Note: This page contains sample records for the topic condilomatosis vulvoperineal gigante from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Gigantic thymolipoma.  

PubMed

A 48-year-old woman with an abnormal shadow in chest radiography during an annual physical examination was found by chest computed tomography to have a large fatty mass lesion found to be diagnosed as a gigantic lipoma. Histopathological diagnosis was found to be benign thymolipoma consisting of mature fatty tissue and hyperplastic thymic tissue structures with Hassall,s corpuscles. Although the diagnosis is supported by imaging studies that demonstrate fat and soft tissue within the tumor, variations occur in computed tomography appearance. We suggest that surgical excision be considered when a gigantic intrathoracic lipomatous mass is in scanning as in this case. PMID:11855099

Hirai, Shinji; Hamanaka, Yoshiharu; Mitsui, Norimasa; Kumagai, Hajime; Kobayashi, Taira

2002-01-01

2

Acromegaly and Gigantism  

MedlinePLUS

... Metabolic Disorders Chapters Pituitary Gland Disorders Acromegaly and Gigantism Overproduction of growth hormone causes excessive growth. In children, the condition is called gigantism. In adults, it is called acromegaly. Excessive growth ...

3

Vertical structuring of gigantic jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gigantic Jets (GJs) are initiated deep inside the thundercloud as intracloud discharges whose upward-directed leaders manage to escape through the thundercloud top and propagate up to the ionosphere. The speed at which leaders propagate is limited by the air heating of every newly formed leader section, rate of which is slower at upper altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere. Despite the expected deceleration of an upward-directed leader, GJs are observed to accelerate as they approach the ionosphere. In this letter, we discuss the dependence of the leader speed on current density in the leader stem, and we propose a simple time-dynamic model for GJ propagation that includes the effects of the expansion of the streamer zone adjacent to the leader head. We propose that the GJ acceleration is a consequence of its vertical structuring and, therefore, can be used to trace the transition altitude between the leader and streamer zone sections of GJs.

Silva, Caitano L.; Pasko, Victor P.

2013-06-01

4

Pituitary Gigantism: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Objective: To present a rare case of gigantism. Case Report: A 25-year-old lady presented with increased statural growth and enlarged body parts noticed since the age of 14 years, primary amenorrhea, and frontal headache for the last 2 years. She has also been suffering from non-inflammatory low back pain with progressive kyphosis and pain in the knees, ankles, and elbows for the last 5 years. There was no history of visual disturbance, vomiting, galactorrhoea, cold intolerance. She had no siblings. Family history was non-contributory. Blood pressure was normal. Height 221 cm, weight 138 kg, body mass index (BMI)28. There was coarsening of facial features along with frontal bossing and prognathism, large hands and feet, and small goitre. Patient had severe kyphosis and osteoarthritis of knees. Confrontation perimetry suggested bitemporal hemianopia. Breast and pubic hair were of Tanner stage 1. Serum insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF1) was 703 ng/ml with all glucose suppressedgrowth hormone (GH)values of >40 ng/ml. Prolactin was 174 ng/ml. Basal serum Lutenising Hormone (LH), follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH) was low. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), liver and renal function tests, basal cortisol and thyroid profile, Calcium, phosphorus and Intact Parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were normal. Computed tomographyscan of brain showed large pituitary macroadenoma. Automated perimetry confirmed bitemporal hemianopia. A diagnosis of gigantism due to GH secreting pituitary macroadenoma with hypogonadotrophichypogonadism was made. Debulking pituitary surgery followed by somatostatin analogue therapy with gonadal steroid replacement had been planned, but the patient refused further treatment.

Bhattacharjee, Rana; Roy, Ajitesh; Goswami, Soumik; Selvan, Chitra; Chakraborty, Partha P.; Ghosh, Sujoy; Biswas, Dibakar; Dasgupta, Ranen; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

2012-01-01

5

Aspectos radiológicos e epidemiológicos do granuloma central de células gigantes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os principais aspectos radiográficos e epidemiológicos das lesões de células gigantes (granulomas centrais de células gigantes e tumores marrons do hiperparati- reoidismo). MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: A amostra consistiu de 26 lesões de células gigantes diagnosticadas em 22 pacientes divididos em dois grupos, um deles composto por 17 pacientes que não tinham hiperpara- tireoidismo

José Wilson Noleto; Edson Marchiori; Renato Kobler Sampaio; Klaus L. Irion; Felipe Birchal Collares

2007-01-01

6

A case of severe rhinophyma (gigantic rhinophyma)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhinophyma is classically a benign condition whose etiology and pathogenesis are not well understood. A few cases of giant rhinophymas have been reported in the literature. In this article, a case of gigantic, lobulated rhinophyma is presented. The appearance was unusual, and there was cyst formation histologically.

A. Barutcu; A. Atabey; A. H. Gunes

1990-01-01

7

Fine structures, velocity and the ELF signature of gigantic jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gigantic jet is a type of transient luminous events that optically connect thundercloud-top and the ionosphere [Su et al., Nature 423, p974-976, 2003]. The dynamical evolution of gigantic jets can be divided into three stages: the leading jet, the fully developed stage, and the trailing jet. At the fully developed stage, the upper portion of the gigantic jets is very

H. Su; R. Hsu; A. Chen; Y. Wang; M. Sato; H. Fukunishi; L. Lee

2003-01-01

8

Evolution of Gigantism in Amphiumid Salamanders  

PubMed Central

The Amphiumidae contains three species of elongate, permanently aquatic salamanders with four diminutive limbs that append one, two, or three toes. Two of the species, Amphiuma means and A. tridactylum, are among the largest salamanders in the world, reaching lengths of more than one meter, whereas the third species (A. pholeter), extinct amphiumids, and closely related salamander families are relatively small. Amphiuma means and A. tridactylum are widespread species and live in a wide range of lowland aquatic habitats on the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States, whereas A. pholeter is restricted to very specialized organic muck habitats and is syntopic with A. means. Here we present analyses of sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear loci from across the distribution of the three taxa to assess lineage diversity, relationships, and relative timing of divergence in amphiumid salamanders. In addition we analyze the evolution of gigantism in the clade. Our analyses indicate three lineages that have diverged since the late Miocene, that correspond to the three currently recognized species, but the two gigantic species are not each other's closest relatives. Given that the most closely related salamander families and fossil amphiumids from the Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene are relatively small, our results suggest at least two extreme changes in body size within the Amphuimidae. Gigantic body size either evolved once as the ancestral condition of modern amphiumas, with a subsequent strong size reduction in A. pholeter, or gigantism independently evolved twice in the modern species, A. means and A. tridactylum. These patterns are concordant with differences in habitat breadth and range size among lineages, and have implications for reproductive isolation and diversification of amphiumid salamanders.

Bonett, Ronald M.; Chippindale, Paul T.; Moler, Paul E.; Van Devender, R. Wayne; Wake, David B.

2009-01-01

9

Bergmann's Principle and Deep-Water Gigantism in Marine Crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a review of the Bergmann's principle and deep-water gigantism in marine crustaceans. An increase in the geographic latitude and depth of crustaceans habitat (correlating mainly with lower temperatures) leads to an increased cell size, life span of the animal, and, as a result, an increase in the body size. Since Bergmann's principle and deep-water gigantism appear to be

S. F. Timofeev

2001-01-01

10

Hereditary Pituitary Hyperplasia with Infantile Gigantism  

PubMed Central

Context: We report hereditary pituitary hyperplasia. Objective: The objective of the study was to describe the results of the clinical and laboratory analysis of this rare instance of hereditary pituitary hyperplasia. Design: The study is a retrospective analysis of three cases from one family. Setting: The study was conducted at the National Institutes of Health, a tertiary referral center. Patients: A mother and both her sons had very early-onset gigantism associated with high levels of serum GH and prolactin. Interventions: The condition was treated by total hypophysectomy. Main Outcome Measure(s): We performed clinical, pathological, and molecular evaluations, including evaluation basal and provocative endocrine testing, neuroradiological assessment, and assessment of the pituitary tissue by microscopic evaluation, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Results: All three family members had very early onset of gigantism associated with abnormally high serum levels of GH and prolactin. Serum GHRH levels were not elevated in either of the boys. The clinical, radiographic, surgical, and histological findings indicated mammosomatotroph hyperplasia. The pituitary gland of both boys revealed diffuse mammosomatotroph hyperplasia of the entire pituitary gland without evidence of adenoma. Prolactin and GH were secreted by the same cells within the same secretory granules. Western blot and immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression of GHRH in clusters of cells distributed throughout the hyperplastic pituitary of both boys. Conclusions: This hereditary condition seems to be a result of embryonic pituitary maldevelopment with retention and expansion of the mammosomatotrophs. The findings suggest that it is caused by paracrine or autocrine pituitary GHRH secretion during pituitary development.

Glasker, Sven; Vortmeyer, Alexander O.; Lafferty, Antony R. A.; Hofman, Paul L.; Li, Jie; Weil, Robert J.; Zhuang, Zhengping

2011-01-01

11

Lightning development associated with two negative gigantic jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both gigantic jets occurred as part of otherwise normal intracloud flashesThe GJ-producing lightning development implies a depleted upper positive chargeVHF techniques are applicable to detect discharges over the cloud

Gaopeng Lu; Steven A. Cummer; Walter A. Lyons; Paul R. Krehbiel; Jingbo Li; William Rison; Ronald J. Thomas; Harald E. Edens; Mark A. Stanley; William Beasley; Donald R. MacGorman; Oscar A. van der Velde; Morris B. Cohen; Timothy J. Lang; Steven A. Rutledge

2011-01-01

12

Late paleozoic fusulinoidean gigantism driven by atmospheric hyperoxia.  

PubMed

Atmospheric hyperoxia, with pO(2) in excess of 30%, has long been hypothesized to account for late Paleozoic (360-250 million years ago) gigantism in numerous higher taxa. However, this hypothesis has not been evaluated statistically because comprehensive size data have not been compiled previously at sufficient temporal resolution to permit quantitative analysis. In this study, we test the hyperoxia-gigantism hypothesis by examining the fossil record of fusulinoidean foraminifers, a dramatic example of protistan gigantism with some individuals exceeding 10 cm in length and exceeding their relatives by six orders of magnitude in biovolume. We assembled and examined comprehensive regional and global, species-level datasets containing 270 and 1823 species, respectively. A statistical model of size evolution forced by atmospheric pO(2) is conclusively favored over alternative models based on random walks or a constant tendency toward size increase. Moreover, the ratios of volume to surface area in the largest fusulinoideans are consistent in magnitude and trend with a mathematical model based on oxygen transport limitation. We further validate the hyperoxia-gigantism model through an examination of modern foraminiferal species living along a measured gradient in oxygen concentration. These findings provide the first quantitative confirmation of a direct connection between Paleozoic gigantism and atmospheric hyperoxia. PMID:22946813

Payne, Jonathan L; Groves, John R; Jost, Adam B; Nguyen, Thienan; Moffitt, Sarah E; Hill, Tessa M; Skotheim, Jan M

2012-04-29

13

[Cryohypophysectomy in acromegaly and gigantism by the stereotaxic method].  

PubMed

The authors report results of surgical treatment of 30 patients treated by cryohypophysectomy by the stereotactic method through the nose and sphenoid sinus in the years 1967-1979. The material included 28 cases of acromegaly and 2 cases of gigantism. The pathological manifestations in acromegaly and gigantism were analysed for demonstration which of them can regress after surgical treatment. The results of hormonal determinations, particularly the levels of growth hormone, 17-KS and hydroxysteroids, as well as blood glucose curves, were compared before and after cryohypophysectomy and their normalization was observed after the operation. There was principally no need for substitutive treatment after surgical treatment with the exception of 4 cases in which this treatment was given during several postoperative months. The indications to this method of therapy include cases of acromegaly and gigantism with presence of active intrasellar adenomas. Patients should be referred for treatment early before development of skeletal deformities. PMID:3912667

Mempel, E; Rap, Z; Jurkiewicz, J; Kuci?ski, L

14

[Bergmann's principle and deep-water gigantism in marine crustaceans].  

PubMed

We present a review of the Bergmann's principle and deep-water gigantism in marine crustaceans. An increase in the geographic latitude and depth of crustaceans habitat (correlating mainly with lower temperatures) leads to an increased cell size, life span of the animal, and, as a result, an increase in the body size. Since Bergmann's principle and deep-water gigantism appear to be based on the same biological mechanisms, we propose a unified principle, according to which the size of the crustacean's body increases along the temperature gradient. PMID:15926344

Timofeev, S F

15

Model of UV flashes due to gigantic blue jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of UV flashes observed by the UV detector on board the 'Tatiana' microsatellite suggests, based on their location, pulse width and energy of the source of the photons, that the flashes were generated by gigantic blue jets (GBJs). Presented in this paper is a numerical model of UV flashes due to a bunch of long streamers which form a

G. M. Milikh; M. N. Shneider

2008-01-01

16

Model of UV Flashes Due to Gigantic Blue Jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon termed Gigantic Blue Jet (GBJ) was discovered by Pasko et al. [1] when observing a thunderstorm over the Atlantic Ocean. A number of GBJ's was observed since from the ground and from space by the ISUAL optical detector flying on the board of the FORMOSA-2 satellite. Alike blue jets the GBJ's have a pencil-like shape however a trunk

M. Shneider; G. Milikh

2008-01-01

17

A Case of Sotos Syndrome (Cerebral Gigantism) and Psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sotos syndrome, or cerebral gigantism, is a syndrome of accelerated growth during early childhood, and a number of craniofacial and other physical abnormalities are commonly present. Behavioral and psychiatric manifestations of the disorder include attention deficits, aggressiveness, and social inhibition. The authors describe a case of psychosis that developed in a patient with Sotos syndrome.

Michael T. Compton; Marc Celentana; Brian Price; Andrew C. Furman

2004-01-01

18

Twin Explosions In Gigantic Dusty Potato Crisp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO's Very Large Telescope, equipped with the multi-mode FORS instrument, took an image of NGC 3190, a galaxy so distorted that astronomers gave it two names. And as if to prove them right, in 2002 it fired off, almost simultaneously, two stellar explosions, a very rare event. This beautiful edge-on spiral galaxy with tightly wound arms and a warped shape that makes it resemble a gigantic potato crisp lies in the constellation Leo ('the Lion') [1] and is approximately 70 million light years away. It is the dominant member of a small group of galaxies known as Hickson 44, named after the Canadian astronomer, Paul Hickson. In addition to NGC 3190 [2], Hickson 44 consists of one elliptical and two spiral galaxies. These are, however, slightly out of the field of view and therefore not visible here. ESO PR Photo 17/06 ESO PR Photo 17/06 The Spiral Galaxy NGC 3190 In 1982, Hickson published a catalogue of over 400 galaxies found in compact, physically-related groups of typically 4 to 5 galaxies per group (see the image of Robert's Quartet in ESO PR Photo 34/05 as another example). Such compact groups allow astronomers to study how galaxies dynamically affect each other, and help them test current ideas on how galaxies form. One idea is that compact groups of galaxies, such as Hickson 44, merge to form a giant elliptical galaxy, such as NGC 1316 (see ESO PR 17/00). Indeed, signs of tidal interactions are visible in the twisted dust lane of NGC 3190. This distortion initially misled astronomers into assigning a separate name for the southwestern side, NGC 3189, although NGC 3190 is the favoured designation. NGC 3190 has an 'Active Galactic Nucleus', and as such, the bright, compact nucleus is thought to host a supermassive black hole. In March 2002, a new supernova (SN 2002bo) was found in between the 'V' of the dust lanes in the southeastern part of NGC 3190. It was discovered independently by the Brazilian and Japanese amateur astronomers, Paulo Cacella and Yoji Hirose. SN 2002bo was caught almost two weeks before reaching its maximum brightness, allowing astronomers to study its evolution. It has been the subject of intense monitoring by a world-wide network of telescopes. The conclusion was that SN 2002bo is a rather unusual Type Ia supernova [3]. The image presented here was taken in March 2003, i.e. about a year after the maximum of the supernova which is 50 times fainter on the image than a year before. While observing SN 2002bo in May 2002, a group of Italian astronomers discovered another supernova, SN 2002cv, on the other side of NGC 3190. Two supernovae of this type appearing nearly simultaneously in the same galaxy is a rare event, as normally astronomers expect only one such event per century in a galaxy. SN 2002cv was best visible at infrared wavelengths as it was superimposed on the dust lane of NGC 3190, and therefore hidden by a large quantity of dust. In fact, this supernova holds the record for the most obscured Type Ia event. The image was obtained with a total exposure time of 14 minutes only. Yet, with the amazing power of the Very Large Telescope, it reveals a large zoo of galaxies of varying morphologies. How many can you find? A high resolution image and its caption is available on this page.

2006-05-01

19

Gigantic enhancement of spin Seebeck effect by phonon drag  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate both theoretically and experimentally a gigantic enhancement of the spin Seebeck effect [K. Uchida et al., Nature 455, 778 (2008); C. M. Jaworski et al., Nature Mater. 9, 898 (2010); K. Uchida et al., Nature Mater. 9, 894 (2010)] in a prototypical magnet LaY2Fe5O12 at low temperatures. Our theoretical analysis sheds light on the important role of phonons;

Hiroto Adachi; Ken-Ichi Uchida; Eiji Saitoh; Jun-Ichiro Ohe; Saburo Takahashi; Sadamichi Maekawa

2011-01-01

20

Defects in codoped NiO with gigantic dielectric response  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combine first-principles, statistical, and phenomenological methods to investigate the electronic and dielectric properties of NiO and clarify the nature of the gigantic dielectric response in codoped NiO. Unlike previous models which are dependent on grain-boundary effects, our model based on small polaron hopping in homogeneous material predicts the dielectric permittivity (104-5) for heavily Li- and MD -codoped NiO (MD=Ti,Al,Si)

Ping Wu; Valeri Ligatchev; Zhi Gen Yu; Jianwei Zheng; Michael B. Sullivan; Yingzhi Zeng

2009-01-01

21

Discharge processes, electric field, and electron energy in ISUAL-recorded gigantic jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the first high time resolution measurements of gigantic jets from the Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) experiment. The velocity of the upward propagating fully developed jet stage of the gigantic jets was ˜107 m s-1, which is similar to that observed for downward sprite streamers. Analysis of spectral ratios for the fully developed jet

Cheng-Ling Kuo; J. K. Chou; L. Y. Tsai; A. B. Chen; H. T. Su; R. R. Hsu; S. A. Cummer; H. U. Frey; S. B. Mende; Y. Takahashi; L. C. Lee

2009-01-01

22

[Congenital partial gigantism of the upper extremities in children].  

PubMed

Angio-and phlebography, as well as pathomorphological studies were made on epiphyseal cartilaginous plate, diaphyseal bone tissue and skin of patients with partial gigantism of upper extremities. Significant developmental anomalies were found in the formation of palmar arches and digital arteries, as well as hypoplasia and aplasia of deep brachial and antebrachial veins. Light and electron microscopy revealed epiphyseal plate dystrophy and dysplasia, tubular bone osteoporosis, subcutaneous fat hyperplasia. The data obtained suggest a pathogenetic relationship between the vascular formation and the development of some malformations and growth abnormalities of upper extremities. PMID:3778237

Pavlova, M N; Beliaeva, A A; Gusev, B V

1986-01-01

23

Gigantic enhancement of spin Seebeck effect by phonon drag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate both theoretically and experimentally a gigantic enhancement of the spin Seebeck effect [K. Uchida et al., Nature 455, 778 (2008); C. M. Jaworski et al., Nature Mater. 9, 898 (2010); K. Uchida et al., Nature Mater. 9, 894 (2010)] in a prototypical magnet LaY2Fe5O12 at low temperatures. Our theoretical analysis sheds light on the important role of phonons; the spin Seebeck effect is enormously enhanced by nonequilibrium phonons that drag the low-lying spin excitations. We further argue that this scenario gives a clue to understand the observation of the spin Seebeck effect that is unaccompanied by a global spin current, and predict that the substrate condition affects the observed signal.

Adachi, Hiroto; Uchida, Ken-Ichi; Saitoh, Eiji; Ohe, Jun-Ichiro; Takahashi, Saburo; Maekawa, Sadamichi

2011-03-01

24

Methodology of growing gigantic sapphire for GSLW project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our present world the Crystal Growth Technology does not have the necessary and sufficient conditions to manufacture large sizes; especially in the Sapphire Crystal world. We have a theoretical and methodological development for growing gigantic Sapphire Crystal Lenses. Our gigantic Sapphire Crystal Lenses have a unique optical characteristic which will be used in the Global System of Laser Weapons (GSLW); hence solving one of the crucial problems in the Relay Mirror System; where it captures the Laser beam from the earth surface, cleaning the beam in the Satellite and redirecting the laser energy to the precise desired target. Developed and solution for the temperature and heat-elasticity fields in growth systems are considered theoretical, in order to assess their effects on the optical symmetry of the growing crystal. The process is modeled using three-dimensional curvilinear coordinates to describe a closed, low-strain heat-elasticity system, with allowance made for the temperature variations of the thermal properties of the multilayer growth system, and nonlinear and unsteady-state process with arbitrary boundary conditions. The results presented as plots of the strain, stress, displacement, and temperature fields; demonstrate the potential of the method for designing new growth units and improving the existing ones and suggesting that crystals, in general, without frustration of optical symmetry can, in principle, be grown. In order to solve generalized problem for large optics. It is required to have super and correct mathematical computing calculations, and using basic fundamental laws of nature regarding optical symmetry in the crystal, and discovering the radical "new wave method" for crystal growth technology.

Abgaryan, Artoush A.; Hartounian, Gomidas

2005-09-01

25

Drilling submarine pyroclastic deposits emplaced during gigantic caldera-forming eruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gigantic caldera-forming eruptions have repeatedly occurred in areas of deep\\/shallow oceans, with the production of voluminous pyroclastic flows. Such eruptions are a crucial part of the record of silicic magmatism along subduction plate boundaries. In order to contribute exploring 'subduction zones and volcanic arcs', gigantic caldera-forming events must be a target in the next phase of IODP. Ocean drilling provides

Fukashi MAENO

26

Evolución de planetas gigantes y posibilidades de su detección directa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desde la reciente detección de planetas gigantes orbitando estrellas cercanas de tipo solar por medio de efecto Doppler, uno de los principales problemas, en cuanto al estudio de los sistemas planetarios extrasolares, se refiere a la posibilidad de obtener evidencia directa de su existencia. Esto parece ser factible gracias a que en un futuro cercano entrarán en operación algunos telescopios especialmente adecuados a estos propósitos. Por tal motivo, hemos comenzado desde hace un tiempo un esfuerzo en cuanto al estudio de la evolución planetaria. A tales efectos hemos adaptado el código de evolución estelar de nuestro Observatorio al caso planetario. Las principales diferencias entre el caso estelar y el planetario se encuentran en la ecuación de estado. A tales fines hemos incluído la reciente ecuación de estado de Saumon, Chabrier y Van Horn, las opacidades radiativas de Guillot et al., procesos de quema de Deuterio, etc. También se ha considerado la posible existencia de fases de hielo y roca en el interior planetario. Por el momento hemos despreciado los efectos de la rotación planetaria. Con este código hemos computado la evolución de planetas con masas desde 10 hasta 0.3 masas de Júpiter. Utilizando nuestros resultados numéricos discutimos la detectabilidad de estos objetos en condiciones realistas.

Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

27

LTR Retrotransposons Contribute to Genomic Gigantism in Plethodontid Salamanders  

PubMed Central

Among vertebrates, most of the largest genomes are found within the salamanders, a clade of amphibians that includes 613 species. Salamander genome sizes range from ?14 to ?120 Gb. Because genome size is correlated with nucleus and cell sizes, as well as other traits, morphological evolution in salamanders has been profoundly affected by genomic gigantism. However, the molecular mechanisms driving genomic expansion in this clade remain largely unknown. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of transposable element (TE) content in salamanders. Using high-throughput sequencing, we generated genomic shotgun data for six species from the Plethodontidae, the largest family of salamanders. We then developed a pipeline to mine TE sequences from shotgun data in taxa with limited genomic resources, such as salamanders. Our summaries of overall TE abundance and diversity for each species demonstrate that TEs make up a substantial portion of salamander genomes, and that all of the major known types of TEs are represented in salamanders. The most abundant TE superfamilies found in the genomes of our six focal species are similar, despite substantial variation in genome size. However, our results demonstrate a major difference between salamanders and other vertebrates: salamander genomes contain much larger amounts of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, primarily Ty3/gypsy elements. Thus, the extreme increase in genome size that occurred in salamanders was likely accompanied by a shift in TE landscape. These results suggest that increased proliferation of LTR retrotransposons was a major molecular mechanism contributing to genomic expansion in salamanders.

Sun, Cheng; Shepard, Donald B.; Chong, Rebecca A.; Lopez Arriaza, Jose; Hall, Kathryn; Castoe, Todd A.; Feschotte, Cedric; Pollock, David D.; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge

2012-01-01

28

Why might they be giants? Towards an understanding of polar gigantism.  

PubMed

Beginning with the earliest expeditions to the poles, over 100 years ago, scientists have compiled an impressive list of polar taxa whose body sizes are unusually large. This phenomenon has become known as 'polar gigantism'. In the intervening years, biologists have proposed a multitude of hypotheses to explain polar gigantism. These hypotheses run the gamut from invoking release from physical and physiological constraints, to systematic changes in developmental trajectories, to community-level outcomes of broader ecological and evolutionary processes. Here we review polar gigantism and emphasize two main problems. The first is to determine the true strength and generality of this pattern: how prevalent is polar gigantism across taxonomic units? Despite many published descriptions of polar giants, we still have a poor grasp of whether these species are unusual outliers or represent more systematic shifts in distributions of body size. Indeed, current data indicate that some groups show gigantism at the poles whereas others show nanism. The second problem is to identify underlying mechanisms or processes that could drive taxa, or even just allow them, to evolve especially large body size. The contenders are diverse and no clear winner has yet emerged. Distinguishing among the contenders will require better sampling of taxa in both temperate and polar waters and sustained efforts by comparative physiologists and evolutionary ecologists in a strongly comparative framework. PMID:22623187

Moran, Amy L; Woods, H Arthur

2012-06-15

29

Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism  

PubMed Central

The herbivorous sauropod dinosaurs of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods were the largest terrestrial animals ever, surpassing the largest herbivorous mammals by an order of magnitude in body mass. Several evolutionary lineages among Sauropoda produced giants with body masses in excess of 50 metric tonnes by conservative estimates. With body mass increase driven by the selective advantages of large body size, animal lineages will increase in body size until they reach the limit determined by the interplay of bauplan, biology, and resource availability. There is no evidence, however, that resource availability and global physicochemical parameters were different enough in the Mesozoic to have led to sauropod gigantism. We review the biology of sauropod dinosaurs in detail and posit that sauropod gigantism was made possible by a specific combination of plesiomorphic characters (phylogenetic heritage) and evolutionary innovations at different levels which triggered a remarkable evolutionary cascade. Of these key innovations, the most important probably was the very long neck, the most conspicuous feature of the sauropod bauplan. Compared to other herbivores, the long neck allowed more efficient food uptake than in other large herbivores by covering a much larger feeding envelope and making food accessible that was out of the reach of other herbivores. Sauropods thus must have been able to take up more energy from their environment than other herbivores. The long neck, in turn, could only evolve because of the small head and the extensive pneumatization of the sauropod axial skeleton, lightening the neck. The small head was possible because food was ingested without mastication. Both mastication and a gastric mill would have limited food uptake rate. Scaling relationships between gastrointestinal tract size and basal metabolic rate (BMR) suggest that sauropods compensated for the lack of particle reduction with long retention times, even at high uptake rates. The extensive pneumatization of the axial skeleton resulted from the evolution of an avian-style respiratory system, presumably at the base of Saurischia. An avian-style respiratory system would also have lowered the cost of breathing, reduced specific gravity, and may have been important in removing excess body heat. Another crucial innovation inherited from basal dinosaurs was a high BMR. This is required for fueling the high growth rate necessary for a multi-tonne animal to survive to reproductive maturity. The retention of the plesiomorphic oviparous mode of reproduction appears to have been critical as well, allowing much faster population recovery than in megaherbivore mammals. Sauropods produced numerous but small offspring each season while land mammals show a negative correlation of reproductive output to body size. This permitted lower population densities in sauropods than in megaherbivore mammals but larger individuals. Our work on sauropod dinosaurs thus informs us about evolutionary limits to body size in other groups of herbivorous terrestrial tetrapods. Ectothermic reptiles are strongly limited by their low BMR, remaining small. Mammals are limited by their extensive mastication and their vivipary, while ornithsichian dinosaurs were only limited by their extensive mastication, having greater average body sizes than mammals.

Sander, P Martin; Christian, Andreas; Clauss, Marcus; Fechner, Regina; Gee, Carole T; Griebeler, Eva-Maria; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Hummel, Jurgen; Mallison, Heinrich; Perry, Steven F; Preuschoft, Holger; Rauhut, Oliver W M; Remes, Kristian; Tutken, Thomas; Wings, Oliver; Witzel, Ulrich

2011-01-01

30

Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism.  

PubMed

The herbivorous sauropod dinosaurs of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods were the largest terrestrial animals ever, surpassing the largest herbivorous mammals by an order of magnitude in body mass. Several evolutionary lineages among Sauropoda produced giants with body masses in excess of 50 metric tonnes by conservative estimates. With body mass increase driven by the selective advantages of large body size, animal lineages will increase in body size until they reach the limit determined by the interplay of bauplan, biology, and resource availability. There is no evidence, however, that resource availability and global physicochemical parameters were different enough in the Mesozoic to have led to sauropod gigantism. We review the biology of sauropod dinosaurs in detail and posit that sauropod gigantism was made possible by a specific combination of plesiomorphic characters (phylogenetic heritage) and evolutionary innovations at different levels which triggered a remarkable evolutionary cascade. Of these key innovations, the most important probably was the very long neck, the most conspicuous feature of the sauropod bauplan. Compared to other herbivores, the long neck allowed more efficient food uptake than in other large herbivores by covering a much larger feeding envelope and making food accessible that was out of the reach of other herbivores. Sauropods thus must have been able to take up more energy from their environment than other herbivores. The long neck, in turn, could only evolve because of the small head and the extensive pneumatization of the sauropod axial skeleton, lightening the neck. The small head was possible because food was ingested without mastication. Both mastication and a gastric mill would have limited food uptake rate. Scaling relationships between gastrointestinal tract size and basal metabolic rate (BMR) suggest that sauropods compensated for the lack of particle reduction with long retention times, even at high uptake rates. The extensive pneumatization of the axial skeleton resulted from the evolution of an avian-style respiratory system, presumably at the base of Saurischia. An avian-style respiratory system would also have lowered the cost of breathing, reduced specific gravity, and may have been important in removing excess body heat. Another crucial innovation inherited from basal dinosaurs was a high BMR. This is required for fueling the high growth rate necessary for a multi-tonne animal to survive to reproductive maturity. The retention of the plesiomorphic oviparous mode of reproduction appears to have been critical as well, allowing much faster population recovery than in megaherbivore mammals. Sauropods produced numerous but small offspring each season while land mammals show a negative correlation of reproductive output to body size. This permitted lower population densities in sauropods than in megaherbivore mammals but larger individuals. Our work on sauropod dinosaurs thus informs us about evolutionary limits to body size in other groups of herbivorous terrestrial tetrapods. Ectothermic reptiles are strongly limited by their low BMR, remaining small. Mammals are limited by their extensive mastication and their vivipary, while ornithsichian dinosaurs were only limited by their extensive mastication, having greater average body sizes than mammals. PMID:21251189

Sander, P Martin; Christian, Andreas; Clauss, Marcus; Fechner, Regina; Gee, Carole T; Griebeler, Eva-Maria; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Hummel, Jürgen; Mallison, Heinrich; Perry, Steven F; Preuschoft, Holger; Rauhut, Oliver W M; Remes, Kristian; Tütken, Thomas; Wings, Oliver; Witzel, Ulrich

2011-02-01

31

Slow DNA Loss in the Gigantic Genomes of Salamanders  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary changes in genome size result from the combined effects of mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift. Insertion and deletion mutations (indels) directly impact genome size by adding or removing sequences. Most species lose more DNA through small indels (i.e., ?1–30 bp) than they gain, which can result in genome reduction over time. Because this rate of DNA loss varies across species, small indel dynamics have been suggested to contribute to genome size evolution. Species with extremely large genomes provide interesting test cases for exploring the link between small indels and genome size; however, most large genomes remain relatively unexplored. Here, we examine rates of DNA loss in the tetrapods with the largest genomes—the salamanders. We used low-coverage genomic shotgun sequence data from four salamander species to examine patterns of insertion, deletion, and substitution in neutrally evolving non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon sequences. For comparison, we estimated genome-wide DNA loss rates in non-LTR retrotransposon sequences from five other vertebrate genomes: Anolis carolinensis, Danio rerio, Gallus gallus, Homo sapiens, and Xenopus tropicalis. Our results show that salamanders have significantly lower rates of DNA loss than do other vertebrates. More specifically, salamanders experience lower numbers of deletions relative to insertions, and both deletions and insertions are skewed toward smaller sizes. On the basis of these patterns, we conclude that slow DNA loss contributes to genomic gigantism in salamanders. We also identify candidate molecular mechanisms underlying these differences and suggest that natural variation in indel dynamics provides a unique opportunity to study the basis of genome stability.

Sun, Cheng; Lopez Arriaza, Jose R.; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge

2012-01-01

32

Oxygen hypothesis of polar gigantism not supported by performance of Antarctic pycnogonids in hypoxia.  

PubMed

Compared to temperate and tropical relatives, some high-latitude marine species are large-bodied, a phenomenon known as polar gigantism. A leading hypothesis on the physiological basis of gigantism posits that, in polar water, high oxygen availability coupled to low metabolic rates relieves constraints on oxygen transport and allows the evolution of large body size. Here, we test the oxygen hypothesis using Antarctic pycnogonids, which have been evolving in very cold conditions (-1.8-0 degrees C) for several million years and contain spectacular examples of gigantism. Pycnogonids from 12 species, spanning three orders of magnitude in body mass, were collected from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Individual sea spiders were forced into activity and their performance was measured at different experimental levels of dissolved oxygen (DO). The oxygen hypothesis predicts that, all else being equal, large pycnogonids should perform disproportionately poorly in hypoxia, an outcome that would appear as a statistically significant interaction between body size and oxygen level. In fact, although we found large effects of DO on performance, and substantial interspecific variability in oxygen sensitivity, there was no evidence for sizexDO interactions. These data do not support the oxygen hypothesis of Antarctic pycnogonid gigantism and suggest that explanations must be sought in other ecological or evolutionary processes. PMID:19129117

Woods, H Arthur; Moran, Amy L; Arango, Claudia P; Mullen, Lindy; Shields, Chris

2009-03-22

33

Gigantism in Mytilidae. A new Bathymodiolus from cold seep areas on the Barbados accretionary Prism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bathymodiolus boomerang n. sp., a very large mussel, is described from deep cold seeps located on a continental margin on the southern end of the Barbados accretionary Prism in the tropical western Atlantic. The exceptional gigantism of this species, which makes it the largest mussel presently known on earth, is related to its life history in a muddy biotope with

Rudo von Cosel; Karine Olu

1998-01-01

34

Gigantic lateral spreading of mountains in the epicentral area of the expected Tokai earthquake, central Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral spreading of mountains is not only a degradation process itself but also it could become the background of a catastrophic landslide that occurs at its spreading rims. We found gigantic lateral spreading behind the Yui landsllide area, which is located along the Pacific Sea coast in the epicentral area of the expected Tokai earthquake, central Japan. The Yui landslide

Masahiro Chigira; Takeshi Nakamura

2010-01-01

35

Discharge processes, electric field, and electron energy in ISUAL-recorded gigantic jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reports the first high time resolution measurements of gigantic jets from the Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) experiment. The velocity of the upward propagating fully developed jet stage of the gigantic jets was ˜107 m s-1, which is similar to that observed for downward sprite streamers. Analysis of spectral ratios for the fully developed jet emissions gives a reduced E field of 400-655 Td and average electron energy of 8.5-12.3 eV. These values are higher than those in the sprites but are similar to those predicted by streamer models, which implies the existence of streamer tips in fully developed jets. The gigantic jets studied here all contained two distinct photometric peaks. The first peak is from the fully developed jet, which steadily propagates from the cloud top (˜20 km) to the lower ionosphere at ˜90 km. We suggest that the second photometric peak, which occurs ˜1 ms after the first peak, is from a current wave or potential wave-enhanced emissions that originate at an altitude of ˜50 km and extend toward the cloud top. We propose that the fully developed jet serves as an extension of the local ionosphere and produces a lowered ionosphere boundary. As the attachment processes remove the charges, the boundary of the local ionosphere moves up. The current in the channel persists and its contact point with the ionosphere moves upward, which produces the upward surging trailing jets. Imager and photometer data indicate that the lightning activity associated with the gigantic jets likely is in-cloud, and thus the initiation of the gigantic jets is not directly associated with cloud-to-ground discharges.

Kuo, Cheng-Ling; Chou, J. K.; Tsai, L. Y.; Chen, A. B.; Su, H. T.; Hsu, R. R.; Cummer, S. A.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Takahashi, Y.; Lee, L. C.

2009-04-01

36

Gigantic self-confined pahoehoe inflated lava flows in Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest lava flows on Earth are pahoehoe basalts emplaced by inflation, a process which can change lava lobes initially a few decimetres thick into large lava sheets several metres thick. Inflation involves the initial formation of a thin, solidified, viscoelastic crust, under which liquid lava is continually added. This thermally efficient endogenous growth process explains the spread of huge volumes of lava over large, almost flat areas, as in the sheet flows which characterise the distal portions of Hawaiian volcanoes or some continental flood basalt provinces. Long, narrow, inflated pahoehoe flows have occasionally been described, either emplaced along pre-existing river channels or confined within topographic barriers. In this contribution we present previously unknown inflated pahoehoe lava flows following very long, narrow pathways over an almost flat surface, with no topographic confinement. Lava, which erupted in Late Quaternary times from the eastern tip of a 60 km long volcanic fissure in Argentina, formed several discrete flows extending as far as 180 km from the source. This fissure was characterized by a long-lasting and complex activity. Alkali-basaltic lava flows were emitted at the two extremities of the fissure system. In the intermediate section of the fissure, the Payun Matru, a great trachitic composite volcano, developed, giving rise to a large caldera which produced large pyroclastic flows. Alkali-basalts predate and postdate the trachitic activity, in fact at the end of the trachitic activity, new basaltic lava flows (mainly aa) were emitted from both ends of the fissure. We studied in details the youngest of the gigantic flows (Pampas Onduladas lava flow), which progressively develops through differing thermally-efficient flow mechanisms. The flow created a large shield volcanic structure at the eastern tip of the E-W fissure and spread to the E forming a very large and thick inflated pahoehoe sheet flow. Leaving the flanks of the volcano, the flow spreads all over a large tectonic depression, forming a large inflated pahoehoe sheet flow. The flow continues downstream, always showing typical inflation features, forming a very long and narrow tongue, developed over the nearly flat Pampa plain (gradient 0.5%) with an average width of 3 km and a length of 120 km. A peculiar feature of this portion of the flow, apart from its exceptional length, is the very low width-to-length ratio. This is even more surprising if we consider that no pre-existing topographic feature (e.g. river channel, etc.) is responsible for this behaviour, which appears to be only the result of some kind of self-confinement mechanism. The structural, morphological and eruptive complexities of this volcanic structure are exceptional by themselves since there are no similar features both in the Andes calcalkaline volcanism or in the Patagonian basaltic plateaus and they pose problems even in the nomenclatural definition of the Payun Matru as an individual volcanic construct. Moreover, understanding the mechanisms responsible for the exceptional behaviour of this lava flow may provide new constraints on the physics of inflated pahoehoe flow emplacement. Results in this direction may also offer useful proxies for interpreting volcanic processes on terrestrial planets such as Mars and Venus, on which individual lava flows of similar shape and dimensions have been observed.

Pasquare', G.; Bistacchi, A.

2007-05-01

37

Cope's Rule and Romer's theory: patterns of diversity and gigantism in eurypterids and Palaeozoic vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Gigantism is widespread among Palaeozoic arthropods, yet causal mechanisms, particularly the role of (abiotic) environmental factors versus (biotic) competition, remain unknown. The eurypterids (Arthropoda: Chelicerata) include the largest arthropods; gigantic predatory pterygotids (Eurypterina) during the Siluro-Devonian and bizarre sweep-feeding hibbertopterids (Stylonurina) from the Carboniferous to end-Permian. Analysis of family-level originations and extinctions among eurypterids and Palaeozoic vertebrates show that the diversity of Eurypterina waned during the Devonian, while the Placodermi radiated, yet Stylonurina remained relatively unaffected; adopting a sweep-feeding strategy they maintained their large body size by avoiding competition, and persisted throughout the Late Palaeozoic while the predatory nektonic Eurypterina (including the giant pterygotids) declined during the Devonian, possibly out-competed by other predators including jawed vertebrates.

Lamsdell, James C.; Braddy, Simon J.

2010-01-01

38

Gigantic Cosmic Corkscrew Reveals New Details About Mysterious Microquasar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Making an extra effort to image a faint, gigantic corkscrew traced by fast protons and electrons shot out from a mysterious microquasar paid off for a pair of astrophysicists who gained new insights into the beast's inner workings and also resolved a longstanding dispute over the object's distance. Microquasar SS 433 VLA Image of Microquasar SS 433 CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) The astrophysicists used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to capture the faintest details yet seen in the plasma jets emerging from the microquasar SS 433, an object once dubbed the "enigma of the century." As a result, they have changed scientists' understanding of the jets and settled the controversy over its distance "beyond all reasonable doubt," they said. SS 433 is a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole draws material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense central object prior to being pulled onto it. This disk propels jets of fast protons and electrons outward from its poles at about a quarter of the speed of light. The disk in SS 433 wobbles like a child's top, causing its jets to trace a corkscrew in the sky every 162 days. The new VLA study indicates that the speed of the ejected particles varies over time, contrary to the traditional model for SS 433. "We found that the actual speed varies between 24 percent to 28 percent of light speed, as opposed to staying constant," said Katherine Blundell, of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. "Amazingly, the jets going in both directions change their speeds simultaneously, producing identical speeds in both directions at any given time," Blundell added. Blundell worked with Michael Bowler, also of Oxford. The scientists' findings have been accepted by the Astrophysical Journal Letters. SS 433 New VLA Image of SS 433: Red-and-Blue Line Shows Path of Constant-Speed Jets. Note Poor Match of Path to Image. CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF SS 433 Same Image, With Colored Beads Representing Particle Ejections at Different Speeds. Particle Path Now Matches. CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click Here for Page of Full-Sized Graphics The new VLA image shows two full turns of the jets' corkscrew on both sides of the core. Analyzing the image showed that if material came from the core at a constant speed, the jet paths would not accurately match the details of the image. "By simulating ejections at varying speeds, we were able to produce an exact match to the observed structure," Blundell explained. The scientists first did their match to one of the jets. "We then were stunned to see that the varying speeds that matched the structure of one jet also exactly reproduced the other jet's path," Blundell said. Matching the speeds in the two jets reproduced the observed structure even allowing for the fact that, because one jet is moving more nearly away from us than the other, it takes light longer to reach us from it, she added. The astrophysicists speculate that the changes in ejection speed may be caused by changes in the rate at which material is transferred from the companion star onto the accretion disk. The detailed new VLA image also allowed the astrophysicists to determine that SS 433 is nearly 18,000 light-years distant from Earth. Earlier estimates had the object, in the constellation Aquila, as near as 10,000 light-years. An accurate distance, the scientists said, now allows them to better determine the age of the shell of debris blown out by the supernova explosion that created the dense, compact object in the microquasar. Knowing the distance accurately also allows them to measure the actual brightness of the microquasar's components, and this, they said, improves their understanding of the physical processes at work in the system. The breakthrough image was made us

2004-10-01

39

Analysis of the First Gigantic Jet Recorded From the Continental United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two WATEC 120N video cameras installed near Marfa in western Texas recorded an apparent gigantic jet (GJ) rising out of a distant thunderstorm at approximately 0423.51 UTC 13 May 2005. Starting 30 minutes after the GJ, a series of 7 sprites were also recorded. The TLEs all occurred over land near 29°N and 101°W, within the range of NEXRAD weather

O. A. van der Velde; W. A. Lyons; S. A. Cummer; T. Nelson

2006-01-01

40

Vínculos observacionais para o processo-S em estrelas gigantes de Bário  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estrelas de bário são gigantes vermelhas de tipo GK que apresentam excessos atmosféricos dos elementos do processo-s. Tais excessos são esperados em estrelas na fase de pulsos térmicos do AGB (TP-AGB). As estrelas de bário são, no entanto, menos massivas e menos luminosas que as estrelas do AGB, assim, não poderiam ter se auto-enriquecido. Seu enriquecimento teria origem em uma estrela companheira, inicialmente mais massiva, que evolui pelo TP-AGB, se auto-enriquece com os elementos do processo-s e transfere material contaminado para a atmosfera da atual estrela de bário. A companheira evolui então para anã branca deixando de ser observada diretamente. As estrelas de bário são, portanto, úteis como testes observacionais para teorias de nucleossíntese pelo processo-s, convecção e perda de massa. Análises detalhadas de abundância com dados de alta qualidade para estes objetos são ainda escassas na literatura. Neste trabalho construímos modelos de atmosferas e, procedendo a uma análise diferencial, determinamos parâmetros atmosféricos e evolutivos de uma amostra de dez gigantes de bário e quatro normais. Determinamos seus padrões de abundância para Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu e Gd, concluindo que algumas estrelas classificadas na literatura como gigantes de bário são na verdade gigantes normais. Comparamos dois padrões médios de abundância, para estrelas com grandes excessos e estrelas com excessos moderados, com modelos teóricos de enriquecimento pelo processo-s. Os dois grupos de estrelas são ajustados pelos mesmos parâmetros de exposição de nêutrons. Tal resultado sugere que a ocorrência do fenômeno de bário com diferentes intensidades não se deve a diferentes exposições de nêutrons. Discutimos ainda efeitos nucleossintéticos, ligados ao processo-s, sugeridos na literatura para os elementos Cu, Mn, V e Sc.

Smiljanic, R. H. S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

2003-08-01

41

A New Gigantic Nucinella (Bivalvia: Solemyoida) from the Cretaceous Cold-seep Deposit in Hokkaido, Northern Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucinella gigantea, sp. nov is described from the Campanian cold-seep deposits in Hokkaido, northern Japan. This species is characterized by its gigantic size within the genus and by its radiating interior striation. Its morphological features, associated fauna, lithofacies and carbon isotope suggest that N. gigantea lived in the bathyal cold-seep site, and depended on chemosymbiosis. In addition, this new species

KAZUTAKA AMANO; ROBERT G. JENKINS; YOSHINORI HIKIDA

42

System of gigantic valleys northwest of Tharsis, Mars: Latent catastrophic flooding, northwest watershed, and implications for northern plains ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) reveals a system of gigantic valleys to the northwest of the huge martian shield volcano, Arsia Mons, in the western hemisphere of Mars. These newly identified northwestern slope valleys (NSVs) potentially signify previously undocumented martian catastrophic floods and may corroborate the northern ocean hypotheses. These features, which generally correspond spatially to gravity lows, were previously

J. M. Dohm; R. R. Casavant; D. H. Scott

2000-01-01

43

Intraspecific competition and high food availability are associated with insular gigantism in a lizard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resource availability, competition, and predation commonly drive body size evolution. We assess the impact of high food availability and the consequent increased intraspecific competition, as expressed by tail injuries and cannibalism, on body size in Skyros wall lizards ( Podarcis gaigeae). Lizard populations on islets surrounding Skyros (Aegean Sea) all have fewer predators and competitors than on Skyros but differ in the numbers of nesting seabirds. We predicted the following: (1) the presence of breeding seabirds (providing nutrients) will increase lizard population densities; (2) dense lizard populations will experience stronger intraspecific competition; and (3) such aggression, will be associated with larger average body size. We found a positive correlation between seabird and lizard densities. Cannibalism and tail injuries were considerably higher in dense populations. Increases in cannibalism and tail loss were associated with large body sizes. Adult cannibalism on juveniles may select for rapid growth, fuelled by high food abundance, setting thus the stage for the evolution of gigantism.

Pafilis, Panayiotis; Meiri, Shai; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Valakos, Efstratios

2009-09-01

44

[A clinical case of endovascular prosthetic repair of a gigantic abdominal aorta aneurysm].  

PubMed

To illustrate the present-day possibilities in treatment of aortic dissection we describe herein a clinical case report concerning successful prosthetic repair of a gigantic aneurysm of the infrarenal portion of the aorta with the Gore Excluder using an endovascular surgical approach in a patient running high risk associated with difficult anatomy of the abdominal portion of the aorta, iliac arteries, and accompanying diseases (left lung cancer, CAD, critical stenosis of the RCA. This was followed by balloon angioplasty with stenting of the RCA with Lekton stents with a good angiographic result. EVAR has become an alternative to the conventional open surgery with lower risk of complications, shorter hospital stay, and decreased mortality rate, which was confirmed by the findings of international studies. PMID:23059616

Akchurin, R S; Imaev, T E; Komlev, A E; Lepilin, P M; Nikonova, M E; Medvedeva, I S; Pokidkin, I A

2012-01-01

45

Intraspecific competition and high food availability are associated with insular gigantism in a lizard.  

PubMed

Resource availability, competition, and predation commonly drive body size evolution. We assess the impact of high food availability and the consequent increased intraspecific competition, as expressed by tail injuries and cannibalism, on body size in Skyros wall lizards (Podarcis gaigeae). Lizard populations on islets surrounding Skyros (Aegean Sea) all have fewer predators and competitors than on Skyros but differ in the numbers of nesting seabirds. We predicted the following: (1) the presence of breeding seabirds (providing nutrients) will increase lizard population densities; (2) dense lizard populations will experience stronger intraspecific competition; and (3) such aggression, will be associated with larger average body size. We found a positive correlation between seabird and lizard densities. Cannibalism and tail injuries were considerably higher in dense populations. Increases in cannibalism and tail loss were associated with large body sizes. Adult cannibalism on juveniles may select for rapid growth, fuelled by high food abundance, setting thus the stage for the evolution of gigantism. PMID:19488731

Pafilis, Panayiotis; Meiri, Shai; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Valakos, Efstratios

2009-06-02

46

Can Oxygen Set Thermal Limits in an Insect and Drive Gigantism?  

PubMed Central

Background Thermal limits may arise through a mismatch between oxygen supply and demand in a range of animal taxa. Whilst this oxygen limitation hypothesis is supported by data from a range of marine fish and invertebrates, its generality remains contentious. In particular, it is unclear whether oxygen limitation determines thermal extremes in tracheated arthropods, where oxygen limitation may be unlikely due to the efficiency and plasticity of tracheal systems in supplying oxygen directly to metabolically active tissues. Although terrestrial taxa with open tracheal systems may not be prone to oxygen limitation, species may be affected during other life-history stages, particularly if these rely on diffusion into closed tracheal systems. Furthermore, a central role for oxygen limitation in insects is envisaged within a parallel line of research focussing on insect gigantism in the late Palaeozoic. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we examine thermal maxima in the aquatic life stages of an insect at normoxia, hypoxia (14 kPa) and hyperoxia (36 kPa). We demonstrate that upper thermal limits do indeed respond to external oxygen supply in the aquatic life stages of the stonefly Dinocras cephalotes, suggesting that the critical thermal limits of such aquatic larvae are set by oxygen limitation. This could result from impeded oxygen delivery, or limited oxygen regulatory capacity, both of which have implications for our understanding of the limits to insect body size and how these are influenced by atmospheric oxygen levels. Conclusions/Significance These findings extend the generality of the hypothesis of oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance, suggest that oxygen constraints on body size may be stronger in aquatic environments, and that oxygen toxicity may have actively selected for gigantism in the aquatic stages of Carboniferous arthropods.

Verberk, Wilco C. E. P.; Bilton, David T.

2011-01-01

47

GaAs-oxide interface states - A gigantic photoionization effect and its implications to the origin of these states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gigantic photoionization was discovered on GaAs-oxide interfaces leading to the discharge of deep surface states with rates exceeding 1000 times those of photoionization transitions to the conduction band. It exhibits a peak similar to acceptor-donor transitions and is explained as due to energy transfer from photo-excited donor-acceptor pairs to deep surface states. This new process indicates the presence of significant

J. Lagowski; W. Walukiewicz; T. E. Kazior; H. C. Gatos; J. Siejka

1981-01-01

48

Gigantic Reflectance Anisotropy of the [110] Face of Cubic ZnSe in the Excitonic Part of the Spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical response nonlocality in cubic ZnSe in the proximity of an excitonicabsorption resonance leads to a gigantic optical anisotropy (deltan\\/n ≈0.1). The anisotropy cause a polarization azimuth rotation, in scale of several degrees,for the light reflected from the [110] crystal facet. The anisotropy isdescribed by quadratic, in respect to the light wave vector terms in thedielectric tensor of the crystal.

G. Mohs; S. Dhanjal; Tomofumi Kise; Masayuki Shirane; Ryo Shimano; Yu. P. Svirko; Kazuhiro Ohkawa; N. I. Zheludev; Makoto Kuwata-Gonokami

2000-01-01

49

Respiratory Evolution Facilitated the Origin of Pterosaur Flight and Aerial Gigantism  

PubMed Central

Pterosaurs, enigmatic extinct Mesozoic reptiles, were the first vertebrates to achieve true flapping flight. Various lines of evidence provide strong support for highly efficient wing design, control, and flight capabilities. However, little is known of the pulmonary system that powered flight in pterosaurs. We investigated the structure and function of the pterosaurian breathing apparatus through a broad scale comparative study of respiratory structure and function in living and extinct archosaurs, using computer-assisted tomographic (CT) scanning of pterosaur and bird skeletal remains, cineradiographic (X-ray film) studies of the skeletal breathing pump in extant birds and alligators, and study of skeletal structure in historic fossil specimens. In this report we present various lines of skeletal evidence that indicate that pterosaurs had a highly effective flow-through respiratory system, capable of sustaining powered flight, predating the appearance of an analogous breathing system in birds by approximately seventy million years. Convergent evolution of gigantism in several Cretaceous pterosaur lineages was made possible through body density reduction by expansion of the pulmonary air sac system throughout the trunk and the distal limb girdle skeleton, highlighting the importance of respiratory adaptations in pterosaur evolution, and the dramatic effect of the release of physical constraints on morphological diversification and evolutionary radiation.

Claessens, Leon P. A. M.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Unwin, David M.

2009-01-01

50

Gigantism due to growth hormone excess in a boy with optic glioma.  

PubMed

True gigantism is rare in early childhood and is usually due to excess GH secretion from a pituitary adenoma. We report a case in which the endocrine abnormality is secondary to an optic glioma. Careful endocrine evaluation has shown that GH peak amplitude was not increased but rather there was failure of GH levels to suppress to baseline and a lack of pulsatility. There is no evidence of a direct secretory role for the tumour and we postulate that the tumour is affecting GH secretion through an effect on somatostatin tone. Specific tumour therapy is not indicated for this patient in the absence of mass effect or visual disturbance. The GH excess is being treated with somatostatin analogue (Octreotide) and as he has developed precocious puberty he is also receiving long acting GnRH analogue (Zoladex). This boy appears likely to have neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) which raises the question of subtle GH excess in NF1 patients with tall stature. PMID:11012581

Drimmie, F M; MacLennan, A C; Nicoll, J A; Simpson, E; McNeill, E; Donaldson, M D

2000-10-01

51

Comparative analysis of vertebrate dystrophin loci indicate intron gigantism as a common feature.  

PubMed

The human DMD gene is the largest known to date, spanning > 2000 kb on the X chromosome. The gene size is mainly accounted for by huge intronic regions. We sequenced 190 kb of Fugu rubripes (pufferfish) genomic DNA corresponding to the complete dystrophin gene (FrDMD) and provide the first report of gene structure and sequence comparison among dystrophin genomic sequences from different vertebrate organisms. Almost all intron positions and phases are conserved between FrDMD and its mammalian counterparts, and the predicted protein product of the Fugu gene displays 55% identity and 71% similarity to human dystrophin. In analogy to the human gene, FrDMD presents several-fold longer than average intronic regions. Analysis of intron sequences of the human and murine genes revealed that they are extremely conserved in size and that a similar fraction of total intron length is represented by repetitive elements; moreover, our data indicate that intron expansion through repeat accumulation in the two orthologs is the result of independent insertional events. The hypothesis that intron length might be functionally relevant to the DMD gene regulation is proposed and substantiated by the finding that dystrophin intron gigantism is common to the three vertebrate genes. PMID:12727896

Pozzoli, Uberto; Elgar, Greg; Cagliani, Rachele; Riva, Laura; Comi, Giacomo P; Bresolin, Nereo; Bardoni, Alessandra; Sironi, Manuela

2003-05-01

52

Comparative Analysis of Vertebrate Dystrophin Loci Indicate Intron Gigantism as a Common Feature  

PubMed Central

The human DMD gene is the largest known to date, spanning > 2000 kb on the X chromosome. The gene size is mainly accounted for by huge intronic regions. We sequenced 190 kb of Fugu rubripes (pufferfish) genomic DNA corresponding to the complete dystrophin gene (FrDMD) and provide the first report of gene structure and sequence comparison among dystrophin genomic sequences from different vertebrate organisms. Almost all intron positions and phases are conserved between FrDMD and its mammalian counterparts, and the predicted protein product of the Fugu gene displays 55% identity and 71% similarity to human dystrophin. In analogy to the human gene, FrDMD presents several-fold longer than average intronic regions. Analysis of intron sequences of the human and murine genes revealed that they are extremely conserved in size and that a similar fraction of total intron length is represented by repetitive elements; moreover, our data indicate that intron expansion through repeat accumulation in the two orthologs is the result of independent insertional events. The hypothesis that intron length might be functionally relevant to the DMD gene regulation is proposed and substantiated by the finding that dystrophin intron gigantism is common to the three vertebrate genes. [Supplemental material is available online at www.genome.org.

Pozzoli, Uberto; Elgar, Greg; Cagliani, Rachele; Riva, Laura; Comi, Giacomo P.; Bresolin, Nereo; Bardoni, Alessandra; Sironi, Manuela

2003-01-01

53

A new technique for reconstruction of the current moment waveform related to a gigantic jet from the magnetic field component recorded by an ELF station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a reconstruction of the current moment waveform of the gigantic jet observed optically last winter in Europe, based on the magnetic field component of the ELF electromagnetic field, recorded by the Hylaty station in Poland. Gigantic jets have only been observed so far on a few occasions, and there is still relatively little known about them. In order to analyze the recorded signal we have developed a new technique, which makes it possible to obtain the actual current moment waveform of the lightning discharges associated with the gigantic jet by eliminating from the waveform the effects of both the impulse response of the receiver and the Earth-ionosphere propagation channel. The proposed method can be also used to analyze other waveform observations, especially in the ELF and VLF frequency bands.

Ku?Ak, Andrzej; M?Ynarczyk, Janusz

2011-04-01

54

Multi-Instrumental Observations of a Gigantic Jet Produced by a Winter Thunderstorm in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At 23:36:56 UTC on 12 December 2009, a Gigantic Jet (GJ) was recorded by a member of the Italian Meteor and TLE Network. 51 additional transient luminous events including sprites, elves, halos and two cases of upward lightning were observed that night. Analysis of the imagery and detected lightning near the time of the GJ revealed its most likely location to be near 41.99°N and 7.61°E, 93 km west of Ajaccio, Corsica, leading to a top altitude near 92 km and a "trailing jet" phenomenon between 37-59 km, matching with earlier reported GJs. A sprite with halo occurred during the trailing jet phase of the GJ, which was triggered by a detected positive cloud-to-ground lightning (+CG) flash of 198 kA. The sprite initiated at lower than typical altitudes, with a hole at the location of the GJ. At the same time, the trailing jet and beads were re-illuminated. Four minutes after the event, an extraordinary 406 kA +CG producing a bright elve and sprite was detected near the same location. The location of the GJ corresponded exactly to a distinct cloud top (-34°C). This is the first documented GJ which emerged from a winter thunderstorm of only 6 km tall, which shows that high cloud tops are not required for initiation of GJs. With strong vertical wind shear, the meteorological situation was different from typical outbreaks of fall and winter thunderstorms in the Mediterranean. Electromagnetic waveforms from Hungary, Poland, and Durham (North Carolina, USA), reveal unusually large ELF/VLF signals (in contrast to several previous GJ events) and Schumann resonances persisting for 3.5 seconds. A synthesis of this and any additional data will be presented in detail at the conference.

van der Velde, Oscar; Arnone, Enrico; Zanotti, Ferruccio

2010-05-01

55

Gigantic jets produced by an isolated tropical thunderstorm near Réunion Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five gigantic jets (GJs) have been recorded with video and photograph cameras on 7 March 2010 above an isolated tropical storm east of Réunion Island. Three of them were produced before the storm reached its coldest cloud top temperature (approximately -81°C), and two others occurred during the cloud extension. Thanks to the close distance of observation (˜50 km), the luminosity within the cloud was recorded, and the events are analyzed in unprecedented detail. The tops of the GJs are estimated between 80 and 90 km. All these GJs are accompanied by long, continuous cloud illumination, and they are preceded and followed by intermittent optical flashes from the cloud, most of time without any cloud-to-ground (CG) flash simultaneously detected, which suggests they originated mainly as intracloud discharges and without any charge transfer to Earth. The CG lightning activity is observed to cease a few tens of seconds before the jets. According to ELF data recorded at Nagycenk, Hungary, the five GJs serve to raise negative charge. Their duration ranges from 333 to 850 ms. The leading jet has the most variable duration (33-167 ms) and propagates faster at higher altitudes. The trailing jet exhibits a continuous decrease of luminosity in different parts of the jet (lower channel, transition zone and, for most events, carrot sprite-like top) and in the cloud, with possible rebrightening. The lower channels (˜20-40 km altitude) produce blue luminosity which decreases with altitude and become more and more diffuse with time. The transition zone (around 40-65 km) consists of bright red, luminous beads slowly going up (˜104 m s-1), retracing the initial leading jet channels.

Soula, Serge; van der Velde, Oscar; Montanya, Joan; Huet, Patrice; Barthe, Christelle; Bór, József

2011-10-01

56

Analysis of the First Gigantic Jet Recorded From the Continental United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two WATEC 120N video cameras installed near Marfa in western Texas recorded an apparent gigantic jet (GJ) rising out of a distant thunderstorm at approximately 0423.51 UTC 13 May 2005. Starting 30 minutes after the GJ, a series of 7 sprites were also recorded. The TLEs all occurred over land near 29°N and 101°W, within the range of NEXRAD weather radar and the NLDN lightning detection network. The sprites were associated with an MCS meeting the TLE criteria of Lyons et al. (2006). The azimuth of the GJ intersected two cells of the MCS in northern Mexico: the core region of a first cluster (230 km) and the core/downshear anvil of a more intense cell (305-350 km). Initial inspection of ULF transients recorded by Duke University showed an atypical +CG-like signal at 0423:50.6 resembling weaker sprite- producing +CGs though with a 100 ms long continuing current. Another signature at 0423:50.945 correlated with two NLDN-detected -CGs associated with a large, clearly positive sferic. Signals were certainly smaller than reported by Su et al (2003). The short baseline between the two cameras made triangulation difficult, though the the GJ range appeared to be within a 230-350 km range. The GJ had the shape of a thick single channel, ending into a short fork-shape, beyond which dim channels fan out to higher altitudes. At a distance of 348 km (the far cell), the respective altitudes would be 59 and 80 km, in line with earlier GJ observations (Pasko et al. 2002, Su et al. 2003).

van der Velde, O. A.; Lyons, W. A.; Cummer, S. A.; Nelson, T.

2006-12-01

57

Electromagnetical, Visual and Meteorological Analyses of two Gigantic Jets Observed Over Missouri, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An amateur astronomer operating a Watec 100N camera in Broken Arrow, Oklahoma discovered 2 gigantic jets (GJ) rising out of a thunderstorm over SW Missouri on 20 August 2007, at 9:24:04 and 9:25:48 UTC. They are the first observed to occur over the continental United States and this far poleward (37.2°N). The azimuths of the GJs corresponded with two different cores of a slow-moving multicell storm, spaced apart by 50 km. At distances of 239 and 204 km from the camera, the GJs reached heights of 94 and 83 km, with bright transition zones between 45-61 and 50-64 km. The jets only became visible to the camera at/near completion of the pathway to the ionosphere, followed by a glow moving upward through the transition zone over 250-300 ms (at 1.6-5 104 m/s). The storm cluster was aged 4 hours by the time of the GJs. The events occurred over separate NEXRAD radar echo tops reaching 15 km, with evidence of new strong updrafts from GOES IR imagery and radar hail signatures. Within 5 minutes before each event, flash rates of positive cloud-to-ground flashes increased and dominated over negative by a factor of 3-4 for a few minutes (but low rates), but without quick rises or lulls. Weak NLDN- detected flashes (intracloud) correlated to both events in time and space. One sprite was observed 50 minutes after the events. Initial inspection of ELF-VLF transients recorded by receivers operated by Duke and Stanford universities indicated signals close to the approximate event times, but multi-site analysis has yet to confirm the geographical origin and the likelihood of any possible association.

van der Velde, O. A.; Lyons, W. A.; Cummer, S. A.; Cohen, M. B.; Sentman, D. D.; Jaugey, N.; Nelson, T. E.; Smedley, R.

2007-12-01

58

Optical and radio signatures of negative gigantic jets: Cases from Typhoon Lionrock (2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 31 August 2010, more than 100 transient luminous events were observed to occur over Typhoon Lionrock when it passed at ˜210 km to the southwest of the NCKU site in Taiwan. Among them, 14 negative gigantic jets (GJs) with clear recognizable morphologies and radio frequency signals are analyzed. These GJs are all found to have negative discharge polarity and thus are type I GJs. Morphologically, they are grouped into three forms: tree-like, carrot-like, and a new intermediate type called tree-carrot-like GJs. The ULF and ELF/VLF band signals of these events contain clear signatures associated with GJ development stages, including the initiating lightning, the leading jet, the fully developed jet, and the trailing jet. Though the radio waveform for each group of GJs always contains a fast descending pulse linked with the surge current upon the GJ-ionosphere contact, the detailed waveforms actually vary substantially. Cross analysis of the optical and radio frequency signals for these GJs indicates that a large surge current moment (CM) (>60 kA-km) appears to be essentially associated with the tree-like GJs. In contrast, the carrot-like and the tree-carrot-like GJs are both related to a surge CM less than 36 kA-km, and a continuing CM less than 27 kA-km further separates the carrot-like GJs from the tree-carrot-like GJs. Furthermore, on the peak CM versus charge moment change diagram for the initiating lightning, different groups of GJs seem to exhibit different trends. This feature suggests that the eventual forms of negative GJs may have been determined at the initiating lightning stage.

Huang, Sung-Ming; Hsu, Rue-Rou; Lee, Li-Jou; Su, Han-Tzong; Kuo, Cheng-Ling; Wu, Chun-Chieh; Chou, Jung-Kuang; Chang, Shu-Chun; Wu, Yen-Jung; Chen, Alfred B.

2012-08-01

59

Paleostress analysis of a gigantic gravitational mass movement in active tectonic setting: The Qoshadagh slope failure, Ahar, NW Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For better understanding of the dynamics of large slope failures, the slope-scale stress field reconstructions are eligible. A new approach of paleostress analysis of large gravitational mass movements, based on the multiple inverse method in 9D space and processed by a non-commercial code MARK2010, is demonstrated on the case of a gigantic gravitational slope failure in active tectonic setting at Mount Qoshadagh in NW Iran. The entire slope failure represents a very deep-seated gravitational slope deformation with relatively short displacement, roto-translational base and an estimated volume of about 83-110 km3 which is of the last glacial age. This gigantic slope failure has developed in an active-tectonic setting along the Qoshadagh Fault System (or called South Ahar Fault), which caused fast uplift of the entire mountain range of Qoshadagh, and it was probably seismically triggered. Using this paleostress approach, we were able to distinguish the mass-movement stress phase of NW compression in the rockslide's zone of compression and NW-SE extension in the upper part from a variety of other 8 regional-tectonic and 2 subsequent gravitational phases. Maximum principal stress of the slope-failure phase was in its compression zone sub-parallel to the estimated displacement vector; in the head it was sub-vertical. The paleostress analysis has been proved as a useful tool for reconstructing the stress field evolution of large slope failures.

Baro?, I.; Kernstocková, M.; Faridi, M.; Bubík, M.; Milovský, R.; Melichar, R.; Sabouri, J.; Bab?rek, J.

2013-10-01

60

Gigantic Jets produced by an isolated tropical thunderstorm near Réunion Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five gigantic jets (GJ) were recorded by a camera on March 7th 2010, above an isolated thunderstorm east of Réunion Island. Three of them were produced before the storm reached its coldest cloud top temperature (-81°C) according to the Meteosat 7 infrared radiometer while its area with cloud top temperature lower than -70°C was about 250 km2. Two others GJs occurred during the extension of the cloud while this area was about 5,000 km2. The lines of sight of the GJs corresponded well with most lightning strokes located within the storm area by the World Wide Lightning Location Network at the same periods. Thanks to the close distance at which the GJ events were observed (around 50 km), both the luminosity from the cloud and the details of the evolution of the GJs, which include very weakly luminous parts, could be analyzed from the “detailed” images. All GJs were preceded by intermittent pulses of light within the cloud and accompanied by continuous light production in the cloud. The durations of the entire cloud discharges ranged from to 1.0 s to 2.4 s whereas the duration of the GJs ranged from 333 ms to 850 ms. The GJs tops were estimated between 80 and 90 km with however a large uncertainty due to their close distance. The leading jet duration markedly varied from 33 to 167 ms while its rise velocity increased in the upper part. Several channels visible during the leading phase did not rise up to the top and could connect to the main channel during the following phase. Most GJs showed very distinctly a “tree” structure at the end of the leading jet followed by the trailing jet which corresponded to the brightest phase of the phenomenon. The duration of the trailing jets ranged from 300 to 683 ms. The set of the trailing jet sequences allowed distinguishing in detail a main channel (around 20-40 km of altitude) the luminosity of which decreased with altitude and became more and more diffuse with time, the transition zone (around 40-65 km) with luminous beads rising slowly during this phase, and the top region (above ~65 km) with diffuse light. During the overall decrease of the luminosity of the cloud and of these different regions of the trailing jet, re-brightening can occur within the cloud and in the trailing jet regions with a very short delay (<16.7 ms). Images obtained for 3 of the jets from a photo camera show distinct colours for the different regions, blue for the channel and red for the transition zone.

Soula, S.; van der Velde, O.; Montanya, J.; Huet, P.; Barthe, C.

2010-12-01

61

Gigantic lateral spreading of mountains in the epicentral area of the expected Tokai earthquake, central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lateral spreading of mountains is not only a degradation process itself but also it could become the background of a catastrophic landslide that occurs at its spreading rims. We found gigantic lateral spreading behind the Yui landsllide area, which is located along the Pacific Sea coast in the epicentral area of the expected Tokai earthquake, central Japan. The Yui landslide area is located on a socially very important place, where are major lifelines connecting east and west Japan: Tokaido railway, Tokaido Shinkansen, and Tomei highway. The Yui landslide area comprises many landslide units and has been causing many catastrophs. The lateral spreading is characterized by NS-trending multiple ridges and linear depressions as long as 1 to 2 km and up to 60 m deep. These features are observable on the aerial photographs and are clearly identified by using airborne laser scanner. Mountains subjected to the lateral spreading is 3 km wide in EW and 6 km long in NS and are 250 to 500 m high above sea level. These morphological features suggest that the NS trending ridges spread laterally to EW and their central parts settled down like the way by which horsts and grabens are made. The ridges are underlain by Miocene beds consisting of the alternating beds of mudstone and sandstone in the lower part and of sandstone and conglomerate in the upper part. The spreading ridge occupies the axial part of a NS-trending syncline, which has a half wave length longer than 2 km and comprises minor folds with a wavelength on the order of hundred meters. This structure, synclinorium, suggests that there could be decollements along the enveloping surface of the minor folds and that the lateral spreading could have a low-angle slip surface along the enveloping surface of the minor folds. There are many landslides along the side slopes of the laterally spread ridges and they have been moving many times by rainstorms and also by earthquakes. The movements are recorded since 1781, but the history long before has not been clarified. We sampled plant fragments from the deposits in a depression at the head of a landslide along a linear depression. They were dated by using C-14, of which results suggest that major movement of landslides and possibly lateral spreading might occurred 3100, 2600, and 2200 BC, which may correspond to the occurrence of large earthquake. The lateral spreading may have occurred intermittently and destabilized their side slopes, which could have slid during earthquakes and rainstorms.

Chigira, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takeshi

2010-05-01

62

Giant Higgins-larvae with paedogenetic reproduction from the deep sea of the Angola Basin – evidence for a new life cycle and for abyssal gigantism in Loricifera?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genus and species of Loricifera, Titaniloricus inexpectatovus (Pliciloricidae) represented by a new type of Higgins-larva is described from the deep sea of the Angola Basin. The new larva is characterized by its gigantic size which is unusual for larval Loricifera, by six rows of scalids on the unit of introvert and neck, by an additional transversal row of

Gunnar Gad

2005-01-01

63

Optical emissions and behaviors of the blue starters, blue jets, and gigantic jets observed in the Taiwan transient luminous event ground campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 22 July 2007, 37 blue jets/starters and 1 gigantic jet occurring over a thunderstorm in the Fujian province of China were observed from the Lulin observatory on the central mountain ridge of Taiwan. The majority of the jets were observed to occur in a 5 min window during the mature phase of the jet-producing thunderstorm. These jets have significant red band emissions. However, the blue emissions from these jets were not discernible due to severe atmospheric scattering. A model estimation of the emissions from a streamer reveals that the red emissions in blue starters and blue jets are mainly from the nitrogen first positive band (1PN2). The type II gigantic jet is the first of this type that was observed from the ground. The generation sequence of the gigantic jet begins with a blue starter, then a blue jet occurs at the same cloud top after ˜100 ms and finally develops into a gigantic jet ˜50 ms later. Using “optical strokes” as surrogates of the lightning strokes, the correlations between jets and the cloud lightning are explored. The results indicate that the occurrence of jets can be affected by the preceding local cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning or nearby lightning (intracloud (IC) or CG), while in turn the jets might also affect the ensuing lightning activity.

Chou, J. K.; Tsai, L. Y.; Kuo, C. L.; Lee, Y. J.; Chen, C. M.; Chen, A. B.; Su, H. T.; Hsu, R. R.; Chang, P. L.; Lee, L. C.

2011-07-01

64

Predation as the primary selective force in recurrent evolution of gigantism in Poecilozonites land snails in Quaternary Bermuda.  

PubMed

During the last half million years, pulses of gigantism in the anagenetic lineage of land snails of the subgenus Poecilozonites on Bermuda were correlated with glacial periods when lower sea level resulted in an island nearly an order of magnitude larger than at present. During those periods, the island was colonized by large vertebrate predators that created selection pressure for large size and rapid growth in the snails. Extreme reduction in land area from rising seas, along with changes in ecological conditions at the onset of interglacial episodes, marked extinction events for large predators, after which snails reverted to much smaller size. The giant snails were identical in morphology during the last two glacials when the predators included a large flightless rail Rallus recessus (marine isotope stages (MIS) 4-2) and a crane Grus latipes and a duck Anas pachysceles (MIS 6). In a preceding glacial period (MIS 10), when the fauna also included the tortoise Hesperotestudo bermudae, the snails were not only large, but the shells were much thicker, presumably to prevent crushing by tortoises. Evolution of Poecilozonites provides an outstanding example of dramatic morphological change in response to environmental pressures in the absence of cladogenesis. PMID:20554560

Olson, Storrs L; Hearty, Paul J

2010-06-16

65

What Lies Beneath: Sub-Articular Long Bone Shape Scaling in Eutherian Mammals and Saurischian Dinosaurs Suggests Different Locomotor Adaptations for Gigantism  

PubMed Central

Eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs both evolved lineages of huge terrestrial herbivores. Although significantly more saurischian dinosaurs were giants than eutherians, the long bones of both taxa scale similarly and suggest that locomotion was dynamically similar. However, articular cartilage is thin in eutherian mammals but thick in saurischian dinosaurs, differences that could have contributed to, or limited, how frequently gigantism evolved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that sub-articular bone, which supports the articular cartilage, changes shape in different ways between terrestrial mammals and dinosaurs with increasing size. Our sample consisted of giant mammal and reptile taxa (i.e., elephants, rhinos, sauropods) plus erect and non-erect outgroups with thin and thick articular cartilage. Our results show that eutherian mammal sub-articular shape becomes narrow with well-defined surface features as size increases. In contrast, this region in saurischian dinosaurs expands and remains gently convex with increasing size. Similar trends were observed in non-erect outgroup taxa (monotremes, alligators), showing that the trends we report are posture-independent. These differences support our hypothesis that sub-articular shape scales differently between eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs. Our results show that articular cartilage thickness and sub-articular shape are correlated. In mammals, joints become ever more congruent and thinner with increasing size, whereas archosaur joints remained both congruent and thick, especially in sauropods. We suggest that gigantism occurs less frequently in mammals, in part, because joints composed of thin articular cartilage can only become so congruent before stress cannot be effectively alleviated. In contrast, frequent gigantism in saurischian dinosaurs may be explained, in part, by joints with thick articular cartilage that can deform across large areas with increasing load.

Bonnan, Matthew F.; Wilhite, D. Ray; Masters, Simon L.; Yates, Adam M.; Gardner, Christine K.; Aguiar, Adam

2013-01-01

66

What lies beneath: sub-articular long bone shape scaling in eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs suggests different locomotor adaptations for gigantism.  

PubMed

Eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs both evolved lineages of huge terrestrial herbivores. Although significantly more saurischian dinosaurs were giants than eutherians, the long bones of both taxa scale similarly and suggest that locomotion was dynamically similar. However, articular cartilage is thin in eutherian mammals but thick in saurischian dinosaurs, differences that could have contributed to, or limited, how frequently gigantism evolved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that sub-articular bone, which supports the articular cartilage, changes shape in different ways between terrestrial mammals and dinosaurs with increasing size. Our sample consisted of giant mammal and reptile taxa (i.e., elephants, rhinos, sauropods) plus erect and non-erect outgroups with thin and thick articular cartilage. Our results show that eutherian mammal sub-articular shape becomes narrow with well-defined surface features as size increases. In contrast, this region in saurischian dinosaurs expands and remains gently convex with increasing size. Similar trends were observed in non-erect outgroup taxa (monotremes, alligators), showing that the trends we report are posture-independent. These differences support our hypothesis that sub-articular shape scales differently between eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs. Our results show that articular cartilage thickness and sub-articular shape are correlated. In mammals, joints become ever more congruent and thinner with increasing size, whereas archosaur joints remained both congruent and thick, especially in sauropods. We suggest that gigantism occurs less frequently in mammals, in part, because joints composed of thin articular cartilage can only become so congruent before stress cannot be effectively alleviated. In contrast, frequent gigantism in saurischian dinosaurs may be explained, in part, by joints with thick articular cartilage that can deform across large areas with increasing load. PMID:24130690

Bonnan, Matthew F; Wilhite, D Ray; Masters, Simon L; Yates, Adam M; Gardner, Christine K; Aguiar, Adam

2013-10-09

67

A distância e o conteúdo estelar da região HII gigante G333.1-0.4 - vínculos para a taxa de formação estelar da galáxia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho apresentamos imagens de alta resolução angular da região HII gigante G333.1-0.4 obtidas através dos filtros J, H e K no telescópio de 4-m do CTIO. Este trabalho faz parte de um estudo de regiões HII gigantes no infravermelho próximo que tem por objetivo estudar a natureza da formação de estrelas massivas e traçar a estrutura espiral de nossa galáxia. Nossa determinação da distância é baseada no método da paralaxe espectroscópica de estrelas OB localizadas na seqüência principal de idade zero (ZAMS) do Diagrama HR. No caso de G333.1-0.4, a magnitude aparente das estrelas localizadas na ZAMS indica que a distância não pode ser maior do que o limite inferior determinado por técnica rádio (2,8 kpc). Resultados semelhantes foram encontrados para regiões estudadas anteriormente, reforçando a idéia de que a taxa de formação estelar na Via Láctea é menor do que o determinado a partir de dados rádio. Nossos resultados mais recentes sobre o conteúdo estelar de G333.1-0.4 revelaram vários objetos que possuem cores bastante avermelhadas (H-K > 2,0). Nós identificamos estes objetos usando os diagramas cor-cor e cor-magnitude dos aglomerados. Estes objetos apresentam um forte excesso em emissão na banda K e possivelmente se tratam de estrelas do tipo OB envolvidas por um disco/envelope circumestelar espesso. O estudo da função de massa inical desta região, em conjunto com resultados de nossos trabalhos anteriores, aponta para uma IMF independente da posição galática. A contagem de estrelas nos fornece um valor para o número de fótons no contínuo de Lyman que corrobora com a afirmação de que G333.1-0.4 se encontra mais próxima da menor distância determinada por rádio.

Figuerêdo, E.; Damineli, A.; Blum, R.; Conti, P.

2003-08-01

68

Gigantic Cavernous Hemangioma of the Liver Treated by Intra-Arterial Embolization with Pingyangmycin-Lipiodol Emulsion: A Multi-Center Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of pingyangmycin-lipiodol emulsion (PLE) intra-arterial embolization for treating gigantic cavernous hemangioma of the liver (CHL).Methods: Three hospitals (Nanfang Hospital, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region's Hospital and Huai He Hospital) participated in the study during 1997-2001. A total of 98 patients with CHL were embolized with PLE via the hepatic artery. The therapeutic effects including changes in tumor diameter, symptomatic improvement and occurrence of complications were evaluated for a period of 12 months after the procedure.Results: The tumor diameters decreased significantly from 9.7 {+-} 2.3 cm to 5.6 {+-} 1.6 cm 6 months after the treatment (P < 0.01), and then to 3.0 {+-} 1.2 cm at 12 months (P < 0.01). Transient impairment of liver function was found in 77 cases after embolization, 69 cases of which returned to normal in 2 weeks, and the other eight cases of which recovered 1 month later. The clinical symptoms were significantly relieved in all 53 symptomatic patients. Persistent pain in the hepatic region was found in two cases, and these two patients resorted to surgery eventually.Conclusion: Intra-arterial PLE embolization proves to be effective and safe in treating patients with CHL.

Zeng Qingle; Li Yanhao; Chen Yong [Nanfang Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (China); Ouyang Yong [Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region's Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (China); He Xiang; Zhang Heping [Huai He Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (China)

2004-09-15

69

Erosion processes of the collapsed mass of the gigantic landslide of Mt. Bawakaraeng, Sulawesi, Indonesia in 2004 revealed by multi-temporal satellite images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On March 26, 2006, a gigantic landslide occurred on the caldera wall of Mt. Bawakaraeng, Indonesia. This paper quantitatively shows the temporal change in gully erosion and sediment yield from the huge amount of the deposit of the landslide by analyzing satellite images. Firstly, the landslide buried the original river channel completely. In the next year, gully erosion dominated the entire landslide deposit, and parts of the gully bed were found to have eroded by up to 60 m. The total amount of sediment discharged from the landslide deposit was estimated to be 36 million m3. In the second year after the landslide, the severe widespread degradation almost ceased and river bed aggradation started to occur in some places. The total amount of discharged sediment drastically decreased and was estimated to be 8.3 million m3. In the third year, the total amount of sediment discharge declined further. On the other hand, satellite-derived DEMs showed that the width of gullies has increased. The drastic decrease in sediment discharge might have occurred because of the reduction in the erosive force applied by water flow whose depth was inevitably reduced as a result of the widening of gully channels.

Yamakoshi, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Osanai, N.; Sasahara, K.; Tamura, K.; Doshida, S.; Tsutsui, K.

2009-04-01

70

A new X-linked dysplasia gigantism syndrome: follow up in the first family and report on a second Austrian family.  

PubMed

We report on a new X-linked recessive syndrome in 2 unrelated families, consisting of pre- and postnatal growth excess, typical facial phenotype allowing diagnosis at birth, and usually normal physical and intellectual development. The minor anomalies seen at birth include a "coarse" face with wide nasal bridge, short nose with upturned nasal tip, wide open mouth, thick lips, midline depression of the lower lip, enlarged tongue, highly arched palate, large maxilla and jaw, and a short broad neck. Voice is hoarse and affected individuals have a plump, stocky body with pectus excavatum, thoracic scoliosis, hepatosplenomegaly, umbilical and/or inguinal hernias, broad short hands and feet, and in some cases preauricular dimples, abnormal ears, postaxial hexadactyly, hypoplastic index finger nails, and abnormal dermatoglyphics. Early postnatal death is frequent and pathogenetically unexplained. During infancy and childhood the leading manifestations are the overgrowth (greater than 97th centile), striking facial appearance, hypodontia and/or malposition of teeth, genua valga, hypoplastic calf muscles, and clumsiness. Adolescent and adult patients have well proportioned "gigantism" of athletic build (192-210 cm), large "coarse" face, and a deep voice. General intellectual and motor development are either normal or mildly delayed. Results of routine laboratory tests are normal, as are growth hormone and IGF I levels and chromosomes. Pathogenesis remains unknown. Heterozygotes may show some of the characteristic facial changes. PMID:3177454

Behmel, A; Plöchl, E; Rosenkranz, W

71

Geomorphic and sedimentary evidence of a gigantic outburst flood from Towada caldera after the 15 ka Towada-Hachinohe ignimbrite eruption, northeast Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports on geomorphic and sedimentary evidence for a gigantic breakout flood from Towada caldera, Honshu Island, northeast Japan, as observed along the Oirase River downstream from the outlet of the caldera lake. A number of features of the Oirase River are inconsistent with its present discharge, including the occurrence of 1) hanging valleys and a horseshoe-shaped waterfall in the upstream gorge area, 2) boulder bars and scattered flood boulders, 3) a dry valley at a high elevation in the gorge, and 4) a large fan (the Sanbongi fan) in the downstream area of the river. The Sanbongi fan is composed of thick, lithic-rich hyperconcentrated flow deposits that include pumice clasts derived from the 15 ka Towada-Hachinohe ignimbrite and well-rounded meter-sized (and outsized) boulders derived from bedrock of welded ignimbrite. The deposits are entirely aggradational, with no major channels, indicating the absence of a major hiatus during sedimentation. The depositional facies also indicate that a single sheet-like flood event deposited the sediment within the Sanbongi fan area. Based on the age of the Sanbongi fan, the flood occurred between 15 and 12 ka, after eruption of the Towada-Hachinohe ignimbrite. The most probable water source for the flood is Towada caldera lake, as suggested by landforms and sediments along the lake outlet. A paleohydrological analysis indicates that at least 6 km 3 of water was released from the caldera at a peak discharge of > 2 × 10 4 to 3 × 10 5 m 3 s - 1 during the breakout flood. Although the Sanbongi fan was previously considered to be a "normal" alluvial fan that formed during a stage of low-stand sea level, the present results show that the formation of the fan was closely related to a catastrophic flood from Towada caldera rather than perennial fluvial activity, climate change, or a change in relative sea level.

Kataoka, Kyoko S.

2011-01-01

72

[Diagnosis and therapy of gigantism].  

PubMed

Some of the most important types of nonfamilial tall stature are discussed by stressing the clinical features, diagnostic aspects and therapeutic possibilities. The indications of treatment, the diagnostic procedures and steroid therapy of the familial type of tall stature, the predominant variant of tall stature, are presented in detail. The effects, side effects and contraindications of high dose steroid treatment are described. The important prerequisite for the evaluation of psychosomatic problems of tall stature is the understanding of the dynamics and variations of normal growth. This and the knowledge of methods concerning growth analyses continue to be the basis of an accurate diagnosis. PMID:3586561

Sorgo, W; Teller, W M

73

The very-broad-band long-base tiltmeters of Grotta Gigante (Trieste, Italy): Secular term tilting and the great Sumatra-Andaman islands earthquake of December 26, 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The horizontal pendulums of the Grotta Gigante (Giant Cave) in the Trieste Karst, are long-base tiltmeters with Zöllner type suspension. The instruments have been continuously recording tilt and shear in the Grotta Gigante since the date of their installation by Prof. Antonio Marussi in 1966. Their setup has been completely overhauled several times since installation, restricting the interruptions of the measurements though to a minimum. The continuous recordings, apart from some interruptions, cover thus almost 40 years of measurements, producing a very noticeable long-term tiltmeter record of crustal deformation. The original recording system, still in function, was photographic with a mechanical timing and paper-advancing system, which has never given any problems at all, as it is very stable and not vulnerable by external factors as high humidity, problems in power supply, lightning or similar. In December 2003 a new recording system was installed, based on a solid-state acquisition system intercepting a laser light reflected from a mirror mounted on the horizontal pendulum beam. The sampling rate is 30 Hz, which turns the long-base instrument to a very-broad-band tiltmeter, apt to record the tilt signal on a broad-band of frequencies, ranging from secular deformation rate through the earth tides to seismic waves. Here we describe the acquisition system and present two endline members of the instrumental observation, the up to date long-term recording, and the observation of the great Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, seismic moment magnitude Mw = 9.1 9.3 [Lay, T., Kanamori, H., Ammon, C.J., Nettles, M., Ward, S.N., Aster, R.C., Beck, S.L., Bilek, S.L., Brudzinski, M.L., Butler, R., DeShon, H.R., Ekström, G., Satake, K., Sipkin, S., 2005. The Great Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 26 December 2004. Science. 308, 1127 1133.]. The secular-term observations indicate an average tilting over the last four decades towards NW of 23.4 nrad/year. We find evidences that this tilting is regional and has been going on since at least 125 ka. The recent earthquake of December 26, 2004 was well recorded by the pendulums. We show that the free oscillation modes were activated, including the lowest modes as e.g. 0T2, 0T3, 0T4, 0T5 and 2S1, 0S3, 0S4, 1S2.

Braitenberg, Carla; Romeo, Giovanni; Taccetti, Quintilio; Nagy, Ildikò

2006-01-01

74

Gigantic eruption of the volcano bezymianny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  Summarizing some numerical values for the eruption of Bezymianny we get the following results: total energy of the eruption\\u000a — 2.2 1025 ergs, explosion energy on March 30th — 4 1023 ergs, volume of material ejected by the explosion — about 1.0 km3, its weight 2.4 109 t. Volume of agglomerate flow — about 1.8 km3, its weight — 4.3

G. S. Gorshkov

1959-01-01

75

Anisotropic periodic structure exhibiting gigantic field enhancements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strongly anisotropic photonic crystal structure was designed using form birefringence. It has a low group velocity close to a split band edge (SBE) and large field enhancements proportional to the fourth power of the number of periods are predicted. Numerical results are presented illustrating the bandgap behavior as a function of anisotropy and an effective negative index property is discussed.

Shenk, J. O.; Ingel, R. P.; Cao, Y.; Fiddy, M. A.

2008-05-01

76

Fungal Cell Gigantism during Mammalian Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between fungal pathogens with the host frequently results in morphological changes, such as hyphae formation. The encapsulated pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is not considered a dimorphic fungus, and is predominantly found in host tissues as round yeast cells. However, there is a specific morphological change associated with cryptococcal infection that involves an increase in capsule volume. We now

Oscar Zaragoza; Rocío García-Rodas; Joshua D. Nosanchuk; Manuel Cuenca-Estrella; Juan Luis Rodríguez-Tudela; Arturo Casadevall

2010-01-01

77

Evolution of Gigantism in Amphiumid Salamanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amphiumidae contains three species of elongate, permanently aquatic salamanders with four diminutive limbs that append one, two, or three toes. Two of the species, Amphiuma means and A. tridactylum, are among the largest salamanders in the world, reaching lengths of more than one meter, whereas the third species (A. pholeter), extinct amphiumids, and closely related salamander families are relatively

Ronald M. Bonett; Paul T. Chippindale; Paul E. Moler; R. Wayne Van Devender; David B. Wake

2009-01-01

78

Evolution of Gigantism in Amphiumid Salamanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not Available Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Return: Query Results Return items starting with number Query Form Database: Astronomy Physics arXiv e-prints

Ronald M. Bonett; Paul T. Chippindale; Paul E. Moler; R. Wayne van Devender; David B. Wake; Michael Knapp

2009-01-01

79

Gigantic cannibals driving a whole-lake trophic cascade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trophic cascades have been a central paradigm in explaining the structure of ecological communities but have been demonstrated mainly through comparative studies or experimental manipulations. In contrast, evidence for shifts in trophic cascades caused by intrinsically driven population dynamics is meager. By using empirical data of a cannibalistic fish population covering a 10-year period and a size-structured population model, we

Lennart Persson; André M. de Roos; David Claessen; Pär Byström; Johan Lövgren; Stefan Sjögren; Richard Svanbäck; Eva Wahlström; Erika Westman

2003-01-01

80

Gigantic self-confined pahoehoe inflated lava flows in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The largest lava flows on Earth are pahoehoe basalts emplaced by inflation, a process which can change lava lobes initially a few decimetres thick into large lava sheets several metres thick. Inflation involves the initial formation of a thin, solidified, viscoelastic crust, under which liquid lava is continually added. This thermally efficient endogenous growth process explains the spread of huge

G. Pasquare; A. Bistacchi

2007-01-01

81

Gigantic volcanic eruptions and climatic change in the early Eocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

23 layers of altered volcanic ash (bentonites) originating from the North Atlantic Igneous Province have been recorded in early Eocene deposits of the Austrian Alps, about 1,900 km away from the source area. The Austrian bentonites are distal equivalents of the “main ash-phase” in Denmark and the North Sea basin. We have calculated the total eruption volume of this series as

Hans Egger; Ewald Brückl

2006-01-01

82

A gigantic bird from the Upper Cretaceous of Central Asia  

PubMed Central

We describe an enormous Late Cretaceous fossil bird from Kazakhstan, known from a pair of edentulous mandibular rami (greater than 275 mm long), which adds significantly to our knowledge of Mesozoic avian morphological and ecological diversity. A suite of autapomorphies lead us to recognize the specimen as a new taxon. Phylogenetic analysis resolves this giant bird deep within Aves as a basal member of Ornithuromorpha. This Kazakh fossil demonstrates that large body size evolved at least once outside modern birds (Neornithes) and reveals hitherto unexpected trophic diversity within Cretaceous Aves.

Naish, Darren; Dyke, Gareth; Cau, Andrea; Escuillie, Francois; Godefroit, Pascal

2012-01-01

83

Gigantic recurrent abdominal desmoid tumour: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deeply seated fibromatosis or desmoid tumour (DT) is a rare entity characterized by benign proliferation of fibroblasts. Although\\u000a non-malignant, this tumour can be life-threatening due to its invasive property and high recurrence rate. We report a unique\\u000a case of a huge recurrent abdominal DT (36 cm in diameter, 25 kg in weight) that caused pressure necrosis and sloughing of\\u000a the overlying anterior

E. A. Rakha; M. A. Kandil; M. G. El-Santawe

2007-01-01

84

Acromegalic gigantism, physicians and body snatching. Past or present?  

PubMed

The skeletons of 2 famous acromegalic giants: Charles Byrne (1761-1783) and Henri Cot = Joseph Dusorc (1883-1912) and the embalmed body of the famous acromegalic giant Édouard Beaupré (1881-1904) all ended up in the medical collections of museums despite the fact that these patients had never donated or even refused to donate their corpses, nor had their relatives given permission. The corpse of the acromegalic giant John Aasen (1890-1938) was voluntarily donated to a physician annex collector of trivia from acromegalic giants. The autopsy on the acromegalic giant John Turner (1874-1911) was performed during his funeral ceremony without the relatives being informed. Only recently, the acromegalic giant Alexander Sizonenko (1959-2012) was made a financial offer during his life in exchange for his body after his death. The case-histories of these 6 patients and also the circumstances that led to the (in-) voluntary donation of their bodies are reviewed. PMID:22481633

de Herder, Wouter W

2012-09-01

85

Gigantic benign schwannoma in the lateral peroneal nerve.  

PubMed

While schwannomas of the lateral peroneal nerve at the neck of the fibula are rare, this entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of popliteal cysts and in all cases of pain or paresthesia of the leg and foot. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic tool of choice for diagnosis of schwannoma. PMID:10050692

Houshian, S; Freund, K G

1999-01-01

86

Gigantism, temperature and metabolic rate in terrestrial poikilotherms  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms dictating upper limits to animal body size are not well understood. We have analysed body length data for the largest representatives of 24 taxa of terrestrial poikilotherms from tropical, temperate and polar environments. We find that poikilothermic giants on land become two–three times shorter per each 10 degrees of decrease in ambient temperature. We quantify that this diminution of maximum body size accurately compensates the drop of metabolic rate dictated by lower temperature. This supports the idea that the upper limit to body size within each taxon can be set by a temperature-independent critical minimum value of mass-specific metabolic rate, a fall below which is not compatible with successful biological performance.

Makarieva, Anastassia M; Gorshkov, Victor G; Li, Bai-Lian

2005-01-01

87

Giant Squid: One Gigantic Mystery (ScienceWorld)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic designed to promote science literacy. Written for students in grades 6-10, this article from Science World magazine has an interview with AMNH paleontologist Neal Landman, in which he discusses the giant squid and what scientists have been able to learn by studying only dead specimens. There are Web links that offer further opportunities for learning about the giant squid.

88

[Rheolytic catheter-assisted thrombectomy in a gigantic floating thrombus].  

PubMed

Thrombosis of deep veins of the lower extremities is a serious and frequently occurring disease (with the incidence rate of 160 newly onset cases per 100,000 people annually). A great number of complications are known to develop in case of the ileofemoral thrombosis and a floating pattern of the proximal portion of the thrombus, especially if extending to the vena cava inferior. Appropriate treatment of thromboses of the vena cava inferior should consist in averting dissemination of thrombosis in the proximal direction, preventing pulmonary-artery thromboembolism (PATE), and restoring the patency of the vena cava inferior in order to eliminate the risk of post-thrombotic disease. We present herein our first experience in rheolytic catheter-aided thrombectomy for a floating thrombus of the vena cava inferior in a female patient with an extremely elevated operative risk and pronounced concomitant somatic pathology. PMID:17641613

Zatevakhin, I I; Shipovski?, V N; Zolkin, V N; Lazarev, R A; Saakian, A M; Marov, K B

2006-01-01

89

Gigantic Diamondiferous Eclogite from Udachnaya: Mineralogy and Tomography of this Yakutian Xenolith.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamondiferous eclogites are rare unique xenoliths brought to the surface of the Earth by kimberlites. The Udachnaya pipe of Yakutia contains many such unusual xenoliths, largely because of the freshness of this kimberlite; usually only 30-80 gm portions are collected during the crushing and production process. However, a giant 8.8 kg relatively fresh diamondiferous eclogite was recently recovered from the ore stockpile. There appear to be two, possibly more, different types of eclogites in this one xenolith, one with Group A garnets, the other with Group B. Three-dimensional, high-resolution computed X-ray tomography (HRCXT) of this diamondiferous eclogite, difficult for its size, has successfully imaged the multitude of diamonds (micro up to 2-3 cts) and their textural relationships with co-existing minerals. This is an extension to the tomography and xenolith dissections performed previously on diamondiferous eclogites by our group (e.g., Taylor et al., 2000, Int'l Geol Rev 42; Anand et al., 2004, Lithos 77). Spatial relationships between diamonds and their surroundings provide clues to the processes that control diamond crystallization. These relationships can be determined by rotating and viewing the 3-D model at different perspectives and orientations to look for specific associations/alignments. The maps obtained from this tomography also form the basis for the delicate dissection of the xenolith, revealing the diamonds as they formed in their mantle host rock. A previous eclogite of 65 g contained 74 macro-diamonds. Inspection of the surface of this 8.8 kg eclogite and examination of the tomographic images indicates that >100 diamonds exist in this eclogite. The diamonds appear to be preferentially located in zones with a prominent sub-planar fabric of secondary mineralization - i.e., zones of increased permeability. Diamond was never observed in direct contact with any fresh, primary minerals. Also, there is insufficient sulfide mineralization to call upon an immiscible-sulfide melt as the diamond-forming medium. The association of the diamonds with secondary minerals is further evidence that the diamonds formed after the initial host eclogite, probably from the introduction of metasomatic carbonate-rich fluids.

Taylor, L. A.; Ketchum, R.; Day, J. M.; Stepanov, A.; Carlson, W.; Liu, Y.; Shatsky, V.

2005-12-01

90

Gigantic paleolandslide associated with active faulting along the Bogd fault (Gobi-Altay, Mongolia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of analyses of satellite imagery, aerial photographs, and field observations, we describe the occurrence of one of the largest paleolandslides (50 km3) ever recognized in an intracontinental domain. The slide occurred along the active Bogd fault in the Gobi-Altay mountain range in Mongolia. Morphological and structural analyses of the relationships between the landslide and the area affected

Hervé Philip; Jean-François Ritz

1999-01-01

91

Sistema Solar: de la observación de La Tierra a los planetas gigantes y sus lunas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La fotoquímica tiene un papel principal en la composición de las atmósferas planetarias. Se examinan diferentes procesos fotoquímicos tanto para atmósferas oxidadas como reductoras, poniendo un especial énfasis en los ciclos químicos más importantes. En este sentido, se presentan diferentes ciclos químicos capaces de producir hidrocarbonos y nitrilos en atmósferas reductoras, así como aquellos capaces de mantener las proporciones de mezcla de las moléculas que contienen oxígeno, tales como CO2, O2 y H2O. También se analizan otros procesos importantes tales como la condensación y procesos de sputtering y de sublimación que han de tenerse en cuenta cuando se realizan modelos sobre la composición atmosférica.

Rodrigo, R.

92

Gigantism in honeybees: Apis cerana queens reared in mixed-species colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of animals depends on both genetic and environmental effects to a varying extent. Their relative influences can be evaluated in the social insects by raising the intracolonial diversity to an extreme in nests consisting of workers from more than one species. In this study, we studied the effects of mixed honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana on the rearing of grafted queen larvae of A. cerana. A. mellifera sealed worker brood was introduced into A. cerana colonies and on emergence, the adults were accepted. Then, A. cerana larvae were grafted for queen rearing into two of these mixed-species colonies. Similarly, A. cerana larvae and A. mellifera larvae were also grafted conspecifically as controls. The success rate of A. cerana queen rearing in the test colonies was 64.5%, surpassing all previous attempts at interspecific queen rearing. After emergence, all virgin queens obtained from the three groups ( N=90) were measured morphometrically. The A. cerana queens from the mixed-species colonies differed significantly in size and pigmentation from the A. cerana control queens and closely approximated the A. mellifera queens. It is inferred that these changes in the A. cerana queens reared in the mixed-species colonies can be attributed to feeding by heterospecific nurse bees and/or chemical differences in royal jelly. Our data show a strong impact of environment on the development of queens. The results further suggest that in honeybees the cues for brood recognition can be learned by heterospecific workers after eclosion, thereby providing a novel analogy to slave making in ants.

Tan, Ken; Hepburn, H. R.; He, Shaoyu; Radloff, S. E.; Neumann, P.; Fang, Xiang

2006-07-01

93

Respiratory Evolution Facilitated the Origin of Pterosaur Flight and Aerial Gigantism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pterosaurs, enigmatic extinct Mesozoic reptiles, were the first vertebrates to achieve true flapping flight. Various lines of evidence provide strong support for highly efficient wing design, control, and flight capabilities. However, little is known of the pulmonary system that powered flight in pterosaurs. We investigated the structure and function of the pterosaurian breathing apparatus through a broad scale comparative study

Leon P. A. M. Claessens; Patrick M. O'Connor; David M. Unwin

2009-01-01

94

Gigantic flank collapse of volcanoes : a case study of the Cantal stratovolcano (France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the spectacular debris avalanche that affected Mount St Helens in May 1980, considerable attention has been focused on the unstable nature of volcanoes and their tendency to experience structural failure, and evidence for flank collapse has been identified both within the geological record and at many currently active volcanoes. Similarly, the Cantal stratovolcano (at present 70 km in diameter,

P. Nehlig; H. Leyrit

2003-01-01

95

Occurrence of gigantic biogenic magnetite during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is one of the most severe climatic events of the Cenozoic Era. A massive injection of light carbon into the oceans and atmosphere over a few thousand of years triggered drastic perturbation of Earth's climate resulting in abrupt global warming of ~5-9oC [Sluijs et al., 2007] that persisted for ~180,000 years. This episode is marked by the diversification and radiation of terrestrial plants and mammals while in the marine realm numerous deep-sea benthic foraminifera species disappeared and new forms evolved. Sediments deposited during the PETM are clay-rich and contain distinct evidence of these climatic changes. Kopp et al., (2007) and Lippert & Zachos (2007) report an extraordinary magnetofossil ‘Lagerstätte' in lowermost Eocene kaolinite-rich clay sediments deposited at subtropical paleolatitude in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of New Jersey, USA. Magnetofossils are magnetic particles produced most abundantly by magnetotactic bacteria. Kopp et al. (2007) and Lippert & Zachos (2007) used ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy, other rock magnetic methods, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of magnetic separates to characterize sediments from boreholes at Ancora (ODP Leg 174AX) and Wilson Lake, NJ, respectively. These sediments contain abundant ~40- to 300-nm cuboidal, elongate-prismatic and bullet-shaped magnetofossils, sometimes arranged in short chains, resembling crystals in living magnetotactic bacteria. Despite the scarcity of intact magnetofossil chains, the asymmetry ratios of the FMR spectra reflects a profusion of elongate single domain (SD) crystals and/or chains. Here we address both conundrums by reporting the discovery from these same sediments of exceptionally large and novel biogenic magnetite crystals unlike any previously reported from living organisms or from sediments. Aside from abundant bacterial magnetofossils, electron microscopy reveals novel spearhead-like and spindle-like magnetite crystals up to 4 ?m long (eight times larger than magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria) and elongated hexaoctahedra up to 1.4 ?m long. Similar to magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria, these single-crystal particles exhibit chemical composition and lattice perfection consistent with a biogenic origin. The oxygen isotopic composition of indiviual particles supports a low temperature aquatic origin. Electron holography indicates single-domain magnetization despite the large crystal size. In a few cases, we observed apparently intact, tip-outward spherical assemblages of spearhead-like particles that possibly represent the preserved original biological arrangement of these crystals in a hitherto unknown magnetite producing organism. The discovery of these exceptionally large biogenic magnetite crystals that possibly represent the remains of a new microorganism that appeared and disappeared with the PETM sheds some light upon the ecological response to biogeochemical changes that occurred during this warming event. The abundance of fossil magnetotactic bacteria on the Atlantic Coastal Plain during the PETM could be explained by enhanced production, enhanced preservation, or both. The presence of novel magnetofossils, however, argues that changes in growth conditions are a major part of the explanation. Considering that other bacterial magnetofossils are present (although less abundant) and well-preserved in sediments below and above the PETM clay, as well as in a sand lens within the PETM clay [Kopp et al., 2007], suggests that the new magnetofossils are unlikely to be a preservation artefact. We conclude, therefore, that the development of a thick suboxic zone with high iron bioavailability - a product of dramatic changes in weathering and sedimentation patterns driven by severe global warming - resulted in diversification of magnetite-forming organisms, likely including eukaryotes. In this study we extended the search for these new magnetofossils [Schumann et al. 2008] to other PETM locations of the Atlantic margin and to a possible modern

Schumann, D.; Raub, T. D.; Kopp, R. E.; Guerquin-Kern, J. L.; Wu, T. D.; Rouiller, I.; Smirnov, A. V.; Sears, S. K.; Lücken, U.; Tikoo, S. M.; Hesse, R.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Vali, H.

2009-04-01

96

Hard magnetic ferrite with a gigantic coercivity and high frequency millimetre wave rotation  

PubMed Central

Magnetic ferrites such as Fe3O4 and Fe2O3 are extensively used in a range of applications because they are inexpensive and chemically stable. Here we show that rhodium-substituted ?-Fe2O3, ?-RhxFe2?xO3 nanomagnets prepared by a nanoscale chemical synthesis using mesoporous silica as a template, exhibit a huge coercive field (Hc) of 27 kOe at room temperature. Furthermore, a crystallographically oriented sample recorded an Hc value of 31 kOe, which is the largest value among metal-oxide-based magnets and is comparable to those of rare-earth magnets. In addition, ?-RhxFe2?xO3 shows high frequency millimetre wave absorption up to 209 GHz. ?-Rh0.14Fe1.86O3 exhibits a rotation of the polarization plane of the propagated millimetre wave at 220 GHz, which is one of the promising carrier frequencies (the window of air) for millimetre wave wireless communications.

Namai, Asuka; Yoshikiyo, Marie; Yamada, Kana; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Goto, Takashi; Yoshida, Takayuki; Miyazaki, Tatsuro; Nakajima, Makoto; Suemoto, Tohru; Tokoro, Hiroko; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi

2012-01-01

97

Sudden pressure increase in magma reservoir triggered by gigantic lava-dome collapse on Montserrat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dilatometers recorded pressure changes within the Soufrière Hills Volcano's magma chamber during the 13 July 2003 collapse of itsÃøΩ lava dome. Strain data was evaluated to determine the depth of the pressure source. Results suggest an ellipsoidal magma chamber source at a depth of roughly six kilometers and an average radius of about one kilometer. The observed increase in pressure was consistent with the magma containing pressurized bubbles that expanded when the ambient pressure was reduced.

Al., Voight E.; Agu

98

Cryptococcus neoformans Capsular Enlargement and Cellular Gigantism during Galleria mellonella Infection  

PubMed Central

We have studied infection of Cryptococcus neoformans in the non-vertebrate host Galleria mellonella with particular interest in the morphological response of the yeast. Inoculation of C. neoformans in caterpillars induced a capsule-independent increase in haemocyte density 2 h after infection. C. neoformans manifested a significant increase in capsule size after inoculation into the caterpillar. The magnitude of capsule increase depended on the temperature, being more pronounced at 37°C than at 30°C, which correlated with an increased virulence of the fungus and reduced phagocytosis at 37°C. Capsule enlargement impaired phagocytosis by haemocytes. Incubation of the yeast in G. mellonella extracts also resulted in capsule enlargement, with the polar lipidic fraction having a prominent role in this effect. During infection, the capsule decreased in permeability. A low proportion of the cells (<5%) recovered from caterpillars measured more than 30 µm and were considered giant cells. Giant cells recovered from mice were able to kill the caterpillars in a manner similar to regular cells obtained from in vivo or grown in vitro, establishing their capacity to cause disease. Our results indicate that the morphological transitions exhibited by C. neoformans in mammals also occur in a non-vertebrate host system. The similarities in morphological transitions observed in different animal hosts and in their triggers are consistent with the hypothesis that the cell body and capsular responses represent an adaptation of environmental survival strategies to pathogenesis.

Garcia-Rodas, Rocio; Casadevall, Arturo; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Zaragoza, Oscar

2011-01-01

99

Gigantic density of states in 1.22nm nanocrystalline nickel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel nanoparticles (Ni-NPs) of 1.22nm were synthesized by thermal decomposition method and specific heat measurements were done in the temperature range of 5-300K. Exceptionally large enhancement of specific heat (70%) and consequent enhancements in the electronic (517%) and phonon (1351%) density of states (DOS) were observed. This was attributed to the quantum size effect.

Das, Sourav; Rawat, R.; Lalla, N. P.; Okram, G. S.

2012-06-01

100

Climatic control on the growth of gigantic gypsum crystals within hypogenic caves (Naica mine, Mexico)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three hypogenic caves within the Naica mine of Mexico (Cueva de los Cristales — CLC, Ojo de la Reina — OR, and Cueva de las Velas — CLV) host spectacular gypsum crystals up to 11m in length. These caves are close to another shallow cave of the area (Cueva de las Espadas — CLE), with which they cover a 160m-deep

Paolo S. Garofalo; Mattias B. Fricker; Detlef Günther; Paolo Forti; Anna-Maria Mercuri; Mara Loreti; Bruno Capaccioni

2010-01-01

101

Earth’s Ionosphere as a Gigantic Detector of Extraterrestrial Energetic Phenomena: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the ionospheric effects due to radiation from the transient extraterrestrial sources like Gamma Ray Bursts, Soft Gamma Ray Repeaters, Anomalous X-ray Pulsars, X-ray novae and X-ray transient sources. Gamma rays could penetrate deep in the atmosphere due to their high energy in comparison with other types of radiation. If the transient radiation from the above sources is

S. K. Mondal; S. K. Chakrabarti

2010-01-01

102

Geomorphology and evolution of the gigantic Murray canyons on the Australian southern margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Murray canyons are a group of deeply incised submarine canyons on a steep 400?km section of the continental slope off Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Some of the canyons are amongst the largest on Earth. The canyons, some 80?km long, descend from the shelf edge to the abyssal plain 5200?m deep. Sprigg Canyon, the deepest and one of the largest,

Hill Pj; P. De Deckker; Exon Nf

2005-01-01

103

Earth's Ionosphere as a Gigantic Detector of Extraterrestrial Energetic Phenomena: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the ionospheric effects due to radiation from the transient extraterrestrial sources like Gamma Ray Bursts, Soft Gamma Ray Repeaters, Anomalous X-ray Pulsars, X-ray novae and X-ray transient sources. Gamma rays could penetrate deep in the atmosphere due to their high energy in comparison with other types of radiation. If the transient radiation from the above sources is

S. K. Mondal; S. K. Chakrabarti

2010-01-01

104

GaAs-oxide interface states - Gigantic photoionization via Auger-like process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral and transient responses of photostimulated current in MOS structures were employed for the study of GaAs-anodic oxide interface states. Discrete deep traps at 0.7 and 0.85 eV below the conduction band were found with concentrations of 5 x 10 to the 12th\\/sq cm and 7 x 10 to the 11th\\/sq cm, respectively. These traps coincide with interface states induced

J. Lagowski; T. E. Kazior; H. C. Gatos; W. Walukiewicz; J. Siejka

1981-01-01

105

Occurrence of gigantic biogenic magnetite during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is one of the most severe climatic events of the Cenozoic Era. A massive injection of light carbon into the oceans and atmosphere over a few thousand of years triggered drastic perturbation of Earth's climate resulting in abrupt global warming of ~5-9oC [Sluijs et al., 2007] that persisted for ~180,000 years. This episode is marked

D. Schumann; T. D. Raub; R. E. Kopp; J. L. Guerquin-Kern; T. D. Wu; I. Rouiller; A. V. Smirnov; S. K. Sears; U. Lücken; S. M. Tikoo; R. Hesse; J. L. Kirschvink; H. Vali

2009-01-01

106

Alcohol chemistry in the Galactic Center molecular clouds. A gigantic Hot Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out a systematic study of CH3OH, C2H5OH, (CH3)2O, HCOOCH3, HCOOH, CH3COOH, H2CO and CS in different Galactic Center (GC) molecular clouds. Figure 1 shows the relative abundances of those molecules with respect to CH3OH in the GC as function of the CH3OH abundance. The CH3OH abundance between sources in the GC varies in nearly two orders of magnitude. The abundance ratio of these molecules relative to CH3OH is basically independent of the CH3OH abundances and only varies in a factor of ~ 4 - 8. The abundance ratio of CS relative to CH3OH seem to vary by a factor of 60. Our data are compared with observations of the same molecules in short-lived objects like the hot cores. The abundance and the abundance ratios of the complex molecules relative to CH3OH in massive hot cores are similar to that found in the GC clouds. Alcohol related chemistry is believed to be driven by gas phase reactions after evaporation of alcohols from grain mantles. Gas phase chemistry based in the ejection of alcohols from grains (see Charnley et al. 1995; Horn et al. (2004)) can not explain the observed abundances of HCOOCH3 in the GC and the rather constant relative abundances of the other complex molecules. Our data suggest that basically all the molecules related to alcohol chemistry could be produced on grain mantles and/or depleted from gas phase after their formation. This interpretation requires frequent shocks in the GC region to keep the high abundances of these molecules in gas phase and a rather uniform average composition of the icy grain mantles. The molecular clouds associated with the Sickle and the Thermal Radio Arches (TRA), which seem to be affected by UV radiation, see Rodriguez-Fernandez et al. (2001), show lower abundances of C2H5OH relative to CH3OH which could be explained by shock ejection and photo dissociation conditions.

Requena Torres, M. A.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Rodríguez-Franco, A.; Martín, S.; Rodríguez-Fer?Ndez, N. J.

107

Low-magnesium uranium-calcite with high degree of crystallinity and gigantic luminescence emission.  

PubMed

Cabrera (Madrid) low-Mg calcites exhibit: (i) an unusual twofold elevation in X-ray diffraction pattern intensity; (ii) a 60-fold elevation of luminescence emission, compared to six common natural calcites selected for comparison purposes; (iii) a natural relatively high radiation level of circa 200 nSvh(-1) not detected in 1300 other calcites from the Natural History Museum of Madrid. Calcites were analysed by the X-ray diffraction powder method (XRD), cathodo-luminescence spectroscopy in scanning electron microscopy (CL-SEM), thermoluminescence (TL), differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and particle size distribution (PSD). The Cabrera calcite study shows: (i) helicoidally distributed steps along the (0001) orientation; (ii) protuberance defects onto the (0001) surface, observed by SEM; (iii) XRF chemical contents of 0.03% MgO, 0.013% of Y(2)O(3), and 0.022% of U(3)O(8), with accessory amounts of rare earth elements (REE); (iv) DTA dissociation temperature of 879 degrees C; (v) TL maxima peaks at 233 and 297 degrees C whose areas are 60 times compared to other calcites; (vi) spectra CL-SEM bands at 2.0 and 3.4 eV in the classic structure of Mn(2+) activators; (vii) a twofold XRD pattern explained given that sample is a low-Mg calcite. The huge TL and CL emissions of the Cabrera calcite sample must be linked with the uranyl group presence. This intense XRD pattern in low-Mg calcites could bring into being analytical errors. PMID:17011199

Valle-Fuentes, Francisco-Jose; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Cremades, Ana; Correcher, Virgilio; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Gonzalez-Martin, Rafael; Sanchez-Muñoz, Luis; Lopez-Arce, Paula

2006-09-29

108

Gigantic low-gradient landslides in the northern periphery of the Crimean Mountains (Ukraine)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale, low-gradient ancient landslides estimated at 5.4–18.9 km2 in area and ?0.2–1.2 km3 in volume have been studied in the northern hilly periphery of the Crimean Mountains (Ukraine). They originated on slopes along wide water gaps of rivers (Belbek, Kacha, Alma and Biyuk–Karasu) crossing the cuestas of the northern foothills. The slopes generally consist of slightly northward tilting Miocene (mainly Sarmatian) limestones

Tomás Pánek; Jan Hradecký; Veronika Smolková; Karel Šilhán

2008-01-01

109

Gigantic gamma-ray family events with ? E ? ?1000 TeV and hadronic interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The characteristic features of big family events with ?E\\u000a ??103 TeV, which were observed with emulsion chambers at Mt. Fuji (3776 m above sea-level), are presented in comparison with the\\u000a results of the Monte Carlo simulation. Moreover, the behaviour of the halo accompanying big family events is described in\\u000a connection with that of high-energy gamma-rays incident upon the chamber. On

M. Akashi; M. Amenomori; E. Konishi; H. Nanjo; Z. Watanabe; K. Mizutani; K. Kasahara; E. Mikumo; S. Torii; T. Yuda; I. Mito; T. Shirai; N. Tateyama; T. Taira; M. Shibata; H. Sugimoto; K. Taira; N. Hotta

1982-01-01

110

Gigantic Follies. Human Exploration and the Space Age in Long-term Historical Perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This chapter attempts to place the whole endeavor of the Space Age into a global historical context. The motivation for exploration that human history has chronicled, according to the author throughout the history of our species, has had less to do with a...

J. R. McNeill

2008-01-01

111

Earth's Ionosphere as a Gigantic Detector of Extra-terrestrial Energetic Phenomena: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the ionospheric effects due to radiation from the transient extraterrestrial sources like Gamma Ray Bursts, Soft Gamma Ray Repeaters, Anomalous X-ray Pulsars, X-ray novae and X-ray transient sources. Gamma rays could penetrate deep in the atmosphere due to their high energy in comparison with other types of radiation. If the transient radiation from the above sources is strong enough to enhance the ionospheric ionization, VLF radio propagation could be affected. In the paper, we discuss the evidences of detection of such phenomena in VLF data and explain some of the observations using theoretical considerations.

Mondal, S. K.; Chakrabarti, S. K.

2010-10-01

112

Ultrafast gigantic photo-response in (EDO-TTF)2PF6 initiated by 10-fs laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

We photo-exited a charge-ordered organic salt (EDO-TTF)2PF6 with sub-10-fs optical pulses. The photo-induced metallic phase appeared within 80-fs after pumping, characterized by large changes in reflectivity (DELTA R/R~0.8) followed by strong coherent phonon modulation

Schoenlein, Robert William; Itatani, Jiro; Rini, Matteo; Cavalleri, Andrea; Onda, Ken; Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Koshihara, Shin-ya; Shao, Xiangfeng; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Schoenlein, Robert W.

2006-08-07

113

Oceanic ecosystem dynamics during gigantic volcanic episodes: the Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus recorded by calcareous nannoplankton. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's volcanic activity introduces environmental stress that biota are forced to survive. There is a general consensus on the role of volcanogenic carbon dioxide increases, and implicit tectonic-igneous events, triggering major climate changes and profound variations in chemical, physical and trophic characteristics of the oceans through the Phanerozoic. Cretaceous geological records indicate conditions of excess atmCO2 (up to 2000-3000 ppm) derived from construction of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). In such “high CO2 world” and greenhouse conditions, the deep ocean became depleted of oxygen promoting the accumulation and burial of massive amounts of organic matter; such episodes are recognized as Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) and their geological records merit careful examination of how the Earth system, and Life in particular, can overcome extreme experiments of global change. The Early Aptian (˜ 120 million years ago) OAE1a is a complex example of volcanicCO2-induced environmental stress. There is a general consensus on the causes of this case-history, namely excess CO2 derived from the construction of the Ontong Java-Manihiki LIP. Multi- and inter-disciplinary studies of the OAE1a have pointed out C, O, Os, Sr isotopic anomalies, a biocalcification crisis in pelagic and neritic settings, enhanced fertility and primary productivity, as well as ocean acidification. Available cyclochronology allows high-resolution dating of biotic and environmental fluctuations, providing the precision necessary for understanding the role of volcanogenic CO2 on nannoplankton biocalcification, adaptations, evolutionary innovation and/or extinctions. The reconstructed sequence of volcanogenic CO2 pulses, and perhaps some clathrate melting, triggered a climate change to supergreenhouse conditions, anoxia and ocean acidification. The demise of heavily calcified nannoconids and reduced calcite paleofluxes marks beginning of the pre-OAE1a calcification crisis. Ephemeral coccolith dwarfism and malformation represent adjustments to survive lower pH. Deep-water acidification occurs with a delay of 25-30 thousand years: a dissolution event recording 1 to 2km shallowing of the Calcite Compensation Depth anticipated the onset of anoxic sedimentation. A major acceleration in weathering has been identified in the lowermost part of OAE1a. After acidification-dissolution climax, nannoplankton and carbonate recovery developed over ~160 kyr, under persisting global dysoxia-anoxia. This recovery presumably implies a stasis of the LIP activity and gradual buffering of ocean acidification or a decrease in volcanogenic CO2 emissions and consistently higher CO2 drawdown through Corg burial and/or weathering. Rising CO2 and surface-ocean acidification during OAE1a triggered false extinctions among calcareous nannoplankton. Conversely, a major origination episode starts approximately 1 My before global anoxia and persists through OAE1a and associated acidification. Increasing pCO2 caused complex and species-specific reactions, including production of r-strategist taxa, which, however, secreted dwarf and malformed coccoliths as a strategy to overcome acidification.

Erba, E.

2010-12-01

114

End-Permian catastrophe by a bolide impact: Evidence of a gigantic release of sulfur from the mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our studies in southern China have revealed a remarkable sulfur and strontium isotope excursion at the end of the Permian, along with a coincident concentration of impact- metamorphosed grains and kaolinite and a significant decrease in manganese, phosphorous, calcium, and microfossils (foraminifera). These data suggest that an asteroid or a comet hit the ocean at the end of Permian time and caused a rapid and massive release of sulfur from the mantle to the ocean-atmosphere system, leading to significant oxygen consumption, acid rain, and the most severe biotic crisis in the history of life on Earth.

Kaiho, Kunio; Kajiwara, Yoshimichi; Nakano, Takanori; Miura, Yasunori; Kawahata, Hodaka; Tazaki, Kazue; Ueshima, Masato; Chen, Zhongqiang; Shi, Guang R.

2001-09-01

115

End-Permian catastrophe by a bolide impact: Evidence of a gigantic release of sulfur from the mantle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our studies in southern China have revealed a remarkable sulfur and strontium isotope excursion at the end of the Permian, along with a coincident concentration of impact- metamorphosed grains and kaolinite and a significant decrease in manganese, phosphorous, calcium, and microfossils (foraminifera). These data suggest that an asteroid or a comet hit the ocean at the end of Permian time

Kunio Kaiho; Yoshimichi Kajiwara; Takanori Nakano; Yasunori Miura; Hodaka Kawahata; Kazue Tazaki; Masato Ueshima; Zhongqiang Chen; Guang R. Shi

2001-01-01

116

A Syndrome of Multiorgan Hyperplasia with Features of Gigantism, Tumorigenesis, and Female Sterility in p27 Kip1 Deficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeted disruption of the murine p27Kip1 gene caused a gene dose–dependent increase in animal size without other gross morphologic abnormalities. All tissues were enlarged and contained more cells, although endocrine abnormalities were not evident. Thymic hyperplasia was associated with increased T lymphocyte proliferation, and T cells showed enhanced IL-2 responsiveness in vitro. Thus, p27 deficiency may cause a cell-autonomous defect

Matthew L Fero; Michael Rivkin; Michael Tasch; Peggy Porter; Catherine E Carow; Eduardo Firpo; Kornelia Polyak; Li-Huei Tsai; Virginia Broudy; Roger M Perlmutter; Kenneth Kaushansky; James M Roberts

1996-01-01

117

Gigantic retroperitoneal hematoma as a complication of anticoagulation therapy with heparin in therapeutic doses: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage is a distinct clinical entity that can present as a rare life-threatening event characterized by sudden onset of bleeding into the retroperitoneal space, occurring in association with bleeding disorders, intratumoral bleeding, or ruptures of any retroperitoneal organ or aneurysm. The spontaneous form is the most infrequent retroperitoneal hemorrhage, causing significant morbidity and representing a diagnostic challenge.

Stavros I Daliakopoulos; Andreas Bairaktaris; Dimitrios Papadimitriou; Perikles Pappas

2008-01-01

118

Oceanic ecosystem dynamics during gigantic volcanic episodes: the Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus recorded by calcareous nannoplankton. (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth's volcanic activity introduces environmental stress that biota are forced to survive. There is a general consensus on the role of volcanogenic carbon dioxide increases, and implicit tectonic-igneous events, triggering major climate changes and profound variations in chemical, physical and trophic characteristics of the oceans through the Phanerozoic. Cretaceous geological records indicate conditions of excess atmCO2 (up to 2000-3000 ppm)

E. Erba

2010-01-01

119

Metal/nanowire contacts, quantum confinement, and their roles in the generation of new, gigantic actions in nanowire transistors.  

PubMed

A distinctly new route for the design, modeling and electrical behavior of very short-channel (5-10 nm in channel length) nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) has been presented. Essential elements of the approach entail a drain current determined by thermionic emission, but not by carrier mobility in the channel of the transistor. A basic understanding of the fundamental physics and the concepts of Schottky-barrier-based design for the proposed route have been described. Quantum confinement in the nanowire channel together with Schottky barrier tailing and temperature-dependent fluctuations of applied biases has been taken into account for the development of the model. Both current-voltage characteristics and transconductance of FETs have been studied. The calculated results are in near-quantitative agreement with the available experiments. Measured data show very diverse (e.g., exponential, linear, saturating, and non-linear non-exponential non-saturating) nanowire transistor characteristics. The model explains these characteristics well and reveals a number of new transistor actions. It highlights the impacts of quantum confinement and Schottky contacts for these new transistor actions. It also quantifies the significant enhancement of the drain-source current and transconductance. With new findings thus achieved, suggestions for the realization of very high-performance, small-diameter (preferably 2 nm), small-Schottky-barrier-height, high-operating temperature, ultra-short-channel-length, nanowire transistors have been made. Optimized design of these transistors has been suggested. And the range (in terms of device and technological parameters) of the proposed model has been elucidated. PMID:24129340

Noor Mohammad, S

2013-10-15

120

Gigantism in a Bacterium, Epulopiscium fishelsoni, Correlates with Complex Patterns in Arrangement, Quantity, and Segregation of DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epulopiscium fishelsoni, gut symbiont of the brown surgeonfish (Acanthurus nigrofuscus) in the Red Sea, attains a larger size than any other eubacterium, varies 10- to 20-fold in length (and >2,000-fold in volume), and undergoes a complex daily life cycle. In early morning, nucleoids contain highly condensed DNA in elongate, chromosome-like structures which are physically separated from the general cytoplasm. Cell

V. BRESLER; W. L. MONTGOMERY; L. FISHELSON; P. E. POLLAK

1998-01-01

121

Gigantic enhancement in response and reset time of ZnO UV nanosensor by utilizing Schottky contact and surface functionalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

UV response of ZnO nanowire nanosensor has been studied under ambient condition. By utilizing Schottky contact instead of Ohmic contact in device fabrication, the UV sensitivity of the nanosensor has been improved by four orders of magnitude, and the reset time has been drastically reduced from ~417 to ~0.8 s. By further surface functionalization with function polymers, the reset time

Jun Zhou; Yudong Gu; Youfan Hu; Wenjie Mai; Ping-Hung Yeh; Gang Bao; Ashok K. Sood; Dennis L. Polla; Zhong Lin Wang

2009-01-01

122

The Roza Member, Columbia River Basalt Group: A gigantic pahoehoe lava flow field formed by endogenous processes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present studies on the physical volcanology of the ~15 Ma Roza Member of the Wanapum Formation in the Columbia River Basalt Group. The Roza Member represents a compound pahoehoe flood basalt lava flow field, with an area of ~40,300 km2 and a volume of ~1300 km3. It consists of 4 major lava flows each composed of numerous, decimeter to

T. Thordarson; S. Self

1998-01-01

123

RESISTÊNCIA INDUZIDA AO PULGÃO-GIGANTE-DO-PINUS (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE) EM PLANTAS DE PINUS TAEDA ADUBADAS COM SILÍCIO ( 1 )  

Microsoft Academic Search

INDUCED RESISTANCE EFFECT TO THE GIANT CONIFER APHID (HEMIPTERA:APHIDIDAE) IN SILICON FERTILIZED PLANTS OF PINUS TAEDA This research aimed to study the effect of silicon as a resistance inducer in P. taeda L. to C. atlantica (Wilson). Preference and reproductive rate tests were performed in plants of P. taeda with and without silicon application. The experiment was carried out in

JOELMA MELISSA; MALHERBE CAMARGO; JAIR CAMPOS MORAES; EDILSON BATISTA DE OLIVEIRA; EDSON TADEU

2008-01-01

124

Gigantic Ordovician volcanic ash fall in North America and Europe: Biological, tectonomagmatic, and event-stratigraphic significance  

SciTech Connect

Biostratigraphical, geochemical, isotopic, and paleogeographic data suggest that the Millbrig K-bentonite, one of the thickest and most widespread Ordovician volcanic ash beds in eastern North America, is the same as the so-called 'Big Bentonite' in Baltoscandia. This is the first time that the same K-bentonite has been identified in both North America and Europe, and it serves as a unique event-stratigraphic marker over a large portion of the Northern Hemisphere. This eruption produced at least 340 km[sup 3] of dense-rock-equivalent ash that was deposited in a layer up to 1-2 m thick over several million square kilometers. As much as 800 km[sup 3] of additional ash may have fallen into the Iapetus Ocean, for a total of 1,140 km[sup 3]. Trace element geochemistry shows that the ash was derived from a felsic calc-alkalic magmatic source characteristic of volcanism in a continental crust-based, destructive plate-margin setting. This is one of the largest, if not the largest, ash falls recorded in Earth's Phanerozoic stratigraphic record, but its recognizable effect on faunas and floras was minimal, and it did not result in a global extinction event. The Millbrig-Big Bentonite bed provides accurate time control for sedimentologic, paleoecologic, and paleogeographic reconstructions across plates positioned in tropical (Laurentia) and temperate (Baltica) latitudes during Middle Ordovician time.

Huff, W.D. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Bergstroem, S.M. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States)); Kolata, D.R. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (United States))

1992-10-01

125

Metal/nanowire contacts, quantum confinement, and their roles in the generation of new, gigantic actions in nanowire transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A distinctly new route for the design, modeling and electrical behavior of very short-channel (5–10 nm in channel length) nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) has been presented. Essential elements of the approach entail a drain current determined by thermionic emission, but not by carrier mobility in the channel of the transistor. A basic understanding of the fundamental physics and the concepts of Schottky-barrier-based design for the proposed route have been described. Quantum confinement in the nanowire channel together with Schottky barrier tailing and temperature-dependent fluctuations of applied biases has been taken into account for the development of the model. Both current–voltage characteristics and transconductance of FETs have been studied. The calculated results are in near-quantitative agreement with the available experiments. Measured data show very diverse (e.g., exponential, linear, saturating, and non-linear non-exponential non-saturating) nanowire transistor characteristics. The model explains these characteristics well and reveals a number of new transistor actions. It highlights the impacts of quantum confinement and Schottky contacts for these new transistor actions. It also quantifies the significant enhancement of the drain–source current and transconductance. With new findings thus achieved, suggestions for the realization of very high-performance, small-diameter (preferably 2 nm), small-Schottky-barrier-height, high-operating temperature, ultra-short-channel-length, nanowire transistors have been made. Optimized design of these transistors has been suggested. And the range (in terms of device and technological parameters) of the proposed model has been elucidated.

Mohammad, S. Noor

2013-11-01

126

Gigantic ferroelectric polarization and magnetoelectric coupling in a ferrimagnetic oxide CaBaCo4O7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From both fundamental and applications points of view, improper ferroelectrics that exhibiting a strong coupling between polarization and magnetic structure are challenging the scientific community. Several multiferroics belonging to that category have been reported; however, they exhibit rather small values of electric polarization combined with low magnetic ordering temperatures. Only the CuO (tenorite), the ordered perovskites LBaCuFeO5 and the Z-type hexaferrites display magnetic ordering temperatures near room temperature, but they all suffer from polarization much smaller than that of proper ferroelectrics. Here, we report a ferrimagnetic cobaltite, CaBaCo4O7, crystallizing in a polar space group, which enters an improper ferroelectric phase below TC= 64 K. Single crystals of CaBaCo4O7 demonstrate the highest polarization value reported among improper ferroelectrics to date, reaching 10 mC/m^2 at TC and approaching 16 mC/m^2 at 8 K. Moreover a large magnetoelectric coupling coefficient is also evidenced near TC. This result points to routes for exploring new multiferroics among ferrimagnetic phases.

Mitchell, John; Caignert, Vincent; Maignan, Antoine; Singh, Kiran; Simon, Charles; Raveau, Bernard; Pralong, Valerie; Chapon, Laurent

2013-03-01

127

From Ally McBeal to Sabado Gigante: Contributions of Television Viewing to the Gender Role Attitudes of Latino Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although previous findings indicate that frequent television viewing is associated with holding more stereotypical attitudes about gender, no studies have examined this connection among Latino youth, who are frequent viewers of both English- and Spanish-language programming. The present study attempted to rectify this situation by examining…

Rivadeneyra, Rocio; Ward, L. Monique

2005-01-01

128

Tunneled modified lotus petal flap for surgical reconstruction of severe introital stenosis after radical vulvectomy  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION We presented the anatomical, functional and aesthetic results achieved with lotus petal flap in case of introital stenosis as a results of inadequate primary plastic reconstruction. We discussed the potential advantages of lotus petal flap compared to others vulvar reconstructive techniques. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of a 44-years old woman presenting a severe introital stenosis following radical surgery for vulvar cancer. She could not have a normal sexual activity life because the narrow scarred introitus resulting after primary closure of a large vulvar defect. The patient comes to our attention after three years from primary surgery. Once the scar was removed we performed a vulvoperineal reconstruction with bilateral tunneled lotus petal flaps. DISCUSSION Lotus petal flap is a safe, easy and quick technique, has a good functional and cosmetic results in this young woman, and represents an optimal alternative solution for plastic reconstruction in case of severe introital stenosis after primary closure of large vulvoperineal defect. CONCLUSION Tunneled lotus petal flaps represents a feasible, attractive and versatile surgical reconstructive technique that can be easily performed after surgical treatment of vulvoperineal neoplasms.

Buda, Alessandro; Confalonieri, Pier Luigi; Rovati, Luca Carlo Vittorio; Signorelli, Mauro; Del Bene, Massimo

2012-01-01

129

Hemangioma cavernoso gigante de seno maxilar. Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura Giant cavernous hemangioma of the maxillary sinus. Case report and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Los hemangiomas son neoplasias vasculares benignas que se presentan de preferencia en la región cervicofacial, siendo raros en las fosas nasales y excepcionales en los senos paranasales, con pocos casos reportados. Se presenta un paciente de sexo masculino y 33 años de edad, que consultó por obstrucción nasal, aumento de volumen maxilar y exoftalmo izquierdo de 2 años de

Alfredo Naser G; Arturo Samith M; Carlos Ríos D

130

The electromagnetic Ram action of the plasma focus as a paradigm for the generation of cosmic rays and the gigantic jets in active galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent measurements of the energy spectrum of the plasma-focus-generated deuteron beam yield as spectrum of the form N(E)=(approx.) E to the -2.7 for 1MeV E 13 MeV. Other measurements show that the beta 1 electron beam which is generated simultaneously with the deuteron beam is interrupted into segments of spacing 25ps and duration approximately 4ps. A stuttering-electro-magnetic-ram (ser) model of the plasma focus in proposed which is similar to Raudorf's electronic ram which produces a similar spectrum for an electron beam for 1Mev E 10MeV. It is proposed that the cosmic ray spectrum and the giganic galactic jets are both generated by ser action near the centers of active galaxies.

Bostick, W. H.; Nardi, V.

1985-08-01

131

Dual electron-phonon coupling model for gigantic photoenhancement of the dielectric constant and electronic conductivity in SrTi O3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In connection with the recent experimental discovery on photoenhancements of the electronic conductivity and the quasi-static electric susceptibility in SrTiO3 , we theoretically study a photogeneration mechanism of charged and conductive ferroelectric domains in this perovskite type quantum dielectric. The photo-generated electron, being quite itinerant in the 3d band of Ti4+ , is assumed to couple weakly but quadratically with soft-anharmonic T1u phonons in this quantum dielectric, in view of the parity of this lattice vibration. The photo-generated electron is also assumed to couple strongly but linearly with the breathing type high energy phonons. Using a tight-binding model for electrons, we will show that this dual electron-phonon coupling results in two types of polarons, a “super-para-electric (SPE) large polaron” with a quasi-globle parity violation, and an “off-center type self-trapped polaron” with only a local parity violation. This SPE large polaron is shown to be equal to a singly charged (e-) and conductive ferroelectric domain with a quasi-macroscopic range. Two of such large polarons are shown to aggregate and form an SPE large bipolaron, which is still conductive. Various other bipolaron clusters are also shown to be formed in this electron-phonon coupled system. These large polarons have a high mobility and an enhanced quasi-static dielectric susceptibility. Effect of adulteration is also discussed.

Qiu, Y.; Wu, C. Q.; Nasu, K.

2005-12-01

132

From Ally McBeal to Sábado GiganteContributions of Television Viewing to the Gender Role Attitudes of Latino Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous findings indicate that frequent television viewing is associated with holdingmore stereo typical attitudes aboutgender, no studies have examinedthis connection among Latino youth, who are frequent viewers of both English- and Spanish-language programming. The present study attempted to rectify this situation by examining connections between exposure to this content, viewer involvement, and the gender role beliefs of Latino adolescents.

Rocío Rivadeneyra; L. Monique Ward

2005-01-01

133

Histochemical Studies on the Distribution of Enzymes, Especially Oxidases and Phosphatases in the Living Body.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A gigantic peroxidase granule was detected in the polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes of the giant salamander, Megalobatrachus japonicus. The granule resembles the gigantism of the peroxidase granule that was recognized in human blood disease (Chediak...

T. Mitsui

1965-01-01

134

Growth hormone suppression test  

MedlinePLUS

... levels of GH, a condition that leads to gigantism in children and acromegaly in adults. It is ... test, then the health care provider will suspect gigantism or acromegaly. You may need to be retested ...

135

Genetics Home Reference: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome? BWS EMG syndrome Exomphalos-Macroglossia-Gigantism Syndrome Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS) For more information ... duplication ; egg ; embryonic ; epigenetic ; expressed ; gene ; gene expression ; gigantism ; hemihyperplasia ; hernia ; hypoglycemia ; imprinting ; inheritance ; kidney ; liver cancer ; ...

136

Pituitary: Secretory Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... may be monitored carefully without treatment. Acromegaly and gigantism Acromegaly is a rare disease typically caused by ... but can occur in older or younger adults. Gigantism is similar to acromegaly but occurs in children. ...

137

Genetics Home Reference: Familial isolated pituitary adenoma  

MedlinePLUS

... children or adolescents can lead to increased height (gigantism), because the long bones of their arms and ... adenoma? adenoma ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; cell ; familial ; gene ; gigantism ; growth hormone ; hormone ; mutation ; neoplasia ; penetrance ; pituitary gland ; ...

138

Genetics Home Reference: Sotos syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... names do people use for Sotos syndrome? Cerebral gigantism Sotos sequence Sotos' syndrome For more information about ... autosomal dominant ; cancer ; cell ; chromosome ; contiguous ; deletion ; gene ; gigantism ; hyperactivity ; hypotonia ; incidence ; inheritance ; jaundice ; kidney ; motor ; muscle ...

139

Growth hormone test  

MedlinePLUS

... abnormal growth patterns called acromegaly in adults and gigantism in children. Too little growth hormone can cause ... High levels of growth hormone may indicate: Acromegaly Gigantism Growth hormone resistance Pituitary tumor Low levels of ...

140

Arms races and the evolution of big fierce societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The causes of biological gigantism have received much attention, but only for individual organisms. What selection pressures might favour the evolution of gigantic societies? Here we consider the largest single-queen insect societies, those of the Old World army ant, Dorylus; single colonies of which can have 20 million workers. We propose that colony gigantism in Dorylus arises as a

Graeme P. Boswell; Nigel R. Franks; N. F. Britton

2001-01-01

141

CONDILOMA GIGANTE ANOGENITAL EM MENINA DE 12 ANOS VÍTIMA DE ABUSO SEXUAL - RELATO DE CASO GIANT ANOGENITAL CONDYLOMA IN 12-YEAR-OLD-GIRL VICTIM OF SEXUALLY ABUSED - A CASE REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent, 12 years old, with warts in vulva for seven months, pain and fetid odor after use of podofilina three days ago. Repetitive sexual abuse. Treatment for syphilis four months ago with a single dose of benzatin penicilin. On examination: extensive condyloma in vulva, perineum and peria- nal, with areas of necrosis, purulent discharge and fetid odor. Hypochromic stain on

Araiz CC Pereira; Maria Luiza B Menezes; Angelina F Maia; Romualda CR Barros; Deyse S Carmo

142

Qual é a profundidade da pigmentação do nevus piloso gigante que acomete o dorso? Congenital giant nevocellular nevus of the back with worsening deep extension to the fat and fascia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giant congenital nevi are melanocytic lesions that cover large areas of the body and are associated with the development of malignant melanoma. Recent numbers showed that the risk of malignancy is lower than previously reported, making the treatment based merely on oncologic anticipation no longer suitable. The presence of deep pigmentation makes certain treatment options not as effective as surgical

MARCOS R. O. JAEGER

143

Effects of Octreotide Infusion, Surgery and Estrogen on Suppression of Height Increase and 20K Growth Hormone Ratio in a Girl with Gigantism due to a Growth Hormone-Secreting Macroadenoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We treated an extremely tall 13-year-old girl with a growth hormone (GH)-secreting macroadenoma and GH levels of 120–495 ng\\/ml with a combination of preoperative octreotide infusion, surgery and postoperative octreotide infusion plus estrogen, which resulted in reduced tumor size prior to surgery, reduced GH levels and completely suppressed growth after surgery. 20K GH is produced by alternative splicing of 22K

Masanori Minagawa; Toshiyuki Yasuda; Tomohiro Someya; Yoichi Kohno; Naokatsu Saeki; Yoshihide Hashimoto

2000-01-01

144

Collaborative Discussions at Rome and Trieste Universities, Italy, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow, Poland, and Lecture at 23RD School on Physics, Zakopane, Poland, March 26-May 1, 1988: Foreign Trip Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author traveled to Rome to work with Prof. G.E. Gigante to further a collaboration started with him during a six-month sabbatical stay at BNL. Prof. Gigante and I have been studying both theoretically and experimentally the effects of geometry on the ...

A. L. Hanson

1988-01-01

145

Ocean eddies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and empirical data for three classes of ocean eddies are summarized: 1) gigantic anticyclonic gyres; 2) meanders, rings, and synoptic eddies in the open ocean; and, 3) mesoscale eddies (lenses of foreign waters and rotating cells of forced convection). A number of new results obtained in the last few years are reported: linear and nonlinear instability of gigantic

A S Monin; G M Zhikharev

1990-01-01

146

Reviews of Topical Problems: Ocean eddies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and empirical data for three classes of ocean eddies are summarized: 1) gigantic anticyclonic gyres; 2) meanders, rings, and synoptic eddies in the open ocean; and, 3) mesoscale eddies (lenses of foreign waters and rotating cells of forced convection). A number of new results obtained in the last few years are reported: linear and nonlinear instability of gigantic

A. S. Monin; G. M. Zhikharev

1990-01-01

147

Producción sostenible y conservación de la rana gigante del lago Titikaka (Telmatobius culeus, Anura: Leptodactylidae): un nuevo desafío para La Paz, Bolivia. Conservation and sustainable production of Titikaka's lake giant toad (Telmatobius culeus, Anura: Leptodactylidae): a new challenge to La Paz, Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most relevant aspects about sustainable production and industrialization of Telmatobius culeus at Bolivian rural communities were mentioned and analyzed through a biodiversity conservation and industrial quality-controlled processes (more efficient and less contaminating) production proposal. This sustainable production proposal gives a new challenge to region's people, who

Francisco Fontúrbel Rada

148

Report of the National Research Center for Disaster Prevention, No. 43, March 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Focal Mechanisms of Intracrustal Earthquakes and Stress Field of the Earth Crust in the Kanto-Chubu Area, Japan; Recent Swarm Activity around the Izu peninsula; Gigantic landslides and debris avalanches on Yatsugatake volcano - Case studies on v...

1989-01-01

149

The plating solution and the human body: Complex electrochemical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thesis proposed is that a plating solution is much like the human body. The body is nothing more than a gigantic complex of molecules and chemicals working together in harmony - so is a plating solution.

Dini

1986-01-01

150

Cloud Formation and Water Transport on Mars After Major Outflow Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The triggering of a robust water cycle on Mars might have been caused by the gigantic flooding events evidenced by outflow channels. We use the Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) to test this hypothesis.

Santiago, D. L.; Colaprete, A.; Kreslavsky, M.; Kahre, M. A.; Asphaug, E.

2012-03-01

151

Deep Water Isopods (Crustacea. Isopoda) of the North-Western Part of the Pacific Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Systematic list of the species discovered; Classification; Vertical distribution; Morphological peculiarities of deep-water Isopoda; Deep-water gigantism; Feeding; Reproduction; Epiphytes and parasites; Zoogeography; Some problems of origin and ...

Y. A. Birstein

1973-01-01

152

Mars: Volcanism in the Valles Marineris Overlooked.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Do volcanic rocks exist in the Valles Marineris. This question is pertinent because the Valles Marineris are gigantic grabens, rivaling rift valleys on earth in size and depth. The Valles Marineris were interpreted as extensional tectonic structures, perh...

B. K. Lucchitta

1988-01-01

153

Sotos Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Sotos Syndrome Information Page Synonym(s): Cerebral Gigantism Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Sotos Syndrome? Is there any treatment? What is the prognosis? What research is ...

154

McCune-Albright syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... fractures Deformities of the bones in the face Gigantism Irregular, large patchy café-au-lait spots , especially ... skull Abnormal heart rhythms ( arrhythmias ) Acromegaly Adrenal ... Hyperthyroidism Hypophosphatemia Large café-au-lait spots ...

155

Contrasting growth strategies of pond versus marine populations of nine-spined stickleback ( Pungitius pungitius ): a combined effect of predation and competition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gigantism in isolated ponds in the absence of sympatric fish species has previously been observed in nine-spined sticklebacks\\u000a (Pungitius pungitius). Patterns in sexual size dimorphism suggested that fecundity selection acting on females might be responsible for the phenomenon.\\u000a However, the growth strategy behind gigantism in pond sticklebacks has not been studied yet. Here, we compared von Bertalanffy\\u000a growth parameters of

Gábor Herczeg; Abigél Gonda; Anna Kuparinen; Juha Merilä

156

Reviews of Topical Problems: Ocean eddies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory and empirical data for three classes of ocean eddies are summarized: 1) gigantic anticyclonic gyres; 2) meanders, rings, and synoptic eddies in the open ocean; and, 3) mesoscale eddies (lenses of foreign waters and rotating cells of forced convection). A number of new results obtained in the last few years are reported: linear and nonlinear instability of gigantic gyres, the Hamiltonian formalism for Rossby-Blinova waves, an eddy-resolving model of global ocean circulation, the discovery of deep mesoscale lenses of foreign waters, and the general prevalence of rotating cells of forced convection in the upper layer of the ocean.

Monin, A. S.; Zhikharev, G. M.

1990-05-01

157

Methods of Mathematical and Computational Physics for Industry, Science, and Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many industrial problems provide scientists with important and challenging problems that need to be solved today rather than tomorrow. The key role of mathematical physics, modelling, and computational methodologies in addressing such problems continues to increase. Science has never been exogenous to applied research. Gigantic ships and steam engines, repeating catapult of Dionysius and the Antikythera `computer' invented around 80BC

Roderick V N Melnik; Frands Voss

2006-01-01

158

Air-density-dependent model for analysis of air heating associated with streamers, leaders, and transient luminous events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue and gigantic jets are transient luminous events in the middle atmosphere that form when conventional lightning leaders escape upward from the thundercloud. The conditions in the Earth's atmosphere (i.e., air density, reduced electric field, etc.) leading to conversion of hot leader channels driven by thermal ionization near cloud tops to nonthermal streamer forms observed at higher altitudes are not

Jeremy A. Riousset; Victor P. Pasko; Anne Bourdon

2010-01-01

159

Shake It up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If scientists know where earthquakes are most likely to occur, then architects and engineers can design safer buildings for such areas and potentially prevent some of the devastating aftereffects. Engineers have met this challenge through the design and use of gigantic shake tables to evaluate the stability of various structures. In this 45-minute…

Gilstrap, Tatiana; Sheldon, Peter; Schimmoeller, Peggy

2010-01-01

160

Life-cycle energy assessment of urban residential buildings in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of rapid urbanization in China, urban residential buildings play an important role in the fulfillment of well-being society. Behind the gigantic demand on housings in the future decade, urban residential buildings will exert great impacts on the sustainable development of entire nation which deserves research and analysis. Based on the dichotomized energy types (emergy and operation energy),

Lei Shu-hual; Chang Yuan; Zhang Xue

2010-01-01

161

NOMAD: networked-observation and mobile-agent-based scene abstraction and determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advancement of the sensor network technology and cyber physical systems [2], the merging between the virtual cyber space and the real physical world is bound to happen, which will impact the lifestyle of the human being. The metropolitan area sensor networks, composed of millions of heterogeneous sensors and penetrating every aspect of the city life, provide gigantic amount

Lin Zhang; Wenzhu Zhang; Xinyu Mao; Jiantao Jiao; Shijie Zheng; Linglong Li; Yujie Liu; Teng Wang; Ming Gu

2010-01-01

162

Coral Reefs: A Gallery Program, Grades 7-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gallery classes at the National Aquarium in Baltimore give the opportunity to study specific aquarium exhibits which demonstrate entire natural habitats. The coral reef gallery class features the gigantic western Atlantic coral reef (325,000 gallons) with over 1,000 fish. The exhibit simulates a typical Caribbean coral reef and nearby sandy…

National Aquarium in Baltimore, MD. Dept. of Education.

163

Testing the west: Consumerism and national identity in eastern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

With unification, Western?style consumerism washed over East Germany in a gigantic wave that stood in marked contrast to the socialist reality of limited supply and suppressed demands. This article examines the impact of consumerism as a repository of national identities in the new Länder in the aftermath of 1989. It argues that from a quantitative perspective East Germans firmly internalised

Andreas Staab

1997-01-01

164

Mechanical Analysis of Feeding Behavior in the Extinct ``Terror Bird'' Andalgalornis steulleti (Gruiformes: Phorusrhacidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South American phorusrhacid bird radiation comprised at least 18 species of small to gigantic terrestrial predators for which there are no close modern analogs. Here we perform functional analyses of the skull of the medium-sized (?40 kg) patagornithine phorusrhacid Andalgalornis steulleti (upper Miocene–lower Pliocene, Andalgalá Formation, Catamarca, Argentina) to assess its mechanical performance in a comparative context. Based on

Federico J. Degrange; Claudia P. Tambussi; Karen Moreno; Lawrence M. Witmer; Stephen Wroe; Samuel T. Turvey

2010-01-01

165

China as an economic powerhouse: Implications on its neighbors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise of China as an economic powerhouse has caused concerns in its neighbors. Prevailing in the region is the fear that China is becoming a gigantic “regional factory” that will “hollow out” neighboring economies' industries. In this paper, we emphasize the economic benefits that a rising Chinese economy can bring into the region. A discussion on the country's growth

Tilak ABEYSINGHE; Ding LU

2003-01-01

166

Idikki gives economic boost to South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Idikki project, now half completed is a complex of three gigantic dams, impounding a single reservoir, a head tunnel almost 2 km long, and an underground power house. The project is 120 km inland from the old sea port of Cochin and is located in South Western Ghats in Kerala State in South India. The project comprises three dams

Ghaswala

1976-01-01

167

Mathematics in Use: Suspension Bridges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the mathematics utilized in the design and construction of suspension bridges, in general, then illustrates these mathematical concepts by examining data associated with the Mackinac Bridge, which connects the two peninsulas of Michigan. Emphasizes the strong interest factor these gigantic structures have for students by attaching a sense…

Ginther, John L.

1992-01-01

168

THE HISTORIOGRAPHY OF THE MASS WORKER  

Microsoft Academic Search

We, with our 'Americanism', with our metropolitan ideology, with the two great 'locations' set at the centre of our historical memory, of our theoretical and ideological identity: the class struggles of the American proletariat, and the gigantic and tragic German Communist movement of 1918 to 1932 (Scalzone 1981: 9). Workerism in the years before the Hot Autumn had secured only

Steve Wright

169

The proteus syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four boys are described with partial gigantism of the hands and\\/or feet, pigmented nevi, hemihypertrophy, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors and macrocephaly, and\\/or other skull anomalies. Three of these patients showed an accelerated growth in their first years of life. Two suffered from cystiform pulmonary abnormalities. The children showed normal mental development with the exception of one with traumatic brain damage. Parental

H.-R. Wiedemann; G. R. Burgio; P. Aldenhoff; J. Kunze; H. J. Kaufmann; E. Schirg

1983-01-01

170

On heavy dustfall observed with explosive sandstorms in Chongwon-Chongju, Korea in 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous monitoring of sand and duststorms (SD) and associated heavy dustfall (HD) is made in Korea. In particular, accurate measurements of atmospheric dust loadings have been carried out with the tapered element oscillating microbalance method, and satellite detection of dust clouds is included in the analysis. In 2002, we found three gigantic dust clouds that moved over the Korean Peninsula,

Yong-seung Chung; Hak-sung Kim; Jugder Dulama; Joyce Harris

2003-01-01

171

Science 101: If an insect grows to human size, will it have superhuman strength?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If insects grew to gigantic proportions, could they take over the world with their super-strength? To find and understand the answer, you have to understand a bit of basic geometry and how it applies to all kinds of organisms of different sizes.

Robertson, William C.

2006-04-01

172

PREFACE: 1982 International Conference on Plasma Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invited Papers: The Physics of Hot Plasmas During the last decade a dramatic evolution of plasma physics has occurred. Not only have gigantic fusion plasma machines been planned, and are now being built, and elaborate spaceships and antenna systems been constructed to explore remote parts of the cosmos; new observations have revealed fascinating structures in space, ranging from pulsar plasmas

Hans Wilhelmsson

1982-01-01

173

The Volcano Adventure Guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adventure travels to volcanoes offer chance encounters with danger, excitement, and romance, plus opportunities to experience scientific enlightenment and culture. To witness a violently erupting volcano and its resulting impacts on landscape, climate, and humanity is a powerful personal encounter with gigantic planetary forces. To study volcano processes and products during eruptions is to walk in the footsteps of Pliny

Fraser Goff

2005-01-01

174

BotEC: The Right Eye of the Man in the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Question The "right eye" of the Man in the Moon is really Mare Imbrium, the central portion of a gigantic multi-ring basin formed by a colossal meteorite impact several billion years ago. Which of the following is approximately the same size as Mare Imbrium? Choose from the Pacific Ocean, the North Atlantic Ocean, Australia, Texas, and New York State.

Tewksbury, Barb

175

Emissions of VOCs at Urban Petrol Retail Distribution Centres in India (Delhi and Mumbai)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution has assumed gigantic proportion killing almost half a million Asians every year. Urban pollution mainly comprises of emissions from buses, trucks, motorcycle other forms of motorized transport and its supporting activities. As Asia's cities continue to expand the number of vehicles have risen resulting in greater pollution. Fugitive emissions from retail distribution center in urban area constitute a

Anjali Srivastava; A. E. Joseph; Ajit More; Sunil Patil

2005-01-01

176

Untying the Gordian Data Knot. A Paper on Information Engineering (IE) and Corporate Information Management (CIM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic building blocks are coming together, but the most difficult work is yet to come. DoD must find the best way to transition the data in its legacy and migration systems which today are integrated into a gigantic gordian knot. The Defense Informati...

W. F. Reyers

1993-01-01

177

Assessing Glacier Hazards At Ghiacciaio Del Belvedere, Macugnaga, Italian Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uppermost section of the Valle Anzasca behind and above the community of Macugnaga in the Italian Alps is one of the most spectacular high-mountain land- scapes in Europe, with gigantic rock walls and numerous steep hanging glaciers. Its main glacier, Ghiacciaio del Belvedere at the foot of the huge Monte Rosa east face, is a heavily debris-covered glacier flowing

W. Haeberli; M. Chiarle; G. Mortara; A. Mazza

2002-01-01

178

Oort Cloud.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Views of the large-scale structure of the solar system, consisting of the Sun, the nine planets and their satellites, changed when Oort demonstrated that a gigantic cloud of comets (the Oort cloud) is located on the periphery of the solar system. The foll...

L. S. Marochnik L. M. Mukhin R. Z. Sagdeev

1991-01-01

179

A simple model of the financial crisis of 2007-2009, with implications for the design of a stimulus package  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to provide a grammar for dissecting the financial crisis that began in the housing finance market of industrialized nations in 2007, rapidly becoming a general credit crisis and spreading to all parts of the world and causing a global recession of gigantic proportions. The unexpectedness and force of the crisis has had

Kaushik Basu

2011-01-01

180

Deep Footprints of OdysseyChinese Sources of India–China Civilisational Dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the presentation of the joint project on twenty centuries of civilisational dialogue between India and China, India and China: Twenty Centuries of Civilizational Interaction and Vibrations, with Professor Tan Chung. Chinese literature, in its gigantic historical spatiality, has captured crucial glimpses and registered innumerable milestones of the odyssey of India–China civilisational dialogue. The division of labour between me

Geng Yinzeng

2006-01-01

181

Cambodia: Lasting key to Southeast Asia's stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite many positive changes inside Cambodia in recent years, it remains the region's weakest spot: It is caught forever between Vietnam's slow but inexorable expansion southward and westward over the centuries, Thailand's historic instinct to play hostile neighboring elements off against each other as a means of guaranteeing its own survival, and gigantic China to the north. With Russia and

Robert H. Miller

1995-01-01

182

A New Sauropodomorph Dinosaur from the Early Jurassic of Patagonia and the Origin and Evolution of the Sauropod-type Sacrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe origin of sauropod dinosaurs is one of the major landmarks of dinosaur evolution but is still poorly understood. This drastic transformation involved major skeletal modifications, including a shift from the small and gracile condition of primitive sauropodomorphs to the gigantic and quadrupedal condition of sauropods. Recent findings in the Late Triassic–Early Jurassic of Gondwana provide critical evidence to understand

Diego Pol; Alberto Garrido; Ignacio A. Cerda; Andrew Allen Farke

2011-01-01

183

RECONSTRUCTION AND LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS OF THE JUPITER SANCTUARY AT BAALBEK USING 3D CG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jupiter Sanctuary at Baalbek, Jordan, is one of the most grandiose sanctuaries of the Roman antiquity. Its architectural magnificence must have been the last phase of the development which the ancient Mediterranean civilization had sought for. The gigantic building complex of the Propylon, courts, surrounding stoas, and the temple itself were laid around a single axis, forming the symmetrical

J. Ito; S. Sueyasu

184

Rock "n" Roll Presidents on Mount Rushmore. Second Grade Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A historian, Doane Robinson, and a sculptor, Gutzon Borglum, worked together to build a gigantic monument in South Dakota that honored four of the greatest U.S. presidents: George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt, and Thomas Jefferson. Robinson and Borglum wanted the monument to represent U.S. ideals. To celebrate the anniversary…

Sawyer, Debbie

185

Nuralagus rex, gen. et sp. nov., an endemic insular giant rabbit from the Neogene of Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new insular endemic lagomorph from the Late Neogene karstic deposits of Minorca (Balearic islands, Spain). Nuralagus rex, gen. et sp. nov., is characterized by an array of odd traits unknown for lagomorphs. Most outstanding are the gigantic size (average 12 kg), the robust postcranial skeleton with unique morphological traits (short manus and pes with splayed phalanges, short and

Josep Quintana; Meike Köhler; Salvador Moyà-Solà

2011-01-01

186

Fossils and Dinosaurs--A Fully Integrated Instructional Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This lesson plan for the second and third grades uses information on dinosaurs, their adaptations and survival, to provide science education for limited-English-proficient (LEP) students in San Diego, California. The primary text is "Los Dinosaurios Gigantes," a core literature book used in the school district. Lessons are based on the whole…

Kuehl, Matt; And Others

187

Rock Breakage Energy and Large-Scale Low-Friction Geodynamic Phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the anomalously low frictional resistance to the motion of large rock ava-lanches, gigantic blockslides and large faults can be explained quantitatively by including the energetics of rock breakage in a simulation model. Griffith (1920) defined fracture energy as the amount of energy needed to create unit area of new rock surface by breaking rocks into smaller fragments,

T. R. Davies; M. J. McSaveney

2010-01-01

188

The Story of Semco: The Company that Humanized Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines and analyzes Semco, a company that changed the way it viewed and treated its workers for the better. It is the contention of Semco's CEO, that at most large corporations "everyone is part of a gigantic, impersonal machine, and it is impossible to feel motivated when you feel you are just another cog. Human nature demands…

Vanderburg, David

2004-01-01

189

Skeletal muscle titin: physiology and pathophysiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titins are a family of gigantic filamentous muscle proteins essential for muscle structure, function and development. Most of their sequence consists of repetitive modules of two superfamily motifs, immunoglobulin and fibronectin, interspersed with unique sequences. A special feature is that many regions are differentially expressed in different muscle types, providing unique characteristics. Titin is evolutionarily old, and many regions are

G. O. Skeie

2000-01-01

190

Contraction Cracking and Ice Wedge Polygons in Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Viking images reported gigantic polygonal patterns on the surface of Mars and since then, the origin of these polygons has been the subject of much discussion. The shape of these polygons are not only similar to terrestrial frost contraction crack polygons such as ice wedge polygons or soil wedge polygons, but the conditions under which these polygons develop also

K. Yoshikawa

2000-01-01

191

Molecular Clouds, Star Formation and Galactic Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Radio observations show that the gigantic clouds of molecules where stars are born are distributed in various ways in spiral galaxies, perhaps accounting for the variation in their optical appearance. Research studies and findings in this area are reported and discussed. (JN)|

Scoville, Nick; Young, Judith S.

1984-01-01

192

First insights into the biodiversity and biogeography of the Southern Ocean deep sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow marine benthic communities around Antarctica show high levels of endemism, gigantism, slow growth, longevity and late maturity, as well as adaptive radiations that have generated considerable biodiversity in some taxa. The deeper parts of the Southern Ocean exhibit some unique environmental features, including a very deep continental shelf and a weakly stratified water column, and are the source for

Angelika Brandt; Andrew J. Gooday; Simone N. Brandão; Saskia Brix; Wiebke Brökeland; Tomas Cedhagen; Madhumita Choudhury; Nils Cornelius; Bruno Danis; Ilse de Mesel; Robert J. Diaz; David C. Gillan; Brigitte Ebbe; John A. Howe; Dorte Janussen; Stefanie Kaiser; Katrin Linse; Marina Malyutina; Jan Pawlowski; Michael Raupach; Ann Vanreusel

2007-01-01

193

Geological and geophysical evidence for a holocene tsunami deposit in the astern Mediterranean deep-sea record  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended geological and geophysical exploration of basinal settings in different areas of the eastern Mediterranean demonstrate the existence of a Holocene mud layer several metres in thickness (up to more than 20 m) and typically showing a graded basal part. The event producing this peculiar deposit is correlated with the gigantic ‘Bronze Age’ or Minoan eruption of the Santorini volcano

Maria Bianca Cita; Bianca Rimoldi

1997-01-01

194

Hydrogeological insights in antiquity as indicated by Canaanite and Israelite water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazor, one of the largest fortified city during the Israelite (Iron-Age) period, encompasses a gigantic underground water system within its perimeter, supplying water to thousands of its inhabitants. It is considered as the ultimate example that Iron-Age engineers had mastered the concept of regional groundwater table. However, evaluating the hydrogeological conditions and the degree of success in finding water in

Ram Weinberger; Amihai Sneh; Eyal Shalev

2008-01-01

195

Hypothetical endosymbiontic zooxanthellae in rudists are not needed to explain their ecological niches and thick shells in comparison with hermatypic corals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragments of gigantic Durania farafrahensis Douvillé from Maastrichtian pelagic settings (Ghareb chalk) in southern Israel triggered the re-evaluation of the hypothetical symbiosis of rudists with photosynthesizing zooxanthellae. This Durania lived as separate individuals on the muddy bottom of the deep sea and hence was the only rigid substrate to which sponges, octocorals and algae probably attached, attracting other organisms for

Z. Lewy

1995-01-01

196

Markarian 348 - A tidally disturbed Seyfert galaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined optical and radio images of galaxies can provide new insights into the sizes, masses, and possible evolution of these objects. Deep optical and neutral hydrogen images of Markarian 348, a type 2 Seyfert galaxy, show that it is a gigantic spiral (perhaps the largest known noncluster galaxy). Measurements of the neutral hydrogen velocity field and spiral structure, and detection

Susan M. Simkin; Jacqueline van Gorkom; John Hibbard; Hong-Jun Su

1987-01-01

197

Familial Dandy-Walker malformation and leukodystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first familial cases with two different types of posterior fossa cystic malformation and a leukodystrophic-like aspect on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The girl and her brother had severe encephalopathy, marked hypotonia, absent deep tendon reflexes, macrocrania, gigantism, and dysmorphic face and extremities. The girl had generalized seizures. The boy had unilateral cataract and bilateral optic atrophy.

Véronique T. Humbertclaude; Philippe A. Coubes; Nicolas Leboucq; Bernard B. Echenne

1997-01-01

198

Wireless network deployment configurations: Dwesa marginalized area as a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several technological initiatives have been, and will continue to be implemented across the world to tackle the major barriers in bridging the digital divide. These include the use of Internet and other ICTs. This is seen as a gigantic step in the alleviation of the different paramount social-economic problems, at the same time, in the transformation of the society and

Nkanyiso Ndlovu; Nobert Jere; Handsome Mpofu

2010-01-01

199

Modern science for a new theory of evolution of the living  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatise of biological evolution is one of the most popular and at the same time most outdated doctrines in modern natural science. If the development of sciences such as genetics, the biology of individual development, or paleontology, on which this treatise is based, is assessed for the 20th century, it may be stated that gigantic changes in their foundations

V. I. Nazarov

2007-01-01

200

Primordial Antimatter Plasmas in Our Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Comets have been discovered to be the source of primordial antimatter in our solar system. The announcement was made at April 2002 joint meeting of American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society. When sungrazer comets colliding with the Sun, they produce large sunspots and gigantic solar storms. These enormous ambiplasma storms travel hundreds of millions of

N. Hansen

2006-01-01

201

The Story of Semco: The Company that Humanized Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines and analyzes Semco, a company that changed the way it viewed and treated its workers for the better. It is the contention of Semco’s CEO, that at most large corporations “everyone is part of a gigantic, impersonal machine, and it is impossible to feel motivated when you feel you are just another cog. Human nature demands recognition.

David Vanderburg

2004-01-01

202

Mixed-magma pyroclastic surge deposits associated with debris avalanche deposits at Colima volcanoes, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition between the terminal cones and the ancestral edifices of Nevado de Colima and Fuego de Colima volcanoes is marked by the deposits of gigantic volcanic debris avalanches of the Mount St. Helens (MSH) or Bezymianny type. Unusual mafic juvenile fragments and cauliflower bombs as well as juvenile fragments of mixed and more evolved composition are abundant in dune-bedded

Claude Robin; Jean-Christophe Komorowski; Christian Boudal; Philippe Mossand

1990-01-01

203

SME Development Policies in Different Stages of Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preponderance of large firms and economic gigantism under the communist economic system, has been steadily reversed over the last decade in most transition economies. Typically, the largest proportion of the numbers of firms are now classified in the category of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). As one would expect, their contribution to employment and value added is of

Will Bartlett

2001-01-01

204

Non Linear Elasticity in the Free Oscillations of the Earth as Revealed by Spectral and Bispectral Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the present report the stationary waves following the Chilean earthquake of May 22, 1960, as recorded by the pair of horizontal pendulums situated in the Earth Tides Station of the Grotta Gigante near Trieste, are examined. Three distinct results have ...

A. Marussi M. Bozzizadro G. Manzoni

1968-01-01

205

The darkness and claustrophobia of the city: Victor Hugo and the myth of Paris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dark, mysterious, and dangerous: The representation of Paris in 19thcentury French literature contrasts sharply with the ideals and expectations of a society that dreamt of progress and modernity. Through his symbolism, Victor Hugo recaptures the dark side of Balzac's Paris, and turns the capital into a gigantic spider's web that symbolises the power of Fate upon individuals, and underlines the

Ariane Smart

2000-01-01

206

The Story of Semco: The Company that Humanized Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines and analyzes Semco, a company that changed the way it viewed and treated its workers for the better. It is the contention of Semco's CEO, that at most large corporations "everyone is part of a gigantic, impersonal machine, and it is impossible to feel motivated when you feel you are just another cog. Human nature demands…

Vanderburg, David

2004-01-01

207

Energy and charge control in mass spectrometry of synthetic polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic polymers are the products of humans’ attempts to imitate nature’s gigantic molecular chain architectures. The extended variety of building blocks and reaction mechanisms resulted in a plethora of different polymeric architectures. The biggest challenge for polymer chemists is to develop an understanding of the relation between the chemical structure of polymers and their physicochemical and mechanical properties. Mass spectrometry

A. Nasioudis

2011-01-01

208

Serendipity doesn't happen by chance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serendipity occurs when unexpected encounters lead to meaningful and often pleasurable experiences. We observe serendipitous encounters in human-computer interactions with technologies such as random image displays and with shuffle listening of digital music. In fact, the World Wide Web itself is a gigantic playground for serendipitous encounters as we browse and meander from one topic to another. Even though the

Tuck W Leong; Frank Vetere; Steve Howard

209

Fermi discovers giant bubbles in Milky Way  

NASA Video Gallery

Using data from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, scientists have recently discovered a gigantic, mysterious structure in our galaxy. This feature looks like a pair of bubbles extending above and below our galaxy's center. Each lobe is 25,000 light-years tall and the whole structure may be only a few million years old.

gsfcvideo

2010-11-08

210

Waste Management in Developing AsiaCan Trade and Cooperation Help?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems relating to mounting solid waste are fast acquiring gigantic proportions in the developing countries of Asia. Most of the countries, nevertheless, continue to primarily focus on achieving high economic growth and pay scant attention to waste management. This article takes a detailed look at the inadequacies of waste management in Asia and underscores the need for greater international

Amit Ray

2008-01-01

211

Development of high purity large forgings for nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent increase in the size of energy plants has been supported by the development of manufacturing technology for high purity large forgings for the key components of the plant. To assure the reliability and performance of the large forgings, refining technology to make high purity steels, casting technology for gigantic ingots, forging technology to homogenize the material and consolidate

Yasuhiko Tanaka; Ikuo Sato

2011-01-01

212

Ancient drainage basin of the Tharsis region, Mars: Potential source for outflow channel systems and putative oceans or paleolakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleotopographic reconstructions based on a synthesis of published geologic information and high-resolution topography, including topographic profiles, reveal the potential existence of an enormous drainage basin\\/aquifer system in the eastern part of the Tharsis region during the Noachian Period. Large topographic highs formed the margin of the gigantic drainage basin. Subsequently, lavas, sediments, and volatiles partly infilled the basin, resulting in

J. M. Dohm; J. C. Ferris; V. R. Baker; R. C. Anderson; T. M. Hare; R. G. Strom; N. G. Barlow; K. L. Tanaka; J. E. Klemaszewski; D. H. Scott

2001-01-01

213

Could some biomechanical effects of growth hormone help to explain its effects on bone formation and resorption?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article suggests that growth hormone effects on bone biomechanical factors help to cause changes in osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities in gigantism and growth-hormone-deficiency states. The suggestion stands partly on the following evidence. (1) In growing mammals, acute partial disuse decreases or stops longitudinal bone growth and periosteal bone formation and increases in outside bone diameter. Yet, in metaphyseal spongiosa,

H. M. Frost

1998-01-01

214

Outflow Channels and Martian Climate: General Circulation Model (GCM) Simulations with Emplaced Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of past surface water on Mars has been inferred on the basis of geomorphologic interpretation of spacecraft images. Among the most intriguing signatures of surface water are large outflow channels believed to have been carved out by gigantic flood events in the late Noachian or Hesperian. We use the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) to study

D. Santiago; A. Colaprete; R. Haberle; E. Asphaug; L. Sloan

2005-01-01

215

Commentary: Physician–Scientist's Frustrations Fester  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing problem of major proportions had been confronting biomedical scientists for many decades. Until solved, this long-neglected problem, the abject failure of the American health care system, presents a gigantic obstacle to the application of the discoveries flowing from neuropsychopharmacological research into deliverable medications utilized by medical practitioners. Although it is recognized that such advances could benefit all of

Floyd E Bloom; Emeritus FE Bloom

2009-01-01

216

Undulatory Locomotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undulatory locomotion is a means of self-propulsion that relies on the generation and propagation of waves along a body. As a mode of locomotion it is primitive and relatively simple, yet can be remarkably robust. No wonder then, that it is so prevalent across a range of biological scales from motile bacteria to gigantic prehistoric snakes. Key to understanding undulatory

Netta Cohen; Jordan H. Boyle

2009-01-01

217

The oligotrophic peatlands of Western Siberia-the largest peino-helobiome in the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper summarizes the vegetation pattern of the largest swamp (peat bog) area in the world. The core area covers about 800×1800 km (NS x EW) in West Siberia between the Ural mountains and the river Yenisey. The core area is one gigantic oligotrophic swamp (Peino-Helobiome acc), the new classification suggested in Walter 1976, see also summary in Vegetatio 32,

Heinrich Walter

1997-01-01

218

Gender, Education and Child Labour: A Sociological Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In all societies, boys and girls are assigned different societal roles and experience different perspectives of life as a result of their being male or female. Such differences have a gigantic impact on their lives. The importance of gender perspective is very important in understanding the convolution of child labour. Gender, as opposed to sex,…

Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

2010-01-01

219

Shake It up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|If scientists know where earthquakes are most likely to occur, then architects and engineers can design safer buildings for such areas and potentially prevent some of the devastating aftereffects. Engineers have met this challenge through the design and use of gigantic shake tables to evaluate the stability of various structures. In this…

Gilstrap, Tatiana; Sheldon, Peter; Schimmoeller, Peggy

2010-01-01

220

Wildland fires and nuclear winters. Selected reconstruction of historic large fires. Technical report, 1 March 1985-28 February 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the nuclear winter scenario, large wildland fires are expected to contribute to a general smoke plume and are considered potential analogues for the behavior of gigantic palls. As a means of testing the reasonableness of current estimates of a wildland fire contribution, the authors reconstructed from the historic record two major events; the Tillamook Burn of August 1933 and

S. J. Pyne; P. N. Omi

1986-01-01

221

Using the Structure of HTML Documents to Improve Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Wide Web (WWW) is a gigantic information resource, which is growing daily. As more and more data are added to the WWW, it is becoming increasingly difficult to effectively locate useful information from this environment. In this paper, we propose a method for making use of the structures and hyperlinks of HTML documents to improve the effectiveness of

Michal Cutler; Yungming Shih; Weiyi Meng

1997-01-01

222

Centroid single force inversion of seismic waves generated by landslides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The centroid moment tensor (CMT) waveform inversion method of Dziewonski et al. (1981) is modified to analyze long period seismic waves generated by ``single force'' events such as the gigantic landslides associated with the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. We refer to the method as centroid single force (CSF) inversion. As the result of the inversion we obtain the

Hitoshi Kawakatsu

1989-01-01

223

Sadness, tragedy and mass disaster in Oklahoma City: providing critical incident stress debriefings to a community in crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortly after 09:00 h on 19 April 1995, the Alfred P Murrah Federal Building, located in downtown Oklahoma City, was devastated with a bomb blast of such gigantic proportions that it was heard 60 miles away in neighbouring Norman, Oklahoma. Oklahomans routinely commuting to work on that sunny Wednesday morning went about their business as usual. A crude bomb chemically

J. A. Davis

1996-01-01

224

Composición química de cúmulos globulares galácticos: metalicidades derivadas a partir de fotometría de Washington  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se presentan temperaturas efectivas y abundancias de 183 gigantes rojas en 7 cúmulos globulares galácticos, derivadas a partir de fotometría de Washington realizada en Cerro Tololo. Las metalicidades provienen de una calibración que tiene en cuenta la disminución de sensibilidad de algunos índices con la temperatura. Los valores medios de [Fe/H] obtenidos oscilan entre -1.2 y -2.15, con errores típicos del orden de 0.2 salvo un par de excepciones. Teniendo en cuenta que el índice (C-T1) es significativamente más sensible a la metalicidad que (V-I), se presenta una calibración de abundancia basada en el color (C-T1)o de la rama gigante roja para una determinada magnitud absoluta M(T1). Las abundancias derivadas confirman en general la escala de Zinn (1985, ApJ, 293, 424).

Torres, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.

225

Gunneraceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perennial herbs, either with ascending or creeping pachycaulous stems, covered with large leaf scars, apically with large\\u000a to gigantic, long-petioled leaves reaching up to c. 5 m in height (G. magnifica), and between these often covered with conspicuous bracts protecting the inflorescence and vegetative buds, or stoloniferous\\u000a and mat-forming, with short, upright stem portions bearing leaf-rosettes, reachingfrom4 cm to about

H. Wilkinson; L. Wanntorp

226

Partial inactivation of Ankrd26 causes diabetes with enhanced insulin responsiveness of adipose tissue in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  \\u000a ANKRD26 is a newly described gene located at 10p12 in humans, a locus that has been identified with some forms of hereditary obesity.\\u000a Previous studies have shown that partial inactivation of Ankrd26 in mice causes hyperphagia, obesity and gigantism. Hypothesising that Ankrd26 mutant (MT) mice could develop diabetes, we sought to establish whether the observed phenotype could be (1)

G. A. Raciti; T. K. Bera; O. Gavrilova; I. Pastan

227

Sewers, Wood Engraving and the Sublime: Picturing London's Main Drainage System in the Illustrated London News, 1859-62  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1860s London’s infrastructure was physically transformed. The building of a vast new main drainage system, designed by the engineer Joseph Bazalgette (1819–1891), was but one gigantic work among many begun in this decade, including the Metropolitan Underground Railway (from 1860), the Thames Embankment, containing part of the main drainage (from 1862), the London, Chatham and Dover railway (also

Paul Dobraszczyk

2005-01-01

228

Nanoscale disorder and local electronic properties of CaCu3Ti4O12 : An integrated study of electron, neutron, and x-ray diffraction, x-ray absorption fine structure, and first-principles calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a combined experimental and theoretical study of CaCu3Ti4O12 . Based on our experimental observations of nanoscale regions of Ca-Cu antisite defects in part of the structure, we carried out density-functional theory (DFT) calculations that suggest a possible electronic mechanism to explain the gigantic dielectric response in this material. The defects are evident in atomically resolved transmission electron microscopy

Jin-Cheng Zheng; A. I. Frenkel; L. Wu; J. Hanson; W. Ku; E. S. Bozin; S. J. L. Billinge; Yimei Zhu; Y. Zhu

2010-01-01

229

Protection of Cities from Small Rockets, Missiles, Projectiles and Mortar Shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors suggest a low cost closed AB-Dome, which may protect small cities such as Sederot from rockets, mortar shells, chemical and biological weapons. The offered AB-Dome is also very useful in peacetime because it protects the city from outside weather (violent storms, hail) and creates a fine climate within the Dome. The roughly hemispherical AB-Dome is a gigantic inflated

Alexander Bolonkin; Joseph Friedlander

2008-01-01

230

Two brothers with renal and hepatic polycystic disease treated with combined liver and kidney transplantation: a case report.  

PubMed

We report two brothers with renal and hepatic polycystic disease who developed end-stage renal failure, requiring hemodialysis, and organomegaly syndrome related to the gigantic size of the liver and both kidneys. Although there was no liver failure, combined liver and kidney transplantation was performed owing to worsening of the clinical condition. In both cases, successful transplantation was accomplished with intra-abdominal engraftment of the liver and kidneys through the same abdominal incision. PMID:24034046

Pagano, D; Spada, M; Li Petri, S; Cintorino, D; Gridelli, B G; Gruttadauria, S

2013-09-01

231

Delayed Male Maturity is a Cost of Producing Large Sperm in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among fruit-fly species of the genus Drosophila there is remarkable variation in sperm length, with some species producing gigantic sperm (e.g., > 10 times total male body length). These flies are also unusual in that males of some species exhibit a prolonged adult nonreproductive phase. We document sperm length, body size, and sex-specific ages of reproductive maturity for 42 species

Scott Pitnick; Therese A. Markow; Greg S. Spicer

1995-01-01

232

Age of Carcharodon megalodon?  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAURICE Lariche1 states that the teeth of the gigantic extinct shark, Carcharodon megalodon, found on the bottom of modern oceans belong to the Pleistocene period. The report of the Challenger Expedition2 states that some shark teeth from the same station were covered with a layer of manganese dioxide-one slightly, another deeply. Among them at Station 281, depth 2,385 fathoms, South

W. Tschernezky

1959-01-01

233

A multiple translocation event in a patient with hexadactyly, facial dysmorphism, mental retardation and behaviour disorder characterised comprehensively by molecular cytogenetics. Case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a 13-year-old female patient with multiple congenital abnormalities (microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, anteverted dysplastic ears and postaxial hexadactyly), mental retardation, and adipose-gigantism. Ultrasonography revealed no signs of a heart defect or renal abnormalities. She showed no speech development and suffered from a behavioural disorder. CNS abnormalities were excluded by cerebral MRI. Initial cytogenetic studies by Giemsa banding revealed an

Jörg Seidel; Anita Heller; Gabriele Senger; Heike Starke; Ilse Chudoba; Christina Kelbova; Holger Tönnies; Heidemarie Neitzel; Claudia Haase; Volkmar Beensen; Felix Zintl; Uwe Claussen; Thomas Liehr

2003-01-01

234

Mutational analysis of the GPC3\\/GPC4 glypican gene cluster on Xq26 in patients with Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome: identification of loss-of-function mutations in the GPC3 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is an X- linked syndrome characterized by pre- and postnatal overgrowth (gigantism), which clinically resembles the autosomal Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). Deletions and translocations involving the glypican-3 gene (GPC3) have been shown to be asso- ciated with SGBS. Occasionally, these deletions also include the glypican-4 gene (GPC4). Glypicans are heparan sulfate proteoglycans which have a role in the

Mark Veugelers; Sin Ya Muyldermans; Gunter Reekmans; Nathalie Delande; Suzanne Frints; E ric Legius; Jean-Pierre Fryns; Connie Schrander-Stumpel; Bernhard Weidle; Neiva Magdalena; Guido David

2000-01-01

235

Transcription of the dystrophin gene in human muscle and non-muscle tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene that is defective in patients with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy consists of about 60 short exons scattered along a gigantic DNA region that spans some 2 megabase pairs1,2. The encoded protein, dystrophin, was recently characterized as a component of muscle intracellular membranes of low abundance3,4. The dystrophin messenger RNA is difficult to study in both normal and

Jamel Chelly; Jean-Claude Kaplan; Pascal Maire; Sophie Gautron; Axel Kahn

1988-01-01

236

Earliest Example of a Giant Monitor Lizard (Varanus, Varanidae, Squamata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundVaranidae is a clade of tiny (600 mm PCL) lizards first appearing in the Cretaceous. True monitor lizards (Varanus) are known from diagnostic remains beginning in the early Miocene (Varanus rusingensis), although extremely fragmentary remains have been suggested as indicating earlier Varanus. The paleobiogeographic history of Varanus and timing for origin of its gigantism remain uncertain.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA new Varanus from

Jack L. Conrad; Ana M. Balcarcel; Carl M. Mehling

2012-01-01

237

Characterization of Strong Light-Matter Coupling in Semiconductor Quantum-Dot Microcavities via Photon-Statistics Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that spectrally resolved photon-statistics measurements of the resonance fluorescence from realistic semiconductor quantum-dot systems allow for high contrast identification of the two-photon strong-coupling states. Using a microscopic theory, the second-rung resonance of Jaynes-Cummings ladder is analyzed and optimum excitation conditions are determined. The computed photon-statistics spectrum displays gigantic, experimentally robust resonances at the energetic positions of the

L. Schneebeli; M. Kira; S. W. Koch

2008-01-01

238

Adaptive radiation in sauropod dinosaurs: bone histology indicates rapid evolution of giant body size through acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The well-preserved histology of the geologically oldest sauropod dinosaur from the Late Triassic allows new insights into the timing and mechanism of the evolution of the gigantic body size of the sauropod dinosaurs. The oldest sauropods were already very large and show the same long-bone histology, laminar fibro-lamellar bone lacking growth marks, as the well-known Jurassic sauropods. This bone histology

P. Martin Sander; Nicole Klein; Eric Buffetaut; Gilles Cuny; Varavudh Suteethorn; Jean Le Loeuff

2004-01-01

239

Magma evolution model for the post-caldera volcanism of Aso volcano: constraints from geochemistry and mineralogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the 90-thousand-year old caldera forming plinian eruptions, Aso volcano has produced a wide range of magma compositions from basaltic to rhyolitic (Ono and Watanabe, 1985), indicating a change in the structure of the magma plumbing system. Including this Aso-4 pyroclastic flow, Aso volcano produced four gigantic caldera-forming pyroc,Oastic flows, all of which probably represent an existence of a single

M. Miyoshi; T. Hasenaka; T. Sano

2003-01-01

240

Repeated large-scale eruptions from a single compositionally stratified magma chamber: An example from Aso volcano, Southwest Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aso volcano has the largest caldera (18×25 km) in the southwestern Japan Island Arc, which was formed as a result of four gigantic pyroclastic-eruption cycles. The latest eruption cycle (Aso-4 cycle, 90 ka) produced the most voluminous deposits (>600 km3) among the four eruption cycles. We investigated pre-eruptive magma chamber configurations and processes in compositionally stratified Aso-4 pyroclastic eruptions based on whole-rock chemical,

Katsuya Kaneko; Hiroki Kamata; Takehiro Koyaguchi; Masako Yoshikawa; Kuniyuki Furukawa

2007-01-01

241

Acceleration and propagation of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of the highest energy cosmic rays represents one of the most conspicuous enigmas of modern astrophysics, in spite of gigantic experimental efforts in the past fifty years, and of active theoretical research. The past decade has known exciting experimental results, most particularly the detection of a cut-off at the expected position for the long sought Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin suppression as well as evidence for large scale anisotropies. This paper summarizes and discusses recent achievements in this field.

Lemoine, Martin

2013-02-01

242

Unusual coronal activity following the flare of 6 November 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

For almost 30 hr after the major (gamma-ray) two-ribbon flare on 6 November 1980, 03:30 UT, the Hard X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (HXIS) aboard the SMM satellite imaged in > 3.5 keV X-rays a gigantic arch extending above the active region over the limb. Like a similar configuration on 22 May 1980, this arch formed the lowest part of a stationary

Z. Švestka; B. R. Dennis; M. Pick; A. Raoult; C. G. Rapley; R. T. Stewart; B. E. Woodgate

1982-01-01

243

Component azimuths of the CEArray stations estimated from P-wave particle motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently built China Digital Seismic Network consists of the China National Digital Seismic Network (CNDSN), 31 regional\\u000a seismic networks and several small aperture arrays with more than 1 000 stations including 850+ broadband stations. It forms\\u000a a gigantic seismic array that provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the Earth’s deep interior besides its routine\\u000a task of seismic monitoring. Many

Fenglin Niu; Juan Li

2011-01-01

244

A sulfur isotope event at the end of the Permian  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hypothesis of light sulfur injection to the ocean-atmosphere system at the end of the Permian was presented by Kaiho et al. [Kaiho, K., Kajiwara, Y.,Nakano, T., Miura, Y., Kawahata, H., Tazaki, K., Ueshima, M., Chen, Z.Q., Shi, G.R., 2001. End-Permian catastrophe by a bolide impact: evidence of a gigantic release of sulfur from the mantle. Geology 29, 815–818] based

Kunio Kaiho; Yoshimichi Kajiwara; Zhong-Qiang Chen; Paul Gorjan

2006-01-01

245

Sea-floor scour at the mouth of Hudson Strait by deep-keeled icebergs from the Laurentide Ice Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical evidence on the dimensions of icebergs released from the mouth of Hudson Strait into the northwest Atlantic during the last Heinrich event (H-0) is presented. Side-scan sonar imagery shows scour marks up to 700 m wide and longer than 28 km. These scour marks were carved by gigantic icebergs (megabergs) with keel drafts possibly as great as 660 m capable of scouring

J. M. Metz; J. A. Dowdeswell; C. M. T. Woodworth-Lynas

2008-01-01

246

The soil–air exchange characteristics of total gaseous mercury from a large-scale municipal landfill area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cycle of mercury (Hg) from a gigantic landfill area (area ?2.72km2) was investigated by conducting micrometeorological measurements of its exchange rates across soil–air boundary during the spring season of 2000. Based on this field campaign, we attempted to provide various insights into the Hg exchange processes, especially with respect to the decoupling of the mixed signatures of complex source

Ki-Hyun Kim; Min-Young Kim; Gangwoong Lee

2001-01-01

247

A Novel Telescope with Micromirror for Observation of Transient Luminous Events from Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel type of telescope, a pinhole-like camera with a micromirror array, is introduced for space observation of transient luminous events (TLEs) like gigantic lightning occurring at upper atmosphere currently under question or investigation. The presented telescope has a unique feature of wide field of view (FOV) of surveillance, fast zoom-in and tracking. A high-fill factor, two-axis rotational micromirror array

J. H. Park; S. Nam; G. Garipov; J. A. Jeon; J. Y. Jin; B. Khrenov; J. E. Kim; M. Kim; Y. K. Kim; J. Lee; G. W. Na; I. H. Park; Y.-S. Park; B. W. Yoo

2009-01-01

248

ARTICLE The island rule and the evolution of body size in the deep sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Our goal is to test the generality of the island rule - a graded trend from gigantism in small-bodied species to dwarfism in large-bodied species - in the deep sea, a non-insular but potentially analogous system. Location Shallow-water and deep-sea benthic habitats in the western Atlantic Ocean from the North to South Poles. Methods We conducted regression analyses of

Craig R. McClain; Alison G. Boyer; Gary Rosenberg

249

39. Chirurgie der kongenitalen Angiodysplasien  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Diagnostically and therapeutically, three types ofangiodysplasias interfere with venous surgery:1.Congenital arteriovenous fistulas (Type F. P. Weber: secondary varicosis with local gigantism) — surgical reduction of the shunt-volume is usually indicated.2.Type Klippel-Trenaunay: Surgery for varicose veins is dangerous due to the frequent hypo- or aplasia of the deep venous system.3.Venous hemangiomatosis (Type Servelle-Martorell or Kasabach-Merritt) Any surgical intervention is contraindicated

Jörg Vollmar; E. U. Voss

1978-01-01

250

Surface runoff in a torrent catchment area in Middle Europe and its prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Schesa, a sinister contributory torrent to the Ill river near Bludenz (federal province of Vorarlberg) is the largest\\u000a basin-shaped gully of Middle Europe and endangers the underlying villages by torrential debris flow and gigantic mass movements.\\u000a The catchment is characterized by a complex geological situation, high annual precipitation and torrential rains from spring\\u000a to early autumn, which cause enormous

G. Markart; B. Kohl; R. Kirnbauer; H. Pirkl; H. Bertle; R. Stern; A. Reiterer; P. Zanetti

2006-01-01

251

The largest landslide dam in Turkey: Tortum landslide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gigantic Tortum landslide blocked the Tortum River and formed the largest landslide-dammed lake in Turkey measuring 8500 m length, 2500 m width and a surfacial area of 6.77 km2. Large and deep-seated landslides are prevalent along the steep slopes in the Tortum Valley. The Tortum landslide, located 90 km to the north of Erzurum, is one of the typical cases in the region.

Tamer Y. Duman

2009-01-01

252

[Surgery of congenital angiodysplasia (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Diagnostically and therapeutically, three types of angiodysplasias interfere with venous surgery: 1. Congenital arteriovenous fistulas (Type F.P. Weber: secondary varicosis with local gigantism)--surgical reduction of the shunt-volume is usually indicated. 2. Type Klippel-Trenaunay: Surgery for varicose veins is dangerous due to the frequent hypo- or aplasia of the deep venous system. 3. Venous hemangiomatosis (Type Servelle-Martorell or Kasabach-Merritt): Any surgical intervention is contraindicated (only external compressive therapy). PMID:215857

Vollmar, J; Voss, E U

1978-11-01

253

Echocardiographic diagnosis of a giant thrombus passing through a patent foramen ovale from right atrium to the left atrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary embolus sourced by right atrial thrombus trapped in a patent foramen ovale is an unusual, rare condition. Thus in\\u000a suspicion of massive pulmonary thromboembolus, echocardiographic examination carries great importance evaluate right ventricular\\u000a functions and diagnose right sided intracardiac thrombus. We report a 76-year-old female with massive pulmonary embolism caused\\u000a by a gigantic thrombus trapped in a patent foramen ovale.

Zehra Bugra; Dilek Hunerel; Yelda Tayyareci; Ozcan Ruzgar; Sabahattin Umman; Turkan Tansel; Mehmet Meric

2008-01-01

254

Four New Bat Species (Rhinolophus hildebrandtii Complex) Reflect Plio-Pleistocene Divergence of Dwarfs and Giants across an Afromontane Archipelago  

PubMed Central

Gigantism and dwarfism evolve in vertebrates restricted to islands. We describe four new species in the Rhinolophus hildebrandtii species-complex of horseshoe bats, whose evolution has entailed adaptive shifts in body size. We postulate that vicissitudes of palaeoenvironments resulted in gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands fragmented across eastern and southern Africa. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences recovered two clades of R. hildebrandtii senso lato which are paraphyletic with respect to a third lineage (R. eloquens). Lineages differ by 7.7 to 9.0% in cytochrome b sequences. Clade 1 includes R. hildebrandtii sensu stricto from the east African highlands and three additional vicariants that speciated across an Afromontane archipelago through the Plio-Pleistocene, extending from the Kenyan Highlands through the Eastern Arc, northern Mozambique and the Zambezi Escarpment to the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa. Clade 2 comprises one species confined to lowland savanna habitats (Mozambique and Zimbabwe). A third clade comprises R. eloquens from East Africa. Speciation within Clade 1 is associated with fixed differences in echolocation call frequency, and cranial shape and size in populations isolated since the late Pliocene (ca 3.74 Mya). Relative to the intermediate-sized savanna population (Clade 2), these island-populations within Clade 1 are characterised by either gigantism (South African eastern Great Escarpment and Mts Mabu and Inago in Mozambique) or dwarfism (Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge, Zimbabwe and Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa). Sympatry between divergent clades (Clade 1 and Clade 2) at Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge (NW Zimbabwe) is attributed to recent range expansions. We propose an “Allometric Speciation Hypothesis”, which attributes the evolution of this species complex of bats to divergence in constant frequency (CF) sonar calls. The origin of species-specific peak frequencies (overall range?=?32 to 46 kHz) represents the allometric effect of adaptive divergence in skull size, represented in the evolution of gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands.

Taylor, Peter J.; Stoffberg, Samantha; Monadjem, Ara; Schoeman, Martinus Corrie; Bayliss, Julian; Cotterill, Fenton P. D.

2012-01-01

255

BibNetMiner: mining bibliographic information networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online bibliographic databases, such as DBLP in computer science and PubMed in medical sciences, contain abundant information about research publications in dierent fields. Each such database forms a gigantic information network (hence called BibNet), connecting in complex ways research papers, authors, conferences\\/journals, and possibly citation information as well, and provides a fertile land for infor- mation network analysis. Our BibNetMiner

Yizhou Sun; Tianyi Wu; Zhijun Yin; Hong Cheng; Jiawei Han; Xiaoxin Yin; Peixiang Zhao

2008-01-01

256

Giant negative thermal expansion in Ge-doped anti-perovskite manganese nitrides  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the discovery of a large negative thermal expansion (NTE) up to alpha=-25×10-6 K-1 (alpha: coefficient of linear thermal expansion) in Ge-doped anti-perovskite manganese nitrides Mn3AN (A=Cu,Zn,Ga). This gigantic NTE is several to ten times higher than that of commercially available NTE materials. The discontinuous lattice expansion seen in pure Mn3AN is broadened by Ge substitution over a wide

K. Takenaka; H. Takagi

2005-01-01

257

Proteus syndrome: A rare case report  

PubMed Central

Proteus syndrome (PS) is a rare hamartomatous disorder characterized by various cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, including vascular malformations, lipomas, hyperpigmentation, and several types of nevi. Partial gigantism with limb or digital overgrowth is pathognomonic of PS. We report a rare case of PS in a 50-year-old man who presented with inferior wall myocardial infarction and was incidentally detected to have hypertrophy of index and middle fingers of both the hands.

Talari, Keerthi; Subbanna, Praveen Kumar Arinaganhalli; Amalnath, Deepak; Suri, Subrahmanyam Dharanitragada Krishna

2012-01-01

258

Macrodystrophia lipomatosa: four case reports  

PubMed Central

Aim Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare cause of gigantism of limb which can be confused with other common causes like congenital lymphedema. It presents usually with loss of function and cosmetic problems. Four cases are described with emphasis on clinical presentation, differential diagnoses, imaging and treatment options. Methods & Results Four patients of macrodystrophia lipomatosa were thoroughly examined and subjected to investigations. Conclusion Besides diligent clinical examination, imaging and histopathology are crucial in clinching the diagnosis.

2010-01-01

259

Massive Dissociation of Subsurface Gas Hydrates and Collapse of Gas Hydrate Mounds during the LGM in the Eastern Margin of Japan Sea: Evidence from Benthic Forams and U\\/Th ages of Authigenic Carbonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of gigantic methane plumes, ca. 600 m high, and massive blocks of gas hydrate, ca. 0.5 m x 1.0 m, have been observed on the Umitaka spur and Joetsu knoll, eastern margin of Japan Sea. Large pockmarks and mounds, ca. 0.5 km in diameter, develop on the spur and knoll. The mounds exhibit rough morphological features characterized by

R. Matsumoto; E. Takeuchi; R. Sanno

2008-01-01

260

Bee communities (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) of the "Cerrado" ecosystem in São Paulo State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Five surveys of the bee communities in four "Cerrado" ecosystem reserves in São Paulo State were compared for species richness and similarity. These areas are fragment vegetation reser-ves located in the Cerrado Corumbataí Reserve (Corumbataí), Jataí Ecological Park (Luiz Antônio), Cajuru (Cajuru), and Vassununga State Park - "Gleba de Cerrado de Pé-de-Gigante" (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro). The methodology consisted of capturing bees foraging on flowers along transects, though with small differences between surveys. These "cerrado" areas have a large number of species of native bees, which are important pollinators in several Brazilian ecosystems. The community of bees varied among these different fragments. Based on 500 individuals (standardized by rarefaction), Cajuru, Corumbataí 1 and Corumbataí 2 were the areas with highest species richness, and Jataí and Pé-de-Gigante had the lowest species richness in the bee communities. The bee faunas of Corumbataí 2 and Pé-de-Gigante had the highest similarity, forming a group with the bee fauna of Cajuru. The bee faunas of Corumbataí 1 and Jataí were isolated from this group. We found that the bee species richness and similarity found in these "cerrado" areas cannot be explained by general factors such as the size of the fragment, the species richness of plants and the distance between the areas. Therefore, we suppose that local factors that differ among areas, such as interactions between populations, and competition and interference from surrounding areas influence and determine bee species richness and similarity in these reserves. PMID:19681028

Andena, S R; Nascimento, F S; Bispo, P C; Mechi, M R; Mateus, S; Bego, L R

2009-07-07

261

Discos de acreción circumplanares: Modelo de Co-acreción  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Los discos de acreción circumplanetarios precursores de los satélites regulares de los planetas gigantes, se pueden formar por cuatro mecanismos (Pollack y otros, 1991, In Uranus, Bergtralh, Miner y Mattews, Eds., p. 469, Univ. de Arizona Press, Tucson). En este trabajo estudiamos uno de tales mecanismos: el Modelo de Co-acreción. En dicho modelo, el disco circumplanetario se forma a partir de las colisiones mutuas entre planetesimales dentro de la esfera de Hill del planeta durante el proceso de formación planetaria. Realizamos un modelo semi-analítico para calcular la masa del disco y compararla con la masa requerida para formar los satélites regulares de los planetas gigantes. Hemos obtenido una cota superior para la masa del disco que resulta inferior a la masa de los satélites más grandes de los planetas gigantes. En principio, estos resultados permitirían descartar el modelo de co-acreción como uno de los procesos que podrían dar lugar a la formación de los satélites regulares. Estos resultados permiten obtener restricciones en el escenario de formación planetaria y en los mecanismos de formación de sistemas de satélites.

Parisi, M. G.; de Elía, G.

262

[Tall stature: some classical syndromes].  

PubMed

We describe the findings of XYY syndrome in the setting of encountering an individual with this particular condition in the endocrinology clinic. XYY syndrome is a relatively frequent if unfamiliar condition, which is characterized by taller than average height. The extra Y chromosome may play a role in determining the height of these individuals. From this case, a differential diagnosis of tall stature is outlined, in addition to a description of the principal syndromes associated with gigantism. These primarily include Klinefelter syndrome, Marfan syndrome, androgen resistance and growth hormone excess. These various entities are described from the point of view of their symptomatology, biology, pathophysiology and therapeutic characteristics. PMID:17020230

Gusbin, N; Verloes, A; Daly, A; Beckers, A

263

Delayed male maturity is a cost of producing large sperm in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Among fruit-fly species of the genus Drosophila there is remarkable variation in sperm length, with some species producing gigantic sperm (e.g., > 10 times total male body length). These flies are also unusual in that males of some species exhibit a prolonged adult nonreproductive phase. We document sperm length, body size, and sex-specific ages of reproductive maturity for 42 species of Drosophila and, after controlling for phylogeny, test hypotheses to explain the variation in rates of sexual maturation. Results suggest that delayed male maturity is a cost of producing long sperm. A possible physiological mechanism to explain the observed relationship is discussed. PMID:7479851

Pitnick, S; Markow, T A; Spicer, G S

1995-11-01

264

Two-dimensional atomic crystals  

PubMed Central

We report free-standing atomic crystals that are strictly 2D and can be viewed as individual atomic planes pulled out of bulk crystals or as unrolled single-wall nanotubes. By using micromechanical cleavage, we have prepared and studied a variety of 2D crystals including single layers of boron nitride, graphite, several dichalcogenides, and complex oxides. These atomically thin sheets (essentially gigantic 2D molecules unprotected from the immediate environment) are stable under ambient conditions, exhibit high crystal quality, and are continuous on a macroscopic scale.

Novoselov, K. S.; Jiang, D.; Schedin, F.; Booth, T. J.; Khotkevich, V. V.; Morozov, S. V.; Geim, A. K.

2005-01-01

265

Circular Coronal Mass Ejection  

NASA Video Gallery

A coronal mass ejection (CME) erupted from just around the edge of the sun on May 1, 2013, in a gigantic rolling wave. CMEs can shoot over a billion tons of particles into space at over a million miles per hour. This CME occurred on the sun’s limb and is not headed toward Earth. The video, taken in extreme ultraviolet light by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), covers about two and a half hours. Credit: NASA/SDO › "What is a CME?" and other solar questions

Robert Garner

2013-05-01

266

Manchester Celebrates the 50th Anniversary of the First Stored-Program Computer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first stored computer program, Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), was created on June 21, 1948 at the University of Manchester, UK. In order to celebrate this gigantic step in computing history, the University as well as the city of Manchester are coordinating a variety of commemorative events beginning in June 1998. This site provides details on all of the currently scheduled events. Visitors can find descriptions of the SSEM and its offspring, the Manchester Mark 1 and the Ferranti Mark 1, at the site.

267

The Thinking Machine: A Physical Science Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science projects can be a wonderful opportunity for learning and creativity, or a gigantic headache for teachers. After several years of implementation, experience, and revision, the author has put together a fun and engaging project centered on machines that is appropriate for middle school students. This project came to be known simply as "The Thinking Machine Project," which draws its origin from the national Rube Goldberg Machine competition held each year at Purdue University. Here is one way to bring technology, writing, drawing, creativity, and hands-on ingenuity together in a single fun and successful project.

Jarrard, Amber

2008-11-01

268

Assembly of polymer-gold nanostructures with high reproducibility into a monolayer film SERS substrate with 5 nm gaps for pesticide trace detection.  

PubMed

A very simple and versatile polymer assembly approach was developed. We use methoxy-mercapto-poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG-SH) to conjugate multiple Au shapes to form dense Au monolayer films (MLFs) with 5 nm gaps and generate gigantic enhancement. The results of the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method to calculate the local electric field distribution of the nanoparticle dimer are in agreement with the experimental data of sensitivity of multiple Au MLFs. 3D Raman spectra, relative standard deviation (RSD) calculation and Raman mapping were used to study the high-reproducibility of the assembled substrate, which is sufficient for trace pesticide residue detection. PMID:23912071

Zhou, Xia; Zhou, Fei; Liu, Honglin; Yang, Liangbao; Liu, Jinhuai

2013-10-01

269

REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Birth and life of massive black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems of massive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are reviewed. The dynamical evolution of compact star systems ends naturally in a gigantic concentrated mass of gas, containing an admixture of surviving stars, that unavoidably collapses into a black hole. The subsequent joint evolution of the remnant star system with a massive black hole at the center leads either to the phenomenon of a bright central source in the nuclei of active galaxies and quasars or to the opposite case of a "dead" frozen black hole in the nucleus of a normal galaxy.

Dokuchaev, V. I.

1991-06-01

270

[Rupture of a superficial femoral aneurysm in the context of neurofibromatosis. Report of a case].  

PubMed

The authors observed the spontaneous rupture of a dysplastic superficial femoral artery in a 47 years old patient with Von Recklinghausen disease. The patient presents a gigantism of his right lower limb. On angiography, the femoropopliteal axis is polyaneurysmal and there is evidence of rupture at mid-thigh. The diseased artery is excluded by interposition of a dacron prosthesis, with reimplantation of the deep femoral artery. Histology shows fibrohyalin thickening of the intima. Dysplasia of large limb arteries is excessively rare in Von Recklinghausen disease. PMID:8027684

Van Damme, H; Deprez, M; de Leval, L; Vahdat, O; Calteux, N; Boniver, J; Limet, R

1994-01-01

271

Slimeware: engineering devices with slime mold.  

PubMed

Abstract The plasmodium of the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum is a gigantic single cell visible to the unaided eye. The cell shows a rich spectrum of behavioral patterns in response to environmental conditions. In a series of simple experiments we demonstrate how to make computing, sensing, and actuating devices from the slime mold. We show how to program living slime mold machines by configurations of repelling and attracting gradients and demonstrate the workability of the living machines on tasks of computational geometry, logic, and arithmetic. PMID:23834592

Adamatzky, Andrew

2013-07-08

272

Black Smokers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage contains a brief introduction to the discovery of hydrothermal systems and black smokers. Within the webpage are links to information on gigantic tube worms, polychaete worms, oceans, and extreme environments. This site also provides a list of hydrothermal systems, relevant links to organizations, laboratories and observatories, WebQuests, and other websites with further information on hydrothermal systems. As part of the Environmental Literacy Council site, this webpage also contains links to other resources with environmental content, including air climate, land, water, ecosystems, energy, food, and environment and society.

2009-07-01

273

Design of a Template for Handwriting Based Hindi Text Entry in Handheld Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile phones, in the recent times, have become affordable and accessible to a wider range of users including the hitherto technologically and economically under-represented segments. Indian users are a gigantic consumer base for mobile phones. With Hindi being one of the most widely spoken languages in the country and the primary tool of communication for about a third of its population, an effective solution for Hindi text entry in mobile devices is expected to be immensely useful to the non English speaking users. This paper proposes a mobile phone handwriting based text entry solution for Hindi language, which allows for an easy text entry method, while facilitating better recognition accuracy.

Gangopadhyay, Diya; Vasal, Ityam; Yammiyavar, Pradeep

274

Fotometría CCD en el campo del cúmulo abierto Ruprecht 58  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La región de Vela-Puppis contiene varios cúmulos cuyo estudio puede brindarnos información acerca de la cinemática y el estado evolutivo de la población estelar en las zonas externas del disco galáctico. A través de observaciones CCD en los filtros UBV en el campo del cúmulo abierto Ruprecht 58 (?2000= 8h 14m 41s, ?2000=-31o 57'), se han determinado por primera vez los parámetros fundamentales de este cúmulo tales como distancia, enrojecimiento y edad. Se analiza también la estructura de su secuencia principal y la presencia de gigantes y binarias.

Giorgi, E. E.; Vázquez, R. A.; Seggewiss, W.; Ostrov, P.; Solivella, G. R.

275

Jet anesthesia and jet local anesthesia for the 21st century.  

PubMed

The introduction of the hollow needle and glass syringe in the middle of the 19th century was one gigantic step in the progress of medicine to the current state of art. However, the needle with the pain it causes, become the source of fear for many patients. Indeed, immunization of millions of people who feared the needle, against the deadly contagious diseases, would not have been possible without the introduction of a jet-injector, the Med-E-Jet (Peace Gun), a pain-free way of delivering immunizing medication. PMID:12443006

Zsigmond, E K

2002-11-01

276

Interstellar nomads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility that free-wandering comets, those not tied to the gravitational influence of any star, can support a significant human population is considered. The energy sources of such a population would be deuterium from the comets and starlight gathered by gigantic mirrors. The energy budgets of such communities and their possible social structures are addressed from an anthropological perspective. A typical grouping or tribe might comprise 500 people and be divided into bands of about 25 individuals living in spacious habitats built of cometary materials and tending a 'farm' of starlight mirrors about 30,000 km across. The bands would exchange marriageable youths and gather at intervals for community rituals.

Finney, B. R.; Jones, E. M.

277

Optimal growth strategies under divergent predation pressure.  

PubMed

The conditions leading to gigantism in nine-spined sticklebacks Pungitius pungitius were analysed by modelling fish growth with the von Bertalanffy model searching for the optimal strategy when the model's growth constant and asymptotic fish size parameters are negatively related to each other. Predator-related mortality was modelled through the increased risk of death during active foraging. The model was parameterized with empirical growth data of fish from four different populations and analysed for optimal growth strategy at different mortality levels. The growth constant and asymptotic fish size were negatively related in most populations. Optimal fish size, fitness and life span decreased with predator-induced mortality. At low mortality, the fitness of pond populations was higher than that of sea populations. The differences disappeared at intermediate mortalities, and sea populations had slightly higher fitness at extremely high mortalities. In the scenario where all populations mature at the same age, the pond populations perform better at low mortalities and the sea populations at high mortalities. It is concluded that a trade-off between growth constant and asymptotic fish size, together with different mortality rates, can explain a significant proportion of body size differentiation between populations. In the present case, it is a sufficient explanation of gigantism in pond P. pungitius. PMID:23331153

Aikio, S; Herczeg, G; Kuparinen, A; Merilä, J

2012-12-17

278

["Die grosse Barb" in the museum of the University of Marburg. An early documentation of acromegaly].  

PubMed

The university museum for cultural history in the castle of Marburg has a portrait "Die grosse Barb", which represents a women suffering from acromegaly. She shows the typical pathologic alterations: thickening of the skin folds, thickening of the lips and the eyelids, growth of bones and cartilages, lengthening of the nose, enlargement of the ears, protrusion of the zygoma, mandible and the chin. Acromegaly is a consequence of enhanced secretion of growth hormone, which occurs also as a symptom of several syndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, McCune-Albright-syndrome, and NAME syndrome (Carney complex type I). The most remarkable symptom of acromegaly is the gigantism. This occurs also in androgen-deficient states, such as the Klinefelter syndrome and some more genetic syndromes, of which the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, the Sotos syndrome, the Marfan syndrome, the homocystinuria, and the fragile X-syndrome may be mentioned. Nothing is known on the further fate of the patient shown in the portrait. It is also unknown, whether she owes her position as a chambermaid to her gigantism, for it was a common use in courts to have people with abnormal body shapes in attendance. PMID:19543868

Krause, W; Rassner, G; Happle, R

2009-06-01

279

Geological and Hydrodynamical Examination of the Bathyal Tsunamigenic Origin of Miocene Conglomerates in Chita Peninsula, Central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conglomerate appears on a rocky coast called "Tsubutega-ura Coast", located on the southwestern coast near the southern tip of the Chita Peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, central Japan. The conglomerate belongs to Miocene sedimentary rocks termed the Morozaki Group. The conglomerate includes meter-scale boulders, indicating that it was formed by an extraordinary event. In the geological investigation, we observed that the conglomerate shows alternate changes of paleocurrent directions between seaward and landward. This feature is supposed to be formed by tsunami currents. In the hydrodynamical investigation, we obtained following results: (1) the lowest limit of a current velocity to move a boulder of about 3 m in diameter would be about 2-3 m/s, (2) the speed of tsunami currents reproduced by tsunami simulation exceeds 3 m/s at 300 m in depth when the tsunami is generated by a gigantic earthquake with magnitude 9.0 or more, (3) the transport distance of the boulder would be several hundred meters to several kilometers by one tsunami event caused by a gigantic earthquake. We conclude that tsunamis best explain the formation of the conglomerate deposited in upper bathyal environments about 200-400 m depth, both from geological and hydrodynamical viewpoints.

Tachibana, Toru; Tsuji, Yoshinobu

2011-06-01

280

Heat storage in Asian elephants during submaximal exercise: behavioral regulation of thermoregulatory constraints on activity in endothermic gigantotherms.  

PubMed

Gigantic size presents both opportunities and challenges in thermoregulation. Allometric scaling relationships suggest that gigantic animals have difficulty dissipating metabolic heat. Large body size permits the maintenance of fairly constant core body temperatures in ectothermic animals by means of gigantothermy. Conversely, gigantothermy combined with endothermic metabolic rate and activity likely results in heat production rates that exceed heat loss rates. In tropical environments, it has been suggested that a substantial rate of heat storage might result in a potentially lethal rise in core body temperature in both elephants and endothermic dinosaurs. However, the behavioral choice of nocturnal activity might reduce heat storage. We sought to test the hypothesis that there is a functionally significant relationship between heat storage and locomotion in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), and model the thermoregulatory constraints on activity in elephants and a similarly sized migratory dinosaur, Edmontosaurus. Pre- and post-exercise (N=37 trials) measurements of core body temperature and skin temperature, using thermography were made in two adult female Asian elephants at the Audubon Zoo in New Orleans, LA, USA. Over ambient air temperatures ranging from 8 to 34.5°C, when elephants exercised in full sun, ~56 to 100% of active metabolic heat production was stored in core body tissues. We estimate that during nocturnal activity, in the absence of solar radiation, between 5 and 64% of metabolic heat production would be stored in core tissues. Potentially lethal rates of heat storage in active elephants and Edmontosaurus could be behaviorally regulated by nocturnal activity. PMID:23785105

Rowe, M F; Bakken, G S; Ratliff, J J; Langman, V A

2013-05-15

281

Anisotropy of Spin Relaxation in Metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of anisotropy of spin relaxation in nonmagnetic metals with respect to the spin direction of the injected electrons relative to the crystal orientation is introduced. The effect is related to an anisotropy of the Elliott-Yafet parameter, arising from a modulation of the decomposition of the spin-orbit Hamiltonian into spin-conserving and spin-flip terms as the spin quantization axis is varied. This anisotropy, reaching gigantic values for uniaxial transition metals (e.g., 830% for hcp Hf) as density-functional calculations show, is related to extended “spin-flip hot areas” on the Fermi surface created by the proximity of extended sheets of the surface, or “spin-flip hot loops” at the Brillouin zone boundary, and has no theoretical upper limit. Possible ways of measuring the effect as well as consequences in application are briefly outlined.

Zimmermann, Bernd; Mavropoulos, Phivos; Heers, Swantje; Long, Nguyen H.; Blügel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy

2012-12-01

282

Anisotropy of spin relaxation in metals.  

PubMed

The concept of anisotropy of spin relaxation in nonmagnetic metals with respect to the spin direction of the injected electrons relative to the crystal orientation is introduced. The effect is related to an anisotropy of the Elliott-Yafet parameter, arising from a modulation of the decomposition of the spin-orbit Hamiltonian into spin-conserving and spin-flip terms as the spin quantization axis is varied. This anisotropy, reaching gigantic values for uniaxial transition metals (e.g., 830% for hcp Hf) as density-functional calculations show, is related to extended "spin-flip hot areas" on the Fermi surface created by the proximity of extended sheets of the surface, or "spin-flip hot loops" at the Brillouin zone boundary, and has no theoretical upper limit. Possible ways of measuring the effect as well as consequences in application are briefly outlined. PMID:23368235

Zimmermann, Bernd; Mavropoulos, Phivos; Heers, Swantje; Long, Nguyen H; Blügel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy

2012-12-05

283

Introduction to Plasma Dynamo, Reconnection and Shocks  

SciTech Connect

In our plasma universe, most of what we can observe is composed of ionized gas, or plasma. This plasma is a conducting fluid, which advects magnetic fields when it flows. Magnetic structure occurs from the smallest planetary to the largest cosmic scales. We introduce at a basic level some interesting features of non linear magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). For example, in our plasma universe, dynamo creates magnetic fields from gravitationally driven flow energy in an electrically conducting medium, and conversely magnetic reconnection annihilates magnetic field and accelerates particles. Shocks occur when flows move faster than the local velocity (sonic or Alfven speed) for the propagation of information. Both reconnection and shocks can accelerate particles, perhaps to gigantic energies, for example as observed with 10{sup 20} eV cosmic rays.

Intrator, Thomas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-30

284

Pituitary adenomas in childhood and adolescence.  

PubMed

Scientific advances are revealing the complexity of pituitary development, which is controlled by multiple transcription factors and signaling molecules. Unregulated pituitary cell growth, resulting in pituitary adenoma, is usually sporadic and results from monoclonal expansion of a single mutated cell. However, some adenomas develop as part of a genetic syndrome. Prolactinoma is the most common hormonally active pituitary adenoma in children. The non-functioning (non-secreting) pituitary adenoma is the second most common and often stains positive for GH, PRL, and/or TSH. While Cushing disease, resulting from an ACTH-secreting adenoma, commonly manifests as weight gain with growth deceleration in children, GH excess causes gigantism with rapid, accelerated growth inappropriate for the height of the family. TSH secreting pituitary adenomas are rare, and biochemical analysis will show an elevated thyroxine level with a non-suppressed or high TSH. Though the natural history of pituitary incidentalomas in children is unknown, adult practice guidelines are established. PMID:23957196

Jackman, Suzanne; Diamond, Frank

2013-07-01

285

Polyketide biosynthesis: understanding and exploiting modularity.  

PubMed

Polyketide-based pharmaceuticals are some of our most important medicines. They are constructed in micro-organisms (typically bacteria and fungi) by gigantic enzyme catalysts called polyketide synthases (PKSs). The organization of PKSs into molecular assembly lines makes them particularly appealing targets for genetic engineering because, in principle, an alteration in the enzyme organization might translate into a predictable change in polyketide structure. Excitingly, this has been shown repeatedly to work in practice, but the efficiency of the engineered PKSs is frequently too low to be useful for large-scale drug synthesis. To reach this goal, researchers need a deeper understanding of the structure and function of these proteins, which are among the most complex in nature. This review highlights some recent experiments which are providing key information about the molecular organization, mechanism and orchestration of these magnificent catalysts, and opening up fresh prospects of truly combinatorial biosynthesis of novel polyketides as leads in drug discovery. PMID:15539364

Weissman, Kira J

2004-12-15

286

Saddlebags, Paperbacks and Mobile Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information is shaped by its format. The printing press with its repeatable layout laid ground for footnotes and references from other sources, and thus can be seen as the technology that initially generated the concept of hyperlinks. In the fifteenth century, printed matter quickly developed other formats like the paperback book or the flyer. These formats changed the content in almost every aspect significantly: books that fit in a saddlebag are mobile media and thus not as precious as the gigantic and prestigious folio placed on a lectern stand in a monastery. So books became a widespread, "ordinary" mobile medium and developed a multitude of purposes, aimed at different audiences, and generated a wide range of ideas for adequate content. The flyer in its limited size and public nature generated other forms of organizing and designing content: in order to fit the format and draw attention it uses a condensed form of messaging and an exaggerated typography.

Zwick, Carola

287

Possible Evidence for Interaction-induced Star Formation in NGC 3077  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our recent study of the star forming regions in the tidal arms of NGC 3077, a member of the well-known triplet of galaxies that includes M81 and M82, reveals a gigantic shell-like structure that suggests an earlier starburst occuring on scales comparable to the galaxy itself. More than thirty HII regions previously identified in the immediate vicinity of this structure are now linked by a coherent pattern of diffuse emission in the interstellar medium, showing a common origin of shock disturbance. We propose a model in which the gravitational interactions within the triplet not only torn away large amount of HI gas from NGC 3077's mass center, but also induce large-scale star formation over a time scale longer than a typical bursting event.

Wang, Zhong

2009-01-01

288

Phase equilibria and crystallization in mixtures of azobenzene chromophore and triacrylate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A temperature versus composition phase diagram of azobenzene chromophore/triacrylate system was established by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The isotropic liquid (I) and crystal solid + liquid (Cr1 + I2) coexistence regions bound by liquidus and solidus lines were tested with the theoretical curves obtained by self consistently solving the combined free energies of Flory-Huggins (FH) theory for isotropic mixing and phase field (PF) theory for crystal solidification pertaining to the compositional order parameter (?1, ?2) and the crystal order parameter (?1), respectively. With the aid of phase diagram, various phase morphologies were mapped through thermal quenching into various coexistence gaps. Azobenzene in the blend produced multiple crystal structures, including gigantic single crystals. Real time images demonstrating the nucleation and growth of the crystallization process were captures under polarized optical microscopy. The spatiotemporal growth of such single crystal has been elucidated theoretically using the time-dependant Ginzburg Landau (TDGL) dynamics.

O'Malley, Garrett; Milam, Kenneth; Kim, Namil; Kyu, Thein

2009-03-01

289

The Acraman impact structure: Estimation of the diameter by the ejecta layer thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The big role of gigantic craters formation in geological history of the Earth was established by the example of the K/T boundary event. The discovery of the iridium anomaly in the sedimentary rocks of Vendian in the western part of Ukrainian shield allows to suppose its origin in connection with the great impact of that time. The only big impact structure of that age is the Acraman Crater in south-eastern part of Australia. The Acraman Crater is presented by deeply eroded structure, original diameter of which it is difficult to determine. By geological and morphological data the Acraman Crater is presented by an inner ring 30 km in diameter, an intermediate ring 90 km in diameter, and an outer ring about 150-160 km in diameter.

Gurov, E. P.

1993-03-01

290

Geophysics Could Explain Ancient Maya Myth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to Maya mythology, the splendor of the principal entity, the Feathered Serpent, is exalted at Lake Atitlán in southwestern Guatemala. A chance look at a phenomenon in the natural environment reveals the possible geophysical basis of this myth. More than poetic fancy, the flight of the Feathered Serpent could refer to the dissipation of a soliton wave formed in the 130-km2 caldera lake. In the myth, recounted in the sixteenth century document los anales de los caqchiqueles, the newly acceded leader of the Kaqchikel-speaking Maya tribe rises from the lake transformed as the Feathered Serpent [Recinos and Goetz, 1953, p. 76]. Residents claim a gigantic serpent, Xocomil, still lives in the waters.

Sabom Bruchez, Margaret

2005-03-01

291

Geophysics could explain Ancient Maya Myth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to Maya mythology, the splendor of the principal entity, the Feathered Serpent, is exalted at Lake Atitlán in southwestern Guatemala. A chance look at a phenomenon in the natural environment reveals the possible geophysical basis of this myth.More than poetic fancy, the flight of the Feathered Serpent could refer to the dissipation of a soliton wave formed in the 130-km2 caldera lake. In the myth, recounted in the sixteenth century document los anales de los caqchiqueles, the newly acceded leader of the Kaqchikel-speaking Maya tribe rises from the lake transformed as the Feathered Serpent [Recinos and Goetz, 1953, p. 76]. Residents claim a gigantic serpent, Xocomil, still lives in the waters.

Bruchez, Margaret Sabom

292

Magnetoelectric Coupling and Relaxation in Yttrium Iron Garnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of the magnetic and dielectric relaxation measurement on yttrium iron garnet Y3Fe5O12 which shows the 2nd order magneto-electric (ME) effect under an applied electric field [1] and the 1st order ME effect by an electric field cooling procedure [2]. We found that the temperature dependence of the dielectric relaxation dynamics coincides with that of magnetic one. This suggests a strong magneto-electric coupling between dielectric and magnetic relaxation dynamics. Indeed the dielectric relaxation strengths are enhanced by an applied magnetic field; namely the amplitude of electric dipole moment can be tuned by magnetic field. This effect accounts for the magnetic field induced change of the static dielectric permittivity and thereby the gigantic 2nd order ME effect as observed. [1] T.H. O'Dell, Phil. Mag. 16, 487 (1967), [2] H. Ogawa et al., JPSJ 56, 452 (1987).

Yamasaki, Yuichi; Kohara, Yuki; Tokura, Yoshinori

2009-03-01

293

Magnetic field control of the ferroelectric polarization in multiferroic MnWO4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between magnetic order and ferroelectric properties has been investigated for MnWO4. Spontaneous electric polarization is observed in a cycloidal spiral spin phase. The magnetic-field dependence of electric polarization indicates that the noncollinear spin configuration plays a key role for the appearance of ferroelectric phase. Destabilization of the ferroelectric phase and an electric polarization flop from the b direction to the a direction have been observed when a magnetic field is applied along the b axis. On the other hand, the ferroelectric phase is stabilized when a magnetic field is applied along the a-, c- and the spin easy axes. We have also found that the magnetic field induced ferroelectric polarization disappears in a high magnetic field above 12T along the spin easy axis. Theses phenomena provide us useful information for gigantic magnetoelectric effects because MnWO4 is a simple system without rare-earth f-moments.

Taniguchi, Kouji; Abe, Nobuyuki; Arima, Takahisa; Takenobu, Taishi; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

2008-03-01

294

Turnaround in cyclic cosmology.  

PubMed

It is speculated how dark energy in a brane world can help reconcile an infinitely cyclic cosmology with the second law of thermodynamics. A cyclic model is described, in which dark energy with w<-1 equation of state leads to a turnaround at a time, extremely shortly before the would-be big rip, at which both volume and entropy of our Universe decrease by a gigantic factor, while very many independent similarly small contracting universes are spawned. The entropy of our model decreases almost to zero at turnaround but increases for the remainder of the cycle by a vanishingly small amount during contraction, empty of matter, then by a large factor during inflationary expansion. PMID:17359014

Baum, Lauris; Frampton, Paul H

2007-02-16

295

Uv and IR Quantum-Spacetime Effects for the Chandrasekhar Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We modify the Chandrasekhar model of white dwarfs by introducing some of the momentum-space features which have been considered in the quantum-gravity literature. We find that when the new effects are confined to high energies, one only finds significant corrections to the Chandrasekhar model in regimes where the model anyway lacks any contact with observations. But these high-energy effects could play an important role in cases where ultra-high densities are present, even when the relevant star is still gigantic in Planck-length units. If the effects are not confined to high energies, as a result of "ultraviolet/infrared mixing", there could be significant implications for white dwarfs whose mass is roughly half the mass of the Sun, some of which are described in the literature as "strange white dwarfs".

Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Loret, Niccolò; Mandanici, Gianluca; Mercati, Flavio

296

Zooming in on metagenomics: molecular microdiversity of Subtilisin Carlsberg in soil.  

PubMed

Evolution has led to the development of a gigantic repertoire of microbial genes that can be exploited for industrial purposes. Due to microevolutionary processes, this gene pool is constantly varied and adapted to the prevalent environmental and physiological conditions. It though remains unclear to what extent gene variants coexist in natural habitats and to what extent they vanish due to competition. Here, we tapped the pool of gene variants of the serine protease Subtilisin Carlsberg present in soil habitats, demonstrating a high degree of (micro) diversity on a genetic level, as well as on a functional level. A set of 51 mature enzyme variants each carrying two to eight amino acid changes were recovered. While some mutations were only present in single variants, other changes appear to be rather conserved even across different habitats. The observed spectrum of biochemical properties makes persistent gene variants a potent source for biotechnologically relevant enzymes, expanding the toolbox of metagenomic approaches. PMID:22342929

Gabor, E; Niehaus, F; Aehle, W; Eck, J

2012-02-14

297

TLEs and their electromagnetic characteristics from 2010 Taiwan ground campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hundreds of transient luminous events (TLEs), including sprites, elves, halos, blue jets, and several interesting gigantic jets are captured during Taiwan 2010 ground campaign. Most of the associated sferics of these TLEs was recorded simultaneously by a ULF recording system located at Mt. Lulin [Wang et al., 2005; two EMI-BF4 magnetic coils] and a newly-installed ELF/VLF Quasar system. To suppress strong 60-Hz power grid emissions, both systems are equipped with notch-filtering signal modulators. Inevitably, phase and waveform of the sferics passing through these modulators will be altered. A waveform reconstruction method is developed to restore the waveform distortion and the phase shift to a satisfactory level. Electromagnetic characteristics of the TLE-associated sferics and the TLE-producing lightning are inferred from the reconstructed sferics. The paper will report the recorded TLEs, the associated sferics, and the inferred physical characteristics.

Huang, S.; Chen, A. B.; Chou, J.; Lee, L.; Chang, S.; Wu, Y.; Lee, Y.; Hsu, C.; Yang, G.; Kuo, C.; Su, H.; Hsu, R.

2010-12-01

298

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome with placental chorangioma due to H19-differentially methylated region hypermethylation: a case report.  

PubMed

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a common overgrowth syndrome that involves abdominal wall defects, macroglossia, and gigantism. It is sometimes complicated by placental tumor and polyhydramnios. We report a case of BWS, prenatally diagnosed with ultrasonography. A large and well-circumscribed tumor also existed on the fetal surface of the placenta, which was histologically diagnosed as chorangioma after delivery. Polyhydramnios was obvious and the fetal heart enlarged progressively during pregnancy. Because the biophysical profiling score dropped to 4 points at 33 weeks of gestation, we carried out cesarean section. By epigenetic analysis, H19-differentially methylated region hypermethylation was observed in the placental tumor, normal placental tissue, and cord blood mononuclear cells. This is the first report of BWS with placental tumor due to H19-differentially methylated region hypermethylation. PMID:21955307

Aoki, Aiko; Shiozaki, Arihiro; Sameshima, Azusa; Higashimoto, Ken; Soejima, Hidenobu; Saito, Shigeru

2011-09-28

299

Raising the sauropod neck: it costs more to get less  

PubMed Central

The long necks of gigantic sauropod dinosaurs are commonly assumed to have been used for high browsing to obtain enough food. However, this analysis questions whether such a posture was reasonable from the standpoint of energetics. The energy cost of circulating the blood can be estimated accurately from two physiological axioms that relate metabolic rate, blood flow rate and arterial blood pressure: (i) metabolic rate is proportional to blood flow rate and (ii) cardiac work rate is proportional to the product of blood flow rate and blood pressure. The analysis shows that it would have required the animal to expend approximately half of its energy intake just to circulate the blood, primarily because a vertical neck would have required a high systemic arterial blood pressure. It is therefore energetically more feasible to have used a more or less horizontal neck to enable wide browsing while keeping blood pressure low.

Seymour, Roger S.

2009-01-01

300

The Intersection of Urban Planning, Art, and Public Health: The Sunnyside Piazza  

PubMed Central

Deteriorating physical features of urban environments can negatively influence public health. Dilapidated environments and urban blight tend to promote alienation and can be associated with social disorder, vandalism, crime, drug abuse, traffic violations, and littering, which in turn affects health and well-being. In the late 1990s, the Sunnyside neighborhood in Portland, Ore, was plagued by many of these problems. In an attempt to invigorate neighborhood stewardship, the community organized and created a public gathering place; together, they painted a gigantic sunflower in the middle of an intersection and installed several interactive art features. As a result of these collective actions of “place-making,” social capital has increased, thus revitalizing the community, and expanded social networks among residents have stimulated a sense of well-being.

Semenza, Jan C.

2003-01-01

301

Facility for platforms planned in Tacoma  

SciTech Connect

A joint venture to build a gigantic 660-ft-wide graving dock for constructing offshore concrete and steel platforms on the US West Coast in Tacoma, Washington is discussed. The new facility is needed to construct huge platforms for Alaska and for deepwater locations off California and Mexico. The assembly facility would be located in Tacoma's Commencement Bay Industrial Development District on the outer Hylebos Waterway, directly across the waterway from Tacoma Boatbuilding Co.'s Industrial Yard. The proposed site has no overhead obstructions and open water all the way to the Pacific Ocean. Water depths in Commencement Bay are over 500 ft, making it possible to build deepwater concrete-gravity platforms.

Not Available

1984-11-01

302

Visualizing a Complete Siphoviridae Member by Single-Particle Electron Microscopy: the Structure of Lactococcal Phage TP901-1  

PubMed Central

Tailed phages are genome delivery machines exhibiting unequaled efficiency acquired over more than 3 billion years of evolution. Siphophages from the P335 and 936 families infect the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis using receptor-binding proteins anchored to the host adsorption apparatus (baseplate). Crystallographic and electron microscopy (EM) studies have shed light on the distinct adsorption strategies used by phages of these two families, suggesting that they might also rely on different infection mechanisms. Here, we report electron microscopy reconstructions of the whole phage TP901-1 (P335 species) and propose a composite EM model of this gigantic molecular machine. Our results suggest conservation of structural proteins among tailed phages and add to the growing body of evidence pointing to a common evolutionary origin for these virions. Finally, we propose that host adsorption apparatus architectures have evolved in correlation with the nature of the receptors used during infection.

Bebeacua, Cecilia; Lai, Livia; Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Br?ndsted, Lone; van Heel, Marin

2013-01-01

303

MoMA: The Changing of the Avant-Garde  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web exhibition from MoMA presents a history of modern utopian and visionary architecture, using architectural drawings donated to the museum by the Howard Gilman Foundation in 2000. The drawings date from the late 1950s to the 1970s. The main menu is two spheres, Megastructures (larger, public buildings and complexes) and Postmodern Roots (smaller buildings, retail and houses), from which users can select names to view particular projects. Each project consists of two to four drawings and explanatory text, with larger views of all the drawings available. An interesting example under Megastructures is Superstudio, a group of five Italian architects who, in the 1960s, created a set of purely theoretical drawing that impose gigantic, white, grid-patterned structures on natural landscapes such as rivers, ocean coastlines, and the Alps. Megastructures give way to Postmodern Roots in the 1960s, where drawings of projects by Robert Venturi, Michael Graves, James Stirling, Rem Koolhaas, and others can be seen.

2002-01-01

304

[Congenital angiodysplasia of the limbs; diagnosis and therapy].  

PubMed

A complete check-up of vascular morphology and haemodynamics in patients resulted in a differentiation of three clinical entities: (I) type F. P. Weber: multiple active arteriovenous fistulas inducing overgrowth of the skeleton, (2) type Klippel-Trenaunay: venous angiodysplasia with the triad localized gigantism, varicose veins, naevus flammeus, (3) type Servelle-Martorell: systemic haemangiomatosis including the bone and soft tissues resulting in hypoplasia of the skeleton. Early diagnosis and differentiation of these different clinical types are needed for the assessment of the spontaneous course of the disease and choice of an optimal therapeutical approach. In the presence of active arteriovenous fistula (type F. P. Weber) the therapeutic principle should be focused on the normalisation of the shunt volume by surgery (skeletonisation) or catheter embolisation. In patients with venous angiodysplasias (type Klippel-Trenaunay or Servelle-Martorell) the therapy is aimed at prevention or reduction of deep venous insufficiency and is basically conservative by external compression bandages. PMID:2154709

Paes, E H; Vollmar, J F

1990-02-01

305

Potential for Atlantic current collapse confirmed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential for Atlantic current collapse confirmed The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a gigantic heat, salt, and nutrient mixer that spans the length of the Atlantic Ocean. Drawing warming surface waters up from the south through the Gulf Stream and along the North Atlantic Current, the system has a large amount of control over the climate of western Europe. Once in the North Atlantic, the water cools, becoming more dense and sinking to between 3000 and 5000 meters in depth before commencing a return journey south. Both paleoclimate evidence and simplified ocean circulation models suggest that the AMOC may have two stable states (either its current behavior or an “off” mode), and this has left some researchers worried that the system may experience a sudden and drastic cessation. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL047208, 2011)

Schultz, Colin

2011-07-01

306

Familial Dandy-Walker malformation and leukodystrophy.  

PubMed

We report the first familial cases with two different types of posterior fossa cystic malformation and a leukodystrophic-like aspect on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The girl and her brother had severe encephalopathy, marked hypotonia, absent deep tendon reflexes, macrocrania, gigantism, and dysmorphic face and extremities. The girl had generalized seizures. The boy had unilateral cataract and bilateral optic atrophy. The parents were first cousins, suggesting autosomal recessive transmission. MRI showed Dandy-Walker variant in the girl, with cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and expansion of the cisterna magna, which communicated with the fourth ventricle. Her brother had mega cisterna magna communicating with the fourth ventricle and a normal cerebellum. The 2 children had abnormally high signal in the supratentorial white matter. Visual and auditory evoked potentials revealed prolonged latencies. Motor and sensory conduction velocities were normal. Muscle and nerve biopsies were normal. Metabolic exploration demonstrated no abnormality. PMID:9258968

Humbertclaude, V T; Coubes, P A; Leboucq, N; Echenne, B B

1997-05-01

307

Mars: Volcanism in the Valles Marineris overlooked  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do volcanic rocks exist in the Valles Marineris. This question is pertinent because the Valles Marineris are gigantic grabens, rivaling rift valleys on earth in size and depth. The Valles Marineris were interpreted as extensional tectonic structures, perhaps incipient rifts. On earth, rift valleys commonly contain volcanic deposits. On Mars, deposits inside the Valles Marineris grabens do not have the morphologic signature of such easily identified volcanic features as shield volcanoes or lava flows. Therefore, many researchers have not recognized the deposits inside the Valles Marineris as volcanic. Is Mars, then, different from earth in having formed riftlike grabens unaccompanied by volcanism. Overall, results from the study suggest that volcanism was present in the Valles Marineris; the volcanism was explosive in places; some volcanism was more felsic than that generally assumed elsewhere; and the younger sequence of interior beds was emplaced so late in Martian history that the planet may be considered to be still volcanically active.

Lucchitta, B. K.

308

HERA: a Supermicroscope for Investigating the Structure of the Proton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HERA, a high energy particle collider at the Deutsches Elektronensychrotron DESY in Hamburg, allows investigation of the structure of the proton with a spatial resolution of 10 -16 cm, corresponding to about 1/1000 of its diameter. This view deep into the inner properties of matter is obtained from the scattering of high-energy electrons or positrons from high-energy protons. With its 6.3 km circumference, HERA can be regarded as a gigantic electron microscope. The high energies available at HERA allow a wealth of further studies on the properties of elementary particles and their interactions. After a brief review of earlier experiments, the article describes the concept of HERA and the detectors H1 and ZEUS, with which the scattering events are analyzed, as well as some of the physics results.

Buschhorn, Gerd W.

309

Massive Star Formation and Dust in Collisional Ring Galaxies: From GALEX to Spitzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some first results from a GALEX and Spitzer survey of a dozen collisional ring galaxies. The combination of UV and mid-IR imaging and spectroscopy will allow us to investigate the relationship between massive star formation sites, PAH molecular--band strengths, and dust heating in these mainly simultaneous starburst rings. A deep observation of the well-known Cartwheel ring galaxy has revealed a gigantic outer UV disk which extends to at least twice the radius of the outer blue star--forming ring. A lack of UV variability in the outer Cartwheel ring rules out an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) as the origin of the brightest of a dozen ULX source seen by Chandra in the ring.

Appleton, P. N.; Gil de Paz, A.; Madore, B.; Reach, W.; Struck, C.; Brandl, B.; Jarrett, T.; Fadda, D.; Charmadaris, V.; Armus, L.; Smith, B.; Mazzarella, J.; Lord, S.; Laine, S.; Borne, K.

2008-03-01

310

Markarian 348 - A tidally disturbed Seyfert galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combined optical and radio images of galaxies can provide new insights into the sizes, masses, and possible evolution of these objects. Deep optical and neutral hydrogen images of Markarian 348, a type 2 Seyfert galaxy, show that it is a gigantic spiral (perhaps the largest known noncluster galaxy). Measurements of the neutral hydrogen velocity field and spiral structure, and detection of an optical 'tidal plume,' all provide evidence that it has been subject to tidal disruption. The measured velocities yield a mass-to-light ratio for this object (within a radius of 130 kiloparsecs from its nucleus) that is similar to the ratio found for the inner regions of most galaxies of similar type. This is one of the few cases where detailed velocity measurements have demonstrated that a galaxy with an active nucleus has been subject to extensive tidal perturbation.

Simkin, Susan M.; van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Hibbard, John; Su, Hong-Jun

1987-03-01

311

Large sunspot group of April - August 1991 and the white flare in it. I.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of a gigantic sunspot group observed in April - August 1991 is studied. The group appeared at an anomalously high latitude (? = +30 - 35°) for the epoch of maximum and was characterized with large area variation. It was a secondary outburst of activity of the deep source, a more powerful event in February 1989. At the phase of their maximum of evolution the groups reached 4800 and 2700 m.f. in area correspondingly, and were very large multiumbral sunspots similar in character. A large periphery filament embracing the group was studied. Its systematic expansion was detected during four synodic rotations. This is evidence for the expansion of the polarity vision line i.e. expansion of the magnetic field across the solar surface. The migration velocity of the field's front is estimated to be 10 m/sec. A connection of all large flares of the sunspot group (importance 2 - 4) with periphery stationary filaments has been detected.

Slonim, Yu. M.; Kuleshova, K. F.

1992-11-01

312

M31-RV evolution (1942-1993) (Boschi+, 2004)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photometric evolution of M31-RV has been investigated on 1447 plates of the Andromeda galaxy obtained over half a century with the Asiago telescopes. M31-RV is a gigantic stellar explosion that occurred during 1988 in the Bulge of M31 and that was characterized by the appearance for a few months of an M supergiant reaching Mbol=-10. The 1988 outburst has been positively detected on Asiago plates, and it has been the only such event recorded over the period covered by the plates (1942-1993). In particular, an alleged previous outburst in 1967 is excluded by the more numerous and deeper Asiago plates, with relevant implication for the interpretative models of this unique event. (1 data file).

Boschi, F.; Munari, U.

2004-03-01

313

Impact of the photoinduced space charge upon semiconductor photoresponse dependence on the concentration of recombination centers under weak optical radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of theoretical analysis of influence of the photo-induced space charge upon the photo-carrier initiation, the Dember's effect (photo-EMF) and the photocurrent amplification in the case of inter-band absorption of weak optical radiation and non-equilibrium carrier recombination via deep impurity are presented. The model of a single recombination deep acceptor level and shallow donor impurity is considered. The tasks (including the effect of the gigantic splash of semiconductor photoconductivity upon an increase in the concentration of recombination centers) are solved beyond the commonly used approximation of quasi-neutrality. It is shown that the solutions beyond the approximation of quasi-neutrality may be basically differed from the quasi-neutral solutions.

Kholodnov, Vyacheslav A.; Drugova, Albina A.

2000-11-01

314

Geophysical and tectonic characteristics of Mongolian-Okhotsk seismic zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of the epicentral field of earthquakes in the Mongolian-Okotsk seismic zone were ascertained and its correlations with deep structure of the crust and mantle were determined. The territory involved is western Mongolia, the Baykal region, Transbaykalia and the USSR Far East. Maps of Epicenters and density of the logarithm of earthquake density were constructed for the investigated territory. The Mongolian-Okhotsk seismic zone is spatially linked to a very large arched structure and is a reflection of its development at the present time. The most important factor governing the tectonic life of this structure is a gigantic lens of the anomalous mantle with a high temperature and viscosity. Despite the unified global sources of development of the entire Mongolian-Okhotsk seismic zone, the nature and position of the structural elements making it up (seismic systems and aseismic windows) are governed by the inhomogeneous structure of the upper crustal horizons.

Gorkusha, S. V.; Mastyulin, L. A.

1984-05-01

315

A normal and superoutburst study of the eclipsing SU UMa star: DV Ursae Majoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on time-resolved photometry carried out during the 1995 short outburst and the 1997 long outburst in the eclipsing dwarf nova DV UMa. The revised orbital period is 0.0858526172 (67)d. We detected gigantic superhumps with an amplitude of ~0.6mag in the mid-phase of the 1997 outburst, revealing the SU UMa nature of DV UMa. The superhump period is 0.0887 (4)d. The superhumps became less clear during the late phase of the superoutburst, and we found two possible periods of 0.0885 (15) and 0.0764 (15). During both outbursts, the eclipse was wide and shallow near the maximum, and then became narrower and deeper, which is qualitatively well explained by the current disc instability theory.

Nogami, Daisaku; Kato, Taichi; Baba, Hajime; Novák, Rudolf; Lockley, J. J.; Somers, M.

2001-03-01

316

Supergiant Complexes of Solar Activity and Convection Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global distribution of solar surface activity (active regions) is apparently connected with processes in the convection zone. The large-scale magnetic structures above the tachocline could in a pronounced way be observable in the surface magnetic field. To get the information regarding large-scale magnetic formations in the convection zone, a set of solar synoptic charts (Mount Wilson 1998 - 2004, Fe i, 525.02 nm) have been analyzed. It is shown that the longitudinal dimensions and dynamics of supergiant complexes of solar surface activity carry valuable information about the processes in the convection zone of the Sun. A clear effect of large-scale (global) turbulence is found. This is a `fingerprint' of deep convection, because there are no such large-scale turbulent eddies in the solar photosphere. The preferred scales of longitudinal variations in surface solar activity are revealed. These are: ˜ 24° (gigantic convection cells), 90°, 180° and 360°.

Arkhypov, O. V.; Antonov, O. V.; Khodachenko, M. L.

2011-05-01

317

Velocity-depth ambiguity and the seismic structure of large igneous provinces: a case study from the Ontong Java Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic structure of large igneous provinces provides unique constraints on the nature of their parental mantle, allowing us to investigate past mantle dynamics from present crustal structure. To exploit this crust-mantle connection, however, it is prerequisite to quantify the uncertainty of a crustal velocity model, as it could suffer from considerable velocity-depth ambiguity. In this contribution, a practical strategy is suggested to estimate the model uncertainty by explicitly exploring the degree of velocity-depth ambiguity in the model space. In addition, wide-angle seismic data collected over the Ontong Java Plateau are revisited to provide a worked example of the new approach. My analysis indicates that the crustal structure of this gigantic plateau is difficult to reconcile with the melting of a pyrolitic mantle, pointing to the possibility of large-scale compositional heterogeneity in the convecting mantle.

Korenaga, Jun

2011-05-01

318

Galaxy Formation in Action: A Multi-Wavelength Study of Ly-alpha Nebulae in the Distant Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lyman-alpha blobs are mysterious objects in the distant Universe extending over 50-100 kpc. Because these gigantic gas clouds have been detected only in optically thick and highly resonant Lyman-alpha emission, their power source remains a puzzle. Due to the rarity of blobs, the form of their evolution to the present day is also unknown. We are conducting multi-wavelength, deep, and large area surveys to identify tens of blobs at redshifts 2-5. These surveys have now produced the first constraints on blob clustering, showing that blobs occupy massive halos likely to evolve into rich clusters today. Blobs are not only tracers of the most overdense environments at early times, but also may mark the sites of brightest cluster galaxy formation. By targeting the optically-thin lines such as Halpha, we have obtained the first measurements of gas kinematics in blobs, excluding strong outflows as the source of Lyman-alpha emission.

Zabludoff, Ann I.

2012-01-01

319

Millimeter Radio Astronomy and the Solar Convection Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global distribution of solar surface activity (active regions) is connected with processes in the convection zone. To extract the information on large-scale motions in the convection zone, we study the solar synoptic charts (Mount Wilson 1998-2004, Fe I, 525.02 nm). The clear indication of large-scale ( ? 18 degree) turbulence is found. This may be a manifestations of the deep convection because there is no such global turbulent eddies in the solar photosphere. The preferred scales of longitudinal variations in surface solar activity are revealed. These correspond to about 15 degree to 51 degree (gigantic convection cells), 90 degree, 180 degree and 360 degree. Similar scales (e.g., 40 degree and 90 degree) are found in the millimeter radio-images (Metsahovi Radio Observatory 1994-1998, 37 and 87 GHz). Hence, the millimeter radio astronomy could prove useful for remote sensing of the solar convection zone.

Arkhypov, O. V.; Antonov, O. V.; Khodachenko, M. L.

320

The influence of imitated microgravity on the amyloplast structure, the composition and characteristics of potato minituber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of imitated microgravity (clinorotation, 2 rev/min) of long-term duration on the structural-functional organization of Solanum tuberosum L. (cv Adreta) minituber cells is studied. An essential influence on 45-day minituber size, on the content and composition of starch, on the solubility of starch in water and on the structure of amyloplasts in the storage parenchyma of potato minitubers is detected. The appearance of a fraction of "gigantic" amyloplasts in starch-storage parenchyma is observed during horizontal clinorotation of long-term duration. The correlation between the decrease of content amylose and the inhibition of starch solubility in water is detected under long-term clinorotation. The results point to some changes of the carbohydrate metabolism of potato storage organs under the effect of microgravity imitation.

Nedukha, O. M.; Kordyum, Ye. L.; Schnyukova, Ye. I.

321

The intersection of urban planning, art, and public health: the Sunnyside Piazza.  

PubMed

Deteriorating physical features of urban environments can negatively influence public health. Dilapidated environments and urban blight tend to promote alienation and can be associated with social disorder, vandalism, crime, drug abuse, traffic violations, and littering, which in turn affects health and well-being. In the late 1990s, the Sunnyside neighborhood in Portland, Ore, was plagued by many of these problems. In an attempt to invigorate neighborhood stewardship, the community organized and created a public gathering place; together, they painted a gigantic sunflower in the middle of an intersection and installed several interactive art features. As a result of these collective actions of "place-making," social capital has increased, thus revitalizing the community, and expanded social networks among residents have stimulated a sense of well-being. PMID:12948959

Semenza, Jan C

2003-09-01

322

Desorption-erasure of the Spin State Transition in Prussian-blue Type Cyanide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desorption/adsorption of guest molecules in a nano-porous material is one of the sensitive tools to control the nature of the host framework via the strong guest-host interaction. A Co--Fe cyanide film, Na0.20Co[Fe(CN)6]0.71zH2O, shows a spin state transition from the high-spin (HS) phase [Co2+ (S = 3/2)--Fe3+ (S = 1/2)] to the low-spin (LS) phase [Co3+ (S = 0)--Fe2+ (S = 0)] at Tc = 220 K. Here, we found that the existence (Tc = 220{--}263 K) and nonexistence (Tc? 0 K) of the phase transition reversibly switched by the site-selective desorption of the guest waters. Such a gigantic controllability of Tc is ascribed to subtle competition between the HS phase and the LS phase together with the cooperative nature of the transition.

Moritomo, Yutaka; Nakada, Fumiya; Kim, Jungeun; Takata, Masaki

2008-11-01

323

Ancient drainage basin of the Tharsis region, Mars: Potential source for outflow channel systems and putative oceans or paleolakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Paleotopographic reconstructions based on a synthesis of published geologic information and high-resolution topography, including topographic profiles, reveal the potential existence of an enormous drainage basin/aquifer system in the eastern part of the Tharsis region during the Noachian Period. Large topographic highs formed the margin of the gigantic drainage basin. Subsequently, lavas, sediments, and volatiles partly infilled the basin, resulting in an enormous and productive regional aquifer. The stacked sequences of water-bearing strata were then deformed locally and, in places, exposed by magmatic-driven uplifts, tectonic deformation, and erosion. This basin model provides a potential source of water necessary to carve the large outflow channel systems of the Tharsis and surrounding regions and to contribute to the formation of putative northern-plains ocean(s) and/or paleolakes. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

Dohm, J. M.; Ferris, J. C.; Baker, V. R.; Anderson, R. C.; Hare, T. M.; Strom, R. G.; Barlow, N. G.; Tanaka, K. L.; Klemaszewski, J. E.; Scott, D. H.

2001-01-01

324

Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis of Acromegaly  

PubMed Central

Acromegaly and gigantism are due to excess GH production, usually as a result of a pituitary adenoma. The incidence of acromegaly is 5 cases per million per year and the prevalence is 60 cases per million. Clinical manifestations in each patient depend on the levels of GH and IGF-I, age, tumor size, and the delay in diagnosis. Manifestations of acromegaly are varied and include acral and soft tissue overgrowth, joint pain, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and heart and respiratory failure. Acromegaly is a disabling disease that is associated with increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The diagnosis is based primarily on clinical features and confirmed by measuring GH levels after oral glucose loading and the estimation of IGF-I. It has been suggested that the rate of mortality in patients with acromegaly is correlated with the degree of control of GH. Adequately treated, the relative mortality risk can be markedly reduced towards normal.

Lugo, Gloria; Pena, Lara; Cordido, Fernando

2012-01-01

325

Acinic Cell Carcinoma of Minor Salivary Gland of the Base of Tongue That Required Reconstructive Surgery  

PubMed Central

Acinic cell carcinoma of minor salivary gland of the base of tongue is very rare. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common tumor in the base of tongue. We present a patient with gigantic acinic cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. This patient required emergency tracheotomy before surgery, because he had dyspnea when he came to our hospital. We removed this tumor by pull-through method and performed reconstructive surgery using a rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. It was a case that to preserved movement of the tongue and swallowing function by keeping lingual arteries and hypoglossal nerves. This case was an extremely rare case of ACC of the base of tongue that required reconstructive surgery.

Wada, Kota; Watanabe, Subaru; Ando, Yuji; Seino, Yoichi; Moriyama, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

326

Anomalous pressure effect in heteroacene organic field-effect transistors.  

PubMed

Anomalous pressure dependent conductivity is revealed for heteroacene organic field-effect transistors of dinaphtho[2, 3-b:2', 3'-f]thieno[3, 2-b]thiophene single crystals in the direction of a and b crystallographic axes. In contrast to the normal characteristics of a monotonic increase in mobility ? with the application of external hydrostatic pressure P in conductors, we found that the present organic semiconductor devices exhibit nonmonotonic and gigantic pressure dependence including an even negative pressure coefficient d?/dP. In combination with a structural analysis based on x-ray diffraction experiments under pressure, it is suggested that on-site molecular orientation and displacement peculiar in heteroacene molecules are responsible for the anomalous pressure effect. PMID:23496736

Sakai, K; Okada, Y; Kitaoka, S; Tsurumi, J; Ohishi, Y; Fujiwara, A; Takimiya, K; Takeya, J

2013-02-28

327

Dynamics of multiple phases in a colossal-magnetoresistive manganite as revealed by dielectric spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Electronic phase separation is one of the key features in correlated electron oxides. The coexistence and competition of multiple phases give rise to gigantic responses to tiny stimuli producing dramatic changes in magnetic, transport and other properties of these compounds. To probe the physical properties of each phase separately is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of phase separation phenomena and for designing their device functions. Here we unravel, using a unique p-n junction configuration, dynamic properties of multiple phases in manganite thin films. The multiple dielectric relaxations have been detected and their corresponding multiple phases have been identified, while the activation energies of dielectric responses from different phases were extracted separately. Their phase evolutions with changing both temperature and applied magnetic field have been demonstrated by dielectric response. These results provide a guideline for exploring the electronic phase separation phenomena in correlated electron oxides. PMID:22781757

Sheng, Zhigao; Nakamura, Masao; Kagawa, Fumitaka; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori

2012-07-10

328

The aerodynamics of Argentavis, the world's largest flying bird from the Miocene of Argentina  

PubMed Central

We calculate the flight performance of the gigantic volant bird Argentavis magnificens from the upper Miocene (?6 million years ago) of Argentina using a computer simulation model. Argentavis was probably too large (mass ?70 kg) to be capable of continuous flapping flight or standing takeoff under its own muscle power. Like extant condors and vultures, Argentavis would have extracted energy from the atmosphere for flight, relying on thermals present on the Argentinean pampas to provide power for soaring, and it probably used slope soaring over the windward slopes of the Andes. It was an excellent glider, with a gliding angle close to 3° and a cruising speed of 67 kph. Argentavis could take off by running downhill, or by launching from a perch to pick up flight speed. Other means of takeoff remain problematic.

Chatterjee, Sankar; Templin, R. Jack; Campbell, Kenneth E.

2007-01-01

329

The supergiant amphipod Alicella gigantea (Crustacea: Alicellidae) from hadal depths in the Kermadec Trench, SW Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we provide the first record of the 'supergiant' amphipod Alicella gigantea Chevreux, 1899 (Alicellidae) from the Southern Hemisphere, and extend the known bathymetric range by over 1000 m to 7000 m. An estimated nine individuals were observed across 1500 photographs taken in situ by baited camera at 6979 m in the Kermadec Trench, SW Pacific Ocean. Nine specimens, ranging in length from 102 to 290 mm were recovered by baited trap at depths of 6265 m and 7000 m. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences obtained indicate a cosmopolitan distribution for the species. Data and observations from the study are used to discuss the reason for gigantism in this species, and its apparently disjunct geographical distribution.

Jamieson, A. J.; Lacey, N. C.; Lörz, A.-N.; Rowden, A. A.; Piertney, S. B.

2013-08-01

330

The potassium-argon age of the Kara craters and their relation to the Cretaceous-Paleogene impact event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented of the potassium-argon dating of glass and rock samples from the Kara and the Us't'-Kara craters (believed to be connected with the catastrophic collision of the earth with a gigantic meteorite, believed by some to have caused a major biological catastrophe in the late Mesozoic period), showing that the ages obtained depend upon the structure of samples and, thus, can be inaccurate. No difference was found for the times of origin estimated for the Kara and the Us't'-Kara craters. Their isochrone age is about 66.1 + or - 0.8 years, corresponding to the present estimates of the boundary between the Cretaceous and Paleogene periods.

Kolesnikov, E. M.; Nazarov, M. A.; Badiukov, D. D.; Korina, M. I.; Smoliar, M. I.

1990-04-01

331

Electric-field control of spin waves in multiferroic BiFeO3: Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our recent experiment [1] demonstrated gigantic (30%) electric-field tuning of magnon frequencies in multiferroic BiFeO3. We demonstrate that the origin of this effect is related to two linear magnetoelectric interactions that couple the component of electric field perpendicular to the ferroelectric vector to a quadratic form of the N'eel vector. We calculate the magnon spectra due to each of these interactions and show that only one of them is consistent with experimental data. At high electric fields, this interaction induces a phase transition to a homogeneous state, and the multi-magnon spectra will fuse into two magnon frequencies. We discuss the possible microscopic mechanisms responsible for this novel interaction and the prospect for applications in magnonics.[4pt] [1] P. Rovillain, et al., Nature Materials advance online publication Nov. 14 2010 (DOI 10.1038/nmat2899), http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmat2899

de Sousa, Rogério; Rovillain, P.; Gallais, Y.; Sacuto, A.; Méasson, M. A.; Colson, D.; Forget, A.; Bibes, M.; Barthélémy, A.; Cazayous, M.

2011-03-01

332

Fraud in the acid rain debate  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility executives, according to the author, and millions of other Americans are the victims of a gigantic fraud being carried on in the name of controlling acid rain. This fraud, states the author, involves the distorted, dire image of acidity in nature being created by environmental groups, politicians and others - to gain public sympathy for their legislative goals. The alleged fraud involves the very nature of the legislation being promoted as a low-cost cure for acid rain. On the basis of scientific evidence to date there is no assurance it will reduce acidity by any appreciable amount, but on the other hand it most certainly will cost users of electricity hundreds of billions of dollars in new costs. What has already happened to the nuclear industry is also meant for coal.

Bagge, C.

1984-06-01

333

Multiferroics with spiral spin orders.  

PubMed

Cross correlation between magnetism and electricity in a solid can host magnetoelectric effects, such as magnetic (electric) induction of polarization (magnetization). A key to attain the gigantic magnetoelectric response is to find the efficient magnetism-electricity coupling mechanisms. Among those, recently the emergence of spontaneous (ferroelectric) polarization in the insulating helimagnet or spiral-spin structure was unraveled, as mediated by the spin-exchange and spin-orbit interactions. The sign of the polarization depends on the helicity (spin rotation sense), while the polarization direction itself depends on further details of the mechanism and the underlying lattice symmetry. Here, we describe some prototypical examples of the spiral-spin multiferroics, which enable some unconventional magnetoelectric control such as the magnetic-field-induced change of the polarization direction and magnitude as well as the electric-field-induced change of the spin helicity and magnetic domain. PMID:20496385

Tokura, Yoshinori; Seki, Shinichiro

2010-04-12

334

Quantum renormalization of the spin Hall effect.  

PubMed

By quantum Monte Carlo simulation of a realistic multiorbital Anderson impurity model, we study the spin-orbit interaction (SOI) of an Fe impurity in Au host metal. We show, for the first time, that the SOI is strongly renormalized by the quantum spin fluctuation. Based on this mechanism, we can explain why the gigantic spin Hall effect in Au with Fe impurities was observed in recent experiments, while it is not visible in the anomalous Hall effect. In addition, we show that the SOI is strongly renormalized by the Coulomb correlation U. Based on this picture, we can explain past discrepancies in the calculated orbital angular momenta for an Fe impurity in an Au host. PMID:20868117

Gu, Bo; Gan, Jing-Yu; Bulut, Nejat; Ziman, Timothy; Guo, Guang-Yu; Nagaosa, Naoto; Maekawa, Sadamichi

2010-08-18

335

Commentary: physician-scientist's frustrations fester.  

PubMed

A growing problem of major proportions had been confronting biomedical scientists for many decades. Until solved, this long-neglected problem, the abject failure of the American health care system, presents a gigantic obstacle to the application of the discoveries flowing from neuropsychopharmacological research into deliverable medications utilized by medical practitioners. Although it is recognized that such advances could benefit all of society, both in the United States and globally, progress toward this important goal has not happened. As I noted 5 years ago, 'Unless steps are taken soon to undertake a comprehensive restoration of our system, the profound advances in bio-medical research so rapidly accruing today may never be effectively transformed into meaningful advances in health care for society.' I remain perplexed and frustrated by the reluctance of scientific research societies such as our ACNP to engage their energies and intellect into this most serious issue. PMID:19079067

Bloom, Floyd E

2009-01-01

336

Macrodystrophia Lipomatosa: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation  

PubMed Central

Macrodystrophia lipomatosa (MDL) is a rare cause of congenital macrodactyly, characterised by progressive proliferation of all mesenchymal elements, with disproportionate increase in fibro-adipose tissue. It occurs most frequently in lower limbs along the distribution of the medial plantar nerve. MDL presents as localised gigantism of the hand or foot and comes to clinical attention for cosmetic reasons, mechanical problems secondary to degenerative joint disease, or development of neurovascular compression. Here, we report a case of MDL, with altered soft tissue growth due to an earlier surgery, making clinical diagnosis difficult. However, with a complete radio-clinical work-up and review of the history, a provisional diagnosis of MDL was made, which was confirmed by histopathology and during surgery.

Upadhyay, Deepika; Parashari, Umesh C; Khanduri, Sachin; Bhadury, Samarjit

2011-01-01

337

Mechanism of enhanced optical second-harmonic generation in the conducting pyrochlore-type Pb2Ir2O7-x oxide compound.  

PubMed

The structural, electronic, and optical properties of pyrochlore-type Pb(2)Ir(2)O(6)O(0.55)('), which is a metal without spatial inversion symmetry at room temperature, were investigated. Structural analysis revealed that the structural distortion relevant to the breakdown of the inversion symmetry is dominated by the Pb-O' network but is very small in the Ir-O network. At the same time, gigantic second-harmonic generation signals were observed, which can only occur if the local environment of the Ir 5d electrons features broken inversion symmetry. First-principles electronic structure calculations reveal that the underlying mechanism for this phenomenon is the induction of the noncentrosymmetricity in the Ir 5d bands by the strong hybridization with O' 2p orbitals. Our results stimulate theoretical study of inversion-broken iridates, where exotic quantum states such as a topological insulator and Dirac semimetal are anticipated. PMID:23683242

Hirata, Yasuyuki; Nakajima, Makoto; Nomura, Yusuke; Tajima, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Asoh, Keiko; Kiuchi, Yoko; Eguiluz, Adolfo G; Arita, Ryotaro; Suemoto, Tohru; Ohgushi, Kenya

2013-05-03

338

Monster of the Milky Way  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOVA television broadcast discusses black holes and presents new research indicating that a supermassive black hole may lurk at the center of our own galaxy. Features include interviews with researchers who explain the basics of black holes and reveal why they think the Milky Way may harbor a gigantic black hole at its center, and audio clips of physicists and astronomers describing their ideas about black holes. A slide show explains the process by which particularly massive stars consume their nuclear fuel, explode in a supernova, and collapse to an unimaginably dense point called a singularity. There is also a program preview and transcript, as well as an interactive catalog of other astronomical objects.

339

On the asymptotic state of high Reynolds number, smooth-wall turbulent flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is argued that the extrapolation of the log-wake law for the mean turbulent velocity profile to arbitrarily large Reynolds numbers, and also the similarity scaling for the intensity of stream-wise turbulent velocity fluctuations indicated by recent experimental measurements, are consistent with the hypothesis that smooth-wall turbulence is asymptotically transitory in the sense that these fluctuations almost everywhere decay with respect to the outer velocity scale when 1/log (Re?) << 1, where Re? is the Reynolds number based on the skin-friction velocity u?. The existence of one or more near-wall maxima in these turbulent velocity fluctuations whose value may grow with Re?, does not invalidate the main scaling arguments. At gigantic Re?, this paradigm suggests that nonlinear motions and ``turbulent'' energy production are still present immediately adjacent to the wall, but that their amplitude becomes vanishingly small compared to the outer velocity scale.

Pullin, D. I.; Inoue, M.; Saito, N.

2013-01-01

340

The Economo-Koskinas atlas revisited: cytoarchitectonics and functional context.  

PubMed

The monumental Atlas of Cytoarchitectonics of the Adult Human Cerebral Cortex of Economo and Koskinas represents a gigantic intellectual and technical effort, never sufficiently recognized. One reason might have been the limited number of copies produced; another, the complex (albeit logical and precise) symbol notation, which comprises a Roman capital (from the initial of the respective lobe), a calligraphic capital (the sequence of a gyrus within a lobe), and a Latin or Greek subscript (for microscopic features). Economo and Koskinas defined 107 cortical areas, as opposed to Brodmann's 44 areas for the human brain. Their cytoarchitectonic criteria confer the advantage of a more detailed parcellation scheme, despite the traditional familiarity of neuroscientists with Brodmann numbers. The system of 107 areas of Economo and Koskinas may be especially useful for modern studies on functional localization. PMID:17534132

Triarhou, Lazaros C

2007-05-29

341

Atmospheric oxygen concentration controls the size history of foraminifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Body size correlates with numerous physiological traits and thus influences organism fitness. However, long-term controls on size evolution remain poorly understood because few datasets spans sufficiently long intervals. One proposed controlling factor is variation in atmospheric oxygen, which is widely argued to have influenced size evolution in numerous taxa, notably gigantism in arthropods during the late Paleozoic. In this study, we compiled a comprehensive genus- and species-level size database of foraminifers (marine protists) to enable an extensive analysis of factors influencing size evolution. Foraminifers are an ideal study group because they are present in all Phanerozoic periods and have been diverse and abundant in shallow-marine habitats since Devonian time. We observe significant correlation between foraminiferan size and atmospheric oxygen concentration in foraminifers as a whole and in half of the major subclades. Larger size is associated with higher oxygen concentrations, as predicted by simple physiological models based on changes in the ratio of surface area to volume. Because the oxygen content ocean waters is controlled in part by atmospheric pO2, we interpret the association between foraminiferan size and pO2 to result from a direct physiological effect of oxygen availability. Atmospheric oxygen concentration predicts foraminiferan size better than six other Phanerozoic time series (pCO2, sea level, number of named geological formations, ?18O, ?13C, 87Sr/86Sr), further suggesting the correlation between oxygen and size does not occur simply through some common geological cause that influences many aspects of Earth system history. These findings support the hypothesis that widespread Permo-Carboniferous gigantism was enabled by high pO2 and suggest that oxygen availability has been among the most important influences on size evolution through Phanerozoic time.

Payne, J.; Jost, A. B.; Ouyang, X.; Skotheim, J. M.; Wang, S. C.

2010-12-01

342

Abundâncias espectroscópicas de simbióticas amarelas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Este trabalho consiste no estudo de uma amostra de estrelas simbióticas amarelas cujas componentes frias apresentam tipos espectrais G ou K. Uma amostra de 20 estrelas foi usada, o que corresponde ao conjunto completo de estrelas simbióticas amarelas visíveis no hemisfério sul presentes no catálogo de Belczynski et al (2000 A&A Suppl. 146, 407). Os espectros estelares foram obtidos por observações usando os telescópios de 1,6 m do LNA e 1,52 m do ESO e os dados fornecidos pelo satélite IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) e posteriormente reduzidos no IAG. Os fluxos das linhas medidas de cada espectro foram calibrados em fluxo (com as correções de avermelhamento baseados no trabalho de Pacheco e Costa 1992, A&A 257, 619), e os parâmetros físicos (temperatura e densidade eletrônica) das nebulosas que envolvem os sistemas simbióticos determinados, usando-se fluxos medidos de OIII e NII da parte visível do espectro. Para a determinação das razões de abundâncias de C/N e O/N aplicou-se o método de Nussbaumer et al. (1988, A&A 198, 179). As razões de abundâncias foram derivadas das linhas de emissão (NIV, CIV, OIII, NIII e CIII) dos espectros IUE. Numa última fase plotou-se o diagrama C/N-O/N onde comparou-se a abundância química das simbióticas amarelas obtidas neste trabalho com as de gigantes normais. Os resultados mostram abundâncias compatíveis com aquelas derivadas para nebulosas planetárias do bojo, indicando que o material nebular é originado das gigantes vermelhas de cada sistema, e não da fonte quente. (FAPESP, CNPq)

Calbo, S. R.; Costa, R. D. D.

2003-08-01

343

Abundância química de simbióticas na direção do bojo galáctico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O estudo da distribuição de metalicidades de gigantes K no Bojo indica um largo intervalo com valores entre 0.1 a 10 vezes o valor solar. As razões elementais Ca/Fe, Si/Fe, Mg/Fe são típicas de estrelas do halo, apontando para um processo rápido de enriquecimento, via estrelas masssivas (SN's tipo II). No entanto, este cenário não combina com os resultados derivados de nebulosas planetárias do bojo tais como os de Ratag et al. (1992, A&A,255,270), Cuisinier et al.(2000, A&A,353, 543), Escudero e Costa (2001, A&A,380, 300),que obtêm abundâncias análogas às do disco. Neste cenário, o estudo de estrelas simbióticas possibilita uma abordagem particularmente apropriada para o problema das abundâncias químicas de estrelas de massa intermediária em estágios avançados da evoluçao estelar. Apresentamos aqui os resultados da determinacão das abundâncias do grupo do CNO numa extensa amostra de simbióticas do bojo. Aliás, com a disponibilidade de espectros no visível determinamos também abundâncias de Ar, Ne, S e He, fundamentais para analisar os processos de enriquecimento químico ocorridos ao longo da evolução estelar, bem como a evolução química do meio interestelar. Com os espectros UV do satelite IUE obtivemos abundâncias de C, necessárias no estudo da evolução dos sistemas. As relaçoes C/N-O/N mostram que o material nebular é produto do vento da componente gigante e não dos eventos de nova que às vezes acontecem nestes sistemas, como foi mostrado por Nussbaumer et al (1988,A&A,198,179). As abundâncias de Ar, S, Ne e O são compativeis com resultados de fontes no disco e bojo, seguindo o gradiente proposto por muitos autores na literatura a partir de diferentes objetos como cefeidas, nebulosas planetárias e anãs G. (CAPES,FAPESP,CNPq)

Luna, G. J. M.; Costa, R. D. D.

2003-08-01

344

Physical characteristics of TLEs inferred from ISUAL observations (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ISUAL/FORMOSAT-2 is the first satellite mission for the long term survey of upper atmospheric transient luminous phenomena/events (TLEs). The payload consists of three sensor packages including an intensified CCD imager, a six-channel spectrophotometer and a dual-band array photometer. Hence ISUAL experiment could provide information to understand the spatial and the temporal evolutions of TLEs. In this presentation, we will review the important findings of the ISUAL mission in the first five years of operation; mainly on the electric field of sprites streamers [Pasko, 2004; Kuo et al., 2005; Liu et al., 2006; Adachi et al., 2006; Liu et al, 2010; Celestin and Pasko, 2010], the FUV emissions of elves [Mende et al., 2005; Chang et al., 2010], the luminous and electric properties of gigantic jets [Su et al., 2005; Kuo et al., 2009; Chou et al., 2010], and the high-altitude sprite current and the lightning continuing current [Cummer et al, 2006; Adachi et al, 2009]. ISUAL has carried out 762 nm-filtered, 557.7 nm-filtered and 427.8 nm-filtered imager campaigns, besides the regular 1PN2 emission survey. For the 762 nm-filtered imager campaign, a weak but detectable O2 Atmospheric band emission (~1 kR) was predicted based on a plasma chemistry model [Sentman et al., 2008], and the image data may have confirmed the existence of this band emission. While, no significant 557.7 nm emissions were detected from the ISUAL recorded elves. In the 427.8 nm campaign, altitudinal ionization profile of sprites was inferred. The ionization structure of elves and the leader structure of gigantic jets will also be discussed.

Kuo, C.; Chen, A. B.; Su, H.; Hsu, R.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Takahashi, Y.; Lee, L.

2010-12-01

345

Nekodake stratovolcano formed at the edge of caldera before the huge pyroclastic eruptions of Aso, Japan: petrological constraints on magma supply system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic activities prior to caldera-forming eruptions give important constraints on the magma supply system leading to catastrophic eruptions. Nekodake volcano located in the eastern end of Aso Caldera, Central Kyushu, Japan, was considered to have been active during the post-caldera period. However, the stratigraphic relations and radiometric ages suggest that the Nekodake volcano was active during the caldera forming periods, Aso-1, Aso-2, Aso-3 and Aso-4 pyroclastic flows. In the history of the activities of the Aso volcano, there are some parasitic eruptive activities between pyroclastic flows. However, the relationship between those activities and the pyroclastic flow eruptions is not clear. The purpose of this study is to clarify the petrological relation between magmas of the Nekodake volcano and those of Aso pyroclastic flows. We investigated geological features of the Nekodake volcano, and conducted whole rock chemical analysis and the petrographical description of the volcanic products of Nekodake. We classified the Nekodake volcanic products into four groups from phenocryst assemblage, and two groups from the chemical composition. We found a correlation between petrographical groups and compositional groups. For example, incompatible elements are abundant in olivine group (olivine + 2 pyroxene + plagioclases). Nekodake volcanic products and the caldera-forming products show contrasting differentiation trends on the Harker diagrams. MgO, Al2O3, and CaO contents are high and TiO2, P2O5, and Fe2O3 are low in Nekodake products compared with those in caldera-forming products. Incompatible elements of Nekodake volcanic products show characteristically lower values (K20:0. 6 wt.% - 1.5 wt.%, Rb: 14.2 - 50.0 ppm, Zr: 90.7 ppm -129.2 ppm) than those of caldera-forming products (K20: 1.2 wt.%- 5.0 wt.%, Rb: 21.2 - 165.0 ppm, Zr: 93.76 ppm -321.0 ppm). These data show that the magma reservoir of Nekodake volcano and that of the gigantic pyroclastic eruptions are petrologically unrelated, although they erupt very close in space and in time. It will be necessary to re-evaluate the relation between radiometric ages of the Nekodake volcanic products and those of gigantic pyroclastic flows.

Ueda, Y.; Hasenaka, T.; Mori, Y.

2011-12-01

346

Body Size Evolution in Insular Speckled Rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalus mitchellii)  

PubMed Central

Background Speckled rattlesnakes (Crotalus mitchellii) inhabit multiple islands off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Two of the 14 known insular populations have been recognized as subspecies based primarily on body size divergence from putative mainland ancestral populations; however, a survey of body size variation from other islands occupied by these snakes has not been previously reported. We examined body size variation between island and mainland speckled rattlesnakes, and the relationship between body size and various island physical variables among 12 island populations. We also examined relative head size among giant, dwarfed, and mainland speckled rattlesnakes to determine whether allometric differences conformed to predictions of gape size (and indirectly body size) evolving in response to shifts in prey size. Methodology/Principal Findings Insular speckled rattlesnakes show considerable variation in body size when compared to mainland source subspecies. In addition to previously known instances of gigantism on Ángel de la Guarda and dwarfism on El Muerto, various degrees of body size decrease have occurred frequently in this taxon, with dwarfed rattlesnakes occurring mostly on small, recently isolated, land-bridge islands. Regression models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) showed that mean SVL of insular populations was most strongly correlated with island area, suggesting the influence of selection for different body size optima for islands of different size. Allometric differences in head size of giant and dwarf rattlesnakes revealed patterns consistent with shifts to larger and smaller prey, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Our data provide the first example of a clear relationship between body size and island area in a squamate reptile species; among vertebrates this pattern has been previously documented in few insular mammals. This finding suggests that selection for body size is influenced by changes in community dynamics that are related to graded differences in area over what are otherwise similar bioclimatic conditions. We hypothesize that in this system shifts to larger prey, episodic saturation and depression of primary prey density, and predator release may have led to insular gigantism, and that shifts to smaller prey and increased reproductive efficiency in the presence of intense intraspecific competition may have led to insular dwarfism.

Meik, Jesse M.; Lawing, A. Michelle; Pires-daSilva, Andre

2010-01-01

347

The island wind buoyancy connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of recent studies have suggested that the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is at least partially controlled by the Southern Ocean (SO) winds. The paradoxical implication is that a link exists between the global surface buoyancy flux to the ocean (which is needed for the density transformation between surface and deep water) and the SO winds. Although the dependency of buoyancy forcing on local wind is obvious, the global forcings are usually viewed independently with regard to their role as drivers of the global ocean circulation. The present idealized study is focused on understanding this wind buoyancy connection. In order to isolate and investigate the effect of SO winds on the overturning we have neglected other important key processes such as SO eddies.We present the wind buoyancy connection in the framework of a single gigantic island that lies between latitude bands free of continents (such as the land mass of the Americas). The unique geometry of a gigantic island on a sphere allows for a clear and insightful examination of the wind buoyancy connection. This is because it enables us to obtain analytical solutions and it circumvents the need to calculate the torque exerted on zonal sills adjacent to the island tips (e.g. the Bering Strait). The torque calculation is notoriously difficult and is avoided here by the clockwise integration, which goes twice through the western boundary of the island (in opposite directions) eliminating any unknown pressure torques.The link between SO winds and global buoyancy forcing is explored qualitatively, using salinity and temperature mixed dynamical-box models and a temperature slab model, and semiquantitatively, employing a reduced gravity model which includes parametrized thermodynamics. Our main finding is that, in all of these cases the island geometry implies that the stratification (and, hence, the air sea heat flux) can always adjust itself to allow the overturning forced by the wind. We find that, in the mixed dynamical-box models, the salinity and temperature differences between the boxes are inversely proportional to the MOC. In spite of the resulting smaller north south temperature difference, the meridional heat transport is enhanced.

de Boer, Agatha M.; Nof, Doron

2005-10-01

348

[An adult case of Chédiak-Higashi syndrome with parkinsonism and marked atrophy of the central nervous system].  

PubMed

Chédiak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is often a fatal disease of childhood characterized by oculocutaneous forms of albinism with congenital gigantism of peroxidase granules, granulation anomaly of leukocytes, hereditary gigantism of cytoplasmic organelles and a marked susceptibility to infections. A few patients have survived to age 20 years. A 39-year-old woman developed tremor and gait disturbance at age 22 years. At age 25 years, she was admitted to the Hospital for evaluation. Mental impairment, horizontal nystagmus, bradyphrenia, cogwheel rigidity, tremor at tongue, mandible and hands, bradykinesia, and unsteady gait were found and a juvenile parkinsonism was diagnosed. However, there was no favorable response by levodopa therapy. She became unable to walk at age 33 years. On admission, Oct. 27, 1988, at age 39 years, she was bedridden with a posture of decorticate rigidity. She was found to have partial depigmentation of the retina and choroid, pale and atrophic optic disc and subluxation of the mandible, Onuaguluchi's finger deformities and pes cavus. Neurological examination disclosed that she was alert but had marked difficulty in speaking. The communication was only possible by giving a sign of grasping of the left hand. The patient also showed oculogyric crisis, dystonic rigidity of the neck, diffuse muscular atrophy, complete paraplegia and decreased deep tendon reflexes with Babinski sign. On laboratory studies, at age 39, the white cells count was decreased (2,510/mm3), the hemoglobin level was 10.3 g/dl, the serum iron was 12 micrograms/dl, IgG 2,828 mg/dl, IgA 1,002 mg/dl, and the activity of natural killer cell was profoundly decreased (2%, normal; 18-40). Hematological examination revealed peroxidase positive giant granules in leukocytes. Chest X-ray film disclosed marked abnormal colon gas which located right subdiaphragma (Chilaiditi syndrome). Cerebrospinal fluid contained 12 cells/mm3, 99% lymphocytes; protein, 58.8 mg/dl; IgG, 6.8 mg/dl; HVA, 4.5 ng/ml (normal 41.8-44.6); 5-HIAA, 1.3 ng/ml (11.3-29.2); MHPG, 5.8 ng/ml (13.2-22.2).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2044302

Uyama, E; Hirano, T; Yoshida, A; Doi, O; Maruoka, S; Araki, S

1991-01-01

349

Analysis of impulse signals with Hylaty ELF station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lighting discharges generate electromagnetic field pulses that propagate in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. The attenuation in the ELF range is so small that the pulses originating from strong atmospheric discharges can be observed even several thousand kilometers away from the individual discharge. The recorded waveform depends on the discharge process, the Earth-ionosphere waveguide properties on the source-receiver path, and the transfer function of the receiver. If the distance from the source is known, an inverse method can be used for reconstructing the current moment waveform and the charge moment of the discharge. In order to reconstruct the source parameters from the recorded signal a reliable model of the radio wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide as well as practical signal processing techniques are necessary. We present two methods, both based on analytical formulas. The first method allows for fast calculation of the charge moment of relatively short atmospheric discharges. It is based on peak amplitude measurement of the recorded magnetic component of the ELF EM field and it takes into account the receiver characteristics. The second method, called "inverse channel method" allows reconstructing the complete current moment waveform of strong atmospheric discharges that exhibit the continuing current phase, such as Gigantic Jets and Sprites. The method makes it possible to fully remove from the observed waveform the distortions related to the receiver's impulse response as well as the influence of the Earth-ionosphere propagation channel. Our ELF station is equipped with two magnetic antennas for Bx and By components measurement in the 0.03 to 55 Hz frequency range. ELF Data recording is carried out since 1993, with continuous data acquisition since 2005. The station features low noise level and precise timing. It is battery powered and located in the sparsely populated area, far from major electric power lines, which results in high quality signal recordings and allows for precise calculations of the charge moments of upward discharges and strong cloud-to-ground discharges originating from distant sources. The same data is used for Schumann resonance observation. We demonstrate the use of our methods based on recent recordings from the Hylaty ELF station. We include examples of GJ (Gigantic Jet) and TGF (Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash) related discharges.

Kulak, A.; Mlynarczyk, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Kubisz, J.; Michalec, A.

2012-04-01

350

The revival of white holes as Small Bangs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black holes are extremely dense and compact objects from which light cannot escape. There is an overall consensus that black holes exist and many astronomical objects are identified with black holes. White holes were understood as the exact time reversal of black holes, therefore they should continuously throw away material. It is accepted, however, that a persistent ejection of mass leads to gravitational pressure, the formation of a black hole and thus to the "death of while holes". So far, no astronomical source has been successfully tagged a white hole. The only known white hole is the Big Bang which was instantaneous rather than continuous or long-lasting. We thus suggest that the emergence of a white hole, which we name a 'Small Bang', is spontaneous - all the matter is ejected at a single pulse. Thus, unlike black holes, white holes cannot be continuously observed rather their effect can only be detected around the event itself. ?-ray bursts are the most energetic explosions in the universe. Long ?-ray bursts were connected with supernova eruptions. There is a new group of ?-ray bursts, which are relatively close to Earth, but surprisingly lack any supernova emission. We propose identifying these bursts with white holes. White holes seem like the best explanation of ?-ray bursts that appear in voids. We also predict the detection of rare gigantic ?-ray bursts with energies much higher than typically observed.

Retter, Alon; Heller, Shlomo

2012-02-01

351

New color images of transient luminous events from dedicated observations on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During July-August 2011, Expedition 28/29 JAXA astronaut Satoshi Furukawa conducted TLE observations from the International Space Station in conjunction with the "Cosmic Shore" program produced by NHK. An EMCCD normal video-rate color TV camera was used to conduct directed observations from the Earth-pointing Cupola module. The target selection was based on the methodology developed for the MEIDEX sprite campaign on board the space shuttle Columbia in January 2003 (Ziv et al., 2004). The observation geometry was pre-determined and uploaded daily to the ISS with pointing options to limb, oblique or nadir, based on the predicted location of the storm with regards to the ISS. The pointing angle was rotated in real-time according to visual eyesight by the astronaut. We present results of 10 confirmed TLEs: 8 sprites, 1 sprite halo and 1 gigantic jet, out of <2 h of video. Sprites tend to appear in a single frame simultaneously with maximum lightning brightness. Unique images (a) from nadir of a sprite horizontally displaced form the lightning light and (b) from the oblique view of a sprite halo, enable the calculation of dimensions and volumes occupied by these TLEs. Since time stamping on the ISS images was accurate within 1 s, matching with ELF and WWLLN data for the parent lightning location is limited. Nevertheless, the results prove that the ISS is an ideal platform for lightning and TLE observations, and careful operational procedures greatly enhance the value of observation time.

Yair, Yoav; Rubanenko, Lior; Mezuman, Keren; Elhalel, Gal; Pariente, Meidad; Glickman-Pariente, Maya; Ziv, Baruch; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Inoue, Tomohiro

2013-09-01

352

A full-field strategy to take texture-induced anisotropy into account during FE simulations of metal forming processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During metal forming, the mechanical properties in all locations of the part evolve, usually in a heterogeneous way. In principle, this should be taken into account when performing finite element (FE) simulations of the forming process, by modeling the evolution of the mechanical properties in every integration point of the FE mesh and coupling the result back to the FEshell. This is the meaning of the term `full-field modeling.' The issue is developed further with focus on the evolution of texture and plastic anisotropy. It is explained that in principle, such fullfield modeling would require a gigantic computational effort which (at least at present) would be out of reach of most research organizations. A methodology is then presented to overcome this difficulty by using efficient models for texture updating and for texture-based plastic anisotropy, and by optimizing the overall calculation scheme without sacrificing the accuracy of the texture prediction. Some of the first results (obtained for cup drawing of anisotropic deep drawing steel) are shown, including comparison to experimental results. Possible future applications of the method are proposed.

van Houtte, Paul; Gawad, Jerzy; Eyckens, Philip; van Bael, Bert; Samaey, Giovanni; Roose, Dirk

2011-11-01

353

Structure of the TPR Domain of AIP: Lack of Client Protein Interaction with the C-Terminal ?-7 Helix of the TPR Domain of AIP Is Sufficient for Pituitary Adenoma Predisposition  

PubMed Central

Mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) have been associated with familial isolated pituitary adenomas predisposing to young-onset acromegaly and gigantism. The precise tumorigenic mechanism is not well understood as AIP interacts with a large number of independent proteins as well as three chaperone systems, HSP90, HSP70 and TOMM20. We have determined the structure of the TPR domain of AIP at high resolution, which has allowed a detailed analysis of how disease-associated mutations impact on the structural integrity of the TPR domain. A subset of C-terminal ?-7 helix (C?-7h) mutations, R304* (nonsense mutation), R304Q, Q307* and R325Q, a known site for AhR and PDE4A5 client-protein interaction, occur beyond those that interact with the conserved MEEVD and EDDVE sequences of HSP90 and TOMM20. These C-terminal AIP mutations appear to only disrupt client-protein binding to the C?-7h, while chaperone binding remains unaffected, suggesting that failure of client-protein interaction with the C?-7h is sufficient to predispose to pituitary adenoma. We have also identified a molecular switch in the AIP TPR-domain that allows recognition of both the conserved HSP90 motif, MEEVD, and the equivalent sequence (EDDVE) of TOMM20.

Morgan, Rhodri M. L.; Hernandez-Ramirez, Laura C.; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Zhou, Lihong; Roe, S. Mark; Korbonits, Marta; Prodromou, Chrisostomos

2012-01-01

354

On 3D detection of lightning discharges and associated events with a small scale interferometric network of radio receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightning discharges cause different phenomena in the atmosphere such as sprites, gigantic jets and runaway electron beams. Lightning discharges and their associated events exhibit characteristic electromagnetic signatures in a wide range of frequencies. These electromagnetic signatures are detected and recorded with radio receivers for a detailed investigation. This work uses a small scale network of wide band digital radio receivers, which record vertical electric field strengths in the frequency range from ~ 4 Hz to ~ 400 KHz, with a sampling frequency of 1 MHz, an amplitude resolution of ~ 35 ?V/m and a timing accuracy of ~ 12 ns. The small scale interferometric network consists of eight radio receivers, which are separated by distances ranging from 1 km up to 30 km. The network was deployed in Southern France from July to September 2011. Three additional receivers served as remote reference measurements at distances from 300 km up to 1000 km. The small scale interferometric network enables the detection of lightning discharges and associated events in three dimensions for nearby thunderstorms which are less than 500 km away. The network operated successfully during several nearby sprite producing thunderstorms. The recorded waveforms are very consistent and exhibit small time delays which reflect the propagation of the electromagnetic waves across the network. These time delays are used to determine the bearing and elevation angle of the arriving electromagnetic energy. The first results obtained with the interferometric network are presented.

Mezentsev, A.; Fullekrug, M.

2012-04-01

355

Multiferroic states in perovskite type orthoferrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Versatile and gigantic magnetoelectric (ME) phenomena have been found for a single crystal of perovskite-type orthoferrite DyFeO3[1]. Below the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature of Dy moments, a linear ME tensor component as large as ?zz˜2.4 x10-2 in dimensionless CGS unit is observed. In addition, it is revealed that the application of magnetic field along the c axis induced a ferroelectric order whose large polarization (>= 0.2 ?C/cm^2 along the c-axis) can be directly reversed by either of magnetic field or electric field. It is noteworthy that this magnetically driven ferroelectric state is even weakly ferromagnetic, i.e., truly multiferroic, in nature. We propose here that the exchange striction working between adjacent Fe^3+ and Dy^3+ layer with the respective layered antiferromagnetic components can be the origin of the ferroelectricity with such a large polarization value. It is further argued that the reversal process of electric polarization by magnetic (electric) field is inherently related to the change of the relative phase of antiferromagnetic spin (moment) arrangement of Fe (Dy)[0pt] [1] Y. Tokunaga et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 097205 (2008).

Tokunaga, Yusuke; Iguchi, Satoshi; Taguchi, Yasujiro; Arima, Takahisa; Tokura, Yoshinori

2009-03-01

356

Cutaneous manifestations and massive genital involvement in Hennekam syndrome.  

PubMed

We describe a 16-year-old boy with intestinal lymphangiectasia, lymphedema of the limbs and genitalia, mild mental retardation, and facial anomalies (Hennekam syndrome) and cutaneous lesions. Severe edema in the genital area created a gigantic mass that included the scrotum and penis. Numerous grouped red-violaceous pseudo-vesicular lesions and plaques, as well as verrucous brown papules, were present on the penis and scrotum. The prepuce was hypertrophic, with severe phimosis. Histologic analysis revealed dilated lymphatic vessels lined by a discontinuous layer of flat endothelial cells in the papillary dermis and extending down to the reticular dermis. Dilated blood vessels were also present but no cellular abnormalities were identified. A diagnosis of superficial cutaneous lymphatic malformations was made. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed cutaneous histologic investigation in a patient with Hennekam syndrome. We assume that the onset of cutaneous lesions in our patient was likely triggered by a generalized worsening of his lymphedema. PMID:16780470

Musumeci, Maria Letizia; Nasca, Maria Rita; De Pasquale, Rocco; Schwartz, Robert A; Micali, Giuseppe

357

History of rocketry in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian Space programme took birth on November 21, 1963, with the launch of Nike-Apache, an American sounding rocket from the shores of Thumba near Thiruvananthapuram on the west coast of India. From a family of operational sounding rockets known as the Rohini Sounding Rockets, India's launch vehicles have now grown up through SLV-3 and Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV) to the current gigantic satellite launchers, PSLV and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV). Though we had failures in the initial launches of SLV-3, ASLV and PSLV, these failures gave Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) a thorough and in depth understanding of the nuances of launch vehicle technology that later led to successful missions. An entirely new dimension was added to the Indian space programme when a space capsule was recovered very precisely after it had orbited the Earth for 12 days. The future for launch vehicles in ISRO looks bright with the GSLV MKIII, which is currently under development and the pursuit of cutting edge technologies such as reusable launch vehicles and air-breathing propulsion.

Vasant, Gowarikar; Suresh, B. N.

2009-12-01

358

Nanoscale Disorder and Local Electronic Properties of CaCu3Ti4O12: An Integrated Study of Electron, Neutron, and X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Absorption Fine Structure, and First-principles Calculations  

SciTech Connect

We report a combined experimental and theoretical study of CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12}. Based on our experimental observations of nanoscale regions of Ca-Cu antisite defects in part of the structure, we carried out density-functional theory (DFT) calculations that suggest a possible electronic mechanism to explain the gigantic dielectric response in this material. The defects are evident in atomically resolved transmission electron microscopy measurements, with supporting evidence from a quantitative analysis of the electron diffraction and DFT which suggests that such defects are reasonable on energetic grounds. To establish the extent of the defects, bulk average measurements of the local structure were carried out: extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), atomic pair-distribution function analysis of neutron powder-diffraction data, and single-crystal x-ray crystallography. The EXAFS data are consistent with the presence of the nanoclustered defects with an estimate of less than 10% of the sample being disordered while the neutron powder-diffraction experiments place an upper of {approx}5% on the proportion of the sample in the defective state. Because of the difficulty of quantifying nanoscale defects at such low levels, further work will be required to establish that this mechanism is operative in CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} but it presents a nontraditional plausible avenue for understanding colossal dielectric behavior.

Zheng, J.; Frenkel, A; Wu, L; Hanson, J; Ku, W; Bozin, E; Billinge, S; Zhu, Y

2010-01-01

359

Nanoscale disorder and local electronic properties of CaCu3Ti4O12 : An integrated study of electron, neutron, and x-ray diffraction, x-ray absorption fine structure, and first-principles calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a combined experimental and theoretical study of CaCu3Ti4O12 . Based on our experimental observations of nanoscale regions of Ca-Cu antisite defects in part of the structure, we carried out density-functional theory (DFT) calculations that suggest a possible electronic mechanism to explain the gigantic dielectric response in this material. The defects are evident in atomically resolved transmission electron microscopy measurements, with supporting evidence from a quantitative analysis of the electron diffraction and DFT which suggests that such defects are reasonable on energetic grounds. To establish the extent of the defects, bulk average measurements of the local structure were carried out: extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), atomic pair-distribution function analysis of neutron powder-diffraction data, and single-crystal x-ray crystallography. The EXAFS data are consistent with the presence of the nanoclustered defects with an estimate of less than 10% of the sample being disordered while the neutron powder-diffraction experiments place an upper of ˜5% on the proportion of the sample in the defective state. Because of the difficulty of quantifying nanoscale defects at such low levels, further work will be required to establish that this mechanism is operative in CaCu3Ti4O12 but it presents a nontraditional plausible avenue for understanding colossal dielectric behavior.

Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Frenkel, A. I.; Wu, L.; Hanson, J.; Ku, W.; Božin, E. S.; Billinge, S. J. L.; Zhu, Yimei

2010-04-01

360

Compositional evidence for an impact origin of the Moon's Procellarum basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The asymmetry between the nearside and farside of the Moon is evident in the distribution of mare basalt, crustal thickness and concentrations of radioactive elements, but its origin remains controversial. According to one attractive scenario, a gigantic impact early in the Moon's history produced the observed dichotomy; the putative 3,000-km-diameter Procellarum basin has been suggested to be a relic of this ancient impact. Low-calcium pyroxene can be formed during an impact by melting a mixture of crust and mantle materials or by excavating differentiated cumulates from the lunar magma ocean. Therefore, the association of low-calcium pyroxene with a lunar basin could indicate an impact origin. Here we use spectral mapping data from KAGUYA/SELENE (ref. ) to show that low-calcium pyroxene is concentrated around two established impact structures, the South Pole-Aitken and Imbrium basins. In addition, we detect a high concentration of low-calcium pyroxene at Procellarum, which supports an impact origin of the ancient basin. We propose that, in forming the largest known basin on the Moon, the impact excavated the nearside's primary feldspathic crust, which derived from the lunar magma ocean. A secondary feldspathic crust would have later recrystallized from the sea of impact melt, leading to two distinct sides of the Moon.

Nakamura, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Satoru; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Morota, Tomokatsu; Hiroi, Takahiro; Takeda, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Yokota, Yasuhiro; Hirata, Naru; Ohtake, Makiko; Saiki, Kazuto

2012-11-01

361

Deficiency of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, CDKN1B, results in overgrowth and neurodevelopmental delay.  

PubMed

Germline mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, CDKN1B, have been described in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), a cancer predisposition syndrome with adult onset neoplasia and no additional phenotypes. Here, we describe the first human case of CDKN1B deficiency, which recapitulates features of the murine CDKN1B knockout mouse model, including gigantism and neurodevelopmental defects. Decreased mRNA and protein expression of CDKN1B were confirmed in the proband's peripheral blood, which is not seen in MEN syndrome patients. We ascribed the decreased protein level to a maternally derived deletion on chromosome 12p13 encompassing the CDKN1B locus (which reduced mRNA expression) and a de novo allelic variant (c.-73G>A) in the CDKN1B promoter (which reduced protein translation). We propose a recessive model where decreased dosage of CDKN1B during development in humans results in a neuronal phenotype akin to that described in mice, placing CDKN1B as a candidate gene involved in developmental delay. PMID:23505216

Grey, William; Izatt, Louise; Sahraoui, Wafa; Ng, Yiu-Ming; Ogilvie, Caroline; Hulse, Anthony; Tse, Eric; Holic, Roman; Yu, Veronica

2013-04-12

362

Perspective: female remating, operational sex ratio, and the arena of sexual selection in Drosophila species.  

PubMed

As commonly observed among closely related species within a variety of taxa, Drosophila species differ considerably in whether they exhibit sexual dimorphism in coloration or morphology. Those Drosophila species in which male external sexual characters are minimal or absent tend, instead, to have exaggerated ejaculate traits such as sperm gigantism or seminal nutrient donations. Underlying explanations for the interspecific differences in the presence of external morphological sexual dimorphism versus exaggerated ejaculate traits are addressed here by examining the opportunity for sexual selection on males to occur before versus after mating in 21 species of Drosophila. Female remating frequency, an important component of the operational sex ratio, differs widely among Drosophila species and appears to dictate whether the arena of sexual selection is prior to, as opposed to after, copulation. Infrequent female mating results in fewer mating opportunities for males and thus stronger competition for receptive females that favors the evolution of male characters that maximize mating success. On the other hand, rapid female remating results in overlapping ejaculates in the female reproductive tract, such that ejaculate traits which enhance fertilization success are favored. The strong association between female remating frequency in a given species and the presence of sexually selected external versus internal male characters indicates that the relationship be examined in other taxa as well. PMID:12389717

Markow, Therese Ann

2002-09-01

363

Remarkable optical red shift and extremely high optical absorption coefficient of V-Ga co-doped TiO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A first attempt has been made to study the effect of codoping of transition metal and sp metal on the electronic structure and associated optical properties of TiO2, through V-Ga codoped thin films. V-Ga codoped rutile TiO2 films were fabricated on fused quartz substrates using pulsed laser ablation, followed by heat treatment at high temperatures. Gigantic redshift in the optical absorption edge was observed in V-Ga co-doped TiO2 materials, from UV to infrared region with high absorption coefficient. Through combined structural characterization and theoretical modeling, this is attributed to the p-d hybridization between the two metals. This leads to additional energy bands to overlap with the minimum of the conduction band, leading to remarkably narrowed band gap free of mid-gap states. The direct-gap of the co-doped phase is key to the remarkably high optical absorption coefficient of the coped titania.

Deng, Quanrong; Han, Xiaoping; Gao, Yun; Shao, Guosheng

2012-07-01

364

Design of PREVENCION: a population-based study of cardiovascular disease in Peru.  

PubMed

Latin America is undergoing the epidemiologic transition that occurred earlier in developed countries, and is likely to face a gigantic epidemic of heart disease in the next few years unless urgent action is taken. The first essential component of any effective cardiovascular disease (CVD) control program is to establish reliable estimates of cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality. However, such data from population-based studies in Latin America are still lacking. In this paper, we present the design and operation of PREVENCION (Estudio Peruano de Prevalencia de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares, for Peruvian Study of the Prevalence of Cardiovascular diseases). PREVENCION is an ongoing population-based study on a representative sample of the civilian non-institutionalized population of the second largest city in Peru. Its population is comparable to the rest of the Peruvian urban population and closely resembles other Latin American populations in countries such as Bolivia and Ecuador. Our study will contribute to the enormous task of understanding and preventing CVD in Latin America. PMID:16243113

Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Chirinos, Julio A; Zea Díaz, Humberto; Morey, Oscar; Bolanos, Juan F; Munoz-Atahualpa, Edgar; Chirinos-Pacheco, Julio

2005-11-01

365

A Phororhacoid bird from the Eocene of Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bird fossil record is globally scarce in Africa. The early Tertiary evolution of terrestrial birds is virtually unknown in that continent. Here, we report on a femur of a large terrestrial new genus discovered from the early or early middle Eocene (between ˜52 and 46 Ma) of south-western Algeria. This femur shows all the morphological features of the Phororhacoidea, the so-called Terror Birds. Most of the phororhacoids were indeed large, or even gigantic, flightless predators or scavengers with no close modern analogs. It is likely that this extinct group originated in South America, where they are known from the late Paleocene to the late Pleistocene (˜59 to 0.01 Ma). The presence of a phororhacoid bird in Africa cannot be explained by a vicariant mechanism because these birds first appeared in South America well after the onset of the mid-Cretaceous Gondwana break up (˜100 million years old). Here, we propose two hypotheses to account for this occurrence, either an early dispersal of small members of this group, which were still able of a limited flight, or a transoceanic migration of flightless birds from South America to Africa during the Paleocene or earliest Eocene. Paleogeographic reconstructions of the South Atlantic Ocean suggest the existence of several islands of considerable size between South America and Africa during the early Tertiary, which could have helped a transatlantic dispersal of phororhacoids.

Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Mahboubi, M'hammed; Adaci, Mohammed; Bensalah, Mustapha

2011-10-01

366

On branching streamers and sprites: channel head dynamics in laboratory and high atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Streamers are weakly ionized channels appearing in the initial electric breakdown of long gaps; they form corona discharges and play a role in sparks and lightning. Their growth and branching is determined at their rapidly propagating heads where the electric field is strongly enhanced due to dynamical self-focussing; this creates exotic nonequilibrium plasma in the heads. Streamer-like processes also occur in gigantic high altitude lightning when sprite discharges at heights of 40 to 90 km break up into tenthousands of propagating channels. I will review recent observations and then elaborate computations and theoretical concepts. Basically, already a single discharge channel has a multiscale structure with a thin ionization front surrounding a rather inert body. This structure has been observed in computations in the past decades, but it was recognized only recently that this structure also leads to spontaneous branching. The mechanism is a Laplacian instability that can occur similarly at other phase boundaries like liquid-fluid interfaces, solidification fronts etc. I will present computational results with adaptive grids and analytical approximations and solutions; and I will confront the new concepts with older phenomenological concepts for streamer and spark propagation and branching. For papers and co-authors, see http://homepages.cwi.nl/ ebert

Ebert, Ute

2004-09-01

367

[A review on the bioinformatics pipelines for metagenomic research].  

PubMed

Metagenome, a term first dubbed by Handelsman in 1998 as "the genomes of the total microbiota found in nature", refers to sequence data directly sampled from the environment (which may be any habitat in which microbes live, such as the guts of humans and animals, milk, soil, lakes, glaciers, and oceans). Metagenomic technologies originated from environmental microbiology studies and their wide application has been greatly facilitated by next-generation high throughput sequencing technologies. Like genomics studies, the bottle neck of metagenomic research is how to effectively and efficiently analyze the gigantic amount of metagenomic sequence data using the bioinformatics pipelines to obtain meaningful biological insights. In this article, we briefly review the state-of-the-art bioinformatics software tools in metagenomic research. Due to the differences between the metagenomic data obtained from whole genome sequencing (i.e., shotgun metagenomics) and amplicon sequencing (i.e., 16S-rRNA and gene-targeted metagenomics) methods, there are significant differences between the corresponding bioinformatics tools for these data; accordingly, we review the computational pipelines separately for these two types of data. PMID:23266976

Ye, Dan-Dan; Fan, Meng-Meng; Guan, Qiong; Chen, Hong-Ju; Ma, Zhan-Shan

2012-12-01

368

Parasitism and phenotypic change in colonial hosts.  

PubMed

Changes in host phenotype are often attributed to manipulation that enables parasites to complete trophic transmission cycles. We characterized changes in host phenotype in a colonial host–endoparasite system that lacks trophic transmission (the freshwater bryozoan Fredericella sultana and myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae). We show that parasitism exerts opposing phenotypic effects at the colony and module levels. Thus, overt infection (the development of infectious spores in the host body cavity) was linked to a reduction in colony size and growth rate, while colony modules exhibited a form of gigantism. Larger modules may support larger parasite sacs and increase metabolite availability to the parasite. Host metabolic rates were lower in overtly infected relative to uninfected hosts that were not investing in propagule production. This suggests a role for direct resource competition and active parasite manipulation (castration) in driving the expression of the infected phenotype. The malformed offspring (statoblasts) of infected colonies had greatly reduced hatching success. Coupled with the severe reduction in statoblast production this suggests that vertical transmission is rare in overtly infected modules. We show that although the parasite can occasionally infect statoblasts during overt infections, no infections were detected in the surviving mature offspring, suggesting that during overt infections, horizontal transmission incurs a trade-off with vertical transmission. PMID:23965820

Hartikainen, Hanna; Fontes, Inês; Okamura, Beth

2013-09-01

369

Argon plasma coagulation of hemorrhagic solitary rectal ulcer syndrome.  

PubMed

Solitary ulcer syndrome (SUS) is a rare disorder that may provoke hematochezia. Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is used in a wide range of gastrointestinal bleeding. We experienced APC in a patient with a bleeding gigantic SUS: a 64-year-old woman who developed a SUS at 60. After 3 years, recurrent hematochezia, secondary anemia, and rectal pain occurred. Endoscopy revealed a large rectal bleeding ulcer. Moreover, the pain led the patient to assume analgesics. These conditions stimulated us to treat this ulcer with APC within 4 sessions; each session spaced out at 30-day intervals. The patient experienced and maintained the following benefits: (1) resolution of bleeding and secondary anemia after the first session, (2) reduction of ulcer depth, disappearance of pain and analgesic withdrawal at the end of the cycle, (3) almost complete endoscopic healing of the ulcer after 9 months of follow-up. This experience suggests that APC may represent a therapeutic approach for bleeding SUS even if controlled studies are necessary before recommending it as acceptable treatment. PMID:14564186

Stoppino, Vincenzo; Cuomo, Rosario; Tonti, Paolo; Gentile, Marco; De Francesco, Vincenzo; Muscatiello, Nicola; Panella, Carmine; Ierardi, Enzo

370

Giant lizards occupied herbivorous mammalian ecospace during the Paleogene greenhouse in Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

Mammals dominate modern terrestrial herbivore ecosystems, whereas extant herbivorous reptiles are limited in diversity and body size. The evolution of reptile herbivory and its relationship to mammalian diversification is poorly understood with respect to climate and the roles of predation pressure and competition for food resources. Here, we describe a giant fossil acrodontan lizard recovered with a diverse mammal assemblage from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation of Myanmar, which provides a historical test of factors controlling body size in herbivorous squamates. We infer a predominately herbivorous feeding ecology for the new acrodontan based on dental anatomy, phylogenetic relationships and body size. Ranking body masses for Pondaung Formation vertebrates indicates that the lizard occupied a size niche among the larger herbivores and was larger than most carnivorous mammals. Paleotemperature estimates of Pondaung Formation environments based on the body size of the new lizard are approximately 2-5°C higher than modern. These results indicate that competitive exclusion and predation by mammals did not restrict body size evolution in these herbivorous squamates, and elevated temperatures relative to modern climates during the Paleogene greenhouse may have resulted in the evolution of gigantism through elevated poikilothermic metabolic rates and in response to increases in floral productivity. PMID:23740779

Head, Jason J; Gunnell, Gregg F; Holroyd, Patricia A; Hutchison, J Howard; Ciochon, Russell L

2013-06-05

371

Earth after the Moon-forming Impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hadean Earth is widely and enduringly pictured as a world of exuberant volcanism, exploding meteors, huge craters, infernal heat, and billowing sulfurous steams; i.e., a world of fire and brimstone punctuated with blows to the head. In the background the Moon looms gigantic in the sky. The popular image has given it a name that celebrates our mythic roots. A hot early Earth is an inevitable consequence of accretion. The Moon-forming impact ensured that Earth as we know it emerged from a fog of silicate vapor. The impact separated the volatiles from the silicates. It took 100 years to condense and rain out the bulk of the vaporized silicates, although relatively volatile elements may have remained present in the atmosphere throughout the magma ocena stage. The magma ocean lasted 2 Myr, its lifetime prolonged by tidal heating and thermal blanketing by a thick CO2-rich steam atmosphere. Water oceans condensed quickly after the mantle solidified, but for some 10-100 Myr the surface would have stayed warm ( 500 K) until the CO2 was removed into the mantle. Thereafter the faint young Sun suggests that a lifeless Earth would always have been evolving toward a bitterly cold ice world, but the cooling trend was frequently interrupted by volcanic or impact induced thaws. This work was funded by NASA's Exobiology and Astrobiology Programs.

Zahnle, Kevin

2006-09-01

372

Mantle insulation beneath the West African craton during the Precambrian-Cambrian transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the time of the Precambrian-Cambrian transition, the West African craton underwent widespread magmatism, hydrothermal activity, and thermal rejuvenation. This tectonothermal event gave rise to an anorogenic “ring of fire” along the rim of this craton, following the Pan-African Brasiliano belt that was reactivated by extension and transtension. The thermal phenomena were due to the progressive peripheral release of mantle heat that had built up beneath this craton because of strong insulating conditions. The West African craton at the Precambrian-Cambrian transition can thus be envisioned in terms of a gigantic pressure-cooker with a thick blanketing lithospheric lid. These insulation processes triggered an unusually hot mantle that was channeled by edge-driven convection toward the peri West African craton extensional corridors and released through magmatic pressure-relief valves. Massive ice melting and outgassing of volcanic CO2 gave rise to a planet-scale sea-level rise, a greenhouse effect, and the end of the icehouse snowball Earth. These processes played an important role in the Phanerozoic explosion of life on Earth.

Doblas, Miguel; López-Ruiz, José; Cebriá, José-María; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Degroote, Eugenio

2002-09-01

373

The evolution of angiosperm lianescence without vessels--climbing mode and wood structure-function in Tasmannia cordata (Winteraceae).  

PubMed

• The lack of extant lianescent vessel-less seed plants supports a hypothesis that liana evolution requires large-diameter xylem conduits. Here, we demonstrate an unusual example of a lianoid vessel-less angiosperm, Tasmannia cordata (Winteraceae), from New Guinea. • Wood mechanical, hydraulic and structural measurements were used to determine how T. cordata climbs and to test for ecophysiological shifts related to liana evolution vs 13 free-standing congeners. • The tracheid-based wood of T. cordata furnished low hydraulic capacity compared with that of vessel-bearing lianas. In comparison with most nonclimbing relatives, T. cordata possessed lower photosynthetic rates and leaf and stem hydraulic capacities. However, T. cordata exhibited a two- to five-fold greater wood elastic modulus than its relatives. • Tasmannia cordata provides an unusual example of angiosperm liana evolution uncoupled from xylem conduit gigantism, as well as high plasticity and cell type diversity in vascular development. Because T. cordata lacks vessels, our results suggest that a key limitation for a vessel-less liana is that strong and low hydraulically conductive wood is required to meet the mechanical demands of lianescence. PMID:21995496

Feild, Taylor S; Chatelet, David S; Balun, Lawong; Schilling, Edward E; Evans, Robert

2011-10-13

374

Fabrication and Funcntionality of Complex Oxide Superlattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk, we focus on three-constituent magnetic oxide superlattice (`tricolor' superlattice), where the asymmetric stacking like .. ABCABC .. artificially breaks the space-inversion symmetry. The purpose of the study is to realize artificial polar ferromagnets. The polar/noncentrosymmetric magnets, represented by multiferroic compounds, recently attract a considerable interest, because we can expect novel phenomena, such as magneto-electric (ME) effect, or magnetization-induced second harmonic generation (MSHG). In the artificial superlattice, the gigantic MSHG was first realized with a `tricolor' consisting of a ferromagnet La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 and band insulators LaAlO3 (LAO) and SrTiO3 [H. Yamada, et al., APL 81, 4793 (2002), Y. Ogawa, et al., PRL 90, 217403 (2003)]. From the temperature dependence of MSHG in this superlattice, we found that the MSHG originate from the interface magnetism. By utilizing the MSHG as a probe for interface magnetism, we optimized the various oxide interfaces, leading to the discoveries of huge tunneling magnetoresistance in a junction with engineered interfaces [H. Yamada et al., Science 305, 646 (2004)], or enhanced optical ME effect in the `tricolor' superlattice composed of LaMnO3, SrMnO3 and LAO. In those functionalities, crucial roles are played by the interface effects characteristic of correlated electron oxides, such as charge transfer or orbital-state-mediated magnetism [H. Yamada, et al., APL89, 052506 (2006)].

Yamada, Hiroyuki

2007-03-01

375

3D reconstruction of the source and scale of buried young flood channels on Mars.  

PubMed

Outflow channels on Mars are interpreted as the product of gigantic floods due to the catastrophic eruption of groundwater that may also have initiated episodes of climate change. Marte Vallis, the largest of the young martian outflow channels (<500 million years old), is embayed by lava flows that hinder detailed studies and comparisons with older channel systems. Understanding Marte Vallis is essential to our assessment of recent Mars hydrologic activity during a period otherwise considered to be cold and dry. Using data from the Shallow Radar sounder on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of buried channels on Mars and provide estimates of paleohydrologic parameters. Our work shows that Cerberus Fossae provided the waters that carved Marte Vallis, and it extended an additional 180 kilometers to the east before the emplacement of the younger lava flows. We identified two stages of channel incision and determined that channel depths were more than twice those of previous estimates. PMID:23470730

Morgan, Gareth A; Campbell, Bruce A; Carter, Lynn M; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Phillips, Roger J

2013-03-07

376

Radiation of a uniformly moving line charge in a zero-index metamaterial and other periodic media.  

PubMed

Radiation of electromagnetic waves by a uniformly moving charge is the subject of extensive research over the last several decades. Fascinating effects such as Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation, transition radiation and the Smith-Purcell effect were discovered and studied in depth. In this letter we study the radiation of a line charge moving with relativistic constant velocity within an average zero index metamaterial consisting of periodically alternating layers with negative and positive refractive index. We observe a strong radiation enhancement, ~3 orders of magnitude, for specific combinations of velocities and radiation frequencies. This surprising finding is attributed to a gigantic increase in the density of states at the positive/negative index boundary. Furthermore, we shed light on radiation effects of such a line charge propagating within the more "traditional" structure of periodically alternating layers consisting of positive and different refractive index with focus on frequencies satisfying the quarter wave stack and the half wave stack conditions. We show that the quarter-wave-stack case results in emission propagating vertically to the line charge trajectory, while the half-wave-stack results in negligible radiation. All these findings were obtained using a computationally efficient and conceptually intuitive computation method, based on eigenmode expansion of specific frequency components. For validation purposes this method was compared with the finite-difference-time-domain method. PMID:23038401

Yanai, Avner; Levy, Uriel

2012-07-30

377

Light Work: Contemporary Artists Consider the Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern day life and timekeepers have profoundly affected the way we conceptualize time and our position in the universe. Over the past year, I have been investigating the apparent movement of the Sun both sculpturally and photographically. In this paper, I discuss my collaborations with Woody Sullivan and highlight several of the sundials, both gigantic and intimate, created by University of Washington students in the class Where is Noon? Regarding Giant Sundials that we co-taught in Spring 2003. I have continued to develop artistic approaches to solar events. Some of these sunworks have not been designed specifically to measure the exact time of day as a classic sundial does, but to stimulate a greater awareness of our subjective and paradoxical relationship to nature and technology. Other, almost domestic, poetic, humorous or intimate ways of interacting with science and technology are being actively explored. I will also provide a background to previous works I have done in relation to the Sun and optics, and briefly mention artists who are using astronomical events as a point of departure.

Cummins, Rebecca

2005-01-01

378

[Overexpression of B7-1 amd B7-2 by LFA-1 positive lymphocytes in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases].  

PubMed

The B7/CD28 pathway is essential for initiating antigen-specific T-cell activation. LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) is required for sufficient migration into inflammatory tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of B7 and LFA-1 in inflammatory bowel disease. Immunohistological single and double staining (PAP/APAAP) with monoclonal antibodies against HLA I/II, CD4, CD8, CD28, B7-1, B7-2, LFA-1 and CD68 were performed in tissue samples from patients with crohn's disease (n = 15), ulcerative colitis (n = 14), colorectal carcinoma (n = 5) and FAP (n = 3). The expression of B7-1 and B7-2 was generally much higher in ulcerative colitis and crohn's disease than in colorectal carcinoma and FAP. In crohn's disease multinucleated gigant cells in the granulomas express B7-1 and B7-2. Double staining showed a higher B7-1/B7-2 coexpression for CD4+ than for CD8+ T cells. In colitis ulcerosa and crohn's disease LFA-1 positive leucocytes showed a high coexpression of B7-1 and B7-2 in contrast to CD68 positive macrophages. These data suggest that overexpression of B7-1 and B7-2 on LFA-1 positive Leucocyts seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:14518246

Isbert, C; Germer, C T; Albrecht, D; Thomsen-Mund, K; Schuppan, D; Buhr, H J

1998-01-01

379

The Lighter Side of Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the drop of an apple to the stately dance of the galaxies, gravity is omnipresent in the Cosmos. Even with its high profile, gravity is the most enigmatic of all the known basic forces in nature. The Lighter Side of Gravity presents a beautifully clear and completely nontechnical introduction to the phenomenon of this force in all its manifestations. Astrophysicist Jayant Narlikar begins with an historical background to the discovery of the law of gravitation by Isaac Newton in the seventeenth century. Using familiar analogies, interesting anecdotes, and numerous illustrations to get across subtle effects and difficult points to readers, he goes on to describe the general theory of relativity and some of its strange and unfamiliar ideas such as curved spacetime, the bending of light, and black holes. Since first publication in 1982 (W.H. Freeman), Dr. Narlikar has brought his book completely up to date and expanded it to include the discovery of gigantic gravitational lenses in space, the findings of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, the detection of dark matter in galaxies, the investigation of the very early Universe, and other new ideas in cosmology. This lucid and stimulating book presents a clear approach to the intriguing phenomenon of gravity for everyone who has ever felt caught in its grip. Jayant Narlikar is the winner of many astronomical prizes and the author of Introduction to Cosmology (Cambridge University Press, 1993).

Narlikar, Jayant Vishnu

1996-10-01

380

Interaction of the Ultra Relativistic Pulsar Plasma with the Upper Atmosphere of the Star-Companion  

SciTech Connect

The basic types of losses of the ultra relativistic electron-positron pulsar plasma in the upper atmosphere of a star-companion are considered. These types include: ionization losses of the medium atoms, their excitation losses, the losses connected with the energies transferred to the particles of plasma, the formation losses of the recoil {delta} electrons and Cherenkov radiation losses of moving particles, bremsstrahlung losses, the synchrotron radiation losses and the losses, connected with the inverse Compton emission. It is shown that the most rapid component of pulsar plasma can reach the top of convective zone. The range of kinetic energies of the plasma particles that reach the upper boundary of the convection zone will correspond to the range of the gigantic dipole resonance (GDR). The result of interaction of the pulsar plasma and of the upper atmosphere of examined star-companion will be the non-homogeneous heating of the local zones of photosphere and boundary between the photosphere and zone of convection on the different depths.

Ulyanov, Oleg M. [Institute of Radio Astronomy of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 4 Chervonoprapona str., Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine)

2010-08-12

381

Emissions of VOCs at urban petrol retail distribution centres in India (Delhi and Mumbai).  

PubMed

Air pollution has assumed gigantic proportion killing almost half a million Asians every year. Urban pollution mainly comprises of emissions from buses, trucks, motorcycle other forms of motorized transport and its supporting activities. As Asia's cities continue to expand the number of vehicles have risen resulting in greater pollution. Fugitive emissions from retail distribution center in urban area constitute a major source. Petrol vapours escape during refueling adding pollutants like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene to ambient air. This paper discusses a study on fugitive emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) at some refueling station in two metropolitan cities of India, i.e., Mumbai and Delhi. Concentration of VOCs in ambient air at petrol retail distribution center is estimated by using TO-17 method. Concentration of benzene in ambient air in Delhi clearly shows the effect of intervention in use of petroleum and diesel fuel and shift to CNG. Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model is used to estimate source contributions. At Delhi besides diesel combustion engines, refueling emissions are also major sources. At Mumbai evaporative emissions are found to contribute maximum to Total VOC (TVOC) concentration in ambient air. PMID:16240200

Srivastava, Anjali; Joseph, A E; More, Ajit; Patil, Sunil

2005-10-01

382

Planetary migration and sources of dust in the beta \\:Pictoris disk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dust disk around beta \\:Pictoris must be produced by collision or by evaporation of orbiting Kuiper belt-like objects. Here we extend the already proposed Orbiting-Evaporating-Bodies (OEB) scenario in which the disk is a gigantic multi-cometary tail supplied by slowly evaporating bodies like Chiron. We show that the number of these OEBs must be several tens of millions, and that this is consistent with the number of bodies needed to explain the presence of CO and C I in the gaseous disk. We explore some possible origin of the required perturbation on the OEBs. If dust is produced by evaporation, a planet with an eccentric orbit can explain the observed asymmetry of the disk, because the periastron distribution of the parent bodies are then expected to be non-axisymmetric. Following Malhotra (1995), we investigate the consequence for the Kuiper belt-like objects of the formation and the migration of an outer planet like Neptune in Fernandez's scheme (Fernandez 1982). We find that bodies trapped in resonance with a migrating planet can significantly evaporate, producing a beta \\:Pictoris-like disk with similar characteristics like opening angle and asymmetry. We thus show that the beta \\:Pictoris disk can be a transient phenomenon. The circumstellar disks around main sequence stars can be the signature of the present formation and migration of outer planets.

Lecavelier Des Etangs, A.

1998-09-01

383

On longitudinal bone growth, short stature, and related matters: insights about cartilage physiology from the Utah paradigm.  

PubMed

Precursor cell division in growing cartilage determines human height, the lengths of the spine and limb bones, the alignment of joints, spines and limbs, and the ratio of spinal length to limb length. That division also helps to determine the sizes and shapes of joints, apophyses and epiphyses. Ideas about what controls those facts are changing. To former views, in which mainly genetic and humoral factors controlled them, the Utah paradigm of skeletal physiology adds long-overlooked biomechanical including muscular factors. These three kinds of factors would collaborate in controlling the precursor cell division that determines the above skeletal features. Problems with that control clearly cause or help to cause many clinical disorders. Examples include short stature, gigantism, premature and delayed skeletal maturation, some changes in fracture patterns associated with puberty, joint malalignments, congenital hip dysplasia, scoliosis, limb torsions, the ball-and-socket ankle, and some skeletal abnormalities in Marfan's syndrome and the osteochondrodystrophies. The physiology such things depend on has matured sufficiently to justify a review for pediatricians, endocrinologists and other clinical specialists, and many basic scientists. PMID:11393568

Frost, H M; Schönau, E

2001-05-01

384

Bone histology of the titanosaur Lirainosaurus astibiae (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) from the Latest Cretaceous of Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The titanosaur Lirainosaurus astibiae is the only sauropod species known from the Late Cretaceous of the Iberian Peninsula. Lirainosaurus did not reach a gigantic body size and is one of the smallest sauropods discovered to date. Histological analysis of Lirainosaurus bones, focused on diaphyseal transverse sections of appendicular elements, reveals that Lirainosaurus did not exhibit the osseous microstructure typical for large sauropods, but is comparable with that of the coeval titanosaurs Alamosaurus sanjuanensis, Ampelosaurus atacis, and Magyarosaurus dacus, and also shares histological traits with other small to medium-sized sauropodomorph dinosaurs. Lirainosaurus limb bones exhibit a laminar fibrolamellar bone microstructure interrupted by growth marks, fully obliterated in adulthood by intense secondary remodeling processes which tend to replace completely the primary cortex. Lirainosaurus attained smaller sizes than typical sauropods reducing the rate of primary periosteal osteogenesis and developing an extensive secondary remodeling well before the adult size was reached. Histological organization of Lirainosaurus long bones is more mature than observed in basal neosauropods at similar ontogenetic stage, documenting a case of peramorphosis by pre-displacement. This heterochronic growth would be a reversal of the accelerated pattern of bone deposition typical for the sauropod lineage.

Company, Julio

2011-01-01

385

Bone histology of the titanosaur Lirainosaurus astibiae (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) from the Latest Cretaceous of Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The titanosaur Lirainosaurus astibiae is the only sauropod species known from the Late Cretaceous of the Iberian Peninsula. Lirainosaurus did not reach a gigantic body size and is one of the smallest sauropods discovered to date. Histological analysis of Lirainosaurus bones, focused on diaphyseal transverse sections of appendicular elements, reveals that Lirainosaurus did not exhibit the osseous microstructure typical for large sauropods, but is comparable with that of the coeval titanosaurs Alamosaurus sanjuanensis, Ampelosaurus atacis, and Magyarosaurus dacus, and also shares histological traits with other small to medium-sized sauropodomorph dinosaurs. Lirainosaurus limb bones exhibit a laminar fibrolamellar bone microstructure interrupted by growth marks, fully obliterated in adulthood by intense secondary remodeling processes which tend to replace completely the primary cortex. Lirainosaurus attained smaller sizes than typical sauropods reducing the rate of primary periosteal osteogenesis and developing an extensive secondary remodeling well before the adult size was reached. Histological organization of Lirainosaurus long bones is more mature than observed in basal neosauropods at similar ontogenetic stage, documenting a case of peramorphosis by pre-displacement. This heterochronic growth would be a reversal of the accelerated pattern of bone deposition typical for the sauropod lineage.

Company, Julio

2010-12-01

386

Pituitary Tumors in Childhood: an update in their diagnosis, treatment and molecular genetics  

PubMed Central

Pituitary tumors are rare in childhood and adolescence, with a reported prevalence of up to 1 per million children. Only 2 - 6% of surgically treated pituitary tumors occur in children. Although pituitary tumors in children are almost never malignant and hormonal secretion is rare, these tumors may result in significant morbidity. Tumors within the pituitary fossa are of two types mainly, craniopharyngiomas and adenomas; craniopharyngiomas cause symptoms by compressing normal pituitary, causing hormonal deficiencies and producing mass effects on surrounding tissues and the brain; adenomas produce a variety of hormonal conditions such as hyperprolactinemia, Cushing disease and acromegaly or gigantism. Little is known about the genetic causes of sporadic lesions, which comprise the majority of pituitary tumors, but in children, more frequently than in adults, pituitary tumors may be a manifestation of genetic conditions such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1), Carney complex, familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA), and McCune-Albright syndrome. The study of pituitary tumorigenesis in the context of these genetic syndromes has advanced our knowledge of the molecular basis of pituitary tumors and may lead to new therapeutic developments.

Keil, Margaret F.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

2009-01-01

387

Monitoring the lower ionosphere with a small scale interferometric network of radio receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sprites, gigantic jets and relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds attracted significant attention in the last decades. These natural transient events are caused by lightning discharges and they are associated with characteristic low frequency radio emissions from a certain height above thunderclouds. The altitudes of these sources can be inferred from their radio waves which are reflected by the lower ionosphere along their propagation path. The ionospheric conditions vary with time and location which makes it important to monitor the lower ionosphere during the observation period. This work uses 100 kHz radio emissions from the LOng Range Navigation (LORAN) transmitters in Western Europe to monitor the height of the reflecting lower ionosphere. The pulsed LORAN transmissions are synced with high precision to atomic time and they are therefore particularly suitable for monitoring the lower ionosphere. The vertical electric field strengths of the LORAN transmissions are recorded with a small scale interferometric network of eight wide band digital radio receivers which are separated by distances ranging from ~3 km up to ~30 km. The network was deployed in southern France during the summer months from July to September in 2011 and 2012 when numerous thunderstorms occur. The ionospheric monitoring with the network reveals the dynamics of the lower ionosphere at different locations throughout the observation period. Results of the ionospheric monitoring for different meteorological conditions will be presented.

Mezentsev, Andrey; Fullekrug, Martin

2013-04-01

388

Special case of nonlinearity of biological crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In aminoacid crystals ((alpha) -glycine, (beta) -alanine, L-histidine) a gigantic growth of nonlinearity at simultaneous action of two resonance fields (Omega) m and (omega) $i) (double resonance conditions) was found. If frequency (omega) i responds to one of the infrared (IR) transitions (600 - 2000 cm-1) and (Omega) m is in resonance with the absorption lines which are in extremely high frequency (EHF) range ((Omega) m approximately equals 37.5 - 53.5 GHz), the value of third order nonlinear polarization coefficient (chi) (3)((Omega) m, - (Omega) m, (omega) i) amounts to 10 cm/erg. Despite small EHF radiation power (Pm less than 10 mW) such nonlinearity may result in essential (up to 10%) change of reflection coefficient R((omega) i). A change of the orientation and form of reflection coefficient polarization indicatrix for resonance field in IR range was also observed. The most pronounced nonlinear effects appear at resonance frequencies connected with deformational vibrations of NH3+ group and valent vibrations of COO- group.

Dovbeshko, Galina I.; Berezhinsky, Leonid I.; Obukhovsky, Vyacheslav V.

1996-04-01

389

Neptune  

SciTech Connect

Voyager 2 took 12 years to reach Neptune, the fourth and final destination of a planetary pilgrimage that included Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Voyage 2 revealed Neptune to be a turbulent world, with giant storm systems rivaling those of Jupiter and fleeting clouds unlike any seen before. Neptune's atmosphere bears distinctive striations and gigantic dark storm spots,including one hurricane as wide across as the earth, which scientists quickly christened the Great Dark Spot. Radio signals, which issue from the planet like a beam from a light house, disclosed that Neptune completes one rotation in 16 hours and three minutes, about one hour faster that had been predicted. Neptune's magnetic field held surprises: its dipole axis is tilted some 50 degrees from the rotation axis and is also displaced from the planet's center by 10,000 kilometers. Voyager confirmed the presence of rings and found six new moons. Images sent back of Triton revealed crenulated landscapes, vast canyons, craters, and peaks. Triton proved to be 2,720 kilometers in diameter. Its atmosphere is exceeding thin and consists mainly of nitrogen. Signs of past volcanism are visible, proving Triton was once a hotter place, presumably because it had an unusual origin. 10 figs.

Kinoshita, J.

1989-11-01

390

Wafer-scale metasurface for total power absorption, local field enhancement and single molecule Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The ability to detect molecules at low concentrations is highly desired for applications that range from basic science to healthcare. Considerable interest also exists for ultrathin materials with high optical absorption, e.g. for microbolometers and thermal emitters. Metal nanostructures present opportunities to achieve both purposes. Metal nanoparticles can generate gigantic field enhancements, sufficient for the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Thin layers containing metal nanostructures ("metasurfaces") can achieve near-total power absorption at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Thus far, however, both aims (i.e. single molecule Raman and total power absorption) have only been achieved using metal nanostructures produced by techniques (high resolution lithography or colloidal synthesis) that are complex and/or difficult to implement over large areas. Here, we demonstrate a metasurface that achieves the near-perfect absorption of visible-wavelength light and enables the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Our metasurface is fabricated using thin film depositions, and is of unprecedented (wafer-scale) extent. PMID:24091825

Wang, Dongxing; Zhu, Wenqi; Best, Michael D; Camden, Jon P; Crozier, Kenneth B

2013-10-04

391

Mechanical implications of pneumatic neck vertebrae in sauropod dinosaurs  

PubMed Central

The pre-sacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs were surrounded by interconnected, air-filled diverticula, penetrating into the bones and creating an intricate internal cavity system within the vertebrae. Computational finite-element models of two sauropod cervical vertebrae now demonstrate the mechanical reason for vertebral pneumaticity. The analyses show that the structure of the cervical vertebrae leads to an even distribution of all occurring stress fields along the vertebrae, concentrated mainly on their external surface and the vertebral laminae. The regions between vertebral laminae and the interior part of the vertebral body including thin bony struts and septa are mostly unloaded and pneumatic structures are positioned in these regions of minimal stress. The morphology of sauropod cervical vertebrae was influenced by strongly segmented axial neck muscles, which require only small attachment areas on each vertebra, and pneumatic epithelia that are able to resorb bone that is not mechanically loaded. The interaction of these soft tissues with the bony tissue of the vertebrae produced lightweight, air-filled vertebrae in which most stresses were borne by the external cortical bone. Cervical pneumaticity was therefore an important prerequisite for neck enlargement in sauropods. Thus, we expect that vertebral pneumaticity in other parts of the body to have a similar role in enabling gigantism.

Schwarz-Wings, Daniela; Meyer, Christian A.; Frey, Eberhard; Manz-Steiner, Hans-Rudolf; Schumacher, Ralf

2010-01-01

392

Interplay between Superconductivity and Magnetism in Fe1-xPdxTe  

SciTech Connect

The love/hate relationship between superconductivity and magnetic ordering has fascinated the condensed matter physics community for a century. In the early days, magnetic impurities doped into a superconductor were found to quickly suppress superconductivity. Later, a variety of systems, such as cuprates, heavy fermions and Fe pnictides, show superconductivity in a narrow region near the border to antiferromagnetism (AFM) as a function of pressure or doping. On the other hand, the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetic (FM) or AFM ordering is found in a few compounds (RRh4B4 (R = Nd, Sm, Tm, Er), R'Mo6X8 (R' = Tb, Dy, Er, Ho, and X = S, Se), UMGe (M = Ge, Rh, Co), CeCoIn5, EuFe2(As1-xPx)2 etc.), providing evidence for their compatibility. Here, we present a third situation, where superconductivity coexists with FM and near the border of AFM in Fe1-xPdxTe. The doping of Pd for Fe gradually suppresses the first-order AFM ordering at temperature TN/S, and turns into short-range (SR) AFM correlation with a characteristic peak in magnetic susceptibility at T'N. Superconductivity sets in when T'N reaches zero. However, there is a gigantic ferromagnetic dome imposed in the superconducting-AFM (SR) crossover regime. Such a system is ideal for studying the interplay between superconductivity and two types of magnetic interactions (FM and AFM).

Karki, A B [Louisiana State University; Garlea, Vasile O [ORNL; Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Stadler, S. [Louisiana State University; Plummer, E. W. [Louisiana State University; Jin, Rongying [Louisiana State University

2013-01-01

393

Live birth in Cretaceous marine lizards (mosasauroids).  

PubMed Central

Although live-bearing (viviparity) has evolved around 100 times within reptiles, evidence of it is almost never preserved in the fossil record. Here, we report viviparity in mosasauroids, a group of Cretaceous marine lizards. This is the only known fossil record of live-bearing in squamates (lizards and snakes), and might represent the oldest occurrence of the trait in this diverse group; it is also the only known fossil record of viviparity in reptiles other than ichthyosaurs. An exceptionally preserved gravid female of the aigialosaur Carsosaurus (a primitive mosasauroid) contains at least four advanced embryos distributed along the posterior two-thirds of the long trunk region (dorsal vertebrae 9-21). Their orientation suggests that they were born tail-first (the nostrils emerging last) to reduce the possibility of drowning, an adaptation shared with other highly aquatic amniotes such as cetaceans, sirenians and ichthyosaurs; the orientation of the embryos also suggests that they were not gut contents because swallowed prey are usually consumed head-first. One embryo is located within the pelvis, raising the possibility that the adult died during parturition. Viviparity in early medium-sized amphibious aigialosaurs may have freed them from the need to return to land to deposit eggs, and permitted the subsequent evolution of gigantic totally marine mosasaurs.

Caldwell, M W; Lee, M S

2001-01-01

394

Why did not the Ontong Java Plateau form subaerially? [rapid communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent drilling leg on the Ontong Java Plateau and subsequent studies have consolidated the following observation for this gigantic oceanic plateau: The bulk of the plateau was formed at ˜ 120 Ma in a submarine environment. This rapid construction of a massive igneous body below sea level is impossible to explain with the popular plume head hypothesis. Though the bolide impact hypothesis for oceanic plateaus has recently been resurrected to offer an alternative, it is shown here that it fails to explain submarine eruption for exactly the same reason why the plume hypothesis fails. As a more dynamically promising model, the entrainment of dense fertile mantle by rapid seafloor spreading is proposed to account for voluminous magmatism in the submarine environment. It is also suggested that this chemically dense source mantle may naturally explain the anomalous subsidence history of this plateau as well as minor magmatism observed at ˜ 90 Ma. Modeling the dynamics of compositionally heterogeneous mantle and its geochemical consequences remains as a challenging yet rewarding problem in mantle dynamics and igneous petrology.

Korenaga, Jun

2005-06-01

395

Isolation and characterization of a novel herpesvirus from a free-ranging eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).  

PubMed

We isolated a macropodid herpesvirus from a free-ranging eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteous) displaying clinical signs of respiratory disease and possibly neurologic disease. Sequence analysis of the herpesvirus glycoprotein G (gG) and glycoprotein B (gB) genes revealed that the virus was an alphaherpesvirus most closely related to macropodid herpesvirus 2 (MaHV-2) with 82.7% gG and 94.6% gB amino acid sequence identity. Serologic analyses showed similar cross-neutralization patterns to those of MaHV-2. The two viruses had different growth characteristics in cell culture. Most notably, this virus formed significantly larger plaques and extensive syncytia when compared with MaHV-2. No syncytia were observed for MaHV-2. Restriction endonuclease analysis of whole viral genomes demonstrated distinct restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns for all three macropodid herpesviruses. These studies suggest that a distinct macropodid alphaherpesvirus may be capable of infecting and causing disease in eastern grey kangaroos. PMID:23307380

Vaz, Paola Karinna; Motha, Julian; McCowan, Christina; Ficorilli, Nino; Whiteley, Pam Lizette; Wilks, Colin Reginald; Hartley, Carol Anne; Gilkerson, James Rudkin; Browning, Glenn Francis; Devlin, Joanne Maree

2013-01-01

396

Chemical control of downy mildew on lettuce and basil under greenhouse.  

PubMed

Eight experimental trials were carried out during 2007 and 2008 to evaluate the efficacy of different fungicides against downy mildew of lettuce (Bremia lactucae) and basil (Peronospora belbahrii) under greenhouse conditions, at temperatures ranging from 19 to 24 degrees C. The mixture fluopicolide (fungicide belonging to the + propamocarb hydrochloride (fungicide belonging to the new chemical class of acyl-picolides) was compared with metalaxyl m + copper, zoxamide + mancozeb, iprovalicarb + Cu, fenamidone + fosetyl-Al and azoxystrobin. Two treatments were carried out at 8-12 day interval on lettuce and basil. The artificial inoculation of B. lactucae on lettuce (cv Cobham Green) and P. belbahrii. on basil (cv Genovese gigante) was carried out by using 1 x 10(5) CFU/ml 24 h after the first treatment. In the presence of a medium-high disease severity, all fungicides tested in these trials were effective against downy mildew on lettuce and basil as the other fungicides already available. The importance of the availability of a number of different chemicals to control downy mildews is discussed. PMID:20222581

Gullino, M L; Gilardi, G; Garibaldi, A

2009-01-01

397

Electric Polarization and ME effect in layered iron oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare-earth iron oxides RFe2O4. (R: rare-earth elements) is an exotic dielectric material with charge-order driven electric polarization and magnetoelectric effect caused by spin-charge coupling. The crystal structure consists of paired Fe-O triangular lattices and R-O block ones alternately stacked. Since a nominal valence of Fe ion is 2.5+, an equal amount of Fe^2+ and Fe^3+ coexists in the paired triangular lattices. In the electron diffraction experiments, Bragg reflections at (h/3 h/3 3m+1/2) appear below 320K(?TCO) in LuFe2O4. This observation indicates a valence order of Fe ion, i.e. a charge order of the Fe 3d electrons. Around TCO, a spontaneous electric polarization and dielectric anomalies turn up. Moreover, around the ferrimagnetic spin ordering temperature (TSO=250K), the gigantic ME effects are recently discovered. We present a theory of a dielectric magnet RFe2O4 as a electronic ferroelectric and multiferroic material [1]. We address the following issues: (i) origin of the electric polarization and the FE transition, (ii) mechanism of the coupling between electric polarization and magnetization. Present study shows that the novel dielectric properties in this material arises from interplay among the geometrical frustration and the multi-degrees of freedom of electron. [1] A. Nagano, M. Naka, J. Nasu, & S. Ishihara, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 217202 (2007).

Ishihara, Sumio; Naka, Makoto; Nasu, Jyoji

2008-03-01

398

Endoscopic sinus surgery treatment for a huge sinonasal fibroma.  

PubMed

Fibromas are rare tumors of the nasal cavity, which may result from progressive inflammation or fibroblastic proliferation of the nasal mucosa. The tumors are usually too small to cause symptoms. We present a 47-year-old woman suffering through right nasal obstruction, purulent rhinorrhea and severe headaches for 6 months. A gray-white, smooth-surfaced, gigantic firm mass occupying the right nostril was found in physical examination. Sinus computed tomography revealed 4 x 3 x 3 cm soft-tissue-density mass in the right nasal cavity and right maxillary sinusitis. The huge sinonasal fibroma measuring 4.5 x 3 x 3-cm in the right posterior ethmoid sinus, which was successfully endoscopically resected. The final diagnosis of fibroma was made histologically, according to light microscopy and immunohistochemical stain examinations, which were important for determining the patient's treatment. After endoscopic resection, her initial signs and symptoms were relieved and no recurrence was noted after 2 years of follow up. PMID:15149003

Lin, Hsiao-Lun; Huang, Chi-Che; Lee, Ta-Jen

2004-03-01

399

Lowland-upland migration of sauropod dinosaurs during the Late Jurassic epoch.  

PubMed

Sauropod dinosaurs were the largest vertebrates ever to walk the Earth, and as mega-herbivores they were important parts of terrestrial ecosystems. In the Late Jurassic-aged Morrison depositional basin of western North America, these animals occupied lowland river-floodplain settings characterized by a seasonally dry climate. Massive herbivores with high nutritional and water needs could periodically experience nutritional and water stress under these conditions, and thus the common occurrence of sauropods in this basin has remained a paradox. Energetic arguments and mammalian analogues have been used to suggest that migration allowed sauropods access to food and water resources over a wide region or during times of drought or both, but there has been no direct support for these hypotheses. Here we compare oxygen isotope ratios (?(18)O) of tooth-enamel carbonate from the sauropod Camarasaurus with those of ancient soil, lake and wetland (that is, 'authigenic') carbonates that formed in lowland settings. We demonstrate that certain populations of these animals did in fact undertake seasonal migrations of several hundred kilometres from lowland to upland environments. This ability to describe patterns of sauropod movement will help to elucidate the role that migration played in the ecology and evolution of gigantism of these and associated dinosaurs. PMID:22031326

Fricke, Henry C; Hencecroth, Justin; Hoerner, Marie E

2011-10-26

400

Constraints on early events in Martian history as derived from the cratering record  

SciTech Connect

The shapes and densities of crater size-frequency distribution curves are used to constrain two major events early in Martian history: termination of high obliteration rates and viability of the multiple impact origin of the crustal dichotomy. Distribution curves of fresh craters superposed on uplands, intercrater plains, and ridged plains display shapes and densities indicative of formation prior to the end of heavy bombardment. This observation correlates with other geologic evidence, suggesting a major change in the erosional regime following the last major basin size impact (i.e., Argrye). In addition, the multisloped nature of the curves supports the idea that the downturn in the crater size-frequency distribution curves reflects the size-frequency distribution of the impactors rather than being the result of erosion. The crustal dichotomy formed prior to the heavy bombardment intermediate epoch based on distribution curves of knobby terrain; if the dichotomy resulted from a single gigantic impact, this observation places constraints on when this event happened. An alternate theory for dichotomy formation, the multiple-impact basin idea, is questioned: since distribution curves of large basins as well as heavy bombardment era units are not represented by a {minus}3 differential power law function, this study finds fewer basins missing on Mars compare to the Moon and Mercury than previously reported. The area covered by these missing basins is less than that covered the northern plains.

Barlow, N.G. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX (USA))

1990-08-30

401

Identification and Genetic Variation of Fasciola Species from Tabriz, North- Western Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Fascioliasis is considered as the most important helminthic infection of cattle and sheep. Traditional approaches using morphological and biologic characters cannot cause a certainty in the accurate and precise identification and intra-specific differences of Fasciola spp. In this study, we identified Fasciola species using ITS-1 marker and described genetic variation of each species of the parasite in isolates from Tabriz slaughterhouse in West Azerbaijan Province, north- western Iran. Methods Overall, 100 samples (50 from sheep and 50 from cattle) morphologically detected as Fasciola worms were studied for identification of Fasciola species by PCR-RFLP method and intra-species variation of the parasite using RAPD-PCR technique. Results A region of approximately 460bp in all samples was successfully amplified. There were no identifiable variations among the size of PCR products. Two and three fragments in samples correspond to F. hepatica and F. gigantica was seen, respectively, through PCR-RFLP method. No difference was seen in digestion pattern according to host (sheep or cattle). Different types of each species of the parasite was observed using RAPD-PCR technique. Conclusion We could have an estimate of frequency of F. hepatica and F. gigantic and different genotypes of the parasite in isolates from one locality in north- western of Iran. By extension of such studies in future to other animal hosts (buffalo and goat) and including more regions to sampling, the reliability of the results and their application for control programs in zoonotic diseases will be increased.

Shahbazi, A; Akbarimoghaddam, M; Izadi, S; Ghazanchaii, A; Jalali, N; Bazmani, A

2011-01-01

402

Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, K-Ca, O, and H isotopic study of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments, Caravaca, Spain Evidence for an oceanic impact site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of isotopic and trace-element-abundance analyses of Ir-enriched Cretaceous-Tertiary-boundary clay sediments from Caravaca, Spain, and of adjacent carbonate and marl layers, are presented. Acetic-acid and HCl leachates and residues were analyzed by isotope dilution to determine K, Rb, Sr, Sm, and Nd concentrations and Sr-87/Sr-86 and Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios. The stable isotope ratios delta-D, delta-(C-13), and delta-(0-18) were also determined. The results are presented in tables and graphs and compared with published data on the Caravaca sediments and on samples from other locations. The boundary clay is found to be distinguished from the adjacent layers by its isotopic ratios and to be of mainly terrestrial, lithospheric (deeper than 3-km) origin. Although submarine-weathering effects are evident and difficult to quantify, the degree of variation in Ni, Ir, Sr, and REE concentrations is considered too large to be attributed to postdepositional processes alone. These findings are seen as evidence for the ocean impact of a large single asteroid producing a worldwide blanket of ejecta, a large injection of water vapor into the atmosphere, and perhaps a gigantic tsunami, at the end of the Cretaceous period.

Depaolo, D. J.; Kyte, F. T.; Marshall, B. D.; O'Neil, J. R.; Smit, J.

1983-09-01

403

Component azimuths of the CEArray stations estimated from P-wave particle motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently built China Digital Seismic Network consists of the China National Digital Seismic Network (CNDSN), 31 regional seismic networks and several small aperture arrays with more than 1 000 stations including 850+ broadband stations. It forms a gigantic seismic array that provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the Earth's deep interior besides its routine task of seismic monitoring. Many modern seismic studies rely on rotation of vertical and horizontal components in order to separate different types of seismic waves. Knowledge of the orientations of the two horizontal components thus is important to perform a correction rotation. We analyzed particle motions of teleseismic P waves recorded by the network and used them to estimate the north-component azimuth of each station. An SNR-weighted-multi-event method was introduced to obtain component azimuths that best explain the P-wave particle motions of all the events recorded at a station. The method provides robust estimates including a measurement error calculated from background noise levels. We found that about one third of the stations have some sort of problems, including misorientation of the two horizontal components, mislabeling and polarity reversal in one or more components. These problems need to be taken into account for any rotation based seismic studies.

Niu, Fenglin; Li, Juan

2011-02-01

404

Star formation histories in the Local Group [review article  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep color magnitude diagrams extending to the main sequence provide the most direct measure of the detailed star formation history in a stellar population. With large investments of observing time, HST can obtain such data for populations out to 1 Mpc, but its field of view is extremely small in comparison to the size of Local Group galaxies. This limitation severely constrains our understanding of galaxy formation. For example, the largest galaxy in the Local Group, Andromeda, offers an ideal laboratory for studying the formation of large spiral galaxies, but the galaxy shows substructure on a variety of scales, presumably due to its violent merger history. Within its remaining lifetime, HST can only sample a few sight-lines through this complex galaxy. In contrast, a wide field imager could provide a map of Andromeda’s halo, outer disk, and tidal streams, revealing the spatially-dependent star formation history in each structure. The same data would enable many secondary studies, such as the age variation in Andromeda’s globular cluster system, gigantic samples of variable stars, and microlensing tracers of the galaxy’s dark matter distribution.

Brown, Thomas M.

2005-11-01

405

Single-station estimates of the seismic moment of the 1960 Chilean and 1964 Alaskan earthquakes, using the mantle magnitude M m  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements are taken of the mantle magnitude M m , developed and introduced in previous papers, in the case of the 1960 Chilean and 1964 Alaskan earthquakes, by far the largest events ever recorded instrumentally. We show that the M m algorithm recovers the seismic moment of these gigantic earthquakes with an accuracy (typically 0.2 to 0.3 units of magnitude, or a factor of 1.5 to 2 on the seismic moment) comparable to that achieved on modern, digital, datasets. In particular, this study proves that the mantle magnitude M m does not saturate for large events, as do standard magnitude scales, but rather keeps growing with seismic moment, even for the very largest earthquakes. We further prove that the algorithm can be applied in unfavorable experimental conditions, such as instruments with poor response at mantle periods, seismograms clipped due to limited recording dynamics, or even on microbarograph records of air coupled Rayleigh waves. In addition, we show that it is feasible to use acoustic-gravity air waves generated by those very largest earthquakes, to obtain an estimate of the seismic moment of the event along the general philosophy of the magnitude concept: a single-station measurement ignoring the details of the earthquake's focal mechanism and exact depth.

Okal, Emile A.; Talandier, Jacques

1991-05-01

406

DNA Viruses: The Really Big Ones (Giruses)  

PubMed Central

Viruses with genomes greater than 300 kb and up to 1200 kb are being discovered with increasing frequency. These large viruses (often called giruses) can encode up to 900 proteins and also many tRNAs. Consequently, these viruses have more protein-encoding genes than many bacteria, and the concept of small particle/small genome that once defined viruses is no longer valid. Giruses infect bacteria and animals although most of the recently discovered ones infect protists. Thus, genome gigantism is not restricted to a specific host or phylogenetic clade. To date, most of the giruses are associated with aqueous environments. Many of these large viruses (phycodnaviruses and Mimiviruses) probably have a common evolutionary ancestor with the poxviruses, iridoviruses, asfarviruses, ascoviruses, and a recently discovered Marseillevirus. One issue that is perhaps not appreciated by the microbiology community is that large viruses, even ones classified in the same family, can differ significantly in morphology, lifestyle, and genome structure. This review focuses on some of these differences rather than provides extensive details about individual viruses.

Van Etten, James L.; Lane, Leslie C.; Dunigan, David D.

2010-01-01

407

Interaction of the Ultra Relativistic Pulsar Plasma with the Upper Atmosphere of the Star-Companion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic types of losses of the ultra relativistic electron-positron pulsar plasma in the upper atmosphere of a star-companion are considered. These types include: ionization losses of the medium atoms, their excitation losses, the losses connected with the energies transferred to the particles of plasma, the formation losses of the recoil ? electrons and Cherenkov radiation losses of moving particles, bremsstrahlung losses, the synchrotron radiation losses and the losses, connected with the inverse Compton emission. It is shown that the most rapid component of pulsar plasma can reach the top of convective zone. The range of kinetic energies of the plasma particles that reach the upper boundary of the convection zone will correspond to the range of the gigantic dipole resonance (GDR). The result of interaction of the pulsar plasma and of the upper atmosphere of examined star-companion will be the non-homogeneous heating of the local zones of photosphere and boundary between the photosphere and zone of convection on the different depths.

Ulyanov, Oleg M.

2010-08-01

408

The formation of large galactic disks: revival or survival?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the deepest and the most complete set of observations of distant galaxies, we investigate how extended disks could have formed. Observations include spatially-resolved kinematics, detailed morphologies and photometry from UV to mid-IR. Six billion years ago, half of the present-day spiral progenitors had anomalous kinematics and morphologies, as well as relatively high gas fractions. We argue that gas-rich major mergers, i.e., fusions between gas-rich disk galaxies of similar mass, can be the likeliest driver for such strong peculiarities. This suggests a new channel of disk formation, e.g. many disks could be reformed after gas-rich mergers. This is found to be in perfect agreement with predictions from the state-of-the-art ?CDM semi-empirical models: due to our sensitivity in detecting mergers at all phases, from pairs to relaxed post-mergers, we find a more accurate merger rate. The scenario can be finally confronted to properties of nearby galaxies, including M31 and galaxies showing ultra-faint, gigantic structures in their haloes.

Hammer, F.; Puech, M.; Flores, H.; Athanassoula, E.; Yang, Y. B.; Wang, J. L.; Rodrigues, M.; Fouquet, S.

2011-12-01

409

Plume-related mantle source of super-large rare metal deposits from the Lovozero and Khibina massifs on the Kola Peninsula, Eastern part of Baltic Shield: Sr, Nd and Hf isotope systematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two world’s largest complexes of highly alkaline nepheline syenites and related rare metal loparite and eudialyte deposits, the Khibina and Lovozero massifs, occur in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. We measured for the first time in situ the trace element concentrations and the Sr, Nd and Hf isotope ratios by LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer) in loparite, eudialyte an in some other pegmatitic minerals. The results are in aggreement with the whole rock Sr and Nd isotope which suggests the formation of these superlarge rare metal deposits in a magmatic closed system. The initial Hf, Sr, Nd isotope ratios are similar to the isotopic signatures of OIB indicating depleted mantle as a source. This leads to the suggestion that the origin of these gigantic alkaline intrusions is connected to a deep seated mantle source—possibly to a lower mantle plume. The required combination of a depleted mantle and high rare metal enrichment in the source can be explained by the input of incompatible elements by metasomatising melts/fluids into the zones of alkaline magma generation shortly before the partial melting event (to avoid ingrowth of radiogenic isotopes). The minerals belovite and pyrochlore from the pegmatites are abnormally high in 87Sr /86Sr ratios. This may be explained by closed system isotope evolution as a result of a significant increase in Rb/Sr during the evolution of the peralkaline magma.

Kogarko, L. N.; Lahaye, Y.; Brey, G. P.

2010-03-01

410

Study of interplanetary structure plasma parameters and ground cosmic ray modulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are gigantic clouds of ionized gas launched from the Sun. These structures populate the interplanetary medium, frequently hit the planets. Depending on their characteristic and orientation, they may transfer their energy which is necessary to cause the geomagnetic storms, to the Earth's magnetosphere. ICMEs can be studied according to the variability of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and plasma parameters, such as, field intensity, direction, proton density (Np ), proton speed (VP ), radial component of proton temperature (Tp ), and plasma beta (?) which is defined as the ratio between thermal pressure and magnetic pressure. By using the minimum variance analysis (MVA) method, it is possible to identify the plane of maximum variance of the magnetic field data sets, and the eigenvector normal corresponding to the axis of the magnetic clouds. This allows to obtain the azimuthal (?k ) and inclination (?k ) axis orientation in relation to the ecliptic plane. The objective of this work is to study these ICME characteristics and their relation with modulation of ground level cosmic rays. To do this, IMF and plasma data from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft, and >50 GeV cosmic ray data from the multidirectional muon telescope installed in the Southern Space Observatory (OES/CRS/CIE/INPE - MCT) in São a Martinho da Serra, Brazil, will be used. Geomagnetic response to the interplanetary structures will be studied using the Dst index.

Kemmerich, Níkolas; Deives Kummer, Fabricio; Vinicius Dias Silveira, Marcos; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Dal Lago, Alisson; Munakata, Kazuoki; Kuwabara, Takao; Echer, Ezequiel; Martins da Silva, Samuel; da Silva, Marlos; Braga, Carlos Roberto

411

Study of Historical 4B/X17 Mega Flare on 28 October 2003 (P58)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

wuddin_99@yahoo.com We analysed multi-wavelength data of 28 October 2003 4B/X17.2 class extremely energetic parallel ribbon solar flare, which occurred in NOAA 10486. The flare was well observed in H-alpha at ARIES, Nainital and various space (SOHO, TRACE, RHESSI, WIND etc.) and ground based Observatories. The H-alpha observations show the stretching/detwisting and eruption of helically twisted S shaped (sigmoid) filament in the South-West direction of the active region with bright shock front followed by rapid increase in intensity and area of the gigantic flare. The flare is associated with a bright/fast full halo earth directed CME, strong type II, III and IV radio bursts, an intense proton event and GLE. It seems that the filament eruption triggered the halo CME because the helical structure is clearly visible in the SOHO/LASCO C2, C3 images. This indicates helicity transfer from chromosphere to corona and interplanetary medium. The magnetic field of the flaring region was most complex with high magnetic shear. From the above analysis we feel that the energy buildup/release process of this unique flare support helically twisted magnetic flux rope model.

Uddin, W.; Chandra, R.; Ali, S. S.

2006-11-01

412

Water Relations of Chusquea ramosissima and Merostachys claussenii in Iguazu National Park, Argentina1  

PubMed Central

Bamboos are prominent components of many tropical ecosystems, yet little is known about the physiological mechanisms utilized by these gigantic forest grasses. Here, we present data on the water transport properties of Chusquea ramosissima and Merostachys claussenii, monocarpic bamboo grasses native to the subtropical Atlantic forests of Argentina. C. ramosissima and M. claussenii differed in their growth form and exhibited contrasting strategies of water transport. Maximum xylem hydraulic conductivity of C. ramosissima culms was 2-fold higher than that of M. claussenii. C. ramosissima cavitated at relatively high water potentials (50% loss of conductivity at ?1 MPa), whereas M. claussenii was more drought tolerant (50% loss at ?3 MPa). Both species exhibited significant loss of hydraulic conductivity during the day, which was reversed overnight due to the generation of root pressure. The photosynthetic capacities of both bamboo species, estimated based on electron transport rates, were moderate, reflecting both the large amount of leaf area supported by culms and diurnal loss of hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Leaf hydraulic conductance was also relatively low for both species, congruent with their modest photosynthetic capacities. Within its native range, C. ramosissima is highly invasive due to its ability to colonize and persist in both forest gaps and land cleared for agriculture. We propose that a highly vulnerable vasculature, coupled with diurnal root pressure and an allometry that allows substantial leaf area to be supported on relatively slender culms, are key traits contributing to the ecological success of C. ramosissima.

Saha, Sonali; Holbrook, Noel M.; Montti, Lia; Goldstein, Guillermo; Cardinot, Gina Knust

2009-01-01

413

Discharges in the Stratosphere and Mesosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper salient features of discharges in the stratosphere and mesosphere (namely sprites, halos, blue starters, blue jets, gigantic jets and elves), are discussed. The electrostatic field due to charge imbalance during lightning processes may lead to stratospheric/mesospheric discharges either through the conventional breakdown based on streamers and leaders or relativistic runaway mechanism. Most (not all) of the observed features of sprites, halos and jets are explained by this processes. Development and evolution of streamers are based on the local transient electrostatic field and available ambient electron density which dictate better probability in favor of positive cloud-to-ground discharges, and thus explains the polarity asymmetry in triggering sprites and streamers. Elves are generated by electromagnetic pulse radiated by return stroke currents of cloud-to-ground/inter-cloud discharges. Generation of the both donut and pancake shape elves are explained. Electrodynamic features of thunderstorms associated with stratospheric/mesospheric discharges are summarized including current and charge moment associated with relevant cloud-to-ground discharges. The hypothesis relating tropospheric generated gravity waves and mesospheric discharges are also discussed. Finally some interesting problems are listed.

Siingh, Devendraa; Singh, R. P.; Singh, Ashok K.; Kumar, Sanjay; Kulkarni, M. N.; Singh, Abhay K.

2012-09-01

414

Radium Isotope Ratios as Tracers for Estimating the Influence of Changjiang Outflow Water to the Adjacent Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the influence of Changjiang (Yangtze River) outflow water to the adjacent seas during rainy and draught seasons, we studied the origin and mixing of surface water masses in the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea. We used Ra-228/Ra-226 activity ratio and salinity as two conservative tracers in three end-members: Changjiang water (CW); Yellow Sea water (YSW); and Kuroshio water (KW). Radium isotopes in each 300-liter of surface water samples were extracted by passing through manganese-fiber cartridges, dissolved in hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution, coprecipitated as barium sulfate, dried and measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Results show that surface water of the East China Sea includes all three end-member waters during the rainy season, in the order of KW (50-80%), YSW (20-50%) and CW (5-15%). Surface water of the South Sea of Korea, however, includes a little fraction of, or almost no, CW in drought season. These are the preliminary results from an ongoing 6-year project ending in 2009 which aims to predict the influence of heavily polluted Changjiang outflow water to the adjacent seas after the completion of the gigantic Three Gorges (Sanxia) Dam.

Kim, K.; Kim, S.

2006-12-01

415

A soft magnetic material for power supply systems of high energy physics experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the high energy physics experiments require their detectors to be embedded in a high intensity magnetic field. In particular the biggest of them, ATLAS, running in the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accelerator, generates a field of 2 T by means of a gigantic toroidal magnet working in open air. Its future phase 2 upgrade plans to move the DC/DC power supplies from the present positions on the external balconies directly on the detectors, where the field is of the order of 1 T. This presentation describes the development of samples made of special magnetic material for inductor cores suitable to work in such an environment. Starting from iron-silicon powders, at FN plant a plastic forming process, based on powder extrusion, injection moulding and sintering, was developed. To get the best compromise between the forming process requirements (good coupling among the metallic powder and the organic components to assure the right mouldability) and the debinding and sintering conditions, several mixtures (with different percentages and kind of organic additives) were experimented. A proper mould was designed and realized to get torous-shaped prototypes. The preliminary results of the physical-microstructural characterization performed on the first prototypes made will be shown.

Baccaro, S.; Cova, P.; Delmonte, N.; Ghisolfi, E.; Lanza, A.

2013-01-01

416

External threats: the dilemma of resource management on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National park, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Congress established Grand Canyon National Park in 1919 to preserve for posterity the outstanding natural attributes of the canyon cut by the Colorado River. In some cases National Park Service attempts to maintain Grand Canyon's natural environment have been thwarted by activities outside the park. One of the most obvious external threats is Glen Canyon Dam, only 26 km upstream from the park boundary. Constructed in 1963, this gigantic dam has greatly altered the physicochemical and biological characteristics of 446 km of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. The river's aquatic ecosystem has been greatly modified through the loss of indigenous species and the addition of numerous exotics. We consider this an exotic ecosystem. The riparian ecosystem has been less modified, with addition of a few exotics and no loss of natives—this we consider a naturalized ecosystem. The great dilemma now faced by park managers is that, after 20 years of managing resources along a river controlled by Glen Canyon Dam, the Bureau of Reclamation has proposed major changes in operational procedures for the dam. Scientists and managers from the National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and cooperating federal and state resource management agencies are using a systems analysis approach to examine the impacts of various Colorado River flow regimes on aquatic, riparian, and recreational parameters in the park. This approach will help in the development of management alternatives designed to permit the most efficient use of that river's natural resources without their destruction.

Johnson, R. Roy; Carothers, Steven W.

1987-01-01

417

Sale of US military aircraft to Saudi Arabia. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

The end of the Cold War in the late 1980s resulted in a gigantic downsizing and consolidation of America`s defense industries, as domestic demand plummeted and the volume of international arms trading fell. However, in total world arms exports the United States exports more arms than any other nation. The country of Saudi Arabia has been the destination of a disproportionate amount of these weapons. The following account is an examination of the US military aerospace industry, the world military aerospace market, US government policy concerning arms exports, and the Saudi aerospace market. Each of these entities profoundly impacts US-Saudi military aerospace commerce. By individually analyzing the above factors, it will be demonstrated that the supply relationship between the US and Saudi Arabia is dependent on the convergence of several long standing and deep seated aspirations on the part of the three major players: the US Aerospace Industry, the US Government, and the Saudi Government. The US military aerospace industry`s exports are critical to ensure its independent survival, help fund crucial RD programs, and maintain a viable defense high tech industrial base in the U.S. In addition, it wishes to exert a military presence in the Gulf area and nurture relations with Saudi Arabia in particular, as the world`s leading oil producer. The Saudi government requires a military defense anchored in high tech aerospace systems, as well as a dependable and capable military ally such as the US.

Bents, E.R.

1995-05-01

418

Measuring engagement effectiveness in social media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social media is becoming increasingly prevalent with the advent of web 2.0 technologies. Popular social media websites, such as Twitter and Facebook, are attracting a gigantic number of online users to post and share information. An interesting phenomenon under this trend involves that more and more users share their experiences or issues with regard to a product, and then the product service agents use commercial social media listening and engagement tools (e.g. Radian6, Sysomos, etc.) to response to users' complaints or issues and help them tackle their problems. This is often called customer care in social media or social customer relationship management (CRM). However, all these existing commercial social media tools only provide an aggregated level of trends, patterns and sentiment analysis based on the keyword-centric brand relevant data, which have little insights for answering one of the key questions in social CRM system: how effective is our social customer care engagement? In this paper, we focus on addressing the problem of how to measure the effectiveness of engagement for service agents in customer care. Traditional CRM effectiveness measurements are defined under the scenario of the call center, where the effectiveness is mostly based on the duration time per call and/or number of answered calls per day. Different from customer care in a call center, we can obtain detailed conversations between agents and customers in social media, and therefore the effectiveness can be measured by analyzing the content of conversations and the sentiment of customers.

Li, Lei; Sun, Tong; Peng, Wei; Li, Tao

2012-02-01

419

Variation in physical and chemical characteristics of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grain along a domestication gradient.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare six samples of Mexican wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) against three landraces and three improved cultivars with respect to physical and chemical attributes, and the culinary quality potential of their grain. A completely randomized experimental design was used to characterize the twelve genotypes. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and pair-wise comparison of the treatment means by the Tukey test. In addition, correlation and principal-component analysis (PCA) were carried out using twelve characteristics of raw and four of cooked wild and domesticated grains. The results show a larger variability of the physical and chemical characteristics in wild than in domesticated beans. The PCA confirmed that grain gigantism was the main physical characteristic resulting of domestication, whereas the protein and tryptophan contents tended to be higher in wild than domesticated genotypes. Some wild samples from Chihuahua and Durango, Mexico, showed to be a genetic resource to improve food quality, because of their richness in minerals, protein, lysine, tryptophan, and dietary fibers. PMID:22162159

Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; García-Nava, J Rodolfo; Aguirre, J Rogelio R; Ybarra-Moncada, Ma Carmen; López, Maritza H

2011-12-01

420

Promises and challenges in solid-state lighting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lighting technologies based on semiconductor light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer unprecedented promises that include three major benefits: (i) Gigantic energy savings enabled by efficient conversion of electrical energy to optical energy; (ii) Substantial positive contributions to sustainability through reduced emissions of global-warming gases, acid-rain gases, and toxic substances such as mercury; and (iii) The creation of new paradigms in lighting driven by the unique controllability of solid-state lighting sources. Due to the powerful nature of these benefits, the transition from conventional lighting sources to solid-state lighting is virtually assured. This presentation will illustrate the new world of lighting and illustrate the pervasive changes to be expected in lighting, displays, communications, and biotechnology. The presentation will also address the formidable challenges that must be addressed to continue the further advancement of solid-state lighting technology. These challenges offer opportunities for research and innovation. Specific challenges include light management, carrier transport, and optical design. We will present some innovative approaches in order to solve known technical challenges faced by solid-state lighting. These approaches include the demonstration and use of new optical thin-film materials with a continuously tunable refractive index. These approaches also include the use of polarization-matched structures that reduce the polarization fields in GaInN LEDs and the hotly debated efficiency droop, that is, the decreasing LED efficiency at high currents.

Schubert, Fred

2010-03-01

421

Energy and globalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before the Industrial Revolution, nations required no energy fuel. People relied on human, animal, and wind and waterpower for energy need. Energy (oil) has resettled populations, elected officials in the free world, or changed the governments of the energy rich countries by force. Energy fueled wars, played the major factor in the might of those who have it or more importantly the abilities to acquire it by force. This dissertation researches the primacy of oil as an energy source from the time of oil's discovery to the present times. Between 1945 and 1960, the use of oil and gas doubled as power was generated for industries as steel, cement, metalworking and more important of all filling station hoses into automobiles gas tanks, thus energy swept people and societies quite literally off their feet. One in every six jobs in the industrial world hired by the giant automotive industries. The big five American oil companies spurred on by special tax benefit, these companies grew to gigantic sizes by taking out the best part of the nation's oil. Then, for greater growth, they leaped overseas and built up an immensely profitable system, in alliance with Anglo-Dutch Shell and British Petroleum, known as seven sisters. On the other side of the world, the energy producing nations form an alliance mainly to protect themselves from downward price fluctuations of oil. The struggle for survival in the global energy market forced those countries to get together and form OPEC, which is referred as an "oil cartel".

Birjandi, Hossein Saremi

422

Developmental palaeontology in synapsids: the fossil record of ontogeny in mammals and their closest relatives  

PubMed Central

The study of fossilized ontogenies in mammals is mostly restricted to postnatal and late stages of growth, but nevertheless can deliver great insights into life history and evolutionary mechanisms affecting all aspects of development. Fossils provide evidence of developmental plasticity determined by ecological factors, as when allometric relations are modified in species which invaded a new space with a very different selection regime. This is the case of dwarfing and gigantism evolution in islands. Skeletochronological studies are restricted to the examination of growth marks mostly in the cement and dentine of teeth and can provide absolute age estimates. These, together with dental replacement data considered in a phylogenetic context, provide life-history information such as maturation time and longevity. Palaeohistology and dental replacement data document the more or less gradual but also convergent evolution of mammalian growth features during early synapsid evolution. Adult phenotypes of extinct mammals can inform developmental processes by showing a combination of features or levels of integration unrecorded in living species. Some adult features such as vertebral number, easily recorded in fossils, provide indirect information about somitogenesis and hox-gene expression boundaries. Developmental palaeontology is relevant for the discourse of ecological developmental biology, an area of research where features of growth and variation are fundamental and accessible among fossil mammals.

Sanchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

2010-01-01

423

Calcium-dependent aggregation and fusion of phosphatidylcholine liposomes induced by complexes of flavonoids with divalent iron.  

PubMed

It was found that complexes of the flavonoids quercetin, taxifolin, catechin and morin with divalent iron initiated an increase in light scattering in a suspension of unilamellar 100nm liposomes. The concentration of divalent iron in the suspension was 10?M. Liposomes were prepared from 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylglycero-3-phoshpatidylcholine. The fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis of liposomes labeled with NBD-PE and lissamine rhodamine B dyes detected a slow lipid exchange in liposomes treated with flavonoid-iron complexes and calcium, while photon correlation spectroscopy and freeze-fracture electron microscopy revealed the aggregation and fusion of liposomes to yield gigantic vesicles. Such processes were not found in liposomes treated with phloretin because this flavonoid is unable to interact with iron. Rutin was also unable to initiate any marked changes because this water-soluble flavonoid cannot interact with the lipid bilayer. The experimental data and computer calculations of lipophilicity (cLogP) as well as the charge distribution on flavonoid-iron complexes indicate that the adhesion of liposomes is provided by an iron link between flavonoid molecules integrated in adjacent bilayers. It is supposed that calcium cations facilitate the aggregation and fusion of liposomes because they interact with the phosphate moieties of lipids. PMID:22179037

Tarahovsky, Yury S; Yagolnik, Elena A; Muzafarov, Eugeny N; Abdrasilov, Bolatbek S; Kim, Yuri A

2011-12-08

424

Atmospheric oxygen level and the evolution of insect body size  

PubMed Central

Insects are small relative to vertebrates, possibly owing to limitations or costs associated with their blind-ended tracheal respiratory system. The giant insects of the late Palaeozoic occurred when atmospheric PO2 (aPO2) was hyperoxic, supporting a role for oxygen in the evolution of insect body size. The paucity of the insect fossil record and the complex interactions between atmospheric oxygen level, organisms and their communities makes it impossible to definitively accept or reject the historical oxygen-size link, and multiple alternative hypotheses exist. However, a variety of recent empirical findings support a link between oxygen and insect size, including: (i) most insects develop smaller body sizes in hypoxia, and some develop and evolve larger sizes in hyperoxia; (ii) insects developmentally and evolutionarily reduce their proportional investment in the tracheal system when living in higher aPO2, suggesting that there are significant costs associated with tracheal system structure and function; and (iii) larger insects invest more of their body in the tracheal system, potentially leading to greater effects of aPO2 on larger insects. Together, these provide a wealth of plausible mechanisms by which tracheal oxygen delivery may be centrally involved in setting the relatively small size of insects and for hyperoxia-enabled Palaeozoic gigantism.

Harrison, Jon F.; Kaiser, Alexander; VandenBrooks, John M.

2010-01-01

425

A numerical challenge on the core-collapse supernovae: physics of neutrino and matter at extreme conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Core-collapse supernovae are the explosive phenomena, which occur at the end of the life of massive stars. Despite the importance of these astrophysical events, the mechanism of supernova explosion has been a mystery even after the extensive studies for decades. The unsolved problem involves nuclear and neutrino physics at extreme conditions as well as the hydrodynamical aspects in astrophysics. The physics in femto-meter scale may change drastically the gigantic outcome of the core bounce after the gravitational collapse of the massive stars. In this contribution, I overview recent topics on the numerical challenges to clarify the supernova phenomena. Recent advance of nuclear physics for unstable nuclei and exotic hadrons helps us to provide the nuclear data inside the supernova core. The influence of the dense matter on the explosion and supernova neutrinos has been clarified using the newly constructed data tables based on the theoretical and experimental developments. Recent studies demonstrated that the short neutrino bursts from the black hole formation in more massive stars can be a probe of exotic matter including hyperons and quarks by observations at the neutrino detector facilities. Despite the progress in nuclear and neutrino physics, no explosion is found in the numerical simulations under the spherical symmetry and hence novel effects in multi-dimensions are argued to be essential for the explosion mechanism. Toward the final goal to clarify the supernova mechanism, it is necessary to combine the best knowledge of nuclear, particle physics and astrophysics with computing science on supercomputing facilities.

Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke

2011-07-01

426

Tongue reduction for macroglossia in Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome: review and application of new technique.  

PubMed

Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a rare, congenital overgrowth disorder that is characterized by macroglossia, anterior abdominal wall defects, visceromegaly, gigantism, and neonatal hypoglycaemia. Macroglossia may contribute to anterior open bite malocclusion with prognathism, speech articulation disturbances, drooling and the perception of intellectual disability. It was the purpose of this study to review a series of BWS patients who underwent surgical reduction of the tongue by a modified technique with respect to aesthetic and functional outcomes. Seven BWS patients, age 6 months to 21 months, had a 'stellate/anterior wedge' reduction with an anterior rotation flap and were followed up from 4 months to 9 years postoperatively. Assessment of aesthetics together with tongue morphology and mobility were recorded and a postoperative speech evaluation was performed. Minor contour deformities were present in two patients during function but all parents were satisfied with the results. The speech pathology assessment results indicated positive outcomes for speech, oral structure and function, and feeding for all children assessed. This modified technique allows for an adequate reduction of tongue volume with conservation of motor and sensory function as well as preservation of anatomical contour. PMID:23041202

Heggie, A A C; Vujcich, N J; Portnof, J E; Morgan, A T

2012-10-04

427

Catastrophic flood origin, little Missouri River valley, Montana, South Dakota, and North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Mosaics of photographically reduced topographic maps demonstrate the Little Missouri River valley was developed by gigantic floods. Catastrophic flood landforms, oriented in a northwest-southeast direction, cross the entire Little Missouri drainage basin. Field evidence, consisting of abundant flood-deposited alluvium, supports map evidence. Flood-produced landforms, cut in easily eroded claystone bedrock, appear fresh, suggesting that floods occurred late during the last glacial cycle. Sheets of water, several hundred kilometers wide, flowed in a southeast direction, parallel with a continental ice margin. Erosion lowered the regional surface from a level corresponding to the tops of the highest present-day buttes to the surface now crossed by the headwaters of the Moreau, Grand, Cannonball, Heart, and Green Rivers. Spillway trenches served to channel flow and rapidly cut headward into easily eroded claystone. These trenches include the Moreau, Grand, Cannonball, Heart, and Missouri valleys. The Missouri valley in western North Dakota became the dominant spillway as tributary trenches systematically cut off flow feeding competing spillways. Formation of the Little Missouri spillway, first as a north-trending valley, progressively cut off floodwaters flowing into the Heart, Cannonball, Grand, and Moreau spillways. The north end of the Little Missouri spillway also was cut off by a deeper east-trending spillway. Huge sheets of floodwater continued to pour across the divide west of the Little Missouri continuing to lower that surface. These floodwaters were cut off by development of the Yellowstone spillway in eastern Montana.

Clausen, E.N.

1988-07-01

428

Chlorella minutissima--a promising fuel alga for cultivation in municipal wastewaters.  

PubMed

It is imperative to slash the cost of algal oil to less than $50 bbl(-1) for successful algal biofuel production. Use of municipal wastewater for algal cultivation could obviate the need for freshwater and the nutrients--N and P. It would also add CO2 through bacterial activity. Chlorella minutissima Fott et Nova dominated the entire phycoflora year around and through each stage of the wastewater treatment at the oxidation pond system of Wazirabad (Delhi) in India. The ability to grow so profusely in such varied and contrasting situations made this alga unique. Besides pollution tolerance, it grew heterotrophically in dark under acidic conditions and as a mixotroph in presence of light over a range of organic C substrates. It could utilize both ammoniacal and nitrate nitrogen, survived anaerobicity, 5% NaCl and-10 bar of osmotic stress. C. minutissima grew at pH 4-11 and raised the pH set initially by 1 to 3 units in 7.5 h. It showed gigantism and largely kept afloat in presence of utilizable organic carbon, while flocculated in mineral medium and on aging. The alga also possessed potential for biofuel production. The studied parameters indicate why C. minutissima was a potential biomass builder in municipal sewage and could be used to determine which other alga(e) may serve the purpose. PMID:19882116

Bhatnagar, Ashish; Bhatnagar, Monica; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Das, K C

2009-11-01

429

Compass roses on the Book of Navigation ( Kitab-? Bahriye): Declination data source for geomagnetic field models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth is surrounded by a geomagnetic field that is generated by dynamo processes in the core like a gigantic magnet. The Earth's geomagnetic field shifts with time and location. There has been a comprehensive effort for modelling the geomagnetic field of the Earth at regional and global scales by several researchers in the recent decades. The magnetic data from historical sources have a great importance in geomagnetic field modelling. The declination was the first measured geomagnetic field element with the early use of compasses for navigation. In this study the declination values estimated from compass roses drawn on the Book of Navigation ( Kitab-? Bahriye) that are georeferenced by an artificial neural network are compared to the declination values based on the geomagnetic field models CALS3K.3 and SCHA.DIF.3K. The results show that the compass roses drawn on the portolan charts of Kitab-? Bahriye can be used as declination data sources for regional or global geomagnetic field models.

Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Gullu, Mevlut; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Dereli, Mehmet A.

2010-10-01

430

Planet Mars: Story of Another World  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars has captured the imagination of people throughout the ages, inspiring many stories. Remarkably, though, little was known about the red planet until recently. Through a great deal of exploration and theory, planetary scientists have striven to correct this situation. Over the course of the past half century, since the first flyby of Mars by NASA's Mariner 4 spacecraft in 1967, a multitude of probes have landed on, orbited, and flown past the planet. From these missions, a great deal has been learned about Mars. Its surface has now been studied to a respectable level of detail, revealing an astonishing amount of information about volcanoes such as Olympus Mons in Mars's Tharsis region; about the gigantic Valles Marineris (Valley of Wonder), the largest known canyon in the solar system; and about lava flows, outflow channels, and the Martian regolith, among many other aspects of the planet. This level of detail is made more incredible because of the difficulty in gathering such information. And there is still a staggering wealth of learning left to do. This book provides an overview of the current understanding of the past and present state of Mars, and a brief introduction to the planet.

Leatherland, Alex

2009-05-01

431

Solitary ganglioneuromatosis of the descending colon, presenting as giant retroperitoneal tumour.  

PubMed

Ganglioneuroma (GN) is a benign neoplasia of the autonomous nervous system, colonic GN is uncommon in adults. There are three subgroups: polypoid GN, ganglioneuromatous polyposis and diffuse ganglioneuromatosis. Ganglioneuromatosis is highly-associated to neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b (MEN2B). A 68-year-old female, with a discrete retarded emission of stools, was admitted for a large tumor in the left flank; CT scan, urography and barium enema demonstrated a large retroperitoneal mass, presumed as sarcoma. Open surgery discovered a 16 10 11 cm solid and encapsulated tumor, attached to the retroperitoneal descending colon, with no macroscopic mucosal involvement; the pathologic diagnosis of the resected specimen (en-bloc tumorectomy with limited colectomy) was intramural colonic ganglio-neuromatosis. Anamnesis, physical examination and complete endoscopic explorations showed no evidence of personal bearing or familial aggregation of genetic syndromes. In adults, association of transmural ganglioneuromatosis to NF1 or MEN2B is not mandatory; presentation often mimics obstructive carcinoma and positive diagnosis is provided by pathological examination of the resected specimen. In this peculiar case, the loose tissue of the retroperitoneal space favoured a slow development of intramural ganglioneuromatosis, presenting as a gigantic retroperitoneal mass with no radiological evidence of its colonic origin. PMID:23958108

Mate?, In; Iosif, C; Dinu, D; Constantinoiu, S

432

Magnaporthe oryzae cell wall hydrolysate induces ROS and fungistatic VOCs in rice cell cultures.  

PubMed

Plants react to microbial attack with a number of defense mechanisms, including the synthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These responses are triggered by elicitors derived from either the cell surface of pathogens or the incomplete hydrolysis of the plant cell wall. Here we show the response of rice (Oryza sativa L., cv Gigante Vercelli) cell cultures following treatment with cell wall hydrolysates prepared from the rice blast Magnaporthe oryzae. Elicitation prompted the production of several plant VOCs, which were analyzed by stir bar sorptive extraction from both the liquid and head-space phase (SBSE and HSSE, respectively) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. VOCs included alkanes, alkenes and long-chain alcohols as well as cinnamyl alcohol, myristicin, a sesquiterpene alcohol (caryolan-1-ol), 1-butanamide and 2-pentylfuran. The major released compounds, 1-octanol and 1-decanol, were found to induce ROS production in both elicited and non-elicited rice cells and showed fungistatic activity against the pathogen M. oryzae. The possible role of induced VOCs and ROS production in the plant-pathogen interaction is discussed. PMID:21831477

Forlani, Giuseppe; Occhipinti, Andrea; Bossi, Simone; Bertea, Cinzia M; Varese, Cristina; Maffei, Massimo E

2011-08-09

433

Bone histology of the titanosaur Lirainosaurus astibiae (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) from the Latest Cretaceous of Spain.  

PubMed

The titanosaur Lirainosaurus astibiae is the only sauropod species known from the Late Cretaceous of the Iberian Peninsula. Lirainosaurus did not reach a gigantic body size and is one of the smallest sauropods discovered to date. Histological analysis of Lirainosaurus bones, focused on diaphyseal transverse sections of appendicular elements, reveals that Lirainosaurus did not exhibit the osseous microstructure typical for large sauropods, but is comparable with that of the coeval titanosaurs Alamosaurus sanjuanensis, Ampelosaurus atacis, and Magyarosaurus dacus, and also shares histological traits with other small to medium-sized sauropodomorph dinosaurs. Lirainosaurus limb bones exhibit a laminar fibrolamellar bone microstructure interrupted by growth marks, fully obliterated in adulthood by intense secondary remodeling processes which tend to replace completely the primary cortex. Lirainosaurus attained smaller sizes than typical sauropods reducing the rate of primary periosteal osteogenesis and developing an extensive secondary remodeling well before the adult size was reached. Histological organization of Lirainosaurus long bones is more mature than observed in basal neosauropods at similar ontogenetic stage, documenting a case of peramorphosis by pre-displacement. This heterochronic growth would be a reversal of the accelerated pattern of bone deposition typical for the sauropod lineage. PMID:21120450

Company, Julio

2010-12-01

434

The evolutionary physiology of animal flight: paleobiological and present perspectives.  

PubMed

Recent geophysical analyses suggest the presence of a late Paleozoic oxygen pulse beginning in the late Devonian and continuing through to the late Carboniferous. During this period, plant terrestrialization and global carbon deposition resulted in a dramatic increase in atmospheric oxygen levels, ultimately yielding concentrations potentially as high as 35% relative to the contemporary value of 21%. Such hyperoxia of the late Paleozoic atmosphere may have physiologically facilitated the initial evolution of insect flight metabolism. Widespread gigantism in late Paleozoic insects and other arthropods is also consistent with enhanced oxygen flux within diffusion-limited tracheal systems. Because total atmospheric pressure increases with increased oxygen partial pressure, concurrently hyperdense conditions would have augmented aerodynamic force production in early forms of flying insects. By the late Permian, evolution of decompositional microbial and fungal communities, together with disequilibrium in rates of carbon deposition, gradually reduced oxygen concentrations to values possibly as low as 15%. The disappearance of giant insects by the end of the Permian is consistent with extinction of these taxa for reasons of asphyxiation on a geological time scale. As with winged insects, the multiple historical origins of vertebrate flight in the late Jurassic and Cretaceous correlate temporally with periods of elevated atmospheric oxygen. Much discussion of flight performance in Archaeopteryx assumes a contemporary atmospheric composition. Elevated oxygen levels in the mid- to late Mesozoic would, however, have facilitated aerodynamic force production and enhanced muscle power output for ancestral birds, as well as for precursors to bats and pterosaurs. PMID:10845087

Dudley, R

2000-01-01

435

La formación de la Nube de Oort y el entorno galáctico primitivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se analizan las condiciones de formación de la nube de Oort en el medio galáctico primitivo, bajo la suposición de que los objetos que alcanzaron la nube fueron planetesimales residuales eyectados por los planetas gigantes durante las etapas finales de su acreción. Los objetos que adquieren órbitas cuasiparabólicas están sujetos a las perturbaciones de estrellas vecinas y al potencial del disco galáctico, las que desacoplan sus perihelios de la región planetaria, dando a los objetos una larga estabilidad dinámica. Se demuestra que un entorno galáctico como el presente pudo, sin embargo, no ser suficiente para formar un reservorio cometario con una vida dinámica comparable a la vida del sistema solar. La existencia de la nube de Oort después de 4600 millones de años es, pues, una fuerte indicación de que el sistema solar se formó en un entorno galáctico mucho mas denso que el presente, tal vez en una nube molecular y/o un cúmulo abierto, que es el modo de producción de la mayoría de las estrellas. Se encuentra que un campo perturbador externo mas intenso, producto de un entorno galáctico mas denso, sería capaz de formar una nube de Oort mas compacta, con un radio del orden de 103- 104 UA. El campo externo mas intenso cesó de actuar una vez que la nube molecular y/o el cúmulo abierto se disiparon, previniendo entonces que ese mismo campo externo disolviera el reservorio cometario.

Fernández, J. A.

436

Sobre el estado evolutivo de ? Pictoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en ? Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. ? Pic está rodeada de un disco asimétrico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vacío a distancias <= 40 AU. Esto se considera una fuerte evidencia en favor de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado líneas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la caída de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a ?Pic. Sin embargo, la evaporación de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparación entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evolución y los datos observados en ? Pic indica edades avanzadas para ? Pic. Esta estimación debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Además mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evolución estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para ? Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

437

Human growth hormone and prolactin secreting pituitary adenomas analyzed by in situ hybridization.  

PubMed Central

Acidophilic pituitary adenomas commonly produce growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL), according to studies employing immunohistochemical and ultrastructural methods. To examine this question, in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes was done on routinely processed tissues received in the pathology laboratory to analyze for the presence of GH and PRL messenger RNA (mRNA) in 4 normal pituitaries, 10 prolactinomas, and 16 GH-secreting adenomas. Most acidophilic cells in normal pituitaries expressed either GH or PRL hormone and the respective mRNAs, but GH mRNA and PRL hormone were also detected in some of the same cells. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of prolactinoma had cells with only PRL mRNA in their tumors, while most (14 of 16) patients with a clinical diagnosis of acromegaly or gigantism had both GH and PRL mRNAs in their tumors. The GH adenomas varied in these studies. In situ hybridization was helpful in characterizing the adenoma from a patient with acromegaly who had immunoreactive PRL, but no immunoreactive GH in the resected tumor; in situ hybridization analysis revealed mRNAs for both GH and PRL in the same tumor cells. Our findings indicate that pituitary adenomas from patients with acromegaly commonly express PRL mRNA. It is concluded that in situ hybridization provides new information about the clinical biology and the histopathologic classification of pituitary adenomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7

Lloyd, R. V.; Cano, M.; Chandler, W. F.; Barkan, A. L.; Horvath, E.; Kovacs, K.

1989-01-01

438

Wafer-scale metasurface for total power absorption, local field enhancement and single molecule Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to detect molecules at low concentrations is highly desired for applications that range from basic science to healthcare. Considerable interest also exists for ultrathin materials with high optical absorption, e.g. for microbolometers and thermal emitters. Metal nanostructures present opportunities to achieve both purposes. Metal nanoparticles can generate gigantic field enhancements, sufficient for the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Thin layers containing metal nanostructures (``metasurfaces'') can achieve near-total power absorption at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Thus far, however, both aims (i.e. single molecule Raman and total power absorption) have only been achieved using metal nanostructures produced by techniques (high resolution lithography or colloidal synthesis) that are complex and/or difficult to implement over large areas. Here, we demonstrate a metasurface that achieves the near-perfect absorption of visible-wavelength light and enables the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Our metasurface is fabricated using thin film depositions, and is of unprecedented (wafer-scale) extent.

Wang, Dongxing; Zhu, Wenqi; Best, Michael D.; Camden, Jon P.; Crozier, Kenneth B.

2013-10-01

439

The Phoebe dust ring as seen as by the Cassini dust detector CDA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saturn's outermost moon Phoebe has been suggested to be the source of a gigantic diffuse dust extending from Phoebe's to Iapetus' orbital distance. Ejecta particles produced by hypervelocity impacts of interplanetary meteoroids with Phoebe are proposed to slowly migrate inward and eventually strike Iapetus' surface. Because of the similarities between the dark surfaces of Phoebe and Iapetus,, the putative Phoebe ring would naturally explain the pronounced colour dichotomy of Iapetus. About 20 days before Cassini's entry into its orbit around Saturn in 2004, the spacecraft performed a close Phoebe flyby, which has been optimised for detecting ejecta particles released from the moon's surface. The CDA measurements provide an upper constraint for the rate at which Phoebe can resupply a ring with fresh dust. After the flyby Cassini moved within the ring's symmetry plane. Dust data acquired during this early mission phase provide information about the size distribution and number density of Phoebe ring particles. To this aim we reanalysed the dust data obtained during the second half of 2004. Our analysis suggests that the ring must be populated by grains in excess of 40 micron in radius, if the ring is composed of Phoebe ejecta moving in retrograde orbits.

Kempf, S.; Horanyi, M.; Juhasz, A.; Srama, R.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.

2011-12-01

440

Giant lizards occupied herbivorous mammalian ecospace during the Paleogene greenhouse in Southeast Asia  

PubMed Central

Mammals dominate modern terrestrial herbivore ecosystems, whereas extant herbivorous reptiles are limited in diversity and body size. The evolution of reptile herbivory and its relationship to mammalian diversification is poorly understood with respect to climate and the roles of predation pressure and competition for food resources. Here, we describe a giant fossil acrodontan lizard recovered with a diverse mammal assemblage from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation of Myanmar, which provides a historical test of factors controlling body size in herbivorous squamates. We infer a predominately herbivorous feeding ecology for the new acrodontan based on dental anatomy, phylogenetic relationships and body size. Ranking body masses for Pondaung Formation vertebrates indicates that the lizard occupied a size niche among the larger herbivores and was larger than most carnivorous mammals. Paleotemperature estimates of Pondaung Formation environments based on the body size of the new lizard are approximately 2–5°C higher than modern. These results indicate that competitive exclusion and predation by mammals did not restrict body size evolution in these herbivorous squamates, and elevated temperatures relative to modern climates during the Paleogene greenhouse may have resulted in the evolution of gigantism through elevated poikilothermic metabolic rates and in response to increases in floral productivity.

Head, Jason J.; Gunnell, Gregg F.; Holroyd, Patricia A.; Hutchison, J. Howard; Ciochon, Russell L.

2013-01-01

441

Wafer-scale metasurface for total power absorption, local field enhancement and single molecule Raman spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The ability to detect molecules at low concentrations is highly desired for applications that range from basic science to healthcare. Considerable interest also exists for ultrathin materials with high optical absorption, e.g. for microbolometers and thermal emitters. Metal nanostructures present opportunities to achieve both purposes. Metal nanoparticles can generate gigantic field enhancements, sufficient for the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Thin layers containing metal nanostructures (“metasurfaces”) can achieve near-total power absorption at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Thus far, however, both aims (i.e. single molecule Raman and total power absorption) have only been achieved using metal nanostructures produced by techniques (high resolution lithography or colloidal synthesis) that are complex and/or difficult to implement over large areas. Here, we demonstrate a metasurface that achieves the near-perfect absorption of visible-wavelength light and enables the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Our metasurface is fabricated using thin film depositions, and is of unprecedented (wafer-scale) extent.

Wang, Dongxing; Zhu, Wenqi; Best, Michael D.; Camden, Jon P.; Crozier, Kenneth B.

2013-01-01

442

Micromechanics of the pericellular matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, much attention has been directed towards the properties and activities of the cell surface. In particular, the coupling of the membrane to the underlying protein polymer network called the actin cortex plays an important role in many events. The other side of the cell surface is less studied, although it too has a bound polymer network comprised of gigantic cross-linked polysaccharides (sugars). Called the pericellular matrix (PCM), it is associated with many cells including fibroblasts, chondrocytes, endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Its thickness can vary from 10's of nanometers to 10 microns and it is associated with adhesion dependent events like migration and mitosis. Biologists often hypothesize that its viscoelastic properties are responsible for the modulation of cell adhesion activities. To investigate this proposal, we measure the PCM's viscoelasticity using microrheology and probe the sharpness of its edge and its mesh size. The elastic modulus of the PCM under different condition is determined, and we characterize the long, elastic cables that can be pulled from the PCM. These results are compared with an externally reconstituted model PCM on the cell surface.

Curtis, J. E.; Boehm, H.; Schmitz, C. H. J.; Spatz, J. P.

2006-03-01

443

Advances in Plastic Surgery  

PubMed Central

Recent progress in plastic surgery has been rapid and many new techniques have been developed. Reconstructive procedures have been advanced by a better understanding of the anatomy of the blood supply to skin and muscle, with the subsequent development of the use of axial flaps, musculocutaneous flaps and neurosensory flaps. Burn treatment has advanced greatly, making it possible to successfully treat larger and more complicated burns. The development of microsurgery has made possible free-flap transfer and replantation of amputated parts. Advances in surgical procedures on the hands include a realization that primary repair of lacerated tendons and nerves will give good results. Replacement joints have been developed that can be used in hands for joints destroyed by arthritis or trauma. Craniofacial surgery is a new field of endeavor in plastic surgery, involving new techniques that can be used to treat exophthalmos of Graves' disease and the facial deformities resulting from gigantism and acromegaly. Head and neck procedures have advanced, with the emphasis on immediate reconstruction using new flaps. Techniques for treating cleft lip and palate have been refined. Encouraging results have been reported in the treatment of nevus flammeus with argon lasers. In aesthetic surgical procedures, the aim is for safety and consistent long-lasting results. Improved understanding of the physiology and treatment of radionecrosis has evolved.

McDonald, Harold D.; Vasconez, Luis O.

1982-01-01

444

Anomalous surface lattice dynamics in the low-temperature phase of Ba(Fe1?xCox)2As2  

PubMed Central

In complex materials, how correlation between charge, spin, and lattice affects the emergent phenomena remains unclear. The newly discovered iron-based high-temperature superconductors and related compounds present to the community a prototype family of materials, where interplay between charge, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom can be explored. With the occurrence of structural, magnetic, and superconducting transitions in the bulk of these materials, creating a surface will change the delicate balance between these phases, resulting in new behavior. A surface lattice dynamics study on (001) Ba(Fe1?xCox)2As2, through electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements, reveals unusual temperature dependence of both the phonon frequency and line width in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase. The rate of change of phonon frequency with temperature is gigantic, two orders of magnitude larger than in the bulk. This behavior cannot be explained using conventional models of anharmonicity or electron–phonon coupling; instead, it requires that a large surface-spin-charge-lattice coupling be included. Furthermore, the higher surface-phase-transition temperature driven by surface stabilization of the low-temperature orthorhombic phase seems to turn the first-order transition (bulk) into the second-order type, equivalent to what is observed in the bulk by applying a uniaxial pressure. Such equivalence indicates that the surface mirrors the bulk under extreme conditions.

Teng, Jing; Chen, Chen; Xiong, Yimin; Zhang, Jiandi; Jin, Rongying; Plummer, E. W.

2013-01-01

445

Anomalous surface lattice dynamics in the low-temperature phase of Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2.  

PubMed

In complex materials, how correlation between charge, spin, and lattice affects the emergent phenomena remains unclear. The newly discovered iron-based high-temperature superconductors and related compounds present to the community a prototype family of materials, where interplay between charge, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom can be explored. With the occurrence of structural, magnetic, and superconducting transitions in the bulk of these materials, creating a surface will change the delicate balance between these phases, resulting in new behavior. A surface lattice dynamics study on (001) Ba(Fe(1-x)Co(x))(2)As(2), through electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements, reveals unusual temperature dependence of both the phonon frequency and line width in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase. The rate of change of phonon frequency with temperature is gigantic, two orders of magnitude larger than in the bulk. This behavior cannot be explained using conventional models of anharmonicity or electron-phonon coupling; instead, it requires that a large surface-spin-charge-lattice coupling be included. Furthermore, the higher surface-phase-transition temperature driven by surface stabilization of the low-temperature orthorhombic phase seems to turn the first-order transition (bulk) into the second-order type, equivalent to what is observed in the bulk by applying a uniaxial pressure. Such equivalence indicates that the surface mirrors the bulk under extreme conditions. PMID:23284168

Teng, Jing; Chen, Chen; Xiong, Yimin; Zhang, Jiandi; Jin, Rongying; Plummer, E W

2013-01-02

446

Regulation of alternative splicing within the supraspliceosome  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is a fundamental feature in regulating the eukaryotic transcriptome, as ~95% of multi-exon human Pol II transcripts are subject to this process. Regulated splicing operates through the combinatorial interplay of positive and negative regulatory signals present in the pre-mRNA, which are recognized by trans-acting factors. All these RNA and protein components are assembled in a gigantic, 21 MDa, ribonucleoprotein splicing machine – the supraspliceosome. Because most alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms vary between different cell and tissue types, the ability to perform alternative splicing is expected to be an integral part of the supraspliceosome, which constitutes the splicing machine in vivo. Here we show that both the constitutively and alternatively spliced mRNAs of the endogenous human pol II transcripts: hnRNP A/B, survival of motor neuron (SMN) and ADAR2 are predominantly found in supraspliceosomes. This finding is consistent with our observations that the splicing regulators hnRNP G as well as all phosphorylated SR proteins are predominantly associated with supraspliceosomes. We further show that changes in alternative splicing of hnRNP A/B, affected by up regulation of SRSF5 (SRp40) or by treatment with C6-ceramide, occur within supraspliceosomes. These observations support the proposed role of the supraspliceosome in splicing regulation and alternative splicing.

Sebbag-Sznajder, Naama; Raitskin, Oleg; Angenitzki, Minna; Sato, Taka-Aki; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth

2012-01-01

447

First Stars and Their Initial Mass Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The appearance of the first stars when the universe was only 100 Myr old marked the Cosmic Dawn and the occurrence of a number of physical effects (cosmic reionization, intergalactic medium metal enrichment, black hole formation, magnetic field cosmogenesis and - obviously - galaxy formation) which are now entering the realm of the observability and are strongly governed by so-called 'feedback effects'. These feedback effects due to massive stars and supernovae in the first objects are shown to regulate both galaxy formation/evolution and the reionization process. They are particularly relevant as it is believed that the Initial Mass Function of the first stars was very heavy, thus favoring the formation of massive objects which end their lives as supernovae, or most likely, in even more gigantic explosions which could be connected with high energy events as gamma ray bursts and TeV-neutrino emission until a metallicity-driven transition to a normal star formation mode occurred. I will review the physical basis for this scenario.

Ferrara, A.

2003-09-01

448

Giant blocks in the South Kona landslide, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A large field of blocky sea-floor hills, up to 10km long and 500 high, are gigantic slide blocks derived from the west flank of Mauna Loa volcano on the island of Hawaii. These megablocks are embedded in the toe of the south Kona landslide, which extends ~80km seaward from the present coastline to depths of nearly 5km. A 10-15km-wide belt of numerous, smaller, 1-3 km-long slide blocks separates the area of giant blocks from two submarine benches at depths of 2600 and 3700m depth that terminate seaward 20 to 30km from the shoreline. Similar giant blocks are found on several other major submarine Hawaiian landslides, including those north of Oahu and Molokai, but the South Kona blocks are the first to be examined in detail using high-resolution bathymetry, dredging, and submersible diving. Dredging of two of the giant blocks brought up pillowed tholeiitic lava. Megablocks were carried by a late Pleistocene giant landslide 40-80km west from the ancestral shoreline of Mauna Loa volcano before growth of the midslope benches by later slump movement. -from Authors

Moore, J. G.; Bryan, W. B.; Beeson, M. H.; Normark, W. R.

1995-01-01

449

Revolutionising landscapes: Hydroelectricity and the heavy industrialisation of society and environment in the Comte de Beauharnois, 1927--1948  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation analyses the rapid industrialisation of the rural Comte de Beauharnois and the adjacent stretch of the Fleuve Saint-Laurent owing to the construction, between 1929 and 1948, of a gigantic canal for hydroelectricity production and navigation by an electricity corporation called the Beauharnois Light Heat and Power (BLH&P). Using principally the archives of the BLH&P---especially its complaints files and its rich photographic record---this thesis argues that this process exemplifies the finance capitalist reorganisation of the society and ecosystems of the Canadian province of Quebec from the 19th century to the Great Depression. In keeping with recent work in environmental history, the transformation of rural landscapes and a river for heavy industry is described as an important dimension of a revolution in modes of production. More specifically, I argue that, in the case under study, the finance-capitalist reorganisation of Quebec revolved around two central and explicit projects, one social and the other environmental: the grouping of most individuals in an industrial working class without control over the means of production and the reorganisation of rural landscapes into reservoirs of modern energy and industrial natural resources.

Pelletier, Louis-Raphael

450

Deficiency of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor, CDKN1B, Results in Overgrowth and Neurodevelopmental Delay  

PubMed Central

Germline mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, CDKN1B, have been described in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), a cancer predisposition syndrome with adult onset neoplasia and no additional phenotypes. Here, we describe the first human case of CDKN1B deficiency, which recapitulates features of the murine CDKN1B knockout mouse model, including gigantism and neurodevelopmental defects. Decreased mRNA and protein expression of CDKN1B were confirmed in the proband's peripheral blood, which is not seen in MEN syndrome patients. We ascribed the decreased protein level to a maternally derived deletion on chromosome 12p13 encompassing the CDKN1B locus (which reduced mRNA expression) and a de novo allelic variant (c.-73G>A) in the CDKN1B promoter (which reduced protein translation). We propose a recessive model where decreased dosage of CDKN1B during development in humans results in a neuronal phenotype akin to that described in mice, placing CDKN1B as a candidate gene involved in developmental delay.

Grey, William; Izatt, Louise; Sahraoui, Wafa; Ng, Yiu-Ming; Ogilvie, Caroline; Hulse, Anthony; Tse, Eric; Holic, Roman; Yu, Veronica

2013-01-01

451

In vitro effects of triclabendazole (TCBZ) on the excretory-secretory products (ESP) of Fasciola spp parasites.  

PubMed

Fascioliasis is an endemic disease in Iran and triclabendazole (TCBZ) is using for treatment of domestic animals and infected people. Excretory-secretory products (ESP) play an important role in the host biochemical defense by means of activities of detoxifying and antioxidant glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes respectively. Therefore, the aim of this comparative study was to evaluate fasciola protection against TCBZ drug by detection of enzymatic activities, GST and SOD, in TCBZ treated Fasciola hepatica / Fasciola gigantica and control ESP samples. F. gigantic and F. hepatica helminthes were collected and cultured within buffer media (TCBZ treated and untreated or control) for 4 h at 37 °C. Three TCBZ treated and 1 control ESP samples for each species were collected, centrifuged and supernatants were stored at -20°C. ESP samples protein concentrations were measured by Bradford method. SOD and GST enzymes activities of ESP samples were estimated photometrically. To determine the statistically significant difference between ESP of treated and control samples, t-test was conducted. ESP protein bands were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Protein concentrations in treated F. hepatica and F. gigantica ESP samples were estimated 204.88, 428, 130.4 and 288.2, 488.2, 308.2 µg/ml respectively. Protein concentrations in control samples were estimated 488.18 and 124.8 ug/ml respectively. SOD enzyme specific activities level in treated F.hepatica and F. gigantica ESP samples were determined 0.14, 0.31, 3.96 and 11.11, 13.54, 19.95 U/mg/protein respectively. SOD activities level in control samples were detected 70.69 and 10.92 U/mg/protein. GST specific activities level in treated F.hepatica and F. gigantica ESP samples were calculated 25.3, 85.5, 37.3 and 1823, 1314.3, 1320.8 U/mg respectively. GST activities levels in control samples were detected 98.6 and 1083.9 U/mg/protein respectively. Statistical analysis reveal the significant different between proteins concentrations, GST and SOD enzyme specific activities of TCBZ treated ESP samples of F. gigantic in comparison to the control samples (P<0.05), however, is not significant for treated F. hepatica and control ESP samples (P>0.05). There is no difference between SDS-PAGE results of treated and control samples. Based on the results of the present work, significant increase of enzymatic activities of GST and SOD in TCBZ treated F. gigantica ESP, it seems, the protection of this species against drug is higher than F. hepatica. PMID:22418984

Farahnak, Ali; Golmohamdi, Taghi; Eshraghian, Mohamadreza

2012-01-01

452

Transregional lineament of Central Asia, its magmatism, metallogeny and seismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of the place and role of such large fault as Central Kyzylkum, North Nurata and South Ferghana, Atbashin, which were regarded earlier as separate independent structures led us to the idea that they are parts of a single global structure. We suggest that it should be called "Transregional lineament of Central Asia". Transregional lineament of Central Asia is multisutured long-term, and in the nodal points of some parts it is complicated by deep fault zones of «Anti Tien-Shan» trend.There are large gold ore deposits (Muruntau, Kokpatas, Kumtor) in the intersection of some of these faults. Within the lineament there are 4 mafite - ultramafite associations of different age, that are presented as isolated or combined blocks, zones and regions. The most ancient is ophiolite one (I association). Best of all it is developed in Sultanuvais and Northern Tamdytau, Uzbekistan. The second, rift association of this belt is picrite-gabbro-diabase-alkali-olivine-basalt is widespread within the belt (northern Bukantau, northern Nuratau, northern slope of the Altay ridge).The third association is peridotite-gabbroic. It is represented by the Tebinbulak intrusive of Sultanuvais. Coverings, small stocks, dikes and explosion tubes formed by potassic mafite-ultramafites ore related to much later inter-plate (P-T) occurrences of mafite-ultramafite magmatism (IY association). On Kyrgyzstan's territory the studied lineament is observed as a system of regional deep faults -Atbashi-Inylchek and Southern Ferghana, with which the ophiolite ultramafite-mafite formation is associated. The rocks have the traces of tectonic movements, which can be the ground to regard them as protrusions. Tectonically, the vast territory of Mongolia is divided into two large blocks: northern and southern. This part of the lineament called Transmongolian. This part is week studied-a special investigation was only carried out in its western part - Bulgan fault. Thus, in the presence of linear-stretched sublatitudinal metallogenic belts within the area of the studied transregional lineament in the Central Asian region, the most prospective ore deposits'assemblages are located in the intersection of these belts as deep faults of meridional, north-eastern and north-western trend. The following deposits are situated in such intersection zones: the largest in Eurasia Muruntau gold deposit, a large deposit Kumtor