dose Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jee Suk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Michael L.C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre (Singapore)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre (Singapore); Koom, Woong Sub; Yoon, Hong In; Chung, Yoonsun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Si Young [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Jinsil, E-mail: jsseong@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To improve poor therapeutic outcome of current practice of chemoradiotherapy (CRT), high-dose helical tomotherapy (HT) with concurrent full-dose chemotherapy has been performed on patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC), and the results were analyzed. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 39 patients with LAPC treated with radiotherapy using HT (median, 58.4 Gy; range, 50.8-59.9 Gy) and concomitant chemotherapy between 2006 and 2009. Radiotherapy was directed to the primary tumor with a 0.5-cm margin without prophylactic nodal coverage. Twenty-nine patients (79%) received full-dose (1000 mg/m{sup 2}) gemcitabine-based chemotherapy during HT. After completion of CRT, maintenance chemotherapy was administered to 37 patients (95%). Results: The median follow-up was 15.5 months (range, 3.4-43.9) for the entire cohort, and 22.5 months (range, 12.0-43.9) for the surviving patients. The 1- and 2-year local progression-free survival rates were 82.1% and 77.3%, respectively. Eight patients (21%) were converted to resectable status, including 1 with a pathological complete response. The median overall survival and progression-free survival were 21.2 and 14.0 months, respectively. Acute toxicities were acceptable with no gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity higher than Grade 3. Severe late GI toxicity ({>=}Grade 3) occurred in 10 patients (26%); 1 treatment-related death from GI bleeding was observed. Conclusion: High-dose helical tomotherapy with concurrent full-dose chemotherapy resulted in improved local control and long-term survival in patients with LAPC. Future studies are needed to widen the therapeutic window by minimizing late GI toxicity.

  14. Automated Concurrent Blackboard System Generation in C++

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, J. A.; McManus, J. W.; Bynum, W. L.

    1999-01-01

    In his 1992 Ph.D. thesis, "Design and Analysis Techniques for Concurrent Blackboard Systems", John McManus defined several performance metrics for concurrent blackboard systems and developed a suite of tools for creating and analyzing such systems. These tools allow a user to analyze a concurrent blackboard system design and predict the performance of the system before any code is written. The design can be modified until simulated performance is satisfactory. Then, the code generator can be invoked to generate automatically all of the code required for the concurrent blackboard system except for the code implementing the functionality of each knowledge source. We have completed the port of the source code generator and a simulator for a concurrent blackboard system. The source code generator generates the necessary C++ source code to implement the concurrent blackboard system using Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) running on a heterogeneous network of UNIX(trademark) workstations. The concurrent blackboard simulator uses the blackboard specification file to predict the performance of the concurrent blackboard design. The only part of the source code for the concurrent blackboard system that the user must supply is the code implementing the functionality of the knowledge sources.

  15. Phase II Study of Consolidation Chemotherapy After Concurrent Chemoradiation in Cervical Cancer: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Chel Hun [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Won [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Joong [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Young [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Hee Rim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung-Gie [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: huna0@naver.com; Huh, Seung Jae [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Je-Ho [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Duk-Soo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: Our aim was to determine the efficacy of consolidation chemotherapy after concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) using high-dose-rate brachytherapy in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Patients with cervical carcinoma (FIGO stage IB2-IVA) were treated with external beam radiation therapy to the whole pelvis (50.4 Gy) and high-dose-rate brachytherapy (24 Gy to point A). Cisplatin 60 mg/m{sup 2} (Day 1) and 5-fluorouracil 1000 mg/m{sup 2} (Days 1-5) were given every 3 weeks starting concurrently with the radiation and followed by 3 more cycles of consolidation for a total of 6 cycles. Results: Thirty patients (94%) received 3 more cycles of post-CCRT consolidation chemotherapy and were evaluable for the toxicity and efficacy of consolidation. The most common toxicities of Grade 2 or higher were nausea or vomiting (47%) and anemia (33%). Late complications of the rectum and bladder occurred in 13% and 6% of the patients, respectively. The clinical complete response rate was 87% (95% CI, 75%-99%). During a median follow-up of 27 months (range, 6-58 months), 5 patients (17%) had recurrence; the sites of failure were 3 (10%) inside the radiation field and 2 (7%) outside the radiation field. The estimated 3-year progression-free survival rate was 83% (95% CI, 67%-99%) and overall survival rate was 91% (95% CI, 79%-100%). Conclusions: Consolidation chemotherapy after CCRT is well tolerated and effective in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma. A prospective randomized trial to compare this treatment strategy with standard CCRT seems to be worthwhile.

  16. Concurrent Chemotherapy for T4 Classification Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in the Era of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Cai-neng; Luo, Jing-wei; Gao, Li; Yi, Jun-lin; Huang, Xiao-dong; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Shi-ping; Qu, Yuan; Li, Su-yan; Xiao, Jian-ping; Zhang, Zhong; Xu, Guo-zhen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate concurrent chemotherapy for T4 classification nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods From July 2004 to June 2011, 180 non-metastatic T4 classification NPC patients were retrospectively analyzed. Of these patients, 117 patients were treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) using IMRT and 63 cases were treated by IMRT alone. Results The median follow-up time was 58.97 months (range, 2.79–114.92) months. For all the patients, the 1, 3 and 5-year local failure-free survival (LFFS) rates were 97.7%, 89.2% and 85.9%, regional failure free survival (RFFS) rates were 98.9%, 94.4% and 94.4%, distant failure-free survival (DFFS) rates were 89.7%, 79.9% and 76.2%, and overall survival (OS) rates were 92.7%, 78.9% and 65.3%, respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed in LFFS, RFFS, DFFS and OS between the CCRT group and the IMRT alone group. No statistically significant difference was observed in acute toxicity except leukopenia (p = 0.000) during IMRT between the CCRT group and the IMRT alone group. Conclusion IMRT alone for T4 classification NPC achieved similar treatment outcomes in terms of disease local control and overall survival as compared to concurrent chemotherapy plus IMRT. However, this is a retrospective study with a limited number of patients, such results need further investigation in a prospective randomized clinical trial. PMID:25747589

  17. Successful low-dose concurrent chemotherapy and radiation for locally advanced or inoperable non-small cell lung carcinoma: a report of six cases.

    PubMed Central

    Anku, V.

    2000-01-01

    Many studies now demonstrate high overall response rates with concurrent chemotherapy and radiation (CCR) for locoregionally advanced or inoperable non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) but often with severe toxicity and only modest improvement in survival beyond 3 years. We report a simple CCR protocol for NSCLC that has resulted in long-term disease-free survival with low toxicity. In this retrospective review, 84 patients with NSCLC were seen between 1985 and 1991. Of these, 10 patients had stage IIIa or IIIb NSCLC without effusion or inoperable NSCLC, with no failed prior treatment at the time of referral for oncology evaluation. Six of these were treated with CCR consisting of three cycles of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil administered concurrently with radiation treatment followed by maintenance chemotherapy for at least five additional cycles. All six patients treated with this protocol had complete response with minimal side effects. Survival times ranged from 4.5 to more than 10 years. Three patients survived in complete remission; three others were in complete remission at the time of death due to unrelated causes. Stage III NSCLC without effusion and inoperable NSCLC can be treated effectively with concurrent local and systemic treatment without significant toxicity. In patients with complete response, maintenance chemotherapy may overcome residual microscopic systemic disease, leading to long-term survival and possible cure. The CCR strategy that resulted in this favorable outcome is noteworthy and should be pursued in larger numbers of patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10745640

  18. Concurrent radiotherapy and weekly chemotherapy of 5-fluorouracil and platinum agents for postoperative locoregional recurrence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Wen; Zhu, Yu-Jia; Yang, Han; Wang, Qiao-Xuan; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Xiao, Wei-Wei; Li, Qiao-Qiao; Liu, Meng-Zhong; Hu, Yong-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The most optimal management for postoperative locoregional recurrence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma is still controversial. Several studies have reported the feasibility and efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), mostly with three-weekly or four-weekly schedule of chemotherapy. However, treatment compliance was not quite satisfactory, probably due to treatment-related toxicities. Since CCRT with weekly chemotherapy regimens have demonstrated a favorable toxicity profile as well as promising survival in certain types of cancer, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of radiotherapy concurrently with weekly chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and platinum agents for patients with postoperative locoregional recurrence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in our center. Twenty-seven consecutive patients who were diagnosed with postoperative locoregional recurrence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and received CCRT with weekly chemotherapy of 5-FU and platinum agents were retrospectively analyzed. Our data showed that the present protocol of radiotherapy combined concurrently with weekly chemotherapy of 5-FU and platinum agents was a safe and effective salvage treatment for postoperative locoregional recurrence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25627119

  19. Concurrent cisplatin-etoposide chemotherapy plus thoracic radiotherapy for limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Japanese Lung Cancer Chemotherapy Group in Japanese Clinical Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Ariyoshi, Y; Fukuoka, M; Furuse, K; Saijo, N; Ikegami, H; Nishiwaki, Y; Tamura, T; Shimoyama, M; Suemasu, K

    1994-10-01

    A recent approach in the treatment of limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LDSCLC) has involved a combined modality of chemotherapy and chest irradiation. In using the modality, the study of scheduling methods for combining chemotherapy and radiotherapy should lead to other trials of combined modalities against LDSCLC since it is the most basic issue to be evaluated. We have thus conducted a multicenter phase II trial of concurrent cisplatin-etoposide (PVP) chemotherapy and radiotherapy for LDSCLC to determine the effects of the concurrent administration of a PVP regimen and chest irradiation on response rate, relapse, survival and treatment toxicity. The chemotherapy regimen consisted of a four-week cycle: cisplatin (80 mg/m2, given intravenously on day 1) and etoposide (100 mg/m2, given intravenously on days 1-3). This cycle was given four to six times within six months. Chest irradiation to the primary tumors at both the hili and the mediastinum was administered in standard fractions on days 2-12 in the first cycle of chemotherapy and on days 29-47 in the second cycle, with a total dose of 40-50 Gy. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was performed among complete remission (CR) or good partial remission (PR) patients after completion of the concurrent therapy. A total of 66 patients were entered into the trial and 59 were evaluated. The concurrent therapy induced an overall response rate of 94.9% in 59 patients: 24 patients, 40.7% CR, 32 patients, 54.2% PR. The median response duration was 8.7 months, and the median survival time for all eligible patients was 14.8 months. The percentage of patients with two-year survival periods was 20. A local relapse within the irradiated area was seen in only 22% of relapse patients. Brain metastases occurred in 24% of patients. Four of 32 patients treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation had brain metastases. Toxic effects, chiefly grades 3 and 4 leukopenia, as established by the World Health Organization, were detected in all treated patients. Other toxicities, including radiation-induced esophagitis and pneumonitis, were deemed almost acceptable. We concluded concurrent treatment of a PVP regimen with chest irradiation to be a feasible and beneficial therapy with an efficacy compatible to that of other published reports. The outcome of this protocol warrants further investigation to determine the optimal type of schedule for concurrent chemoradiotherapy against LDSCLC. PMID:7967106

  20. Chemotherapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy for endometrial cancer is usually ... beyond the uterus. However, the same drugs that kill cancer cells may also damage healthy cells. Chemotherapy ...

  1. Systemic chemotherapy decreases brain glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Horky, Laura L; Gerbaudo, Victor H; Zaitsev, Alexander; Plesniak, Wen; Hainer, Jon; Govindarajulu, Usha; Kikinis, Ron; Dietrich, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cancer patients may experience neurologic adverse effects, such as alterations in neurocognitive function, as a consequence of chemotherapy. The mechanisms underlying such neurotoxic syndromes remain poorly understood. We here describe the temporal and regional effects of systemically administered platinum-based chemotherapy on glucose metabolism in the brain of cancer patients. Methods Using sequential FDG-PET/CT imaging prior to and after administration of chemotherapy, we retrospectively characterized the effects of intravenously administered chemotherapy on brain glucose metabolism in a total of 24 brain regions in a homogenous cohort of 10 patients with newly diagnosed non-small-cell lung cancer. Results Significant alterations of glucose metabolism were found in response to chemotherapy in all gray matter structures, including cortical structures, deep nuclei, hippocampi, and cerebellum. Metabolic changes were also notable in frontotemporal white matter (WM) network systems, including the corpus callosum, subcortical, and periventricular WM tracts. Interpretation Our data demonstrate a decrease in glucose metabolism in both gray and white matter structures associated with chemotherapy. Among the affected regions are those relevant to the maintenance of brain plasticity and global neurologic function. This study potentially offers novel insights into the spatial and temporal effects of systemic chemotherapy on brain metabolism in cancer patients. PMID:25493270

  2. Concurrent cerebellar and cervical intramedullary tuberculoma: Paradoxical response on antitubercular chemotherapy and need for surgery

    PubMed Central

    Das, Kuntal Kanti; Jaiswal, Sushila; Shukla, Mukesh; Srivastava, Arun Kumar; Behari, Sanjay; Kumar, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Spinal intramedullary tuberculoma (SIT) is a rare manifestation of neurotuberculosis. Concurrent SIT and intracranial tuberculoma are further unusual. Most of these tuberculomas respond completely to medical therapy, and surgical excision is seldom required. In this report, we describe a 17-year-old boy who developed cervical intramedullary tuberculoma at C3-C6 level with a concurrent lesion involving the right cerebellar hemisphere while on treatment for tubercular meningitis. This patient had paradoxical increase in size of the cervical lesion even though the cerebellar lesion showed regression in size. In this article, we discuss the paradoxical response to anti-tubercular therapy in central nervous system tuberculosis, possible causes of nonresolution of tuberculoma on medical therapy and evaluate the role of surgery in these cases. PMID:25250077

  3. Concurrent cerebellar and cervical intramedullary tuberculoma: Paradoxical response on antitubercular chemotherapy and need for surgery.

    PubMed

    Das, Kuntal Kanti; Jaiswal, Sushila; Shukla, Mukesh; Srivastava, Arun Kumar; Behari, Sanjay; Kumar, Raj

    2014-05-01

    Spinal intramedullary tuberculoma (SIT) is a rare manifestation of neurotuberculosis. Concurrent SIT and intracranial tuberculoma are further unusual. Most of these tuberculomas respond completely to medical therapy, and surgical excision is seldom required. In this report, we describe a 17-year-old boy who developed cervical intramedullary tuberculoma at C3-C6 level with a concurrent lesion involving the right cerebellar hemisphere while on treatment for tubercular meningitis. This patient had paradoxical increase in size of the cervical lesion even though the cerebellar lesion showed regression in size. In this article, we discuss the paradoxical response to anti-tubercular therapy in central nervous system tuberculosis, possible causes of nonresolution of tuberculoma on medical therapy and evaluate the role of surgery in these cases. PMID:25250077

  4. Reasoning About Probabilistic Behavior in Concurrent Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Purushothaman; P. A. Subrahmanyam

    1987-01-01

    Certain aspects of the behavior of concurrent systems are intrinsically probabilistic in nature, e.g., the behavior of imperfect communication media used in network protocols. We address the problem of expressing such behavior in an algebraic calculus for communicating systems. The introduction of probabilistic information in the calculus alleviates the problem of proving liveness, as proving liveness now amounts to proving

  5. Salivary Gland Tumors Treated With Adjuvant Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With or Without Concurrent Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenfeld, Jonathan D., E-mail: jdschoenfeld@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Sher, David J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Norris, Charles M. [Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Haddad, Robert I.; Posner, Marshall R. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Balboni, Tracy A.; Tishler, Roy B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the recent single-institution experience of patients with salivary gland tumors who had undergone adjuvant intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), with or without concurrent chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 35 salivary gland carcinoma patients treated primarily at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute between 2005 and 2010 with surgery and adjuvant IMRT. The primary endpoints were local control, progression-free survival, and overall survival. The secondary endpoints were acute and chronic toxicity. The median follow-up was 2.3 years (interquartile range, 1.2-2.8) among the surviving patients. Results: The histologic types included adenoid cystic carcinoma in 15 (43%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 6 (17%), adenocarcinoma in 3 (9%), acinic cell carcinoma in 3 (9%), and other in 8 (23%). The primary sites were the parotid gland in 17 (49%), submandibular glands in 6 (17%), tongue in 4 (11%), palate in 4 (11%), and other in 4 (11%). The median radiation dose was 66 Gy, and 22 patients (63%) received CRT. The most common chemotherapy regimen was carboplatin and paclitaxel (n = 14, 64%). A trend was seen for patients undergoing CRT to have more adverse prognostic factors, including Stage T3-T4 disease (CRT, n = 12, 55% vs. n = 4, 31%, p = .29), nodal positivity (CRT, n = 8, 36% vs. n = 1, 8%, p = .10), and positive margins (n = 13, 59% vs. n = 5, 38%, p = .30). One patient who had undergone CRT developed an in-field recurrence, resulting in an overall actuarial 3-year local control rate of 92%. Five patients (14%) developed distant metastases (1 who had undergone IMRT only and 4 who had undergone CRT). Acute Grade 3 mucositis, esophagitis, and dermatitis occurred in 8%, 8%, and 8% (1 each) of IMRT patients and in 18%, 5%, and 14% (4, 1, and 3 patients) of the CRT group, respectively. No acute Grade 4 toxicity occurred. The most common late toxicity was Grade 1 xerostomia (n = 8, 23%). Conclusions: Treatment of salivary gland malignancies with postoperative IMRT was well tolerated with a high rate of local control. Chemoradiotherapy resulted in excellent local control in a subgroup of patients with adverse prognostic factors and might be warranted in select patients.

  6. Concurrent Radiotherapy and Gemcitabine for Unresectable Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Impact of Adjuvant Chemotherapy on Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko, E-mail: kogawa@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Hirokawa, Naoki [Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo (Japan); Shibuya, Keiko [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kokubo, Masaki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation Hospital, Kobe (Japan); Ogo, Etsuyo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kurume University, Kurume (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Tsutomu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan); Karasawa, Katsuyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nemoto, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan); Nishimura, Yasumasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze results of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) using gemcitabine (GEM) for unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods and Materials: Records of 108 patients treated with concurrent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and GEM were reviewed. The median dose of EBRT in all 108 patients was 50.4 Gy (range, 3.6-60.8 Gy), usually administered in conventional fractionations (1.8-2 Gy/day). During radiotherapy, most patients received GEM at a dosage of 250 to 350 mg/m{sup 2} intravenously weekly for approximately 6 weeks. After CCRT, 59 patients (54.6%) were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (AC), mainly with GEM. The median follow-up for all 108 patients was 11.0 months (range, 0.4-37.9 months). Results: Initial responses after CCRT for 85 patients were partial response: 26 patients, no change: 51 patients and progressive disease: 8 patients. Local progression was observed in 35 patients (32.4%), and the 2-year local control (LC) rate in all patients was 41.9%. Patients treated with total doses of 50 Gy or more had significantly more favorable LC rates (2-year LC rate, 42.9%) than patients treated with total doses of less than 50 Gy (2-year LC rate, 29.6%). Regional lymph node recurrence was found in only 1 patient, and none of the 57 patients with clinical N0 disease had regional lymph node recurrence. The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate and the median survival time in all patients were 23.5% and 11.6 months, respectively. Patients treated with AC had significantly more favorable OS rates (2-year OS, 31.8%) than those treated without AC (2-year OS, 12.4%; p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, AC use and clinical T stage were significant prognostic factors for OS. Conclusions: CCRT using GEM yields a relatively favorable LC rate for unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and CCRT with AC conferred a survival benefit compared to CCRT without AC.

  7. A simple approach to specifying concurrent systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie Lamport

    1989-01-01

    Over the past few years, I have developed an approach to the formal specification of concurrent systems that I now call the transition axiom method. The basic formalism has already been described in [12] and [1], but the formal details tend to obscure the important concepts. Here, I attempt to explain these concepts without discussing the details of the underlying

  8. Anthracycline-based induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil and radiation therapy in surgically resected axillary node-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Francesco; Candeloro, Giampiero; Cesta, Alisia; DI Staso, Mario; Bonfili, Pierluigi; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; DI Cesare, Ernesto; Necozione, Stefano; Rea, Silvio

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the toxicity and efficacy of 4 courses of anthracyclines-taxane (AT) chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy (XRT) concurrent with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) in surgically resected axillary node-positive (N+) breast cancer. A total of 200 women with N+ breast cancer were treated with adriamycin and docetaxel followed by XRT concurrent with six courses of CMF. Two courses of dose-dense chemotherapy with ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide, supported by pegfilgrastim, were administered to patients with >5 histologically confirmed axillary lymph node metastases and patients with triple-negative disease. Additional treatments included 1 year of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive patients, 5 years of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue in premenopausal women and 5 years of an aromatase inhibitor (AI) in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) patients. The mean number of positive axillary lymph nodes was 4.4 (range, 2-37), 52% of the patients were premenopausal, 74% were ER+ and 26% had triple-negative disease. After a median follow-up of 73 months, grade 2 and 3 hematological toxicity was observed in 20% of the patients. The 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 73 and 77%, respectively. There was no significant difference in DFS between ER+ and estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) patients (P>0.05), whereas the OS was better in ER+ vs. ER- patients (P<0.05) and in premenopausal vs. postmenopausal patients (P<0.005). In conclusion, induction AT concurrent CMF and XRT and dose-dense chemotherapy followed by AI in N+ high-risk breast cancer was associated with a low level of systemic and late cardiac toxicity and excellent local control, DFS and OS. PMID:24772320

  9. Anthracycline-based induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil and radiation therapy in surgically resected axillary node-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    RECCHIA, FRANCESCO; CANDELORO, GIAMPIERO; CESTA, ALISIA; DI STASO, MARIO; BONFILI, PIERLUIGI; GRAVINA, GIOVANNI LUCA; DI CESARE, ERNESTO; NECOZIONE, STEFANO; REA, SILVIO

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the toxicity and efficacy of 4 courses of anthracyclines-taxane (AT) chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy (XRT) concurrent with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) in surgically resected axillary node-positive (N+) breast cancer. A total of 200 women with N+ breast cancer were treated with adriamycin and docetaxel followed by XRT concurrent with six courses of CMF. Two courses of dose-dense chemotherapy with ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide, supported by pegfilgrastim, were administered to patients with >5 histologically confirmed axillary lymph node metastases and patients with triple-negative disease. Additional treatments included 1 year of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive patients, 5 years of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue in premenopausal women and 5 years of an aromatase inhibitor (AI) in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) patients. The mean number of positive axillary lymph nodes was 4.4 (range, 2–37), 52% of the patients were premenopausal, 74% were ER+ and 26% had triple-negative disease. After a median follow-up of 73 months, grade 2 and 3 hematological toxicity was observed in 20% of the patients. The 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 73 and 77%, respectively. There was no significant difference in DFS between ER+ and estrogen receptor-negative (ER?) patients (P>0.05), whereas the OS was better in ER+ vs. ER? patients (P<0.05) and in premenopausal vs. postmenopausal patients (P<0.005). In conclusion, induction AT concurrent CMF and XRT and dose-dense chemotherapy followed by AI in N+ high-risk breast cancer was associated with a low level of systemic and late cardiac toxicity and excellent local control, DFS and OS. PMID:24772320

  10. Prospective Pilot Study of Consolidation Chemotherapy With Docetaxel and Cisplatin After Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyun Chan; Lee, Seok Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yuna [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Se Hoon [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hematoma@gilhospital.com; Park, Jinny; Cho, Eun Kyung; Shin, Dong Bok; Lee, Jae Hoon [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Seon Tae [Department of Otolaryngology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: With the improvement concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in the management of patients with locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), distant failures have become a more relevant problem in terms of survival. The primary objective of this Phase II study is to assess the feasibility of docetaxel and cisplatin consolidation after primary CCRT for patients with HNSCC. Methods and Materials: Patients with locoregionally advanced HNSCC received chemotherapy with three cycles of cisplatin, 100 mg/m{sup 2}, on Days 1, 22, and 43. Concurrent radiotherapy to the primary tumor and neck was given in a daily dose of 2 Gy to a total dose of 70-70.2 Gy over 7 weeks. After completion of CCRT, patients without evidence of disease progression received an additional four cycles of consolidation chemotherapy with docetaxel, 75 mg/m{sup 2}, and cisplatin, 75 mg/m{sup 2}, every 3 weeks. Results: Of 33 patients, 27 (81%) completed CCRT. After CCRT, three complete and 19 partial responses were recorded, giving an overall response rate of 67%. Of 19 patients who went to the consolidation phase, only 4 (21%) received all four cycles of docetaxel and cisplatin. Causes of failure of consolidation chemotherapy were toxicity in 11 patients, including three treatment-related deaths, and progression in 4 patients. Three patients died of sepsis during the consolidation phase. Median survival was 11 months for all patients and 8 months for those treated with consolidation chemotherapy. Conclusion: The poor compliance and high incidence of severe toxicities prompted no further evaluation of this consolidation chemotherapy after CCRT.

  11. The Effect of Adjuvant Chemotherapy on Survival in Patients with Residual Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma after Undergoing Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiang; Cai, Baizhen; Kong, Fei; Huang, Guang; Li, Fafen; Wang, Han

    2015-01-01

    Background Guidelines from the U.S. National Comprehensive Cancer Network have recommended use of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), followed by a 3-cycles combination of platinum and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy as standard treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The benefits of CCRT for treatment of locally advanced NPC have been established. Whether platinum and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy should be routinely added to locally advanced NPC after CCRT is still open to debate. Whether adjuvant chemotherapy provides an additional survival benefit for the subgroup of patients with residual nasopharyngeal carcinoma who have undergone CCRT is also unclear. This retrospective study was initiated to determine the survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in residual NPC patients who have undergone concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods The retrospective study included 155 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients who had local residual lesions after the platinum-based CCRT without or with AC. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test were used to estimate overall survival (OS), failure-free survival (FFS), local relapse-free survival (LRFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Results Median follow-up was 47 months. Adjuvant cisplatin or nedaplatin plus 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy did not significantly improve 3-year OS, LRFS, FFS, and DMFS for patients with residual nasopharyngeal carcinoma after undergoing CCRT. The 3-year OS rates for the no-AC group and AC group were 71.6% and 73.7%, respectively (P= 0.44). The 3-year FFS rates for no-AC group and AC group were 57.5% and 66.9%, respectively ((P= 0.19). The 3-year LRFS rates for no-AC group and AC group were 84.7% and 87.9%, respectively ((P= 0.51). The 3-year DMFS rates for no-AC group and AC group were 71.4% and 77.4%, respectively ((P= 0.23). Conclusions Since we did not find sufficient data to support significant survival in 3-year OS, LRFS, FFS, and DMFS, whether Adjuvant cisplatin or nedaplatin and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy should be routinely added to residual nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after undergoing CCRT remain uncertain. PMID:25799566

  12. A Matched-Case Comparison to Explore the Role of Consolidation Chemotherapy After Concurrent Chemoradiation in Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Hee Rim; Huh, Seung Jae [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Je-Ho; Bae, Duk-Soo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung-Gie, E-mail: bksong.kim@samsung.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and toxicity of consolidation chemotherapy after concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) and CCRT alone in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Using medical records from January 2001 to December 2007, 39 patients treated with consolidation chemotherapy after CCRT (Group 1) were matched to 39 patients treated with CCRT alone (Group 2). Consolidation chemotherapy consisted of three additional cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin 60 mg/m{sup 2} (Day 1) and 5-fluorouracil 1,000 mg/m{sup 2} per day (Days 1-5) given every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Results: During a median follow-up period of 35 months (range, 8-96 months), 10 (25.6%) and 16 (41.0%) patients showed disease progression in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Distant recurrence with or without locoregional/lymphogenous recurrence occurred more frequently in Group 2 than in Group 1 (23.1% vs. 7.7%, p = 0.06). By contreast, there was no difference in locoregional or lymphogenous recurrence between the two groups. The rate of overall survival was higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (92.7% vs. 69.9%, p = 0.042), whereas the difference in progression-free survival between the groups was not statistically significant (70.1% vs. 55.1%, p = 0.079). Although the difference was not statistically significant, neutropenia was more common in Group 1 than in Group 2 (10.9% vs. 4.7%, p = 0.07). Conclusions: Consolidation chemotherapy after CCRT may improve survival and reduce distant recurrence without additional toxicity compared to CCRT alone in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma.

  13. Induction Cisplatin and Fluorouracil-Based Chemotherapy Followed by Concurrent Chemoradiation for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-C. [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, C.-H. [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Jason C. [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, C.-Y. [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Y.-C. [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, F.-M. [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, K.-H. [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, A.-L. [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Pu, Y.-S. [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: yspu@ntu.edu.tw

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a multimodality bladder-preserving therapy in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with stages T2-4aN0M0 bladder cancer suitable for cystectomy underwent radical transurethral resection and induction chemotherapy, followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Patients with a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) <80 or age {>=}70 years underwent Protocol A: induction chemotherapy with three cycles of the cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (CF) regimen, and CCRT with six doses of weekly cisplatin and 64.8 Gy radiotherapy given with the shrinking-field technique. Patients with KPS {>=}80 and age <70 years underwent Protocol B: induction chemotherapy with three cycles of weekly paclitaxel plus the CF regimen, and CCRT with six doses of weekly paclitaxel and cisplatin plus 64.8 Gy radiotherapy. Interval cystoscopy was employed after induction chemotherapy and when radiotherapy reached 43.2 Gy. Patients without a complete response (CR) were referred for salvage cystectomy. Results: Among 30 patients (median, 66 years) enrolled, 17 and 13 patients underwent Protocol A and B, respectively. After induction chemotherapy, 23 patients achieved CR. Five (17%) of 7 patients without CR underwent salvage cystectomy. Overall, 28 patients (93%) completed the protocol treatment. Of 22 patients who completed CCRT, 1 had recurrence with carcinoma in situ and 3 had distant metastases. After a median follow-up of 47 months, overall and progression-free survival rate for all patients were 77% and 54% at 3 years, respectively. Of 19 surviving patients, 15 (79%) retained functioning bladders. Conclusions: Our protocols may be alternatives to cystectomy for selected patients who wish to preserve the bladder.

  14. Systemic Treatment Safety Symposium 2014: Oral Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Simanovski, V.; Kaizer, L.; Wright, M.; Rae, E.; Ahmad, N.; Creber, K.; Green, E.; Vu, K.; Kukreti, V.; Krzyzanowska, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    The second Systemic Treatment Safety Symposium, which took place February 21, 2014, in Toronto, aimed to identify opportunities for improving the delivery of systemic cancer treatment in Ontario based on regional needs, while providing a venue for collaboration and knowledge-sharing. The agenda included a series of panel sessions followed by discussions, presentations of regional improvement projects and results, and breakout sessions. Based on the discussion that took place at the symposium, a provincial goal of zero handwritten or verbal oral chemotherapy orders by June 30, 2015, has now been established, and regions will be provided with funding for safe prescribing initiatives to support achievement of that aim. Building on the lessons learned from the 2014 System Treatment Safety Symposium, a common measurement strategy will be identified, and Cancer Care Ontario (cco) will also support the work by identifying the recommended key elements of a safe oral chemotherapy prescription. Additionally, cco will identify areas for improving systemic treatment computerized prescriber order entry systems to better enable prescribing of oral agents within such systems. Among the most prominent of the lessons learned during the symposium was the importance of having a focused topic (such as oral chemotherapy) while maintaining a province-wide scope. Another significant takeaway was that attendees appreciate the opportunity to hear from colleagues across the province about the work underway in various regions. Future safety symposia will also explore opportunities for enhanced engagement with participants through greater use of technology.

  15. Analysis of the Prognostic Factors for Distant Metastasis after Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Won Taek; Lee, Joo Hye; Ki, Yong Kan; Nam, Ji Ho; Lee, Byung Joo; Lee, Jin Choon; Choi, Young Jin; Seol, Young Mi; Kim, Dong Won

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to identify the prognostic factors of distant metastasis (DM) after induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). Materials and Methods A total of 321 patients with HNC who underwent IC followed by CRT treated between January 2005 and December 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. IC consisted of three courses of docetaxel (70 mg/m2) and cisplatin (75 mg/m2) every three weeks, followed by radiotherapy of 66-70 Gy/2 Gy per fraction/5 fractions per week concurrent with weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m2). Tumor/nodal stage, primary site, tumor differentiation, lower neck node involvement (level IV, VB, and supraclavicular regions), number of concurrent chemotherapy cycles, overall duration of radiotherapy, and response to IC were assessed as potential prognostic factors influencing DM and survival outcome. Results The five-year loco-regional recurrence and DM rates were 23.6% and 18.2%. N stage, overall duration of radiotherapy, lower neck node involvement, and response to IC were significant factors for DM. With a median follow-up period of 52 months (range, 4 to 83 months), the 5-year progression-free, DM-free, and overall survival rates were 41.2%, 50.7%, and 55.1%, respectively. Lower neck node involvement (p=0.008) and poor response to IC (p < 0.001) showed an association with significantly inferior DM-free survival. Conclusion Even with the addition of IC, the DM rate and survival outcome were poor when metastatic lower neck lymph nodes were present or when patients failed to respond after receiving IC. PMID:25327492

  16. Modified Weekly Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy Is Acceptable in Postoperative Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsueh-Ju; Yang, Chao-Chun; Wang, Ling-Wei; Chu, Pen-Yuan; Tai, Shyh-Kuan; Chen, Ming-Huang; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Chang, Peter Mu-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Triweekly cisplatin-based postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) has high intolerance and toxicities in locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC). We evaluated the effect of a modified weekly cisplatin-based chemotherapy in postoperative CCRT. Methods. A total of 117 patients with LAHNC were enrolled between December 2007 and December 2012. Survival, compliance/adverse events, and independent prognostic factors were analyzed. Results. Median follow-up time was 30.0 (3.1–73.0) months. Most patients completed the entire course of postoperative CCRT (radiotherapy ? 60?Gy, 94.9%; ?6 times weekly chemotherapy, 75.2%). Only 17.1% patients required hospital admission. The most common adverse effect was grade 3/4 mucositis (28.2%). No patient died due to protocol-related adverse effects. Multivariate analysis revealed the following independent prognostic factors: oropharyngeal cancer, extracapsular spread, and total radiation dose. Two-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 70.9% and 79.5%, respectively. Conclusion. Modified weekly cisplatin-based chemotherapy is an acceptable regimen in postoperative CCRT for LAHNC.

  17. Preliminary Results of a Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Plus Adjuvant Chemotherapy With Radiotherapy Alone in Patients With Locoregionally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Endemic Regions of China

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yong; Liu Mengzhong; Liang Shaobo [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zong Jingfeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital, Fuzhou (China); Mao Yanping; Tang Linglong [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Guo Ying [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Department of National Clinical Study Center for Anticancer Drugs, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Lin Aihua [Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zeng Xiangfa [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Ma Jun [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)], E-mail: majun2@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: A prospective randomized trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy of concurrent chemotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in endemic regions of China. Methods and Materials: Between July 2002 and September 2005, 316 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive either radiotherapy alone (RT) or chemoradiotherapy concurrent with adjuvant chemotherapy (CRT). All patients received 70 Gy in 7 weeks using standard RT portals and techniques. The CRT patients were given concurrent cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2} on Day 1) weekly during RT, followed by cisplatin (80 mg/m{sup 2} on Day 1) and fluorouracil (800 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5) every 4 weeks (Weeks 5, 9, and 13) for three cycles after completion of RT. All patients were analyzed by intent-to-treat analysis. Results: The two groups were well-balanced in all prognostic factors and RT parameters. The CRT group experienced significantly more acute toxicity (62.6% vs. 32%, p = 0.000). A total of 107 patients (68%) and 97 patients (61%) completed all cycles of concurrent chemotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, with a median follow-up time of 29 months. The 2-year overall survival rate, failure-free survival rate, distant failure-free survival rate, and locoregional failure-free survival rate for the CRT and RT groups were 89.8% vs. 79.7% (p = 0.003), 84.6% vs. 72.5% (p = 0.001), 86.5% vs. 78.7% (p = 0.024), and 98.0% vs. 91.9% (p = 0.007), respectively. Conclusions: This trial demonstrated the significant survival benefits of concurrent chemotherapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locoregionally advanced NPC in endemic regions of China.

  18. Anal canal cancer treatment: practical limitations of routine prescription of concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Chauveinc; X Buthaud; M C Falcou; V Mosseri; A De la Rochefordière; J Y Pierga; J Girodet; R J Salmon

    2003-01-01

    This study is an analysis of the criteria considered when prescribing concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as a routine treatment for patients with anal canal cancer, and related complications. Between 1990 and 1996, 67 patients were treated at Institut Curie for invasive, nonmetastatic cancer of the anal canal. Median age was 65 years (range, 35–90 years). TNM stage distribution was as

  19. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Nanomedicine drug delivery system could improve chemotherapy

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Nanomedicine drug delivery system could improve chemotherapy Chemotherapy), a disease which is responsive to intense chemotherapy based treatment regimens, which are at least curative) and Prof. Dr. Christian Buske (Comprehensive Cancer Center Ulm, Institute of Experimental Cancer Research

  20. Radiotherapy With or Without Concurrent Chemotherapy for Lymph Node Recurrence After Radical Surgery of Thoracic Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Jincheng, E-mail: lujincheng@msn.co [Department of Radiotherapy, Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, Nanjing (China); Kong Cheng; Tao Hua [Department of Radiotherapy, Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, Nanjing (China)

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare the outcomes of patients with lymph node recurrence after radical surgery of esophageal cancer, when given radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between January 1996 and December 2005, the data from 73 patients with lymph node recurrence after radical surgery of thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were separated into two groups: radiochemotherapy (RC, 31 patients) and radiotherapy alone (RA, 42 patients). Patients in the RC group received at least two cycles of 5-fluorouracil/cisplatin chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy. Results: The median duration of follow-up was 11 months (range, 2-48). The overall survival rate for all patients was 46.7% and 4.7% at 1 and 3 years, respectively. The median overall survival time was 9 months (95% confidence interval, 6.96-11.04) and 17 months (95% confidence interval, 13.61-20.39) for RA and RC groups, respectively. The survival rate at 1 and 3 years was 62.5% and 10.5% in the RC group and 33.8% and 0% in the RA group (p = .0049, log-rank test; hazard ratio for death, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.92). Acute toxicities were more frequent in the RC group than in the RA group. No significant differences were found in the late toxicity profiles between the two groups. Conclusion: The results of the present retrospective analysis suggest that RC should be considered an effective and well-tolerated treatment of patients with thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and postoperative lymph node recurrence.

  1. Realising massively concurrent systems on the SPACE machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Milne; Paul Cockshott; George McCaskill; Peter Barrie

    1993-01-01

    Highly concurrent systems occur frequently in the physical world. This paper focuses on a class of systems characterised as being highly concurrent and which are composed out of many simple parts which interact with other parts in their locality. It discusses how to describe these systems and introduces a cellular automata type of architecture which is used to simulate these

  2. Induction and concurrent chemotherapy with concomitant boost radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ethem Nezih Oral; Adnan Aydiner; Ye?im Eralp; Erkan Topuz

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the tolerability and therapeutic activity of paclitaxel and carboplatin combination therapy\\u000a followed by radical thoracic radiotherapy with a concomitant boost technique with concurrent weekly paclitaxel in good performance\\u000a status of patients with stage IIIA and IIIB non-small cell lung cancer. Patients with newly diagnosed inoperable non-small\\u000a cell lung cancer received paclitaxel (100 mg\\/m2) as

  3. A Phase II Study of Radiotherapy and Concurrent Paclitaxel Chemotherapy in Breast-Conserving Treatment for Node-Positive Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, William C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Kim, Janice [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Kim, Edward [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH (United States); Silverman, Paula [Department of Medicine, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Overmoyer, Beth [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Cooper, Brenda W. [Department of Medicine, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Anthony, Sue [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Shenk, Robert; Leeming, Rosemary [Department of Surgery, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Hanks, Shelli H. [Arizona Institute of Urology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Lyons, Janice A., E-mail: janice.lyons@uhhospitals.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Administering adjuvant chemotherapy before breast radiotherapy decreases the risk of systemic recurrence, but delays in radiotherapy could yield higher local failure. We assessed the feasibility and efficacy of placing radiotherapy earlier in the breast-conserving treatment course for lymph node-positive breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between June 2000 and December 2004, 44 women with node-positive Stage II and III breast cancer were entered into this trial. Breast-conserving surgery and 4 cycles of doxorubicin (60 mg/m{sup 2})/cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m{sup 2}) were followed by 4 cycles of paclitaxel (175 mg/m{sup 2}) delivered every 3 weeks. Radiotherapy was concurrent with the first 2 cycles of paclitaxel. The breast received 39.6 Gy in 22 fractions with a tumor bed boost of 14 Gy in 7 fractions. Regional lymphatics were included when indicated. Functional lung volume was assessed by use of the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide as a proxy. Breast cosmesis was evaluated with the Harvard criteria. Results: The 5-year actuarial rate of disease-free survival is 88%, and overall survival is 93%. There have been no local failures. Median follow-up is 75 months. No cases of radiation pneumonitis developed. There was no significant change in the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide either immediately after radiotherapy (p = 0.51) or with extended follow-up (p = 0.63). Volume of irradiated breast tissue correlated with acute cosmesis, and acute Grade 3 skin toxicity developed in 2 patients. Late cosmesis was not adversely affected. Conclusions: Concurrent paclitaxel chemotherapy and radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery shortened total treatment time, provided excellent local control, and was well tolerated.

  4. External beam radiation plus concurrent intra-arterial chemotherapy with low dose cisplatin for muscle invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Samma, Shoji; Fukui, Shinji; Nakai, Yasushi; Kagebayashi, Yoriaki; Torimoto, Kazumasa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to investigate the long-term outcome of trimodality therapy consisting of transurethral resection of bladder tumor, external beam radiation therapy, and concurrent intra-arterial low dose cisplatin for patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 37 consecutive patients (28 men and 9 women) who underwent trimodality therapy for T2-3N0M0 bladder cancer at our hospital between 1996 and 2011. A total of 60Gy of external beam radiation therapy was administered. A daily low dose of cisplatin was administered intra-arterially through a subcutaneously placed reservoir on the days of radiation therapy. Complete response was defined as no residual cancer in transurethral resection specimens and negative cytology. When a complete response could not be achieved, patients underwent additional intra-arterial chemotherapy. Results: Five-year cause specific, disease free, and overall survival rates were 86.4%, 69.7%, and 69.6%, respectively, with a mean follow-up period of 56.5 ± 6.1 months. Five-year cause specific survivals of the complete response group after the trimodality therapy, the complete response group after additional intra-arterial chemotherapy and the non-complete response group were 100% (n = 21), 85.9% (n = 9) and 0% (n = 7), respectively. Five-year overall survivals of the complete response group after the trimodality therapy, the complete response group after additional intra-arterial chemotherapy and the non-complete response group were 82.8%, 85.3% and 0%, respectively. Conclusions: This trimodality therapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer could achieve favorable survival rates with bladder preservation and minimal adverse events. This trimodality therapy can be one of the useful treatment options. PMID:25624577

  5. IMRT With Simultaneous Integrated Boost and Concurrent Chemotherapy for Locoregionally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Montejo, Michael E.; Shrieve, Dennis C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Hospital, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Bentz, Brandon G.; Hunt, Jason P.; Buchman, Luke O. [Division of Otolaryngology-Head Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Huntsman Cancer Hospital, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Agarwal, Neeraj [Department of Internal Medicine, Oncology Division, Huntsman Cancer Hospital, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Hitchcock, Ying J., E-mail: ying.hitchcock@hci.utah.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Hospital, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of accelerated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy in advanced head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Between April 2003 and May 2008, 43 consecutive patients with advanced head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma received accelerated chemoradiation with concurrent cisplatin or cetuximab. The doses for intensity-modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost were 67.5, 60.0, and 54 Gy in 30 daily fractions of 2.25, 2.0, and 1.8 Gy to the planning target volumes for gross disease, high-risk nodes, and low-risk nodes, respectively. Results: Of the patients, 90.7% completed chemoradiotherapy as prescribed. The median treatment duration was 43 days (range, 38-55 days). The complete response rate was 74.4%. With median follow-up of 36.7 months (range, 16.8-78.1 months) in living patients, the estimated 1-, 2-, and 5-year locoregional control, overall survival, and disease-free survival rates were 82%, 82%, and 82%; 73%, 65%, and 61%; and 73%, 73%, and 70%, respectively. One treatment-related death occurred from renal failure. Grade 3 mucositis and dermatitis occurred in 13 patients (30.2%) and 3 patients (6.9%), respectively. Grade 2 xerostomia occurred in 12 patients (27.9%). In patients with adequate follow-up, 82% were feeding tube free by 6 months after therapy; 13% remained feeding tube dependent at 1 year. Grade 3 soft-tissue fibrosis, esophageal stricture, osteoradionecrosis, and trismus occurred in 3 patients (6.9%), 5 patients (11.6%), 1 patient (2.3%), and 3 patients (6.9%), respectively. Conclusions: Our results show that intensity-modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost with concurrent chemotherapy improved local and regional control. Acute and late toxicities were tolerable and acceptable. A prospective trial of this fractionation regimen is necessary for further assessment of its efficacy and toxicity compared with other approaches.

  6. Cooperative Robot Control and Concurrent Synchronization of Lagrangian Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soon-Jo Chung; Jean-Jacques E. Slotine

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent synchronization is a regime where di- verse groups of fully synchronized dynamic systems stably coex- ist. We study global exponential synchronization and concurrent synchronization in the context of Lagrangian systems control. In a network constructed by adding diffusive couplings to robot manipulators or mobile robots, a decentralized tracking control law globally exponentially synchronizes an arbitrary number of robots, and

  7. ConcurrentMentor: A Visualization System for Distributed Programming Education

    E-print Network

    Shene, Ching-Kuang

    is challenging for students. In order to assist in distributed systems instruction, we have developed Concurrent. Mas- tery of fundamental concepts is challenging to students. We have developed a visualization system, ConcurrentMentor, that helps students under- stand fundamental concepts of distributed sys- tems

  8. Radiobiological compensation: A case study of uterine cervix cancer with concurrent chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Higmar; Yañez, Elvia; López, Jesús

    2012-10-01

    The case of a patient diagnosed with uterine cervix cancer is presented as an example of the clinical application of the radiobiological compensation method implemented at Centro Estatal de Cancerología de Durango. Radiotherapy treatment was initially modified to compensate for the chemotherapy component and, as medical complications arose during treatment delivery resulting in an 18 days gap, new compensation followed. All physical and radiobiological assumptions to calculate the Biologically Effective Dose in the external beam and brachytherapy parts of the treatment are presented. Good local control of the tumor was achieved, the theoretical tolerance limits for the organs at risk were not surpassed and the patient manifested no extensive morbidity.

  9. Radiobiological compensation: A case study of uterine cervix cancer with concurrent chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Higmar; Yanez, Elvia; Lopez, Jesus [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Durango, Victoria de Durango, Durango (Mexico); ISSSTE General Hospital Dr. Santiago Ramon y Cajal, Victoria de Durango, Durango (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    The case of a patient diagnosed with uterine cervix cancer is presented as an example of the clinical application of the radiobiological compensation method implemented at Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Durango. Radiotherapy treatment was initially modified to compensate for the chemotherapy component and, as medical complications arose during treatment delivery resulting in an 18 days gap, new compensation followed. All physical and radiobiological assumptions to calculate the Biologically Effective Dose in the external beam and brachytherapy parts of the treatment are presented. Good local control of the tumor was achieved, the theoretical tolerance limits for the organs at risk were not surpassed and the patient manifested no extensive morbidity.

  10. Chemotherapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... do if bleeding occurs Practicing safe eating and drinking habits Washing your hands often with soap and water You will need to have follow-up visits with your doctor and nurse during and after chemotherapy. Blood tests and imaging tests, such as x-rays, MRI , ...

  11. Chemotherapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tumors (a group or clump of abnormally growing cells). Surgery helps to remove larger tumors, making the job of the chemotherapy easier. The kind of therapy someone receives is based on the type of cancer that person has and whether it has spread ...

  12. Prospective evaluation of concurrent paclitaxel and radiation therapy after adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy for Stage II or III breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Burstein, Harold J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: hburstein@partners.org; Bellon, Jennifer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Galper, Sharon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Lu, H.-M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kuter, Irene [Department of Hematology/Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Wong, Julia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Gelman, Rebecca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Biostatistics, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Bunnell, Craig A. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Parker, Leroy M.; Garber, Judy E. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Winer, Eric P.; Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of concurrent radiation therapy and paclitaxel-based adjuvant chemotherapy, given either weekly or every 3 weeks, after adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC). Methods and Materials: After definitive breast surgery and AC chemotherapy, 40 patients with operable Stage II or III breast cancer received protocol-based treatment with concurrent paclitaxel and radiation therapy. Paclitaxel was evaluated on 2 schedules, with treatment given either weekly x 12 weeks (60 mg/m{sup 2}), or every 3 weeks x 4 cycles (135-175 mg/m{sup 2}). Radiation fields and schedules were determined by the patient's surgery and pathology. The tolerability of concurrent therapy was evaluated in cohorts of 8 patients as a phase I study. Results: Weekly paclitaxel treatment at 60 mg/m{sup 2} per week with concurrent radiation led to dose-limiting toxicity in 4 of 16 patients (25%), including 3 who developed pneumonitis (either Grade 2 [1 patient] or Grade 3 [2 patients]) requiring steroids. Efforts to eliminate this toxicity in combination with weekly paclitaxel through treatment scheduling and CT-based radiotherapy simulation were not successful. By contrast, dose-limiting toxicity was not encountered among patients receiving concurrent radiation with paclitaxel given every 3 weeks at 135-175 mg/m{sup 2}. However, Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis not requiring steroid therapy was seen in 2 of 24 patients (8%) treated in such a fashion. Excessive radiation dermatitis was not observed with either paclitaxel schedule. Conclusions: Concurrent treatment with weekly paclitaxel and radiation therapy is not feasible after adjuvant AC chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Concurrent treatment using a less frequent paclitaxel dosing schedule may be possible, but caution is warranted in light of the apparent possibility of pulmonary injury.

  13. Concurrent administration of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery enhances late toxicities: Long-term results of the ARCOSEIN multicenter randomized study

    SciTech Connect

    Toledano, Alain [Department of Radiotherapy, Hospital Tenon AP-HP, Paris (France)]. E-mail: alain.toledano@gmail.com; Garaud, Pascal [Department of Radiotherapy Henry Kaplan, Hospital Bretonneau, Tours (France); Serin, Daniel [Department of Radiotherapy, Institut Sainte-Catherine, Avignon (France); Fourquet, Alain [Department of Radiotherapy, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Bosset, Jean-Francois [Department of Radiotherapy, Hospital Minjoz, Besancon (France); Breteau, Noel [Department of Radiotherapy, Hospital La Source, Orleans (France); Body, Gilles [Department of Gynecology, Hospital Bretonneau, Tours (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiotherapy, CRLCC Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier (France); Le Floch, Olivier [Department of Radiotherapy Henry Kaplan, Hospital Bretonneau, Tours (France); Calais, Gilles [Department of Radiotherapy Henry Kaplan, Hospital Bretonneau, Tours (France)

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: In 1996, a multicenter randomized study was initiated that compared sequential vs. concurrent adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) with radiation therapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery (ARCOSEIN study). After a median follow-up of 6.7 years (range, 4.3-9 years), we decided to prospectively evaluate the late effects of these 2 strategies. Methods and Materials: A total of 297 patients from the 5 larger participating institutions were asked to report for a follow-up examination. Seventy-two percent (214 patients) were eligible for evaluation of late toxicity. After breast-conserving surgery, patients were treated either with sequential treatment with CT first followed by RT (Arm A) or CT administered concurrently with RT (Arm B). In all patients, CT regimen consisted of mitoxantrone (12 mg/m{sup 2}), 5-FU (500 mg/m{sup 2}), and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m{sup 2}), 6 cycles (Day 1 to Day 21). Conventional RT was delivered to the whole breast by administration of a 2 Gy per fraction protocol to a total dose of 50 Gy ({+-} boost to the primary tumor bed). The assessment of toxicity was blinded to treatment and was graded by the radiation oncologist, according to the LENT/SOMA scale. Skin pigmentation was also evaluated according to a personal 5-points scoring system (excellent, good, moderate, poor, very poor). Results: Among the 214 evaluable patients, 107 were treated in each arm. The 2 populations were homogeneous for patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Subcutaneous fibrosis (SF), telangectasia (T), skin pigmentation (SP), and breast atrophy (BA) were significantly increased in Arm B. No statistical difference was observed between the 2 arms of the study concerning Grade 2 or higher pain, breast edema, or lymphedema. No deaths were caused by late toxicity. Conclusion: After breast-conserving surgery, the concurrent use of CT with RT is significantly associated with an increase incidence of Grade 2 or greater late side effects.

  14. Long-term outcome of concurrent chemotherapy and reirradiation for recurrent and second primary head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, Joseph K. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Vokes, Everett E. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Cancer Research Center, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Milano, Michael T. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Kao, Johnny [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Stenson, Kirsten M. [Cancer Research Center, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Section of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Witt, Mary Ellyn R.N. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Haraf, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States) and Cancer Research Center, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)]. E-mail: dharaf@radonc.uchicago.edu

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To define favorable pretreatment characteristics for overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), locoregional control, and freedom from distant metastasis for patients with recurrent and second primary head-and-neck cancer treated with concomitant chemotherapy and reirradiation. Methods and Materials: Our study population comprised a subset of 115 previously irradiated patients without overt metastases from 304 poor-prognosis head-and-neck cancer patients treated in seven consecutive phase I-II protocols. Of the 115 patients, 49, who had undergone surgical resection, were treated with a median of four cycles of concurrent chemotherapy and reirradiation and 66, who had not undergone surgical resection, were treated with a median of five cycles. The following regimens were used: 5-fluorouracil and hydroxyurea concurrent with reirradiation (FHX) (n = 14), cisplatin plus FHX (n = 23), paclitaxel plus FHX (n = 42), gemcitabine plus paclitaxel and 5-fluorouracil concurrent with reirradiation (n = 26), and irinotecan plus FHX (n = 10). Results: The median lifetime radiation dose was 131 Gy. The median follow-up for surviving patients was 67.4 months (range, 18.5-158.7). The median OS and PFS was 11 and 7 months (range, 0.2-158.7), respectively. The 3-year OS, PFS, locoregional control, and freedom from distant metastasis rate was 22%, 33%, 51%, and 61%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified reirradiation dose, triple agent (cisplatin-, paclitaxel-, or gemcitabine-containing chemotherapy), and surgery before protocol treatment as independently prognostic for OS, PFS, and locoregional control. Triple-agent chemotherapy was prognostic for freedom from distant metastasis. Nineteen patients died of treatment-related toxicity, five of these of carotid hemorrhage. Conclusion: For recurrent and second primary head-and-neck cancer, trimodality therapy with surgery, concurrent chemotherapy, and reirradiation for a full second dose offers potential for long-term survival. Owing to the substantial toxicity and lack of an optimal regimen, reirradiation of recurrent head-and-neck cancer should be limited to clinical trials.

  15. Automated Analysis of Concurrent Systems With the Constrained Expression Toolset

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George S. Avrunin; Ugo A. Buy; James C. Corbett; Laura K. Dillon; Jack C. Wileden

    1991-01-01

    The constrained expression approach to analysis of concurrent softwaresystems has several attractive features, including the facts that itcan be used with a variety of design and programming languages and thatit does not require a complete enumeration of the set of reachable statesof the concurrent system. This paper reports on the construction of atoolset automating the main constrained expression analysis techniquesand

  16. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) combined with concurrent but not adjuvant chemotherapy in primary nasopharyngeal cancer – a retrospective single center analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We report our experience in 49 consecutive patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who were treated by Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) combined with simultaneous but not adjuvant chemotherapy (CHT). Methods The medical records of 49 patients with histologically proven primary nasopharygeal carcinoma treated with IMRT and concurrent platin-based CHT (predominantly cisplatin weekly) were retrospectively reviewed. The majority of patients showed advanced clinical stages (stage III/IV:72%) with undifferentiated histology (82%). IMRT was performed in step-and-shoot technique using an integrated boost concept in 84%. In this concept, the boost volume covered the primary tumor and involved nodes with doses of 66–70.4 Gy (single dose 2.2 Gy). Uninvolved regional nodal areas were covered with doses of 54–59.4 Gy (median single dose 1.8 Gy). At least one parotid gland was spared. None of the patients received adjuvant CHT. Results The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 48 months. Radiation therapy was completed without interruption in all patients and 76% of the patients received at least 80% of the scheduled CHT. Four local recurrences have been observed, transferring into 1-, 3-, and 5-year Local Control (LC) rates of 98%, 90% and 90%. One patient developed an isolated regional nodal recurrence, resulting in 1-, 3-, and 5-year Regional Control (RC) rates of 98%. All locoregional failures were located inside the radiation fields. Distant metastases were found in six patients, transferring into 1-, 3, and 5-year Distant Control (DC) rates of 92%, 86% and 86%. Progression free survival (PFS) rates after 1, 3 and 5 years were 86%, 70% and 69% and 1-, 3- and 5-year Overall Survival (OS) rates were 96%, 82% and 79%. Acute toxicity???grade III mainly consisted of dysphagia (32%), leukopenia (24%), stomatitis (16%), infection (8%) and nausea (8%). Severe late toxicity (grade III) was documented in 18% of the patients, mainly as xerostomia (10%). Conclusion Concurrent chemoradiation without the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy cycles using IMRT with an integrated boost concept yielded good disease control and overall survival in patients suffering from primary nasopharyngeal cancer with acceptable acute side effects and limited rates of late toxicity. PMID:23347410

  17. Early Clinical Outcome With Concurrent Chemotherapy and Extended-Field, Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beriwal, Sushil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]. E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu; Gan, Gregory N. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Heron, Dwight E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Selvaraj, Raj N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kim, Hayeon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lalonde, Ron [D3 Advanced Radiation Planning, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kelley, Joseph L. [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Gynecology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Edwards, Robert P. [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Gynecology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To assess the early clinical outcomes with concurrent cisplatin and extended-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (EF-IMRT) for carcinoma of the cervix. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with Stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer treated with EF-IMRT were evaluated. The pelvic lymph nodes were involved in 19 patients, and of these 19 patients, 10 also had para-aortic nodal disease. The treatment volume included the cervix, uterus, parametria, presacral space, upper vagina, and pelvic, common iliac, and para-aortic nodes to the superior border of L1. Patients were assessed for acute toxicities according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. All late toxicities were scored with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late toxicity score. Results: All patients completed the prescribed course of EF-IMRT. All but 2 patients received brachytherapy. Median length of treatment was 53 days. The median follow-up was 18 months. Acute Grade {>=}3 gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and myelotoxicity were seen in 1, 1, and 10 patients, respectively. Thirty-four patients had complete response to treatment. Of these 34 patients, 11 developed recurrences. The first site of recurrence was in-field in 2 patients (pelvis in 1, pelvis and para-aortic in 1) and distant in 9 patients. The 2-year actuarial locoregional control, disease-free survival, overall survival, and Grade {>=}3 toxicity rates for the entire cohort were 80%, 51%, 65%, and 10%, respectively. Conclusion: Extended-field IMRT with concurrent chemotherapy was tolerated well, with acceptable acute and early late toxicities. The locoregional control rate was good, with distant metastases being the predominant mode of failure. We are continuing to accrue a larger number of patients and longer follow-up data to further extend our initial observations with this approach.

  18. Chemotherapy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program explains how chemotherapy works as a treatment for cancer and its common side effects. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  19. Computational simulation for concurrent engineering of aerospace propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Results are summarized for an investigation to assess the infrastructure available and the technology readiness in order to develop computational simulation methods/software for concurrent engineering. These results demonstrate that development of computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering is timely. Extensive infrastructure, in terms of multi-discipline simulation, component-specific simulation, system simulators, fabrication process simulation, and simulation of uncertainties--fundamental to develop such methods, is available. An approach is recommended which can be used to develop computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering of propulsion systems and systems in general. Benefits and issues needing early attention in the development are outlined.

  20. Computational simulation of concurrent engineering for aerospace propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1992-01-01

    Results are summarized of an investigation to assess the infrastructure available and the technology readiness in order to develop computational simulation methods/software for concurrent engineering. These results demonstrate that development of computational simulations methods for concurrent engineering is timely. Extensive infrastructure, in terms of multi-discipline simulation, component-specific simulation, system simulators, fabrication process simulation, and simulation of uncertainties - fundamental in developing such methods, is available. An approach is recommended which can be used to develop computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering for propulsion systems and systems in general. Benefits and facets needing early attention in the development are outlined.

  1. [Management of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma with modulated arctherapy and concurrent chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Troussier, I; Huguet, F; Servagi-Vernat, S; Benahim, C; Khalifa, J; Darmon, I; Ortholan, C; Krebs, L; Dejean, C; Fenoglietto, P; Vieillot, S; Bensadoun, R-J; Thariat, J

    2015-04-01

    The standard treatment of locally advanced (stage II and III) squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal consists of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (two cycles of 5-fluoro-uracil, mitomycin C, on a 28-day cycle), with a dose of 45Gy in 1.8Gy per fraction in the prophylactic planning target volume and additional 14 to 20Gy in the boost planning target volume (5days per week) with a possibility of 15days gap period between the two sequences. While conformal irradiation may only yield suboptimal tumor coverage using complex photon/electron field junctions (especially on nodal areas), intensity modulated radiation therapy techniques (segmented static, dynamic, volumetric modulated arc therapy and helical tomotherapy) allow better tumour coverage while sparing organs at risk from intermediate/high doses (small intestine, perineum/genitalia, bladder, pelvic bone, etc.). Such dosimetric advantages result in fewer severe acute toxicities and better potential to avoid a prolonged treatment break that increases risk of local failure. These techniques also allow a reduction in late gastrointestinal and skin toxicities of grade 3 or above, as well as better functional conservation of anorectal sphincter. The technical achievements (simulation, contouring, prescription dose, treatment planning, control quality) of volumetric modulated arctherapy are discussed. PMID:25770884

  2. Hematopoietic toxicity of regional radiation therapy. Correlations for combined modality therapy with systemic chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, R.A.; Lichter, A.S.; Bromer, R.H.; Minna, J.D.; Cohen, M.H.; Deisseroth, A.B.

    1985-04-01

    Using circulating granulocyte-monocyte precursor colony-forming units in culture (CFUc) numbers as a probe along with standard blood count (CBC), the authors have quantitatively examined the hematopoietic toxicity of conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (RT) when combined with concurrent systemic chemotherapy or when used alone. Among 20 patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer receiving systemic chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, CCNU, and methotrexate, the addition of involved field chest RT resulted in increased hematopoietic toxicity as judged by increased need for platelet transfusion (P less than 0.05) and decreased frequency of measurable CFUc (P less than 0.04). Among 22 patients receiving regional radiotherapy alone consistent hematopoietic toxicity was also observed. This toxicity, although generally of only mild to moderate clinical significance, was detected earlier and to a greater degree in patients who required radiation to larger treatment volumes, who had significant amounts of bone marrow in the port, and who had a high percentage of cardiac output flowing through the port. These data suggest that the hematopoietic toxicity of regional radiotherapy may be additive to that of concurrent systemic chemotherapy and may occur more promptly and to a greater degree when treatment volumes are larger or incorporate increased amounts of marrow volume or cardiac output.

  3. A concurrency control framework for collaborative systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan P. Munson; Prasun Dewan

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a new framework for supporting concurrencycontrol in collaborative applications. It supportsmultiple degrees of consistency and allows users to chooseconcurrency control policies based on the objects they aremanipulating, the tasks they are performing, and the couplingand merge policies they are using. Concurrency controlpolicies are embodied in hierarchical, constructor-basedlock compatibility tables. Entries in these tables may bespecified explicitly or

  4. Irinotecan plus cisplatin chemotherapy followed by concurrent thoracic irradiation with low-dose weekly cisplatin for limited-disease small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wahba, Hanan A; Halim, Amal A; El-Hadaad, Hend A

    2012-03-01

    A phase II trial of irinotecan and cisplatin (IP) as induction chemotherapy followed by conventional thoracic irradiation concurrent with low-dose weekly cisplatin for limited-disease small-cell lung cancer (LDS-SCLC). Between February 2005 and December 2008, 34 chemotherapy-naïve patients with LD-SCLC were enrolled. Treatment consisted of two 21-day cycles of cisplatin 40 mg/m(2) and irinotecan 80 mg/m(2) intravenously (IV) on days 1 and 8 followed by conventional thoracic irradiation at a dose of 54 Gy concurrent with cisplatin at dose of 20 mg/m(2) weekly then prophylactic cranial irradiation at dose of 30 Gy in 10 fractions for those achieved complete or partial response. Only 33 patients received the treatment protocol, and they were assessed for response and toxicity. After induction chemotherapy, overall response rate was (72.73%). After median follow-up of 27 months, the median survival was 25 months (95% CI, 21.249-28.751) with 1 and 2-year overall survival rates of 83 and 55%, respectively. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 15 months (95% CI, 10.311-19.689) with a 1- and 2-year PFS of 59 and 38%, respectively. The most common toxicities during induction chemotherapy were neutropenia (81%), thrombocytopenia (69%), and diarrhea (63%) while esophagitis (84%) and pneumonitis (30%) were the most common toxicities during concurrent chemo-radiation. Relapse rate was 61% with distant metastasis in 42% and local recurrence in 26%. This protocol of induction irinotecon-based regimen followed by delayed concurrent thoracic irradiation with low-dose weekly cisplatin is effective with acceptable toxicities. Based on the favorable outcome in this trial, this regimen should be evaluated in a large phase III trial. PMID:21140241

  5. Preliminary results of a randomized study (NPC9902 Trial) on therapeutic gain by concurrent chemotherapy and\\/or accelerated fractionation for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne W. M.. Lee; Stewart Y. Tung; Anthony T. C. Chan; Rick Chappell; Yiu-Tong Fu; Tai-Xiang Lu; Terence Tan; Daniel T. T. Chua; Brian O’Sullivan; Shirley L. Xu; Ellie S. Y. Pang; Wai-Man Sze; To-Wai Leung; Wing-Hong Kwan; Paddy T. M. Chan; Xiu-Fang Liu; Eng-Huat Tan; Jonathan S. T. Sham; Lillian Siu; Wai-Hon Lau

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the benefit achieved by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and\\/or accelerated fractionation (AF) vs. radiotherapy (RT) alone with conventional fractionation (CF) for patients with T3-4N0-1M0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: All patients were irradiated with the same RT technique to {>=}66 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction, conventional five fractions\\/week in the CF and CF+C (chemotherapy) arms, and

  6. Exercise despite pain--breast cancer patient experiences of muscle and joint pain during adjuvant chemotherapy and concurrent participation in an exercise intervention.

    PubMed

    Andersen, C; Rørth, M; Ejlertsen, B; Adamsen, L

    2014-09-01

    Chemotherapy-related pain is a well-known side effect in cancer patient receiving chemotherapy. However, limited knowledge exists describing whether exercise exacerbates existing pain. Aim of the research was to explore muscle and joint pain experienced by women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel and factor support and concurrently participating in an exercise intervention. The study used individual semi-structured interviews (pre- and post-intervention). Fifteen women were interviewed. The multimodal group intervention comprised supervised training: high-intensity cardiovascular, heavy resistance and relaxation, massage and body-awareness (9?h weekly, 6 weeks). The analysis revealed five categories: Abrupt pain - a predominant side effect, cogitated pain management, the adapted training, non-immediate exacerbation of pain and summarised into the essence of chemotherapy related muscle and joint pain in exercise breast cancer patients; exercise despite pain. Findings indicate that the patients' perception of sudden onset of chemotherapy-related muscle and joint pain was not aggravated by training. Pain intensity peaked between 2 and 9 days after chemotherapy and is described to be stabbing pain with a feeling of restlessness in the body. The patients demonstrated a high adherence rate to the exercise intervention caused by their own willpower and camaraderie of the group. PMID:24750506

  7. Radiation Therapy in the Management of Head-and-Neck Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin: How Does the Addition of Concurrent Chemotherapy Affect the Therapeutic Ratio?

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allen.chen@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States); Farwell, D. Gregory [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lau, Derick H. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States); Li Baoqing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States); Luu, Quang; Donald, Paul J. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To determine how the addition of cisplatin-based concurrent chemotherapy to radiation therapy influences outcomes among a cohort of patients treated for head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 60 consecutive patients treated by radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck presenting as cervical lymph node metastasis of occult primary origin were reviewed. Thirty-two patients (53%) were treated by concurrent chemoradiation, and 28 patients (47%) were treated by radiation therapy alone. Forty-five patients (75%) received radiation therapy after surgical resection, and 15 patients (25%) received primary radiation therapy. Thirty-five patients (58%) were treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Results: The 2-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control, and progression-free survival were 89%, 89%, and 79%, respectively, among patients treated by chemoradiation, compared to 90%, 92%, and 83%, respectively, among patients treated by radiation therapy alone (p > 0.05, for all). Exploratory analysis failed to identify any subset of patients who benefited from the addition of concurrent chemotherapy to radiation therapy. The use of concurrent chemotherapy was associated with a significantly increased incidence of Grade 3+ acute and late toxicity (p < 0.001, for both). Conclusions: Concurrent chemoradiation is associated with significant toxicity without a clear advantage to overall survival, local-regional control, and progression-free survival in the treatment of head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin. Although selection bias cannot be ignored, prospective data are needed to further address this question.

  8. PACT: An Experiment in Integrating Concurrent Engineering Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R. Cutkosky; Robert S. Engelmore; Richard E. Fikes; Michael R. Genesereth; Thomas R. Gruber; William S. Mark; Jay M. Tenenbaum; Jay C. Weber

    1993-01-01

    The Palo Alto Collaborative Testbed (PACT) is a laboratory for joint experimentation incomputer-aided concurrent engineering being pursued by research groups at Stanford University,Lockheed, Hewlett-Packard, and Enterprise Integration Technologies. The current prototypeintegrates four preexisting concurrent engineering systems into a common framework. Eachindividual system is used to model different aspects of a small robotic manipulator, and toreason about them from a different...

  9. Evaluation of Neo-Adjuvant, Concurrent and Adjuvant Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Fahimeh; Esmaeelinejad, Mohammad; Shams, Amin; Augend, Arsalan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignancy of the oral cavity. This study aims to evaluate different treatment procedures including neo-adjuvant, concurrent and adjuvant therapy in treating squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck by a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: The authors searched all electronic databases (Medline, Embase and Cochrane) for all the articles published from 1970 to January 2011. Data of the evaluated treatment procedures (chemotherapy or radiotherapy), number of patients, publishing date and the authors’ names have all been extracted from the articles and have been categorized in a table. Results: Forty-six researches are included in this study. All three ways show that using chemotherapy after or with radiotherapy improves the vitality rate significantly (p-value< 0.01). Conclusion: It is concluded that after deciding not to perform a surgery for treating SCC, the recommended treatment plan is chemotherapy and radiotherapy simultaneously. PMID:25628664

  10. Cytologically Proven Axillary Lymph Node Metastases Are Eradicated in Patients Receiving Preoperative Chemotherapy With Concurrent Trastuzumab for HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dominici, Laura S.; Gonzalez, Viviana M. Negron; Buzdar, Aman U.; Lucci, Anthony; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Le-Petross, Huong T.; Babiera, Gildy V.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Hunt, Kelly K.; Kuerer, Henry M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The axillary pathologic complete response rate (pCR) and the effect of axillary pCR on disease-free survival (DFS) was determined in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer and biopsy-proven axillary lymph node metastases who were receiving concurrent trastuzumab and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy is reported to result in pCR in the breast and axilla in up to 25% of patients. Patients achieving a pCR have improved DFS and overall survival. To the authors’ knowledge, the rate of eradication of biopsy-proven axillary lymph node metastases with trastuzumab-containing neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens has not been previously reported. METHODS Records were reviewed of 109 consecutive patients with HER2-positive breast cancer and axillary metastases confirmed by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy who received trastuzumab-containing neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by breast surgery with complete axillary lymph node dissection. Survival was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Clinicopathologic factors and DFS were compared between patients with and without axillary pCR. RESULTS Eighty-one patients (74%) achieved a pCR in the axilla. Axillary pCR was not associated with age, estrogen receptor status, grade, tumor size, initial N classification, or median number of lymph nodes removed. More patients with an axillary pCR also achieved a pCR in the breast (78% vs 25%; P < .001). At a median follow-up of 29.1 months, DFS was significantly greater in the axillary pCR group (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS Trastuzumab-containing neoadjuvant chemotherapy appears to be effective in eradicating axillary lymph node metastases in the majority of patients treated. Patients who achieve an axillary pCR are reported to have improved DFS. The success of pCR with concurrent trastuzumab and chemotherapy in eradicating lymph node metastases has impli cations for surgical management of the axilla in these patients. PMID:20564395

  11. A Concurrent Distributed System for Aircraft Tactical Decision Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, John W.

    1990-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within Visual Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI programming and problem solving methods in the development and implementation of a concurrent version of the Computerized Logic For Air-to-Air Warfare Simulations (CLAWS) program, a second generation TDG, is presented. Concurrent computing environments and programming approaches are discussed and the design and performance of a prototype concurrent TDG system are presented.

  12. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy for postoperative recurrence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: clinical efficacy and failure pattern

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To assess the therapeutic outcome and failure pattern of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT)-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for recurrence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) after radical surgery. Methods Treatment outcome and failure pattern were retrospectively evaluated in 83 patients with localized cervical and thoracic recurrences after radical surgery for thoracic esophageal SCC. All patients were treated with 3DCRT-based CCRT (median radiation dose 60 Gy), in which 39 received concurrent cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil (PF), and 44 received concurrent docetaxel plus cisplatin (TP). Treatment response was evaluated at 1–3 months after CCRT. Results With a median follow-up of 34 months (range, 2–116 months), the 3-year overall survival (OS) of all the patients was 51.8% and the median OS time was 43.0 months. The overall tumor response rate was 75.9% (63/83), with a complete remission (CR) rate of 44.6% (37/83). In univariate analysis, tumor response after CCRT (p?=?0.000), recurrence site (p?=?0.028) and concurrent chemotherapy (p?=?0.090) showed a trend favoring better OS. Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor response after CCRT (p?=?0.000) and concurrent chemotherapy (p?=?0.010) were independent predictors of OS. Forty-seven patients had progressive diseases after CCRT, 27 had local failure (27/47, 57.4%), 18 had distant metastasis (18/47, 38.3%) and 2 had both local and distant failures (2/47, 4.3%). Conclusions 3DCRT-based CCRT is effective in postoperatively recurrent esophageal SCC. Patients that obtained complete remission after CCRT appeared to achieve long-term OS and might benefit from concurrent TP regimen. Local and distant failures remained high and prospective studies are needed to validate these factors. PMID:24139225

  13. The role of concurrent chemotherapy to intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) after neoadjuvant docetaxel and cisplatin treatment in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Shan, Guo-ping; Li, Pu; Cheng, Ping-jing

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of concurrent chemotherapy to intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A total of 120 patients with stage III-IVB NPC treated with NACT followed by IMRT alone (39 patients, arm 1) or CCRT (81 patients, arm 2) between May 2009 and June 2012 were eligible for study inclusion. NACT consisted of docetaxe (DOC, 60 mg/m(2), day 1) and cisplatin (DDP, 100 mg/m(2), days 1-5, every 3 weeks). Concurrent chemotherapy was nedaplatin (NDP, 25 mg/m(2), days 1-3, every 3 weeks). The median follow-up period was 41 (range 5-52) months, and the 3-year overall survival, distant metastases-free survival, locoregional relapse-free survival, and progression-free survival rates of arm 1 and arm 2 were 83.3 and 87.4% (P = 0.516), 81.7 and 79.6% (P = 0.596), 86 and 92.3% (P = 0.920), 76.4 and 76.4% (P = 0.709), respectively. During radiotherapy, the most commonly recorded grade 3/4 adverse events were anemia (7.7 vs. 4.9%), leucopenia (10.2 vs. 3.7%), thrombocytopenia (12.8 vs. 3.7%), neutropenia (15.4 vs. 6.2%), nausea/vomiting (7.7 vs. 12.3%), stomatitis/mucositis (38.5 vs. 46.9%), xerostomia (35.9 vs. 30.8%), dermatitis (7.7 vs. 7.4%), and fatigue(15.4 vs. 17.2%) for arm 1 and arm 2. The results of this study indicated that added concurrent chemotherapy to IMRT after neoadjuvant DOC and DDP treatment for locoregionally advanced NPC was probably not be necessary. PMID:25631634

  14. Simulating Concurrent Intrusions for Testing Intrusion Detection Systems

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Simulating Concurrent Intrusions for Testing Intrusion Detection Systems: Parallelizing Intrusions For testing Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), it is essen­ tial that we be able to simulate intrusions besides designing a secure system [6, 12]. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) have been under investigation

  15. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy With Paclitaxel and Nedaplatin Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: Preliminary Results of a Phase II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Meiqin, E-mail: pianozmq@hotmail.co [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Cancer Hospital, and Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liu Suping; Wang, Xiang-E. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Cancer Hospital, and Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and consolidation chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Patients with LASCC (FIGO Stage IIB-IIIB) were treated with pelvic external beam radiotherapy (45 Gy for Stage IIB and 50 Gy for Stage III) and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (50 Gy for Stage IIB and 35 Gy for Stage III). The cumulative dose at point A was 50 Gy for Stage IIB and 65 Gy for Stage III. Concurrent chemotherapy with paclitaxel (35 mg/m{sup 2}) and nedaplatin (20 mg/m{sup 2}) was given every week for 6 weeks. Consolidation chemotherapy with paclitaxel (135 mg/m{sup 2}) and nedaplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2}) was administered every 3 weeks for 4 cycles. Results: All patients completed CCRT, and 28 of 34 patients completed consolidation chemotherapy. The complete response rate was 88% (95% CI, 73-96%). The most common Grade 3 or higher toxicities were leukopenia/neutropenia (10.9% of the cycles). During a median follow up of 23 months (range, 14-30 months), 5 patients had locoregional failure and 1 patient had distant metastasis. The estimated 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 82% (95% CI, 68-95%) and 93% (95% CI, 83-100%), respectively. Grade 3 late complications occurred in 3 patients (9%). Conclusions: CCRT with paclitaxel and nedaplatin followed by consolidation chemotherapy is well tolerated and effective in patients with locally advanced squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Further randomized trials of comparing this regimen with the standard treatment are worth while.

  16. EcliPSe: A System for High Performance Concurrent Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vernon Rego

    1991-01-01

    SUMMARY A description of a system which provides for the concurrent execution of stochastic simulation applications is presented. The EcliPSe system provides high-level simulation primitives that enable common simulation tasks. An application programmer describes the simulation process in terms of these primitives using a sequential computation model. The system transparently replicates appropriate sections of the simulation when the program is

  17. Ocular toxicity of systemic anticancer chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Afekhide Ernest OMOTI; Caroline Edijana OMOTI

    2006-01-01

    The increased use of chemotherapeutic agents has resulted in longer cancer patient survival. Consequently the ophthalmologist is seeing more patients with adverse ocular side effects secondary to these antineoplastic agents. Ocular toxicity induced by cancer chemotherapy includes a broad spectrum of disorders, reflecting the unique anatomical, physiological and biochemical features of the eye. Understanding the ocular side effects will assist

  18. Mean esophageal radiation dose is predictive of the grade of acute esophagitis in lung cancer patients treated with concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ozgen, Aytul; Hayran, Mutlu; Kahraman, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    The intention of this research was to define the predictive factors for acute esophagitis (AE) in lung cancer patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. The data for 72 lung cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy between 2008 and 2010 were prospectively evaluated. Mean lung dose, mean dose of esophagus, volume of esophagus irradiated and percentage of esophagus volume treated were analysed according to esophagitis grades. The mean esophageal dose was associated with an increased risk of esophageal toxicity (Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.001). However, the mean lung dose and the volume of esophagus irradiated were not associated with an increased risk of esophageal toxicity (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.50 and P = 0.41, respectively). The mean radiation dose received by the esophagus was found to be highly correlated with the duration of Grade 2 esophagitis (Spearman test, r = 0.82, P < 0.001). The mean dose of esophagus ?28 Gy showed statistical significance with respect to AE Grade 2 or worse (receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 95% CI, 0.929–1.014). In conclusion, the mean esophageal dose was significantly associated with a risk of esophageal toxicity in patients with lung cancer treated with concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. PMID:22915782

  19. Randomized Clinical Trial of Weekly vs. Triweekly Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy Concurrent With Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Sang-Young, E-mail: ryu@kcch.re.kr [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Moo; Kim, Kidong [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Il [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Beob-Jong; Kim, Moon-Hong; Choi, Seok-Cheol [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chul-Koo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Byung-Ho [Cancer Biostatistics Branch, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eui-Don [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To compare compliance, toxicity, and outcome of weekly and triweekly cisplatin administration concurrent with radiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: In this open-label, randomized trial, 104 patients with histologically proven Stage IIB-IVA cervical cancer were randomly assigned by a computer-generated procedure to weekly (weekly cisplatin 40 mg/m{sup 2}, six cycles) and triweekly (cisplatin 75 mg/m{sup 2} every 3 weeks, three cycles) chemotherapy arms during concurrent radiotherapy. The difference of compliance and the toxicity profiles between the two arms were investigated, and the overall survival rate was analyzed after 5 years. Results: All patients tolerated both treatments very well, with a high completion rate of scheduled chemotherapy cycles. There was no statistically significant difference in compliance between the two arms (86.3% in the weekly arm, 92.5% in the triweekly arm, p > 0.05). Grade 3-4 neutropenia was more frequent in the weekly arm (39.2%) than in the triweekly arm (22.6%) (p = 0.03). The overall 5-year survival rate was significantly higher in the triweekly arm (88.7%) than in the weekly arm (66.5%) (hazard ratio 0.375; 95% confidence interval 0.154-0.914; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Triweekly cisplatin 75-mg/m{sup 2} chemotherapy concurrent with radiotherapy is more effective and feasible than the conventional weekly cisplatin 40-mg/m{sup 2} regimen and may be a strong candidate for the optimal cisplatin dose and dosing schedule in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer.

  20. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by L-asparaginase-containing chemotherapy, VIDL, for localized nasal extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma: CISL08-01 phase II study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok Jin; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Kim, Jin Seok; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Hong, Dae Sik; Won, Jong Ho; Lee, Jae Hoon; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Cho, Jaeho; Nam, Taek-Keun; Lee, Sang-Wook; Ahn, Yong Chan; Suh, Cheolwon; Kim, Won Seog

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a phase II trial of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by 2 cycles of L-asparaginase-containing chemotherapy for patients who were newly diagnosed with stages IE and IIE nasal extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL). CCRT consisted of 40-44 Gy of radiotherapy with weekly administration of 30 mg/m(2) of cisplatin for 4 weeks. Two cycles of VIDL (etoposide (100 mg/m(2)), ifosfamide (1,200 mg/m(2)), and dexamethasone (40 mg) from days 1 to 3, and L-asparaginase (4,000 IU/m(2)) every other day from days 8 to 20) were administered sequentially. CCRT yielded a 90 % overall response rate without significant side effects in 30 patients, including 20 patients with complete response (CR); however, two patients showed distant disease progression. After CCRT, VIDL chemotherapy showed an 87 % final CR rate (26/30). Although grade III or IV hematologic toxicity was frequent during VIDL chemotherapy, no treatment-related mortality was observed, and L-asparaginase-associated toxicity was manageable. With a median follow-up of 44 months, 11 patients showed local (n?=?4) and distant (n?=?7) relapse or progression. The estimated 5-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 73 and 60 %, respectively. In conclusion, CCRT followed by L-asparaginase-containing chemotherapy is a feasible treatment for newly diagnosed stages IE/IIE nasal ENKTL. PMID:24947798

  1. Integrated Information Systems for Electronic Chemotherapy Medication Administration

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Mia A.; Giuse, Dario A.; Eck, Carol; Holder, Gwen; Lippard, Giles; Cartwright, Julia; Rudge, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Chemotherapy administration is a highly complex and distributed task in both the inpatient and outpatient infusion center settings. The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the Oncology Nursing Society (ASCO/ONS) have developed standards that specify procedures and documentation requirements for safe chemotherapy administration. Yet paper-based approaches to medication administration have several disadvantages and do not provide any decision support for patient safety checks. Electronic medication administration that includes bar coding technology may provide additional safety checks, enable consistent documentation structure, and have additional downstream benefits. Methods: We describe the specialized configuration of clinical informatics systems for electronic chemotherapy medication administration. The system integrates the patient registration system, the inpatient order entry system, the pharmacy information system, the nursing documentation system, and the electronic health record. Results: We describe the process of deploying this infrastructure in the adult and pediatric inpatient oncology, hematology, and bone marrow transplant wards at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. We have successfully adapted the system for the oncology-specific documentation requirements detailed in the ASCO/ONS guidelines for chemotherapy administration. However, several limitations remain with regard to recording the day of treatment and dose number. Conclusion: Overall, the configured systems facilitate compliance with the ASCO/ONS guidelines and improve the consistency of documentation and multidisciplinary team communication. Our success has prompted us to deploy this infrastructure in our outpatient chemotherapy infusion centers, a process that is currently underway and that will require a few unique considerations. PMID:22043185

  2. Radiation therapy for T2N0 laryngeal cancer: A retrospective analysis for the impact of concurrent chemotherapy on local control

    SciTech Connect

    Akimoto, Tetsuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)]. E-mail: takimoto@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp; Nonaka, Tetsuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Kitamoto, Yoshizumi [Department of Radiology, Gunma Prefectural Gunma Cancer Center, Gunma (Japan); Ishikawa, Hitoshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Ninomiya, Hiroshi [Department of Otolaryngology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Chikamatsu, Kazuaki [Department of Otolaryngology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Furuya, Nobuhiko [Department of Otolaryngology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Hayakawa, Kazushige [Department of Radiology, Kitasato University, Kitasato (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Norio [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: The impact of concurrent chemotherapy on the local control in patients with T2N0 laryngeal cancer who receive radiation therapy (RT) was evaluated. Methods and Materials: Sixty-three patients with T2N0 laryngeal cancer who were treated by definitive RT were analyzed. The primary site of the cancer was the glottis in 50 patients, the supraglottis in 9 patients, and the subglottis in 4 patients. Thirty-six patients were treated by RT alone and the remaining 27 patients received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Results: Complete response (CR) was obtained in 92% of the patients who received RT alone and 100% of the patients who received CRT. Voice preservation in the group who received CRT (89%) was significantly higher than that in the group treated by RT alone (61%). The 5-year disease-free survival rates in those who received concurrent CRT was significantly superior to that in the patients who received RT alone, although no significant difference was seen in the cause-specific survival rate between the 2 groups. The multivariate analysis revealed that the treatment method (RT alone vs. CRT) was the most significant risk factor that predicted recurrence after RT. Conclusion: Concurrent CRT had a positive impact on the local control of T2N0 laryngeal cancer.

  3. The evolution of the PVM concurrent computing system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Geist; V. S. Sunderam

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe the evolution of the PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) system, a software infrastructure for concurrent computing in networked environments. PVM is currently in use at several hundred institutions worldwide for applications ranging from scientific supercomputing to high-performance computations in medicine, discrete mathematics, and databases, and for learning parallel programming. The authors describe the historical evolution of the PVM

  4. Network-based concurrent computing on the PVM system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Al Geist; Vaidy S. Sunderam

    1992-01-01

    Concurrent computing environments based on loosely coupled networks have proven effective as resources for multiprocessing. Experiences with and enhancements to PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) are described in this paper. PVM is a software system that allows the utilization of a heterogeneous net- work of parallel and serial computers as a single computational resource. This report also describes an interactive graphical

  5. ACTORS: A model of concurrent computation in distributed systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Agha

    1986-01-01

    The transition from sequential to parallel computation is an area of critical concern in today's computer technology, particularly in architecture, programming languages, systems, and artificial intelligence. This book addresses issues in concurrency, and by producing both a syntactic definition and a denotational model of Hewitt's actor paradigm - a model of computation specifically aimed at constructing and analyzing distributed large-scale

  6. Concurrent Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced (Stage III) Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Single Institution Experience With 600 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremic, Branislav, E-mail: nebareje@gmail.com [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia); Milicic, Biljana; Milisavljevic, Slobodan [Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Kragujevac (Serbia)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Our institutional experience with the use of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (RT) alone or concurrently with chemotherapy (RT-CHT) in Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer was reviewed. Methods and Materials: Three phase III and two phase II studies included a total of 600 patients. Hyperfractionated RT alone was given to 127 patients, and hyperfractionated RT-CHT was given to 473 patients. RT doses were 64.8 Gy and 69.6 Gy (using 1.2 Gy twice daily) and 67.6 Gy (using 1.3 Gy twice daily). CHT consisted of concurrent administration of carboplatin and etoposide to 409 patients and concurrent administration of carboplatin and paclitaxel to 64 patients. Results: The median survival times were 19 months, 21 months, and 12 months for all, RT-CHT, and RT-only patients, respectively. The survival difference between the RT-CHT and RT group was significant (p < 0.0001). Four-year rates of local progression-free survival (LPFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were 29% and 35%, respectively, for the entire group. The RT-CHT group had significantly better LPFS rates than the RT group (31% for the RT-CHT group vs. 16% for the RT group; p = 0.0015) but not DMFS rates (36% for the RT-CHT group vs. 36% for the RT group, p = 0.0571). Acute high-grade esophagitis, pneumonitis, and hematological toxicities were seen most frequently and in 11%, 9%, and 12% of patients, respectively. Late high-grade esophageal and bronchopulmonary toxicity were each seen in 6% of patients. Conclusions: Compared to the majority of existing phase II and III studies, this study reconfirmed the excellent results achieved with concurrent RT-CHT, including low toxicity. Concurrent RT-CHT results in survival benefit primarily by increasing LPFS, not DMFS.

  7. Pretreatment anemia is correlated with the reduced effectiveness of radiation and concurrent chemotherapy in advanced head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Prosnitz, Robert G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]. E-mail: robert.prosnitz@duke.edu; Yao, Bin M.S. [Amgen, Inc. Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Farrell, Catherine L. [Amgen, Inc. Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Clough, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Brizel, David M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2005-03-15

    Purpose: Pretreatment anemia is an adverse prognostic variable in squamous cell head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone. Tumor hypoxia is an adverse parameter for treatment with RT alone or with RT and concurrent chemotherapy (CCT). Tumor hypoxia is more prevalent in patients who present with pretreatment hemoglobin (Hgb) concentrations less than 13 g/dL. RT/CCT improves survival over RT alone in advanced HNC, and its use is becoming more widespread. This study was performed to evaluate whether pretreatment Hgb less than 13 g/dL was correlated with treatment outcome in patients with advanced HNC treated with a uniform regimen of RT/CCT. Methods and materials: The study population consisted of patients with AJCC Stage III or IV, M0 HNC who were treated with 70 to 72.5 Gy accelerated hyperfractionated RT (1.25 Gy b.i.d.) and CCT consisting of 2 cycles of CDDP (12-20 mg/m{sup 2}/d x 5 days) and continuous infusion 5-FU (600 mg/m{sup 2}/d x 5 days) during Week 1 and Week 6. A planned break in RT occurred during Week 4. These patients were enrolled on the experimental arm of a prospective randomized trial that compared this regimen to hyperfractionated irradiation alone from 1990 to 1996. RT/CCT was delivered as standard therapy from 1996 to 2000. The primary endpoint was failure-free survival (FFS). Secondary endpoints included local-regional control and overall survival. Results: One hundred and fifty-nine patients were treated from 1990 to 2000. The median (25-75%) pretreatment Hgb was 13.6 (12.2-13.5) g/dL. Hgb was 13 g/dL or higher in 105 patients and less than 13 g/dL in 54 patients. Primary tumor sites included oropharynx (43%), hypopharynx/larynx (36%), oral cavity (9%), and nasopharynx (6%). Seventy-eight percent of the patients with Hgb 13 g/dL or higher and 92% of the patients with Hgb less than 13 g/dL had a primary tumor stage of T3 or T4 (p = 0.01). Node-positive disease was present in 74 of 105 (70%) of patients with Hgb 13 g/dL or higher patients and in 36/54 (67%) of patients with Hgb less than 13 g/dL patients. Median follow-up of surviving patients was 42 months (range, 4-128 months). Five-year FFS was 75% for patients with Hgb 13 g/dL or higher vs. 50% for patients with Hgb less than 13 g/dL had a (p < 0.01). A total of 49 failures occurred in both patient cohorts. The median (25-75%) decrease in Hgb during RT/CCT was 2.2 (1.3-3.1) g/dL, both in patients who failed and in those who remained disease-free. Conclusion: Pretreatment Hgb less than 13 g/dL is correlated with adverse outcomes in advanced HNC patients treated with RT/CCT. Whether anemia actually causes poor outcomes remains unknown. The therapeutic effect of anemia correction is being evaluated in prospective trials.

  8. Factors Associated With Severe Acute Esophagitis From Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Limited-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, John M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Wahlquist, Amy E. M.S. [Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics, and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Shirai, Keisuke [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics, and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Aguero, Eric G.; Fortney, John A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Sherman, Carol A. [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Sharma, Anand K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States)], E-mail: sharmaak@musc.edu

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To describe incidence and identify factors associated with development of severe acute esophagitis during hyperfractionated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy (BID-CRT) in patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Methods and Materials: Retrospective cohort analysis of patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related variables was performed to identify factors associated with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Grade 3 acute esophagitis. Twice-daily chemoradiotherapy (BID-CRT) involved 45 Gy at 1.5 Gy per fraction, treated twice daily with concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with esophagitis. Results: Between June 1999 and June 2007, 48 patients underwent curative intent BID-CRT for SCLC and were included in the analysis. Median radiotherapy dose was 45 Gy (range, 42-51 Gy) delivered with a median 4 cycles of chemotherapy (range, 2-6). RTOG Grade 3 acute esophagitis developed in 11 patients. No patient developed Grade 4 or 5 esophagitis. Simple logistic regression analyses demonstrated a highly significant association between Grade 3 acute esophagitis and mean esophageal dose (p = 0.002) as well as relative volume dosimetric area under curve (RV-AUC; p = 0.004). Using multiple regression analysis, RV-AUC was identified as the only factor associated with Grade 3 esophagitis (p = 0.004). The most strongly associated dosimetric volume was the V15 (Grade 3 esophagitis rates of 15% vs. 64% for V15 <60% versus {>=}60%, respectively). Conclusions: RV-AUC is the factor most associated with development of Grade 3 acute esophagitis in limited stage SCLC patients receiving BID-CRT.

  9. Radiotherapy concurrently with weekly cisplatin, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, for N2-3 nasopharyngeal cancer: a multicenter trial of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Tatsuya; Thinh, Dang Huy Quoc; Kato, Shingo; Devi, C R Beena; Tung, Ngo Thanh; Thephamongkhol, Kullathorn; Calaguas, Miriam Joy C; Zhou, Juying; Chansilpa, Yaowalak; Supriana, Nana; Erawati, Dyah; Banu, Parvin Akhter; Koo, Cho Chul; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Nakano, Takashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of radiotherapy concurrently with weekly cisplatin, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, for the treatment of N2-3 nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) in Asian countries, especially regions of South and Southeast Asian countries where NPC is endemic. Between 2005 and 2009, 121 patients with NPC (T1-4 N2-3 M0) were registered from Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, The Philippines, China and Bangladesh. Patients were treated with 2D radiotherapy concurrently with weekly cisplatin (30 mg/m (2)), followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, consisting of cisplatin (80 mg/m(2) on Day 1) and fluorouracil (800 mg/m(2) on Days 1-5) for 3 cycles. Of the 121 patients, 56 patients (46%) required interruption of RT. The reasons for interruption of RT were acute non-hematological toxicities such as mucositis, pain and dermatitis in 35 patients, hematological toxicities in 11 patients, machine break-down in 3 patients, poor general condition in 2 patients, and others in 8 patients. Of the patients, 93% completed at least 4 cycles of weekly cisplatin during radiotherapy, and 82% completed at least 2 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. With a median follow-up time of 46 months for the surviving 77 patients, the 3-year locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival and overall survival rates were 89%, 74% and 66%, respectively. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Grade 3-4 toxicities of mucositis, nausea/vomiting and leukopenia were observed in 34%, 4% and 4% of the patients, respectively. In conclusion, further improvement in survival and locoregional control is necessary, although our regimen showed acceptable toxicities. PMID:23192700

  10. Feasibility Study of Moderately Accelerated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Plus Concurrent Weekly Cisplatin After Induction Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Head-and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Morganti, Alessio G. [Department of Radiotherapy, 'John Paul II' Center for High Technology Research and Education in Biomedical Sciences, Campobasso (Italy); Mignogna, Samantha [Department of Palliative Therapies, 'John Paul II' Center for High Technology Research and Education in Biomedical Sciences, Campobasso (Italy); Deodato, Francesco; Massaccesi, Mariangela [Department of Radiotherapy, 'John Paul II' Center for High Technology Research and Education in Biomedical Sciences, Campobasso (Italy); Cilla, Savino [Department of Medical Physics, 'John Paul II' Center for High Technology Research and Education in Biomedical Sciences, Campobasso (Italy); Calista, Franco [Department of Palliative Therapies, 'John Paul II' Center for High Technology Research and Education in Biomedical Sciences, Campobasso (Italy); Serafini, Giovanni [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, General Hospital, Termoli (Italy); Digesu, Cinzia [Department of Radiotherapy, 'John Paul II' Center for High Technology Research and Education in Biomedical Sciences, Campobasso (Italy); Macchia, Gabriella, E-mail: gmacchia@rm.unicatt.i [Department of Radiotherapy, 'John Paul II' Center for High Technology Research and Education in Biomedical Sciences, Campobasso (Italy); Picardi, Vincenzo; Caravatta, Luciana [Department of Radiotherapy, 'John Paul II' Center for High Technology Research and Education in Biomedical Sciences, Campobasso (Italy); Di Lullo, Liberato [Department of Oncology, General Hospital, Isernia (Italy); Giglio, Gianfranco [Department of Oncology, General Hospital, Campobasso (Italy); Sallustio, Giuseppina [Department of Radiology, 'John Paul II' Center for High Technology Research and Education in Biomedical Sciences, Campobasso (Italy); Piermattei, Angelo [Department of Medical Physics, 'John Paul II' Center for High Technology Research and Education in Biomedical Sciences, Campobasso (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of moderately accelerated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) along with weekly cisplatin, after induction chemotherapy, in patients with locally advanced unresectable head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: Patients with Stage III or IV locally advanced HNC, without progressive disease after three courses of induction chemotherapy, received concurrent chemo-IMRT (weekly cisplatin 30 mg/m{sup 2} plus simultaneous integrated boost IMRT). A total of 67.5 Gy in 30 fractions were delivered to primary tumor and involved nodes, 60 Gy in 30 fractions to high-risk nodal areas, and 55.5 Gy in 30 fractions to low-risk nodal areas. Results: In all, 36 patients (median age, 56 years) with International Union Against Cancer (UICC) Stage III (n = 5) and IV (n = 31) were included. Of the 36 patients, 17 had received CF (cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (CF) and 19 had received docetaxel cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (DCF). During concurrent chemoradiation, 11 of 36 patients (30.5%) experienced Grade III mucositis (CF, 47%; DCF, 15%; p < 0.04). Grade III pharyngeal-esophageal toxicity was observed in 5 of 19 patients (26.3%; CF, 0.0%; DCF, 26.3%; p = 0.02). Two patients died of complications (5.5%). After chemoradiation, the complete response rate was 63.8%. Two-year local control was 88.7%. Two-year progression free survival and overall survival were 74.5% and 60.9%, respectively. Conclusions: In our experience, a moderately accelerated chemo-IMRT was feasible after induction chemotherapy. However, a noteworthy early death rate of 5.5% was observed. Intensive supportive care strategies should be defined to better manage radiation-induced toxic effects. Longer follow-up is required to determine the incidence of late radiation toxicities and tumor control rates.

  11. Concurrent processes of CDP in object-based file system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jie; Cao, Qiang; Huang, Jianzhong

    2009-08-01

    An object-based storage system - integrating advantages of both NAS and SAN - can be applied in large-capacity, lowcost and large-scale storage systems built from commodity disk devices. The continuous data protection or CDP is a well-known technique that continuously captures or tracks data modifications and stores changes independent of primary data, enabling data recovery - from any point in the past. An efficient file system optimized for CDP plays an important role in object-based storage systems. In this paper, concurrent processes during data backup and data recovery operations are discussed in details. To fully take the advantage of distributed system architectures, we make the concurrent data operations as far as possible during read, write, and recovery processes. A new backup data object placement strategy is present to work in coordination with a replica strategy in object-based distributed file systems. Backup data object can be placed in other object storage servers (or OSS for short) instead of the OSS where the original data is residing, when the backup data object matches certain conditions. For data recovery, we make the related OSSes to concurrently perform data object movement. All these strategies can efficiently reduce system response times.

  12. Flow analysis for verifying properties of concurrent software systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew B. Dwyer; Lori A. Clarke; Jamieson M. Cobleigh; Gleb Naumovich

    2004-01-01

    This article describes FLAVERS, a finite-state verification approach that analyzes whether concurrent systems satisfy user-defined, behavioral properties. FLAVERS automatically creates a compact, event-based model of the system that supports efficient dataflow analysis. FLAVERS achieves this efficiency at the cost of precision. Analysts, however, can improve the precision of analysis results by selectively and judiciously incorporating additional semantic information into an

  13. Hybrid Concurrent Constraint Simulation Models of Several Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, Adam

    2003-01-01

    This distribution contains several simulation models created for the hybrid simulation language, Hybrid Concurrent Constraint (HCC). An HCC model contains the information specified in the widely-accepted academic definition of a hybrid system: this includes expressions for the modes of the systems to be simulated and the differential equations that apply in each mode. These expressions are written in the HCC syntax. The models included here were created by either applying basic physical laws or implementing equations listed in previously published papers.

  14. ACTORS: A model of concurrent computation in distributed systems

    SciTech Connect

    Agha, G.

    1986-01-01

    The transition from sequential to parallel computation is an area of critical concern in today's computer technology, particularly in architecture, programming languages, systems, and artificial intelligence. This book addresses issues in concurrency, and by producing both a syntactic definition and a denotational model of Hewitt's actor paradigm - a model of computation specifically aimed at constructing and analyzing distributed large-scale parallel systems - it advances the understanding of parallel computation.

  15. 8Year Follow-up of Randomized Trial: Cytoreduction and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Versus Systemic Chemotherapy in Patients with Peritoneal Carcinomatosis of Colorectal Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vic J. Verwaal; Sjoerd Bruin; Henk Boot; Gooike van Slooten; Harm van Tinteren

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  The treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis is based on cytoreduction followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy\\u000a and combined with adjuvant chemotherapy. In 2003, a randomized trial was finished comparing systemic chemotherapy alone with\\u000a cytoreduction followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy and systemic chemotherapy. This trial showed a positive\\u000a result favoring the studied treatment. This trial has now been updated to a minimal follow-up

  16. A concurrent Rapid Manufacturing advice system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Munguia; C. Riba

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the possibility of using Rapid Manufacturing (RM) as a final manufacturing route through a comparison of RM processes capabilities vs. conventional manufacturing processes. This is done by means of a computer-aided system intended to guide the designer in the selection of optimum production parameters according to typical requirements of the first design stages. A number of Artificial

  17. Systemic chemotherapy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Li; Edward F McClay

    2002-01-01

    The role of systemic chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma remains of questionable benefit. Despite encouraging phase II data from multiple institutions that suggested an improved overall response rate for patients treated with the Dartmouth regimen, recently completed phase III trials have failed to demonstrate a significant benefit in survival. Of concern is the fact that there

  18. Concurrent hypercube system with improved message passing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John C. (Inventor); Tuazon, Jesus O. (Inventor); Lieberman, Don (Inventor); Pniel, Moshe (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A network of microprocessors, or nodes, are interconnected in an n-dimensional cube having bidirectional communication links along the edges of the n-dimensional cube. Each node's processor network includes an I/O subprocessor dedicated to controlling communication of message packets along a bidirectional communication link with each end thereof terminating at an I/O controlled transceiver. Transmit data lines are directly connected from a local FIFO through each node's communication link transceiver. Status and control signals from the neighboring nodes are delivered over supervisory lines to inform the local node that the neighbor node's FIFO is empty and the bidirectional link between the two nodes is idle for data communication. A clocking line between neighbors, clocks a message into an empty FIFO at a neighbor's node and vica versa. Either neighbor may acquire control over the bidirectional communication link at any time, and thus each node has circuitry for checking whether or not the communication link is busy or idle, and whether or not the receive FIFO is empty. Likewise, each node can empty its own FIFO and in turn deliver a status signal to a neighboring node indicating that the local FIFO is empty. The system includes features of automatic message rerouting, block message transfer and automatic parity checking and generation.

  19. Effectiveness of integration of system-level optimization in concurrent engineering for rocket design

    E-print Network

    Bairstow, Brian Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    Integrated concurrent engineering is a method for rapid conceptual design. Previous study has suggested that integration of system-level optimization techniques into integrated concurrent engineering can benefit the design ...

  20. The role of concurrent chemotherapy and radiation in the management of patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohan Suntharalingam

    2003-01-01

    The management of patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck has undergone a major paradigm shift during the past decade. The current application of systemic therapy and radiation has offered this patient population the opportunity for cure while simultaneously achieving organ preservation. Researchers have focused their efforts on optimizing radiotherapy treatment schedules, defining effective chemotherapy combinations,

  1. Preliminary results of a randomized study (NPC-9902 Trial) on therapeutic gain by concurrent chemotherapy and/or accelerated fractionation for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Anne W.M. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: awmlee@ha.org.hk; Tung, Stewart Y. [Tuen Mun Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Chan, Anthony T.C. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Chappell, Rick [Department of Biostatistics, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States); Fu, Y.-T. [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Lu, Tai-Xiang [Cancer Center, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Tan, Terence [National Cancer Center, Singapore (Japan); Chua, Daniel T.T. [Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong (China); O'Sullivan, Brian [Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Xu, Shirley L. [Center for Clinical Trials, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Pang, Ellie S.Y. [Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Sze, W.-M. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Leung, T.-W. [Tuen Mun Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Kwan, W.-H. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Chan, Paddy [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Liu, X.-F. [Cancer Center, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Tan, E.-H. [National Cancer Center, Singapore (Japan); Sham, Jonathan [Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Siu, Lillian [Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lau, W.-H. [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: To compare the benefit achieved by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and/or accelerated fractionation (AF) vs. radiotherapy (RT) alone with conventional fractionation (CF) for patients with T3-4N0-1M0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: All patients were irradiated with the same RT technique to {>=}66 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction, conventional five fractions/week in the CF and CF+C (chemotherapy) arms, and accelerated six fractions/week in the AF and AF+C arms. The CF+C and AF+C patients were given the Intergroup 0099 regimen (concurrent cisplatin plus adjuvant cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil). Results: Between 1999 and April 2004, 189 patients were randomly assigned; the trial was terminated early because of slow accrual. The median follow-up was 2.9 years. When compared with the CF arm, significant improvement in failure-free survival (FFS) was achieved by the AF+C arm (94% vs. 70% at 3 years, p = 0.008), but both the AF arm and the CF+C arm were insignificant (p {>=} 0.38). Multivariate analyses showed that CRT was a significant factor: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.52 (0.28-0.97), AF per se was insignificant: HR = 0.68 (0.37-1.25); the interaction of CRT by AF was strongly significant (p = 0.006). Both CRT arms had significant increase in acute toxicities (p < 0.005), and the AF+C arm also incurred borderline increase in late toxicities (34% vs. 14% at 3 years, p = 0.05). Conclusions: Preliminary results suggest that concurrent chemoradiotherapy with accelerated fractionation could significantly improve tumor control when compared with conventional RT alone; further confirmation of therapeutic ratio is warranted.

  2. Chemotherapy Response Analysis for Osteosarcom with Intra-arterial Chemotherapy by Subcutaneous Implantable Delivery System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dingfeng Li; Qiu Cui; Yaosheng Liu; Xiaohong Wang; Cheng Liu; Shubin Liu; Yanjun Zeng

    To summarize the experience in intraarterial neoadjuvant chemotherapy for extremity osteosarcoma. Between January 2002 and\\u000a December 2007,111 patients with stage IIB extremity osteosarcoma received preoperative intraarterial therapy with subcutaneous\\u000a implantation of chemotherapy pump as well as en bloc resection, and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. There were 63 males\\u000a and 48 females with an average age of 18 (range, 14?~?39 years). The time

  3. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing early and late concurrent thoracic radiotherapy with etoposide and cisplatin/carboplatin chemotherapy for limited-disease small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongyang; Fang, Luo; Wang, Xiaojia; Cai, Jufen; Mao, Weimin

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal time for concurrent thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) with etoposide and cisplatin/carboplatin (EP/EC) chemotherapy for the treatment of limited-disease small-cell lung cancer (LD SCLC). Randomized controlled trials comparing early and late concurrent TRT with EP/EC chemotherapy for the treatment of patients with LD SCLC were identified through searching databases such as MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Embase. Early thoracic radiotherapy (ERT) was defined as initiating irradiation within 30 days after chemotherapy initiation. A total of 3 eligible randomized controlled trials were identified. No significant differences in the objective response rate were detected between early and late concurrent TRT [risk ratio (RR)=1.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86-1.18; P=0.90]. Similar results were observed in the 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year survival rates between early and late concurrent TRT (RR=1.06, 95% CI: 0.88-1.27, P=0.56; RR=1.15, 95% CI: 0.77-1.71, P=0.49; RR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.66-1.22, P=0.49; and RR=1.18, 95% CI: 0.64-2.16, P=0.60, respectively). The total incidence of grade 3-4 adverse events, including anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, nausea and vomiting, infection, esophageal toxicity, pulmonary toxicity, alopecia and hemorrhage with early concurrent TRT was significantly higher compared to that with late concurrent TRT (RR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.03-1.43, P=0.02). Thus, the results of our study indicated that the prognosis of LD SCLC treated with late concurrent TRT and EP/EC chemotherapy is similar to that with early concurrent TRT, although the incidence of grade 3-4 adverse events was lower in LD SCLC patients treated with late concurrent TRT combined with EP/EC chemotherapy. PMID:25054049

  4. Multiprocessor system with multiple concurrent modes of execution

    DOEpatents

    Ahn, Daniel; Ceze, Luis H; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-12-31

    A multiprocessor system supports multiple concurrent modes of speculative execution. Speculation identification numbers (IDs) are allocated to speculative threads from a pool of available numbers. The pool is divided into domains, with each domain being assigned to a mode of speculation. Modes of speculation include TM, TLS, and rollback. Allocation of the IDs is carried out with respect to a central state table and using hardware pointers. The IDs are used for writing different versions of speculative results in different ways of a set in a cache memory.

  5. Degrees of fairness and their realization (concurrent systems)

    SciTech Connect

    Ramamritham, K.

    1983-01-01

    A server process in a concurrent system accepts requests from user processes and provides a specified service. Typically, one server is made responsible for each shared resource. The servers are designed to respond to user requests according to certain priority rules and fairness criteria. In this paper, we examine how these priority and fairness requirements can be specified, and how a server which meets these specifications can be implemented. The motivation is to algorithmically synthesize code for processes which control access to shared resources. 11 references.

  6. Perioperative Systemic Chemotherapy for Appendiceal Mucinous Carcinoma Peritonei Treated with Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Blackham, Aaron U.; Swett, Katrina; Eng, Cathy; Sirintrapun, Joseph; Bergman, Simon; Geisinger, Kim R; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos; Stewart, John H.; Shen, Perry; Levine, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of systemic chemotherapy (SC) in conjunction with cytoreductive surgery (CS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in appendiceal mucinous carcinoma peritonei (MCP) is unknown. Methods A retrospective review (1999–2011) of MCP patients who had undergone CS/HIPEC with or without perioperative SC. Results Twenty-two low-grade MCP patients treated with CS/HIPEC and SC were matched to patients who received CS/HIPEC alone. Median overall survival (OS) was 107 months for patients treated with perioperative SC compared to 72 without (P = 0.46). CS/HIPEC was performed on 109 patients with high-grade MCP: 70 were treated with perioperative SC, while 39 were not. Median OS (22.1 vs. 19.6 months, P = 0.74) and progression-free survival (PFS) (10.9 vs. 7.0 months, P = 0.47) were similar in patients treated with SC compared to CS/HIPEC alone. Progression while on pre-operative SC was seen in eight patients (17%), while four (8%) had a partial response. Treatment with postoperative SC was associated with longer PFS (13.6 months) compared to pre-operative SC (6.8 months, P < 0.01) and CS/HIPEC alone (7.0 months, P = 0.03). Conclusions Post-operative SC appears to improve PFS in patients with high-grade appendiceal MCP treated with CS/HIPEC. In contrast, there is no evidence to support the routine use of perioperative SC in low-grade disease. PMID:24375188

  7. Postoperative Radiation Therapy With or Without Concurrent Chemotherapy for Node-Positive Thoracic Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Junqiang; Pan, Jianji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou (China); Liu, Jian, E-mail: liujianfj@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Medical Oncology, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou (China)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou (China); Li, Jiancheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou (China); Zhu, Kunshou [Department of Surgery, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou (China)] [Department of Surgery, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou (China); Zheng, Xiongwei [Department of Pathology, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou (China)] [Department of Pathology, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou (China); Chen, Mingqiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou (China); Chen, Ming [School of Graduate, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou (China)] [School of Graduate, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou (China); Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy plus RT (CRT) for the postoperative treatment of node-positive thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (TESCC) and to determine the incidence and severity of toxic reactions. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed data from 304 patients who had undergone esophagectomy with 3-field lymph node dissection for TESCC and were determined by postoperative pathology to have lymph node metastasis without distant hematogenous metastasis. Of these patients, 164 underwent postoperative chemotherapy (cisplatin 80 mg/m{sup 2}, average days 1-3, plus paclitaxel 135 mg/m{sup 2}, day 1; 21-day cycle) plus RT (50 Gy), and 140 underwent postoperative RT alone. Results: The 5-year overall survival rates for the CRT and RT groups were 47.4% and 38.6%, respectively (P=.030). The distant metastasis rate, the mixed (regional lymph node and distant) metastasis rate, and the overall recurrence rate were significantly lower in the CRT group than in the RT group (P<.05). However, mild and severe early toxic reactions, including neutropenia, radiation esophagitis, and gastrointestinal reaction, were significantly more common in the CRT group than in the RT group (P<.05). No significant differences in incidence of late toxic reactions were found between the 2 groups. Conclusions: Our results show that in node-positive TESCC patients, postoperative CRT is significantly more effective than RT alone at increasing the overall survival and decreasing the rates of distant metastasis, mixed metastasis, and overall recurrence. Severe early toxic reactions were more common with CRT than with RT alone, but patients could tolerate CRT.

  8. Association Between Bone Marrow Dosimetric Parameters and Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Anal Cancer Patients Treated With Concurrent Chemotherapy and Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mell, Loren K. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago and University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)], E-mail: lmell@radonc.uchicago.edu; Schomas, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Salama, Joseph K. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago and University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); The Cancer Research Center, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Devisetty, Kiran; Aydogan, Bulent [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago and University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Miller, Robert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Jani, Ashesh B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kindler, Hedy L. [Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Mundt, Arno J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Roeske, John C.; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago and University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that the volume of pelvic bone marrow (PBM) receiving 10 and 20 Gy or more (PBM-V{sub 10} and PBM-V{sub 20}) is associated with acute hematologic toxicity (HT) in anal cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 48 consecutive anal cancer patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy. The median radiation dose to gross tumor and regional lymph nodes was 50.4 and 45 Gy, respectively. Pelvic bone marrow was defined as the region extending from the iliac crests to the ischial tuberosities, including the os coxae, lumbosacral spine, and proximal femora. Endpoints included the white blood cell count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), hemoglobin, and platelet count nadirs. Regression models with multiple independent predictors were used to test associations between dosimetric parameters and HT. Results: Twenty patients (42%) had Stage T3-4 disease; 15 patients (31%) were node positive. Overall, 27 (56%), 24 (50%), 4 (8%), and 13 (27%) experienced acute Grade 3-4 leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia, respectively. On multiple regression analysis, increased PBM-V{sub 5}, V{sub 10}, V{sub 15}, and V{sub 20} were significantly associated with decreased WBC and ANC nadirs, as were female gender, decreased body mass index, and increased lumbosacral bone marrow V{sub 10}, V{sub 15}, and V{sub 20} (p < 0.05 for each association). Lymph node positivity was significantly associated with a decreased WBC nadir on multiple regression analysis (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This analysis supports the hypothesis that increased low-dose radiation to PBM is associated with acute HT during chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer. Techniques to limit bone marrow irradiation may reduce HT in anal cancer patients.

  9. Dose Escalation of Total Marrow Irradiation With Concurrent Chemotherapy in Patients With Advanced Acute Leukemia Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jeffrey Y.C., E-mail: jwong@coh.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Forman, Stephen; Somlo, George [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States)] [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Rosenthal, Joseph [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States) [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Department of Pediatrics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy; Radany, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Palmer, Joycelynne [Department of Biostatistics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Stein, Anthony [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States)] [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We have demonstrated that toxicities are acceptable with total marrow irradiation (TMI) at 16 Gy without chemotherapy or TMI at 12 Gy and the reduced intensity regimen of fludarabine/melphalan in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This article reports results of a study of TMI combined with higher intensity chemotherapy regimens in 2 phase I trials in patients with advanced acute myelogenous leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (AML/ALL) who would do poorly on standard intent-to-cure HCT regimens. Methods and Materials: Trial 1 consisted of TMI on Days -10 to -6, etoposide (VP16) on Day -5 (60 mg/kg), and cyclophosphamide (CY) on Day -3 (100 mg/kg). TMI dose was 12 (n=3 patients), 13.5 (n=3 patients), and 15 (n=6 patients) Gy at 1.5 Gy twice daily. Trial 2 consisted of busulfan (BU) on Days -12 to -8 (800 {mu}M min), TMI on Days -8 to -4, and VP16 on Day -3 (30 mg/kg). TMI dose was 12 (n=18) and 13.5 (n=2) Gy at 1.5 Gy twice daily. Results: Trial 1 had 12 patients with a median age of 33 years. Six patients had induction failures (IF), and 6 had first relapses (1RL), 9 with leukemia blast involvement of bone marrow ranging from 10%-98%, 5 with circulating blasts (24%-85%), and 2 with chloromas. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Eleven patients achieved complete remission at Day 30. With a median follow-up of 14.75 months, 5 patients remained in complete remission from 13.5-37.7 months. Trial 2 had 20 patients with a median age of 41 years. Thirteen patients had IF, and 5 had 1RL, 2 in second relapse, 19 with marrow blasts (3%-100%) and 13 with peripheral blasts (6%-63%). Grade 4 dose-limiting toxicities were seen at 13.5 Gy (stomatitis and hepatotoxicity). Stomatitis was the most frequent toxicity in both trials. Conclusions: TMI dose escalation to 15 Gy is possible when combined with CY/VP16 and is associated with acceptable toxicities and encouraging outcomes. TMI dose escalation is not possible with BU/VP16 due to dose-limiting toxicities. Future efforts will focus on whether further dose escalation with CY/VP16 is safe, with the goal of improving disease control in this high-risk population.

  10. Superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy with concurrent radiotherapy for advanced parotid squamous cell carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Nobuo; Fujii, Takashi; Nishiyama, Kinji; Nakanishi, Katsuyuki; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Yagyu, Yukinobu; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Kitano, Mutsukazu; Murakami, Takamichi

    2015-04-01

    A case of advanced parotid cancer in which long-term control was achieved by superselective intra-arterial cisplatin infusion with concomitant radiotherapy is reported. A 63-year-old woman with parotid squamous cell carcinoma was referred to our hospital. Magnetic resonance images revealed extraparotid extension of the tumor, indicating that complete resection would be difficult. Consequently, intra-arterial cisplatin infusion with concomitant radiotherapy was planned as an alternative therapy. Superselective intra-arterial infusion of cisplatin (100 mg/m(2)) was performed six times, at intervals of 7-9 days. The arteries chosen for superselective infusion were the posterior auricular artery, the transverse facial artery and the intrinsic parotid artery originating directly from the external carotid artery. Concurrently, external radiotherapy of a total of 50 Gy in 25 fractions was also performed. The patient achieved a complete response and has remained free of disease recurrence 5 years after treatment. Intra-arterial cisplatin infusion with concomitant radiotherapy can be a practical option for patients with unresectable parotid squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25657260

  11. MACHINE PROTECTION SYSTEM FOR CONCURRENT OPERATION OF RHIC AND BLIP.

    SciTech Connect

    WILINSKI, M.; BELLAVIA, S.; GLENN, J.W.; MAUSNER, L.F.; UNGER, K.L.

    2005-05-16

    The Brookhaven 200MeV linac is a multipurpose machine used to inject low intensity polarized protons for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), as well as to inject high intensity protons to BLIP (Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer), a medical isotope production facility. If high intensity protons were injected to RHIC by mistake, administrative radiation limits could be exceeded or sensitive electronics could be damaged. In the past, the changeover from polarized proton to high intensity proton operation has been a lengthy process, thereby never allowing the two programs to run simultaneously. To remedy this situation and allow concurrent operation of RHIC and BLIP, an active interlock system has been designed to monitor current levels in the AGS using two current transformers with fail safe circuitry and associated electronics to inhibit beam to RHIC if high intensity currents are detected.

  12. Knowledge-Based Automation of a Design Method for Concurrent Systems

    E-print Network

    Knowledge-Based Automation of a Design Method for Concurrent Systems Kevin L. Mills, Senior Member to automate a software design method for concurrent systems. The approach uses multiple paradigms to represent-system shell, compose CODA, an automated designer's assistant. Other forms of automated reasoning

  13. HPV Genotypes Predict Survival Benefits From Concurrent Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chun-Chieh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chang Gung University, School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lai, Chyong-Huey [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yi-Ting [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chao, Angel; Chou, Hung-Hsueh [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hong, Ji-Hong, E-mail: jihong@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chang Gung University, School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To study the prognostic value of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in patients with advanced cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Between August 1993 and May 2000, 327 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III/IVA or stage IIB with positive lymph nodes) were eligible for this study. HPV genotypes were determined using the Easychip Registered-Sign HPV genechip. Outcomes were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: We detected 22 HPV genotypes in 323 (98.8%) patients. The leading 4 types were HPV16, 58, 18, and 33. The 5-year overall and disease-specific survival estimates for the entire cohort were 41.9% and 51.4%, respectively. CCRT improved the 5-year disease-specific survival by an absolute 9.8%, but this was not statistically significant (P=.089). There was a significant improvement in disease-specific survival in the CCRT group for HPV18-positive (60.9% vs 30.4%, P=.019) and HPV58-positive (69.3% vs 48.9%, P=.026) patients compared with the RT alone group. In contrast, the differences in survival with CCRT compared with RT alone in the HPV16-positive and HPV-33 positive subgroups were not statistically significant (P=.86 and P=.53, respectively). An improved disease-specific survival was observed for CCRT treated patients infected with both HPV16 and HPV18, but these differenced also were not statistically significant. Conclusions: The HPV genotype may be a useful predictive factor for the effect of CCRT in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Verifying these results in prospective trials could have an impact on tailoring future treatment based on HPV genotype.

  14. The Performance of Concurrency Control Algorithms for Database Management Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Carey; Michael Stonebraker

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a study of the performance of cen- tralized concurrency control algorithms. An algorithm-independent simulation framework was developed in order to support comparative studies of various concurrency control algorithms. We describe this framework in detail and present performance results which were obtained for what we believe to be a representative cross-section of the many proposed algo- rithms. The

  15. New approach to object-oriented simulation of concurrent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pears, Arnold N.; Singh, Samar; Dillon, Tharam S.

    1997-06-01

    High speed simulation of concurrent systems requires distributed processing if meaningful results are to be obtained for large systems in a reasonable timeframe. One of the most common methods used for such simulation is parallel discrete event simulation (PDES). A range of PDES simulation kernels have been developed and much research has been devoted to optimistic execution strategies such as timewarp. Unfortunately in all this effort some fundamental aspects of object oriented modeling for simulation have received scant attention. In particular the ability of simulation kernels to act on truly generic simulation objects. In this context we define a truly generic object to be one which totally defines its responses to external stimuli, but which has no concept of its place in the interconnected web of objects that comprise the total simulation environment. To address this problem, we propose a new modeling approach based on interacting objects, and an associated simulation kernel architecture. This paper describes the architecture and features of our simulation kernel in detail, and demonstrates, using a small example, the benefits of adopting such a modeling approach. The major specific benefits include true object genericity, enhanced scope for object re-use, and enhanced opportunities to use polymorphism.

  16. Concurrent IMRT and weekly cisplatin followed by GDP chemotherapy in newly diagnosed, stage IE to IIE, nasal, extranodal NK/T-Cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Q-H; Zhou, S-Q; Du, W; Liang, G; Lei, Y; Luo, F

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the benefits of frontline radiation in early-stage, extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), we conducted the trial of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by three cycles of gemcitabine, dexamethasone and cisplatin (GDP). Thirty-two patients with newly diagnosed, stage IE to IIE, nasal ENKTL received CCRT (that is, all patients received intensity-modulated radiotherapy 56?Gy and cisplatin 30?mg/m2 weekly, 3–5 weeks). Three cycles of GDP (gemcitabine 1000?mg/m2 intravenously (i.v.) on days 1 and 8, dexamethasone 40?mg orally on days 1–4 and cisplatin 75?mg/m2 i.v. on day 1 (GDP), every 21 days as an outpatient were scheduled after CCRT. All patients completed CCRT, which resulted in 100% response that included 24 complete responses (CRs) and eight partial responses. The CR rate after CCRT was 75.0% (that is, 24 of 32 responses). Twenty-eight of the 32 patients completed the planned three cycles of GDP, whereas four patients did not because they withdrew (n=1) or because they had an infection (n=3). The overall response rate and the CR rate were 90.6% (that is, 29 of 32 responses) and 84.4% (that is, 27 of 32 responses), respectively. Only two patient experienced grade 3 toxicity during CCRT (nausea), whereas 13 of the 30 patients experienced grade 4 neutropenia. The estimated 3-year overall survival and progression-free rates were 87.50% and 84.38%, respectively. In conclusion, CCRT followed by GDP chemotherapy can be a feasible and effective treatment strategy for stage IE to IIE nasal ENKTL. PMID:25501024

  17. Concurrent IMRT and weekly cisplatin followed by GDP chemotherapy in newly diagnosed, stage IE to IIE, nasal, extranodal NK/T-Cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ke, Q-H; Zhou, S-Q; Du, W; Liang, G; Lei, Y; Luo, F

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the benefits of frontline radiation in early-stage, extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), we conducted the trial of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by three cycles of gemcitabine, dexamethasone and cisplatin (GDP). Thirty-two patients with newly diagnosed, stage IE to IIE, nasal ENKTL received CCRT (that is, all patients received intensity-modulated radiotherapy 56 Gy and cisplatin 30 mg/m(2) weekly, 3-5 weeks). Three cycles of GDP (gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) intravenously (i.v.) on days 1 and 8, dexamethasone 40 mg orally on days 1-4 and cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) i.v. on day 1 (GDP), every 21 days as an outpatient were scheduled after CCRT. All patients completed CCRT, which resulted in 100% response that included 24 complete responses (CRs) and eight partial responses. The CR rate after CCRT was 75.0% (that is, 24 of 32 responses). Twenty-eight of the 32 patients completed the planned three cycles of GDP, whereas four patients did not because they withdrew (n = 1) or because they had an infection (n = 3). The overall response rate and the CR rate were 90.6% (that is, 29 of 32 responses) and 84.4% (that is, 27 of 32 responses), respectively. Only two patient experienced grade 3 toxicity during CCRT (nausea), whereas 13 of the 30 patients experienced grade 4 neutropenia. The estimated 3-year overall survival and progression-free rates were 87.50% and 84.38%, respectively. In conclusion, CCRT followed by GDP chemotherapy can be a feasible and effective treatment strategy for stage IE to IIE nasal ENKTL. PMID:25501024

  18. Hypothyroidism as a Consequence of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With Concurrent Taxane-Based Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Roberto; Jaboin, Jerry J.; Morales-Paliza, Manuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nashville, TN (United States); Koehler, Elizabeth [Division of Cancer Biostatistics, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States); Phillips, John G.; Stinson, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nashville, TN (United States); Gilbert, Jill; Chung, Christine H.; Murphy, Barbara A. [Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Yarbrough, Wendell G. [Department of Otorynolaryngology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Murphy, Patrick B. [Tennessee Oncology, Franklin, TN (United States); Shyr, Yu [Division of Cancer Biostatistics, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States); Cmelak, Anthony J., E-mail: anthony.cmelak@vanderbilt.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: To conduct a retrospective review of 168 consecutively treated locally advanced head-and-neck cancer (LAHNC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)/chemotherapy, to determine the rate and risk factors for developing hypothyroidism. Methods and Materials: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was delivered in 33 daily fractions to 69.3 Gy to gross disease and 56.1 Gy to clinically normal cervical nodes. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of IMRT plans were used to determine radiation dose to thyroid and were compared with DVHs using conventional three-dimensional radiotherapy (3D-RT) in 10 of these same patients randomly selected for replanning and with DVHs of 16 patients in whom the thyroid was intentionally avoided during IMRT. Weekly paclitaxel (30 mg/m{sup 2}) and carboplatin area under the curve-1 were given concurrently with IMRT. Results: Sixty-one of 128 evaluable patients (47.7%) developed hypothyroidism after a median of 1.08 years after IMRT (range, 2.4 months to 3.9 years). Age and volume of irradiated thyroid were associated with hypothyroidism development after IMRT. Compared with 3D-RT, IMRT with no thyroid dose constraints resulted in significantly higher minimum, maximum, and median dose (p < 0.0001) and percentage thyroid volume receiving 10, 20, and 60 Gy (p < 0.05). Compared with 3D-RT, IMRT with thyroid dose constraints resulted in lower median dose and percentage thyroid volume receiving 30, 40, and 50 Gy (p < 0.005) but higher minimum and maximum dose (p < 0.005). Conclusions: If not protected, IMRT for LAHNC can result in higher radiation to the thyroid than with conventional 3D-RT. Techniques to reduce dose and volume of radiation to thyroid tissue with IMRT are achievable and recommended.

  19. Deadlock avoidance in flexible manufacturing systems with concurrently competing process flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. A. Banaszak; B. H. Krogh

    1990-01-01

    The concurrent flow of multiple jobs through a FMS can lead to deadlock conditions due to competition for limited resources in the system. The authors develop a Petri net (PN) model of concurrent job flow and dynamic resource allocation in an FMS and define deadlock in terms of transition enabling in the PN model. The problem of deadlock avoidance is

  20. Design and Analysis Tools for Concurrent Blackboard Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, John W.

    1991-01-01

    A blackboard system consists of a set of knowledge sources, a blackboard data structure, and a control strategy used to activate the knowledge sources. The blackboard model of problem solving is best described by Dr. H. Penny Nii of the Stanford University AI Laboratory: "A Blackboard System can be viewed as a collection of intelligent agents who are gathered around a blackboard, looking at pieces of information written on it, thinking about the current state of the solution, and writing their conclusions on the blackboard as they generate them. " The blackboard is a centralized global data structure, often partitioned in a hierarchical manner, used to represent the problem domain. The blackboard is also used to allow inter-knowledge source communication and acts as a shared memory visible to all of the knowledge sources. A knowledge source is a highly specialized, highly independent process that takes inputs from the blackboard data structure, performs a computation, and places the results of the computation in the blackboard data structure. This design allows for an opportunistic control strategy. The opportunistic problem-solving technique allows a knowledge source to contribute towards the solution of the current problem without knowing which of the other knowledge sources will use the information. The use of opportunistic problem-solving allows the data transfers on the blackboard to determine which processes are active at a given time. Designing and developing blackboard systems is a difficult process. The designer is trying to balance several conflicting goals and achieve a high degree of concurrent knowledge source execution while maintaining both knowledge and semantic consistency on the blackboard. Blackboard systems have not attained their apparent potential because there are no established tools or methods to guide in their construction or analyze their performance.

  1. A clinical study on continuous transarterial infusion chemotherapy and systemic venous chemotherapy with gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil in treating patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guobin Hong; Jingxing Zhou; Jianghong Luo; Linfeng Xu; Yaoting Chen; Rongjian Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective  To compare the curative effectiveness of continuous transarterial infusion chemotherapy and systemic venous chemotherapy in\\u000a treating patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, and to evaluate the value of selective continuous transarterial infusion\\u000a chemotherapy in treating advanced pancreatic cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Of the 51 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer receiving chemotherapy with gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil, 25 patients\\u000a were treated with selective continuous transarterial infusion

  2. Report on the feasibility of hypercube concurrent processing systems in computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, J.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of using hypercube-connected concurrent processor systems for problems in computational fluid dynamics is studied. Both explicit and implicit numerical methods are considered and several alternative implementations of these methods are evaluated on concurrent processor systems. A Lax-Wendroff explicit method was designed and implemented for the Navier-Stokes equations. The code runs on the Intel iPSC concurrent processor system. Tests of this code show that it is reasonably efficient. The Beam and Warming implicit factored method was designed and implemented for Berger's equation. Preliminary tests show that the efficiency of code is poor.

  3. Towards a Lambda-Calculus for Concurrent and Communicating Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gérard Boudol

    1989-01-01

    We introduce a calculus for concurrent and communicating processes, which is a direct and simple extension of the -calculus. The communication mechanism we use is that of Milner's calculus CCS: to communicate consists in synchronously sending and receiving a value through a shared port. Then the calculus is parameterized on a given set of port names, which are used in

  4. Usefulness of Interim FDG-PET After Induction Chemotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Receiving Sequential Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Dok Hyun; Cho, Yoojin [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yoon; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Choi, Seung-Ho; Roh, Jong-Lyel [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-wook; Song, Si Yeol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Hyun [Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Seung [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Ja [Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Bae, E-mail: sbkim3@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Induction chemotherapy (ICT) has been used to select patients for organ preservation and determine subsequent treatments in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LASCCHN). Still, the clinical outcomes of LASCCHN patients who showed response to ICT are heterogeneous. We evaluated the efficacy of interim 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) after ICT in this specific subgroup of LASCCHN patients who achieved partial response (PR) after ICT to predict clinical outcomes after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with LASCCHN who showed PR to ICT by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors before definitive CCRT were chosen in this retrospective analysis. FDG-PET was performed before and 2-4 weeks after ICT to assess the extent of disease at baseline and the metabolic response to ICT, respectively. We examined the correlation of the metabolic response by the percentage decrease of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on the primary tumor or lymph node after ICT or a specific threshold of SUVmax on interim FDG-PET with clinical outcomes including complete response (CR) rate to CCRT, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: A SUVmax of 4.8 on interim FDG-PET could predict clinical CR after CCRT (100% vs. 20%, p = 0.001), PFS (median, not reached vs. 8.5 mo, p < 0.001), and OS (median, not reached vs. 12.0 months, p = 0.001) with a median follow-up of 20.3 months in surviving patients. A 65% decrease in SUVmax after ICT from baseline also could predict clinical CR after CCRT (100% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.003), PFS (median, not reached vs. 8.9 months, p < 0.001) and OS (median, not reached vs. 24.4 months, p = 0.001) of the patients. Conclusion: These data suggest that interim FDG-PET after ICT might be a useful determinant to predict clinical outcomes in patients with LASCCHN receiving sequential ICT followed by CCRT.

  5. On bisimulation and model-checking for concurrent systems with partial order semantics 

    E-print Network

    Gutierrez, Julian

    2011-06-30

    In concurrency theory—the branch of (theoretical) computer science that studies the logical and mathematical foundations of parallel computation—there are two main formal ways of modelling the behaviour of systems where ...

  6. Concurrent Validity of the "Working with Others Scale" of the ICIS Employment Interview System

    E-print Network

    Cassidy, Martha Ward

    2011-12-31

    Concurrent Validity of the "Working with Others Scale" of the ICIS Employment Interview System Martha W. Cassidy ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine if the Working with Others Scale from the American ...

  7. Monitoring Dosimetric Impact of Weight Loss With Kilovoltage (KV) Cone Beam CT (CBCT) During Parotid-Sparing IMRT and Concurrent Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Kean Fatt, E-mail: hokeanfatt@hotmail.com [Academic Radiation Oncology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Marchant, Tom; Moore, Chris; Webster, Gareth; Rowbottom, Carl [North Western Medical Physics, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Penington, Hazel [Wade Radiotherapy Research Centre, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Lee, Lip; Yap, Beng; Sykes, Andrew; Slevin, Nick [Department of Clinical Oncology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Parotid-sparing head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce long-term xerostomia. However, patients frequently experience weight loss and tumor shrinkage during treatment. We evaluate the use of kilovoltage (kV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for dose monitoring and examine if the dosimetric impact of such changes on the parotid and critical neural structures warrants replanning during treatment. Methods and materials: Ten patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer were treated with contralateral parotid-sparing IMRT concurrently with platinum-based chemotherapy. Mean doses of 65 Gy and 54 Gy were delivered to clinical target volume (CTV)1 and CTV2, respectively, in 30 daily fractions. CBCT was prospectively acquired weekly. Each CBCT was coregistered with the planned isocenter. The spinal cord, brainstem, parotids, larynx, and oral cavity were outlined on each CBCT. Dose distributions were recalculated on the CBCT after correcting the gray scale to provide accurate Hounsfield calibration, using the original IMRT plan configuration. Results: Planned contralateral parotid mean doses were not significantly different to those delivered during treatment (p > 0.1). Ipsilateral and contralateral parotids showed a mean reduction in volume of 29.7% and 28.4%, respectively. There was no significant difference between planned and delivered maximum dose to the brainstem (p = 0.6) or spinal cord (p = 0.2), mean dose to larynx (p = 0.5) and oral cavity (p = 0.8). End-of-treatment mean weight loss was 7.5 kg (8.8% of baseline weight). Despite a {>=}10% weight loss in 5 patients, there was no significant dosimetric change affecting the contralateral parotid and neural structures. Conclusions: Although patient weight loss and parotid volume shrinkage was observed, overall, there was no significant excess dose to the organs at risk. No replanning was felt necessary for this patient cohort, but a larger patient sample will be investigated to further confirm these results. Nevertheless, kilovoltage CBCT is a valuable tool for patient setup verification and monitoring of dosimetric variation during radiotherapy.

  8. Test Plan Generation for Concurrent Real-Time Systems Based on Zone Coverage Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farn Wang; Geng-dian Huang

    2008-01-01

    The state space explosion due to concurrency and timing constraints of concurrent real-time systems (CRTS) presents significant\\u000a challenges to the verification engineers. In this paper, we investigate how to use coverage techniques to generate efficient\\u000a test plans for such systems. We first discuss how to use communicating timed automata to model CRTS. We present a new coverage\\u000a technique, AZC (active

  9. Network based concurrent computing on the PVM system

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, G.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Sunderam, V.S. (Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (USA). Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science)

    1991-06-01

    Concurrent computing environments based on loosely coupled networks have proven effective as resources for multiprocessing. Experiences with and enhancements to PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) are described in this paper. PVM is a software package that allows the utilization of a heterogeneous network of parallel and serial computers as a single computational resource. This report also describes an interactive graphical interface to PVM, and porting and performance results from production applications. 23 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. The Concert system - Compiler and runtime technology for efficient concurrent object-oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Andrew A.; Karamcheti, Vijay; Plevyak, John; Sahrawat, Deepak

    1993-01-01

    Concurrent object-oriented languages, particularly fine-grained approaches, reduce the difficulty of large scale concurrent programming by providing modularity through encapsulation while exposing large degrees of concurrency. Despite these programmability advantages, such languages have historically suffered from poor efficiency. This paper describes the Concert project whose goal is to develop portable, efficient implementations of fine-grained concurrent object-oriented languages. Our approach incorporates aggressive program analysis and program transformation with careful information management at every stage from the compiler to the runtime system. The paper discusses the basic elements of the Concert approach along with a description of the potential payoffs. Initial performance results and specific plans for system development are also detailed.

  11. Pulmonary Toxicity in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With High-Dose (74 Gy) 3-Dimensional Conformal Thoracic Radiotherapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy Following Induction Chemotherapy: A Secondary Analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Trial 30105

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, Joseph K., E-mail: joseph.salama@duke.edu [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Stinchcombe, Thomas E. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Gu Lin; Wang Xiaofei [CALGB Statistical Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Morano, Karen [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, RI (United States); Bogart, Jeffrey A. [State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY (United States); Crawford, Jeffrey C. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Socinski, Mark A. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Blackstock, A. William [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Vokes, Everett E. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 30105 tested two different concurrent chemoradiotherapy platforms with high-dose (74 Gy) three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after two cycles of induction chemotherapy for Stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to determine if either could achieve a primary endpoint of >18-month median survival. Final results of 30105 demonstrated that induction carboplatin and gemcitabine and concurrent gemcitabine 3D-CRT was not feasible because of treatment-related toxicity. However, induction and concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel with 74 Gy 3D-CRT had a median survival of 24 months, and is the basis for the experimental arm in CALGB 30610/RTOG 0617/N0628. We conducted a secondary analysis of all patients to determine predictors of treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Methods and Materials: Patient, tumor, and treatment-related variables were analyzed to determine their relation with treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Results: Older age, higher N stage, larger planning target volume (PTV)1, smaller total lung volume/PTV1 ratio, larger V20, and larger mean lung dose were associated with increasing pulmonary toxicity on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that V20 and nodal stage as well as treatment with concurrent gemcitabine were associated with treatment-related toxicity. A high-risk group comprising patients with N3 disease and V20 >38% was associated with 80% of Grades 3-5 pulmonary toxicity cases. Conclusions: Elevated V20 and N3 disease status are important predictors of treatment related pulmonary toxicity in patients treated with high-dose 3D-CRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Further studies may use these metrics in considering patients for these treatments.

  12. Semantics of concurrent systems: a modular fixed-point trace approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoni W. Mazurkiewicz; Warszawa Poland

    1984-01-01

    A method for finding the set of processes generated by a concurrent system (the behaviour of a system) in modular way is presented. A system is decomposed into modules with behaviours assumed to be known and then the behaviours are successively put together giving finally the initial system behaviour. It is shown that there is much of freedom in choice

  13. A Phase I/II Radiation Dose Escalation Study With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Patients With Inoperable Stages I to III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Phase I Results of RTOG 0117

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jbradley@wustl.ed [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Moughan, Jennifer [RTOG Statistical Headquarters, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Graham, Mary V. [Phelps County Medical Center, Rolla, Missouri (United States); Byhardt, Roger [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Govindan, Ramaswamy [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Fowler, Jack [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Purdy, James A. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Gore, Elizabeth [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Choy, Hak [University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: In preparation for a Phase III comparison of high-dose versus standard-dose radiation therapy, this Phase I/II study was initiated to establish the maximum tolerated dose of radiation therapy in the setting of concurrent chemotherapy, using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligibility included patients with histologically proven, unresectable Stages I to III non-small-cell lung cancer. Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of paclitaxel, 50 mg/m{sup 2}, and carboplatin, AUC of 2, given weekly. The radiation dose was to be sequentially intensified by increasing the daily fraction size, starting from 75.25 Gy/35 fractions. Results: The Phase I portion of this study accrued 17 patients from 10 institutions and was closed in January 2004. After the initial 8 patients were accrued to cohort 1, the trial closed temporarily on September 26, 2002, due to reported toxicity. Two acute treatment-related dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were reported at the time: a case of grade 5 and grade 3 radiation pneumonitis. The protocol, therefore, was revised to de-escalate the radiation therapy dose (74 Gy/37 fractions). Patients in cohort 1 continued to develop toxicity, with 6/8 (75%) patients eventually developing grade >=3 events. Cohort 2 accrued 9 patients. There was one DLT, a grade 3 esophagitis, in cohort 2 in the first 5 patients (1/5 patients) and no DLTs for the next 2 patients (0/2 patients). Conclusions: The maximum tolerated dose was determined to be 74 Gy/37 fractions (2.0 Gy per fraction) using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with concurrent paclitaxel and carboplatin therapy. This dose level in the Phase II portion has been well tolerated, with low rates of acute and late lung toxicities.

  14. Concurrent three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and chemotherapy for postoperative recurrence of mediastinal lymph node metastases in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a phase 2 single-institution study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiotherapy plus concurrent weekly cisplatin chemotherapy on the postoperative recurrence of mediastinal lymph node metastases in esophageal cancer patients. Methods Ninety-eight patients were randomly enrolled to receive either three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy alone (group A) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (group B). A radiation dose of 62–70 Gy/31–35 fractions was delivered to the recurrent tumor. Furthermore, the patients in group B simultaneously received weekly doses of cisplatin (30 mg/m2), and the survival outcomes and toxic effects were compared. Results The response rate of group B (91.8%) was significantly greater than that of group A (73.5%) (?2?=?5.765, P?=?0.016). The 1- and 3-year survival rates of group B (85.7% and 46.9%, respectively) were also greater than those of group A (69.4% and 28.6%, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in the 5-year survival rates. The numbers of patients who died of distant metastases in groups A and B were 13 (26.5%) and 5 (10.2%), respectively (?2?=?4.356, P?=?0.036). Acute radiation-related esophagitis and granulocytopenia in group B was frequent. However, intergroup differences in terms of late toxicity were not significant. Conclusions Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) is a practical and feasible technique to treat the recurrence of mediastinal lymph node metastases of postoperative esophageal cancer. In addition, concurrent chemotherapy can increase local tumor control, decrease the distant metastasis rate, and increase the long-term survival rate. PMID:24438695

  15. The PVM system: Supercomputer level concurrent computation on a heterogeneous network of workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, G.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Sunderam, V.S. (Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    The PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) system enables supercomputer level concurrent computations to be performed on interconnected networks of heterogeneous computer systems. Specifically, a network of 13 IBM RS/6000 powerstations has been used to run superconductor modeling codes at more than 250 Mflops. This paper describes the PVM system and two example applications running on it. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Dynamic priority ceilings: A concurrency control protocol for real-time systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Ih Chen; Kwei-Jay Lin

    1990-01-01

    Real-time systems have stringent deadline requirements for their tasks. To meet the requirements, a real-time system must use scheduling algorithms that ensure a predictable response even in the face of mutually exclusive accesses to critical sections. We present a concurrency control protocol for systems using the earliest deadline first scheduling algorithm. The protocol specifies a dynamic priority ceiling for each

  17. Renormalization of concurrence: The application of the quantum renormalization group to quantum-information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kargarian, M. [Physics Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, R. [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-1159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran 19395-5531 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Langari, A. [Physics Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran 19395-5531 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    We have combined the idea of renormalization group and quantum-information theory. We have shown how the entanglement or concurrence evolve as the size of the system becomes large, i.e., the finite size scaling is obtained. Moreover, we introduce how the renormalization-group approach can be implemented to obtain the quantum-information properties of a many-body system. We have obtained the concurrence as a measure of entanglement, its derivatives and their scaling behavior versus the size of system for the one-dimensional Ising model in transverse field. We have found that the derivative of concurrence between two blocks each containing half of the system size diverges at the critical point with the exponent, which is directly associated with the divergence of the correlation length.

  18. Integrated System-Level Optimization for Concurrent Engineering With Parametric Subsystem Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuman, Todd; DeWeck, Oliver L.; Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of concurrent design practices to the aerospace industry has greatly increased the productivity of engineers and teams during design sessions as demonstrated by JPL's Team X. Simultaneously, advances in computing power have given rise to a host of potent numerical optimization methods capable of solving complex multidisciplinary optimization problems containing hundreds of variables, constraints, and governing equations. Unfortunately, such methods are tedious to set up and require significant amounts of time and processor power to execute, thus making them unsuitable for rapid concurrent engineering use. This paper proposes a framework for Integration of System-Level Optimization with Concurrent Engineering (ISLOCE). It uses parametric neural-network approximations of the subsystem models. These approximations are then linked to a system-level optimizer that is capable of reaching a solution quickly due to the reduced complexity of the approximations. The integration structure is described in detail and applied to the multiobjective design of a simplified Space Shuttle external fuel tank model. Further, a comparison is made between the new framework and traditional concurrent engineering (without system optimization) through an experimental trial with two groups of engineers. Each method is evaluated in terms of optimizer accuracy, time to solution, and ease of use. The results suggest that system-level optimization, running as a background process during integrated concurrent engineering sessions, is potentially advantageous as long as it is judiciously implemented.

  19. Combination of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy using graphene oxide as drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Zhou, Lin; Wei, Shaohua; Ge, Xuefeng; Zhou, Jiahong; Jiang, Huijun; Li, Fuyou; Shen, Jian

    2014-06-01

    Previous research indicated that graphene oxide (GO) can be used to deliver photosensitive anticancer drug, Hypocrellin A (HA), in photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the anticancer activity of HA was obviously decreased after been loaded on GO. To solve this problem, a chemotherapy drug, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), was co-loaded on the HA loaded GO (HA/SN-38/GO) as a multimodal carrier for the synergistic combination of PDT and chemotherapy for cancer. In vitro results showed that the combination therapy exhibited a synergistic antiproliferative effect compared with PDT and chemotherapy alone. Therefore, HA/SN-38/GO delivery system has the potential to offer dual therapies for the synergistic combination of PDT and chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer. PMID:24792568

  20. The PVM System: Supercomputer Level Concurrent Computation on a Heterogeneous Network of Workstations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Geist; V. S. Sunderam

    1991-01-01

    The PVM (Parallei Virtual Machine) sytem enables supercomputer level concurrent computations to be performed on interconnected networks of heterogeneous computer systems. Specifically, a network of 13 IBM RS\\/SOOO powerstations has been used to run superconductor modeling codes at more than 250 Mjlops. This paper describes the PVM system and two example applications running on it.

  1. Multicenter retrospective analysis of systemic chemotherapy for advanced neuroendocrine carcinoma of the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Machida, Nozomu; Morizane, Chigusa; Kasuga, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki; Sudo, Kentaro; Nishina, Tomohiro; Tobimatsu, Kazutoshi; Ishido, Kenji; Furuse, Junji; Boku, Narikazu; Okusaka, Takuji

    2014-09-01

    This study analyzed outcomes of systemic chemotherapy for advanced neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the digestive system. Clinical data from 258 patients with unresectable or recurrent NEC of the gastrointestinal tract (GI) or hepato-biliary-pancreatic system (HBP), who received chemotherapy, were collected from 23 Japanese institutions and analyzed retrospectively. Patients had primary sites in the esophagus (n = 85), stomach (n = 70), small bowel (n = 6), colorectum (n = 31), hepato-biliary system (n = 31) and pancreas (n = 31). Median overall survival (OS) was 13.4 months the esophagus, 13.3 months for the stomach, 29.7 months for the small bowel, 7.6 months for the colorectum, 7.9 months for the hepato-biliary system and 8.5 months for the pancreas. Irinotecan plus cisplatin (IP) and etoposide plus cisplatin (EP) were most commonly selected for GI-NEC and HBP-NEC. For patients treated with IP/EP (n = 160/46), the response rate was 50/28% and median OS was 13.0/7.3 months. Multivariate analysis among patients treated with IP or EP showed that the primary site (GI vs HBP; hazard ratio [HR] 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.97) and baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase levels (not elevated vs elevated; HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.46-0.94) were independent prognostic factors for OS, while the efficacy of IP was slightly better than for EP (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.48-1.33; P = 0.389). IP and EP are the most common treatment regimens for NEC of the digestive system. HBP primary sites and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels are unfavorable prognostic factors for survival. A randomized controlled trial is required to establish the appropriate chemotherapy regimen for advanced NEC of the digestive system. This study was registered at UMIN as trial number 000005176. PMID:24975505

  2. Concurrent administration of high-dose chemotherapy and rituximab is a feasible and effective chemo\\/immunotherapy for patients with high-risk non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Ladetto; F Zallio; S Vallet; I Ricca; A Cuttica; D Caracciolo; P Corradini; M Astolfi; S Sametti; F Volpato; P Bondesan; U Vitolo; M Boccadoro; A Pileri; AM Gianni; C Tarella

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate feasibility, tolerability and efficacy of rituximab-supplemented high-dose sequential chemotherapy (R-HDS) with peripheral blood progenitor cell autografting as frontline or salvage treatment in patients with advanced non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Thirty-two patients have been treated: 14 at disease onset and 18 with relapsed or progressive disease. R-HDS regimens included six courses of rituximab. Rituximab

  3. Dynamic data structures and concurrency in a real-time data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, G.; Barrus, D.M.; Goldstone, J.A.; Miller, L.; Nelson, R.O.; Poore, R.V.

    1985-08-01

    We report on our efforts in developing an innovative real-time data acquisition system that makes extensive use of dynamic data structures, concurrency and state machine features. The Data Acquisition Command Language developed at the Los Alamos Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) Facility is a Pascal-based system that incorporates these features to maximize system performance, reliability and adaptability while supporting a consistent, familiar and comfortable user interface. The details and benefits of the implementation philosophy and underlying structures are discussed.

  4. Dynamic data structures and concurrency in a real-time data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, G.; Goldstone, J.A.; Nelson, R.O.; Poore, R.V.; Miller, L.; Barrus, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    We report on our efforts in developing an innovative real-time data acquisition system that makes extensive use of dynamic data structures, concurrency and state machine features. The Data Acquisition Command Language developed at the Los Alamos Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) Facility is a Pascal-based system that incorporates these features to maximize system performance, reliability and adapability while supporting a consistent, familiar and comfortable user interface. The details and benefits of the implementation philosophy and underlying structures are discussed.

  5. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, Jun-Ichi, E-mail: junsaito@sannet.ne.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi [Division of Respiratory Disease, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Shibuya, Kei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m{sup 2}, and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

  6. Beyond contracts for concurrency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan S. Ostroff; Faraz Ahmadi Torshizi; Hai Feng Huang; Bernd Schoeller

    2009-01-01

    SCOOP is a concurrent programming language with a new semantics for contracts that applies equally well in concurrent and sequential contexts. SCOOP eliminates race conditions and atomicity viola- tions by construction. However, it is still vulnerable to deadlocks. In this paper we describe how far contracts can take us in verifying interesting properties of concurrent systems using modular Hoare rules

  7. Verification Tools for FiniteState Concurrent Systems ?

    E-print Network

    Grumberg, Orna

    , Aeronautical Systems Division (AFSC), U.S. Air Force, Wright­Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433­6543 under Contract F ? This research was sponsored in part by the Avionics Laboratory, Wright Research and De­ velopment Center

  8. Concurrent Online Testing for Many Core Systems-on-Chips

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jason Daniel

    2012-02-14

    time and test delivery costs. To reduce the time between failure and recovery, and thereby increase system availability, an anomaly-based test triggering unit (ATTU) is proposed to initiate COLT when anomalous network behavior is detected. Previous COLT...

  9. SARA aided design of software for concurrent systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Campos; G. Estrin

    2008-01-01

    A set of tools to support a structured multilevel design procedure for software or hardware development is described. This interactive computer-aided system, called SARA (Systems ARchitect's Apprentice), provides languages to help a designer form useful abstractions that can be manipulated and tested in a disciplined way. SARA supports both a bottom-up (abstraction) procedure and a top-down partitioning (refinement) procedure. The

  10. Cactis: a self-adaptive, concurrent implementation of an object-oriented database management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott E. Hudson; Roger King

    1989-01-01

    Cactis is an object-oriented, multiuser DBMS developed at the University of Colorado. The system supports functionally-defined data and uses techniques based on attributed graphs to optimize the maintenance of functionally-defined data. The implementation is self-adaptive in that the physical organization and the update algorithms dynamically change in order to reduce disk access. The system is also concurrent. At any given

  11. Multidisciplinary treatment including systemic chemotherapy for a malignant phyllodes tumour of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Yasukiyo; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Sugita, Atsushi; Mochizuki, Kohei; Maeyama, Ryota; Okazaki, Miyoko; Nishi, Morihiro; Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Fujita, Tetsuo; Satoh, Takefumi; Jiang, Shi-Xu; Saegusa, Makoto; Iwamura, Masatsugu

    2014-01-01

    A 22-year-old man was referred to our hospital with macroscopic hematuria and consistent anal pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enlarged prostate tumour invading the bladder and rectum. A biopsy revealed an unclassified spindle cell sarcoma. Subsequently, radical cystoprostatectomy and resection of the rectum were performed. A histopathological examination revealed a prostatic malignant phyllodes tumour with a negative surgical margin. However, a local recurrence was identified 2 months after surgery. Induction therapy included 4 cycles of systemic chemotherapy comprising etoposide with ifosfamide and cisplatin. Although a partial response was observed at the local site, lung metastasis developed. Second-line chemotherapy with ifosfamide and doxorubicin with radiotherapy to the pelvis was administered and led to complete regression; however, its efficacy was transient. Although additional chemotherapy was administered, the patient eventually died due to the rapidly growing, recurrent tumour. PMID:24839496

  12. Multidisciplinary treatment including systemic chemotherapy for a malignant phyllodes tumour of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yasukiyo; Tabata, Ken-Ichi; Sugita, Atsushi; Mochizuki, Kohei; Maeyama, Ryota; Okazaki, Miyoko; Nishi, Morihiro; Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Fujita, Tetsuo; Satoh, Takefumi; Jiang, Shi-Xu; Saegusa, Makoto; Iwamura, Masatsugu

    2014-03-01

    A 22-year-old man was referred to our hospital with macroscopic hematuria and consistent anal pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enlarged prostate tumour invading the bladder and rectum. A biopsy revealed an unclassified spindle cell sarcoma. Subsequently, radical cystoprostatectomy and resection of the rectum were performed. A histopathological examination revealed a prostatic malignant phyllodes tumour with a negative surgical margin. However, a local recurrence was identified 2 months after surgery. Induction therapy included 4 cycles of systemic chemotherapy comprising etoposide with ifosfamide and cisplatin. Although a partial response was observed at the local site, lung metastasis developed. Second-line chemotherapy with ifosfamide and doxorubicin with radiotherapy to the pelvis was administered and led to complete regression; however, its efficacy was transient. Although additional chemotherapy was administered, the patient eventually died due to the rapidly growing, recurrent tumour. PMID:24839496

  13. Simulating Concurrent Intrusions for Testing Intrusion Detection Systems: Parallelizing Intrusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1995-01-01

    For testing Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), it is essentialthat we be able to simulate intrusions in different forms(both sequential and parallelized) in order to comprehensivelytest and evaluate the detection capability of an IDS. This paperpresents an algorithm for automatically transforming a sequentialintrusive script into a set of parallel intrusive scripts(formed by a group of parallel threads) which simulate a concurrentintrusion.

  14. Feasibility and Efficacy of Induction Docetaxel, Cisplatin, and 5-Fluorouracil Chemotherapy Combined With Cisplatin Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Nonmetastatic Stage IV Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, Robin J., E-mail: Robin.Prestwich@leedsth.nhs.uk [Department of Clinical Oncology, St. James's Institute of Oncology, Leeds (United Kingdom); Oeksuez, Didem Colpan; Dyker, Karen; Coyle, Catherine; Sen, Mehmet [Department of Clinical Oncology, St. James's Institute of Oncology, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To report the experience of treating selected fit patients with locally advanced head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma with three cycles of induction TPF (docetaxel 75 mg/m{sup 2}, cisplatin 75 mg/m{sup 2}, 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/m{sup 2}, Days 2-5) followed by concurrent three-weekly bolus cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between March 2006 and February 2010, 66 patients with nonmetastatic Stage IV head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma were treated in a single institution with three cycles of induction TPF, followed by radical radiotherapy with concurrent cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2}. Results: Median age was 54 years (range, 33-69 years). Median follow-up was 21 months (range, 4-55 months). During TPF, Grade 3 toxicity occurred in 18 patients (27%), dose modifications in 10 (15%), delays in 3 (5%), and unplanned admissions in 6 (9%); a clinical tumor response was documented in 60 patients (91%). Median time from the final cycle of TPF to commencing radiotherapy was 22 days. Sixty-two patients (94%) received radical radiotherapy, and all completed treatment with no delays {>=}3 days. One, two, and three cycles of concurrent cisplatin were delivered to 18 patients (29%), 38 patients (61%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Ninety-two percent of patients received enteral feeding; median weight loss during treatment was 7%. Forty-two patients (68%) had unplanned admissions with no on-treatment deaths. Three unrelated deaths occurred after treatment. At 1 year after treatment, 21% of patients without disease progression remained gastrostomy dependent. Of 58 assessable patients, 50 (86%) achieved a complete response after treatment. One- and 2-year progression-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival were 88%, 92%, and 86% and 80%, 85%, and 80%, respectively. Conclusion: The combination of induction TPF with concurrent cisplatin chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is tolerable, with encouraging efficacy.

  15. Systemic Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Cytotoxic Chemotherapy, Targeted Therapy and Immunotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melanie B. Thomas; James P. O’Beirne; Junji Furuse; Anthony T. C. Chan; Ghassan Abou-Alfa; Philip Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy has not provided clinical benefit or prolonged survival for patients with advanced HCC.\\u000a This review summarizes the results of prospective clinical trials of several categories of systemic therapy, with emphasis\\u000a on the more promising results from recent trials of biologically targeted therapeutic agents in HCC.

  16. Design and Analysis Techniques for Concurrent Blackboard Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, John William

    1992-01-01

    Blackboard systems are a natural progression of knowledge-based systems into a more powerful problem solving technique. They provide a way for several highly specialized knowledge sources to cooperate to solve large, complex problems. Blackboard systems incorporate the concepts developed by rule-based and expert systems programmers and include the ability to add conventionally coded knowledge sources. The small and specialized knowledge sources are easier to develop and test, and can be hosted on hardware specifically suited to the task that they are solving. The Formal Model for Blackboard Systems was developed to provide a consistent method for describing a blackboard system. A set of blackboard system design tools has been developed and validated for implementing systems that are expressed using the Formal Model. The tools are used to test and refine a proposed blackboard system design before the design is implemented. My research has shown that the level of independence and specialization of the knowledge sources directly affects the performance of blackboard systems. Using the design, simulation, and analysis tools, I developed a concurrent object-oriented blackboard system that is faster, more efficient, and more powerful than existing systems. The use of the design and analysis tools provided the highly specialized and independent knowledge sources required for my concurrent blackboard system to achieve its design goals.

  17. Performance study of optimistic concurrency control schemes for distributed database systems

    E-print Network

    Kim Lee, Hyunsoon

    1993-01-01

    . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND 2. 1 Transaction . 2. 2 Anomalies and Seriaiizable Execution 2. 3 The System Model . . 2. 4 Basic Concurrency Control Mechanisms 2. 5 Distributed Certification . . 2. 5. 1 Pure... Certification: Ceri's Algorithm. . . . . . . . . . 2. 5. 2 Forward-oriented Certification: Robinson's Algorithm 2. 5. 3 Certification with Locking: Yu's Algorithm 2. 5. 4 Certification with Locking: Sheth's Algorithm 8c Pons' Algorithm 2. 5. 5 Certification...

  18. An inexpensive multiplexing system for recording multiple physiological responses from several subjects concurrently

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Vandercar; H. F. Lamphear; Herb Karl

    1979-01-01

    A complete multiplexing system capable of transducing and recording four physiological responses concurrently from six subjects\\u000a at a time is described. Skin conductance level was recorded from the nonpreferred hand with the aid of a simple constant-voltage\\u000a circuit. Tempera-ture was recorded from the left and right middle fingers with thermistors. Integrated electromyographic activity\\u000a was recorded from the frontalis muscle with

  19. Concurrent packaging architecture design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lipeng Cao; J. Peter Krusius

    1995-01-01

    Packaging constitutes one of the primary limits on the performance and partitioning of high density electronic systems. A concurrent design methodology for the design of physical packaging hierarchies is presented. Architecture, electrical performance, and energy management aspects of the system are included. The CAD system AUDIT implements this design methodology. The concurrent design capability has been illustrated using model systems

  20. Radiation Therapy with Concurrent Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Carcinoma: Outcome Analysis with Emphasis on the Impact of Treatment Duration on Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Juan; Micaily, Bizhan; Ferriss, J. Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effectiveness and toxicity of carboplatin concurrent with pelvic external beam radiation and low-dose rate brachytherapy and to assess the impact that adherence to the treatment plan has on outcomes. Methods. Retrospective chart review of 56 patients treated from January 2001 to December 2010. Results. Median follow-up was 68 months. Optimal dose of radiation (ORT) was defined as a minimal cervical dose exceeding 70?Gy, point A dose of 80–90?Gy, and duration not exceeding 56 days. Only 50% received ORT. In multivariable analyses we only found ORT to be statistically significant predictor for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (HR [95% CI] for non-ORT vs. ORT: 2.4 [1.2, 5.1], P = 0.014 for PFS and 2.2 [1.1, 4.6], P = 0.035 for OS). The 5-year PFS in patients who received ORT was better than that in patients who received non-ORT, 56% vs. 22% (95% CI: [36%, 72%] vs. [9%, 39%]). Patients who received ORT had a better 5-year OS as well (59% vs. 33%; 95% CI: [38%, 75%] vs. [16%, 51%]). Conclusion. Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with weakly carboplatin or cisplatin, teletherapy, and low dose-dose rate brachytherapy have poorer outcomes when treatment duration is prolonged. PMID:25431594

  1. Phase 2 trial of temozolomide and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in the treatment of patients with glioblastoma multiforme following concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ananda, Sumitra; Nowak, Anna K; Cher, Lawrence; Dowling, Anthony; Brown, Chris; Simes, John; Rosenthal, Mark A

    2011-11-01

    Concurrent and post-radiotherapy temozolomide (T) significantly improves survival in patient with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme. We aimed to assess the activity of the combination of T and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in this population. A combination of T (days 1-5, 200mg/m(2) orally) and PLD (day 1, 40 mg/m(2) intravenous) was given every 4 weeks for six cycles following chemo-radiotherapy as a post-operative treatment. The primary endpoint was 6-month progression free survival (6PFS). Of the 40 patients who enrolled (53 years median age, 73% male), the 6PFS was 58% (95% confidence interval [CI], 41-72%). The median time to progression was 6.2 months (95% CI, 5.6-8.0 months) and overall survival (OS) was 13.4 months (95% CI, 12.7-15.8 months). Thirty-four patients had measurable disease: one had a complete response (3%), 28 had stable disease (82%), and five had progressive disease (15%). Treatment was well tolerated: hematological toxicity included grade 3 neutropenia (8%). Grade 3 non-hematologic toxicity included nausea and vomiting (8%) and palmar-plantar toxicity (5%). We concluded that combination T and PLD is well tolerated but does not add significant clinical benefit regarding 6PFS and OS. PMID:21813279

  2. Concurrent Mission and Systems Design at NASA Glenn Research Center: The Origins of the COMPASS Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Oleson, Steven R.; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Established at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in 2006 to meet the need for rapid mission analysis and multi-disciplinary systems design for in-space and human missions, the Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team is a multidisciplinary, concurrent engineering group whose primary purpose is to perform integrated systems analysis, but it is also capable of designing any system that involves one or more of the disciplines present in the team. The authors were involved in the development of the COMPASS team and its design process, and are continuously making refinements and enhancements. The team was unofficially started in the early 2000s as part of the distributed team known as Team JIMO (Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter) in support of the multi-center collaborative JIMO spacecraft design during Project Prometheus. This paper documents the origins of a concurrent mission and systems design team at GRC and how it evolved into the COMPASS team, including defining the process, gathering the team and tools, building the facility, and performing studies.

  3. Phase II Study of Accelerated High-Dose Radiotherapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Patients With Limited Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 0239

    SciTech Connect

    Komaki, Ritsuko, E-mail: rkomaki@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Paulus, Rebecca [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ettinger, David S. [Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Videtic, Gregory M.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Bradley, Jeffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Glisson, Bonnie S. [Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Langer, Corey J. [Thoracic Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sause, William T. [Radiation Center, LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Curran, Walter J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Choy, Hak [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether high-dose thoracic radiation given twice daily during cisplatin-etoposide chemotherapy for limited small-cell lung cancer (LSCLC) improves survival, acute esophagitis, and local control rates relative to findings from Intergroup trial 0096 (47%, 27%, and 64%). Patients and Methods: Patients were accrued over a 3-year period from 22 US and Canadian institutions. Patients with LSCLC and good performance status were given thoracic radiation to 61.2 Gy over 5 weeks (daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 1-22, then twice-daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 23-33). Cisplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2} IV) was given on day 1 and etoposide (120 mg/m{sup 2} IV) on days 1-3 and days 22-24, followed by 2 cycles of cisplatin plus etoposide alone. Patients who achieved complete response were offered prophylactic cranial irradiation. Endpoints included overall and progression-free survival; severe esophagitis (Common Toxicity Criteria v 2.0) and treatment-related fatalities; response (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors); and local control. Results: Seventy-two patients were accrued from June 2003 through May 2006; 71 were evaluable (median age 63 years; 52% female; 58% Zubrod 0). Median survival time was 19 months; at 2 years, the overall survival rate was 36.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.6%-47.7%), and progression-free survival 19.7% (95% CI 11.4%-29.6%). Thirteen patients (18%) experienced severe acute esophagitis, and 2 (3%) died of treatment-related causes; 41% achieved complete response, 39% partial response, 10% stable disease, and 6% progressive disease. The local control rate was 73%. Forty-three patients (61%) received prophylactic cranial irradiation. Conclusions: The overall survival rate did not reach the projected goal; however, rates of esophagitis were lower, and local control higher, than projected. This treatment strategy is now one of three arms of a prospective trial of chemoradiation for LSCLC (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0538/Cancer and Leukemia Group B 30610).

  4. Cytoreductive Surgery of Colorectal Peritoneal Metastases: Outcomes after Complete Cytoreductive Surgery and Systemic Chemotherapy Only

    PubMed Central

    Désolneux, Grégoire; Mazière, Camille; Vara, Jérémy; Brouste, Véronique; Fonck, Marianne; Béchade, Dominique; Bécouarn, Yves; Evrard, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background Cytoreductive peritoneal surgery (CRS) associated with hyperthermic peritoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has long been considered the standard treatment for colorectal peritoneal metastases (CPM). However, although efficacy of surgery has been demonstrated, evidence supporting HIPEC’s role is less certain. Method Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and morbidity were analysed retrospectively for fifty consecutively included patients treated for colorectal CPM with complete CRS and systemic chemotherapy only. Results Median peritoneal cancer index (PCI) was 8 (range 1-24). 23 patients had liver or lung metastases (LLM). 22 patients had synchronous CPM. 27 complications occurred (12 Grade 1/2, 14 Grade 3, 1 Grade 4a, 0 Grade 5). Median follow-up was 62.5 months (95 %CI 45.4-81.3), median survival 32.4 months (21.5-41.7). Three- and 5-year OS were 45.5% (0.31-0.59) and 29.64% (0.17-0.44) respectively. Presence of LLMs associated with peritoneal carcinomatosis was significantly associated with poorer prognosis, with survival at 5 years of 13.95% (95 %CI 2.9-33.6) vs. 43.87% (22.2-63.7) when no metastases were present (P= 0.018). Median PFS was 9.5 months (95 %CI 6.2-11.1). Conclusion With an equivalent PCI range and despite one of the highest rates of LLM in the literature, our survival data of CRS + systemic chemotherapy only compare well with results reported after additional HIPEC. Tolerance was better with acceptable morbidity without any mortality. Extra-hepatic metastasis (LLM) is a strong factor of poor prognosis. Awaiting the results of the randomized PRODIGE trial, these results indicate that CRS + systemic chemotherapy only is a robust hypothesis to treat colorectal CPM. PMID:25825874

  5. Prognostic Value of Pretreatment Carcinoembryonic Antigen After Definitive Radiotherapy With or Without Concurrent Chemotherapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Eng-Yen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Hsuan-Chih [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Sun, Li-Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zuoying Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan (China); Chanchien, Chan-Chao [School of Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hao [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hui-Chun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Chih-Wen; Ou, Yu-Che; Chang, Hung-Yao [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Fang, Fu-Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Chang-Yu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lu, Hsien-Ming; Tsai, Ching-Chou [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); and others

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate whether pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels have a prognostic role in patients after definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study of 550 patients was performed. The SCC antigen (SCC-Ag) and CEA levels were regarded as elevated when they were {>=}2 and {>=}5 ng/mL, respectively. A total of 208 patients underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the distant metastasis (DM), local failure (LF), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. The hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was evaluated for the risk of a poor prognosis. Results: Compared with the patients with normal CEA/SCC-Ag levels, CEA levels {>=}10 ng/mL but without elevated SCC-Ag levels was an independent factor for LF (HR, 51.81; 95% CI, 11.51-233.23; p < .001), DM (HR, 6.04; 95% CI, 1.58-23.01; p = .008), DFS (HR, 10.17; 95% CI, 3.18-32.56; p < .001), and OS (HR, 5.75; 95% CI, 1.82-18.18; p = .003) after RT alone. However, no significant role for CEA was noted in patients with SCC-Ag levels {>=}2 ng/mL. In patients undergoing CCRT, a CEA level {>=}10 ng/mL was an independent factor for LF (HR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.01-6.21; p = .047), DM (HR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.56-7.46; p = .002), DFS (HR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.39-5.36; p = .003), and OS (HR, 3.93; 95% CI 1.99-7.75; p < .001). A SCC-Ag level of {>=}40 ng/mL was another prognostic factor for DM, DFS, and OS in patients undergoing not only CCRT, but also RT alone. The 5-year OS rate for CCRT patients with CEA <10 ng/mL and {>=}10 ng/mL was 75.3% and 35.8%, respectively (p < .001). CCRT was an independent factor for better OS (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.50-0.97; p = .034). Conclusion: Pretreatment CEA levels in patients with SCC of the uterine cervix provide complementary information for predicting LF, DM, DFS, and OS, except for in patients with abnormal SCC-Ag levels before RT alone. More aggressive therapy might be advisable for patients with CEA levels of {>=}10 ng/mL.

  6. Proposal for direct measurement of concurrence via visibility in a cavity QED system

    E-print Network

    Lee, Sang Min; Ji, Se-Wan; Lee, Hai-Woong; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2008-01-01

    Proposal for direct measurement of concurrence via visibility in a cavity QED system Sang Min Lee,1 Se-Wan Ji,1 Hai-Woong Lee,1 and M. Suhail Zubairy2,3 1Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305...-701, Korea 2Department of Physics and Institute for Quantum Studies, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242, USA 3Texas A&M University at Qatar, Education City, P.O. Box 23874, Doha, Qatar #1;Received 24 January 2008; published 22 April...

  7. Concurrent programming and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, I.J.; Gehani, N.H.

    1989-04-01

    Many current robot systems exhibit a significant degree of concurrency, doing many activities in parallel. Future sensor-based robots are expected to exhibit even more concurrency. Programs to control such robots are characterized by the need to wait for external events and/or handle interrupts, deal with concurrent activities, synchronize actions with external events, and communicate with other robots and processes. In this paper, the authors focus on the advantages of concurrent programming for robotics and suggest that a general-purpose language with the right facilities is a good vehicle for robot programming. In this context they discuss Concurrent C, an upward-compatible extension of the C language that provides high-level concurrent programming facilities. They give an historical perspective of concurrent programming followed by a brief description of Concurrent C and how Concurrent C programs communicate with robots and devices. They show by examples how Concurrent C simplifies writing robot programs. Of specific interest are the process interaction and related interrupt handling facilities.

  8. Online chemotherapy symptom care and patient management system: an evaluative study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Moon Fai; Ang, Neo Kim Emily; Cho, Aye Aye; Chow, Ying Leng; Taylor, Beverly

    2014-02-01

    Health delivery practices are shifting toward home care, because of better possibilities for managing chronic care, controlling health delivery costs, and increasing the quality of life and quality of health services, and the distinct possibility of predicting and thus avoiding serious complications. The study aimed to explore the benefits of an online Symptom Care and Management System in the home for patients receiving chemotherapy. A single-group experimental design was used. Thirty patients aged between 37 and 77 years undergoing their first or commencing a new course of chemotherapy treatment were recruited from November 2010 and December 2012 at a cancer center in Singapore. All patients used the Symptom Care and Management System to send daily symptom reports to the cancer center and received symptom management advice from the oncology nurse via teleconferencing during the first four chemotherapy treatment cycles. Patients' perceptions of the use of the Symptom Care and Management System were evaluated. All participants perceived the Symptom Care and Management System as a user-friendly interface and believed that they felt more involved in their care, and the system made it easier to understand some of the problems they experienced and helped them manage the symptoms more easily during the treatment. In addition, 29 participants (96.7%) felt that the nurse could contact them better via the Symptom Care and Management System, the Symptom Care and Management System helped them explain their symptoms to the nurse, and that it was simple to understand. The results presented in this study suggested that the Symptom Care and Management System has the potential to enhance remote monitoring and provides a feasible and acceptable way for a specific group of cancer patients to manage their symptoms at home. PMID:24378370

  9. Long-term Follow-up of the RTOG 9501/Intergroup Phase III Trial: Postoperative Concurrent Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy in High-Risk Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Jay S., E-mail: jcooper@maimonidesmed.org [Maimonides Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zhang Qiang; Pajak, Thomas F. [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Forastiere, Arlene A. [Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Jacobs, John [Barbara Ann Karmanos Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States)] [Barbara Ann Karmanos Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Saxman, Scott B. [Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)] [Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Kish, Julie A. [H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States)] [H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Kim, Harold E. [Wayne State University Medical Center, Detroit, Michigan (United States)] [Wayne State University Medical Center, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Cmelak, Anthony J. [Vanderbilt Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee (United States)] [Vanderbilt Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Rotman, Marvin [SUNY Health Center at Brooklyn, Brooklyn, New York (United States)] [SUNY Health Center at Brooklyn, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Lustig, Robert [Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ensley, John F. [Barbara Ann Karmanos Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States)] [Barbara Ann Karmanos Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Thorstad, Wade [Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)] [Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Schultz, Christopher J. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)] [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Yom, Sue S. [University of California, San Francisco, California (United States)] [University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Ang, K. Kian [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: Previous analysis of this Intergroup trial demonstrated that with a median follow-up among surviving patients of 45.9 months, the concurrent postoperative administration of cisplatin and radiation therapy improved local-regional control and disease-free survival of patients who had high-risk resectable head-and-neck carcinomas. With a minimum of 10 years of follow-up potentially now available for all patients, these results are updated here to examine long-term outcomes. Methods and Materials: A total of 410 analyzable patients who had high-risk resected head-and-neck cancers were prospectively randomized to receive either radiation therapy (RT: 60 Gy in 6 weeks) or identical RT plus cisplatin, 100 mg/m{sup 2}i.v. on days 1, 22, and 43 (RT + CT). Results: At 10 years, the local-regional failure rates were 28.8% vs 22.3% (P=.10), disease-free survival was 19.1% vs 20.1% (P=.25), and overall survival was 27.0% vs 29.1% (P=.31) for patients treated by RT vs RT + CT, respectively. In the unplanned subset analysis limited to patients who had microscopically involved resection margins and/or extracapsular spread of disease, local-regional failure occurred in 33.1% vs 21.0% (P=.02), disease-free survival was 12.3% vs 18.4% (P=.05), and overall survival was 19.6% vs 27.1% (P=.07), respectively. Conclusion: At a median follow-up of 9.4 years for surviving patients, no significant differences in outcome were observed in the analysis of all randomized eligible patients. However, analysis of the subgroup of patients who had either microscopically involved resection margins and/or extracapsular spread of disease showed improved local-regional control and disease-free survival with concurrent administration of chemotherapy. The remaining subgroup of patients who were enrolled only because they had tumor in 2 or more lymph nodes did not benefit from the addition of CT to RT.

  10. Long-Term Follow-Up of the RTOG 9501/Intergroup Phase III Trial: Postoperative Concurrent Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy in High-Risk Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head & Neck

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jay S.; Zhang, Qiang; Pajak, Thomas F.; Forastiere, Arlene A.; Jacobs, John; Saxman, Scott B.; Kish, Julie A.; Kim, Harold E.; Cmelak, Anthony J.; Rotman, Marvin; Lustig, Robert; Ensley, John F.; Thorstad, Wade; Schultz, Christopher J.; Yom, Sue S.; Ang, K. Kian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Previous analysis of this Intergroup trial demonstrated that with a median follow-up among surviving patients of 45.9 months, the concurrent postoperative administration of cisplatin and radiation therapy improved local-regional control and disease-free survival of patients who had high-risk resectable head and neck carcinomas. With a minimum of 10 years of follow-up potentially now available for all patients, these results are herein updated to examine long-term outcomes. Methods and Materials 410 analyzable patients who had high-risk resected head and neck cancers were prospectively randomized to receive either radiation therapy (RT: 60 Gy in 6 weeks) or identical RT plus cisplatin, 100 mg/m2 i.v. on days 1, 22, and 43 (RT + CT). Results At 10 years, the local-regional failure rates were 28.8% vs. 22.3% (p=0.10), disease-free survival was 19.1% vs. 20.1% (p=0.25) and overall survival was 27.0% vs. 29.1% (p=0.31) for patients treated by RT vs. RT + CT respectively. In the unplanned subset analysis limited to patients who had microscopically involved resection margins and/or extracapsular spread of disease, local-regional failure occurred in 33.1% vs. 21.0% (p=0.02), disease-free survival was 12.3% vs. 18.4% (p=0.05) and overall survival was 19.6% vs. 27.1% (p=0.07) respectively. Conclusion At a median follow-up of 9.4 years for surviving patients no significant differences in outcome were observed in the analysis of all randomized eligible patients. However, analysis of the subgroup of patients who had either microscopically involved resection margins and/or extracapsular spread of disease showed improved local-regional control and disease-free survival with concurrent administration of chemotherapy. The remaining subgroup of patients who were enrolled only because they had tumor in 2 or more lymph nodes did not benefit from the addition of CT to RT. PMID:22749632

  11. Phase II Trial of Combined Modality Therapy With Concurrent Topotecan Plus Radiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy for Unresectable Stage III and Selected Stage IV Non-Small-Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Seung, Steven K. [Oregon Clinic, Portland, OR (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Portland, OR (United States)], E-mail: steven.seung@providence.org; Ross, Helen J. [Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: The optimal combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) and the role of consolidation chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are unknown. Topotecan is active against NSCLC, can safely be combined with RT at effective systemic doses, and can be given by continuous infusion, making it an attractive study agent against locally advanced NSCLC. Methods and Materials: In this pilot study, 20 patients were treated with infusion topotecan 0.4 mg/m{sup 2}/d with three-dimensional conformal RT to 63 Gy both delivered Monday through Friday for 7 weeks. Patients without progression underwent consolidation chemotherapy with etoposide and a platinum agent for one cycle followed by two cycles of docetaxel. The study endpoints were treatment response, time to progression, survival, and toxicity. Results: Of the 20 patients, 19 completed induction chemoradiotherapy and 13 completed consolidation. Of the 20 patients, 18 had a partial response and 1 had stable disease after induction chemoradiotherapy. The 3-year overall survival rate was 32% (median, 18 months). The local and distant progression-free survival rate was 30% (median, 21 months) and 58% (median, not reached), respectively. Three patients developed central nervous system metastases, 1 within 228 days, 1 within 252 days, and 1 within 588 days. Three patients had pulmonary emboli. Therapy was well tolerated with 1 of 20 developing Grade 4 lymphopenia. Grade 3 hematologic toxicity was seen in 17 of 20 patients but was not clinically significant. Other Grade 3 toxicities included esophagitis in 3, esophageal stricture in 2, fatigue in 8, and weight loss in 1. Grade 3 pneumonitis occurred in 6 of 20 patients. Conclusion: Continuous infusion topotecan with RT was well tolerated and active in the treatment of poor-risk patients with unresectable Stage III NSCLC.

  12. A Comparison of the Concurrence and the Quantum Discord in a Two-Qubit System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guo-Hui; Wang, Rong

    2015-02-01

    The quantum correlation dynamics in an anisotropic Heisenberg XYZ model under decoherence are investigated with the use of concurrence C and quantum discord (QD). There is a remarkable difference between the time evolution behaviors of these two correlation measures: there is a entanglement-sudden-death phenomenon in the concurrence while there is none in QD, which is valid for all of the initial states of this system, and the interval time of the entanglement death is found to be strongly dependent on the initial states and the parameters B and ?. With the long-time limit the steady entanglement (SC) and steady quantum discord (SQD) can be obtained. The magnitudes of SC and SQD are closely related to the parameters B and ?, while the strength of the Dzyaloshinskii—Moriya interaction, D, has no influence. In addition, the effects of the parameters B and ? on SC and SQD display such different and complicated features that one cannot obtain a uniform law about them, thus we give an analytical explanation of this phenomenon. Lastly, it can be noted that the value of SC is not always larger than SQD, which is strongly dependent on the parameters B and ?.

  13. Correctness of Concurrent Executions of Closed Nested Transactions in Transactional Memory Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peri, Sathya; Vidyasankar, Krishnamurthy

    A generally agreed upon requirement for correctness of concurrent executions in Transactional Memory systems is that all transactions including the aborted ones read consistent values. Opacity is a recently proposed correctness criterion that satisfies the above requirement. Our first contribution in this paper is extending the opacity definition for closed nested transactions. Secondly, we define conflicts appropriate for optimistic executions which are commonly used in Software Transactional Memory systems. Using these conflicts, we define a restricted, conflict-preserving, class of opacity for closed nested transactions the membership of which can be tested in polynomial time. As our third contribution, we propose a correctness criterion that defines a class of schedules where aborted transactions do not affect consistency of the other transactions. We define a conflict-preserving subclass of this class as well. Both the class definitions and the conflict definition are new for nested transactions.

  14. Post-game analysis: An initial experiment for heuristic-based resource management in concurrent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry C.

    1987-01-01

    In concurrent systems, a major responsibility of the resource management system is to decide how the application program is to be mapped onto the multi-processor. Instead of using abstract program and machine models, a generate-and-test framework known as 'post-game analysis' that is based on data gathered during program execution is proposed. Each iteration consists of (1) (a simulation of) an execution of the program; (2) analysis of the data gathered; and (3) the proposal of a new mapping that would have a smaller execution time. These heuristics are applied to predict execution time changes in response to small perturbations applied to the current mapping. An initial experiment was carried out using simple strategies on 'pipeline-like' applications. The results obtained from four simple strategies demonstrated that for this kind of application, even simple strategies can produce acceptable speed-up with a small number of iterations.

  15. Cancer Chemotherapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cells grow and die in a controlled way. Cancer cells keep forming without control. Chemotherapy is drug ... Your course of therapy will depend on the cancer type, the chemotherapy drugs used, the treatment goal ...

  16. Multivariate analysis of brain metabolism reveals chemotherapy effects on prefrontal cerebellar system when related to dorsal attention network

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional brain changes induced by chemotherapy are still not well characterized. We used a novel approach with a multivariate technique to analyze brain resting state [18?F]FDG-PET in patients with lymphoma, to explore differences on cerebral metabolic glucose rate between chemotherapy-treated and non-treated patients. Methods PET/CT scan was performed on 28 patients, with 14 treated with systemic chemotherapy. We used a support vector machine (SVM) classification, extracting the mean metabolism from the metabolic patterns, or networks, that discriminate the two groups. We calculated the correct classifications of the two groups using the mean metabolic values extracted by the networks. Results The SVM classification analysis gave clear-cut patterns that discriminate the two groups. The first, hypometabolic network in chemotherapy patients, included mostly prefrontal cortex and cerebellar areas (central executive network, CEN, and salience network, SN); the second, which is equal between groups, included mostly parietal areas and the frontal eye field (dorsal attention network, DAN). The correct classification membership to chemotherapy or not chemotherapy-treated patients, using only one network, was of 50% to 68%; however, when all the networks were used together, it reached 80%. Conclusions The evidenced networks were related to attention and executive functions, with CEN and SN more specialized in shifting, inhibition and monitoring, DAN in orienting attention. Only using DAN as a reference point, indicating the global frontal functioning before chemotherapy, we could better classify the subjects. The emerging concept consists in the importance of the investigation of brain intrinsic networks and their relations in chemotherapy cognitive induced changes. PMID:23557152

  17. The Concert System -- Compiler and Runtime Support for Efficient, Fine-Grained Concurrent Object-Oriented Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    The introduction of concurrency complicates the already difficult task of large-scale programming.Concurrent object-oriented languages provide a mechanism, encapsulation, for managingthe increased complexity of large-scale concurrent programs, thereby reducing the difficulty oflarge scale concurrent programming. In particular, fine-grained object-oriented approaches providemodularity through encapsulation while exposing large degrees of concurrency. Thoughfine-grained concurrent...

  18. Central Nervous System Injury, Neurocognitive and Quality of Life Outcomes in Children with Brain Tumors Treated with Chemotherapy

    E-print Network

    Baron Nelson, Mary Christine

    2012-01-01

    the proposed research was that chemotherapy, a potentiallyRadiation/Chemotherapy Effect on CNS Basic science researchresearch on long-term neurocognitive outcomes of children treated with chemotherapy

  19. Role of chemotherapy in stage IIb nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xin-Bin; Zhu, Xiao-Dong

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy on stage IIb nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unclear. Conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy combined with concurrent chemotherapy can improve the overall survival, progression-free survival, recurrence-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival of patients with stage IIb NPC. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy without concurrent chemotherapy also provides good outcomes for patients with stage IIb NPC. This article summarizes the features of stage IIb NPC and reviews the role of chemotherapy in this subgroup of NPC. PMID:22776232

  20. Algorithms incorporating concurrency and caching

    E-print Network

    Fineman, Jeremy T

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes provably good algorithms for modern large-scale computer systems, including today's multicores. Designing efficient algorithms for these systems involves overcoming many challenges, including concurrency ...

  1. Concurrency: Mutual Exclusion and

    E-print Network

    Mikulas, Szabolcs

    Chapter 5 Concurrency: Mutual Exclusion and Synchronization Operating Systems: Internals and Design · Data incoherency · Deadlock: processes are "frozen" because of mutual dependency on each other Regions Mutual exclusion using critical regions #12;Mutual exclusion Critical region: part of the program

  2. Design for X-Abilities of a Mechatronic SystemA Concurrent Engineering and Graph Theory Based Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Phaneendra Kiran; Shibu Clement; V. P. Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    Design of a mechatronic system requires multidisciplinary knowledge. A designer should consider product lifecycle issues as well as design and manufacturing strategies simultaneously at conceptual design stage without missing any of the information. The proposed methodology concurrently considers all the x-abilities\\/design aspects along with interactions without missing any information and hence leads to a high quality product. A methodology which

  3. Concurrent Circuit-Level/System-Level Optimization of a 24 GHz Mixer for Automotive Applications Using a Hybrid

    E-print Network

    Tentzeris, Manos

    Concurrent Circuit-Level/System-Level Optimization of a 24 GHz Mixer for Automotive Applications between a car and an obstacle and can be used to reduce reaction times, avoid accidents or simply monitor these performances are affected by each other, namely how they interact. Previous work [4] shows successful use

  4. A concurrent diagnosis of microbiological food safety output and food safety management system performance: Cases from meat processing industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Luning; L. Jacxsens; J. Rovira; S. M. Osés; M. Uyttendaele; W. J. Marcelis

    2011-01-01

    Stakeholder requirements force companies to analyse their food safety management system (FSMS) performance to improve food safety. Performance is commonly analysed by checking compliance against preset requirements via audits\\/inspections, or actual food safety (FS) output is analysed by microbiological testing. This paper discusses the usefulness of a concurrent diagnosis of FSMS performance and FS output using new tools; illustrated for

  5. Component-based software as a framework for concurrent design of programs and platforms - an industrial kitchen appliance embedded system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jenko; N. Medjeral; P. Butala

    2001-01-01

    Designs of hardware, mechanics and software for a new mechatronic system are to be performed concurrently in order to have a new product in the market in the shortest possible time. Traditionally, major hardware blocks need to be designed and built first. They represent a platform for software writing and testing. A software design concept that enables a parallel design

  6. A Multiobjective Evolutionary Approach to Concurrently Learn Rule and Data Bases of Linguistic Fuzzy-Rule-Based Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Alcalá; Pietro Ducange; Francisco Herrera; Beatrice Lazzerini; Francesco Marcelloni

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the use of a multiobjective evolutionary approach to generate a set of linguistic fuzzy-rule-based systems with different tradeoffs between accuracy and interpretability in regression problems. Accuracy and interpretability are measured in terms of approximation error and rule base (RB) complexity, respectively. The proposed approach is based on concurrently learning RBs and parameters of the membership

  7. Relaxation\\/Newton methods for concurrent time step solution of differential-algebraic equations in power system dynamic simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. La Scala; A. Bose

    1993-01-01

    A class of algorithms that exploits the concurrent solution of many time steps is presented. By applying a stable integration method, the overall algebraic-differential set of equations can be transformed into a unique algebraic problem at each time step. The dynamic behavior of the system can be obtained by solving an enlarged set of algebraic equations relative to the simultaneous

  8. CIS 632: Modeling Concurrent Systems Honor Policy As stated in the course syllabus, every student is expected to behave

    E-print Network

    Older, Susan

    CIS 632: Modeling Concurrent Systems Honor Policy As stated in the course syllabus, every student without giving proper credit. In both of the above cases, it is cheating and fraud to pass off some- thing for breaking this policy is a failing grade (F) for the course. Printed Name: Signature: Date: Email Address

  9. Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS) for Concurrent and Distributed Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Altus, Troy D.; Phillips, Matthew; Sandusky, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The paper introduces a new version of the Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS) methods intended for optimization of engineering systems conducted by distributed specialty groups working concurrently and using a multiprocessor computing environment. The method decomposes the overall optimization task into subtasks associated with disciplines or subsystems where the local design variables are numerous and a single, system-level optimization whose design variables are relatively few. The subtasks are fully autonomous as to their inner operations and decision making. Their purpose is to eliminate the local design variables and generate a wide spectrum of feasible designs whose behavior is represented by Response Surfaces to be accessed by a system-level optimization. It is shown that, if the problem is convex, the solution of the decomposed problem is the same as that obtained without decomposition. A simplified example of an aircraft design shows the method working as intended. The paper includes a discussion of the method merits and demerits and recommendations for further research.

  10. Phase I Trial Using Patupilone (Epothilone B) and Concurrent Radiotherapy for Central Nervous System Malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Fogh, Shannon; Machtay, Mitchell; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Curran, Walter J.; Bonanni, Roseann [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Axelrod, Rita [Department of Medical Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Andrews, David [Department of Neurosurgery, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dicker, Adam P., E-mail: adam.dicker@jeffersonhospital.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Based on preclinical data indicating the radiosensitizing potential of epothilone B, the present study was designed to evaluate the toxicity and response rate of patupilone, an epothilone B, with concurrent radiotherapy (RT) for the treatment of central nervous system malignancies. Methods and Materials: The present Phase I study evaluated the toxicities associated with patupilone combined with RT to establish the maximal tolerated dose. Eligible patients had recurrent gliomas (n = 10) primary (n = 5) or metastatic (n = 17) brain tumors. Dose escalation occurred if no dose-limiting toxicities, defined as any Grade 4-5 toxicity or Grade 3 toxicity requiring hospitalization, occurred during treatment. Results: Of 14 patients, 5 were treated with weekly patupilone at 1.5 mg/m{sup 2}, 4 at 2.0 mg/m{sup 2}, 4 at 2.5 mg/m{sup 2}, and 1 at 4 mg/m{sup 2}. Of 18 patients, 7 were treated in the 6-mg/m{sup 2} group, 6 in the 8-mg/m{sup 2} group, and 5 in the 10-mg/m{sup 2} group. Primary central nervous system malignancies received RT to a median dose of 60 Gy. Central nervous system metastases received whole brain RT to a median dose of 37.4 Gy, and patients with recurrent gliomas underwent stereotactic RT to a median dose of 37.5 Gy. One dose-limiting toxicity (pneumonia) was observed in group receiving 8-mg/m{sup 2} every 3 weeks. At the subsequent dose level (10 mg/m{sup 2}), two Grade 4 dose-limiting toxicities occurred (renal failure and pulmonary hemorrhage); thus, 8 mg/m{sup 2} every 3 weeks was the maximal tolerated dose and the recommended Phase II dose. Conclusion: Combined with a variety of radiation doses and fractionation schedules, concurrent patupilone was well tolerated and safe, with a maximal tolerated dose of 8 mg/m{sup 2} every 3 weeks.

  11. Methodology for Examining the Operator and the System Concurrently: Pilot Interaction with Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, David; Degani, Asaf; Heymann, Michael; Moodi, Mike; Remington, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Complex system description is problematic when considering operator task activities interacting with system dynamics. Engineering languages have matured sufficiently to allow machine system description at various levels of depth and breadth but without operator synergy. Concurrently, Task Analysis methods have evolved along diverse lines enabling a description of the operator in the system from various paradigms but not describing the system. A void exists when attempting to view the system and the operator in the same plane. We propose a methodology employing descriptive languages from different domains viewed in a single dimension. Finite Automata (FA) languages describe the machine system in the proposed approach. Operator task specifications, a form of task analysis output, examine the operator activities within the system. Operator task specifications were then selected for discrete task activities and overlaid on the system description to examine operator inputs and subsequently view system responses. Unexpected (surprise) and undesirable system behavior was expected to emerge from this analysis. In this paper we shall first describe the methodology and show how the two perspectives, machine model and operator task specifications are integrated. Following we describe the process of doing such analysis using an example from cockpit automation. The methodology was employed in the analysis of a new function that was added to an existing automatic flight control system. We begin by defining a flight scenario involving all aspects of pilot interaction with the new function. Then, we proceed to develop a basic model of the machine behavior, in the context of pilot actions. Finally we superimpose the operator task specification on the machine model and perform the analysis. The proposed methodology may have broad appeal to system designers and human factors specialists. A common language for engineers of diverse domains is a strong point of this approach. Systems engineers may not fully understand operational considerations and human limitations, and human factors specialists may not be exposed to the full extent of system behavior. We hope the proposed methodology is adopted by both disciplines and in the process each assimilates a common language to address potential shortcomings of either approach separately.

  12. Integration of system-level optimization with concurrent engineering using parametric subsystem modeling

    E-print Network

    Schuman, Todd, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of concurrent design practices to the aerospace industry has greatly increased the efficiency and productivity of engineers during design sessions. Teams that are well-versed in such practices such as JPL's ...

  13. Efficacy and tolerance of a scalp-cooling system for prevention of hair loss and the experience of breast cancer patients treated by adjuvant chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christel Protière; Katrin Evans; Jacques Camerlo; Marie-Pierre d'Ingrado; Geneviève Macquart-Moulin; Patrice Viens; Dominique Maraninchi; Dominique Genre

    2002-01-01

    The applicability and efficacy of a scalp cooling system were studied in 105 breast cancer patients receiving four cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with mitoxantrone + cyclophosphamide (NC chemotherapy). Women accepting the scalp-cooling system were compared for alopecia both against those who refused and against a \\

  14. Understanding Chemotherapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it’s treated. Now I’ve finished my first cycle of chemo, and I feel very hopeful.” How can chemotherapy help me? Chemotherapy can be used to: l Destroy cancer cells l Stop cancer cells from spreading l Slow ...

  15. Concurrent-scene/alternate-pattern analysis for robust video-based docking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udomkesmalee, Suraphol

    1991-01-01

    A typical docking target employs a three-point design of retroreflective tape, one at each endpoint of the center-line, and one on the tip of the central post. Scenes, sensed via laser diode illumination, produce pictures with spots corresponding to desired reflection from the retroreflectors and other reflections. Control corrections for each axis of the vehicle can then be properly applied if the desired spots are accurately tracked. However, initial acquisition of these three spots (detection and identification problem) are non-trivial under a severe noise environment. Signal-to-noise enhancement, accomplished by subtracting the non-illuminated scene from the target scene illuminated by laser diodes, can not eliminate every false spot. Hence, minimization of docking failures due to target mistracking would suggest needed inclusion of added processing features pertaining to target locations. In this paper, we present a concurrent processing scheme for a modified docking target scene which could lead to a perfect docking system. Since the non-illuminated target scene is already available, adding another feature to the three-point design by marking two non-reflective lines, one between the two end-points and one from the tip of the central post to the center-line, would allow this line feature to be picked-up only when capturing the background scene (sensor data without laser illumination). Therefore, instead of performing the image subtraction to generate a picture with a high signal-to-noise ratio, a processed line-image based on the robust line detection technique (Hough transform) can be used to fuse with the actively sensed three-point target image to deduce the true locations of the docking target. This dual-channel confirmation scheme is necessary if a fail-safe system is to be realized from both the sensing and processing point-of-views. Detailed algorithms and preliminary results are presented.

  16. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 02-29: A Phase II Trial of Neoadjuvant Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy and Full-Dose Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgical Resection and Consolidative Therapy for Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Suntharalingam, Mohan, E-mail: msuntha@umm.edu [Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Paulus, Rebecca [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Edelman, Martin J. [Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Krasna, Mark [Cancer Center at St. Joseph Medical Center, Towson, Maryland (United States)] [Cancer Center at St. Joseph Medical Center, Towson, Maryland (United States); Burrows, Whitney [Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Gore, Elizabeth [Dept of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)] [Dept of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Dept of Radiation Oncology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)] [Dept of Radiation Oncology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Choy, Hak [Dept of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas (United States)] [Dept of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate mediastinal nodal clearance (MNC) rates after induction chemotherapy and concurrent, full-dose radiation therapy (RT) in a phase II trimodality trial (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 0229). Patients and Methods: Patients (n=57) with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (pathologically proven N2 or N3) were eligible. Induction chemotherapy consisted of weekly carboplatin (AUC = 2.0) and paclitaxel 50 mg/m{sup 2}. Concurrent RT was prescribed, with 50.4 Gy to the mediastinum and primary tumor and a boost of 10.8 Gy to all gross disease. The mediastinum was pathologically reassessed after completion of chemoradiation. The primary endpoint of the study was MNC, with secondary endpoints of 2-year overall survival and postoperative morbidity/mortality. Results: The grade 3/4 toxicities included hematologic 35%, gastrointestinal 14%, and pulmonary 23%. Forty-three patients (75%) were evaluable for the primary endpoint. Twenty-seven patients achieved the primary endpoint of MNC (63%). Thirty-seven patients underwent resection. There was a 14% incidence of grade 3 postoperative pulmonary complications and 1 30-day, postoperative grade 5 toxicity (3%). With a median follow-up of 24 months for all patients, the 2-year overall survival rate was 54%, and the 2-year progression-free survival rate was 33%. The 2-year overall survival rate was 75% for those who achieved nodal clearance, 52% for those with residual nodal disease, and 23% for those who were not evaluable for the primary endpoint (P=.0002). Conclusions: This multi-institutional trial confirms the ability of neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiation with full-dose RT to sterilize known mediastinal nodal disease.

  17. A web-based advisory system for process and material selection in concurrent product design for a manufacturing environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuan F. Zha

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the work of selecting suitable manufacturing processes and materials in concurrent design for manufacturing environment. In the paper, a fuzzy knowledge-based decision support method is proposed for multi-criteria decision-making in evaluating and selecting possible manufacturing process\\/material combinations in terms of the total production cost. Based on the proposed method, a prototype Web-based knowledge-intensive manufacturing consulting service system

  18. The TRIDEC System-of-Systems; Choreography of large-scale concurrent tasks in Natural Crisis Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häner, R.; Wächter, J.

    2012-04-01

    The project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), co-funded by the European Commission in its Seventh Framework Programme aims at establishing a network of dedicated, autonomous legacy systems for large-scale concurrent management of natural crises utilising heterogeneous information resources. TRIDEC's architecture reflects the System-of- Systems (SoS) approach which is based on task-oriented systems, cooperatively interacting as a collective in a common environment. The design of the TRIDEC-SoS follows the principles of service-oriented and event-driven architectures (SOA & EDA) exceedingly focusing on a loose coupling of the systems. The SoS approach in combination with SOA and EDA has the distinction of being able to provide novel and coherent behaviours and features resulting from a process of dynamic self-organisation. Self-organisation is a process without the need for a central or external coordinator controlling it through orchestration. It is the result of enacted concurrent tasks in a collaborative environment of geographically distributed systems. Although the individual systems act completely autonomously, their interactions expose emergent structures of evolving nature. Particularly, the fact is important that SoS are inherently able to evolve on all facets of intelligent information management. This includes adaptive properties, e.g. seamless integration of new resource types or the adoption of new fields in natural crisis management. In the case of TRIDEC with various heterogeneous participants involved, concurrent information processing is of fundamental importance because of the achievable improvements regarding cooperative decision making. Collaboration within TRIDEC will be implemented with choreographies and conversations. Choreographies specify the expected behaviour between two or more participants; conversations describe the message exchange between all participants emphasising their logical relation. The TRIDEC choreography will be based on the definition of Behavioural Interfaces and Service Level Agreements, which describe the interactions of all participants involved in the collaborative process by binding the tasks of dedicated systems to high-level business processes. All methods of a Behavioural Interfaces can be assigned dynamically to the activities of a business process. This allows it to utilise a system during the run-time of a business process and thus, for example enabling task balancing or the delegation of responsibilities. Since the individual parts of a SoS are normally managed independently and operate autonomously because of their geographical distribution it is of vital importance to ensure the reliability (robustness and correctness) of their interactions which will be achieved by applying the Design by Contract (DbC) approach to the TRIDEC architecture. Key challenge for TRIDEC is establishing a reliable adaptive system which exposes an emergent behaviour, for example intelligent monitoring strategies or dynamic system adaptions even in case of partly system failures. It is essential for TRIDEC that for example redundant parts of the system can take over tasks from defect components in a process of re-organising its network.

  19. Anticancer chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Despite troubled beginnings, anticancer chemotherapy has made significant contribution to the control of cancer in man, particularly within the last two decades. Early conceptual observations awakened the scientific community to the potentials of cancer chemotherapy. There are now more than 50 agents that are active in causing regression of clinical cancer. Chemotherapy's major conceptual contributions are two-fold. First, there is now proof that patients with overt metastatic disease can be cured, and second, to provide a strategy for control of occult metastases. In man, chemotherapy has resulted in normal life expectancy for some patients who have several types of metastatic cancers, including choriocarcinoma, Burkitt's lymphomas, Wilm's tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkins disease, diffuse histiocytic lymphoma and others. Anticancer chemotherapy in Veterinary medicine has evolved from the use of single agents, which produce only limited remissions, to the concept of combination chemotherapy. Three basic principles underline the design of combination chemotherapy protocols; the fraction of tumor cell killed by one drug is independent of the fraction killed by another drug; drugs with different mechanisms of action should be chosen so that the antitumor effects will be additive; and since different classes of drugs have different toxicities the toxic effects will not be additive.

  20. BOUNDED CONCURRENT TIME-STAMPING DANNY DOLEV AND NIR SHAVIT

    E-print Network

    Lynch, Nancy

    concurrent time-stamping, a paradigm that allows processes to tem- porally order concurrent eventsBOUNDED CONCURRENT TIME-STAMPING DANNY DOLEV AND NIR SHAVIT SIAM J. COMPUT. c 1997 Society in an asynchronous shared-memory system. Concurrent time-stamp systems are powerful tools for concurrency control

  1. Constraint programming approach to design of deadlock-free schedules in concurrent production systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Wójcik; Krzysztof Bzdyra; Manuel M. Crisóstomo; Zbigniew A. Banaszak

    2005-01-01

    This work presents constraint programming (CP) approach applied to determine deadlock-free schedules in concurrent production processes. The rules of resource conflict resolution have been expressed by means of a set of predicates, which define constraints for the problem decisive variables. Predicate model has been defined in time and event domains and implemented in procedures of propagating and distributing the variable

  2. Surviving Chemotherapy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Margaret A McMichael (Baton Rouge Community College Biological Sciences)

    2008-08-15

    Lecture outlinne, with embedded notes, to serve as a starting point for in-class discussion, student research and presentation. Lecture provides a review of cancer, chemotherapy, risk factors for cancer, and correlations between all and nutrition.

  3. Dynamic programming methods for concurrent design and dynamic allocation of vehicles embedded in a system-of-systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusawardhana

    2007-12-01

    Recent developments indicate a changing perspective on how systems or vehicles should be designed. Such transition comes from the way decision makers in defense related agencies address complex problems. Complex problems are now often posed in terms of the capabilities desired, rather than in terms of requirements for a single systems. As a result, the way to provide a set of capabilities is through a collection of several individual, independent systems. This collection of individual independent systems is often referred to as a "System of Systems'' (SoS). Because of the independent nature of the constituent systems in an SoS, approaches to design an SoS, and more specifically, approaches to design a new system as a member of an SoS, will likely be different than the traditional design approaches for complex, monolithic (meaning the constituent parts have no ability for independent operation) systems. Because a system of system evolves over time, this simultaneous system design and resource allocation problem should be investigated in a dynamic context. Such dynamic optimization problems are similar to conventional control problems. However, this research considers problems which not only seek optimizing policies but also seek the proper system or vehicle to operate under these policies. This thesis presents a framework and a set of analytical tools to solve a class of SoS problems that involves the simultaneous design of a new system and allocation of the new system along with existing systems. Such a class of problems belongs to the problems of concurrent design and control of a new systems with solutions consisting of both optimal system design and optimal control strategy. Rigorous mathematical arguments show that the proposed framework solves the concurrent design and control problems. Many results exist for dynamic optimization problems of linear systems. In contrary, results on optimal nonlinear dynamic optimization problems are rare. The proposed framework is equipped with the set of analytical tools to solve several cases of nonlinear optimal control problems: continuous- and discrete-time nonlinear problems with applications on both optimal regulation and tracking. These tools are useful when mathematical descriptions of dynamic systems are available. In the absence of such a mathematical model, it is often necessary to derive a solution based on computer simulation. For this case, a set of parameterized decision may constitute a solution. This thesis presents a method to adjust these parameters based on the principle of stochastic approximation simultaneous perturbation using continuous measurements. The set of tools developed here mostly employs the methods of exact dynamic programming. However, due to the complexity of SoS problems, this research also develops suboptimal solution approaches, collectively recognized as approximate dynamic programming solutions, for large scale problems. The thesis presents, explores, and solves problems from an airline industry, in which a new aircraft is to be designed and allocated along with an existing fleet of aircraft. Because the life cycle of an aircraft is on the order of 10 to 20 years, this problem is to be addressed dynamically so that the new aircraft design is the best design for the fleet over a given time horizon.

  4. Concurrency A Dialogue on Concurrency

    E-print Network

    Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi

    starting to impress. In fact, you just told us everything we need to know about concurrency! Well done is it with you and peaches? Professor: Ever read T.S. Eliot? The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, "Do I dare it and eat it. What is wrong with this approach? Student: Hmmm... seems like you might see a peach

  5. Two cases of plasmacytoid variant of urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder: systemic chemotherapy might be of benefit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuji HayashiGo; Go Tanigawa; Kazutoshi Fujita; Ryoichi Imamura; Shigeaki Nakazawa; Yoshiyuki Yamamoto; Masahiro Hosomi; Kohki Shimazu; Hiroaki Fushimi; Seiji Yamaguchi

    We report two cases of the plasmacytoid variant of urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder in which systemic chemotherapy\\u000a was effective. In the first case, a 76-year-old man presented with dysphasia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed\\u000a tomography revealed a brain tumor and a bladder tumor. Resection of the brain tumor and transurethral resection of the bladder\\u000a tumor were performed. The

  6. Based on Concurrent Engineering's Board-Type Furniture CAD\\/CAPP System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeng Min; Wang Cheng; Long Qiao-yun

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes board-type furniture enterprise of CAD\\/CAPP application, discusses transformation from traditional furniture enterprise become to agile manufacturing enterprise , and orders-oriented quickly design and production management's technical elements, including concurrent engineering, product classification model, parameter-driven and model-driven model intelligent calculation, a single-layer BOM multi-view structure, multimedia documents unified management, and so on. The author carried out on board-type

  7. Concurrent, Overlapping Development and the Dynamic System Analysis of a Software Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaideep Ghosh

    2010-01-01

    In recent years concurrent, overlapping development activities of engineering tasks have proved to be a cost-effective and time-efficient way to build products geared toward meeting the demands of a competitive and quality-conscious market. In this study, we examine the structure and dynamics of a software project in information technology industrial research and development that has this methodology as its foundation.

  8. Unexpected response to systemic chemotherapy in case of primarily nonresectable advanced disseminated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Slupski, Maciej W; Szczylik, Cezary; Jasinski, Milosz K

    2007-01-01

    Background Cholangiocellular cancers account for about 10-15% of primary liver cancers. Prognosis is poor, with expected survival of less than 5% at five-year. Case presentation The case described shows remission of a disseminated cholangiocellular carcinoma (focal changes in liver, metastases to lungs) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The initial diagnosis was based on ultrasound examination and confirmed with computer tomography. Tumour biopsy and histopathological examination revealed cholangiocellular carcinoma. The patient underwent chemotherapy. After remission of lesions in lungs and reduction/regression of tumours in liver to one focal change, right lobe liver resection was performed. The histopathological examination did not reveal any viable carcinoma cells, only necrotic tissues in place of the primary tumour as well as in local portal vein branches was seen. Thirty months after the operation the patient is in a good overall condition and no recurrence has been observed. Conclusion Appropriate neoadjuvant chemotherapy may allow radical resection in a previously unresectable cholangiocellular cancer. PMID:17376238

  9. Sensors 2000! Program: Advanced Biosensor and Measurement Systems Technologies for Spaceflight Research and Concurrent, Earth-Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, J.

    1999-01-01

    Sensors 2000! (S2K!) is a specialized, integrated projects team organized to provide focused, directed, advanced biosensor and bioinstrumentation systems technology support to NASA's spaceflight and ground-based research and development programs. Specific technology thrusts include telemetry-based sensor systems, chemical/ biological sensors, medical and physiological sensors, miniaturized instrumentation architectures, and data and signal processing systems. A concurrent objective is to promote the mutual use, application, and transition of developed technology by collaborating in academic-commercial-govemment leveraging, joint research, technology utilization and commercialization, and strategic partnering alliances. Sensors 2000! is organized around three primary program elements: Technology and Product Development, Technology infusion and Applications, and Collaborative Activities. Technology and Product Development involves development and demonstration of biosensor and biotelemetry systems for application to NASA Space Life Sciences Programs; production of fully certified spaceflight hardware and payload elements; and sensor/measurement systems development for NASA research and development activities. Technology Infusion and Applications provides technology and program agent support to identify available and applicable technologies from multiple sources for insertion into NASA's strategic enterprises and initiatives. Collaborative Activities involve leveraging of NASA technologies with those of other government agencies, academia, and industry to concurrently provide technology solutions and products of mutual benefit to participating members.

  10. Lack of durable disease control with chemotherapy for mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome: a comparative study of systemic therapy.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Charlotte F M; Khot, Amit; McCormack, Christopher; Lade, Stephen; Westerman, David A; Twigger, Robert; Buelens, Odette; Newland, Kate; Tam, Constantine; Dickinson, Michael; Ryan, Gail; Ritchie, David; Wood, Colin; Prince, H Miles

    2015-01-01

    Numerous systemic treatment options exist for patients with mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS), but no large comparative studies are published. To study the efficacy of treatments, a retrospective analysis of our cutaneous lymphoma database was undertaken, with 198 MF/SS patients undergoing systemic therapies. The primary end point was time to next treatment (TTNT). Patients with advanced-stage disease made up 53%. The median follow-up time from diagnosis for all alive patients was 4.9 years (range 0.3-39.6), with a median survival of 11.4 years. Patients received a median of 3 lines of therapy (range 1-13), resulting in 709 treatment episodes. Twenty-eight treatment modalities were analyzed. The median TTNT for single- or multiagent chemotherapy was only 3.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2-5.1), with few durable remissions. ?-interferon gave a median TTNT of 8.7 months (95% CI 6.0-18.0), and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) gave a median TTNT of 4.5 months (95% CI 4.0-6.1). When compared directly with chemotherapy, interferon and HDACi both had greater TTNT (P < .00001 and P = .01, respectively). This study confirms that all chemotherapy regimens assessed have very modest efficacy; we recommend their use be restricted until other options are exhausted. PMID:25336628

  11. Chemotherapy advances in locally advanced head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Georges, Peter; Rajagopalan, Kumar; Leon, Chady; Singh, Priya; Ahmad, Nadir; Nader, Kamyar; Kubicek, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    The management of locally advanced unresectable head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) continues to improve. One of the major advances in the treatment of HNSCC was the addition of chemotherapy to radiation in the treatment of non-surgical patients. The majority of the data regarding chemotherapy in HNSCC involve cisplatin chemotherapy with concurrent radiation. However, several new approaches have included targeted therapy against epidermal growth factor receptor and several recent studies have explored the role of induction chemotherapy in the treatment of HNSCC. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the role of chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced HNSCC. PMID:25493232

  12. Scalp hypothermia to prevent chemotherapy-induced alopecia is effective and safe: A pilot study of a new digitized scalp-cooling system used in 74 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mona Ridderheim; Maria Bjurberg; Anita Gustavsson

    2003-01-01

    Goals. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of a new digitized, controlled, scalp-cooling system to prevent chemotherapy-induced alopecia.Method. Seventy-four female cancer patients who received 13 varying chemotherapy regimens were included in a nonrandomized pilot study. The Digni 2–3 with Dignicap system consists of a refrigerator unit and a control unit integrated into a mobile

  13. Liposomal-lupane system as alternative chemotherapy against cutaneous leishmaniasis: macrophage as target cell.

    PubMed

    Barros, Neuza B; Migliaccio, Vanessa; Facundo, Valdir A; Ciancaglini, Pietro; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Nicolete, Roberto; Silva-Jardim, Izaltina

    2013-10-01

    Leishmania amazonensis causes human diseases that range from self-healing to diffusion cutaneous lesions. The chemotherapy of leishmaniasis requires long-term treatment and has been based on the use of pentavalent antimonials. Liposomes have been used as antileishmanial drug carries and have adjuvant activity in vaccines against several microorganisms, representing an important option to the development of new therapeutics for the disease. In this study, we developed a liposomal formulation containing lupane [3?,6?,16?-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene], isolated from fruits of Combretum leprosum with pharmacological properties as antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerogenic and antileishmanial activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of liposomal-lupane in L. amazonensis-infection model. Liposomes were prepared by the extrusion method with DPPC, DPPS and cholesterol at 5:1:4 weight ratio. The lupane (2 mg/mL) was added to the lipid mixture, solubilized in chloroform and dried under nitrogen flow. The activity of liposomal-lupane was conducted in vitro with mouse peritoneal infected macrophages. Furthermore, mice were infected in the right hind footpad with 10(5) stationary growth phase of L. amazonensis promastigotes. After 6 weeks, animals were treated with liposomal-lupane for 15 days by intraperitoneal injection. The evolution of disease was monitored weekly by measuring footpad thickness with a caliper. Three days after the treatment, peritoneal macrophages were collected, plated and production of the cytokines IL-10 and IL-12 was evaluated in supernatants of the cultures after 24 h. The results indicate that the liposomal system containing lupane achieved here is a promising tool to confer antileishmanial activity to infected macrophages. PMID:23933281

  14. Conventional oral systemic chemotherapy for postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    ZHONG, JIANHONG; XIANG, BANGDE; MA, LIANG; LI, LEQUN

    2014-01-01

    The findings of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) regarding the efficacy of adjuvant conventional oral systemic chemotherapy (COSC) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following curative hepatic resection (HR) are contradictory. Therefore, a systematic review of RCTs is required to evaluate the clinical efficacy of adjuvant COSC. Sources such as Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched and all the RCTs comparing curative HR alone to HR plus COSC for HCC were identified. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. No treatment-related mortality was reported by the included RCTs and the adverse effects of COSC were generally mild. However, adjuvant COSC did not achieve a statistically significant improvement in the 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival (OR=1.43, 95% CI: 0.58–3.56, P=0.44; OR=1.39, 95% CI: 0.75–2.55, P=0.29; and OR=1.20, 95% CI: 0.46–3.16, P=0.71, respectively). In addition, adjuvant COSC did not achieve a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of 1-, 3- and 5-year tumor recurrence, with pooled ORs of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.26–1.35, P=0.66); 0.82 (95% CI: 0.66–1.01, P=0.06); and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.71–1.01, P=0.06), respectively. Narrative reviews offer no evidence supporting the use of COSC. Adjuvant COSC has provided marginal benefits for HCC patients following curative HR. Considering the efficacy of sorafenib for advanced HCC and the results of this systematic review, no further trials should be performed to assess the efficacy of adjuvant COSC. PMID:25279203

  15. Conventional oral systemic chemotherapy for postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jianhong; Xiang, Bangde; Ma, Liang; Li, Lequn

    2014-11-01

    The findings of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) regarding the efficacy of adjuvant conventional oral systemic chemotherapy (COSC) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following curative hepatic resection (HR) are contradictory. Therefore, a systematic review of RCTs is required to evaluate the clinical efficacy of adjuvant COSC. Sources such as Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched and all the RCTs comparing curative HR alone to HR plus COSC for HCC were identified. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. No treatment-related mortality was reported by the included RCTs and the adverse effects of COSC were generally mild. However, adjuvant COSC did not achieve a statistically significant improvement in the 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival (OR=1.43, 95% CI: 0.58-3.56, P=0.44; OR=1.39, 95% CI: 0.75-2.55, P=0.29; and OR=1.20, 95% CI: 0.46-3.16, P=0.71, respectively). In addition, adjuvant COSC did not achieve a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of 1-, 3- and 5-year tumor recurrence, with pooled ORs of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.26-1.35, P=0.66); 0.82 (95% CI: 0.66-1.01, P=0.06); and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.71-1.01, P=0.06), respectively. Narrative reviews offer no evidence supporting the use of COSC. Adjuvant COSC has provided marginal benefits for HCC patients following curative HR. Considering the efficacy of sorafenib for advanced HCC and the results of this systematic review, no further trials should be performed to assess the efficacy of adjuvant COSC. PMID:25279203

  16. The PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) system: Supercomputer level concurrent computation on a network of IBM RS/6000 power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Sunderam, V.S. (Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (USA). Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science); Geist, G.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) system enables supercomputer level concurrent computations to be performed on interconnected networks of heterogeneous computer systems. Specifically, a network of 13 IBM RS/6000 powerstations has been successfully used to execute production quality runs of superconductor modeling codes at more than 250 Mflops. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of cooperative concurrent processing for high performance applications, and shows that supercomputer level computations may be attained at a fraction of the cost on distributed computing platforms. This paper describes the PVM programming environment and user facilities, as they apply to hardware platforms comprising a network of IBM RS/6000 powerstations. The salient design features of PVM will be discussed; including heterogeneity, scalability, multilanguage support, provisions for fault tolerance, the use of multiprocessors and scalar machines, an interactive graphical front end, and support for profiling, tracing, and visual analysis. The PVM system has been used extensively, and a range of production quality concurrent applications have been successfully executed using PVM on a variety of networked platforms. The paper will mention representative examples, and discuss two in detail. The first is a material sciences problem that was originally developed on a Cray 2. This application code calculates the electronic structure of metallic alloys from first principles and is based on the KKR-CPA algorithm. The second is a molecular dynamics simulation for calculating materials properties. Performance results for both applicants on networks of RS/6000 powerstations will be presented, and accompanied by discussions of the other advantages of PVM and its potential as a complement or alternative to conventional supercomputers.

  17. Sarcoma chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Brian E; Irwin, Ronald B

    2013-08-01

    Sarcomas are a rare, heterogeneous group of malignant tumors of the bone or soft tissue. Although historically intended for the pharmaceutical treatment of microbes, today chemotherapy is used in orthopaedic oncology and is arguably the primary reason for improved survivorship. Agents such as anthracyclines (eg, doxorubicin), alkylating agents (eg, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide), antimetabolites (eg, methotrexate), topoisomerase inhibitors (eg, etoposide [VP-16]), vinca alkaloids (eg, vincristine), and cytotoxic antibiotics (eg, actinomycin D) are used in various combinations to manage different types of tumors. Side effects are common and range from mild to severe. The effectiveness of the chemotherapy regimen correlates with the extent of tumor necrosis. PMID:23908254

  18. Muscle Atrophy in Response to Cytotoxic Chemotherapy Is Dependent on Intact Glucocorticoid Signaling in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Theodore P.; Szumowski, Marek; Levasseur, Peter R.; Grossberg, Aaron J.; Zhu, XinXia; Agarwal, Anupriya; Marks, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a syndrome of weight loss that results from the selective depletion of skeletal muscle mass and contributes significantly to cancer morbidity and mortality. The driver of skeletal muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia is systemic inflammation arising from both the cancer and cancer treatment. While the importance of tumor derived inflammation is well described, the mechanism by which cytotoxic chemotherapy contributes to cancer cachexia is relatively unexplored. We found that the administration of chemotherapy to mice produces a rapid inflammatory response. This drives activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which increases the circulating level of corticosterone, the predominant endogenous glucocorticoid in rodents. Additionally, chemotherapy administration results in a significant loss of skeletal muscle mass 18 hours after administration with a concurrent induction of genes involved with the ubiquitin proteasome and autophagy lysosome systems. However, in mice lacking glucocorticoid receptor expression in skeletal muscle, chemotherapy-induced muscle atrophy is completely blocked. This demonstrates that cytotoxic chemotherapy elicits significant muscle atrophy driven by the production of endogenous glucocorticoids. Further, it argues that pharmacotherapy targeting the glucocorticoid receptor, given in concert with chemotherapy, is a viable therapeutic strategy in the treatment of cancer cachexia. PMID:25254959

  19. Preliminary Results of a Randomized Study on Therapeutic Gain by Concurrent Chemotherapy for Regionally-Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: NPC9901 Trial by the Hong Kong Nasopharyngeal Cancer Study Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne W. M. Lee; W. H. Lau; Stewart Y. Tung; Daniel T. T. Chua; Rick Chappell; L. Xu; Lillian Siu; W. M. Sze; T. W. Leung; Jonathan S. T. Sham; Roger K. C. Ngan; Stephen C. K. Law; T. K. Yau; Joseph S. K. Au; Brian O'Sullivan; Ellie S. Y. Pang; Joseph T. Lau

    Purpose This randomized study compared the results achieved by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) versus radiotherapy (RT) alone for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with advanced nodal disease. Patients and Methods Patients with nonkeratinizing\\/undifferentiated NPC staged T1-4N2-3M0 were randomized to CRT or RT. Both arms were treated with the same RT technique and dose fractionation. The CRT patients were given cisplatin 100 mg\\/m2 on

  20. The Wayne State University experience with adjuvant chemotherapy of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    al-Sarraf, M; Kish, J A; Ensley, J F

    1991-08-01

    Because of the poor results of standard therapy in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancers, chemotherapy is increasingly used to improve the outcome of these patients. In resectable disease, chemotherapy is being investigated before definitive treatments, after surgery, concurrent with postoperative radiotherapy, after radiotherapy, and for possible laryngeal salvage. In unresectable cancers, chemotherapy before, concurrent with, and following radiotherapy is being investigated. PMID:1890060

  1. Permanent alopecia after systemic chemotherapy: a clinicopathological study of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Mariya; Misciali, Cosimo; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Vincenzi, Colombina; Romanelli, Paolo; Tosti, Antonella

    2011-06-01

    Anagen effluvium due to chemotherapy is usually reversible with complete hair regrowth. However, there is increased evidence that certain chemotherapy regimens can cause dose-dependent permanent alopecia. The histological features of this type of alopecia and the mechanisms of its origin are not known yet. We discuss the histological features of 10 cases of permanent alopecia after systematic chemotherapy with taxanes (docetaxel) for breast cancer (6 patients), busulfan for acute myelogenous leukemia (3 patients), and cisplatin and etoposide for lung cancer (1 patient). All patients had moderate to very severe hair thinning, which in 4 cases was more accentuated on androgen-dependent scalp regions. Patients complained that scalp hair did not grow longer than 10 cm and showed altered texture. Paired scalp biopsies from the affected scalp areas were obtained and evaluated in serial horizontal and vertical sections. The histology of all specimens was characterized by a nonscarring pattern with a preserved number of follicular units and lack of fibrosis. The hair count revealed decreased number of terminal hairs, increased telogen hairs, and increased miniaturized vellus-like hairs with a terminal to vellus and anagen to telogen ratios of 1:1 and 3.6:1, respectively. There was increased number of fibrous streamers (stelae) in both reticular dermis and subcutis. Arao-Perkins bodies were found in the subcutaneous portions of the streamers. The histological findings of permanent alopecia after chemotherapy are those of a nonscarring alopecia similar to androgenetic alopecia. Dermatopathologists should be aware of this condition as the absence of fibrosis and the presence of miniaturized hairs may be considered as features consistent with a diagnosis of androgenetic alopecia. Hence, these cases could easily be misdiagnosed in the absence of a good clinicopathological correlation. PMID:21430504

  2. C. REFERENCES CITED (NSF grant-supported project authors in bold) 1. Agha, G.A. 1987. Actors: A model of concurrent computation I distributed systems. MIT

    E-print Network

    . Sustainable development and environmental management of small islands. Man and the Biosphere Series, 5: A model of concurrent computation I distributed systems. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 2. Ahl, VDonald. 1998. Modelling road surface sediment production using a vector geographic information system. Earth

  3. Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy Using Fluorouracil Followed by Systemic Therapy Using Oxaliplatin Plus Fluorouracil and Leucovorin for Patients with Unresectable Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, Hiroshi, E-mail: hseki@niigata-cc.jp; Ozaki, Toshirou; Shiina, Makoto [Niigata Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess retrospectively the sequential treatment of hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) chemotherapy followed by systemic therapy using oxaliplatin plus 5-flourouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin, namely, FOLFOX, for patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer. We reviewed 20 patients with unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Patients were initially treated with HAI chemotherapy until disease progression (5-fluorouracil, 1000 mg/m{sup 2} intra-arterial infusion, weekly) and then with FOLFOX thereafter (FOLFOX4, n = 13; modified FOLFOX6, n = 7). Adverse events, tumor response, and time to progression for each therapy were evaluated retrospectively, and overall survival was estimated. Toxicity of HAI chemotherapy was generally mild. Of 20 patients, adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation occurred in only 1 patient (5%) during initial therapy using HAI chemotherapy, while 9 patients (45%) exhibited adverse events during subsequent FOLFOX therapy. For HAI chemotherapy and FOLFOX, objective response rates were 85.0% and 35.0%, respectively, and median time to progression was 11.6 and 5.1 months, respectively. Median overall survival was 30.1 months. In conclusion, the sequence of HAI chemotherapy followed by FOLFOX is a promising treatment strategy for the long-term use of active chemotherapeutic agents, leading to a superior tumor response and fewer toxic effects in patients with unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer.

  4. HIV chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Douglas D.

    2001-04-01

    The use of chemotherapy to suppress replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has transformed the face of AIDS in the developed world. Pronounced reductions in illness and death have been achieved and healthcare utilization has diminished. HIV therapy has also provided many new insights into the pathogenesis and the viral and cellular dynamics of HIV infection. But challenges remain. Treatment does not suppress HIV replication in all patients, and the emergence of drug-resistant virus hinders subsequent treatment. Chronic therapy can also result in toxicity. These challenges prompt the search for new drugs and new therapeutic strategies to control chronic viral replication.

  5. Multi-drug delivery system based on alginate/calcium carbonate hybrid nanoparticles for combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Long; Wang, Chao-Qun; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Cheng, Si-Xue

    2014-11-01

    A facile strategy to prepare nano-sized drug carriers for co-delivery of multiple types of drugs in combination chemotherapy was developed. Inorganic/organic hybrid alginate/CaCO3 nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation in an aqueous solution under very mild conditions. A hydrophilic drug (doxorubicin hydrochloride, DOX) and a hydrophobic drug (paclitaxel, PTX) were co-encapsulated in the hybrid nanoparticles. For comparison, PTX loaded nanoparticles and DOX loaded nanoparticles were also prepared. The measurement based on dynamic light scattering indicated all nanoparticles had a mean size less than 200 nm with a relatively narrow size distribution. The morphology of the nanoparticles was observed by TEM. The in vitro drug release study showed that the release of DOX and PTX from the dual drug loaded nanoparticles could be effectively sustained. The tumor cell inhibitory effect of the drug loaded nanoparticles was evaluated in HeLa cells and MCF-7/ADR cells. The dual drug loaded nanoparticles exhibited significantly enhanced cell uptake and nuclear localization as compared with the single drug loaded nanoparticles. As a result, the dual drug loaded nanoparticles had a significantly enhanced cell inhibitory effect, especially for drug resistant tumor cells. These results indicated that alginate/CaCO3 hybrid nanoparticles have promising applications for the co-delivery of drugs with different physicochemical properties in combination chemotherapy to overcome multidrug resistance. PMID:25315499

  6. Concurrent determination of anions and cations in consumer fireworks with a portable dual-capillary electrophoresis system.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Duc, Mai Thanh; Koenka, Israel Joel; Martín-Alberca, Carlos; Hauser, Peter C; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    A new automated portable dual-channel capillary electrophoresis instrument was built and applied to the concurrent determination of cations and anions. The system uses a single buffer and hydrodynamic injection of the sample is performed autonomously. A novel engraved flow-cell interface is used at the injection ends of the capillaries allowing the autonomous operation of the system. The engraved flow-cell replaces traditionally used split injectors in purpose made capillary electrophoresis systems and makes the system design easier. A new software package with graphical user interface was employed to control the system, making its operation simple and increasing its versatility. The electrophoretic method was optimized to allow the baseline separation of 12 cations and anions commonly found in fireworks. The system was proven to be useful for the analysis of consumer fireworks, saving time and expenses compared to separate analyses for anions and cations. This is the first time that cationic and anionic compositions of fireworks are investigated together. The analysis of samples revealed several inaccuracies between the declared compositions for the fireworks and the obtained results, which could be attributed to cross-contamination during their manufacture or to a transfer between other components of the pyrotechnic item. The presence of certain unexpected peaks, however, had no apparent reason and might represent an irregularity in the manufacture of some devices. PMID:25465022

  7. Concurrent Validity and Test-retest Reliability of the OPTOGait Photoelectric Cell System for the Assessment of Spatio-temporal Parameters of the Gait of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Mo; Song, Chang Ho; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Jung, Sang Woo; Shin, Doo Chul; Shin, Seung Ho

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of the recently introduced OPTOGait Photoelectric Cell System for the assessment of spatio-temporal parameters of gait. [Subjects] Twenty healthy young adults (mean age = 27.35, SD = 7.4) were asked to walk 3 times on walkway at a comfortable speed. [Methods] Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing data obtained using the OPTOGait and GAITRite systems, and reliability was assessed by comparing data from the first and third OPTOGait sessions. [Results] Concurrent validity, as identified by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC (2, 1) = 0.929-0.998), coefficients of variation (CVME = 0.32-11.30%), and 95% limits of agreement, showed high levels of correlation. In addition, the test-retest reliability of the OPTOGait Photoelectric Cell System was demonstrated as showing a high level of correlation with all spatio-temporal parameters by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC (3, 1) = 0.785-0.952), coefficients of variation (CVME = 1.66-4.06%), 95% limits of agreement, standard error of measurement (SEM = 2.17-5.96%), and minimum detectable change (MDC95% = 6.01-16.52%). [Conclusion] The OPTOGait Photoelectric Cell System has strong concurrent validity along with relative and absolute test-retest reliabilities. This portable system with easy-to-use features can be used for clinical assessments or research purposes as an objective means of assessing gait. PMID:24567681

  8. The proposed dynamically reconfigurable system can support multiple applications running concurrently. An

    E-print Network

    Jean, Jack S.N.

    1 Abstract The proposed dynamically reconfigurable system can support multiple applications running execution time is demonstrated. 1. Introduction A dynamically reconfigurable system allows hardware software development of a dynamically reconfigurable system that can support multiple applications running

  9. [Central nervous system complications in patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapies].

    PubMed

    Psimaras, Dimitri; Bompaire, Flavie; Taillia, Hervé; Ricard, Damien; Taillibert, Sophie

    2012-09-01

    Anti-cancer treatments (cytotoxic chemotherapies, targeted therapies and hormonotherapies) are known to induce early and delayed neurological toxicities. Acute encephalopathies and posterior reversible encephalopathies are better known and described, physiopathological hypotheses are emerging. It is difficult to discriminate what drug is causing the symptoms in patients treated with multiple cytotoxic drugs. Methotrexate and ifosfamide are responsible for acute encephalopathies. L-asparaginase and methotrexate or targeted therapies may induce cerebrovascular complications. As life expectancy increases and more complex regimen including innovative targeted therapies are developed, new toxicity profiles can be expected. To be able to provide an early diagnosis, prevention, and treatment (when existing) of these pathologies remains a tremendous challenge that would allow a good quality of life with social and professional life after their cancer is cured. PMID:22961349

  10. Targeted cancer therapy--are the days of systemic chemotherapy numbered?

    PubMed

    Joo, Won Duk; Visintin, Irene; Mor, Gil

    2013-12-01

    Targeted therapy or molecular targeted therapy has been defined as a type of treatment that blocks the growth of cancer cells by interfering with specific cell molecules required for carcinogenesis and tumor growth, rather than by simply interfering with all rapidly dividing cells as with traditional chemotherapy. There is a growing number of FDA approved monoclonal antibodies and small molecules targeting specific types of cancer suggestive of the growing relevance of this therapeutic approach. Targeted cancer therapies, also referred to as "Personalized Medicine", are being studied for use alone, in combination with other targeted therapies, and in combination with chemotherapy. The objective of personalized medicine is the identification of patients that would benefit from a specific treatment based on the expression of molecular markers. Examples of this approach include bevacizumab and olaparib, which have been designated as promising targeted therapies for ovarian cancer. Combinations of trastuzumab with pertuzumab, or T-DM1 and mTOR inhibitors added to an aromatase inhibitor are new therapeutic strategies for breast cancer. Although this approach has been seen as a major step in the expansion of personalized medicine, it has substantial limitations including its high cost and the presence of serious adverse effects. The Cancer Genome Atlas is a useful resource to identify novel and more effective targets, which may help to overcome the present limitations. In this review we will discuss the clinical outcome of some of these new therapies with a focus on ovarian and breast cancer. We will also discuss novel concepts in targeted therapy, the target of cancer stem cells. PMID:24128673

  11. Symbolically Modeling Concurrent MCAPI Executions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Topher; Mercer, Eric; Rungta, Neha

    2011-01-01

    Improper use of Inter-Process Communication (IPC) within concurrent systems often creates data races which can lead to bugs that are challenging to discover. Techniques that use Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) problems to symbolically model possible executions of concurrent software have recently been proposed for use in the formal verification of software. In this work we describe a new technique for modeling executions of concurrent software that use a message passing API called MCAPI. Our technique uses an execution trace to create an SMT problem that symbolically models all possible concurrent executions and follows the same sequence of conditional branch outcomes as the provided execution trace. We check if there exists a satisfying assignment to the SMT problem with respect to specific safety properties. If such an assignment exists, it provides the conditions that lead to the violation of the property. We show how our method models behaviors of MCAPI applications that are ignored in previously published techniques.

  12. Timing and Concurrency Specification in Component-based Real-Time Embedded Systems Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hung Ledang; Dang Van Hung

    2007-01-01

    In a development of real-time embedded systems, one needs to consider at very early stages the platform on which the systems are deployed. An explicit specification of system resources enables in fact the specification of non-functional properties. In this paper, as an attempt to define a formal component model for real-time embedded systems, we propose to use resources as the

  13. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Combined Continuous Arterial Infusion and Systemic Chemotherapy for the Treatment of Advanced Pancreatic Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, O., E-mail: osamu-3643ik@do9.enjoy.ne.jp; Kusunoki, S.; Kudoh, K. [Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Takamori, H.; Tsuji, T.; Kanemitsu, K. [Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Japan); Yamashita, Y. [Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the effects of combined continuous transcatheter arterial infusion (CTAI) and systemic chemotherapy in patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma. Methods. CTAI was performed in 17 patients with stage IV pancreatic cancer with (n = 11) or without (n = 6) liver metastasis. The reservoir was transcutaneously implanted with the help of angiography. The inferior pancreatic artery (IPA) was embolized to achieve delivery of the pancreatic blood supply through only the celiac artery. The systemic administration of gemcitabine was combined with the infusion of 5-fluorouracil via the reservoir. Treatment effects were evaluated based on the primary tumor size, liver metastasis, and survival time and factors such as tumor size, tumor location, and stage of pancreatic carcinoma; the embolized arteries were analyzed with respect to treatment effects and prognosis. Results. A catheter was fixed in the gastroduodenal artery and splenic artery in 10 and 7 patients, respectively. Complete peripancreatic arterial occlusion was successful in 10 patients. CT showed a decrease in tumor size in 6 of 17 (35%) patients and a decrease in liver metastases in 6 of 11 (55%) patients. The survival time ranged from 4 to 18 months (mean {+-} SD, 8.8 {+-} 1.5 months). Complete embolization of arteries surrounding the pancreas was achieved in 10 patients; they manifested superior treatment effects and prognoses (p < 0.05). Conclusion. In patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, long-term CTAI with systemic chemotherapy appeared to be effective not only against the primary tumor but also against liver metastases. Patients with successfully occluded peripancreatic arteries tended to survive longer.

  14. French multicenter phase III randomized study testing concurrent twice-a-day radiotherapy and cisplatin/5-fluorouracil chemotherapy (BiRCF) in unresectable pharyngeal carcinoma: Results at 2 years (FNCLCC-GORTEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Bensadoun, Rene-Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France)]. E-mail: rene-jean.bensadoun@nice.fnclcc.fr; Benezery, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Dassonville, Olivier [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Magne, Nicolas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Poissonnet, Gilles [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Ramaioli, Alain [Department of Statistics Unit, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Lemanski, Claire [Centre Val d'Aurelle-Paul Lamarque, Montpellier (France); Bourdin, Sylvain [Centre Rene-Gauducheau, Nantes (France); Tortochaux, Jacques [Centre Jean-Perrin, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Peyrade, Frederic [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Marcy, Pierre-Yves [Department of Radiology, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Chamorey, Emmanuel Phar [Department of Statistics Unit, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Vallicioni, Jacques [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Seng Hang [Centre Henri-Becquerel, Rouen (France); Alzieu, Claude [Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille (France); Gery, Bernard [Centre Francois-Baclesse, Caen (France); Chauvel, Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Schneider, Maurice [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Santini, Jose [Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital, Nice (France); Demard, Francois [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Calais, Gilles [Hopital Jean Bretonneau, Tours (France)

    2006-03-15

    Background: Unresectable carcinomas of the oropharynx and hypopharynx still have a poor long-term prognosis. Following a previous phase II study, this phase III multicenter trial was conducted between November 1997 and March 2002. Methods: Nontreated, strictly unresectable cases were eligible. Twice-daily radiation: two fractions of 1.2 Gy/day, 5 days per week, with no split (D1{sup {yields}}D46). Total tumor doses: 80.4 Gy/46 day (oropharynx), 75.6 Gy/44 day (hypopharynx). Chemotherapy (arm B): Cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} (D1, D22, D43); 5FU, continuous infusion (D1{sup {yields}}D5), 750 mg/m{sup 2}/day cycle 1; 430 mg/m{sup 2}/day cycles 2 and 3. Results: A total of 163 evaluable patients. Grade 3-4 acute mucositis 82.6% arm B/69.5% arm A (NS); Grade 3-4 neutropenia 33.3% arm B/2.4% arm A (p < 0.05). Enteral nutrition through gastrostomy tube was more frequent in arm B before treatment and at 6 months (p < 0.01). At 24 months, overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and specific survival (SS) were significantly better in arm B. OS: 37.8% arm B vs. 20.1% arm A (p = 0.038); DFS: 48.2% vs. 25.2% (p = 0.002); SS: 44.5% vs. 30.2% (p 0.021). No significant difference between the two arms in the amount of side effects at 1 and 2 years. Conclusion: For these unresectable cases, chemoradiation provides better outcome than radiation alone, even with an 'aggressive' dose-intensity radiotherapy schedule.

  15. Object-oriented concurrent programming

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, A.; Tokoro, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with a major theme of the Japanese Fifth Generation Project, which emphasizes logic programming, parallelism, and distributed systems. It presents a collection of tutorials and research papers on a new programming and design methodology in which the system to be constructed is modeled as a collection of abstract entities called ''objects'' and concurrent messages passing among objects. The book includes proposals for programming languages that support this methodology, as well as the applications of object-oriented concurrent programming to such areas as artificial intelligence, software engineering, music synthesis, office information systems, and system programming.

  16. Preliminary Experience with Locoregional Intraarterial Chemotherapy of Uterine Cervical or Endometrial Cancer Using the Peripheral Implantable Port System (PIPS{sup TM}): A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Strecker, Ernst-Peter [Diakonissenkrankenhaus Karlsruhe, Depts. of Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional Radiology, and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Heber, Ralf [Staedtisches Klinikum Pforzheim, Depts. of Gynecology and Obstetrics (Germany); Boos, Irene; Goettmann, Dieter [Diakonissenkrankenhaus Karlsruhe, Depts. of Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional Radiology, and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Heinrich, Dirk [Staedtisches Klinikum Pforzheim, Depts. of Gynecology and Obstetrics (Germany)

    2003-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the suitability of a percutaneously implantable catheter port system (PIPS)for repeated intraarterial locoregional chemotherapy (ILC) for cervical and endometrial carcinoma. In 30 patients with advanced, recurrent, or high-risk cervical (n 23) or endometrial(n = 7) carcinoma, PIPS for ILC was implanted via a femoral access, the catheter localized in the infrarenal abdominal aorta. Chemotherapy was performed adjuvantly after surgery(n = 14) or neo-adjuvantly to enable surgery, or for palliation (n = 16). Port implantation, catheter placement, and repeated port puncture was uneventful in all patients.Complications included catheter dislocation (n = 1),catheter thrombosis (n = 2), subcutaneous infection(n = 1), port-bed skin atrophy (n = 1),requiring port explantation in 3 patients. At 2 years follow-up,complete remission was observed in 7/14 patients with adjuvant chemotherapy, partial remission in 3/14. Successful down-staging could be achieved in 4/8 patients with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. The PIPS is suitable for repeated ILC which may be a valuable method for pre- and post-surgical therapy of advanced or high-risk cervical and endometrial cancer, for adjuvant chemotherapy as well as neo-adjuvantly for down-staging, or for palliation.

  17. Concurrent engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Leger, L.; Hunter, D.; Jones, C.; Sprague, R.; Berke, L.; Newell, J.; Singhal, S.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: issues (liquid rocket propulsion - current development approach, current certification process, and costs of engineering changes); state of the art (DICE information management system, key government participants, project development strategy, quality management, and numerical propulsion system simulation); needs identified; and proposed program.

  18. [Successful treatment with high dose chemotherapy following peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for relapsed Burkitt's lymphoma with central nervous system involvement].

    PubMed

    Yamao, H; Kondo, E; Miura, A; Mizuno, H; Yuge, M

    1998-11-01

    A 19-year-old man complaining of right upper abdominal pain underwent surgery for the removal of a testicular tumor in October 1997. He was given a diagnosis of Burkitt's lymphoma and was in clinical stage II B. The patient went into completed remission with VABCOP-M combination chemotherapy, but relapsed with involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). He was treated with ICE, then CHASE together with total cranial irradiation and simultaneous intrathecal MTX and cytosine arabinoside through Ommaya reservoir until a second remission was achieved. Afterward, the patient was given high-dose chemotherapy and total body irradiation followed by an autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant (auto-PBSCT), and maintained complete remission. Though the prognosis for Burkitt's lymphoma with CNS involvement is considered to be poor, high-dose chemotherapy with PBSCT was a successful treatment for relapsed Burkitt's lymphoma in our patient. PMID:9866425

  19. MUSE: a Message Passing Concurrent Computer for On-Board Space Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-yves Le Gall; François Simon

    1994-01-01

    Space systems of the near future will raise the need of very powerful and dependable computers. Applications such as realtime synthetic aperture radar imaging (SAR) or stereo-vision need high capability of digital signal processing and then high computing power. Moreover, like any satellite component, these systems must be long-life ones and remotely repairable. Due to cost, weight, energy and environment

  20. Management of isolated nonresectable liver metastases in colorectal cancer patients: a case-control study of isolated hepatic perfusion with melphalan versus systemic chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. B. J. van Iersel; M. Koopman; L. Mol; E. L. van Persijn van Meerten; H. H. Hartgrink; P. J. K. Kuppen; A. L. Vahrmeijer; J. W. R. Nortier; R. A. E. M. Tollenaar; C. J. A. Punt; H. Gelderblom

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To compare the median overall survival of patients with isolated nonresectable liver metastases in comparable groups of patients treated with either isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP) with melphalan or systemic chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Colorectal cancer patients with isolated liver metastases, who underwent IHP, were included in this study. The control group consisted of a subgroup of colorectal cancer patients

  1. Empirical performance evaluation of concurrency and coherency control protocols for database sharing systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erhard Rahm

    1993-01-01

    Database Sharing (DB-sharing) refers to a general approach for building a distributed high performance transaction system. The nodes of a DB-sharing system are locally coupled via a high-speed interconnect and share a common database at the disk level. This is also known as a “shared disk” approach. We compare database sharing with the database partitioning (shared nothing) approach and discuss

  2. Outcome in systemic AL amyloidosis in relation to changes in concentration of circulating free immunoglobulin light chains following chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen J. Lachmann; Ruth Gallimore; Julian D. Gillmore; Hugh D. Carr-Smith; Arthur R. Bradwell; Mark B. Pepys; Philip N. Hawkins

    2003-01-01

    than 50% following chemotherapy, 5-year survival was 88% compared with only 39% among those whose FLC did not fall by half (P <0 Æ0001). Amyloid deposits regressed in 58 patients. The magnitude and duration of the FLC responses to intermediate- and high-dose chemotherapy regimens were similar. The FLC assay enabled the circu- lating fibril precursor protein in AL amyloidosis to

  3. Influence of methotrexate exposure on outcome in patients treated with MBVP chemotherapy for primary central nervous system lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Blasco, Hélène; Senecal, Delphine; Le Gouge, Amélie; Pinard, Emmanuelle; Benz-de Bretagne, Isabelle; Colombat, Philippe; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Chatelut, Etienne; Le Guellec, Chantal

    2010-01-01

    AIMS Although the standard treatment for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) consists of three cycles of MBVP (methotrexate, BCNU, VP16, methylprednisolone) and radiotherapy, early failure of treatment may require modification of the treatment. However, our understanding of the outcome in such patients and of the factors involved in early failure of treatment is poor. In addition to known prognostic factors, we evaluated the influence of methotrexate (MTX) exposure on the response to MBVP chemotherapy in patients treated for PCNSL after the first two cycles. METHODS We retrospectively analyzed all patients with PCNSL treated with the MBVP regimen over the previous 10 years. Clinical, personal data and known prognostic factors were studied. The parameters of MTX exposure were estimated using a population pharmacokinetic approach with NONMEM. Objective response (OR), overall survival (OS) and failure-free survival (FFS) were evaluated in all patients. RESULTS Thirty-seven patients were studied. We observed lower FFS and OS (0.49 years) in patients who were not able to receive the planned treatment (group 1, n = 12) than in those who received three cycles (8.04 years) (group 2, n = 25). Known prognostic factors were comparable in both groups, but mean dose of MTX and mean AUC tended to be lower in patients who failed prematurely or showed no response after two cycles. CONCLUSIONS We found that patients who were early non-responders to MBVP chemotherapy had poor survival, without major influence of MTX exposure. It is thus probably unlikely that increasing the dose of MTX would improve outcome. PMID:20716237

  4. Microfluidic System Based High Throughput Drug Screening System for Curcumin/TRAIL Combinational Chemotherapy in Human Prostate Cancer PC3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    An, Dami; Kim, Kwangmi; Kim, Jeongyun

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a fully automated high throughput drug screening (HTDS) system based on the microfluidic cell culture array to perform combinational chemotherapy. This system has 64 individually addressable cell culture chambers where the sequential combinatorial concentrations of two different drugs can be generated by two microfluidic diffusive mixers. Each diffusive mixer has two integrated micropumps connected to the media and the drug reservoirs respectively for generating the desired combination without the need for any extra equipment to perfuse the solution such as syringe pumps. The cell array is periodically exposed to the drug combination with the programmed LabVIEW system during a couple of days without extra handling after seeding the cells into the microfluidic device and also, this device does not require the continuous generation of solutions compared to the previous systems. Therefore, the total amount of drug being consumed per experiment is less than a few hundred micro liters in each reservoir. The utility of this system is demonstrated through investigating the viability of the prostate cancer PC3 cell line with the combinational treatments of curcumin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). Our results suggest that the system can be used for screening and optimizing drug combination with a small amount of reagent for combinatorial chemotherapy against cancer cells. PMID:25143816

  5. Concurrent Computing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amy Apon

    * a preliminary introduction to essential networking concepts, * parallel computing and types of parallel computers, * basics of message-passing parallel computing,* embarrassingly parallel computations,* partitioning and divide-and-conquer strategies,* pipelined computations, * synchronous computations,* programming with shared memory, pthreads,* parallel sorting algorithms,* numerical algorithms,* searching and optimization,* distributed computing using grids,* networks for high-performance cluster computing, and * parallel I/O and parallel file systems.

  6. IL-27p28 inhibits central nervous system autoimmunity by concurrently antagonizing Th1 and Th17 responses.

    PubMed

    Chong, Wai Po; Horai, Reiko; Mattapallil, Mary J; Silver, Phyllis B; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Ru; Sergeev, Yuri; Villasmil, Rafael; Chan, Chi-Chao; Caspi, Rachel R

    2014-05-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity such as uveitis and multiple sclerosis is accompanied by Th1 and Th17 responses. In their corresponding animal models, experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), both responses are induced and can drive disease independently. Because immune responses have inherent plasticity, therapeutic targeting of only one pathway could promote the other, without reducing pathology. IL-27p28 antagonizes gp130, required for signaling by IL-27 and IL-6, which respectively promote Th1 and Th17 responses. We therefore examined its ability to protect the CNS by concurrently targeting both effector responses. Overexpression of IL-27p28 in vivo ameliorated EAU as well as EAE pathology and reduced tissue infiltration by Th1 and Th17 cells in a disease prevention, as well as in a disease reversal protocol. Mechanistic studies revealed inhibition of Th1 and Th17 commitment in vitro and decreased lineage stability of pre-formed effectors in vivo, with reduction in expression of gp130-dependent transcription factors and cytokines. Importantly, IL-27p28 inhibited polarization of human T cells to the Th1 and Th17 effector pathways. The ability of IL-27p28 to inhibit generation as well as function of pathogenic Th1 and Th17 effector cells has therapeutic implications for controlling immunologically complex autoimmune diseases. PMID:24021664

  7. A protocol for concurrent high-quality immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses in adult mouse central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Notter, Tina; Panzanelli, Patrizia; Pfister, Sandra; Mircsof, Dennis; Fritschy, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Biochemical analysis of central nervous system proteins and nucleic acids requires fresh-tissue homogenates, whereas immunohistochemistry usually is performed in sections prepared from perfusion-fixed tissue. Post-mortem immersion-fixation is possible, but largely impairs morphological preservation and protein antigenicity. Here, we present a simple, fast and versatile protocol allowing concurrent biochemical and immunohistochemical analysis, including pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy, using tissue from the same animal. The protocol includes a brief transcardiac perfusion with ice-cold, oxygenated and glucose-supplemented artificial cerebrospinal fluid to maintain brain tissue alive, prior to isolation of regions of interest, followed by homogenisation for biochemistry or immersion-fixation for immunohistochemistry. We provide several examples demonstrating that this protocol allows optimal biochemical and morphological analysis, characterised with optimal sensitivity and preservation of tissue structure, along with a reduction of artefacts typically seen in perfusion-fixed tissue. This protocol should find widespread applications for combining analytical methods in tissue from the same animal, thereby reducing the number of mice required for a given experiment. PMID:24325300

  8. Feedback Systems. Symposium 28. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers from a symposium on feedback systems held at a conference on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "The Role of Feedback in Management Development Training" (K. Peter Kuchinke), reports on a survey-based study that investigated the role of feedback in nine management development training settings in a…

  9. Concurrent Validity of the "Working with Others Scale" of the ICIS Employment Interview System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Martha W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the Working with Others Scale from the American Association of School Personnel Administrators (AASPA) Interactive Computer Interview System (ICIS) was a valid predictor of practicing teachers' interpersonal skills and abilities to work well with colleagues. Participants in the study were all employed…

  10. Experimental Validation of a Systems Architecting Framework for Objectives Definition in a Concurrent Engineering Environment

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    1 Experimental Validation of a Systems Architecting Framework for Objectives Definition) crawley@mit.edu ABSTRACT The definition of stakeholder objectives is a critical task within the pre students in a concealed retrospective analysis of the business case of satellite constellations

  11. A CONCURRENT NEURAL NETWORK - GENETIC PROGRAMMING MODEL FOR DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AJITH ABRAHAM; CRINA GROSAN; CONG TRAN; LAKHMI JAIN

    This paper suggests a decision support system for tactical air combat environment using a combination of unsuper- vised learning for clustering the data and three well known genetic programming techniques to classify the different decision re- gions accurately. The genetic programming techniques used are: Linear Genetic programming (LGP), Multi Expression Pro- gramming (MEP) and Gene Expression Programming (GEP). The clustered

  12. MUSE: a message passing concurrent computer for on-board space systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gaume; F. Simon; J. Y. Le Gall

    1995-01-01

    Satellite payloads of the near future will raise the need of very powerful and dependable computers. No embeddable monoprocessor will be able to satisfy such computing power need. Thus those computers will be multi-processor systems. Satellite payloads must meet high availability requirements rather then reliability ones. This allows the use of fail stop reconfigurable computers. This paper describes the MUSE

  13. A phase II pilot study of the combined application of hyperthermia and intra-hepato-arterial chemotherapy using cisplatinum and 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Hamazoe, R; Murakami, A; Hirooka, Y; Maeta, M; Kaibara, N

    1991-10-01

    Fourteen patients (group A) with unresectable metastasis to the liver from colorectal cancers (11 patients) and gastric cancers (3 patients) were treated with the combined application of hyperthermia and intra-hepato-arterial (IHA) chemotherapy with cisplatinum and 5-fluorouracil. Ten patients were treated with regional hyperthermia applied with a radiofrequency capacitive heating system and four patients were treated with total-body hyperthermia concurrently with IHA chemotherapy. Thirty-one patients (group B) with liver metastases from colorectal and gastric cancers received only IHA chemotherapy with the same chemotherapeutic regimen. In group B, partial responses (PRs) were obtained in 8 of 17 evaluable patients with colorectal cancer and in 1 of 10 evaluable patients with gastric cancer. In group A, PRs were found in 6 of 11 patients with colorectal cancer and in 2 of 3 patients with gastric cancer. Furthermore, improvements due to the combination of chemotherapy with hyperthermia were noted in 3 of 6 patients with colorectal cancer who had received unsuccessful prior IHA chemotherapy. The 50% survival period was prolonged to 23 months in group A from 11 months in group B, for patients with colorectal cancer. Toxicity of IHA chemotherapy was not potentiated by combination with hyperthermia. These results indicate that the combination of hyperthermia with IHA chemotherapy has a therapeutic benefit in the treatment of unresectable metastatic liver tumors derived from colorectal and gastric cancers. PMID:1921398

  14. Concurrency control in advanced database applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naser S. Barghouti; Gail E. Kaiser

    1991-01-01

    Abstract Concurrency control has been thoroughly studied in the context of traditional database applications such asbanking and airline reservations systems. There are relatively few studies, however, that address,the concurrency,control issues of advanced,database,applications such,as CAD\\/CAM and softwaredevelopment,environments. The concurrency,control requirements in such applications are different from those in conventional database applications; in particular, there is a need to support non-serializablecooperation,among,users whose

  15. Photon buildup factors of some chemotherapy drugs.

    PubMed

    Kavaz, Esra; Ahmadishadbad, Nader; Özdemir, Yüksel

    2015-02-01

    Everyday more and more people are diagnosed with some form of cancer. Some are treatable with chemotherapy alone, while others need radiotherapy and occasionally surgery. Recently, concurrent administration of chemotherapy and radiotherapy has been increasingly used in cancer treatment, leading to improvements in survival as well as quality of life. Accordingly, interaction of chemotherapy drugs with radiation will be meaningful to examine. In the present study, gamma ray energy absorption and exposure of buildup factors were computed using the five-parameter geometric progression (G-P) fitting formula for some chemotherapy drugs in the energy range 0.015-15 MeV, and for penetration depths up to 40 mean free path (mfp). The generated energy absorption (EABF) and exposure buildup factors (EBF) of chemotherapy drugs have been studied as a function of penetration depth and incident photon energy. The significant variations in EABF and EBF for chemotherapy drugs have been observed at the moderate energy region. It has been concluded that the buildup of photons is less in azathioprine and is more in vinblastine compared with other drugs. Buildup factors investigated in the present work could be useful in radiation dosimetry and therapy. PMID:25661335

  16. Concurrent System Engineering and Risk Reduction for Dual-Band (RF/optical) Spacecraft Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielhauer, Karl, B.; Boone, Bradley, G.; Raible, Daniel, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a system engineering approach to examining the potential for combining elements of a deep-space RF and optical communications payload, for the purpose of reducing the size, weight and power burden on the spacecraft and the mission. Figures of merit and analytical methodologies are discussed to conduct trade studies, and several potential technology integration strategies are presented. Finally, the NASA Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project is described, which directly addresses the combined RF and optical approach.

  17. The programming language concurrent pascal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Brinch Hansen

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes a new programming language for structured program- ming of computer operating systems. It extends the sequential programming language Pascal with concurrent programming tools called processes and moni- tors. Part I explains these concepts informally by means of pictures illustrating a hierarchical design of a simple spooling system. Part II uses the same exam- ple to introduce the

  18. Slack Elasticity in Concurrent Computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajit Manohar; Alain J. Martin

    1998-01-01

    . We present conditions under which we can modify the slackof a channel in a distributed computation without changing its behavior.These results can be used to modify the degree of pipelining in anasynchronous system. The generality of the result shows the wide varietyof pipelining alternatives presented to the designer of a concurrent system.We give examples of program transformations which can

  19. [Efficiency of chemotherapy of destructive pulmonary tuberculosis, based on the results of rapid detection of drug sensitivity to isoniazid and rifampicin with the "TB-Biochip" test system].

    PubMed

    Kuz'min, A V; Vasil'eva, I A; Chernousova, L N

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of chemotherapy used in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis by the results of a rapid detection of drug resistance (DR) to isoniazid and rifampicin on a "TB-Biochip" test system versus the standard treatment with its subsequent correction by the data of determination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) resistance by the absolute concentration technique (ACT), the study included 208 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1) those in whom MBT sensitivity to antituberculous agents was determined on a "TB-Biochip" test system to detect mutations in the MBT genes rpoB, katG, inhA, ahpC that were responsible for MBT sensitivity to rifampicin and isoniazid and by ACT; 2) those in whom this was determined by only ACT. The results of a test for MBT sensitivity to rifampicin and isoniazid were obtained within 2 days before chemotherapy in Group 1 and 2 months after chemotherapy in Group 2. In Group 1, antituberculous chemotherapy was used, by taking into account MBT sensitivity to isoniazid, rifampicin, or their combination; in Group 2, the drugs were given by the standard regimens with their subsequent correction following 2 months by the results of ACT. The timely initiation of treatment with reserve drugs in the detection of drug sensitivity in MBT could achieve higher therapeutic efficiency and in a shorter space of time. PMID:17002052

  20. Concurrent derivations as single pushout graph grammar processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Korff; Leila Ribeiro

    1995-01-01

    Algebraic graph transformations visually support intuition, have a strong theoretical basis, and provide a formal, implementation independent basis for the description of discretely evolving computational systems and their formal and tractable analysis. Graph grammar models of concurrent systems (petri nets, actor systems) have inspired corresponding semantics developments. Recently this led to the introduction of partial orders of concurrent derivations (concurrent

  1. Chip-package co-design of a concurrent LNA in system-on-package for multi-band radio applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tommi Torikka; Xinzhong Duo; Li-Rong Zheng; Esa Tjukanoff; Hannu Tenhunen

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present a chip-package co-design of a concurrent low noise amplifier (LNA) in novel liquid crystal polymer (LCP) based system-on-package module for multiband radio transceivers. The module consists of a wideband LNA covering frequency range 1 GHz - 13 GHz and a multiband pass filter. By designing an appropriate multi-band passive filter, the wideband LNA can be

  2. The effect of rice seeding rate and fish stocking on the floodwater ecology of the rice field in direct-seeded, concurrent rice-fish systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nico Vromant; Nguyen T. H. Chau; Frans Ollevier

    2001-01-01

    Concurrent, rice-fish systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, are characterized by a rice field surrounded by a trench. Rice is direct seeded and fish are reared in polyculture. The most common species for polyculture are silver barb Barbodes gonionotus (Bleeker), common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.). In a 1996–97 rice-fish experiment, the effects of (1)

  3. The effect of rice-seeding rate and fish stocking on the floodwater ecology of the trench of a concurrent, direct-seeded rice-fish system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nico Vromant; Nguyen T. H. Chau; Frans Ollevier

    2001-01-01

    Concurrent rice-fish systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, are characterized by a rice field surrounded by a trench (on average 1000 m2, covering 15–20% of the field surface). Rice is direct seeded and fish are reared in polyculture. The most common species for polyculture are silver barb Barbodes gonionotus (Bleeker), common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

  4. Concurrent calorimetric and interferometric studies of steady-state natural convection from miniaturized horizontal single plate-fin systems and plate-fin arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filino Harahap; Herry Lesmana; Poetro Lebdo Sambegoro

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent calorimetric and interferometric studies have been conducted to investigate the effect that reduction of the base-plate\\u000a dimensions has on the steady-state performance of the rate of natural convection heat transfer from miniaturized horizontal\\u000a single plate-fin systems and plate-fin arrays. The effect was studied through comparison of the present results with those\\u000a of earlier relevant calorimetric, interferometric, or numerical studies.

  5. Optimal control of the chemotherapy of HIV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Kirschner; Suzanne Lenhart; Steve Serbin

    1997-01-01

    .  ?Using an existing ordinary differential equation model which describes the interaction of the immune system with the human\\u000a immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we introduce chemotherapy in an early treatment setting through a dynamic treatment and then\\u000a solve for an optimal chemotherapy strategy. The control represents the percentage of effect the chemotherapy has on the viral\\u000a production. Using an objective function based

  6. Rituximab with chemotherapy in children and adolescents with central nervous system and/or bone marrow-positive Burkitt lymphoma/leukaemia: a Children's Oncology Group Report.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Stanton; Smith, Lynette; Galardy, Paul; Perkins, Sherrie L; Frazer, John Kimble; Sanger, Warren; Anderson, James R; Gross, Thomas G; Weinstein, Howard; Harrison, Lauren; Shiramizu, Bruce; Barth, Matthew; Cairo, Mitchell S

    2014-11-01

    Children and adolescents with Burkitt Lymphoma (BL) and combined central nervous system (CNS) and bone marrow involvement still have a poor prognosis with chemotherapy alone. We therefore investigated in children and adolescents with bone marrow (?25% blasts) and/or CNS-positive Burkitt lymphoma the chemoimmunotherapy combination of rituximab (375 mg/m(2) ) and the standard chemotherapy arm of our previously reported French-American-British (FAB) Lymphome Malins de Burkitt (LMB) 96 trial. Central pathological and cytogenetic characterization was also performed. There were 40 evaluable patients with Burkitt histology (25 with leukaemia and 15 with CNS disease ± leukaemia). The chemoimmunotherapy regimen was well tolerated. The incidence of grade III/IV mucositis during induction cycles with combined chemotherapy and rituximab was 31% and 26%, respectively. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS)/overall survival (OS) was 90% (95% confidence interval [CI], 76-96%) in the entire cohort and 93% (95% CI, 61-99%) in patients with CNS disease. Based on the results of this trial, an international randomized study of FAB/LMB 96 chemotherapy ± rituximab for high-risk patients is currently under investigation. PMID:25066629

  7. Optimization of Concurrent Deployments of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System and Other Hydroacoustic Equipment at John Day Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Khan, Fenton; Kim, Jina; Lamarche, Brian L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Choi, Eric Y.; Faber, Derrek M.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Fischer, Eric S.; Cushing, Aaron W.

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the acoustic optimization study conducted at John Day Dam during January and February 2008. The goal of the study was to optimize performance of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) by determining deployment and data acquisition methods to minimize electrical and acoustic interference from various other acoustic sampling devices. Thereby, this would allow concurrent sampling by active and passive acoustic methods during the formal evaluations of the prototype surface flow outlets at the dam during spring and summer outmigration seasons for juvenile salmonids. The objectives for the optimization study at John Day Dam were to: 1. Design and test prototypes and provide a total needs list of pipes and trolleys to deploy JSATS hydrophones on the forebay face of the powerhouse and spillway. 2. Assess the effect on mean percentage decoded of JSATS transmissions from tags arrayed in the forebay and detected on the hydrophones by comparing: turbine unit OFF vs. ON; spill bay OPEN vs. CLOSED; dual frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) both OFF vs. ON at a spill bay; and, fixed-aspect hydroacoustic system OFF vs. ON at a turbine unit and a spill bay. 3. Determine the relationship between fixed-aspect hydroacoustic transmit level and mean percentage of JSATS transmissions decoded. The general approach was to use hydrophones to listen for transmissions from JSATS tags deployed in vertical arrays in a series perpendicular to the face of the dam. We used acoustic telemetry equipment manufactured by Technologic and Sonic Concepts. In addition, we assessed old and new JSATS signal detectors and decoders and two different types of hydrophone baffling. The optimization study consisted of a suite of off/on tests. The primary response variable was mean percentage of tag transmissions decoded. We found that there was no appreciable adverse effect on mean percentage decoded for JSATS transmitters from: turbine operations; spillway operations; DIDSON/ADCP acoustic energy; and PAS hydroacoustic systems at transmit level of -12 dB, although there was a significant impact at all higher transmit levels (-11 to -6 dB). The main conclusion from this optimization study is that valid JSATS telemetry data can be collected simultaneously with a DIDSON/ADCP and a PAS hydroacoustic system at transmit level -12 dB. Multiple evaluation tools should be considered to increase the robustness and thoroughness of future fish passage evaluations at John Day and other dams.

  8. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy: rationale, applications, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Al-Quteimat, Osama M; Al-Badaineh, Mariam A

    2014-10-01

    Intraperitoneal chemotherapy, involving the administration of certain chemotherapeutic agents directly to the intraperitoneal cavity, was developed as a novel therapeutic strategy early in the 1950s. Intraperitoneal administration of chemotherapy results in higher intraperitoneal concentration of the cytotoxic medications and minimal systemic exposure than observed with intravenous administration, which in turn may increase the efficacy of these agents with substantial reduction in systemic toxicity. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy was used successfully in peritoneal surface malignancies, including malignant peritoneal mesothelioma, pseudomyxoma peritonei, malignant ascites, sarcomatosis, and peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastrointestinal and ovarian cancers. Pharmacists may play a major role in optimizing intraperitoneal chemotherapy through verification of chemotherapy order for proper doses, dilution, preparation, and administration. Moreover, pharmacists are medication experts who can provide other health care professionals with the necessary drug information. Despite the local application of chemotherapy, intraperitoneal chemotherapy is not free of systemic side effects and can be associated with serious complications. The benefits of intraperitoneal chemotherapy should be weighed against its potential harm to maximize efficacy and to minimize morbidity and mortality as much as possible. The aim of this article is to review the current available literature regarding the safety and efficacy of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in cancer treatment. PMID:24166789

  9. Rhinovirus chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Patick, Amy K

    2006-09-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRV), members of the Picornaviridae family, are comprised of over 100 different virus serotypes. HRV represent the single most important etiological agents of the common cold [Arruda, E., Pitkaranta, A., Witek Jr., T.J., Doyle, C.A., Hayden, F.G., 1997. Frequency and natural history of rhinovirus infections in adults during autumn. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35, 2864-2868; Couch, R.B., 1990. Rhinoviruses. In: Fields, B.N., Knipe, D.M. (Eds.), Virology. Raven Press, New York, pp. 607-629; Turner, R.B., 2001. The treatment of rhinovirus infections: progress and potential. Antivir. Res. 49 (1), 1-14]. Although HRV-induced upper respiratory illness is often mild and self-limiting, the socioeconomic impact caused by missed school or work is enormous and the degree of inappropriate antibiotic use is significant. It has been estimated that upper respiratory disease accounts for at least 25 million absences from work and 23 million absences of school annually in the United States [Anzueto, A., Niederman, M.S., 2003. Diagnosis and treatment of rhinovirus respiratory infections. Chest 123 (5), 1664-1672; Rotbart, H.A., 2002. Treatment of picornavirus infections. Antivir. Res. 53, 83-98]. Increasing evidences also describe the link between HRV infection and more serious medical complications. HRV-induced colds are the important predisposing factors to acute otitis media, sinusitis, and are the major factors in the induction of exacerbations of asthma in adults and children. HRV infections are also associated with lower respiratory tract syndromes in individuals with cystic fibrosis, bronchitis, and other underlying respiratory disorders [Anzueto, A., Niederman, M.S., 2003. Diagnosis and treatment of rhinovirus respiratory infections. Chest 123 (5), 1664-1672; Gern, J.E., Busse, W.W., 1999. Association of rhinovirus infections with asthma. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12 (1), 9-18; Pitkaranta, A., Arruda, E., Malmberg, H., Hayden, F.G., 1997. Detection of rhinovirus in sinus brushings of patients with acute community-acquired sinusitis by reverse transcription-PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35, 1791-1793; Pitkaranta, A., Virolainen, A., Jero, J., Arruda, E., Hayden, F.G., 1998. Detection of rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and coronavirus infections in acute otitis media by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Pediatrics 102, 291-295; Rotbart, H.A., 2002. Treatment of picornavirus infections. Antivir. Res. 53, 83-98]. To date, no effective antiviral therapies have been approved for either the prevention or treatment of diseases caused by HRV infection. Thus, there still exists a significant unmet medical need to find agents that can shorten the duration of HRV-induced illness, lessen the severity of symptoms, minimize secondary bacterial infections and exacerbations of underlying disease and reduce virus transmission. Although effective over-the-counter products have been described that alleviate symptoms associated with the common cold [Anzueto, A., Niederman, M.S., 2003. Diagnosis and treatment of rhinovirus respiratory infections. Chest 123 (5), 1664-1672; Gwaltney, J.M., 2002a. Viral respiratory infection therapy: historical perspectives and current trials. Am. J. Med. 22 (112 Suppl. 6A), 33S-41S; Turner, R.B., 2001. The treatment of rhinovirus infections: progress and potential. Antivir. Res. 49 (1), 1-14; Sperber, S.J., Hayden, F.G., 1988. Chemotherapy of rhinovirus colds. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32, 409-419], this review will primarily focus on the discovery and development of those agents that directly or indirectly impact virus replication specifically highlighting new advances and/or specific challenges with their development. PMID:16675037

  10. The family of concurrent logic programming languages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ehud Y. Shapiro

    1989-01-01

    Concurrent logic languages are high-level programming languages for parallel and distributed systems that offer a wide range of both known and novel concurrent programming techniques. Being logic programming languages, they preserve many advantages of the abstract logic programming model, including the logical reading of programs and computations, the convenience of representing data structures with logical terms and manipulating them using

  11. Supporting concurrent applications in wireless sensor networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Yu; Loren J. Rittle; Vartika Bhandari; Jason B. Lebrun

    2006-01-01

    It is vital to support concurrent applications sharing a wire- less sensor network in order to reduce the deployment and ad- ministrative costs, thus increasing the usability and efficiency of the network. We describe Melete1, a system that supports concurrent applications with efficiency, reliability, flexibility, programmability, and scalability. Our work is based on the Mat´ e virtual machine (1) with

  12. Concurrency Control in Advanced Database Applications

    E-print Network

    and Subject Descriptors: H.2.4 [Database Management]: Systems---concurrency; transaction process­ ing; H.2.8 [Database Management]: Applications; D.2.6 [Software Engineering]: Programming Environments--- interactive, Management Additional Key Words and Phrases: Concurrency control, design environments, advanced database

  13. DREAMS and IMAGE: A Model and Computer Implementation for Concurrent, Life-Cycle Design of Complex Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Hale; James I. Craig; Farrokh Mistree; Daniel P. Schrage

    1996-01-01

    Computing architectures are being assembled that extend concurrent engineering practices by providing more efficient execution and collaboration on distributed, heterogeneous computing networks Built on the successes of Initial architectures, requirements for a next- generation design computing infrastructure can be developed These requirements concentrate on those needed by a designer in decision mak ing processes from product conception to recycling and

  14. Multi-targeting cancer chemotherapy using temperature-responsive drug carrier systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masamichi Nakayama; Teruo Okano

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a growing number of nano-scale drug carrier systems (e.g., drug–polymer conjugates, liposomes, and polymeric micelles) attract great attention for targeting cancer therapy due to a passively selective accumulation at solid tumor tissues and a subsequent anti-cancer activity. However, for the present drug targeting carrier systems, the target-selective delivery and release of loaded drugs are incapable to control completely. To

  15. Chemotherapy resistance research of lung cancer based on micro-fluidic chip system with flow medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Long Zhao; Zhenshan Wang; Sufang Fan; Qiang Meng; Bowei Li; Shujuan Shao; Qi Wang

    2010-01-01

    Micro total analysis systems (-TAS) or labs-on-a-chip, have been spreading rapidly due to their desirable characteristics,\\u000a including reductions in reagent consumption, space requirements and analysis time. This work aimed at establishing an integrated\\u000a microfluidic system which can supply the cells with fresh medium of oxygen and nutrition continuously at a control flow rate\\u000a mimicking the microenvironment in vivo. Human non-small

  16. Concurrent computer architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Dally, W.J.

    1987-11-01

    Present-generation concurrent computers offer performance greater than vector supercomputers and are easily programmed by nonexperts. Evolution of VLSI technology and a better understanding of concurrent machine organization have led to substantial improvements in the performance of numerical processors, symbolic processors, and communication networks. A 100MFLOPS arithmetic chip and a 5-us latency communication network are under construction. Low-latency communication and task switching simplify concurrent programming by removing considerations of grain size and locality. A message-passing concurrent computer with a global virtual address space provides programmers with both a shared memory, and message-based communication and synchronization. This paper describes recent advances in concurrent computer architecture, drawing on examples from the J-Machine and an experimental concurrent computer under development at MIT.

  17. 3D Radiotherapy Can Be Safely Combined With Sandwich Systemic Gemcitabine Chemotherapy in the Management of Pancreatic Cancer: Factors Influencing Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Spry, Nigel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, WA (Australia)], E-mail: Nigel.Spry@health.wa.gov.au; Harvey, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Queensland (Australia); MacLeod, Craig [Department of Radiation Oncology, Murray Valley Private Hospital, Wodonga, Victoria (Australia); Borg, Martin [Adelaide Radiotherapy Centre, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Ngan, Samuel Y. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Millar, Jeremy L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Alfred, Prahran, Victoria (Australia); Graham, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW (Australia); Zissiadis, Yvonne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, WA (Australia); Kneebone, Andrew [Cancer Therapy Centre, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); Carroll, Susan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW (Australia); Davies, Terri; Reece, William H.H. [Eli Lilly Australia, West Ryde, NSW (Australia); Iacopetta, Barry [School of Surgery and Pathology, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Goldstein, David [Department of Medical Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW (Australia)

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: The aim of this Phase II study was to examine whether concurrent continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil (CI 5FU) plus three-dimensional conformal planning radiotherapy sandwiched between gemcitabine chemotherapy is effective, tolerable, and safe in the management of pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients were enrolled in two strata: (1) resected pancreatic cancer at high risk of local relapse (postsurgery arm, n = 22) or (2) inoperable pancreatic cancer in head or body without metastases (locally advanced arm, n = 41). Gemcitabine was given at 1,000 mg/m{sup 2} weekly for 3 weeks followed by 1 week rest then 5-6 weeks of radiotherapy and concurrent CI 5FU (200 mg/m{sup 2}/day). After 4 weeks' rest, gemcitabine treatment was reinitiated for 12 weeks. Results: For the two arms combined, treatment-related Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were reported by 25 (39.7%) and 7 (11.1%) patients, respectively. No significant late renal or hepatic toxicity was observed. In the postsurgery arm (R1 54.5%), median time to progressive disease from surgery was 11.0 months, median time to failure of local control was 32.9 months, and median survival time was 15.6 months. The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 63.6% and 31.8%. No significant associations between outcome and mutations in K-ras or TP53 or microsatellite instability were identified. Post hoc investigation of cancer antigen 19-9 levels found baseline levels and increases postbaseline were associated with shorter survival (p = 0.0061 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions: This three-dimensional chemoradiotherapy regimen is safe and promising, with encouraging local control for a substantial proportion of patients, and merits testing in a randomized trial.

  18. Staged concurrent program analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nishant Sinha; Chao Wang

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent program verification is challenging because it involves exploring a large number of possible thread interleavings together with complex sequential reasoning. As a result, concurrent program verifiers resort to bi-modal reasoning, which alternates between reasoning over intra-thread (sequential) semantics and inter-thread (concurrent) semantics. Such reasoning often involves repeated intra-thread reasoning for exploring each interleaving (inter-thread reasoning) and leads to inefficiency.

  19. A Case of the Cauda Equina Syndrome Associated With the Intrathecal Chemotherapy in a Patient With Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seunglee; Kang, Jung-Il; Bang, Hyun; Kim, Bo-Ram

    2013-01-01

    The intrathecal chemotherapy with methotrexate and cytarabine arabinoside is used for the treatment and prophylaxis of the primary central nervous system lymphoma. The therapy may induce neurotoxicity including the cauda equina syndrome. We report a case of a 58-year-old man with the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, who developed the cauda equina syndrome after the administration of intrathecal methotrexate and cytarabine arabinoside, as diagnosed by the electrodiagnostic, urodynamic, and radiologic approaches. PMID:23869341

  20. A low?pressure trunk injection system for the chemotherapy of clove trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Martin; A. J. Dabek

    1985-01-01

    In Zanzibar, East Africa, trunk injection techniques are being used to investigate the aetiology of sudden?death disease of clove trees, Eugenia caryophyllus (Sprengel) Bullock and Harrison. A low?pressure trunk injection system is described which has proved itself capable of frequently injecting 5 \\/ of solution into trees in less than 1 h. Uptake rates for injections using two different designs

  1. Concurrent engineering research center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.

    1995-01-01

    The projects undertaken by The Concurrent Engineering Research Center (CERC) at West Virginia University are reported and summarized. CERC's participation in the Department of Defense's Defense Advanced Research Project relating to technology needed to improve the product development process is described, particularly in the area of advanced weapon systems. The efforts committed to improving collaboration among the diverse and distributed health care providers are reported, along with the research activities for NASA in Independent Software Verification and Validation. CERC also takes part in the electronic respirator certification initiated by The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, as well as in the efforts to find a solution to the problem of producing environment-friendly end-products for product developers worldwide. The 3M Fiber Metal Matrix Composite Model Factory Program is discussed. CERC technologies, facilities,and personnel-related issues are described, along with its library and technical services and recent publications.

  2. Computational model, method, and system for kinetically-tailoring multi-drug chemotherapy for individuals

    DOEpatents

    Gardner, Shea Nicole (San Leandro, CA)

    2007-10-23

    A method and system for tailoring treatment regimens to individual patients with diseased cells exhibiting evolution of resistance to such treatments. A mathematical model is provided which models rates of population change of proliferating and quiescent diseased cells using cell kinetics and evolution of resistance of the diseased cells, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models. Cell kinetic parameters are obtained from an individual patient and applied to the mathematical model to solve for a plurality of treatment regimens, each having a quantitative efficacy value associated therewith. A treatment regimen may then be selected from the plurlaity of treatment options based on the efficacy value.

  3. Towards concrete concurrency: occam-pi on the LEGO mindstorms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian L. Jacobsen; Matthew C. Jadud

    2005-01-01

    In a world of ad-hoc networks, highly interconnected mobile devices and increasingly large supercomputer clusters, students need models of computation that help them think about dynamic and concurrent systems. Many of the tools currently available for introducing students to concurrency are difficult to use and are not intrinsically motivating. To provide an authentic, hands-on, and enjoyable introduction to concurrency, we

  4. Concurrent Software Engineering Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankovic, Nenad; Tillo, Tammam

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent engineering or overlapping activities is a business strategy for schedule compression on large development projects. Design parameters and tasks from every aspect of a product's development process and their interdependencies are overlapped and worked on in parallel. Concurrent engineering suffers from negative effects such as excessive…

  5. Axioms for concurrent objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice P. Herlihy

    1987-01-01

    Specification and verification techniques for abstract data types that have been successful for sequential programs can be extended in a natural way to provide the same benefits for concurrent programs. We propose an approach to specifying and verifying concurrent objects based on a novel correctness condition, which we call “linearizability.” Linearizability provides the illusion that each operation takes effect instantaneously

  6. Synthesizing Concurrent Interval Performances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES S. MACDONALL

    2000-01-01

    Concurrent schedules may be viewed as consisting of two pairs of stay and switch schedules, each pair associated with one of the alternatives. A stay schedule arranges reinforcers for staying and responding at one alternative, whereas the associated switch schedule arranges reinforcers for switching to the other alternative. In standard concurrent schedules, the stay schedule at each alternative is equivalent

  7. Adjuvant chemotherapy for early female breast cancer: a systematic review of the evidence for the 2014 Cancer Care Ontario systemic therapy guideline

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, S.; Fletcher, G.G.; Eisen, A.; Mates, M.; Freedman, O.C.; Dent, S.F.; Trudeau, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Program in Evidence-Based Care (pebc) of Cancer Care Ontario recently created an evidence-based consensus guideline on the systemic treatment of early breast cancer. The evidence for the guideline was compiled using a systematic review to answer the question “What is the optimal systemic therapy for patients with early-stage, operable breast cancer, when patient and disease factors are considered?” The question was addressed in three parts: cytotoxic chemotherapy, endocrine treatment, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (her2)–directed therapy. Methods For the systematic review, the medline and embase databases were searched for the period January 2008 to May 2014. The Standards and Guidelines Evidence directory of cancer guidelines and the Web sites of major oncology guideline organizations were also searched. The basic search terms were “breast cancer” and “systemic therapy” (chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, targeted agents, ovarian suppression), and results were limited to randomized controlled trials (rcts), guidelines, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Results Several hundred documents that met the inclusion criteria were retrieved. The Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group meta-analyses encompassed many of the rcts found. Several additional studies that met the inclusion criteria were retained, as were other guidelines and systematic reviews. Chemotherapy was reviewed mainly in three classes: anti-metabolite–based regimens (for example, cyclophosphamide–methotrexate–5-fluorouracil), anthracyclines, and taxane-based regimens. In general, single-agent chemotherapy is not recommended for the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer in any patient population. Anthracycline–taxane-based polychemotherapy regimens are, overall, considered superior to earlier-generation regimens and have the most significant impact on patient survival outcomes. Regimens with varying anthracycline and taxane doses and schedules are options; in general, paclitaxel given every 3 weeks is inferior. Evidence does not support the use of bevacizumab in the adjuvant setting; other systemic therapy agents such as metformin and vaccines remain investigatory. Adjuvant bisphosphonates for menopausal women will be discussed in later work. Conclusions The results of this systematic review constitute a comprehensive compilation of the high-level evidence that is the basis for the 2014 pebc guideline on systemic therapy for early breast cancer. Use of cytotoxic chemotherapy is presented here; the results addressing endocrine therapy and her2-targeted treatment, and the final clinical practice recommendations, are published separately in this supplement.

  8. Long-Term Follow-Up of Dose-Adapted and Reduced-Field Radiotherapy With or Without Chemotherapy for Central Nervous System Germinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Ashley W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Issa Laack, Nadia N., E-mail: laack.nadia@mayo.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Buckner, Jan C. [Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Schomberg, Paula J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Wetmore, Cynthia J. [Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To update our institutional experience with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and minimized radiotherapy vs. radiation monotherapy for intracranial germinoma. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed records of 59 patients with diagnosis of primary intracranial germinoma between 1977 and 2007. Treatment was irradiation alone or neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy and local irradiation (initial tumor plus margin) for patients with localized complete response and reduced-dose craniospinal irradiation for others. Results: For the chemoradiotherapy group (n = 28), median follow-up was 7 years. No patient died. The freedom from progression (FFP) rate was 88% at 5 years and 80% at 10 years. In 4 patients, disease recurred 1.1 to 6.8 years after diagnosis. All were young male patients who received 30.6 Gy to local fields after complete response to chemotherapy. The FFP rate was 88% for local irradiation vs. 100% for more extensive fields (p = .06). For the radiotherapy-alone group (n = 31), median follow-up was 15 years. Overall and disease-free survival rates were 93% and 93% at 5 years and 90% and 87% at 15 years. In 5 patients, disease recurred 1.1 to 4.9 years after diagnosis. Most patients in this group were young men 18 to 23 years of age with suprasellar primary disease treated with about 50 Gy to local fields. The FFP rate was 44% for local irradiation vs. 100% for more extensive fields (p < .01). Conclusions: The addition of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to local-field radiotherapy reduced central nervous system cancer recurrence when high-risk patients were excluded by thorough pretreatment staging. There was trend toward improved central nervous system tumor control when larger fields (whole brain, whole ventricle, or craniospinal axis) were used.

  9. CHOD/BVAM Chemotherapy and Whole-Brain Radiotherapy for Newly Diagnosed Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Laack, Nadia N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); O'Neill, Brian Patrick, E-mail: boneill@mayo.edu [Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Ballman, Karla V.; O'Fallon, Judith Rich; Carrero, Xiomara W. [Division of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Kurtin, Paul J.; Scheithauer, Bernd W. [Department of Pathology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Habermann, Thomas M.; Colgan, Joseph P. [Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Gilbert, Mark R. [Department of Neuro-Oncology, The M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hawkins, Roland B. [Oschner CCOP, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States); Morton, Roscoe F. [Iowa Oncology Research Association CCOP, Des Moines, Iowa (United States); Windschitl, Harry E. [CentraCare Clinic, St. Cloud, Minnesota (United States); Fitch, Tom R. [Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Pajon, Eduardo R. [Colorado Cancer Research Program, Denver, Colorado (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), vincristine, and dexamethasone (CHOD) plus bis-chloronitrosourea (BCNU), cytosine arabinoside, and methotrexate (BVAM) followed by whole-brain irradiation (WBRT) for patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Methods and Materials: Patients 70 years old and younger with newly diagnosed, biopsy-proven PCNSL received one cycle of CHOD followed by two cycles of BVAM. Patients then received WBRT, 30.6 Gy, if a complete response was evoked, or 50.4 Gy if the response was less than complete; both doses were given in 1.8-Gy daily fractions. The primary efficacy endpoint was 1-year survival. Results: Thirty-six patients (19 men, 17 women) enrolled between 1995 and 2000. Median age was 60.5 years (range, 34 to 69 years). Thirty (83%) patients had baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance scores of 0 to 1. All 36 patients were eligible for survival and response evaluations. Median time to progression was 12.3 months, and median survival was 18.5 months. The percentages of patients alive at 1, 2, and 3 years were 64%, 36%, and 33%, respectively. The best response was complete response in 10 patients and immediate progression in 7 patients. Ten (28%) patients had at least one grade 3 or higher neurologic toxicity. Conclusions: This regimen did improve the survival of PCNSL patients but also caused substantial toxicity. The improvement in survival is less than that reported with high-dose methotrexate-based therapies.

  10. Evaluation of Intrahepatic Perfusion on Fusion Imaging Using a Combined CT\\/SPECT System: Influence of Anatomic Variations on Hemodynamic Modification Before Installation of Implantable Port Systems for Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Ikeda; Yoshitaka Tamura; Yutaka Nakasone; Shinya Shiraishi; Kouichi Kawanaka; Seiji Tomiguchi; Hiroshi Takamori; Akira Chikamoto; Keiichirou Kanemitsu; Yasuyuki Yamashita

    2007-01-01

    Background. In some patients with hepatic tumors, anatomic variations in the hepatic arteries may require hemodynamic modification to render effective hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy delivered via implantable port systems. We used a combined CT\\/SPECT system to obtain fused images of the intrahepatic perfusion patterns in patients with such anatomic variations and assessed their effects on the treatment response of hepatic

  11. Bufalin loaded biotinylated chitosan nanoparticles: an efficient drug delivery system for targeted chemotherapy against breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xin; Yin, Hongzhuan; Zhang, Shichen; Luo, Ying; Xu, Kai; Ma, Ping; Sui, Chengguang; Meng, Fandong; Liu, Yunpeng; Jiang, Youhong; Fang, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Bufalin is a traditional oriental medicine which is known to induce apoptosis in many tumor cells, and it is thus considered as a new anticancer therapeutic. By now, most of the studies of bufalin are in vitro, however in vivo evaluations of its therapeutic efficacy are less and are in great demand for its development toward anticancer drug. One of the problems probably hampering the development of bufalin is the lack of tumor selectivity, which may reduce the therapeutic effect as well as showing side effects. To overcome this drawback, in this study, we designed a tumor-targeted drug delivery system of bufalin based on enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, by using biotinylated chitosan, resulting in bufalin encapsulating nanoparticles (Bu-BCS-NPs) with mean hydrodynamic size of 171.6 nm, as evidenced by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope. Bu-BCS-NPs showed a relative slow and almost linear release of bufalin, and about 36.8% of bufalin was released in 24 h when dissolved in sodium phosphate buffer. Compared to native bufalin, Bu-BCS-NPs exhibited a stronger cytotoxicity against breast cancer MCF-7 cells (IC50 of 0.582 ?g/ml vs 1.896 ?g/ml of native bufalin). Similar results were also obtained in intracellular reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis induction, and decrease in mitochondria membrane potential. These results may contribute to the rapid intracellular uptake of nanoparticles, partly benefiting from the highly expressed biotin receptors in tumor cells. In vivo studies using MCF-7 tumor models in nude mice confirmed the remarkable therapeutic effect of Bu-BCS-NPs. These findings suggest the potential of Bu-BCS-NPs as an anticancer drug with tumor targeting property. PMID:24846793

  12. Immunological aspects of cancer chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lionel Apetoh; François Ghiringhelli; Laurence Zitvogel; Guido Kroemer

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the innate and adaptive immune systems make a crucial contribution to the antitumour effects of conventional chemotherapy-based and radiotherapy-based cancer treatments. Moreover, the molecular and cellular bases of the immunogenicity of cell death that is induced by cytotoxic agents are being progressively unravelled, challenging the guidelines that currently govern the development of anticancer drugs. Here, we

  13. Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anjali Bhagra; Ravi D. Rao

    2007-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN)\\u000a causes numerous debilitating symptoms, impairs functional capacity, and results in dose reductions or possible cessation of\\u000a chemotherapy. Analgesic or neurotropic agents are only modestly effective in treating neuropathic symptoms. Animal and human\\u000a studies into the pathogenesis of CIPN have demonstrated heterogeneity in the mechanism(s) of nerve injury

  14. Chemotherapy induced Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Sunny; Sharma, Abhishek; Garg, Aakash; Chandra, Abhinav; Shetty, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy has been linked with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Most of the literature on chemotherapy associated Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is on the drug 5-fluorouracil. In this report, we describe the case of a 55-year-old Asian male who developed Takotsubo cardiomyopathy while receiving dual chemotherapy with cytarabine and daunorubicin for acute myeloid leukemia. To our knowledge, it is the first case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy associated with daunorubicin and/or cytarabine. PMID:25325068

  15. In vivo anti-cancer efficacy of magnetite nanocrystal--based system using locoregional hyperthermia combined with 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Tsung-Ju; Huang, Chih-Chia; Ruan, Pin-Wei; Chuang, Kuei-Yi; Huang, Kuang-Jing; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2013-10-01

    We present an approach for synchronizing hyperthermia and thermal-responsive local drug release. The targeting probe has a magnetite nanocrystal (Fe?O?@PSMA) core and a polynucleotide shell that carries 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (anti-HER2) antibody for cancer cell-specific targeting. The targeting nanocrystals play as an important role to relay the externally delivered radiofrequency energy for tumor hyperthermia. Locoregional heat then triggers a drug release from the oligonucleotide carrier as it directly damages tumor cells. Cell viability assays and pathological examinations show that this synchronization is significantly more efficacious in both in vitro and in vivo models than hyperthermia or chemotherapy alone. Prominent tumor remission in vivo was achieved through radiofrequency synchronization of hyperthermia and chemotherapy after the nanoparticle had been intravenously injected. PMID:23876757

  16. Sustained Partial Remission of Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Following Systemic Chemotherapy with Gemcitabine and Oxaliplatin plus Adjunctive Treatment with Mistletoe Extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter R. Ritter; Iris Tischoff; Waldemar Uhl; Wolfgang E. Schmidt; Juris J. Meier

    2010-01-01

    SummaryBackground: The clinical prognosis of metastatic pancreatic cancer is very poor, with a median survival time of such patients ranging from 3 to 6 months. Current chemotherapy regimens include the combination of oxaliplatin and gemcitabine. Case Report: A 43-year-old woman was diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma spreading into the regional lymph nodes and into multiple liver segments (pT3, pN1, pM1). Upon

  17. Heterogeneous concurrent computing with exportable services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderam, Vaidy

    1995-01-01

    Heterogeneous concurrent computing, based on the traditional process-oriented model, is approaching its functionality and performance limits. An alternative paradigm, based on the concept of services, supporting data driven computation, and built on a lightweight process infrastructure, is proposed to enhance the functional capabilities and the operational efficiency of heterogeneous network-based concurrent computing. TPVM is an experimental prototype system supporting exportable services, thread-based computation, and remote memory operations that is built as an extension of and an enhancement to the PVM concurrent computing system. TPVM offers a significantly different computing paradigm for network-based computing, while maintaining a close resemblance to the conventional PVM model in the interest of compatibility and ease of transition Preliminary experiences have demonstrated that the TPVM framework presents a natural yet powerful concurrent programming interface, while being capable of delivering performance improvements of upto thirty percent.

  18. C formal verification with unix communication and concurrency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Doug N.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a NASA SBIR project are presented in which CSP-Ariel, a verification system for C programs which use Unix system calls for concurrent programming, interprocess communication, and file input and output, was developed. This project builds on ORA's Ariel C verification system by using the system of Hoare's book, Communicating Sequential Processes, to model concurrency and communication. The system runs in ORA's Clio theorem proving environment. The use of CSP to model Unix concurrency and sketch the CSP semantics of a simple concurrent program is outlined. Plans for further development of CSP-Ariel are discussed. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  19. What's New in Chemotherapy Research?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about chemotherapy Next Topic To learn more What’s new in chemotherapy research? Over the years, many people ... control, and some will come back. Several exciting new uses of chemotherapy and other agents hold even ...

  20. Interpretive model for a ''a concurrency method''

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, C.L.

    1986-06-01

    ''A Concurrency Method'' is a language embodying the data flow characteristics of data-drive and single-assignment. The interpreter for ''A Concurrency Method'' models a physical machine with an architecture directed toward this language. The interpreter is a complete system with scheduler, editor, load balancer and message handler. This model embraces some architectural features in other data flow machines and models and combines these features in a manner most conducive to this language. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  1. The role of systemic chemotherapy and multidisciplinary management in improving the overall survival of patients with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Cathy; Chang, George J.; Nancy You, Y.; Das, Prajnan; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel; Xing, Yan; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Rogers, Jane E.; Ohinata, Aki; Pathak, Priyanka; Sethi, Salil; Phillips, Jonathan K.; Crane, Christopher H.; Wolff, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) of the anal canal is a rare malignancy for which no standard treatment algorithm exists. To determine the best approach, all patients diagnosed with metastatic SCCA of the anal canal treated at a single institution were evaluated for choice of chemotherapy and treatment outcome. A retrospective study from January 2000 to May 2012 was conducted. Electronic medical records were reviewed for diagnosis of metastatic SCCA of the anal canal. All patients were treatment naïve for metastatic disease and completed all radiographic imaging at our institution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes among patients who received systemic chemotherapy and if appropriate were referred for multidisciplinary intervention (e.g., surgery, radiofrequency ablation, etc.). Seventy-seven patients fulfilled eligibility criteria. Forty-two patients (55%) received 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) + cisplatin (PF); 24 patients (31%) received carboplatin + paclitaxel (CP); 11 patients (14%) received an alternative regimen. After a median follow-up of 42 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) for all patients was 7 months; the median overall survival (OS) was 22 months. Thirty-three patients (43%) underwent multidisciplinary management for metastatic disease resulting in a median PFS of 16 months (95% CI: 9·2 ?22·8) and median OS of 53 months (95% CI: 28·3 – 77·6). Systemic chemotherapy provides durable survival for patients with surgically unresectable metastatic SCCA of the anal canal. Multidisciplinary management for select patients with metastatic disease effectively improves survival and should be considered whenever possible. PMID:25373735

  2. Cannabidiol inhibits paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain through 5-HT1A receptors without diminishing nervous system function or chemotherapy efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Sara Jane; McAllister, Sean D; Kawamura, Rumi; Murase, Ryuchi; Neelakantan, Harshini; Walker, Ellen A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Paclitaxel (PAC) is associated with chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain (CIPN) that can lead to the cessation of treatment in cancer patients even in the absence of alternate therapies. We previously reported that chronic administration of the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) prevents PAC-induced mechanical and thermal sensitivity in mice. Hence, we sought to determine receptor mechanisms by which CBD inhibits CIPN and whether CBD negatively effects nervous system function or chemotherapy efficacy. Experimental Approach The ability of acute CBD pretreatment to prevent PAC-induced mechanical sensitivity was assessed, as was the effect of CBD on place conditioning and on an operant-conditioned learning and memory task. The potential interaction of CBD and PAC on breast cancer cell viability was determined using the MTT assay. Key Results PAC-induced mechanical sensitivity was prevented by administration of CBD (2.5 – 10?mg·kg?1) in female C57Bl/6 mice. This effect was reversed by co-administration of the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100635, but not the CB1 antagonist SR141716 or the CB2 antagonist SR144528. CBD produced no conditioned rewarding effects and did not affect conditioned learning and memory. Also, CBD + PAC combinations produce additive to synergistic inhibition of breast cancer cell viability. Conclusions and Implications Our data suggest that CBD is protective against PAC-induced neurotoxicity mediated in part by the 5-HT1A receptor system. Furthermore, CBD treatment was devoid of conditioned rewarding effects or cognitive impairment and did not attenuate PAC-induced inhibition of breast cancer cell viability. Hence, adjunct treatment with CBD during PAC chemotherapy may be safe and effective in the prevention or attenuation of CIPN. PMID:24117398

  3. Comparison of Fusion Imaging Using a Combined SPECT/CT System and Intra-arterial CT: Assessment of Drug Distribution by an Implantable Port System in Patients Undergoing Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Osamu, E-mail: osamu-3643ik@do9.enjoy.ne.jp; Kusunoki, Shinichiroh; Nakaura, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Shinya; Kawanaka, Kouichi; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Takamori, Hiroshi; Chikamoto, Akira; Kanemitsu, Keiichiro [Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gastroenterological Surgery (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    Hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) chemotherapy is effective for treating primary and metastatic carcinoma of the liver. We compared the perfusion patterns of HAI chemotherapy on intra-arterial port-catheter computed tomography (iapc-CT) and fused images obtained with a combined single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) system. We studied 28 patients with primary or metastatic carcinoma of the liver who bore an implantable HAI port system. All underwent abdominal SPECT using Tc-99m-MAA (185 Mbq); the injection rate was 1 mL/min, identical to the chemotherapy infusion rate, and 0.5 mL/sec for iapc-CT. Delivery was through an implantable port. We compared the intrahepatic perfusion (IHP) and extrahepatic perfusion (EHP) patterns of HAI chemotherapy on iapc-CT images and fused images obtained with a combined SPECT/CT system. In 23 of 28 patients (82%), IHP patterns on iapc-CT images and fused images were identical. In 5 of the 28 patients (18%), IHP on fusion images was different from IHP on iapc-CT images. EHP was seen on fused images in 12 of the 28 patients (43%) and on iapc-CT images in 8 patients (29%). In 17 patients (61%), upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed gastroduodenal mucosal lesions. EHP was revealed on fused images in 10 of these patients; 9 of them manifested gastroduodenal toxicity at the time of subsequent HAI chemotherapy. Fusion imaging using the combined SPECT/CT system reflects the actual distribution of the infused anticancer agent. This information is valuable not only for monitoring adequate drug distribution but also for avoiding potential extrahepatic complications.

  4. A patient with cholangiocarcinoma demonstrating pathologic complete response to chemotherapy: exploring the role of neoadjuvant therapy in biliary tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Walker, Evan J; Simko, Jeffry P; Nakakura, Eric K; Ko, Andrew H

    2014-12-01

    The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation for localized or potentially resectable cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has not been well established. We present here the case of a patient with an extrahepatic CCA who achieved a pathologic complete response after undergoing preoperative gemcitabine-based chemotherapy, without sequential or concurrent use of radiation. Further evaluation of neoadjuvant strategies in CCA, including not only combined-modality therapy but also the use of chemotherapy exclusively, is warranted in prospective study design. PMID:25436138

  5. A patient with cholangiocarcinoma demonstrating pathologic complete response to chemotherapy: exploring the role of neoadjuvant therapy in biliary tract cancer

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Evan J.; Simko, Jeffry P.; Nakakura, Eric K.

    2014-01-01

    The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation for localized or potentially resectable cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has not been well established. We present here the case of a patient with an extrahepatic CCA who achieved a pathologic complete response after undergoing preoperative gemcitabine-based chemotherapy, without sequential or concurrent use of radiation. Further evaluation of neoadjuvant strategies in CCA, including not only combined-modality therapy but also the use of chemotherapy exclusively, is warranted in prospective study design. PMID:25436138

  6. A Unified Geometric Framework for Kinematics, Dynamics and Concurrent Control of Free-Base, Open-Chain Multi-Body Systems with Holonomic and Nonholonomic Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabra, Robin

    This thesis presents a geometric approach to studying kinematics, dynamics and controls of open-chain multi-body systems with non-zero momentum and multi-degree-of-freedom joints subject to holonomic and nonholonomic constraints. Some examples of such systems appear in space robotics, where mobile and free-base manipulators are developed. The proposed approach introduces a unified framework for considering holonomic and nonholonomic, multi-degree-of-freedom joints through: (i) generalization of the product of exponentials formula for kinematics, and (ii) aggregation of the dynamical reduction theories, using differential geometry. Further, this framework paves the ground for the input-output linearization and controller design for concurrent trajectory tracking of base-manipulator(s). In terms of kinematics, displacement subgroups are introduced, whose relative configuration manifolds are Lie groups and they are parametrized using the exponential map. Consequently, the product of exponentials formula for forward and differential kinematics is generalized to include multi-degree-of-freedom joints and nonholonomic constraints in open-chain multi-body systems. As for dynamics, it is observed that the action of the relative configuration manifold corresponding to the first joint of an open-chain multi-body system leaves Hamilton's equation invariant. Using the symplectic reduction theorem, the dynamical equations of such systems with constant momentum (not necessarily zero) are formulated in the reduced phase space, which present the system dynamics based on the internal parameters of the system. In the nonholonomic case, a three-step reduction process is presented for nonholonomic Hamiltonian mechanical systems. The Chaplygin reduction theorem eliminates the nonholonomic constraints in the first step, and an almost symplectic reduction procedure in the unconstrained phase space further reduces the dynamical equations. Consequently, the proposed approach is used to reduce the dynamical equations of nonholonomic open-chain multi-body systems. Regarding the controls, it is shown that a generic free-base, holonomic or nonholonomic open-chain multi-body system is input-output linearizable in the reduced phase space. As a result, a feed-forward servo control law is proposed to concurrently control the base and the extremities of such systems. It is shown that the closed-loop system is exponentially stable, using a proper Lyapunov function. In each chapter of the thesis, the developed concepts are illustrated through various case studies.

  7. Consolidation Radiotherapy in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphomas: Impact on Outcome of Different Fields and Doses in Patients in Complete Remission After Upfront Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreri, Andres Jose Maria, E-mail: andres.ferreri@hsr.i [Unit of Lymphoid Malignancies, Department of Oncology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Medical Oncology Unit, Department of Oncology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Verona, Chiara [Unit of Lymphoid Malignancies, Department of Oncology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Internal Medicine Unit, Department of Oncology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Politi, Letterio Salvatore [Neuroradiology Unit, Department of Oncology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Chiara, Anna [Unit of Radiotherapy and Tomotherapy, Department of Oncology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Perna, Lucia [Medical Physics Unit, Department of Oncology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Villa, Eugenio; Reni, Michele [Medical Oncology Unit, Department of Oncology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy)

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: Avoidance radiotherapy or reduction of irradiation doses in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) in complete remission (CR) after high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-based chemotherapy has been proposed to minimize the neurotoxicity risk. Nevertheless, no study has focused on the survival impact of radiation parameters, as far as we know, and the optimal radiation schedule remains to be defined. Methods and Materials: The impact on outcome and neurologic performance of different radiation fields and doses was assessed in 33 patients with PCNSL who achieved CR after MTX-containing chemotherapy and were referred to consolidation whole-brain irradiation (WBRT). Patterns of relapse were analyzed on computed tomography-guided treatment planning, and neurologic impairment was assessed by the Mini Mental Status Examination. Results: At a median follow-up of 50 months, 21 patients are relapse-free (5-year failure-free survival [FFS], 51%). WBRT doses {>=}40 Gy were not associated with improved disease control in comparison with a WBRT dose of 30 to 36 Gy (relapse rate, 46% vs. 30%; 5-year FFS, 51% vs. 50%; p = 0.26). Disease control was not significantly different between patients irradiated to the tumor bed with 45 to 54 Gy or with 36 to 44 Gy, with a 5-year FFS of 35% and 44% (p = 0.43), respectively. Twenty patients are alive (5-year overall survival, 54%); WB and tumor bed doses did not have an impact on survival. Impairment as assessed by the Mini Mental Status Examination was significantly more common in patients treated with a WBRT dose {>=}40 Gy. Conclusion: Consolidation with WBRT 36 Gy is advisable in patients with PCNSL in CR after HD-MTX-based chemotherapy. Higher doses do not change the outcome and could increase the risk of neurotoxicity.

  8. Anaerobic NADH-fumarate reductase system is predominant in the respiratory chain of Echinococcus multilocularis, providing a novel target for the chemotherapy of alveolar echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Jun; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Shinjyo, Noriko; Kido, Yasutoshi; Yamamoto, Nao; Yagi, Kinpei; Miyoshi, Hideto; Nonaka, Nariaki; Katakura, Ken; Kita, Kiyoshi; Oku, Yuzaburo

    2008-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis, which is due to the massive growth of larval Echinococcus multilocularis, is a life-threatening parasitic zoonosis distributed widely across the northern hemisphere. Commercially available chemotherapeutic compounds have parasitostatic but not parasitocidal effects. Parasitic organisms use various energy metabolic pathways that differ greatly from those of their hosts and therefore could be promising targets for chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to characterize the mitochondrial respiratory chain of E. multilocularis, with the eventual goal of developing novel antiechinococcal compounds. Enzymatic analyses using enriched mitochondrial fractions from E. multilocularis protoscoleces revealed that the mitochondria exhibited NADH-fumarate reductase activity as the predominant enzyme activity, suggesting that the mitochondrial respiratory system of the parasite is highly adapted to anaerobic environments. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the primary quinone of the parasite mitochondria was rhodoquinone-10, which is commonly used as an electron mediator in anaerobic respiration by the NADH-fumarate reductase system of other eukaryotes. This also suggests that the mitochondria of E. multilocularis protoscoleces possess an anaerobic respiratory chain in which complex II of the parasite functions as a rhodoquinol-fumarate reductase. Furthermore, in vitro treatment assays using respiratory chain inhibitors against the NADH-quinone reductase activity of mitochondrial complex I demonstrated that they had a potent ability to kill protoscoleces. These results suggest that the mitochondrial respiratory chain of the parasite is a promising target for chemotherapy of alveolar echinococcosis. PMID:17954696

  9. Anaerobic NADH-Fumarate Reductase System Is Predominant in the Respiratory Chain of Echinococcus multilocularis, Providing a Novel Target for the Chemotherapy of Alveolar Echinococcosis?

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Jun; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Shinjyo, Noriko; Kido, Yasutoshi; Yamamoto, Nao; Yagi, Kinpei; Miyoshi, Hideto; Nonaka, Nariaki; Katakura, Ken; Kita, Kiyoshi; Oku, Yuzaburo

    2008-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis, which is due to the massive growth of larval Echinococcus multilocularis, is a life-threatening parasitic zoonosis distributed widely across the northern hemisphere. Commercially available chemotherapeutic compounds have parasitostatic but not parasitocidal effects. Parasitic organisms use various energy metabolic pathways that differ greatly from those of their hosts and therefore could be promising targets for chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to characterize the mitochondrial respiratory chain of E. multilocularis, with the eventual goal of developing novel antiechinococcal compounds. Enzymatic analyses using enriched mitochondrial fractions from E. multilocularis protoscoleces revealed that the mitochondria exhibited NADH-fumarate reductase activity as the predominant enzyme activity, suggesting that the mitochondrial respiratory system of the parasite is highly adapted to anaerobic environments. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the primary quinone of the parasite mitochondria was rhodoquinone-10, which is commonly used as an electron mediator in anaerobic respiration by the NADH-fumarate reductase system of other eukaryotes. This also suggests that the mitochondria of E. multilocularis protoscoleces possess an anaerobic respiratory chain in which complex II of the parasite functions as a rhodoquinol-fumarate reductase. Furthermore, in vitro treatment assays using respiratory chain inhibitors against the NADH-quinone reductase activity of mitochondrial complex I demonstrated that they had a potent ability to kill protoscoleces. These results suggest that the mitochondrial respiratory chain of the parasite is a promising target for chemotherapy of alveolar echinococcosis. PMID:17954696

  10. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy in the management of advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: current status.

    PubMed

    Afqir, Said; Ismaili, Nabil; Errihani, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) differs from other head and neck cancers in its epidemiology, natural behavior and, particularly, in the therapeutic considerations. In addition, NPC is responsive to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT). This article reviews the recent advances in concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for NPC. To identify the studies mentioned in this article, we searched the MEDLINE database, and abstracts of selected conference proceedings (up to 2008) using the key words 'nasopharyngeal carcinoma,' 'advanced,' 'radiotherapy,' and 'concurrent chemotherapy.' Eight randomized clinical trials of CCRT in NPC have been reported in the English literature. These trials can be classified according to the timing of the chemotherapy, which was given either concurrently with RT (in three trials) or concurrently with radiotherapy and adjuvant after the and of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (in five trials). There have also been four meta-analyses addressing the value and scheduling of chemotherapy in the curative treatment of NPC. This article reviews the recent literature and the pertinent issues concerning the role of CCRT in the treatment of patients with locoregionally advanced NPC. PMID:19293481

  11. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bushra Malik; Mark Stillman

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in the development and administration of chemotherapy for malignant diseases have led to prolonged survival\\u000a of patients and the promise of a return to normal lives. The cost of progress comes with a price, however, and the nervous\\u000a system is frequently the target of therapy-induced toxicity. Unlike more immediate toxicities that affect the gastrointestinal\\u000a tract and bone marrow,

  12. Concurrency and network disassortativity.

    PubMed

    Khor, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between a network's degree-degree correlation and a loose version of graph coloring is studied on networks with broad degree distributions. We find that, given similar conditions on the number of nodes, number of links, and clustering levels, fewer colors are needed to color disassortative than assortative networks. Since fewer colors create fewer independent sets, our finding implies that disassortative networks may have higher concurrency potential than assortative networks. This in turn suggests another reason for the disassortative mixing pattern observed in biological networks such as those of protein-protein interaction and gene regulation. In addition to the functional specificity and stability suggested by Maslov and Sneppen, a disassortative network topology may also enhance the ability of cells to perform crucial tasks concurrently. Hence, increased concurrency may also be a driving force in the evolution of biological networks. PMID:20586579

  13. DREAMS and IMAGE: A Model and Computer Implementation for Concurrent, Life-Cycle Design of Complex Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Mark A.; Craig, James I.; Mistree, Farrokh; Schrage, Daniel P.

    1995-01-01

    Computing architectures are being assembled that extend concurrent engineering practices by providing more efficient execution and collaboration on distributed, heterogeneous computing networks. Built on the successes of initial architectures, requirements for a next-generation design computing infrastructure can be developed. These requirements concentrate on those needed by a designer in decision-making processes from product conception to recycling and can be categorized in two areas: design process and design information management. A designer both designs and executes design processes throughout design time to achieve better product and process capabilities while expanding fewer resources. In order to accomplish this, information, or more appropriately design knowledge, needs to be adequately managed during product and process decomposition as well as recomposition. A foundation has been laid that captures these requirements in a design architecture called DREAMS (Developing Robust Engineering Analysis Models and Specifications). In addition, a computing infrastructure, called IMAGE (Intelligent Multidisciplinary Aircraft Generation Environment), is being developed that satisfies design requirements defined in DREAMS and incorporates enabling computational technologies.

  14. Evaluation of Intrahepatic Perfusion on Fusion Imaging Using a Combined CT\\/SPECT System: Influence of Anatomic Variations on Hemodynamic Modification Before Installation of Implantable Port Systems for Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Ikeda; Yoshitaka Tamura; Yutaka Nakasone; Shinya Shiraishi; Kouichi Kawanaka; Seiji Tomiguchi; Hiroshi Takamori; Akira Chikamoto; Keiichirou Kanemitsu; Yasuyuki Yamashita

    2007-01-01

    Background  In some patients with hepatic tumors, anatomic variations in the hepatic arteries may require hemodynamic modification to\\u000a render effective hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy delivered via implantable port systems. We used a combined CT\\/SPECT\\u000a system to obtain fused images of the intrahepatic perfusion patterns in patients with such anatomic variations and assessed\\u000a their effects on the treatment response of hepatic tumors.

  15. Concurrency Analysis for Java

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristian Ungureanu; Suresh Jagannathan

    2000-01-01

    \\u000a Concurrency is an integral feature of Java. While there has been recent research [CGS+99,BH99,WR99,Bla99] on devising analyses\\u000a to eliminate the overhead imposed by synchronization, these analyses do not explicitly track multiple threads of control,\\u000a nor do they appear particularly well-suited to facilitate other concurrency-related optimizations that may be applicable in\\u000a a parallel or distributed environment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In this paper, we develop

  16. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction ... side effects of docetaxel as used to treat prostate cancer are VERY different and less severe than the ...

  17. Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Cancer Stay Healthy Find Support & Treatment Explore Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Testicular Cancer » Overview Guide » Chemotherapy for testicular cancer Share this Page Close Push ...

  18. Chemotherapy for Gallbladder Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... because it often requires surgery to insert a catheter into the hepatic artery, an operation that many ... long lasting. For more information, see our document Peripheral Neuropathy Caused by Chemotherapy . Report any side effects ...

  19. Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is one of the most serious complications associated with anticancer drugs. CIPN leads to a lower quality of life and dysfunction of the sensory, motor, and autonomic systems, and often causes patients to discontinue chemotherapy. It is usually misdiagnosed and undertreated due to a lack of consensus and unclear pathophysiology, for which many mechanisms have been suggested, including mitochondrial dysfunction, various pain mediators, abnormal spontaneous discharge in A and C fibers, and others. To date, no agents have been shown to effectively prevent CIPN, leading to debate as to the standard protocol. Duloxetine has demonstrated a moderate therapeutic effect against CIPN. Although tricyclic antidepressants (such as nortriptyline or desipramine), gabapentin, and a topical gel containing baclofen (10 mg), amitriptyline HCL (40 mg), and ketamine (20 mg) showed inconclusive results in CIPN trials, these agents are currently considered the best options for CIPN treatment. Therefore, further studies on the pathophysiology and treatment of CIPN are needed. PMID:25097731

  20. Concurrent Constraint Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay A. Saraswat; Martin C. Rinard

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a new and very rich class of (con- current) programming languages, based on the notion of comput.ing with parhal information, and the con- commitant notions of consistency and entailment.' In this framework, computation emerges from the inter- action of concurrently executing agents that communi- cate by placing, checking and instantiating constraints on shared variables. Such a view

  1. A Unique Case of a Patient with Rectal Cancer Who Developed Benign Esophageal Stenosis after Localized Rectal Radiation and Systemic Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Elie; Cheesman, Antonio; Hammami, Muhammad; Taylor, Jason R.; Poddar, Nishant; Garrett, Robert W.; Alkaade, Samer

    2015-01-01

    Acute esophagitis and esophageal strictures typically occur after local radiation therapy to the thoracic field. Toxicity is usually limited to the field of radiation and potentially augmented by concomitant use of chemotherapy, however esophageal stricturing due to chemotherapy alone is exceedingly rare. Gastrointestinal toxicity has been previously reported in the setting of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy with abnormal thymidylate synthase or dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activities. We present a unique case of isolated chemotherapy-induced esophageal stricture in the setting of stage IIIa rectal adenocarcinoma which presented shortly after initiation of treatment with 5-FU-based chemotherapy in a patient with normal thymidylate synthase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase assays. These findings prompt further investigation of pathways and potential risk factors leading to esophageal toxicity in patients treated with 5-FU-based chemotherapy.

  2. Age dependent prognosis in concurrent chemo-radiation of locally advanced NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Olfred; Schytte, Tine; Nielsen, Morten; Brink, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Background. Clinical trials indicate that the benefit of adding concurrent chemotherapy to radiotherapy of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for fit elderly is similar to the benefit for younger patients. However, since elderly patients are under-represented in most trials, the results might be due to selection bias, thus reports from a cohort of consecutively treated patients are warranted. The current single institution study reports on the influence of age on survival of locally advanced NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy combined with or without concurrent chemotherapy. Material and methods. Altogether, 478 patients completed radical radiotherapy in doses of 60-66 Gy/30-33 fractions from 1995 to June 2012; 137 of the patients had concurrent chemotherapy. The data was analyzed in age groups < 60, 60-69, and ? 70 years. Results. In the analyses of overall and lung cancer specific survival the hazard ratio was related to the use of concurrent chemotherapy was 0.49 (95% CI 0.29; 0.82), 0.68 (95% CI 0.48; 0.98) and 1.01 (95% CI 0.67; 1.51) for the age groups < 60, 60-69, and ? 70, respectively. Conclusion. Use of concurrent chemotherapy to radiotherapy of locally advanced NSCLC was associated with a survival benefit in patient younger than 70 years which was not the case for patients older than 70 years, indicating the need to be careful when selecting elderly patients for concurrent chemo-radiation. PMID:25291077

  3. Supportive care considerations during concurrent chemoradiotherapy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma: lessons learned from clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Wang-Gillam, Andrea; Abrams, Ross A; Posner, Mitchell C; Pisters, Peter W T; Picozzi, Vincent J

    2013-12-01

    Concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (chemoradiotherapy) for the management of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in either adjuvant or locally regional advanced settings produces predictable acute toxicities that are proportional in severity to the intensity and type of systemic therapy and to the parameters of radiotherapy. In addition, relevant to the adjuvant setting, surgery for pancreatic cancer often produces physiologic alterations that may impact a patient's ability to tolerate chemoradiotherapy. Failures to anticipate, monitor, and proactively manage the effects of surgery and toxicities of chemoradiotherapy can result in the need for unplanned treatment interruptions and/or inability to complete all planned therapy. In this review, complications of pancreatic cancer itself and of pancreatic resection as well as toxicities of chemoradiotherapy are delineated, and approaches to their management before, during, and after chemoradiotherapy are presented. Planning for the treatment of side effects before the anticancer therapy begins facilitates therapy administration and improves patient tolerance. PMID:22237148

  4. Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Meemong; Cooper, Gregory T.; Groom, Steven L.; Mazer, Alan S.; Williams, Winifred I.

    1988-01-01

    The design and implementation of a Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE), which is intended to become the support system software for a prototype high performance science analysis workstation are discussed. The target machine for this software is a JPL/Caltech Mark IIIfp Hypercube hosted by either a MASSCOMP 5600 or a Sun-3, Sun-4 workstation; however, the design will accommodate other concurrent machines of similar architecture, i.e., local memory, multiple-instruction-multiple-data (MIMD) machines. The CIPE system provides both a multimode user interface and an applications programmer interface, and has been designed around four loosely coupled modules; (1) user interface, (2) host-resident executive, (3) hypercube-resident executive, and (4) application functions. The loose coupling between modules allows modification of a particular module without significantly affecting the other modules in the system. In order to enhance hypercube memory utilization and to allow expansion of image processing capabilities, a specialized program management method, incremental loading, was devised. To minimize data transfer between host and hypercube a data management method which distributes, redistributes, and tracks data set information was implemented.

  5. Concurrency Control in Advanced Database Applications

    E-print Network

    to address these requirements. Categories and Subject Descriptors: H.2.4 [Database Management]: Systems---concurrency; transaction process­ Copyright � 1991 Naser S. Barghouti and Gail E. Kaiser ing; H.2.8 [Database Management these kinds of application systems on data management capabilities similar to those provided by database

  6. Inhaled chemotherapy in lung cancer: future concept of nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Chatzaki, Ekaterini; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Domvri, Kalliopi; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Goldberg, Eugene P; Karamanos, Nikos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Regional chemotherapy was first used for lung cancer 30 years ago. Since then, new methods of drug delivery and pharmaceuticals have been investigated in vitro, and in animals and humans. An extensive review of drug delivery systems, pharmaceuticals, patient monitoring, methods of enhancing inhaled drug deposition, safety and efficacy, and also additional applications of inhaled chemotherapy and its advantages and disadvantages are presented. Regional chemotherapy to the lung parenchyma for lung cancer is feasible and efficient. Safety depends on the chemotherapy agent delivered to the lungs and is dose-dependent and time-dependent. Further evaluation is needed to provide data regarding early lung cancer stages, and whether regional chemotherapy can be used as neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment. Finally, inhaled chemotherapy could one day be administered at home with fewer systemic adverse effects. PMID:22619512

  7. Spin squeezing and concurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiaolei; Wang, Xiaoqian; Ma, Jian; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2011-01-01

    We study the relations between spin squeezing and concurrence, and find that they are qualitatively equivalent for an ensemble of spin-1/2 particles with exchange symmetry and parity, if we adopt the spin squeezing criterion given in the recent work by Tóth et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 250405). This suggests that the spin squeezing has more intimate relations with pairwise entanglement. We exemplify the result by considering a superposition of two Dicke states.

  8. Concurrent calorimetric and interferometric studies of steady-state natural convection from miniaturized horizontal single plate-fin systems and plate-fin arrays

    E-print Network

    Harahap, Filino

    Concurrent calorimetric and interferometric studies have been conducted to investigate the effect that reduction of the base-plate dimensions has on the steady-state performance of the rate of natural convection heat ...

  9. Development of tumor-specific caffeine-potentiated chemotherapy using a novel drug delivery system with Span 80 nano-vesicles.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Iwasaki, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kidani, Teruki; Sakayama, Kenshi; Masumoto, Junya; Miura, Hiromasa

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, chemotherapy with caffeine has manifested potently high efficacy against osteosarcoma, although adverse effects have been observed. Recently, we developed a novel drug delivery system (DDS) with nonionic vesicles prepared from Span 80 which have promising physicochemical properties as an attractive possible alternative to commonly used liposomes. Herein, we demonstrated that tumor-specific caffeine-potentiated chemotherapy for murine osteosarcoma administered by a novel DDS with Span 80 nano-vesicles showed significant antitumor effects as well as limited adverse effects. The osteosarcoma cell line, LM8, was transplanted into C3H/HeJ mice which then were administered therapeutic agents. Ifosfamide (IFO) was employed as well as caffeine as an enhancer. Span 80 vesicles containing IFO and/or caffeine were freshly prepared. On days 0, 2 and 4, different combinations of the agents were administered to mice: IFO alone (direct i.v.), IFO vesicles (IV), IV + caffeine, IV + caffeine vesicles (CV), PBS alone vesicles (PV), and PBS alone as negative control (PBS i.v.). Then, the mice were sacrificed on day 7. Antitumor effects of the reagents were also analyzed in vitro. Moreover, fertility examination was performed. In vitro, a combination of IV+CV showed significant induction of apoptosis in the early phase. Tumor volumes in the IV+CV group were significantly reduced compared with the other groups. Histological analyses showed that the IV and IV+CV groups had significantly lower viable tumor areas. The IFO direct i.v. group showed a certain grade of renal injury as well as marked suppression of spermatogenesis, while the IV or IV+CV group showed no marked changes. The fertility test revealed that the male mice with IV+CV administration had normal fertility, and no malformations were detected in their progeny. This DDS model is of potential importance for clinical application in the therapy of metastatic osteosarcoma. PMID:25633802

  10. Development of tumor-specific caffeine-potentiated chemotherapy using a novel drug delivery system with Span 80 nano-vesicles

    PubMed Central

    NAKATA, HIROSHI; MIYAZAKI, TATSUHIKO; IWASAKI, TOMOYUKI; NAKAMURA, ATSUSHI; KIDANI, TERUKI; SAKAYAMA, KENSHI; MASUMOTO, JUNYA; MIURA, HIROMASA

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, chemotherapy with caffeine has manifested potently high efficacy against osteosarcoma, although adverse effects have been observed. Recently, we developed a novel drug delivery system (DDS) with nonionic vesicles prepared from Span 80 which have promising physicochemical properties as an attractive possible alternative to commonly used liposomes. Herein, we demonstrated that tumor-specific caffeine-potentiated chemotherapy for murine osteosarcoma administered by a novel DDS with Span 80 nano-vesicles showed significant antitumor effects as well as limited adverse effects. The osteosarcoma cell line, LM8, was transplanted into C3H/HeJ mice which then were administered therapeutic agents. Ifosfamide (IFO) was employed as well as caffeine as an enhancer. Span 80 vesicles containing IFO and/or caffeine were freshly prepared. On days 0, 2 and 4, different combinations of the agents were administered to mice: IFO alone (direct i.v.), IFO vesicles (IV), IV + caffeine, IV + caffeine vesicles (CV), PBS alone vesicles (PV), and PBS alone as negative control (PBS i.v.). Then, the mice were sacrificed on day 7. Antitumor effects of the reagents were also analyzed in vitro. Moreover, fertility examination was performed. In vitro, a combination of IV+CV showed significant induction of apoptosis in the early phase. Tumor volumes in the IV+CV group were significantly reduced compared with the other groups. Histological analyses showed that the IV and IV+CV groups had significantly lower viable tumor areas. The IFO direct i.v. group showed a certain grade of renal injury as well as marked suppression of spermatogenesis, while the IV or IV+CV group showed no marked changes. The fertility test revealed that the male mice with IV+CV administration had normal fertility, and no malformations were detected in their progeny. This DDS model is of potential importance for clinical application in the therapy of metastatic osteosarcoma. PMID:25633802

  11. Update on Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rampurwala, Murtuza M; Rocque, Gabrielle B; Burkard, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Although most women are diagnosed with early breast cancer, a substantial number recur due to persistent micro-metastatic disease. Systemic adjuvant chemotherapy improves outcomes and has advanced from first-generation regimens to modern dose-dense combinations. Although chemotherapy is the cornerstone of adjuvant therapy, new biomarkers are identifying patients who can forego such treatment. Neo-adjuvant therapy is a promising platform for drug development, but investigators should recognize the limitations of surrogate endpoints and clinical trials. Previous decades have focused on discovering, developing, and intensifying adjuvant chemotherapy. Future efforts should focus on customizing therapy and reducing chemotherapy for patients unlikely to benefit. In some cases, it may be possible to replace chemotherapy with treatments directed at specific genetic or molecular breast cancer subtypes. Yet, we anticipate that chemotherapy will remain a critical component of adjuvant therapy for years to come. PMID:25336961

  12. Timing of CMF chemotherapy in combination with tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with breast cancer: role of endocrine responsiveness of the tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Colleoni; S. Li; R. D. Gelber; A. S. Coates; M. Castiglione-Gertsch; K. N. Price; J. Lindtner; C.-M. Rudenstam; D. Crivellari; J. Collins; O. Pagani; E. Simoncini; B. Thurlimann

    2005-01-01

    Background: Controversy persists about whether chemotherapy benefits all breast cancer patients. Patients and methods: In the International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) trial VII, 1212 postmenopausal patients with node-positive disease were randomized to receive tamoxifen for 5 years or tamoxifen plus three concurrent courses of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluoro- uracil ('classical' CMF) chemotherapy, either early, delayed or both. In IBCSG

  13. Multidisciplinary Concurrent Design Optimization via the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Kelkar, Atul G.; Koganti, Gopichand

    2001-01-01

    A methodology is presented which uses commercial design and analysis software and the Internet to perform concurrent multidisciplinary optimization. The methodology provides a means to develop multidisciplinary designs without requiring that all software be accessible from the same local network. The procedures are amenable to design and development teams whose members, expertise and respective software are not geographically located together. This methodology facilitates multidisciplinary teams working concurrently on a design problem of common interest. Partition of design software to different machines allows each constituent software to be used on the machine that provides the most economy and efficiency. The methodology is demonstrated on the concurrent design of a spacecraft structure and attitude control system. Results are compared to those derived from performing the design with an autonomous FORTRAN program.

  14. A Causal Model for Analyzing Distributed Concurrency Control Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bharat K. Bhargava; Cecil T. Hua

    1983-01-01

    An event order based model for specifying and analyzing concurrency control algorithms for distributed database systems has been presented. An expanded notion of history that includes the database access events as well as synchronization events is used to study the correctness, degree of concurrency, and other aspects of the algorithms such as deadlocks and reliability. The algorithms are mapped into

  15. Concurrent oral and inhalation drug delivery using a dual formulation system: the use of oral theophylline carrier with combined inhalable budesonide and terbutaline.

    PubMed

    Salama, Rania O; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2014-06-01

    A novel approach to concurrently deliver oral and inhaled drugs as a single formulation is presented. A triple therapy containing theophylline (THEO; orally delivered) with budesonide (BUD) and terbutaline (TERB; as single and co-spray-dried inhaled powders) was prepared as an ordered mix, with THEO acting as a carrier. The aerosolisation performance of THEO formulations containing BUD and TERB alone, physical mix and co-spray-dried powder was evaluated using a next-generation impactor (NGI). Physicochemical properties were investigated using electron microscopy, laser diffraction, dynamic vapour sorption and thermal analysis. NGI analysis indicated that >99 % of the THEO powder was >4.46 ?m, with >90 % dissolved within 5 min. Particle size analysis showed TEB and BUD samples were of a suitable size for inhalation. Thermal and moisture analysis suggested powders to be stable at room temperature up to 70 % RH. Aerosol studies indicated a different performance of BUD and TERB depending on the mixing procedure. The co-spray-dried formulation showed the highest performance, with a fine particle fraction (?4.46 ?m) of BUD and TERB of 34.39?±?3.56 and 33.61?±?5.67 %, respectively. Such observations suggest that this multicomponent drug delivery system could be developed to concomitantly deliver oral and inhaled drugs, an approach that, to date, does not exist. Ultimately, this technology potentially reduces the requirement for multiple therapies and increases patient compliance. PMID:25786880

  16. Hyperthermia adds to chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf D. Issels

    2008-01-01

    The hallmarks of hyperthermia and its pleotropic effects are in favour of its combined use with chemotherapy. Preclinical research reveals that for heat killing and synergistic effects the thermal dose is most critical. Thermal enhancement of drug cytotoxicity is accompanied by cellular death and necrosis without increasing its oncogenic potential. The induction of genetically defined stress responses can deliver danger

  17. From Recovery Blocks to Concurrent Atomic Actions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Randell; Alexander Romanovsky; Cecilia M F Rubira; Robert J Stroud; Zhixue Wu; Jie Xu

    This paper reviews the development of error recovery structures that support general fault tolerance, and describes a new object-oriented scheme for error recovery in concurrent systems that generalizes existing schemes based on either conversations or transactions. This new scheme, which is based on what we term a Coordinated Atomic Action, is intended to facilitate the provision of means of tolerating

  18. Grace: Safe and Efficient Concurrent Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emery D. Berger; Ting Yang; Tongping Liu; Divya Krishnan; Gene Novark

    The shift from single to multiple core architectures means that, in order to increase application performance, programmers must write concurrent, multithreaded programs. Unfortunately, multithreaded applications are susceptible to numerous errors, including dead- locks, race conditions, atomicity violations, and order violations. These errors are notoriously difficult for programmers to debug. We present Grace, a runtime system for multithreaded programs written in

  19. Logics for Specifying Concurrent Information Systems 1 HansDieter Ehrich, Carlos Caleiro, Amilcar Sernadas, and Grit Denker

    E-print Network

    Lisboa, Universidade Técnica de

    by the PRAXIS XXI Program and JNICT, as well as by PRAXIS XXI Projects 2/2.1/MAT/262/94 SitCalc, PCEX/P/MAT/46 modeling and specification techniques help making the right design decisions and adapting the system a sound reference basis for testing the implementation. This chapter is about high­level specification

  20. Development of concept for concurrent biocide generation and water system purification. [with application to Skylab water tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An attempt was made to construct an electrochemical system, using iodine, for water purification in Skylab. Data cover measurements of iodine production rates, effect of electrode size and geometry on iodine production rates, and feasibility of using stainless steels as reference electrodes.

  1. Culture-mdias & numrique : nouvelles questions de concurrence(s)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    investigates the different possibilities of intervention aiming at preventing such anticompetitive dynamic les autorités de concurrence. Elle établit des couplages entre les segments amont et aval, et crée

  2. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer—time for a new paradigm?

    PubMed Central

    Mandilaras, V.; Bouganim, N.; Spayne, J.; Dent, R.; Arnaout, A.; Boileau, J.F.; Brackstone, M.; Meterissian, S.; Clemons, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In cases of locally advanced breast cancer (labc), preoperative (“neoadjuvant”) therapy was traditionally reserved to render the patient operable. More recently, neoadjuvant therapy, particularly chemotherapy, is being used in patients with operable disease to increase the opportunity for breast conservation. Despite the increasing use of preoperative chemotherapy, rates of pathologic complete response, a surrogate marker for disease-free survival, remain modest in patients with locally advanced disease and particularly so when the tumour is estrogen or progesterone receptor–positive and her2-negative. A new paradigm for labc patients is needed. In other solid tumours (for example, rectal, esophageal, and lung cancers), concurrent chemoradiotherapy (ccrt) is routinely used in neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment protocols alike. Results The literature suggests that ccrt in labc patients with inoperable disease is associated with response rates higher than would be anticipated with systemic therapy alone. Conclusions Ongoing trials in this field are eagerly awaited to determine if ccrt should become the new paradigm. PMID:25684986

  3. Neurologic complications of chemotherapy and other newer and experimental approaches.

    PubMed

    Soffietti, Riccardo; Trevisan, Elisa; Rudà, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Neurologic complications of conventional cytototxic agents as well as those from monoclonal antibodies and targeted therapies are increasingly observed in patients with cancer. The major categories are represented by alkylating agents (platinum compounds, ifosfamide, procarbazine, thiotepa), mitotic spindle inhibitors (vinca alkaloids, taxanes, etoposide, teniposide), proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib), antibiotics, antimetabolites, thalidomide, lenalidomide, topoisomerase inhibitors, interferon-?, hormones, bevacizumab, trastuzumab, and small tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Peripheral neuropathy is a common adverse effect of a number of chemotherapeutic drugs and often represents a critical factor limiting an adequate dose-intensity of chemotherapy. Regarding the central nervous system (CNS), it is vulnerable to many forms of toxicity from chemotherapeutic agents, including encephalopathy syndromes and confusional states, seizures, headache, cerebrovascular complications, visual loss, cerebellar syndromes, and myelopathy. For a given drug, the occurrence of CNS toxicity depends on several factors, including the total dose, route of administration, presence of structural brain lesions, exposure to prior or concurrent irradiation, and interactions with other drugs. However, many of the neurotoxic reactions are rare and idiosyncratic, and remain unpredictable. Several forms of neuroprotection and rehabilitation are being investigated. Last, the so-called "chemobrain" is an emerging issue, as it is a model of a subtle of and long-lasting damage to neuronal structures from some antineoplastic agents. PMID:24365412

  4. Logging and Recovery in a Highly Concurrent Database

    E-print Network

    Keen, John S.

    1994-06-01

    This report addresses the problem of fault tolerance to system failures for database systems that are to run on highly concurrent computers. It assumes that, in general, an application may have a wide distribution in ...

  5. Concurrent C++: Concurrent Programming with Class(es)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narain H. Gehani; William D. Roome

    1988-01-01

    ion and Concurrent ProgrammingAll the advantages of using data abstraction facilities for sequential programming also apply to concurrentprogramming. Specifically, with regard to concurrent programming, data abstraction facilities can providea better, higher-level and more robust interface for the services provided by one or more processes. Classescan be used to ensure that the protocol for interacting with a process is properly observed

  6. Exposure, infection, systemic cytokine levels and antibody responses in young children concurrently exposed to schistosomiasis and malaria

    PubMed Central

    IMAI, NATSUKO; RUJENI, NADINE; NAUSCH, NORMAN; BOURKE, CLAIRE D.; APPLEBY, LAURA J.; COWAN, GRAEME; GWISAI, REGGIS; MIDZI, NICHOLAS; CAVANAGH, DAVID; MDULUZA, TAKAFIRA; TAYLOR, DAVID; MUTAPI, FRANCISCA

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite the overlapping distribution of Schistosoma haematobium and Plasmodium falciparum infections, few studies have investigated early immune responses to both parasites in young children resident in areas co-endemic for the parasites. This study measures infection levels of both parasites and relates them to exposure and immune responses in young children. Levels of IgM, IgE, IgG4 directed against schistosome cercariae, egg and adult worm and IgM, IgG directed against P. falciparum schizonts and the merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 together with the cytokines IFN-?, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and TNF-? were measured by ELISA in 95 Zimbabwean children aged 1–5 years. Schistosome infection prevalence was 14·7% and that of Plasmodium infection was 0% in the children. 43. 4% of the children showed immunological evidence of exposure to schistosome parasites and 13% showed immunological evidence of exposure to Plasmodium parasites. Schistosome–specific responses, indicative of exposure to parasite antigens, were positively associated with cercariae-specific IgE responses, while Plasmodium-specific responses, indicative of exposure to parasite antigens, were negatively associated with responses associated with protective immunity against Plasmodium. There was no significant association between schistosome-specific and Plasmodium-specific responses. Systemic cytokine levels rose with age as well as with schistosome infection and exposure. Overall the results show that (1) significantly more children are exposed to schistosome and Plasmodium infection than those currently infected and; (2) the development of protective acquired immunity commences in early childhood, although its effects on infection levels and pathology may take many years to become apparent. PMID:21813042

  7. Concurrent Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Bevacizumab in Recurrent Malignant Gliomas: A Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera, Alvin R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Cuneo, Kyle C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Desjardins, Annick [Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Sampson, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); McSherry, Frances; Herndon, James E. [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Peters, Katherine B. [Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Allen, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Hoang, Jenny K. [Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chang, Zheng; Craciunescu, Oana [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Vredenburgh, James J.; Friedman, Henry S. [Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kirkpatrick, John P., E-mail: john.kirkpatrick@dm.duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: Virtually all patients with malignant glioma (MG) eventually recur. This study evaluates the safety of concurrent stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and bevacizumab (BVZ), an antiangiogenic agent, in treatment of recurrent MG. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with recurrent MG, treated at initial diagnosis with surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy/temozolomide and then at least 1 salvage chemotherapy regimen, were enrolled in this prospective trial. Lesions <3 cm in diameter were treated in a single fraction, whereas those 3 to 5 cm in diameter received 5 5-Gy fractions. BVZ was administered immediately before SRS and 2 weeks later. Neurocognitive testing (Mini-Mental Status Exam, Trail Making Test A/B), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-Br) quality-of-life assessment, physical exam, and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) were performed immediately before SRS and 1 week and 2 months following completion of SRS. The primary endpoint was central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. Secondary endpoints included survival, quality of life, microvascular properties as measured by DCE-MRI, steroid usage, and performance status. Results: One grade 3 (severe headache) and 2 grade 2 CNS toxicities were observed. No patients experienced grade 4 to 5 toxicity or intracranial hemorrhage. Neurocognition, quality of life, and Karnofsky performance status did not change significantly with treatment. DCE-MRI results suggest a significant decline in tumor perfusion and permeability 1 week after SRS and further decline by 2 months. Conclusions: Treatment of recurrent MG with concurrent SRS and BVZ was not associated with excessive toxicity in this prospective trial. A randomized trial of concurrent SRS/BVZ versus conventional salvage therapy is needed to establish the efficacy of this approach.

  8. [Chemotherapy of brain tumors in aduts].

    PubMed

    Roth, P; Weller, M

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of patients with brain tumors has long been the domain of neurosurgery and radiotherapy but chemotherapy is now well established as an additional treatment option for many tumor entities in neuro-oncology. This is particularly true for patients with newly diagnosed and relapsing glioblastoma and anaplastic glioma as well as the treatment of medulloblastoma and primary lymphoma of the central nervous system (CNS). In addition to purely histopathological features, treatment decisions including those for chemotherapy are now based increasingly more on molecular tumor profiling. Within the group of gliomas these markers include the methylation status of the O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter and the 1p/19q status, which reflects the loss of genetic material on chromosome arms 1p and 19q. The presence of a 1p/19q codeletion is associated with a better prognosis and increased sensitivity to alkylating chemotherapy in patients with anaplastic gliomas. PMID:25783972

  9. VLSI architecture for concurrent data structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dally, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Concurrent data structures simplify the development of concurrent programs by encapsulating commonly used mechanisms for synchronization and communication into data structures. This thesis develops a notation for describing concurrent data structures, presents examples of concurrent data structures, and describes an architecture to support concurrent data structures. Concurrent Smalltalk (CST), a derivative of Smalltalk-80 with extensions for concurrency, is developed to describe concurrent data structures. CST allows the programmer to specify objects that are distributed over the nodes of a concurrent computer. These distributed objects have many constituent objects and thus can process many messages simultaneously. They are the foundation upon which concurrent data structures are built. Considering graphs as concurrent data structures, graph algorithms are presented for the shortest-path problem, the max-flow problem, and graph partitioning. These algorithms introduce new synchronization techniques to achieve better performance than existing algorithms. A message passing, concurrent architecture is developed that exploits the characteristics of VLSI technology to support concurrent data structures.

  10. Chemotherapy of lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Papac, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The potential for substantial improvement in the outcome of patients with carcinoma of the lung seem most likely to develop in the field of chemotherapy. In the past decade, striking advances in the management of small cell carcinoma have yielded response rates and longer survival. While the greatest improvement can be predicted for patients whose disease is limited in extent, combination chemotherapy and combined modality therapy generally are effective in causing tumor regression for the majority of patients. About 20 percent of patients with disease limited to the thorax and lymph nodes will survive two years. In non-small cell tumors, response rates are improved with intensive drug combinations, although the majority of cases are unresponsive to present regimens. Careful staging and evaluation of patients indicates that patients with good performance status and limited extent of disease appear to obtain the most benefit from intensive treatment. The considerable morbidity of some treatments often influences the choice for or against chemotherapy in patients with non-small cell carcinomas. For the future, problems of particular interest will be in investigation of factors-biologic, pharmacokinetic, immunologic-that are related to the failure to cure small cell carcinoma, the most therapeutically responsive pulmonary tumor. Additionally, in the non-small cell tumors, more effective therapies as well as clarification of the basis for relative resistance to cytotoxic agents are areas for intensive investigation. PMID:6275617

  11. Concurrent engineering and its consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xenophon Koufteros; Mark Vonderembse; William Doll

    2001-01-01

    Technology and market changes introduce uncertainty and equivocality in the product development arena, and firms are considering various structural relationships to help them cope with these changes. Concurrent engineering (CE) is a mechanism that can reduce uncertainty and equivocality and improve an organization’s competitive capabilities. CE is typically manifested through concurrent work-flows, product development teams, and early involvement of constituents.

  12. Choice between concurrent schedules1

    PubMed Central

    Menlove, Ronald L.; Moffitt, Marilynne; Shimp, Charles P.

    1973-01-01

    Six pigeons pecked for food in a three-key experiment. A subject at any time could choose the left or right key and receive reinforcement according to one two-key concurrent variable-interval variable-interval schedule of reinforcement, or it could peck the center key. A peck on the center key arranged the complementary two-key concurrent variable-interval variable-interval schedule on the left and right keys. The two different two-key concurrent schedules arranged reinforcements concurrently and were signalled by two different colors of key lights. Choice behavior in the presence of a given color conformed to the usual relationship in two-key concurrent schedules: the relative frequency of responding on a key approximately equalled the relative frequency of reinforcement on that key. Preference for a two-key concurrent schedule, which was equivalent to preference for a color, was measured by the percentage of all responses on the left and right keys in the presence of that color: this percentage approximately equalled the percentage of all reinforcements that were delivered in the presence of that color. Thus, choice between concurrent schedules conforms approximately to the same relationship as does choice between alternatives in a single concurrent schedule. PMID:16811668

  13. Two models of concurrent objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar Nierstrasz

    1989-01-01

    We propose two models of concurrent objects that address, respectively, methodological and semantic issues of object-oriented programming languages. The first is a conceptual model to aid in the design of object-oriented languages for concurrent and distributed applications, and the second is a computational model that can be used to define the semantics of such languages. The second model has evolved,

  14. Estimating concurrence via entanglement witnesses

    SciTech Connect

    Jurkowski, Jacek; Chruscinski, Dariusz [Institute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University ul. GrudziaPdzka 5/7, PL-87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2010-05-15

    We show that each entanglement witness detecting a given bipartite entangled state provides an estimation of its concurrence. We illustrate our result with several well-known examples of entanglement witnesses and compare the corresponding estimation of concurrence with other estimations provided by the trace norm of partial transposition and realignment.

  15. Chemotherapy and Dietary Phytochemical Agents

    PubMed Central

    Sak, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapy has been used for cancer treatment already for almost 70 years by targeting the proliferation potential and metastasising ability of tumour cells. Despite the progress made in the development of potent chemotherapy drugs, their toxicity to normal tissues and adverse side effects in multiple organ systems as well as drug resistance have remained the major obstacles for the successful clinical use. Cytotoxic agents decrease considerably the quality of life of cancer patients manifesting as acute complaints and impacting the life of survivors also for years after the treatment. Toxicity often limits the usefulness of anticancer agents being also the reason why many patients discontinue the treatment. The nutritional approach may be the means of helping to raise cancer therapy to a new level of success as supplementing or supporting the body with natural phytochemicals cannot only reduce adverse side effects but improve also the effectiveness of chemotherapeutics. Various plant-derived compounds improve the efficiency of cytotoxic agents, decrease their resistance, lower and alleviate toxic side effects, reduce the risk of tumour lysis syndrome, and detoxify the body of chemotherapeutics. The personalised approach using various phytochemicals provides thus a new dimension to the standard cancer therapy for improving its outcome in a complex and complementary way. PMID:23320169

  16. Fast memory snapshot for concurrent programmingwithout synchronization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaewoong Chung; Woongki Baek; Christos Kozyrakis

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT The industry-wide turn toward chip-multiprocessors (CMPs) pro- vides an increasing amount,of parallel resources for commodity systems. However, it is still difficult to harness the available paral- lelism in user applications and system software code. We propose MShot, a hardware-assisted memory snapshot for concurrent programming,without synchronization code. It sup- ports atomic multi-word read operations on a large dataset. Since modern

  17. Partnership Concurrency and Coital Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Reniers, Georges; Helleringer, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    National HIV prevalence estimates across sub-Saharan Africa range from less than 1 percent to over 25 percent. Recent research proposes several explanations for the observed variation, including prevalence of male circumcision, levels of condom use, presence of other sexually transmitted infections, and practice of multiple concurrent partnerships. However, the importance of partnership concurrency for HIV transmission may depend on how it affects coital frequency with each partner. The coital dilution hypothesis suggests that coital frequency within a partnership declines with the addition of concurrent partners. Using sexual behavior data from rural Malawi and urban Kenya, we investigate the relationship between partnership concurrency and coital frequency, and find partial support for the coital dilution hypothesis. We conclude the paper with a discussion of our findings in light of the current literature on concurrency. PMID:23695523

  18. Codelivery of curcumin and doxorubicin by MPEG-PCL results in improved efficacy of systemically administered chemotherapy in mice with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bi-Lan; Shen, Yong-mei; Zhang, Qiong-wen; Li, Yu-li; Luo, Min; Liu, Ze; Li, Yan; Qian, Zhi-yong; Gao, Xiang; Shi, Hua-shan

    2013-01-01

    Systemic administration of chemotherapy for cancer often has toxic side effects, limiting the doses that can be used in its treatment. In this study, we developed methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles loaded with curcumin and doxorubicin (Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL) that were tolerated by recipient mice and had enhanced antitumor effects and fewer side effects. It was shown that these Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles could release curcumin and doxorubicin slowly in vitro. The long circulation time of MPEG-PCL micelles and the slow rate of release of curcumin and doxorubicin in vivo may help to maintain plasma concentrations of active drug. We also demonstrated that Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL had improved antitumor effects both in vivo and in vitro. The mechanism by which Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles inhibit lung cancer might involve increased apoptosis of tumor cells and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. We found advantages using Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles in the treatment of cancer, with Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL achieving better inhibition of LL/2 lung cancer growth in vivo and in vitro. Our study indicates that Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles may be an effective treatment strategy for cancer in the future. PMID:24101869

  19. Codelivery of curcumin and doxorubicin by MPEG-PCL results in improved efficacy of systemically administered chemotherapy in mice with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bi-Lan; Shen, Yong-mei; Zhang, Qiong-wen; Li, Yu-li; Luo, Min; Liu, Ze; Li, Yan; Qian, Zhi-yong; Gao, Xiang; Shi, Hua-shan

    2013-01-01

    Systemic administration of chemotherapy for cancer often has toxic side effects, limiting the doses that can be used in its treatment. In this study, we developed methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles loaded with curcumin and doxorubicin (Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL) that were tolerated by recipient mice and had enhanced antitumor effects and fewer side effects. It was shown that these Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles could release curcumin and doxorubicin slowly in vitro. The long circulation time of MPEG-PCL micelles and the slow rate of release of curcumin and doxorubicin in vivo may help to maintain plasma concentrations of active drug. We also demonstrated that Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL had improved antitumor effects both in vivo and in vitro. The mechanism by which Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles inhibit lung cancer might involve increased apoptosis of tumor cells and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. We found advantages using Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles in the treatment of cancer, with Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL achieving better inhibition of LL/2 lung cancer growth in vivo and in vitro. Our study indicates that Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles may be an effective treatment strategy for cancer in the future. PMID:24101869

  20. Acupuncture treatment for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy – a case series

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raimond Wong; Stephen Sagar

    2006-01-01

    Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) occurs in 10 to 20% of cancer patients treated with neurotoxic chemotherapy. A mixture of sensory, sensorimotor and autonomic nervous system dysfunction can occur, resulting in deterioration in function and worsened quality of life. A major feature is discomfort and pain. Early termination of treatment and dose reduction of chemotherapy may be necessary. The clinical

  1. Quantification of the ocular reactions to microfilaricides in the chemotherapy of onchocerciasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Herot; A C Bird; K Awadzi

    1992-01-01

    Severe adverse systemic and ocular reactions have complicated the chemotherapy of onchocerciasis. A method for the quantification of ocular reactions to chemotherapy has been devised at the Onchocerciasis Chemotherapy Research Centre, at Hohoe, in Ghana. Symptoms, visual function, anterior segment inflammation and disease of the posterior segment are graded. The information is entered into a computerised database which allows reaction

  2. A model of chemotherapy education for novice oncology nurses that supports a culture of safety.

    PubMed

    Sheridan-Leos, Norma

    2007-08-01

    Chemotherapy education at a mid-sized community hospital was redesigned to help novice oncology nurses improve patient safety and their own practice by implementing error prevention techniques during chemotherapy administration. Using a proactive approach with multidisciplinary participation and open communication, a systems analysis was conducted to identify potential chemotherapy errors. Then, chemotherapy processes were devised or strengthened to avoid errors. The project required a philosophical shift from error measurement to safety promotion. PMID:17723967

  3. Approach and Concepts for a Methodology and Software System for the Implementation and Improvement of Concurrent Engineering in Small and Medium Enterprises in the Aeronautics Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frithjof Weber; Kul Pawar; Richard Barson; Roberto Santoro

    1999-01-01

    Concurrent Engineering (CE) is widely accepted as an effective approach to new product development practices. Large organisations in the aeronautics industry have already committed themselves to CE and have achieved a high level of implementation. In small and medium enterprises (SMEs), however, the situation is heterogeneous and further support for implementing and improving CE is desired. The CEPRA project aims

  4. Integrated concurrent utilization quality review, Part one.

    PubMed

    Caterinicchio, R P

    1987-01-01

    This article is the first of a two-part series which argues for the concurrent management of the appropriateness, necessity, and quality of patient care. Intensifying scrutiny by the credentialing groups, the PROs and all third-party payors underscores the vital need to implement cost-effective information systems which integrate the departmentalized functions of patient-physician profiling, DRG case-mix analyses, length of stay monitoring, pre-admission/admission and continued stay review, discharge planning, risk management, incident reporting and quality review. In the domain of physician performance regarding admitting and practice patterns, the ability to exercise concurrent utilization-quality review means early detection and prevention of events which would otherwise result in denials of payment and/or compromised patient care. Concurrent utilization-quality review must, by definition, be managerially invasive and focused; hence, it is integral to maintaining the integrity of the services and product lines offered by the provider. In fact, if PPO status is a marketing agenda, then the institutional objectives of cost-effectiveness, productivity, value, and competitiveness can only be achieved through concurrent utilization-quality review. PMID:10291443

  5. Chemotherapy with cisplatin or carboplatin in combination with etoposide for small-cell esophageal cancer: a systemic analysis of case series.

    PubMed

    Gao, R; Zhang, Y; Wen, X P; Fu, J; Zhang, G J

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy has been the first-choice treatment for small-cell esophageal cancer (SCEC), etoposide plus cisplatin or carboplatin (EP/CP) is the most commonly recommended chemotherapeutical strategy. However, the choice of chemotherapy in treating SCEC has not been validated by studies of large cohorts of cases because of the rarity of the malignancy, and the efficacy superiority of EP/CP over other chemotherapy combinations has not been confirmed. The present case series analysis was conducted to address the above issues. Reported studies of SCEC patients were retrieved. Case series with more than five patients were enrolled. Eight patients treated in our institute were also included as another case series. Data pertaining to clinical stages, treatment regimens, and survival time were collected and analyzed. Altogether, 19 SCEC case series were enrolled, including 164 male and 61 female patients with a median age of 63.5?years. The follow-up time ranged from 0.1 to 221 months (median 12.3 months). The median survival time (MST) was 19 months for limited disease (LD) patients (124 cases) and 9 months for extensive disease (ED) patients (88 cases) (P<0.001). For LD patients, MST was obviously prolonged by chemotherapeutical regimens (20 vs. 10 months, P<0.01), whereas this superiority was not proved in ED patients (10 vs. 10 months, P>0.05). EP/CP did not result in significantly longer MST, compared with that of the cases treated by other chemotherapy combinations (P>0.05, for either LD or ED cases). Chemotherapy prolongs the survival time of the LD SCEC patients, which indicates that chemotherapeutical treatment is effective for SCEC. EP/CP, as commonly recommended multidrug chemotherapy regimen, is not superior to other chemotherapy combinations. PMID:24118373

  6. Successful Local Control of Recurrent Penile Cancer Treated with a Combination of Systemic Chemotherapy, Irradiation, and Mohs’ Paste: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Komine, Naoki; Narita, Shintaro; Kigure, Teruaki; Tsuruta, Hiroshi; Numakura, Kazuyuki; Akihama, Susumu; Saito, Mitsuru; Inoue, Takamitsu; Tsuchiya, Norihiko; Satoh, Shigeru; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Habuchi, Tomonori

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Penile squamous cell carcinoma (pSCC) is a rare disease, making it difficult to establish a standard of care, particularly in the advanced stage. We report a case of pSCC with advanced lymph node metastasis treated with multimodal therapy consisting of combination chemotherapy, irradiation, and chemosurgery using Mohs’ zinc chloride-containing paste. An 80-year-old male with a past history of local treatment for penile cancer presented with a large painful inguinal mass with an ulcer and exudates. The patient underwent multimodal treatment with combination chemotherapy, irradiation, and Mohs’ paste. The combination chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and docetaxel. The patient received 50-Gy external-beam radiation therapy to the left inguinal region along with daily local treatment with Mohs’ paste. After the initiation of treatment, the pain and bleeding in the inguinal region considerably ameliorated. The wound became dry and flattened 20 days after the initiation of chemotherapy. A CT scan showed that the tumor had decreased 70% in diameter 1 month after the initiation of chemotherapy. After the first course of chemotherapy, the patient and his family decided not to continue treatment because of socio-economic reasons. The patient underwent no additional treatments; nevertheless, he had no local progression of the inguinal tumors for 8 months. We report a case of successful local control of recurrent inguinal pSCC treated with multimodal therapy. Combination treatment with taxane-based chemotherapy, external-beam radiation therapy, and Mohs’ paste is an option for the management of recurrent pSCC. PMID:25232321

  7. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and chemotherapy or by surgery and chemoradiotherapy for patients with resectable gastric cancer (CRITICS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Radical surgery is the cornerstone in the treatment of resectable gastric cancer. The Intergroup 0116 and MAGIC trials have shown benefit of postoperative chemoradiation and perioperative chemotherapy, respectively. Since these trials cannot be compared directly, both regimens are evaluated prospectively in the CRITICS trial. This study aims to obtain an improved overall survival for patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy and surgery by incorporating radiotherapy concurrently with chemotherapy postoperatively. Methods/design In this phase III multicentre study, patients with resectable gastric cancer are treated with three cycles of preoperative ECC (epirubicin, cisplatin and capecitabine), followed by surgery with adequate lymph node dissection, and then either another three cycles of ECC or concurrent chemoradiation (45 Gy, cisplatin and capecitabine). Surgical, pathological, and radiotherapeutic quality control is performed. The primary endpoint is overall survival, secondary endpoints are disease-free survival (DFS), toxicity, health-related quality of life (HRQL), prediction of response, and recurrence risk assessed by genomic and expression profiling. Accrual for the CRITICS trial is from the Netherlands, Sweden, and Denmark, and more countries are invited to participate. Conclusion Results of this study will demonstrate whether the combination of preoperative chemotherapy and postoperative chemoradiotherapy will improve the clinical outcome of the current European standard of perioperative chemotherapy, and will therefore play a key role in the future management of patients with resectable gastric cancer. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00407186 PMID:21810227

  8. Interpretive model for ''A Concurrency Method''

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes an interpreter for ''A Concurrency Method,'' in which concurrency is the inherent mode of operation and not an appendage to sequentiality. This method is based on the notions of data-drive and single-assignment while preserving a natural manner of programming. The interpreter is designed for and implemented on a network of Corvus Concept Personal Workstations, which are based on the Motorola MC68000 super-microcomputer. The interpreter utilizes the MC68000 processors in each workstation by communicating across OMNINET, the local area network designed for the workstations. The interpreter is a complete system, containing an editor, a compiler, an operating system with load balancer, and a communication facility. The system includes the basic arithmetic and trigonometric primitive operations for mathematical computations as well as the ability to construct more complex operations from these. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Exclusive Alternating Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Nonmetastatic Inflammatory Breast Cancer: 20 Years of Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgier, Celine, E-mail: bourgier@igr.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Breast Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Pessoa, Eduardo Lima [Department of Radiation Oncology, Breast Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Dunant, Ariane [Biostatistics and Epidemiology Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Heymann, Steve [Department of Radiation Oncology, Breast Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Spielmann, Marc [Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Uzan, Catherine [Department of Breast Surgery, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Mathieu, Marie-Christine [Department of Pathology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Arriagada, Rodrigo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Breast Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Department of Radiation Oncology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Marsiglia, Hugo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Breast Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Radiation Department University of Florence, Florence (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    Background: Locoregional treatment of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is crucial because local relapses may be highly symptomatic and are commonly associated with distant metastasis. With a median follow-up of 20 years, we report here the long-term results of a monocentric clinical trial combining primary chemotherapy (CT) with a schedule of anthracycline-based CT and an alternating split-course of radiotherapy (RT Asterisk-Operator CT) without mastectomy. Methods and Materials: From September 1983 to December 1989, 124 women with nonmetastatic IBC (T4d M0) were treated with three cycles of primary AVCMF chemotherapy (anthracycline, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil) and then an alternating RT Asterisk-Operator CT schedule followed by three cycles of FAC. Hormonal therapy was systematically administered: ovarian irradiation (12 Gy in four fractions) or tamoxifen 20 mg daily. Results: Local control was achieved in 82% of patients. The 10- and 20-year local relapse rates were 26% and 33%, respectively, but only 10% of locally controlled cases were not associated with concurrent distant metastasis. The 10- and 20-year overall survival rates were 39% and 19%, respectively. Severe fibrosis occurred in 54% of patients, grade 3 brachial plexus neuropathy in 4%, grade 2 pneumonitis in 9%. Grade 1, 2 and 3 cardiac toxicity was observed in 3.8%, 3.8% and 1.2% of cases respectively. Conclusions: This combined regimen allowed good long-term local control without surgery. Survival rates were similar to those obtained with conventional regimens (primary chemotherapy, total mastectomy, and adjuvant radiotherapy). Since IBC continues to be an entity with a dismal prognosis, this approach, safely combining preoperative or postoperative radiation therapy and systemic treatments, should be reassessed when suitable targeted agents are available.

  10. A Multimode Optical Imaging System for Preclinical Applications In Vivo: Technology Development, Multiscale Imaging, and Chemotherapy Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan; Ljubimova, Julia; Gross, Zeev; Gray, Harry B.; Medina-Kauwe, Lali K.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Several established optical imaging approaches have been applied, usually in isolation, to preclinical studies; however, truly useful in vivo imaging may require a simultaneous combination of imaging modalities to examine dynamic characteristics of cells and tissues. We developed a new multimode optical imaging system designed to be application-versatile, yielding high sensitivity, and specificity molecular imaging. Procedures We integrated several optical imaging technologies, including fluorescence intensity, spectral, lifetime, intravital confocal, two-photon excitation, and bioluminescence, into a single system that enables functional multiscale imaging in animal models. Results The approach offers a comprehensive imaging platform for kinetic, quantitative, and environmental analysis of highly relevant information, with micro-to-macroscopic resolution. Applied to small animals in vivo, this provides superior monitoring of processes of interest, represented here by chemo-/nanoconstruct therapy assessment. Conclusions This new system is versatile and can be optimized for various applications, of which cancer detection and targeted treatment are emphasized here. PMID:21874388

  11. The dormant cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis may be resuscitated by targeting-expression system of recombinant mycobacteriophage-Rpf: Implication of shorter course of TB chemotherapy in the future.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yiling; Yao, Yiyong; Guo, Shuliang

    2015-05-01

    Here we hypothesized that dormant cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) may be resuscitated by a new expression system of recombinant mycobacteriophage-resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf). In this system, gene of targeted Rpf was cloned into mycobacteriophage genome, since mycobacteriophages possess several characteristics, including automatic identification and specific infection of M. tuberculosis. Thus the targeted delivery and endogenous expression of Rpf to the infected area of M. tuberculosis can be realized, followed by resuscitating the dormant cells of M. tuberculosis. Finally, these resuscitated M. tuberculosis can be thoroughly killed by a strong short-term subsequent chemotherapy, which makes the course of TB chemotherapy much shorter in the future compared to simple chemotherapy. Early studies have confirmed that dormant cells of M. tuberculosis can be resuscitated by Rpf in vitro, but so far, there is no report that Rpf can succeed in resuscitating dormant cells of M. tuberculosis in vivo, the reason may be that it is difficult for purified Rpf to remain active in vivo, especially to achieve targeted delivery of exogenous Rpf to the infected area of dormant cells of M. tuberculosis. Mycobacteriophage is a virus, capable of specifically identifying and infecting mycobacterium, such as M. tuberculosis. Several studies show that motif 3-containing proteins have peptidoglycan-hydrolysing activity and that while this activity is not required for mycobacteriophage viability, it facilitates efficient infection and DNA injection of mycobacteriophage (including motif 3 protein) into stationary phase cells. Thus this expression system can achieve targeted delivery and endogenous expression of Rpf to infected area of dormant cells of M. tuberculosis. Finally, we discuss the implication of this recombinant expression system for shortening the course of TB chemotherapy. PMID:25691378

  12. Initial hepatic artery infusion and systemic chemotherapy for asymptomatic colorectal cancer with un-resectable liver metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Liangrong; Zhao, Jiemin; Lu, Qicheng; Chen, Xuemin; Wang, Haitao; Jiang, Yong; Wu, Jun; Ji, Mei; Xu, Bin; Chen, Lujun; Jiang, Jingting; Wu, Changping

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) has been proved to be an effective strategy to increase the chances of resection for colorectal cancer patients with liver metastasis (CRCLM). Herein, we aimed to evaluate the benefits and risks of initial treatment with HAI floxuridine (FUDR) and systemic XELOX in un-resectable synchronous CRCLM. Materials and methods: HAI catheter systems were implanted radiologically in 54 patients with un-resectable synchronous CRCLM. Upfront HAI FUDR and systemic XELOX were delivered without primary cancer resection. Patients underwent deferred surgery when the metastatic diseases were converted to resectability, or any serious colorectal cancer-related complications occurred. Results: Thirty-eight patients (70.4%) were converted to resectability and underwent staged or synchronous resection of the primary tumor and metastatic disease, with an estimated 3-year survival rate of 76% compared with 15% in un-resected patients. Uni-variate analysis showed that hepatic involvement, number of lesion, and the location of primary cancer did not affect resectability rate. Only 3 patients (5.6%) required palliative surgery to treat complications related to primary cancer. Conclusions: Initial HAI FUDR and systemic XELOX are effective to help patients with CRCLM to obtain a high resection rate for asymptomatic colorectal cancer and un-resectable liver metastases, and associated with a low rate of complications related to the intact primary cancer.

  13. Concurrent Radiochemotherapy withVinorelbine plus Cisplatin or Carboplatin in Patients withLocally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and anIncreased Risk of Treatment Complications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Semrau; Anette Bier; Ulrike Thierbach; Christian Virchow; Peter Ketterer; Rainer Fietkau

    2003-01-01

    Background: In elderly patients, patients with multiple morbidities, and patients with a reduced general condition, the standard treatment of inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) consists of either chemotherapy or radiation therapy alone and is associated with an extremely poor prognosis. We therefore investigated the feasibility, toxicity, and efficacy of radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy using vinorelbine plus cisplatin or carboplatin in

  14. Primary Vaginal Cancer Treated With Concurrent Chemoradiation Using Cis-Platinum

    SciTech Connect

    Samant, Rajiv [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Regional Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON (Canada)], E-mail: rsamant@ottawahospital.on.ca; Lau, Bedy [Department of Otolaryngology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); E, Choan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Regional Cancer Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Le, Tien [Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Tam, Tiffany [Department of Radiation Oncology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of concurrent weekly Cis-platinum chemoradiation (CRT) in the curative treatment of primary vaginal cancer. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all primary vaginal cancer patients treated with curative intent at the Ottawa Hospital Regional Cancer Centre between 1999 and 2004 using concurrent Cis-platinum CRT. Results: Twelve patients were treated with concurrent weekly CRT. The median age at diagnosis was 56 years (range, 34-69 years), and the median follow-up was 50 months (range, 11-75 months). Ten patients (83%) were diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma and 2 patients (17%) with adenocarcinoma. The distribution according to stage was as follows: 6 (50%) Stage II, 4 (33%) Stage III, and 2 (17%) Stage IVA. All patients received pelvic external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) concurrently with weekly intravenous Cis-platinum chemotherapy (40 mg/m{sup 2}) followed by brachytherapy (BT). The median dose of EBRT was 4500 cGy given in 25 fractions over 5 weeks. Ten patients received interstitial BT, and 2 patients received intracavitary BT, with the median dose being 3000 cGy. The 5-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and locoregional progression-free survival rates were 66%, 75%, and 92%, respectively. Late toxicity requiring surgery occurred in 2 patients (17%). Conclusions: For the treatment of primary vaginal cancer, it is feasible to deliver concurrent weekly Cis-platinum chemotherapy with high-dose radiation, leading to excellent local control and an acceptable toxicity profile.

  15. A Nanoparticle-Based Combination Chemotherapy Delivery System for Enhanced Tumor Killing by Dynamic Rewiring of Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Stephen W.; Lee, Michael J.; Deng, Zhou J.; Dreaden, Erik C.; Siouve, Elise; Shopsowitz, Kevin E.; Shah, Nisarg J.; Yaffe, Michael B.; Hammond, Paula T.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) inhibitor erlotinib promotes the dynamic rewiring of apoptotic pathways, which sensitizes cells within a specific period to subsequent exposure to the DNA-damaging agent doxorubicin. A critical challenge for translating this therapeutic network rewiring into clinical practice is the design of optimal drug delivery systems. We report the generation of a nanoparticle delivery vehicle that contained more than one therapeutic agent and produced a controlled sequence of drug release. Liposomes, representing the first clinically approved nanomedicine systems, are well-characterized, simple, and versatile platforms for the manufacture of functional and tunable drug carriers. Using the hydrophobic and hydrophilic compartments of liposomes, we effectively incorporated both hydrophobic (erlotinib) and hydrophilic (doxorubicin) small molecules, through which we achieved the desired time sequence of drug release. We also coated the liposomes with folate to facilitate targeting to cancer cells. When compared to the time-staggered application of individual drugs, staggered release from tumor-targeted single liposomal particles enhanced dynamic rewiring of apoptotic signaling pathways, resulting in improved tumor cell killing in culture and tumor shrinkage in animal models. PMID:24825919

  16. A nanoparticle-based combination chemotherapy delivery system for enhanced tumor killing by dynamic rewiring of signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Morton, Stephen W; Lee, Michael J; Deng, Zhou J; Dreaden, Erik C; Siouve, Elise; Shopsowitz, Kevin E; Shah, Nisarg J; Yaffe, Michael B; Hammond, Paula T

    2014-05-13

    Exposure to the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) inhibitor erlotinib promotes the dynamic rewiring of apoptotic pathways, which sensitizes cells within a specific period to subsequent exposure to the DNA-damaging agent doxorubicin. A critical challenge for translating this therapeutic network rewiring into clinical practice is the design of optimal drug delivery systems. We report the generation of a nanoparticle delivery vehicle that contained more than one therapeutic agent and produced a controlled sequence of drug release. Liposomes, representing the first clinically approved nanomedicine systems, are well-characterized, simple, and versatile platforms for the manufacture of functional and tunable drug carriers. Using the hydrophobic and hydrophilic compartments of liposomes, we effectively incorporated both hydrophobic (erlotinib) and hydrophilic (doxorubicin) small molecules, through which we achieved the desired time sequence of drug release. We also coated the liposomes with folate to facilitate targeting to cancer cells. When compared to the time-staggered application of individual drugs, staggered release from tumor-targeted single liposomal particles enhanced dynamic rewiring of apoptotic signaling pathways, resulting in improved tumor cell killing in culture and tumor shrinkage in animal models. PMID:24825919

  17. Sophisticated Concurrent Engineering Without Computers

    E-print Network

    Whitney, Daniel

    Metiers, Paris by Daniel E. Whitney KEYWORDS: concurrent engineering; product development strategy carefully and pragmatically elaborated a product development strategy that is considerably richer than Conception de Produits Nouveaux (New Products Development Laboratory). The director of the laboratory

  18. Application-Level Concurrency Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederic Ogel; Gael Thomas; Bertil Folliot; Ian Piumarta

    2003-01-01

    \\/vvm Abstract. Traditionally an execution environment faces a trade-off b etween provid- ing high-level or low-level concurrency mechanisms. The former trades flexibility for ease-of-use, while the latter results in a concurrency mana gement closer to applica- tions needs at the cost of an increase in the complexity of the applications code. Thus, one way or another, an application programmer has

  19. Evaluation of Intrahepatic Perfusion on Fusion Imaging Using a Combined CT/SPECT System: Influence of Anatomic Variations on Hemodynamic Modification Before Installation of Implantable Port Systems for Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Osamu, E-mail: osamu-3643ik@do9.enjoy.ne.jp; Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nakasone, Yutaka; Shiraishi, Shinya; Kawanaka, Kouichi; Tomiguchi, Seiji [Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Takamori, Hiroshi; Chikamoto, Akira; Kanemitsu, Keiichirou [Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Gastroenterology Surgery (Japan); Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Background. In some patients with hepatic tumors, anatomic variations in the hepatic arteries may require hemodynamic modification to render effective hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy delivered via implantable port systems. We used a combined CT/SPECT system to obtain fused images of the intrahepatic perfusion patterns in patients with such anatomic variations and assessed their effects on the treatment response of hepatic tumors. Methods. Using a combined SPECT/CT system, we obtained fused images in 110 patients with malignant liver tumors (n = 75) or liver metastasis from unresectable pancreatic cancer (n = 35). Patients with anatomic hepatic arteries variations underwent hemodynamic modification before the placement of implantable port systems for hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy. We evaluated their intrahepatic perfusion patterns and the initial treatment response of their liver tumors. The perfusion patterns on the fused images were classified as homogeneous, local hypoperfusion, and/or perfusion defect. Using the WHO criteria of complete response (CR), partial response (PR), no change (NC), and progressive disease (PD), we evaluated the patients' tumor responses after 3 months on multislice helical CT scans. The treatment was regarded as effective in patients who achieved a complete response or partial response. Results. Anatomic hepatic artery variations were present in 15 of the 110 patients (13.6%); 5 manifested replacement of the left hepatic artery (LHA), 8 of the right hepatic artery (RHA), and 1 each had replacement of the RHA and LHA, and replacement of the LHA plus an accessory RHA. In 13 of these 15 patients (87%), occlusion with metallic coils was successful. On fusion imaging, the perfusion patterns were recorded as homogeneous in 6 patients (43%), as hypoperfusion in 7 (50%), and 1 patient had a perfusion defect (7.1%) in the embolized arterial region. Of the 8 patients with RHA replacement, 4 manifested a homogeneous distribution and 3 hypoperfusion. In 2 of 5 patients with LHA replacement, the distribution was homogeneous. In 1 patient with RHA and LHA replacement, and in 1 patient with LHA replacement and an accessory RHA, we noted hypoperfusion in the RHA territory. All 6 patients with homogeneous distribution were classified as PR or NC on follow-up multidetector CT. Of the 7 patients manifesting hypoperfusion, 3 were classified as PD (43%), 3 as NC (43%), and 1 as PR (14%) on follow-up CT. Conclusion. Hemodynamic modification of anatomic hepatic artery variations resulted in hypoperfusion on fusion images. Differences in the intrahepatic perfusion patterns may affect the response to hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy.

  20. Chemotherapy-associated renal dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vaibhav Sahni; Devasmita Choudhury; Ziauddin Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    The presence of renal dysfunction in a patient receiving chemotherapy can be devastating. Although many patients with cancer have underlying compromised renal function, some chemotherapeutic agents can actually induce renal abnormalities. An understanding of which traditional and newer chemotherapy agents can affect renal function is useful for physicians so that they can monitor patients for renal abnormalities and initiate preventive

  1. Association Between Bone Marrow Dosimetric Parameters and Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Cervical Cancer Patients Undergoing Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Beina; Zhang, Yingbing; Shi, Fan; Wang, Juan; Wang, Tao; Wang, Jiquan; Yuan, Wei; Li, Yi; Liu, Zi

    2014-01-01

    Objective We compare different dosimetric parameters in cervical cancer patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and explore the incidence of hematological toxicity (HT) in these patients. Methods Twenty patients receiving 3DCRT or IMRT and 4 weekly doses of cisplatin (25 mg/m2/w) were studied. The volumes of bone marrow receiving 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy or greater (V10, V20, V30, V40, and V50, respectively) were calculated. The HT was graded according to the guidelines of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group system. The associations between dosimetric parameters and HT and chemotherapy delivery were analyzed. Results The bone marrows V30, V40, and V50 were lower in the IMRT group than in the 3DCRT group (62.93% vs 76.91%, 31.36% vs 39.60%, and 9.79% vs 15.44%, respectively). No statistical difference was observed for both V10 and V20. Acute hematologic toxicity occurred in both groups but was more frequent in the 3DCRT group. The percentage of patients with grade 2 and worse leukopenia and neutropenia was 90% and 80% in the 3DCRT group, whereas it was 80% and 40% in the IMRT group. The median nadir of white blood cells and the absolute neutrophil count were significantly lower in the 3DCRT group than in the IMRT group (1.96 × 109 vs 2.72 × 109 and 1.09 × 109 vs 1.86 × 109, respectively). Conclusion The IMRT reduced the volume of bone marrow irradiated at the higher doses and the incidence and severity of acute hematologic toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy. PMID:25275663

  2. Primary Tumor Necrosis Predicts Distant Control in Locally Advanced Soft-Tissue Sarcomas After Preoperative Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    MacDermed, Dhara M. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Miller, Luke L. [Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Peabody, Terrance D.; Simon, Michael A.; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C. [Section of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Montag, Anthony G. [Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Undevia, Samir D. [Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Connell, Philip P., E-mail: pconnell@radonc.uchicago.ed [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Various neoadjuvant approaches have been evaluated for the treatment of locally advanced soft-tissue sarcomas. This retrospective study describes a uniquely modified version of the Eilber regimen developed at the University of Chicago. Methods and Materials: We treated 34 patients (28 Stage III and 6 Stage IV) with locally advanced soft-tissue sarcomas of an extremity between 1995 and 2008. All patients received preoperative therapy including ifosfamide (2.5 g/m2 per day for 5 days) with concurrent radiation (28 Gy in 3.5-Gy daily fractions), sandwiched between various chemotherapy regimens. Postoperatively, 47% received further adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: Most tumors (94%) were Grade 3, and all were T2b, with a median size of 10.3 cm. Wide excision was performed in 29 patients (85%), and 5 required amputation. Of the resected tumor specimens, 50% exhibited high (>=90%) treatment-induced necrosis and 11.8% had a complete pathologic response. Surgical margins were negative in all patients. The 5-year survival rate was 42.3% for all patients and 45.2% for Stage III patients. For limb-preservation patients, the 5-year local control rate was 89.0% and reoperation was required for wound complications in 17.2%. The 5-year freedom-from-distant metastasis rate was 53.4% (Stage IV patients excluded), and freedom from distant metastasis was superior if treatment-induced tumor necrosis was 90% or greater (84.6% vs. 19.9%, p = 0.02). Conclusions: This well-tolerated concurrent chemoradiotherapy approach yields excellent rates of limb preservation and local control. The resulting treatment-induced necrosis rates are predictive of subsequent metastatic risk, and this information may provide an opportunity to guide postoperative systemic therapies.

  3. Aerospace concurrent engineering: a modern global approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbert, Mariano; Li, Xiaoxing

    2009-12-01

    System engineering aspects, like concurrent engineering (CE) in the aerospace sector, has been studied by many authors. The change and evolution in this regard is continually influenced by the information technology advances. But global cooperation is only discussed by developed countries and high technology corporations. A review of CE and its ramifications in the aerospace industry is presented. Based on the current literature, the general lifecycle of a spacecraft and its phases are explained as well as the tools that are implemented in today's industry. In this paper we propose a new approach for the product development process in the spacecraft production industry the Aerospace Concurrent Engineering (ACE), which is mainly focused in the technology itself, its optimal design and environment impact rather than costs and marketing impact. And the potential of globally oriented research and implementation of space programs is discussed for its consideration.

  4. Chromonychia Secondary to Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Marien; Jordão, Clarice; Grynszpan, Rachel; Sodré, Celso; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy drugs can affect the skin and its appendages. Several clinical presentations can be observed, depending on the affected structure. The most common dermatological side effect is chromonychia. The main causative agents are: (1) cyclophosphamide, which can provoke a diffuse, black pigmentation, longitudinal striae and dark grey pigmentation located proximally on the nails; (2) doxorubicin, which promotes dark brown bands alternating with white striae and dark brown pigmentation in transverse bands, and (3) hydroxyurea, which produces a distal, diffuse, dark brown pigmentation. In the majority of cases, the effects are reversible after the suspension of the causative agent for a few months. We report a patient who developed chromonychia while undergoing treatment with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone, methotrexate and cytarabine for acute lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:23874292

  5. Concurrency Analysis for ParallelConcurrency Analysis for Parallel Programs with Textually Aligned

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    .barrier(); // even ID threads lelse Ti.barrier(); // odd ID threads 4 Amir KamilLCPC `05: Concurrency Analysis #12 threads else // l th d 6 Amir KamilLCPC `05: Concurrency Analysis ; // only one thread #12;ConcurrencyConcurrency Analysis for ParallelConcurrency Analysis for Parallel Programs with Textually Aligned

  6. Electrophysiological Correlates of Information Processing in Breast-Cancer Patients Treated With Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baudewijntje P. C. Kreukels; Sanne B. Schagen; K. Richard Ridderinkhof; Willem Boogerd; Hans L. Hamburger

    2005-01-01

    Summary  Cognitive deficits are found in a number of breast-cancer patients who have undergone adjuvant (Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate,\\u000a and 5-Fluorouracil (CMF)) chemotherapy, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The objective of this study is to\\u000a investigate information processing in these patients with concurrent registration of brain activity.\\u000a \\u000a Twenty-six breast-cancer patients treated with adjuvant CMF chemotherapy and a control group of 23

  7. Stanford University Concurrent VLSI Architecture Memo 124 Elastic Buffer Networks-on-Chip

    E-print Network

    Lee, Thomas H.

    Michelogiannakis , James Balfour and William J. Dally Concurrent VLSI Architecture Group Computer Systems Laboratory Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 Email: {mihelog,jbalfour,dally}@stanford.edu Abstract

  8. Lung cancer and concurrent or sequential lymphoma: Two case reports with hypersensitivity to bevacizumab and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    PEZZUTO, ALDO; PIRAINO, ALESSIO; MARIOTTA, SALVATORE

    2015-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for ~80% of all cases of lung cancer, and is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The majority of NSCLC cases of are diagnosed at an advanced stage. The outcome of patients with advanced NSCLC is poor with a median survival time of ~12 months in European and American populations. Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) represent a heterogeneous group of expanding lymphoid cells, which occurs as a result of immune dysfunction. LPDs are often associated with primary solid cancers. We report two cases of LPD diagnosed concurrently and successively to NSCLC. The first case presents a 65-year-old female patient with advanced IV stage lung cancer, according to the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer TNM staging system. The patient developed a concurrent lymphoma and was treated with first-line therapy including six cycles of gemcitabine and cisplatin, however, the patient experienced an adverse drug reaction to bevacizumab, which was administered after gemcitabine and prior to cisplatin. The second case presented a 74-year-old male patient diagnosed with large B cell lymphoma. The patient acheived remission of the illness, however, after one year the patient was diagnosed with squamous cell lung cancer. After three years, the patient underwent surgery, however disease recurrence was identified. Subsequently, the patient was treated with sterotactic radiotherapy and oral chemotherapy. A review of the associated literature was also conducted. PMID:25624888

  9. Chemotherapy or radiation-induced oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Lalla, Rajesh V; Saunders, Deborah P; Peterson, Douglas E

    2014-04-01

    Oral mucositis is a significant toxicity of systemic chemotherapy and of radiation therapy to the head and neck region. The morbidity of oral mucositis can include pain, nutritional compromise, impact on quality of life, alteration in cancer therapy, risk for infection, and economic costs. Management includes general symptomatic support and targeted therapeutic interventions for the prevention or treatment of oral mucositis. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are available to guide clinicians in the selection of effective management strategies. PMID:24655526

  10. Low neuropsychologic performance among adult cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Ferguson; Tim A. Ahles

    2003-01-01

    Decline in neuropsychologic test performance following adjuvant chemotherapy for various types of cancer has gained much research\\u000a attention over the past decade. From available data, about one fourth to one third of individuals undergoing systemic chemotherapy\\u000a exhibit measurable decrements in performance of standard tests of cognitive function. Many cancer survivors report that cognitive\\u000a problems interfere with function and compromise quality

  11. Fuzzy simulation in concurrent engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraslawski, A.; Nystrom, L.

    1992-01-01

    Concurrent engineering is becoming a very important practice in manufacturing. A problem in concurrent engineering is the uncertainty associated with the values of the input variables and operating conditions. The problem discussed in this paper concerns the simulation of processes where the raw materials and the operational parameters possess fuzzy characteristics. The processing of fuzzy input information is performed by the vertex method and the commercial simulation packages POLYMATH and GEMS. The examples are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the method in the simulation of chemical engineering processes.

  12. March 24, 2008 ADBS: Concurrency control 1 Concurrency Control Techniques

    E-print Network

    Adam, Salah

    consistency preserving execution of transactions. To resolve read-write and write-write conflicts Example to Write a data item for a transaction. Example: Lock (X): Data item X is locked in behalf operations. #12;March 24, 2008 ADBS: Concurrency control 6 -- 2PL: Essential components ... Two locks modes

  13. Understanding resistance to combination chemotherapy

    E-print Network

    Pritchard, Justin R.

    The current clinical application of combination chemotherapy is guided by a historically successful set of practices that were developed by basic and clinical researchers 50–60 years ago. Thus, in order to understand how ...

  14. Chemotherapy: which drug and when?

    PubMed

    Sobrero, A; Bennicelli, E

    2010-10-01

    The treatment of advanced colorectal cancer has become very complex due to: (i) the relative efficacy of therapy, which has turned a rapidly fatal cancer into a more indolent disease in the last 10 years; (ii) the availability of four active chemotherapeutic agents and three biologics; (iii) the efficacy of several lines of therapy; (iv) the rare, but real, chance of curing stage IV patients through the combined use of chemotherapy and surgery. This article will concentrate on chemotherapy (leaving out the biologics) and will review the determinants of how aggressive the initial approach should be, the key factors of our initial treatment choices, when an intense treatment is better than just waiting or using single-agent chemotherapy; which chemotherapy is best for first, second and subsequent lines of treatment. PMID:20943605

  15. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... effects Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Infection Take these steps to lower your chances of getting an infection: Try not to get cuts. ? Use an electric shaver, not a razor. ? Clean yourself well and ...

  16. Comparison of Intrahepatic and Pancreatic Perfusion on Fusion Images Using a Combined SPECT/CT System and Assessment of Efficacy of Combined Continuous Arterial Infusion and Systemic Chemotherapy in Advanced Pancreatic Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Osama, E-mail: osamu-3643ik@do9.enjoy.ne.jp; Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nakasone, Yutaka; Shiraishi, Shinya; Kawanaka, Kouichi; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Takamori, Hiroshi; Kanemitsu, Keiichiro; Baba, Hideo [Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare intrahepatic and pancreatic perfusion on fusion images using a combined single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT system and to evaluate the efficacy of combined continuous transcatheter arterial infusion (CTAI) and systemic chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced pancreatic carcinoma. Materials and Methods. CTAI was performed in 33 patients (22 men, 11 women; age range, 35-77 years; mean age, 60 years) with stage IV pancreatic cancer with liver metastasis. The reservoir was transcutaneously implanted with the help of angiography. The systemic administration of gemcitabine was combined with the infusion of 5-fluorouracil via the reservoir. In all patients we obtained fusion images using a combined SPECT/CT system. Pancreatic perfusion on fusion images was classified as perfusion presence or as perfusion absent in the pancreatic cancer. Using WHO criteria we recorded the tumor response after 3 months on multislice helical CT scans. Treatment effects were evaluated based on the pancreatic cancer, liver metastasis, and factors such as intrahepatic and pancreatic perfusion on fusion images. For statistical analysis we used the chi-square test; survival was evaluated by the Kaplan Meier method (log-rank test). Results. On fusion images, pancreatic and intrahepatic perfusion was recorded as hot spot and as homogeneous distribution, respectively, in 18 patients (55%) and as cold spot and heterogeneous distribution, respectively, in 15 (45%). Patients with hot spot in the pancreatic tumor and homogeneous distribution in the liver manifested better treatment results (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Patients with hot spot both in the pancreatic cancer and in the liver survived longer than those with cold spot in the pancreatic cancer and heterogeneous distribution in the liver (median {+-} SD, 16.0 {+-} 3.7 vs. 8.0 {+-} 1.4 months; p < 0.05). Conclusions. We conclude that in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, CTAI with systemic chemotherapy appeared to be effective and may prolong their survival. The development of a reservoir port system allowing for the homogeneous distribution of anticancer drugs is necessary to improve the prognosis of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.

  17. Chemotherapy for soft-tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Vinod; Patel, Shreyaskumar; Benjamin, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy with doxorubicin in combination with ifosfamide or dacarbazine, or gemcitabine in combination with docetaxel, continues to be the mainstay of treatment of metastatic soft-tissue sarcomas. A goal-oriented approach that includes careful consideration of histology, performance status, sites of disease, patient goals, and intent of treatment is vital to the formulation of an effective treatment plan. Both single-agent and combination chemotherapy regimens are available and should be chosen carefully to fit the clinical situation and patient goals. In patients with localized soft-tissue sarcoma who have a high likelihood of recurrent disease, systemic therapy should be strongly considered. The ability to demonstrate efficacy in the neoadjuvant setting may help avoid unnecessary treatment-related toxicity in patients with poor response and maximize recurrence-free survival in patients who do demonstrate an excellent response to therapy. PMID:25592207

  18. Nedaplatin: a cisplatin derivative in cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Muneaki; Itamochi, Hiroaki; Kigawa, Junzo

    2013-01-01

    Nedaplatin, a cisplatin analog, has been developed to decrease the toxicities induced by cisplatin, such as nephrotoxicity and gastrointestinal toxicity. The dose of nedaplatin is determined by body surface area, not by the area under the curve (AUC). The recommended therapeutic dose is 80–100 mg/m2, although the pharmacokinetic profile of nedaplatin is similar to that of carboplatin. In our preliminary study, there was a favorable correlation between AUC and creatinine clearance (CL), suggesting that renal function should be considered when nedaplatin is administered. Ishibashi’s formula, ie, DoseNDP = AUC × CLNDP, where CLNDP = 0.0738 × creatinine clearance + 4.47, would be predictable and useful for estimating the individual dose of nedaplatin. Several Phase II studies have suggested that nedaplatin might be a useful second analog, especially for patients with non-small cell lung cancer, esophageal cancer, uterine cervical cancer, head and neck cancer, or urothelial cancer. Further, nedaplatin was reported to be a useful chemotherapeutic agent with radiosensitizing properties; however, there is no Phase III study of nedaplatin, neither with chemotherapy nor with concurrent chemoradiotherapy, because nedaplatin is not commonly used throughout the world. Further evaluation in a randomized controlled trial is warranted to demonstrate definitively the activity of nedaplatin. PMID:23696716

  19. Nedaplatin: a cisplatin derivative in cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Muneaki; Itamochi, Hiroaki; Kigawa, Junzo

    2013-01-01

    Nedaplatin, a cisplatin analog, has been developed to decrease the toxicities induced by cisplatin, such as nephrotoxicity and gastrointestinal toxicity. The dose of nedaplatin is determined by body surface area, not by the area under the curve (AUC). The recommended therapeutic dose is 80-100 mg/m(2), although the pharmacokinetic profile of nedaplatin is similar to that of carboplatin. In our preliminary study, there was a favorable correlation between AUC and creatinine clearance (CL), suggesting that renal function should be considered when nedaplatin is administered. Ishibashi's formula, ie, DoseNDP = AUC × CLNDP, where CLNDP = 0.0738 × creatinine clearance + 4.47, would be predictable and useful for estimating the individual dose of nedaplatin. Several Phase II studies have suggested that nedaplatin might be a useful second analog, especially for patients with non-small cell lung cancer, esophageal cancer, uterine cervical cancer, head and neck cancer, or urothelial cancer. Further, nedaplatin was reported to be a useful chemotherapeutic agent with radiosensitizing properties; however, there is no Phase III study of nedaplatin, neither with chemotherapy nor with concurrent chemoradiotherapy, because nedaplatin is not commonly used throughout the world. Further evaluation in a randomized controlled trial is warranted to demonstrate definitively the activity of nedaplatin. PMID:23696716

  20. Cancer chemotherapy in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Sekine, I; Fukuda, H; Kunitoh, H; Saijo, N

    1998-08-01

    As the geriatric population is growing, it is increasingly important to be familiar with chemotherapy for the elderly. Age-related changes in pharmacokinetics are documented for doxorubicin, etoposide, ifosfamide, daunorubicin, mitomycin, cisplatin and methotrexate. The hematological toxicity of most standard-dose chemotherapy is not affected by age in patients with normal organic functions and good performance status, although increased toxicity with aging is suggested in the use of actinomycin-D, etoposide, vinblastin, methotrexate, methyl-CCNU, doxorubicin and mitomycin, and in dose-intensive chemotherapy. Among non-hematological toxicities, only doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy and bleomycin-induced pulmonary toxicity are demonstrated to be accelerated in the elderly. There is no evidence that advanced age decreases the efficacy of chemotherapy for tumors, except for Hodgkin's disease and acute leukemia. These results suggest that advanced chronological age alone is not always associated with severe toxicity and poor prognosis, and that many elderly patients with cancer will benefit from chemotherapy. To answer questions regarding the optimal chemotherapy regimen, dose and intensity in this population, the influence of age should be analyzed in a multivariate approach in future studies. PMID:9769779

  1. J. Functional Programming 1 (1): 1000, January 1993 c 1993 Cambridge University Press 1 Uniform Confluence in Concurrent Computation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Confluence in Concurrent Computation Joachim Niehren Programming Systems Lab, Universit¨at des Saarlandes of a concurrent program may be nonconfluent. Even worse, most observables (termination, computational result and lazy functional programs. We study uniform confluence in concurrent computation within the applicative

  2. Dissecting the Impact of Chemotherapy on the Human Hair Follicle

    PubMed Central

    Bodó, Enik?; Tobin, Desmond J.; Kamenisch, York; Bíró, Tamás; Berneburg, Mark; Funk, Wolfgang; Paus, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia represents one of the major unresolved problems of clinical oncology. The underlying molecular pathogenesis in humans is virtually unknown because of the lack of adequate research models. Therefore, we have explored whether microdissected, organ-cultured, human scalp hair follicles (HFs) in anagen VI can be exploited for dissecting and manipulating the impact of chemotherapy on human HFs. Here, we show that these organ-cultured HFs respond to a key cyclophosphamide metabolite, 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC), in a manner that resembles chemotherapy-induced HF dystrophy as it occurs in vivo: namely, 4-HC induced melanin clumping and melanin incontinence, down-regulated keratinocyte proliferation, massively up-regulated apoptosis of hair matrix keratinocytes, prematurely induced catagen, and up-regulated p53. In addition, 4-HC induced DNA oxidation and the mitochondrial DNA common deletion. The organ culture system facilitated the identification of new molecular targets for chemotherapy-induced HF damage by microarray technology (eg, interleukin-8, fibroblast growth factor-18, and glypican 6). It was also used to explore candidate chemotherapy protectants, for which we used the cytoprotective cytokine keratinocyte growth factor as exemplary pilot agent. Thus, this novel system serves as a powerful yet pragmatic tool for dissecting and manipulating the impact of chemotherapy on the human HF. PMID:17823286

  3. CONCURRENT PASCAL AND DISTRIBUTED PROCESSES

    E-print Network

    Filman, Robert E.

    in Concurrent Pascal is a program for printing the prime Fibonacci numbers. This program has two processes, one that generates suc- cessive Fibonacci numbers, and another that tests them for primeness. These processes that one of the Fibonacci numbers sent it is prime, it calls on a class object, a LinePrinter, to print it

  4. Concurrent Collections Zoran Budimlic1

    E-print Network

    Budimliæ, Zoran

    University 2 Intel Corporation 3 UCLA Abstract We introduce the Concurrent Collections (CnC) programming model. CnC supports flexible combinations of task and data parallelism while retaining determinism. CnC that together form a CnC graph. We formally describe the execution semantics of CnC and prove that the model

  5. Visualization of Concurrent Program Executions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artho, Cyrille; Havelund, Klaus; Honiden, Shinichi

    2007-01-01

    Various program analysis techniques are efficient at discovering failures and properties. However, it is often difficult to evaluate results, such as program traces. This calls for abstraction and visualization tools. We propose an approach based on UML sequence diagrams, addressing shortcomings of such diagrams for concurrency. The resulting visualization is expressive and provides all the necessary information at a glance.

  6. Chemotherapy for cholangiocarcinoma: An update.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Merino, Natalia; Aix, Santiago Ponce; Cortés-Funes, Hernán

    2013-07-15

    Cholangiocarcinomas (bile duct cancers) are a heterogeneous group of malignancies arising from the epithelial cells of the intrahepatic, perihilar and extrahepatic bile ducts. Patients diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma must be evaluated by a multidisciplinary team and be treated with individualized management. First of all, it is very important to define the potential resectability of the tumor because surgery is the main therapeutic option for these patients. Overall, cholangiocarcinomas have a very poor prognosis. The 5-year survival rate is 5%-10%. In cases with a potentially curative surgery, 5-year survival rates of 25%-30% are reported. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the cure rate from surgery, exploring the survival benefit of any adjuvant strategy. It is difficult to clarify the role of adjuvant treatment in localized and locally advanced cholangiocarcinomas. There are limited data and the role of adjuvant chemotherapy/chemoradiation in patients with resected biliary tract cancer is poorly defined. The most relevant studies in the adjuvant setting are one from Japan, the well known ESPAC-3 and BILCAP from the United Kingdom and a meta-analysis. We show the results of these trials. According to medical oncology guidelines, postoperative adjuvant therapy is widely recommended for all patients with intrahepatic or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma who have microscopically positive resection margins, as well as for those with a complete resection but node-positive disease. Clinical trials are ongoing. The locally advanced cholangiocarcinoma setting includes a heterogeneous mix of patients: (1) patients who have had surgery but with macroscopic residual disease; (2) patients with locally recurrent disease after potentially curative treatment; and (3) patients with locally unresectable disease at presentation. In these patients, surgery is not an option and chemoradiation therapy can prolong overall survival and provide control of symptoms due to local tumor effects. Nowadays, no neoadjuvant therapy can be considered a standard approach for the treatment of patients with cholangiocarcinoma. There are promising results and randomized trials are needed in patients with a metastatic cholangiocarcinoma. In systemic therapy, no single drug or combination has consistently increased median survival beyond the expected 8-12 mo. It is always recommended that patients enrol in clinical trials. Clinical trials have shown that the more standard chemotherapy for a first line regimen of gemcitabine plus cisplatin (or oxaliplatin as a potentially better tolerated agent) is superior to gemcitabine alone. Leucovorin-modulated 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine monotherapy or single agent gemcitabine are reasonable options for patients with a borderline performance status. After progression in patients with an adequate performance status, active regimens that could be considered include gemcitabine plus capecitabine, or erlotinib plus bevacizumab, for second line treatment. PMID:23919111

  7. Magnetic nanoparticle-based therapeutic agents for thermo-chemotherapy treatment of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervault, Aziliz; Thanh, Nguyêl; N. Thé, Kim

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been widely investigated for their great potential as mediators of heat for localised hyperthermia therapy. Nanocarriers have also attracted increasing attention due to the possibility of delivering drugs at specific locations, therefore limiting systematic effects. The enhancement of the anti-cancer effect of chemotherapy with application of concurrent hyperthermia was noticed more than thirty years ago. However, combining magnetic nanoparticles with molecules of drugs in the same nanoformulation has only recently emerged as a promising tool for the application of hyperthermia with combined chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer. The main feature of this review is to present the recent advances in the development of multifunctional therapeutic nanosystems incorporating both magnetic nanoparticles and drugs, and their superior efficacy in treating cancer compared to either hyperthermia or chemotherapy as standalone therapies. The principle of magnetic fluid hyperthermia is also presented.

  8. Profound impairment of adaptive immune responses by alkylating chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Litterman, Adam J.; Zellmer, David M.; Grinnen, Karen L.; Hunt, Matthew A.; Dudek, Arkadiusz Z.; Salazar, Andres M.; Ohlfest, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer vaccines have overall had a record of failure as an adjuvant therapy for malignancies that are treated with alkylating chemotherapy, and the contribution of standard treatment to that failure remains unclear. Vaccines aim to harness the proliferative potential of the immune system by expanding a small number of tumor-specific lymphocytes into a large number of anti-tumor effectors. Clinical trials are often conducted after treatment with alkylating chemotherapy, given either as standard therapy or for immunomodulatory effect. There is mounting evidence for synergy between chemotherapy and adoptive immunotherapy or vaccination against self-antigens; however, the impact of chemotherapy on lymphocytes primed against tumor neo-antigens remains poorly defined. We report here that clinically relevant dosages of standard alkylating chemotherapies such as temozolomide and cyclophosphamide significantly inhibit the proliferative abilities of lymphocytes in mice. This proliferative impairment was long lasting and led to quantitative and qualitative defects in B and T cell responses to neo-antigen vaccines. High affinity responder lymphocytes receiving the strongest proliferative signals from vaccines experienced the greatest DNA damage responses, skewing the response toward lower affinity responders with inferior functional characteristics. Together these defects lead to inferior efficacy and overall survival in murine tumor models treated by neo-antigen vaccines. These results suggest that clinical protocols for cancer vaccines should be designed to avoid exposing responder lymphocytes to alkylating chemotherapy. PMID:23686484

  9. Oral toxicity produced by chemotherapy: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Antineoplastic chemotherapy remains one of the most widely used management strategies in cancer, either alone or in combination with other types of treatment. The main inconvenience of chemotherapy is its lack of selectivity, since it acts upon both tumor cells and rapidly multiplying normal cells such as bone marrow cells, hair follicle cells and oral and gastrointestinal mucosal cells. Material and method: An exhaustive search was made of the main oral toxic effects of chemotherapy in the PubMed-Medline, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases. A total of 1293 articles were identified, of which 333 met the study inclusion criteria. Results: The toxic effects of chemotherapy at oral mucosal level comprise mucositis, osteonecrosis of the jaws secondary to bisphosphonate use, susceptibility to infections, dental alterations, salivary and neurological disorders, dysgeusia and bleeding tendency. These complications have a negative impact upon patient quality of life, and in some cases can prove life-threatening. Conclusions: Evaluation of patient oral and dental health is essential before administering chemotherapy, in order to minimize the risk of oral and systemic complications of such treatment. Key words:Chemotherapy, oral complications, dental, saliva and osteonecrosis jaw. PMID:24596641

  10. The Temporal Semantics of Concurrent Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Pnueli

    1979-01-01

    The formalism of Temporal logic is suggested as an appropriate tool for formalizing the semantics of concurrent programs. A simple model of concurrent program is presented in which n processors are executing concurrently n disjoint programs under a shared memory environment. The semantics of such a program specifies the class of state sequences which are admissible as proper execution sequences

  11. Concurrent initialization for Bearing-Only SLAM.

    PubMed

    Munguía, Rodrigo; Grau, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is perhaps the most fundamental problem to solve in robotics in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. The sensors have a large impact on the algorithm used for SLAM. Early SLAM approaches focused on the use of range sensors as sonar rings or lasers. However, cameras have become more and more used, because they yield a lot of information and are well adapted for embedded systems: they are light, cheap and power saving. Unlike range sensors which provide range and angular information, a camera is a projective sensor which measures the bearing of images features. Therefore depth information (range) cannot be obtained in a single step. This fact has propitiated the emergence of a new family of SLAM algorithms: the Bearing-Only SLAM methods, which mainly rely in especial techniques for features system-initialization in order to enable the use of bearing sensors (as cameras) in SLAM systems. In this work a novel and robust method, called Concurrent Initialization, is presented which is inspired by having the complementary advantages of the Undelayed and Delayed methods that represent the most common approaches for addressing the problem. The key is to use concurrently two kinds of feature representations for both undelayed and delayed stages of the estimation. The simulations results show that the proposed method surpasses the performance of previous schemes. PMID:22294884

  12. Concurrent processing simulation of the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gluck, R.; Hale, A. L.; Sunkel, John W.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a new capability for the time-domain simulation of multibody dynamic systems and its application to the study of a large angle rotational maneuvers of the Space Station is described. The effort was divided into three sequential tasks, which required significant advancements of the state-of-the art to accomplish. These were: (1) the development of an explicit mathematical model via symbol manipulation of a flexible, multibody dynamic system; (2) the development of a methodology for balancing the computational load of an explicit mathematical model for concurrent processing; and (3) the implementation and successful simulation of the above on a prototype Custom Architectured Parallel Processing System (CAPPS) containing eight processors. The throughput rate achieved by the CAPPS operating at only 70 percent efficiency, was 3.9 times greater than that obtained sequentially by the IBM 3090 supercomputer simulating the same problem. More significantly, analysis of the results leads to the conclusion that the relative cost effectiveness of concurrent vs. sequential digital computation will grow substantially as the computational load is increased. This is a welcomed development in an era when very complex and cumbersome mathematical models of large space vehicles must be used as substitutes for full scale testing which has become impractical.

  13. Concurrent Direct Network Access for Virtual Machine Monitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Shafer; David Carr; Aravind Menon; Scott Rixner; Alan L. Cox; Willy Zwaenepoel; Paul Willmann

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents hardware and software mechanisms to enable concurrent direct network access (CDNA) by op- erating systems running within a virtual machine monitor. In a conventional virtual machine monitor, each operating system running within a virtual machine must access the network through a software-virtualized network interface . These virtual network interfaces are multiplexed in softwa re onto a physical

  14. CIRCAL and the representation of communication, concurrency, and time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J. Milne

    1985-01-01

    The CIRCAL calculus is presented as a mathematical framework in which to describe and analyze concurrent systems, whether hardware or software.The dot operator is used to compose CIRCAL descriptions, and it is this operator which permits the natural modeling of asynchronous and simultaneous behavior, thus allowing the representation and analysis of system timing properties such as those found in circuits.The

  15. Pretreatment with chemotherapy can enhance the antigenicity and immunogenicity of tumours by promoting adaptive immune responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W M Liu; D W Fowler; P Smith; A G Dalgleish

    2010-01-01

    Background:Some cancer patients are immuno-compromised, and it has been long felt that immune-intervention is not compatible with standard chemotherapies. However, increasing evidence suggests that standard chemotherapy drugs may stimulate beneficial changes in both the immune system and tumour.Methods:We have assessed the expression of human leucocyte antigen class 1 (HLA1) on tumour cells before and after chemotherapy agents (cyclophosphamide, oxaliplatin or

  16. Optimal Protocols for a Mathematical Model of Tumor-Immune Interactions under Chemotherapy with Immune Boost

    E-print Network

    Ledzewicz, Urszula

    of tumor-immune interactions: for small cancer volumes, the immune system can indeed be effective only a therapeutic effect (e.g., chemotherapy, radiotherapy, ...) can stop further cancer growth of cancer chemotherapy with immunotherapy in form of a boost to the immune system is considered as a multi

  17. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum with Concurrent Pneumorrhachis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hanna; Lee, Sang Cjeol; Lee, Deok Heon; Kim, Gun-Jik

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a very uncommon entity that is defined as the presence of free air in the mediastinum without an obvious etiology. The presence of air in the spinal canal, known as concurrent pneumorrhachis, is an extremely rare epiphenomenon of spontaneous pneumomediastinum. We report a rare case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum with pneumorrhachis associated with influenza. The patient was diagnosed without invasive procedures, was managed with supportive treatment, and recovered without any complications. PMID:25551085

  18. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy in adjuvant treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ismaili, Nabil; Mellas, Nawfel; Masbah, Ouafae; Elmajjaoui, Sanaa; Arifi, Samia; Bekkouch, Imane; Ahid, Samir; Bazid, Zakaria; Tazi, Mohammed Adnane; Erraki, Abdelouahed; El Mesbahi, Omar; Benjaafar, Noureddine; El Gueddari, Brahim El Khalil; Ismaili, Mohammed; Afqir, Said; Errihani, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Background The optimal sequencing of chemotherapy and radiotherapy after breast surgery was largely studied but remains controversial. Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy is a valuable method for adjuvant treatment of breast cancer which is under ongoing research program in our hospital. We are evaluating the feasibility of the concomitant use of chemotherapy retrospectively. Methods Two hundred forty four women having breast cancer were investigated in a retrospective study. All patients were either treated by radical surgery or breast conservative surgery. The study compares two adjuvant treatments associating concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In the first group (group A) the patients were treated by chemotherapy and radiotherapy in concomitant way using anthracycline (n = 110). In the second group (group B) the patients were treated by chemotherapy and radiotherapy in concomitant way using CMF treatment (n = 134). Chemotherapy was administered in six cycles, one each 3 weeks. Radiotherapy delivered a radiation dose of 50 Gy on the whole breast (or on the external wall) and/or on the lymphatic region. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the rates of disease free survival, loco-regional recurrence-free survival and overall survival. The Pearson Khi2 test was used to analyse the homogeneity between the two groups. The log-rank test was used to evaluate the differences between the two groups A and B. Results After 76.4 months median follow-up (65.3 months mean follow up), only one patient relapsed to loco-regional breast cancer when the treatment was based on anthracycline. However, 8 patients relapsed to loco-regional breast cancer when the treatment was based on CMF. In the anthracycline group, the disease free survival after 5 years, was 80.4% compared to 76.4% in the CMF group (Log-rank test: p = 0.136). The overall survival after 5 years was 82.5% and 81.1% in the anthracycline and CMF groups respectively (Log-rank test: p = 0.428). The loco-regional free survival at 5 years was equal to 98.6% in group A and 94% in group B (Log-rank test: p = 0,033). The rate of grade II and grade III anaemia was 13.9% and 6.7% in anthracycline group and CMF group respectively (Khi2-test: p = 0.009). The rate of grade II and grade III skin dermatitis toxicity was 4.5% in the group A and 0% in the group B (Khi2-test: p = 0.013). Conclusion From the 5 years retrospective investigation we showed similar disease free survival and overall survival in the two concurrent chemo-radiotherapy treatments based on anthracycline and CMF. However in the loco-regional breast cancer the treatment based on anthracycline was significantly better than that of the treatment based on CMF. There was more haematological and skin dermatitis toxicity in the anthracycline group. PMID:19351405

  19. Concurrent engineering teams. Volume 2: Annotated bibliography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Karen J.; Dierolf, David A.

    1990-11-01

    Specific concurrent engineering practices vary among organizations. There are, however, various management practices that appear to work well for most organizations. This paper presents the reader with specific, useful examples from several defense contractors illustrating how multifunctional concurrent engineering teams are being organized and managed and how concurrent engineering team meetings are conducted and supported. The types of computer support that could be used to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of concurrent engineering team meetings are identified. The general findings are that there exists a direct relationship between total quality management (TQM) and concurrent engineering, and that many applications of computer-aided group problem solving are possible and practical today for the concurrent engineering team meetings. Areas identified for additional research are the documentation of the decision process and rationale during the product and process definition, the capturing of lessons learned during the implementation of concurrent engineering, and the performance evaluation and training of team members.

  20. Validating Timed Models of Deployment Components with Parametric Concurrency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broch Johnsen, Einar; Owe, Olaf; Schlatte, Rudolf; Tapia Tarifa, Silvia Lizeth

    Many software systems today are designed without assuming a fixed underlying architecture, and may be adapted for sequential, multicore, or distributed deployment. Examples of such systems are found in, e.g., software product lines, service-oriented computing, information systems, embedded systems, operating systems, and telephony. Models of such systems need to capture and range over relevant deployment scenarios, so it is interesting to lift aspects of low-level deployment concerns to the abstraction level of the modeling language. This paper proposes an abstract model of deployment components for concurrent objects, extending the Creol modeling language. The deployment components are parametric in the amount of concurrency they provide; i.e., they vary in processing resources. We give a formal semantics of deployment components and characterize equivalence between deployment components which differ in concurrent resources in terms of test suites. Our semantics is executable on Maude, which allows simulations and test suites to be applied to a deployment component with different concurrent resources.

  1. Understanding Resistance to Combination Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Justin R.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Hemann, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The current clinical application of combination chemotherapy is guided by a historically successful set of practices that were developed by basic and clinical researchers 50-60 years ago. Thus, in order to understand how emerging approaches to drug development might aid the creation of new therapeutic combinations, it is critical to understand the defining principles underlying classic combination therapy and the original experimental rationales behind them. One such principle is that the use of combination therapies with independent mechanisms of action can minimize the evolution of drug resistance. Another is that in order to kill sufficient cancer cells to cure a patient, multiple drugs must be delivered at their maximum tolerated dose – a condition that allows for enhanced cancer cell killing with manageable toxicity. In light of these models, we aim to explore recent genomic evidence underlying the mechanisms of resistance to the combination regimens constructed on these principles. Interestingly, we find that emerging genomic evidence contradicts some of the rationales of early practitioners in developing commonly used drug regimens. However, we also find that the addition of recent targeted therapies has yet to change the current principles underlying the construction of anti-cancer combinatorial regimens, nor have they made substantial inroads into the treatment of most cancers. We suggest that emerging systems/network biology approaches have an immense opportunity to impact the rational development of successful drug regimens. Specifically, by examining drug combinations in multivariate ways, next generation combination therapies can be constructed with a clear understanding of how mechanisms of resistance to multi-drug regimens differ from single agent resistance. PMID:23164555

  2. Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis of Central Nervous System and Lung Driven by Epstein Barr Virus Proliferation: Successful Treatment with Rituximab-Containing Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alvarez, Ruben; Gonzalez, ME; Fernandez, Almudena; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, AP; Sancho, JM; Dominguez, Francisco; Fernandez, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a very rare Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who presented with fever and respiratory symptoms. Computed tomography showed multiple nodules in both lung fields. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for EBV was positive in bronchoalveolar lavage and biopsy of lung node yielded a diagnosis of LYG, grade III. Shortly after initiation of treatment with agressive chemotherapy, neurological deterioration appeared. Neuroimaging findings revealed hydrocephalus and PCR analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for EBV. Treatment with intravenous rituximab led to rapid reduction of EBV load in CSF, along with clinical and radiological improvement. After completion of treatment with immunochemotherapy, an autologous stem cell transplantation was performed. Patient stays in remission 18 months after diagnosis. PMID:24678394

  3. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... institutes of health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) “My hands and feet were swollen and ... at one time. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid retention) Weigh yourself. l Weigh yourself at the ...

  4. [Safety management of intravenous cancer chemotherapy and oral premedication drugs].

    PubMed

    Hikino, Hajime; Nanme, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    The administration of oral premedication drugs (OPDs) is increased before intravenous cancer chemotherapy to prevent adverse events such as hypersensitivity or nausea and vomiting. As intravenous chemotherapy regimens and OPDs are ordered separately in the electronic medical record system, the prescription or administration of OPDs may be missed. To overcome this problem, we developed a combination regimen ordering (CRO) system, in which OPDs were included in the intravenous chemotherapy regimen enabling simultaneous ordering. This system used the electronic medical record system HAPPY ACTIS by TOSHIBA Medical Information Systems Co. in our hospital. OPDs were prepared in an envelope labeled with a bar code to identify the patient, which was then used by the nursing staff to administer the medication. Between August 2011 and January 2014, CRO systems were used in 66 regimens for the treatment of the following cancers: 21 lung cancers, 14 breast cancers, 9 hematologic malignancies, 7 genitourinary cancers, 6 gastrointestinal cancers, 5 gynecological cancers, 3 head and neck cancers, and 1 dermatological malignancy. The OPDs administered were diphenhydramine, loxoprofen, chlorpheniramine, aprepitant, and ramosetron. Although we were unable to check OPDs in the oral drug administration histories, no errors in the administration of OPDs have been reported after the adoption of the CRO system. Therefore, our CRO system improved the safety and quality of patient care for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25596683

  5. Chemotherapy for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Kamura, Toshiharu; Ushijima, Kimio

    2013-06-01

    The primary treatment options for cervical cancer are surgery and radiation for more than a century. However, over the last 40 years chemotherapy has been building up its reputation in the management of cervical cancer in various forms such as chemoradiation, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and palliative chemotherapy for advanced or recurrent disease. Among these, in this review, chemotherapy for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer will be discussed. PMID:23915846

  6. Chemotherapy in Patients with Organ Dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Marshall; Jimmy Hwang; Shakun Malik; Asim Amin

    Clinical studies of chemotherapy, or other antineoplastic therapies, are usually conducted in physiologically otherwise normal\\u000a patients with cancer. As a result, limited information is typically available about the optimal dosage and schedule of chemotherapy\\u000a for patients with organ dysfunction and the impact of chemotherapy in such patients. This is a potentially important problem,\\u000a because most chemotherapies, as with other pharmacologic

  7. Pancreatic cancer: chemotherapy and radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Andrén-Sandberg, Åke

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer in many cases appears in a non-curatively resectable stage when the diagnosis is made. Palliative treatment become an option in the patients with advanced stage. The present article reviewed chemotherapy and radiotherapy in various advanced stage of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22540056

  8. Early chemotherapy in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mazhar, Danish; Waxman, Jonathan

    2008-09-01

    A considerable proportion of men with clinically localized prostate cancer are not cured by surgery or radiotherapy, and hormone therapy for advanced disease is also not curative. Given the demonstrable efficacy of chemotherapy in hormone-refractory disease, there is an interest in examining the curative potential of chemotherapy when administered early in the natural history of prostate cancer. It is hoped that chemotherapy could be used with hormone therapy and in the adjuvant setting, as is the case in many other solid tumors, in patients with 'high-risk' prostate cancer who are undergoing primary radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. Early phase clinical trials have shown that using docetaxel as neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy is safe and feasible. In the neoadjuvant setting, tumor shrinkage, serological response, there is some evidence of pathological downstaging. Several randomized trials are ongoing, and it is anticipated that the results of these studies will help to identify whether the early use of chemotherapy in early prostate cancer is beneficial. PMID:18769375

  9. CYTOKINETICS AND CHEMOTHERAPY OF PSORIASIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald D. Weinstein; Jerry L. McCullough

    1976-01-01

    The successful treatment of psoriasis with folic acid antagonists during the past 25 years has led to extensive research in the areas of cytokinetics and chemotherapy. In this paper we shall review selected aspects of these topics relevant to the treatment of psoriasis. The effectiveness of methotrexate treatment of psoriasis can be related to both the hyperproliferative cytokinetics of psoriasis

  10. MUVI: automatically inferring multi-variable access correlations and detecting related semantic and concurrency bugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shan Lu; Soyeon Park; Chongfeng Hu; Xiao Ma; Weihang Jiang; Zhenmin Li; Raluca A. Popa; Yuanyuan Zhou

    2007-01-01

    Software defects significantly reduce system dependability. Among various types of software bugs, semantic and concurrency bugs are two of the most difficult to detect. This paper proposes a novel method, called MUVI, that detects an important class of semantic and concurrency bugs. MUVI automatically infers commonly existing multi-variable access correlations through code analysis and then detects two types of related

  11. Implementation Issues in Concurrent Programming Languages: A Framework for Thread Specialization

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    threads in concurrent run-time systems. This analysis will iii #12; help future language implementorsImplementation Issues in Concurrent Programming Languages: A Framework for Thread Specialization for Thread Specialization Copyright 1999 by Gregory David Benson The research was supported by the NSA

  12. MINIUM: A Permission Based Concurrent-by-Default Programming Language Approach

    E-print Network

    Aldrich, Jonathan

    A ÆMINIUM: A Permission Based Concurrent-by-Default Programming Language Approach Sven Stork permissions, permissions, data groups, concurrency ACM Reference Format: Stork,S. Naden, K., Sunshine, J on Programming Languages and Systems, Vol. V, No. N, Article A, Publication date: January YYYY. #12;A:2 Stork et

  13. A Concurrent TTCN based Approach to Conformance Testing of Distributed Routing Protocol OSPF v2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Bi; Jianping Wu; Xiuhuan Chen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes an formal approach to conformance testing for OSPF v2, a widely used distributed routing protocol in the Internet. The routing function is performed in a distributed system, thus the testing is more complex than the traditional peer-to-peer protocol. The concurrent TTCN is a test notation that can handle concurrent test behavior and it is suitable for the

  14. Designing application specific circuits with concurrent C# programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Greaves; Satnam Singh

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into the possibility of using a regular concurrent programming language for modeling and implementing digital circuits. Some of the reasons for using an existing language include the ability to use existing compilers and analysis tools for circuit design and verification. Another important reason is the ever increasing need to model complete systems that comprise interacting

  15. Concurrent design and manufacturing process of automotive composite components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Sapuan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – To present the findings of the research on the use of concurrent engineering in the development of polymeric based composite automotive clutch pedal. It covers the use of various IT such as expert system, FEA, CAD, mould flow and rapid prototyping in order to carry out various activities such as material selection, total design, design analysis and mould

  16. Types for Concurrent Programming (SCI/180/96/155/G)

    E-print Network

    Gay, Simon

    Types for Concurrent Programming (SCI/180/96/155/G) Final Report S. J. Gay Department of Computer. Gay, and R. Nagarajan. A type-theoretic approach to deadlock-freedom of asynchronous systems. In M-Verlag. [2] S. Abramsky, S. J. Gay, and R. Nagarajan. A speci#12;cation structure for deadlock

  17. Scalable nonblocking concurrent objects for mission critical code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damian Dechev; Bjarne Stroustrup

    2009-01-01

    The high degree of complexity and autonomy of future robotic space missions, such as Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), poses serious challenges in assuring their reliability and efficiency. Pro- viding fast and safe concurrent synchronization is of critical im- portance to such autonomous embedded software systems. The ap- plication of nonblocking synchronization is known to help elimi- nate the hazards of

  18. The role of chemotherapy in the current treatment of gastric cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric van Cutsem; Daniel Haller; Atsushi Ohtsu

    2002-01-01

    Metaanalyses of adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in gastric cancer have shown at best marginal benefits, although a recent trial of postoperative chemoradiotherapy has demonstrated significantly increased overall survival. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy are also feasible and are the subject of several ongoing studies. This setting may provide valuable evidence of the activity of new agents and the chemosensitivity of specific tumors.

  19. J. Math. Biol. (1997) 35: 775--792 Optimal control of the chemotherapy of HIV

    E-print Network

    Sontag, Eduardo

    J. Math. Biol. (1997) 35: 775--792 Optimal control of the chemotherapy of HIV Denise Kirschner de- scribes the interaction of the immune system with the human immunodefi- ciency virus (HIV), we- tions and four adjoint ordinary differential equations. Key words: Chemotherapy -- HIV -- Optimal

  20. Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting During Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mustian, Karen M; Devine, Katie; Ryan, Julie L; Janelsins, Michelle C; Sprod, Lisa K; Peppone, Luke J; Candelario, Grace D; Mohile, Supriya G; Morrow, Gary R

    2011-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are two of the most troubling side effects patients experience during chemotherapy. While newly available treatments have improved our ability to manage nausea and vomiting, anticipatory and delayed nausea and vomiting are still a major problem for patients receiving chemotherapy. Many cancer patients will delay or refuse future chemotherapy treatments and contemplate stopping chemotherapy altogether because of their fear of experiencing further nausea and vomiting. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the patho-psychophysiology of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and the recommended guidelines for treatment. PMID:24466408

  1. Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting During Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mustian, Karen M; Devine, Katie; Ryan, Julie L; Janelsins, Michelle C; Sprod, Lisa K; Peppone, Luke J; Candelario, Grace D; Mohile, Supriya G; Morrow, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are two of the most troubling side effects patients experience during chemotherapy. While newly available treatments have improved our ability to manage nausea and vomiting, anticipatory and delayed nausea and vomiting are still a major problem for patients receiving chemotherapy. Many cancer patients will delay or refuse future chemotherapy treatments and contemplate stopping chemotherapy altogether because of their fear of experiencing further nausea and vomiting. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the patho-psychophysiology of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and the recommended guidelines for treatment. PMID:24466408

  2. Postoperative Chemotherapy Followed by Conformal Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy in High-Risk Gastric Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Quero, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.quero@sls.aphp.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Bouchbika, Zineb; Kouto, Honorine; Baruch-Hennequin, Valerie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Gornet, Jean-Marc [Department of Gastroenterology, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Munoz, Nicolas [Department of General Surgery, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Cojean-Zelek, Isabelle [Department of Medical Oncology, Croix Saint-Simon Hospital, Paris (France); Houdart, Remi [Department of Digestive Surgery, Croix Saint-Simon Hospital, Paris (France); Panis, Yves [Department of Colorectal Surgery, Beaujon Hospital, Clichy (France); Valleur, Patrice [Department of Digestive Surgery, Lariboisiere Hospital, Paris (France); Aparicio, Thomas [Department of Gastroenterology, Avicenne Hospital, Bobigny (France); Maylin, Claude; Hennequin, Christophe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris (France)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To analyze the efficacy, toxicity, and pattern of relapse after adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by three-dimensional irradiation and concomitant LV5FU2 chemotherapy (high-dose leucovorin and 5-fluorouracil bolus plus continuous infusion) in the treatment of completely resected high-risk gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective analysis of 52 patients with high-risk gastric cancer initially treated by total/partial gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy between January 2002 and June 2007. Median age was 54 years (range, 36-75 years). Postoperative treatment consisted of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was followed by three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in the tumor bed and regional lymph nodes at 4500 cGy/25 fractions in association with concomitant chemotherapy. Concomitant chemotherapy consisted of a 2-h infusion of leucovorin (200 mg/m Superscript-Two ) followed by a bolus of 5-fluorouracil (400 mg/m Superscript-Two ) and then a 44-h continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (2400-3600 mg/m Superscript-Two ) given every 14 days, for three cycles (LV5FU2 protocol). Results: Five-year overall and disease-free survival were 50% and 48%, respectively. Distant metastases and peritoneal spread were the most frequent sites of relapse (37% each). After multivariate analysis, only pathologic nodal status was significantly associated with disease-free and overall survival. Acute toxicities were essentially gastrointestinal and hematologic. One myocardial infarction and one pulmonary embolism were also reported. Eighteen patients had a radiotherapy program interruption because of acute toxicity. All patients but 2 have completed radiotherapy. Conclusion: Postoperative cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by conformal radiotherapy in association with concurrent 5-fluorouracil seemed to be feasible and resulted in successful locoregional control.

  3. Metastatic melanoma: Chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilio Bajetta; Michele Del Vecchio; Chantal Bernard-Marty; Milena Vitali; Roberto Buzzoni; Olivier Rixe; Paola Nova; Stefania Aglione; Sophie Taillibert; David Khayat

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has been rapidly increasing, with an estimate of 47,700 new cases diagnosed in 2000 in the United States. In the early phase of its natural history, melanoma is cured in most cases by surgery, but once the metastatic phase develops, it is almost always fatal. The treatment of metastatic melanoma remains unsatisfactory. Systemic therapy has

  4. Definitive extended field intensity-modulated radiotherapy and concurrent cisplatin chemosensitization in the treatment of IB2-IIIB cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guangyu; He, Fangfang; Fu, Chunli; Zhang, Youzhong; Yang, Qiuan; Wang, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the toxicity of delivering extended field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (EF-IMRT) and concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical carcinoma. Methods Forty-five patients who underwent EF-IMRT and concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy for the treatment of stage IB2 to IIIB cervical cancer were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical target volume included all areas of gross and potentially microscopic disease and regional lymph node regions. All patients underwent high-dose-rate brachytherapy. The acute and late toxicity were scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late radiation morbidity scoring criteria, respectively. Results The median follow-up was 28 months (range, 5 to 62 months). Forty-two patients had a complete response, and three had a persistent disease. Of those 42 patients, 15 patients (35.7%) had recurrence. The regions of recurrence were in-field in 2 patients and out-field in 13 patients. Acute grade ?3 gastrointestinal, genitourinary and hematologic toxicity occurred in 3, 1, and 9 patients, respectively. Three patients (6.7%) suffered from late grade 3 toxicities. Seven patients experienced ovarian transposition, 5 of those patients (71%) maintained ovarian function. Thirty-eight patients (84.4%) were alive at the last follow-up. Conclusion Concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy with EF-IMRT was safe. The acute and late toxicities are acceptable. EF-IMRT provides an opportunity to preserve endocrine function for patients with ovarian transposition. PMID:24459576

  5. Preparing HEP software for concurrency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.; Hegner, B.; Mato, P.; Piparo, D.

    2014-06-01

    The necessity for thread-safe experiment software has recently become very evident, largely driven by the evolution of CPU architectures towards exploiting increasing levels of parallelism. For high-energy physics this represents a real paradigm shift, as concurrent programming was previously only limited to special, well-defined domains like control software or software framework internals. This paradigm shift, however, falls into the middle of the successful LHC programme and many million lines of code have already been written without the need for parallel execution in mind. In this paper we have a closer look at the offline processing applications of the LHC experiments and their readiness for the many-core era. We review how previous design choices impact the move to concurrent programming. We present our findings on transforming parts of the LHC experiment reconstruction software to thread-safe code, and the main design patterns that have emerged during the process. A plethora of parallel-programming patterns are well known outside the HEP community, but only a few have turned out to be straightforward enough to be suited for non-expert physics programmers. Finally, we propose a potential strategy for the migration of existing HEP experiment software to the many-core era.

  6. A journey to pediatric chemotherapy competence.

    PubMed

    Andam, Rachel; Silva, Melissa

    2008-08-01

    Chemotherapy and biotherapy use has increased due to its effectiveness as a treatment for childhood cancer. Nurses need to demonstrate knowledge of these agents' mechanism of action, adverse effects, safe handling, and monitoring parameters. Competence of nurses administering chemotherapy and biotherapy needs to be assessed to ensure safety and quality care. Review of literature reveals that a comprehensive education program and skills validation are the most thorough means of assessing chemotherapy competency. The chemotherapy competency program at the Children's National Medical Center (CNMC) was evaluated and was noted to be inadequate. Although a self-learning module on intravenous push chemotherapy administration and a 1-hour lecture on chemotherapy administration were offered during orientation, there was limited reevaluation of competence at regular intervals. As a result of a literature review, multi-institutional surveys, and intensive review of the CNMC chemotherapy administration module, a comprehensive chemotherapy/biotherapy competency program was developed for nurses administering chemotherapeutic agents. The CNMC chemotherapy competency program was formed with a didactic content course utilizing the Oncology Nursing Society Chemotherapy/Biotherapy Provider Course combined with initial and yearly skills validation. After offering both the didactic portion and three-part competency skills set, nurses have indicated improved satisfaction with the methodology of achieving chemotherapy competency. PMID:18638670

  7. Axioms for concurrent objects. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Herlihy, M.P.; Wing, J.M.

    1987-12-01

    Specification and verification techniques for abstract data types that have been successful for sequential programs can be extended in a natural way to provide the same benefits for concurrent programs. An approach is proposed to specifying and verifying concurrent objects based on a novel correctness condition, called linearizability. Linearizability provides the illusion that each operation takes effect instantaneously at some point between its invocation and its response, implying that the meaning of a concurrent objects operations can still be given by pre- and post conditions. This paper defines and discusses linearizability, and then give examples of how to reason about concurrent objects and verify their implementations based on their (sequential) axiomatic specifications.

  8. Candidate mechanisms for chemotherapy-induced cognitive changes

    PubMed Central

    Ahles, Tim A.; Saykin, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism(s) for chemotherapy-induced cognitive changes are largely unknown; however, several candidate mechanisms have been identified. We suggest that shared genetic risk factors for the development of cancer and cognitive problems, including low-efficiency efflux pumps, deficits in DNA-repair mechanisms and/or a deregulated immune response, coupled with the effect of chemotherapy on these systems, might contribute to cognitive decline in patients after chemotherapy. Furthermore, the genetically modulated reduction of capacity for neural repair and neurotransmitter activity, as well as reduced antioxidant capacity associated with treatment-induced reduction in oestrogen and testosterone levels, might interact with these mechanisms and/or have independent effects on cognitive function. PMID:17318212

  9. Photoswitchable nanoparticles for in vivo cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Rong; Chiang, Homer H.; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    There are many obstacles to effective cancer chemotherapy, including drug penetration and accumulation in tumors and drug systemic toxicity. The penetration of therapies into tumors is limited by the dense tumor matrix and by compression of the tumor vasculature. We have developed spiropyran-based nanoparticles that shrink from 103 to 49 nm upon irradiation at 365 nm. That shrinkage enhanced tissue penetration and drug release. Irradiation of s.c. HT-1080 tumors in nude mice administered i.v. docetaxel-containing nanoparticles was more effective treatment than free docetaxel or encapsulated docetaxel without irradiation. Irradiation at the tumor site also resulted in less systemic toxicity than if the nanoparticles were irradiated before injection, presumably because of less systemically distributed free drug. The enhanced efficacy of nanoparticles in irradiated tumors may have been related to the observed enhanced tumor penetration by nanoparticles and decompression of tumor blood vessels, which may also increase nanoparticle delivery into tumors. PMID:24191048

  10. [Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Emi; Maeda, Yoshiharu

    2011-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy(CIPN)is one of chemotherapy's common and disabling adverse effects. It may be caused by many chemotherapeutic agents including the taxanes(paclitaxel, docetaxel), the vinca alkaloids(vincristine, vinorelbine, vinblastine), the platinum analogues(cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin), bortezomib and thalidomide, among others. Once the symptoms have developed, they may lead to compromising patients' quality of life(QOL). For medical oncologists, the management of CIPN remains an important challenge. At the present time, no agent has shown enough solid beneficial evidence to be recommended for the treatment or/prophylaxis of CIPN. The standard of care for CIPN includes awareness and early detection of neuropathy, and dose reduction and/or discontinuation of the problematic agents. PMID:22083183

  11. [Biomarker docetaxel-based chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Pfister, D; Heidenreich, A; Porres, D

    2013-09-01

    In the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) era, prostate cancer is detected at more local stages. Nevertheless, depending on e.g. the differentiation stage there is recurrent disease in 10-40% of the cases with the need of further treatment. Once hormonal therapy has been initiated the disease can progress to the castration resistant stage and the question of chemotherapy arises. At this stage PSA sensitivity decreases. Although there is a significant improvement in survival only about 50% of the patients benefit from chemotherapy. Recently several new drugs have or will soon be approved in the setting of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPCA). Several prognostic molecular markers have been investigated. In this review some objective important biomarkers, proteins and targets will be presented. PMID:23975220

  12. Recombine Endostatin With Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Concurrent Chemoradiation in Advanced Nasopharynx Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-11

    1?Enough Cases; 2?Elekta Precise 1343 Digital Control Electron Linear Accelerator; Can Undertake Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Specimens in the Materia?; Image Department of Nose Pharynx Ministry MRI Dynamic Testing,

  13. Principles and major agents in clinical oncology chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This paper provides a brief classification of drugs available for veterinary chemotherapy, as well as justifications for their use. Some common neoplasia and the drugs of choice for their treatment are described. A listing by class of systemic chemotherapeutic agents, their mode of action, tumors responsive to the drugs, precautions and common adverse effects and mode of administration is provided. 2 tabs. (MHB)

  14. Chemotherapy with anticancer drugs encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho Lun Wong; Reina Bendayan; Andrew M. Rauth; Yongqiang Li; Xiao Yu Wu

    2007-01-01

    The prospect of improved cancer chemotherapy using solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) as a drug delivery system is promising. Several obstacles frequently encountered with anticancer compounds, such as normal tissue toxicity, poor specificity and stability and a high incidence of drug-resistant tumor cells, are at least partially overcome by delivering them using SLN. The emergence of the newer forms of SLN

  15. Concurrency revisited: increasing and compelling epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Mah, Timothy L; Shelton, James D

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sexual partnerships must necessarily lie at the root of a sexually transmitted epidemic. However, that overlapping or concurrent partnerships have played a pivotal role in the generalized epidemics of sub-Saharan Africa has been challenged. Much of the original proposition that concurrent partnerships play such a role focused on modelling, self-reported sexual behaviour data and ethnographic data. While each of these has definite merit, each also has had methodological limitations. Actually, more recent cross-national sexual behaviour data and improved modelling have strengthened these lines of evidence. However, heretofore the epidemiologic evidence has not been systematically brought to bear. Though assessing the epidemiologic evidence regarding concurrency has its challenges, a careful examination, especially of those studies that have assessed HIV incidence, clearly indicates a key role for concurrency.Such evidence includes: 1) the early and dramatic rise of HIV infection in generalized epidemics that can only arise from transmission through rapid sequential acute infections and thereby concurrency; 2) clear evidence from incidence studies that a major portion of transmission in the population occurs via concurrency both for concordant negative and discordant couples; 3) elevation in risk associated with partner's multiple partnering; 4) declines in HIV associated with declines in concurrency; 5) bursts and clustering of incident infections that indicate concurrency and acute infection play a key role in the propagation of epidemics; and 6) a lack of other plausible explanations, including serial monogamy and non-sexual transmission. While other factors, such as sexually transmitted infections, other infectious diseases, biological factors and HIV sub-type, likely play a role in enhancing transmission, it appears most plausible that these would amplify the role of concurrency rather than alter it. Additionally, critics of concurrency have not proposed plausible alternative explanations for why the explosive generalized epidemics occurred. Specific behaviour change messaging bringing the concepts of multiple partnering and concurrency together appears salient and valid in promoting safer individual behaviour and positive social norms. PMID:21689437

  16. Chemotherapy induces tumor clearance independent of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, Jennifer L.; Ditsworth, Dara; Fan, Yongjun; Zhao, Fangping; Crawford, Howard C.; Zong, Wei-Xing

    2008-01-01

    Dysregulation of apoptosis is associated with the development of human cancer and resistance to anti-cancer therapy. The ultimate goal of cancer treatment is to selectively induce cancer cell death and overcome drug resistance. A deeper understanding of how a given chemotherapy affects tumor cell death is needed to develop strategically designed anti-cancer agents. Here we utilize a xenograft mouse tumor system generated from genetically defined cells deficient in apoptosis to examine the involvement of multiple forms of cell death induced by cyclophosphamide (CP), a DNA alkylating agent commonly used in chemotherapy. We find that while apoptosis facilitates tumor regression, it is dispensable for complete tumor regression as other forms of cell death are activated. Sporadic necrosis is observed in both apoptosis-competent and deficient tumors evident by tumor cell morphology, extracellular release of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), and activation of innate immune cells in CP treated tumors. Our findings indicate that in apoptosis-deficient tumors, necrosis may play a fundamental role in tumor clearance by stimulating the innate immune response. PMID:19047135

  17. Concurrent Engineering: A Partnership Approach

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barton, Russell R.

    This paper describes the development of a new course in concurrent engineering. Teaching concepts in product development benefits greatly from a hands-on approach. The authors have attempted to establish this goal in three ways: by developing and using a number of laboratories and demonstrations, by inviting speakers from industry who can make classroom lessons concrete, and by using cases as the basis for class discussion. This paper includes a discussion of the curriculum, of existing teaching materials, and of specific methods and materials developed for the course. The course was developed jointly by faculty and research assistants at the University of Washington (UW), the University of Puerto Ricos Mayagez campus (UPRM), and at Penn State (PSU), as part of the Manufacturing Engineering Education Partnership (MEEP), funded through the ARPA Technology Reinvestment Program.

  18. Molecular adaptations to concurrent training.

    PubMed

    de Souza, E O; Tricoli, V; Roschel, H; Brum, P C; Bacurau, A V N; Ferreira, J C B; Aoki, M S; Neves-Jr, M; Aihara, A Y; da Rocha Correa Fernandes, A; Ugrinowitsch, C

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the chronic effects of concurrent training (CT) on morphological and molecular adaptations. 37 men (age=23.7±5.5 year) were divided into 4 groups: interval (IT), strength (ST) and concurrent (CT) training and a control group (C) and underwent 8 weeks of training. Maximum strength (1RM) and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) were evaluated before and after training. Muscle samples were obtained before the training program and 48 h after the last training session. VO2max improved in 5±0.95% and 15±1.3% (pre- to post-test) in groups CT and IT, respectively, when compared to C. Time to exhaustion (TE) improved from pre- to post-test when compared to C (CT=6.1±0.58%; IT=8.3±0.88%; ST=3.2±0.66%). 1RM increased from pre-to post-test only in ST and CT groups (ST=18.5±3.16%; CT=17.6±3.01%). Similarly, ST and CT groups increased quadriceps CSA from pre-to post-test (6.2±1.4%; 7.8±1.66%). The p70S6K1 total protein content increased after CT. The ST group showed increased Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 (45.0±3.3%) whereas AMPK phosphorylation at Thr172 increased only in IT group, (100±17.6%). In summary, our data suggest that despite the differences in molecular adaptations between training regimens, CT did not blunt muscle strength and hypertrophy increments when compared with ST. PMID:23044732

  19. [Update on antimicrobial chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Cattoir, V; Daurel, C

    2010-03-01

    There is a constant need for new antibacterial agents because of the unavoidable development of bacterial resistance that follows the introduction of antibiotics in clinical practice. As observed in many fields, innovation generally comes by series. For instance, a wide variety of broad-spectrum antibacterial agents became available between the 1970s and the 1990s, such as cephalosporins, penicillin/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones. Over the last 2 decades, the arrival of new antibacterial drugs on the market has dramatically slowed, leaving a frequent gap between isolation of resistant pathogens and effective treatment options. In fact, many pharmaceutical companies focused on the development of narrow-spectrum antibiotics targeted at multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria (e.g. methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium). Therefore, multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (e.g. extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii) recently emerged and rapidly spread worldwide. Even if some molecules were developed, new molecules for infections caused by these multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria remain remarkably scarce compared to those for Gram-positive infections. This review summarises the major microbiological, pharmacological, and clinical properties of systemic antibiotics recently marketed in France (i.e. linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline, ertapenem, and doripenem) as well as those of antibacterial drugs currently in development (i.e. ceftobiprole, ceftaroline, dalbavancin, telavancin, oritavancin, iclaprim, and ramoplanin) or available in other countries (i.e. garenoxacin, sitafloxacin, and temocillin). PMID:19959306

  20. Unifying concurrency control and recovery of transactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo Alonso; Radek Vingralek; Divyakant Agrawal; Yuri Breitbart; Amr El Abbadi; Hans-jörg Schek; Gerhard Weikum

    1994-01-01

    Transaction management in shared databases is generally viewed as a combination of twoproblems, concurrency control and recovery, which have been considered as orthogonal problems.Consequently, the correctness criteria derived for these problems are incomparable. Recently aunified theory of concurrency control and recovery has been introduced that is based on commutativityand performs transaction recovery by submitting inverse operations for operationsof aborted transactions.

  1. A Concurrent Support Course for Intermediate Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Cameron I.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the creation and implementation of a concurrent support class for TRS 92--Intermediate Algebra, a developmental mathematics course at Fort Lewis College in Durango, Colorado. The concurrent course outlined in this article demonstrates a statistically significant increase in student success rates since its inception.…

  2. Concurrent partnerships and HIV: an inconvenient truth.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Helen; Morris, Martina

    2011-01-01

    The strength of the evidence linking concurrency to HIV epidemic severity in southern and eastern Africa led the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the Southern African Development Community in 2006 to conclude that high rates of concurrent sexual partnerships, combined with low rates of male circumcision and infrequent condom use, are major drivers of the AIDS epidemic in southern Africa. In a recent article in the Journal of the International AIDS Society, Larry Sawers and Eileen Stillwaggon attempt to challenge the evidence for the importance of concurrency and call for an end to research on the topic. However, their "systematic review of the evidence" is not an accurate summary of the research on concurrent partnerships and HIV, and it contains factual errors concerning the measurement and mathematical modelling of concurrency.Practical prevention-oriented research on concurrency is only just beginning. Most interventions to raise awareness about the risks of concurrency are less than two years old; few evaluations and no randomized-controlled trials of these programmes have been conducted. Determining whether these interventions can help people better assess their own risks and take steps to reduce them remains an important task for research. This kind of research is indeed the only way to obtain conclusive evidence on the role of concurrency, the programmes needed for effective prevention, the willingness of people to change behaviour, and the obstacles to change. PMID:21406080

  3. Concurrent Engineering in the Construction Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter E. D. Love; A. Gunasekaran

    1997-01-01

    The construction industry has been suffering from low productivity and poor performance In an attempt to improve its performance, industry practitioners and researchers have looked at the manufacturing industry as a point of reference and a source of innovation Conse quently, the industry has acquired and adapted the Concurrent Engineering (CE) approach to manufacturing, to construction Concurrent Con struction (CC)

  4. Towards Declarative Debugging of Concurrent Constraint Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus P. J. Fromherz

    1993-01-01

    The concurrent constraint (cc) framework [17] describes a family of concurrent programming languages that use constraints for the synchronization of processes. In this paper, we describe an approach to the declarative debugging of cc programs. We develop the concept of observable and specified behaviors of cc processes, define incorrect processes based on differences between these behaviors, and present a top-down

  5. Concurrent partnerships and HIV: an inconvenient truth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The strength of the evidence linking concurrency to HIV epidemic severity in southern and eastern Africa led the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the Southern African Development Community in 2006 to conclude that high rates of concurrent sexual partnerships, combined with low rates of male circumcision and infrequent condom use, are major drivers of the AIDS epidemic in southern Africa. In a recent article in the Journal of the International AIDS Society, Larry Sawers and Eileen Stillwaggon attempt to challenge the evidence for the importance of concurrency and call for an end to research on the topic. However, their "systematic review of the evidence" is not an accurate summary of the research on concurrent partnerships and HIV, and it contains factual errors concerning the measurement and mathematical modelling of concurrency. Practical prevention-oriented research on concurrency is only just beginning. Most interventions to raise awareness about the risks of concurrency are less than two years old; few evaluations and no randomized-controlled trials of these programmes have been conducted. Determining whether these interventions can help people better assess their own risks and take steps to reduce them remains an important task for research. This kind of research is indeed the only way to obtain conclusive evidence on the role of concurrency, the programmes needed for effective prevention, the willingness of people to change behaviour, and the obstacles to change. PMID:21406080

  6. Concurrency, Fairness and Logical Marta Kwiatkowska

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    Concurrency, Fairness and Logical Complexity Marta Kwiatkowska mzk@mcs.le.ac.uk Department consider a connection between fairness and \\Pi 0 3 sets of functions made recently by Darondeau, Nolte with concurrency structure represented by a Mazurkiewicz independency relation. 1 Introduction Fairness is usually

  7. Finite-grain message passing concurrent computers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Dally

    1988-01-01

    Fine-grain concurrent computers, by operating at a fine grain, increase the amount of concurrency that can be efficiently exploited in a given problem. Programming is simplified because programs may be partitioned into natural units of methods and objects and these objects are addressed uniformly whether they are local or remote. The construction of these machines poses challenging problems in reducing

  8. A VLSI architecture for concurrent data structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Dally

    1987-01-01

    Contents: Concurrent smalltalk. The balanced cube. Graph algorithms. Architecture. Conclusion. Glossary. Bibliography. Note: This book, based on the author's Ph.D. dissertation, won the Clauser prize for the most original Caltech Ph.D thesis in 1986. It presents a coherent view of the art of designing and programming concurrent computers. It can serve as a handbook for those working in the field,

  9. Fast Memory Snapshot for Concurrent Programming without Synchronization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaewoong Chung; Woongki Baek; Christos Kozyrakis

    The industry-wide turn toward chip-multiprocessors (CMPs) pro- vides an increasing amount of parallel resources for commodity systems. However, it is still difficult to harness the available paral- lelism in user applications and system software code. We propose MShot, a hardware-assisted memory snapshot for concurrent programming without synchronization code. It sup- ports atomic multi-word read operations on a large dataset. Since

  10. Coil Embolization of an Arteriobiliary Fistula Caused by Hepatic Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Takao, Hidemasa, E-mail: takaoh-tky@umin.ac.jp; Doi, Ippei [Showa General Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Makita, Kohzoh [Social Insurance Central General Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Watanabe, Toshiaki [Showa General Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2005-12-15

    Arteriobiliary fistula is a rare complication of hepatic intra-arterial chemotherapy. We report successful coil embolization of an arteriobiliary fistula. An 80-year-old woman underwent percutaneous placement of an indwelling catheter into the replaced right hepatic artery for intra-arterial chemotherapy of liver metastases. Coil embolization of the left hepatic artery was not performed. The patient complained of abdominal pain during intra-arterial chemotherapy. Angiography revealed a fistula between the replaced right hepatic artery and the common bile duct. The fistula was successfully treated by coil embolization via the indwelling catheter, and the indwelling catheter was removed. Although such complications usually herald the termination of intra-arterial chemotherapy, the patient underwent percutaneous implantation of a new catheter-port system, and intra-arterial chemotherapy was restarted.

  11. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Salvà, Francesc

    2013-01-01

    Surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy is the standard of care for completely resected stages II and III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In order to improve survival in patients with early-stage NSCLC, efforts have been focused on the use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy before surgery with the aim of reducing the risk of relapse. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an attractive treatment option which is employed in different tumors and may well be associated with certain advantages in NSCLC patients such as being effective in treating occult microscopic systemic disease, downstaging mediastinal lymph node and improving the success of surgery by tumor reduction. Furthermore, chemotherapy compliance prior to surgery is generally better than after surgery. The potential disadvantages are treatment-related toxicities and the delay of surgery. At present, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is still considered an experimental treatment modality in early-stage disease and its role should be more clearly defined.

  12. Multi-data-base concurrency control

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of managing heterogeneous distributed data bases is becoming an increasingly difficult problem due to an ever increasing number of different data base management systems utilized in many corporations. A multi-data-base transaction processing algorithm, based on a site protocol concurrency control mechanism, is proposed as a solution to this problem. A model of a centralized multi-data-base system is described in this study to provide a foundation for the multi-data-base transaction processing algorithm. An architecture for a distributed multi-data-base system is also presented and solutions to the problems of distributed-data dictionary and network management are proposed. The proposed multi-data-base transaction processing algorithm is shown to maintain global data-base consistency in the presence of global and permitted local transactions. The algorithm also eliminates the possibility of global-transaction deadlock. The notion of a test/production data dictionary provides a flexible and efficient means for dictionary management in a distributed multi-data-base system. The concept of a logical network provides an effective means of integrating heterogeneous networks.

  13. Neoadjuvant and postoperative chemotherapy with paclitaxel plus cisplatin for the treatment of FIGO stage IB cervical cancer in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Tae-Wook; Lee, Eun Ju; Lee, Yonghee; Chang, Suk-Joon; Son, Joo Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancy diagnosed during pregnancy. The experience of the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) with paclitaxel plus cisplatin during pregnancy is limited. Three pregnant women with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB cervical cancer received NACT with paclitaxel plus cisplatin until fetal lung maturity, and then underwent cesarean delivery and radical hysterectomy. Two of our patients had intermediate pathologic risk factors, and received adjuvant chemotherapy with the same regimen used in NACT. All patients did not have any evidence of disease recurrence for follow-up of 3, 4, and 8 years, respectively. NACT with paclitaxel plus cisplatin followed by radical hysterectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy could be considered as one of feasible alternatives to primary radical surgery or concurrent chemoradiation therapy with the termination of pregnancy in pregnant women with FIGO stage IB cervical cancer who have two or more intermediate pathologic-risk factors. PMID:25469346

  14. Does Concurrent Radiochemotherapy Affect Cosmetic Results in the Adjuvant Setting After Breast-Conserving Surgery? Results of the ARCOSEIN Multicenter, Phase III Study: Patients' and Doctors' Views

    SciTech Connect

    Toledano, Alain H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital Tenon, AP-HP, Paris (France)]. E-mail: alain.toledano@gmail.com; Bollet, Marc A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Fourquet, Alain [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, CRLC Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier (France); Gligorov, Joseph [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital Tenon, AP-HP, Paris (France); Garaud, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Kaplan CHU Bretonneau, Tours (France); Serin, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Sainte-Catherine, Avignon (France); Bosset, Jean-Francois [Department of Radiation Oncology, CHU Minjoz, Besancon (France); Miny-Buffet, Joelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, CHU Minjoz, Besancon (France); Favre, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, CHR La Source, Orleans (France); Le Foch, Olivier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Kaplan CHU Bretonneau, Tours (France); Calais, Gilles [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Kaplan CHU Bretonneau, Tours (France)

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the cosmetic results of sequential vs. concurrent adjuvant chemotherapy with radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer, and to compare ratings by patients and physicians. Methods and Materials: From 1996 to 2000, 716 patients with Stage I-II breast cancers were included in a multicenter, Phase III trial (the ARCOSEIN study) comparing, after breast-conserving surgery with axillary dissection, sequential treatment with chemotherapy first followed by radiotherapy vs. chemotherapy administered concurrently with radiotherapy. Cosmetic results with regard to both the overall aspect of the breast and specific changes (color, scar) were evaluated in a total of 214 patients (107 in each arm) by means of questionnaires to both the patient and a physician whose rating was blinded to treatment allocation. Results: Patients' overall satisfaction with cosmesis was not statistically different between the two arms, with approximately 92% with at least satisfactory results (p = 0.72), although differences between the treated and untreated breasts were greater after the concurrent regimen (29% vs. 14% with more than moderate differences; p 0.0015). Physician assessment of overall cosmesis was less favorable, with lower rates of at least satisfactory results in the concurrent arm (60% vs. 85%; p = 0.001). Consequently, the concordance for overall satisfaction with cosmesis between patients and doctors was only fair ({kappa} = 0.62). Conclusion: After breast-conserving surgery, the concurrent use of chemotherapy with radiotherapy is significantly associated with greater differences between the breasts. These differences do not translate into patients' lessened satisfaction with cosmesis.

  15. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Improves Survival in Patients With Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Paximadis, Peter, E-mail: ppaximad@med.wayne.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Yoo, George; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Jacobs, John [Department of Otolaryngology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Sukari, Ammar [Department of Medical Oncology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Dyson, Greg [Department of Oncology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Christensen, Michael; Kim, Harold [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively review our institutional experience with hypopharyngeal carcinoma with respect to treatment modality. Methods and Materials: A total of 70 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer treated between 1999 and 2009 were analyzed for functional and survival outcomes. The treatments included surgery alone (n = 5), surgery followed by radiotherapy (RT) (n = 3), surgery followed by chemoradiotherapy (CRT) (n = 13), RT alone (n = 2), CRT alone (n = 22), induction chemotherapy followed by RT (n = 3), and induction chemotherapy followed by CRT (n = 22). Results: The median follow-up was 18 months. The median overall survival and disease-free survival for all patients was 28.3 and 17.6 months, respectively. The 1- and 2-year local control rate for all patients was 87.1% and 80%. CRT, given either as primary therapy or in the adjuvant setting, improved overall survival and disease-free survival compared with patients not receiving CRT. The median overall survival and disease-free survival for patients treated with CRT was 36.7 and 17.6 months vs. 14.0 and 8.0 months, respectively (p < .01). Of the patients initially treated with an organ-preserving approach, 4 (8.2%) required salvage laryngectomy for local recurrence or persistent disease; 8 (16.3%) and 12 (24.5%) patients were dependent on a percutaneous gastrostomy and tracheostomy tube, respectively. The 2-year laryngoesophageal dysfunction-free survival rate for patients treated with an organ-preserving approach was estimated at 31.7%. Conclusions: Concurrent CRT improves survival in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer. CRT given with conventional radiation techniques yields poor functional outcomes, and future efforts should be directed at determining the feasibility of pharyngeal-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with hypopharyngeal tumors.

  16. Clinical and histological resolution of a basal cell carcinoma in a patient undergoing concurrent treatment of B-cell lymphoma with systemic R-CHOP.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shakeel M; Bhat, W; Wiper, J D; Platt, A J

    2014-09-01

    Surgical resection is the definitive treatment modality for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). However, not all patients may be suitable for surgery. We describe a patient with a BCC, which resolved clinically and histologically when he underwent systemic R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone) for treatment of a high grade B-cell lymphoma. Although topical and intra-lesional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been used as an adjunct to treatment, more recent reports have illustrated the treatment of BCC with systemic 5-FU in combination with bleomycin and cisplatin. We postulate that the combination of cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin with rituximab and prednisolone, which has not been previously reported in the literature, contributed to remission in this case. PMID:25052183

  17. Cancer Chemotherapy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top French (français) Chemotherapy Chimiothérapie - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health ...

  18. Chemotherapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... able to change the environment around the cell. Hormones—These substances may interfere with tumor growth by blocking the production of certain proteins in the tumor cells. Mitotic inhibitors—These agents are usually plant-based, natural substances that interfere with the production ...

  19. Chemotherapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... including chemo, radiation, and surgery. Like chemo, radiation kills cancer cells. Surgery can be used to remove ... can have side effects. In their effort to kill cancer cells, chemo drugs can make normal cells ...

  20. jpf-concurrent: An extension of Java PathFinder for java.util.concurrent

    E-print Network

    Ujma, Mateusz

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges when verifying multi-threaded Java applications is the state space explosion problem. Due to thread interleavings, the number of states that the model checker has to verify can grow rapidly and impede the feasibility of verification. In the Java language, the source of thread interleavings can be the system under test as well as the Java Development Kit (JDK) itself. In our paper, we propose a method to minimize the state space explosion problem for applications verified under the Java PathFinder (JPF) model checker. Our method is based on abstracting the state of the application to a smaller domain and implementing application behavior using the Model Java Interface (MJI) of JPF. To show the capabilities of our approach, we have created a JPF extension called jpf-concurrent which abstracts classes from the Java Concurrency Utilities. Several benchmarks proved the usefulness of our approach. In all cases, our implementation was faster than the JDK implementation when running under t...

  1. Essential drugs for cancer chemotherapy. WHO consultation.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The WHO recommendation on essential drugs for cancer chemotherapy has been updated. General principles on the proper role of cancer chemotherapeutic agents in relation to efficacy and on the classification of tumours with respect to their curative potential are discussed. Curable cancers and those cancers where the cost-benefit ratio clearly favours drug treatment can be managed appropriately based on only 24 drugs. Fourteen of them should ideally be available for the treatment of the ten most common cancers, 8 others should be available only where the resources and facilities exist for the treatment of paediatric tumours and leukaemias, and two drugs were recommended for the treatment of tumours for which there is good evidence that systemic treatment will palliate symptoms but not substantially prolong survival. The adoption of these recommendations should result in considerable reduction in both the mortality and morbidity from cancer throughout the world. PMID:7525093

  2. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Fehrenbacher, Jill C

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is common in patients receiving anticancer treatment and can affect survivability and long-term quality of life of the patient following treatment. The symptoms of CIPN primarily include abnormal sensory discrimination of touch, vibration, thermal information, and pain. There is currently a paucity of pharmacological agents to prevent or treat CIPN. The lack of efficacious therapeutics is due, at least in part, to an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms by which chemotherapies alter the sensitivity of sensory neurons. Although the clinical presentation of CIPN can be similar with the various classes of chemotherapeutic agents, there are subtle differences, suggesting that each class of drugs might induce neuropathy via different mechanisms. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to underlie the development and maintenance of neuropathy; however, most pharmacological agents generated from preclinical experiments have failed to alleviate the symptoms of CIPN in the clinic. Further research is necessary to identify the specific mechanisms by which each class of chemotherapeutics induces neuropathy. PMID:25744683

  3. [Chemotherapy of advanced colorectal cancers].

    PubMed

    Louvet, C

    1997-01-01

    The medical treatment of advanced colon and rectum cancer is undergoing a revolution in the light of clinical studies defining the indications for conventional treatments as well as the development of new drugs. In this review, the authors discuss a number of practical questions raised every day by oncological teams. First-line chemotherapy must be administered to patients able to tolerate this treatment by the time of the diagnosis. The standard regiment of 5-FU and folinic acid (FUFOL) is gradually being superseded by more modern regimens, especially based on continuous 5-FU infusion, such as LV5-FU2. New drugs such as oxaliplatin, CPI-11 or tomudex are now available, and their place is currently under evaluation. These new drugs raise the question of the value of second-line chemotherapy, new commonly administered to patients with a persistently good general condition despite escape from first-line treatment. The various possible combinations of new drugs with 5-FU now confirm that current standards will be modified in the near future; while retaining the objective of improving survival, but also quality of life. The progress observed and expected will probably allow the development of more effective adjuvant treatment protocols. PMID:9297861

  4. Novel fluorescence molecular imaging of chemotherapy-induced intestinal apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Galit; Shirvan, Anat; Grimberg, Hagit; Reshef, Ayelet; Yogev-Falach, Merav; Cohen, Avi; Ziv, Ilan

    2009-09-01

    Chemotherapy-induced enteropathy (CIE) is one of the most serious complications of anticancer therapy, and tools for its early detection and monitoring are highly needed. We report on a novel fluorescence method for detection of CIE, based on molecular imaging of the related apoptotic process. The method comprises systemic intravenous administration of the ApoSense fluorescent biomarker (N,N'-didansyl-L-cystine DDC) in vivo and subsequent fluorescence imaging of the intestinal mucosa. In the reported proof-of-concept studies, mice were treated with either taxol+cyclophosphamide or doxil. DDC was administered in vivo at various time points after drug administration, and tracer uptake by ileum tissue was subsequently evaluated by ex vivo fluorescent microscopy. Chemotherapy caused marked and selective uptake of DDC in ileal epithelial cells, in correlation with other hallmarks of apoptosis (i.e., DNA fragmentation and Annexin-V binding). Induction of DDC uptake occurred early after chemotherapy, and its temporal profile was parallel to that of the apoptotic process, as assessed histologically. DDC may therefore serve as a useful tool for detection of CIE. Future potential integration of this method with fluorescent endoscopic techniques, or development of radio-labeled derivatives of DDC for emission tomography, may advance early diagnosis and monitoring of this severe adverse effect of chemotherapy.

  5. Efficient memory management for concurrent programs that use message passing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos F. Sagonas; Jesper Wilhelmsson

    2006-01-01

    We present an efficient memory management scheme for concurrent programming languages where communication occurs by using message passing with copying semantics. The runtime system is built around process-local heaps, which frees the memory manager from redundant synchronization in a multi-threaded implementation and allows the memory reclamation of process-local heaps to be a private business and to often take place without

  6. The Effect of Radiation Dose and Chemotherapy on Overall Survival in 237 Patients With Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Li [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Correa, Candace R.; Zhao Lujun; Hayman, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kalemkerian, Gregory P.; Lyons, Susan; Cease, Kemp; Brenner, Dean [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kong Fengming [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Health Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)], E-mail: Fengkong@med.umich.edu

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and their interaction in patients with unresectable or medically inoperable Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: A total of 237 consecutive Stage III NSCLC patients were evaluated. Median follow-up was 69.0 months. Patients were treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone (n = 106), sequential chemoradiation (n = 69), or concurrent chemoradiation (n = 62). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Radiation dose ranged from 30 to 102.9 Gy (median 60 Gy), corresponding to a bioequivalent dose (BED) of 39 to 124.5 Gy (median 72 Gy). Results: The median OS of the entire cohort was 12.6 months, and 2- and 5-year survival rates were 22.4% and 10.0%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression model demonstrated that Karnofsky performance status (p = 0.020), weight loss < 5% (p = 0.017), chemotherapy (yes vs. no), sequence of chemoradiation (sequential vs. concurrent; p < 0.001), and BED (p < 0.001) were significant predictors of OS. For patients treated with RT alone, sequential chemoradiation, and concurrent chemoradiation, median survival was 7.4, 14.9, and 15.8 months, and 5-year OS was 3.3%, 7.5%, and 19.4%, respectively (p < 0.001). The effect of higher radiation doses on survival was independent of whether chemotherapy was given. Conclusion: Radiation dose and use of chemotherapy are independent predictors of OS in Stage III NSCLC, and concurrent chemoradiation is associated with the best survival. There is no interaction between RT dose and chemotherapy.

  7. 36 CFR 292.69 - Concurrent reclamation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...292.69 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Smith River National Recreation Area Other Provisions § 292.69 Concurrent reclamation. Plans of operations involving...

  8. 36 CFR 292.69 - Concurrent reclamation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...292.69 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Smith River National Recreation Area Other Provisions § 292.69 Concurrent reclamation. Plans of operations involving...

  9. 36 CFR 292.69 - Concurrent reclamation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...292.69 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Smith River National Recreation Area Other Provisions § 292.69 Concurrent reclamation. Plans of operations involving...

  10. 36 CFR 292.69 - Concurrent reclamation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...292.69 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Smith River National Recreation Area Other Provisions § 292.69 Concurrent reclamation. Plans of operations involving...

  11. 36 CFR 292.69 - Concurrent reclamation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...292.69 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Smith River National Recreation Area Other Provisions § 292.69 Concurrent reclamation. Plans of operations involving...

  12. True Concurrency at Work: Relaxed Memory Models

    E-print Network

    Boudol, Gérard

    factories build (and sell) non-optimized machines? ¯ program in a disciplined way: write only (concurrent MEMORY MODELS (2/4) Intel 64 (2007) Stores are not reordered with older loads: Processor 0 Processor 1

  13. Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE). Volume 1: Design overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Meemong; Groom, Steven L.; Mazer, Alan S.; Williams, Winifred I.

    1990-01-01

    The design and implementation of a Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE), which is intended to become the support system software for a prototype high performance science analysis workstation are described. The target machine for this software is a JPL/Caltech Mark 3fp Hypercube hosted by either a MASSCOMP 5600 or a Sun-3, Sun-4 workstation; however, the design will accommodate other concurrent machines of similar architecture, i.e., local memory, multiple-instruction-multiple-data (MIMD) machines. The CIPE system provides both a multimode user interface and an applications programmer interface, and has been designed around four loosely coupled modules: user interface, host-resident executive, hypercube-resident executive, and application functions. The loose coupling between modules allows modification of a particular module without significantly affecting the other modules in the system. In order to enhance hypercube memory utilization and to allow expansion of image processing capabilities, a specialized program management method, incremental loading, was devised. To minimize data transfer between host and hypercube, a data management method which distributes, redistributes, and tracks data set information was implemented. The data management also allows data sharing among application programs. The CIPE software architecture provides a flexible environment for scientific analysis of complex remote sensing image data, such as planetary data and imaging spectrometry, utilizing state-of-the-art concurrent computation capabilities.

  14. Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy through a Port-Catheter System as Preoperative Initial Therapy in Patients with Advanced Liver Dysfunction due to Synchronous and Unresectable Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Iguchi, Toshihiro [Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Arai, Yasuaki [National Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Inaba, Yoshitaka, E-mail: 105824@aichi-cc.jp; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Miyazaki, Masaya; Shimamoto, Hiroshi [Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. We retrospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of preoperative initial hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) through a port-catheter system in patients with liver dysfunction due to synchronous and unresectable liver metastases. The aim of HAIC was to improve patients' clinical condition for later surgical removal of primary colorectal cancer. Methods. Port-catheter systems were placed radiologically in 21 patients (mean age 58.6 {+-} 8.1 years) with liver dysfunction due to synchronous liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Initial HAIC of 1,000 mg/m{sup 2} 5-fluorouracil was administered weekly as a 5 hr continuous infusion through this system. Surgical removal of the primary lesion was planned after HAIC improved the liver function. Results. Port-catheter system placement was successful in all patients without severe complications. Patients were followed up for a median of 309 days (range 51-998 days). After starting HAIC, no severe adverse events that caused drug loss and treatment postponement or suspension were observed in any of the patients. HAIC was performed a mean of 4.5 {+-} 3.0 times and the liver function improved in all patients. Curative (n = 18) or palliative (n = 1) surgical removal of the primary lesion was performed. The remaining 2 patients died because extrahepatic metastases developed and their performance status worsened; thus, surgery could not be performed. The median survival times of all patients and the operated patients were 309 and 386 days, respectively. Conclusion. Initial HAIC administration is a safe and efficacious method for improving liver function prior to operative resection of primary colorectal cancer in patients with liver dysfunction due to synchronous and unresectable liver metastases.

  15. The semantic foundations of concurrent constraint programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay A. Saraswat; Martin C. Rinard; Prakash Panangaden

    1991-01-01

    Concurrent constraint programming (Sar89 ,SR90) is a sim- ple and powerful model of concurrent computation based on the notions of store-as-constraint and process as information transducer. The store-as-valuation conception of von Neu- mann computing is replaced by the notion that the store is a constraint (a finite representation of a possibly infinite set of valuations) which provides partial information about

  16. Constructing Compact Models of Concurrent Java Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Corbett

    1998-01-01

    Finite-state verification technology (e.g., model checking) provides a powerful means to detect concurrency errors, which are often subtle and difficult to reproduce. Nevertheless, widespread use of this technology by developers is unlikely until tools provide automated support for extracting the required finite-state models directly from program source. In this paper, we explore the extraction of compact concurrency models from Java

  17. Concurrent processing in nonlinear structural stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darbhamulla, S. P.; Razzaq, Z.; Storaasli, O. O.

    1986-01-01

    A concurrent processing algorithm is developed for materially nonlinear stability analysis of imperfect columns with biaxial partial rotational end restraints. The algorithm for solving the governing nonlinear ordinary differential equations is implemented on a multiprocessor computer called the 'Finite Element Machine', developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Numerical results are obtained on up to nine concurrent processors. A substantial computational gain is achieved in using the parallel processing approach.

  18. Concurrent partnerships and HIV: an inconvenient truth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Epstein; Martina Morris

    2011-01-01

    The strength of the evidence linking concurrency to HIV epidemic severity in southern and eastern Africa led the Joint United\\u000a Nations Programme on HIV\\/AIDS and the Southern African Development Community in 2006 to conclude that high rates of concurrent\\u000a sexual partnerships, combined with low rates of male circumcision and infrequent condom use, are major drivers of the AIDS\\u000a epidemic in

  19. Chemotherapy plus interferon-alpha2b versus chemotherapy in the treatment of follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Neri, N; Avilés, A; Cleto, S; Díaz, N; Talavera, A; García, E L; Díaz-Maqueo, J C

    2001-10-01

    The best treatment of follicular lymphoma remains to be determined because the long natural history of follicular lymphoma requires mature data for accurate analysis. Although the goal of primary treatment remains durable remission, the sequential application of effective treatments may also result in a prolongation of median survival time. The use of interferon (IFN) with doxorubicin-based chemotherapy has demonstrated an increase of event-free survival but not in overall survival; however, its acute and late cardiac toxicity limits its use. For this reason, we began a controlled clinical trial to assess the efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapy: COPP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and procarbazine) + IFN alternating every month for six cycles compared to six cycles of chemotherapy. In an intent-to treat analysis, 55 patients were enrolled (median age 61 years). Most cases (91%) with advanced disease were randomly assigned to chemotherapy + IFN (28 cases) or chemotherapy (27 cases). Complete remission was observed in 16 patients: 59% (95% CI, 53-70%) in the chemotherapy arm compared to 20 patients 71% (95% CI, 58-79%) in the chemotherapy + IFN arm; total responses were 74% and 86%, respectively. At a median follow-up of 60 months, event-free survival was 100% for patients treated with chemotherapy + IFN, which was statistically different from patients treated with chemotherapy 70%. At 7 years, median survival has not yet been reached; 72% of patients chemotherapy + IFN remain alive without disease (95% CI, 59-81%), which is not statistically different from 72% (95%CI, 50-73%) in the chemotherapy arm. Non-hematological toxicity was most frequent and severe in the chemotherapy arm; hematological toxicity was similar in both groups. Thus, it appears that chemotherapy + IFN, as described herein, improves event-free survival but the overall survival rates remain unchanged. The use of COPP appears to be better that anthracycline-based chemotherapy because it avoids the presence of acute and late cardiac toxicity. PMID:11672513

  20. Phase 3 Trial of Postoperative Chemotherapy Alone Versus Chemoradiation Therapy in Stage III-IV Gastric Cancer Treated With R0 Gastrectomy and D2 Lymph Node Dissection

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Sook Ryun; Ryu, Keun Won; Kim, Young-Woo [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jae-Moon [Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Yeon-Joo [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong, E-mail: radiopiakim@hanmail.net [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To compare chemotherapy alone with chemoradiation therapy in stage III-IV(M0) gastric cancer treated with R0 gastrectomy and D2 lymph node dissection. Methods and Materials: The chemotherapy arm received 5 cycles of fluorouracil and leucovorin (FL), and the chemoradiation therapy arm received 1 cycle of FL, then radiation therapy of 45 Gy concurrently with 2 cycles of FL, followed by 2 cycles of FL. Intent-to-treat analysis and per-protocol analyses were performed. Results: Between May 6, 2002 and June 29, 2006, a total of 90 patients were enrolled. Forty-four were randomly assigned to the chemotherapy arm and 46 to the chemoradiation therapy arm. Treatment was completed as planned by 93.2% of patients in the chemotherapy arm and 87.0% in the chemoradiation therapy arm. Overall intent-to-treat analysis showed that addition of radiation therapy to chemotherapy significantly improved locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS) but not disease-free survival. In subgroup analysis for stage III, chemoradiation therapy significantly prolonged the 5-year LRRFS and disease-free survival rates compared with chemotherapy (93.2% vs 66.8%, P=.014; 73.5% vs 54.6%, P=.056, respectively). Conclusions: Addition of radiation therapy to chemotherapy could improve the LRRFS in stage III gastric cancer treated with R0 gastrectomy and D2 lymph node dissection.