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1

Vulvoperineal Crohn's disease: response to metronidazole.  

PubMed

A 46-year-old woman with a medical history of chronic juvenile arthritis with bilateral prosthetic hips presented with vulvoperineal ulcerations of 3 years' duration. There was no diarrhea or recent weight loss. Cutaneous examination showed asymmetrical vulvar edema of the labia minora and labia majora with deep and linear ulcerations having verrucous borders located on the inguinocrural regions and the buttocks fold (Figure 1). On physical examination there was bilateral limited mobilization of the hips. A biopsy specimen was taken from the border of the vulvar ulceration and histologic examination showed under a hyperplasic epidermis an epithelioid granuloma with multinucleated giant cells of the dermis without caseification. Laboratory analyses and results from chest x-ray were normal. Results for Koch bacilla in the spittle, microbiologic studies (staining for microorganisms and cultures), and tuberculin intradermoreaction were negative. There was no Crohn's disease aspect on colonoscopy, and there was normal small bowel enterography. Systematic intestinal biopsies were also with normal aspect. Based on the clinical data and granulomatous histologic characteristics, the diagnosis of metastatic Crohn's disease without digestive involvement was obtained. The patient was started on metronidazole 1 g/d. After 6 months of treatment, there was an almost-complete healing of ulcerations (Figure 2). Treatment was well-tolerated. PMID:21137614

Khaled, Aida; Ezzine-Sebai, Nadia; Fazaa, Becima; Zeglaoui, Faten; Zermani, Rachida; Kamoun, Mohamed Ridha

2010-01-01

2

Vertical structuring of gigantic jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gigantic Jets (GJs) are initiated deep inside the thundercloud as intracloud discharges whose upward-directed leaders manage to escape through the thundercloud top and propagate up to the ionosphere. The speed at which leaders propagate is limited by the air heating of every newly formed leader section, rate of which is slower at upper altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere. Despite the expected deceleration of an upward-directed leader, GJs are observed to accelerate as they approach the ionosphere. In this letter, we discuss the dependence of the leader speed on current density in the leader stem, and we propose a simple time-dynamic model for GJ propagation that includes the effects of the expansion of the streamer zone adjacent to the leader head. We propose that the GJ acceleration is a consequence of its vertical structuring and, therefore, can be used to trace the transition altitude between the leader and streamer zone sections of GJs.

Silva, Caitano L.; Pasko, Victor P.

2013-06-01

3

Pituitary Gigantism: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Objective: To present a rare case of gigantism. Case Report: A 25-year-old lady presented with increased statural growth and enlarged body parts noticed since the age of 14 years, primary amenorrhea, and frontal headache for the last 2 years. She has also been suffering from non-inflammatory low back pain with progressive kyphosis and pain in the knees, ankles, and elbows for the last 5 years. There was no history of visual disturbance, vomiting, galactorrhoea, cold intolerance. She had no siblings. Family history was non-contributory. Blood pressure was normal. Height 221 cm, weight 138 kg, body mass index (BMI)28. There was coarsening of facial features along with frontal bossing and prognathism, large hands and feet, and small goitre. Patient had severe kyphosis and osteoarthritis of knees. Confrontation perimetry suggested bitemporal hemianopia. Breast and pubic hair were of Tanner stage 1. Serum insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF1) was 703 ng/ml with all glucose suppressedgrowth hormone (GH)values of >40 ng/ml. Prolactin was 174 ng/ml. Basal serum Lutenising Hormone (LH), follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH) was low. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), liver and renal function tests, basal cortisol and thyroid profile, Calcium, phosphorus and Intact Parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were normal. Computed tomographyscan of brain showed large pituitary macroadenoma. Automated perimetry confirmed bitemporal hemianopia. A diagnosis of gigantism due to GH secreting pituitary macroadenoma with hypogonadotrophichypogonadism was made. Debulking pituitary surgery followed by somatostatin analogue therapy with gonadal steroid replacement had been planned, but the patient refused further treatment.

Bhattacharjee, Rana; Roy, Ajitesh; Goswami, Soumik; Selvan, Chitra; Chakraborty, Partha P.; Ghosh, Sujoy; Biswas, Dibakar; Dasgupta, Ranen; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

2012-01-01

4

Dwarfism and gigantism in historical picture postcards.  

PubMed Central

A collection of 893 historical picture postcards from 1900 to 1935, depicting dwarfs and giants, was analysed from medical and psychosocial viewpoints. In conditions such as 'bird headed dwarfism', achondroplasia, cretinism, so-called Aztecs or pinheads, Grebe chondrodysplasia, and acromegalic gigantism, the disorder could be diagnosed easily. In hypopituitary dwarfism, exact diagnosis was more difficult because of heterogeneity. The most common conditions depicted were pituitary dwarfism and achondroplasia. Most of those with gigantism had pituitary gigantism and acromegaly. Brothers and sisters or parents and their children provided evidence of mendelian inheritance of some of these disorders. The cards suggest that being put on show provided, at least in some cases, social benefits. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5

Enderle, A

1998-01-01

5

HERNIA DE BOCHDALECK GIGANTE. PRESENTACIÓNDE UN CASO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se presenta un caso de hernia de Bochdaleck gigante en un varón de 14 años que fue diagnosticado de forma casual. Se revisa la escasa bibliografía sobre la ausencia radiológica de hemidiafragma, comentándose además la aportación del diagnóstico por imagen, fundamentalmente la tomografia axial computarizada (TAC) y la resonancia nuclear magnética (RNM). Finalmente, se revisan las asociaciones más frecuentes de

L. M. Entrenas Costa; T. Domínguez Platas; J. M. Checa Pinilla; J. M. Antona Gómez; F. Fuentes Otero

1992-01-01

6

A case of severe rhinophyma (gigantic rhinophyma)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhinophyma is classically a benign condition whose etiology and pathogenesis are not well understood. A few cases of giant rhinophymas have been reported in the literature. In this article, a case of gigantic, lobulated rhinophyma is presented. The appearance was unusual, and there was cyst formation histologically.

A. Barutcu; A. Atabey; A. H. Gunes

1990-01-01

7

Formación y evolución de planetas gigantes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presentamos el estado actual del trabajo que estamos realizando en el estudio de la formación de planetas gigantes. Detallamos los algoritmos numéricos necesarios para realizar este tipo de cálculo. Presentamos algunos resultados de la formación de objetos con masas de hasta una docena de veces la del planeta Júpiter, resaltando las principales caracteríticas. Finalmente detallamos los problemas que pensamos abordar en un futuro cercano en este tema de investigación.

Benvenuto, O. G.; Brunini, A.

8

Bergmann's Principle and Deep-Water Gigantism in Marine Crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a review of the Bergmann's principle and deep-water gigantism in marine crustaceans. An increase in the geographic latitude and depth of crustaceans habitat (correlating mainly with lower temperatures) leads to an increased cell size, life span of the animal, and, as a result, an increase in the body size. Since Bergmann's principle and deep-water gigantism appear to be

S. F. Timofeev

2001-01-01

9

Fungal Cell Gigantism during Mammalian Infection  

PubMed Central

The interaction between fungal pathogens with the host frequently results in morphological changes, such as hyphae formation. The encapsulated pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is not considered a dimorphic fungus, and is predominantly found in host tissues as round yeast cells. However, there is a specific morphological change associated with cryptococcal infection that involves an increase in capsule volume. We now report another morphological change whereby gigantic cells are formed in tissue. The paper reports the phenotypic characterization of giant cells isolated from infected mice and the cellular changes associated with giant cell formation. C. neoformans infection in mice resulted in the appearance of giant cells with cell bodies up to 30 µm in diameter and capsules resistant to stripping with ?-radiation and organic solvents. The proportion of giant cells ranged from 10 to 80% of the total lung fungal burden, depending on infection time, individual mice, and correlated with the type of immune response. When placed on agar, giant cells budded to produce small daughter cells that traversed the capsule of the mother cell at the speed of 20–50 m/h. Giant cells with dimensions that approximated those in vivo were observed in vitro after prolonged culture in minimal media, and were the oldest in the culture, suggesting that giant cell formation is an aging-dependent phenomenon. Giant cells recovered from mice displayed polyploidy, suggesting a mechanism by which gigantism results from cell cycle progression without cell fission. Giant cell formation was dependent on cAMP, but not on Ras1. Real-time imaging showed that giant cells were engaged, but not engulfed by phagocytic cells. We describe a remarkable new strategy for C. neoformans to evade the immune response by enlarging cell size, and suggest that gigantism results from replication without fission, a phenomenon that may also occur with other fungal pathogens.

Zaragoza, Oscar; Garcia-Rodas, Rocio; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Casadevall, Arturo

2010-01-01

10

Lightning development associated with two negative gigantic jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both gigantic jets occurred as part of otherwise normal intracloud flashesThe GJ-producing lightning development implies a depleted upper positive chargeVHF techniques are applicable to detect discharges over the cloud

Gaopeng Lu; Steven A. Cummer; Walter A. Lyons; Paul R. Krehbiel; Jingbo Li; William Rison; Ronald J. Thomas; Harald E. Edens; Mark A. Stanley; William Beasley; Donald R. MacGorman; Oscar A. van der Velde; Morris B. Cohen; Timothy J. Lang; Steven A. Rutledge

2011-01-01

11

[Bergmann's principle and deep-water gigantism in marine crustaceans].  

PubMed

We present a review of the Bergmann's principle and deep-water gigantism in marine crustaceans. An increase in the geographic latitude and depth of crustaceans habitat (correlating mainly with lower temperatures) leads to an increased cell size, life span of the animal, and, as a result, an increase in the body size. Since Bergmann's principle and deep-water gigantism appear to be based on the same biological mechanisms, we propose a unified principle, according to which the size of the crustacean's body increases along the temperature gradient. PMID:15926344

Timofeev, S F

2001-01-01

12

L' IMPOLLINAZIONE DEL MIRTILLO GIGANTE AMERICANO (VACCINIUM CORYMBOSUM L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nella fascia montana della nostra Regione la coltivazione delle specie frutticole minori è stata introdotta negli anni '80 come atti- vità agricola alternativa per diversificare le produzioni e come possibile integrazione al reddito per le aree marginali. Tra le diverse specie coltivate si annovera anche il mirtillo gigante (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). I fiori del mirtillo, di forma urceola- ta, sono

D. Prodorutti; F. Frilli; P. A. Belletti

13

On the Vertical Structuring of Gigantic Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gigantic Jets (GJs) are large-scale electrical discharges between the thundercloud tops and the lower ionosphere. It is estimated that an individual GJ can contribute as much as cloud-to-ground lightning in discharging a thunderstorm system, transferring hundreds of coulombs from thundercloud to the ionosphere [Cummer et al., Nat. Geosci., 2, 617-620, 2009]. GJs are initiated deep inside the thundercloud as intracloud lightning discharges. Owing to a charge imbalance, meaning the upper charge center is depleted with respect to the midlevel charge center, the upward-directed lightning leaders manage to escape through the thundercloud top to form GJs [Krehbiel et al., Nat. Geosci., 1, 233-237, 2008]. As a GJ leader crosses the stratosphere its streamer zone becomes longer and longer, due to the dynamics of streamer growth in a medium with exponentially-decreasing air density, such as in the Earth's atmosphere [Raizer et al., GRL, 33, L23801, 2006]. The speed at which a leader propagates is limited by the air heating of every newly formed leader section, rate of which is slower at upper altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere [da Silva and Pasko, GRL, 39, L13805, 2012]. Despite the expected deceleration of an upward-directed leader, GJs are observed to accelerate as they approach the ionosphere. To address this issue, we propose a simple time-dynamic model for GJ propagation that simulates the upward propagation of a leader discharge accounting for the effects of the expansion of its streamer zone. We propose that the GJ acceleration is a consequence of its vertical structuring and, therefore, can be used to trace the transition altitude between the leader and streamer zone sections of GJs [da Silva and Pasko, GRL, 40, 12, 3315-3319, 2013]. Leaders and streamers are very different electrical discharges in terms of the degree of ionization, temperature, and composition of the plasma inside their channels. A correct description of the vertical structuring of GJs is of fundamental importance for evaluation of their effects in the stratosphere and mesosphere.

Da Silva, C.; Pasko, V. P.

2013-12-01

14

Twin Explosions In Gigantic Dusty Potato Crisp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO's Very Large Telescope, equipped with the multi-mode FORS instrument, took an image of NGC 3190, a galaxy so distorted that astronomers gave it two names. And as if to prove them right, in 2002 it fired off, almost simultaneously, two stellar explosions, a very rare event. This beautiful edge-on spiral galaxy with tightly wound arms and a warped shape that makes it resemble a gigantic potato crisp lies in the constellation Leo ('the Lion') [1] and is approximately 70 million light years away. It is the dominant member of a small group of galaxies known as Hickson 44, named after the Canadian astronomer, Paul Hickson. In addition to NGC 3190 [2], Hickson 44 consists of one elliptical and two spiral galaxies. These are, however, slightly out of the field of view and therefore not visible here. ESO PR Photo 17/06 ESO PR Photo 17/06 The Spiral Galaxy NGC 3190 In 1982, Hickson published a catalogue of over 400 galaxies found in compact, physically-related groups of typically 4 to 5 galaxies per group (see the image of Robert's Quartet in ESO PR Photo 34/05 as another example). Such compact groups allow astronomers to study how galaxies dynamically affect each other, and help them test current ideas on how galaxies form. One idea is that compact groups of galaxies, such as Hickson 44, merge to form a giant elliptical galaxy, such as NGC 1316 (see ESO PR 17/00). Indeed, signs of tidal interactions are visible in the twisted dust lane of NGC 3190. This distortion initially misled astronomers into assigning a separate name for the southwestern side, NGC 3189, although NGC 3190 is the favoured designation. NGC 3190 has an 'Active Galactic Nucleus', and as such, the bright, compact nucleus is thought to host a supermassive black hole. In March 2002, a new supernova (SN 2002bo) was found in between the 'V' of the dust lanes in the southeastern part of NGC 3190. It was discovered independently by the Brazilian and Japanese amateur astronomers, Paulo Cacella and Yoji Hirose. SN 2002bo was caught almost two weeks before reaching its maximum brightness, allowing astronomers to study its evolution. It has been the subject of intense monitoring by a world-wide network of telescopes. The conclusion was that SN 2002bo is a rather unusual Type Ia supernova [3]. The image presented here was taken in March 2003, i.e. about a year after the maximum of the supernova which is 50 times fainter on the image than a year before. While observing SN 2002bo in May 2002, a group of Italian astronomers discovered another supernova, SN 2002cv, on the other side of NGC 3190. Two supernovae of this type appearing nearly simultaneously in the same galaxy is a rare event, as normally astronomers expect only one such event per century in a galaxy. SN 2002cv was best visible at infrared wavelengths as it was superimposed on the dust lane of NGC 3190, and therefore hidden by a large quantity of dust. In fact, this supernova holds the record for the most obscured Type Ia event. The image was obtained with a total exposure time of 14 minutes only. Yet, with the amazing power of the Very Large Telescope, it reveals a large zoo of galaxies of varying morphologies. How many can you find? A high resolution image and its caption is available on this page.

2006-05-01

15

Spatiotemporal and Spectral Characteristics of Sprites and Gigantic Jets Derived from ISUAL\\/Array Photometer Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sprites are electrical discharges above active thunderstorms occurring at mesospheric altitudes [Stanley et al., 1999; Stenbaek-Nielsen et al., 2000] while gigantic jets span from the top of thundercloud to the lower ionosphere [Pasko et al., 2002; Su et al., 2003] In this study, we report the spatiotemporal and spectral characteristics of sprites and gigantic jets observed with the ISUAL\\/array photometer

T. Adachi; H. Fukunishi; Y. Takahashi; Y. Hiraki; K. Yamamoto; R. Hsu; H. Su; A. B. Chen; S. B. Mende; H. U. Frey; L. C. Lee

2005-01-01

16

Discharge processes, electric field, and electron energy in ISUAL-recorded gigantic jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the first high time resolution measurements of gigantic jets from the Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) experiment. The velocity of the upward propagating fully developed jet stage of the gigantic jets was ?107 m s?1, which is similar to that observed for downward sprite streamers. Analysis of spectral ratios for the fully developed jet

Cheng-Ling Kuo; J. K. Chou; L. Y. Tsai; A. B. Chen; H. T. Su; R. R. Hsu; S. A. Cummer; H. U. Frey; S. B. Mende; Y. Takahashi; L. C. Lee

2009-01-01

17

Discharge processes, electric field, and electron energy in ISUAL-recorded gigantic jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the first high time resolution measurements of gigantic jets from the Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) experiment. The velocity of the upward propagating fully developed jet stage of the gigantic jets was ˜107 m s-1, which is similar to that observed for downward sprite streamers. Analysis of spectral ratios for the fully developed jet

Cheng-Ling Kuo; J. K. Chou; L. Y. Tsai; A. B. Chen; H. T. Su; R. R. Hsu; S. A. Cummer; H. U. Frey; S. B. Mende; Y. Takahashi; L. C. Lee

2009-01-01

18

Hereditary Gigantism-the biblical giant Goliath and his brothers  

PubMed Central

The biblical giant Goliath has an identifiable family tree suggestive of autosomal dominant inheritance. We suggest that he had a hereditary pituitary disorder possibly due to the AIP gene, causing early onset and familial acromegaly or gigantism. We comment on the evidence within the scriptures for his other relatives including a relative with six digits and speculate on possible causes of the six digits. Recognition of a hereditary pituitary disorder in the biblical Goliath and his family sheds additional information on his and other family members’ battles with David and his relatives.

Donnelly, Deirdre E; Morrison, Patrick J

2014-01-01

19

[Congenital partial gigantism of the upper extremities in children].  

PubMed

Angio-and phlebography, as well as pathomorphological studies were made on epiphyseal cartilaginous plate, diaphyseal bone tissue and skin of patients with partial gigantism of upper extremities. Significant developmental anomalies were found in the formation of palmar arches and digital arteries, as well as hypoplasia and aplasia of deep brachial and antebrachial veins. Light and electron microscopy revealed epiphyseal plate dystrophy and dysplasia, tubular bone osteoporosis, subcutaneous fat hyperplasia. The data obtained suggest a pathogenetic relationship between the vascular formation and the development of some malformations and growth abnormalities of upper extremities. PMID:3778237

Pavlova, M N; Beliaeva, A A; Gusev, B V

1986-01-01

20

Gigantic jets between a thundercloud and the ionosphere.  

PubMed

Transient luminous events in the atmosphere, such as lighting-induced sprites and upwardly discharging blue jets, were discovered recently in the region between thunderclouds and the ionosphere. In the conventional picture, the main components of Earth's global electric circuit include thunderstorms, the conducting ionosphere, the downward fair-weather currents and the conducting Earth. Thunderstorms serve as one of the generators that drive current upward from cloud tops to the ionosphere, where the electric potential is hundreds of kilovolts higher than Earth's surface. It has not been clear, however, whether all the important components of the global circuit have even been identified. Here we report observations of five gigantic jets that establish a direct link between a thundercloud (altitude approximately 16 km) and the ionosphere at 90 km elevation. Extremely-low-frequency radio waves in four events were detected, while no cloud-to-ground lightning was observed to trigger these events. Our result indicates that the extremely-low-frequency waves were generated by negative cloud-to-ionosphere discharges, which would reduce the electrical potential between ionosphere and ground. Therefore, the conventional picture of the global electric circuit needs to be modified to include the contributions of gigantic jets and possibly sprites. PMID:12827198

Su, H T; Hsu, R R; Chen, A B; Wang, Y C; Hsiao, W S; Lai, W C; Lee, L C; Sato, M; Fukunishi, H

2003-06-26

21

Gate-tunable gigantic lattice deformation in VO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined the impact of electric field on crystal lattice of vanadium dioxide (VO2) in a field-effect transistor geometry by in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements. Whereas the c-axis lattice parameter of VO2 decreases through the thermally induced insulator-to-metal phase transition, the gate-induced metallization was found to result in a significant increase of the c-axis length by almost 1% from that of the thermally stabilized insulating state. We also found that this gate-induced gigantic lattice deformation occurs even at the thermally stabilized metallic state, enabling dynamic control of c-axis lattice parameter by more than 1% at room temperature.

Okuyama, D.; Nakano, M.; Takeshita, S.; Ohsumi, H.; Tardif, S.; Shibuya, K.; Hatano, T.; Yumoto, H.; Koyama, T.; Ohashi, H.; Takata, M.; Kawasaki, M.; Arima, T.; Tokura, Y.; Iwasa, Y.

2014-01-01

22

Model of UV flashes due to gigantic blue jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of UV flashes observed by the UV detector on board the 'Tatiana' microsatellite suggests, based on their location, pulse width and energy of the source of the photons, that the flashes were generated by gigantic blue jets (GBJs). Presented in this paper is a numerical model of UV flashes due to a bunch of long streamers which form a leader, a prong such as that observed in a GBJ. Using a previously developed model of upward propagation of a long streamer in the exponential atmosphere the paper describes temporal evolution of the UV flux generated by a bunch of long streamers, in the given spectral range 300-400 nm used by the UV detector on board 'Tatiana'. The model is in agreement with the observations.

Milikh, G. M.; Shneider, M. N.

2008-12-01

23

Methodology of growing gigantic sapphire for GSLW project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our present world the Crystal Growth Technology does not have the necessary and sufficient conditions to manufacture large sizes; especially in the Sapphire Crystal world. We have a theoretical and methodological development for growing gigantic Sapphire Crystal Lenses. Our gigantic Sapphire Crystal Lenses have a unique optical characteristic which will be used in the Global System of Laser Weapons (GSLW); hence solving one of the crucial problems in the Relay Mirror System; where it captures the Laser beam from the earth surface, cleaning the beam in the Satellite and redirecting the laser energy to the precise desired target. Developed and solution for the temperature and heat-elasticity fields in growth systems are considered theoretical, in order to assess their effects on the optical symmetry of the growing crystal. The process is modeled using three-dimensional curvilinear coordinates to describe a closed, low-strain heat-elasticity system, with allowance made for the temperature variations of the thermal properties of the multilayer growth system, and nonlinear and unsteady-state process with arbitrary boundary conditions. The results presented as plots of the strain, stress, displacement, and temperature fields; demonstrate the potential of the method for designing new growth units and improving the existing ones and suggesting that crystals, in general, without frustration of optical symmetry can, in principle, be grown. In order to solve generalized problem for large optics. It is required to have super and correct mathematical computing calculations, and using basic fundamental laws of nature regarding optical symmetry in the crystal, and discovering the radical "new wave method" for crystal growth technology.

Abgaryan, Artoush A.; Hartounian, Gomidas

2005-09-01

24

Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma  

PubMed Central

Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH) during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL). Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings.

Rhee, Noorisaem; Jeong, Kumi; Yang, Eun Mi

2014-01-01

25

Blue And Gigantic Jets From Taiwan 2007 TLE Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blue and gigantic jets are believed to be blue luminous phenomena. In Taiwan 2007 TLE campaign, a multi- wavelength imaging system was deployed with the aim to elucidate the physical and chemical characteristics of TLEs. On 22 July 2007, twenty blue/gigantic jets and four sprites were observed to occur over a frontal system in Fujian province of China, about 400km away from our observation site at Lulin Observatory, Taiwan. All the observed jets showed little blue band (380-510nm) emissions but had easily recognizable signals in red band (570-2700nm). This result indicates that jets observed from ground are reddish and most of the blue emissions are extinct. One of the jets was observed to propagate upward to ~75km elevation, thus it can be identified as a GJ and is similar to the GJ-event observed by Pasko et al (2001). This GJ was launched 200ms after a small jet from the same cloud top. This implies that the smaller jet could be regarded as the leader of this GJ, similar to the stepped/dart leader in a CG flash. Since the blue luminous events in ISUAL data (Su, et. al. 2005 AGU) have similar features as the jets in this ground observation. Thus, we can conclude that the ISUAL blue luminous events also are blue jets or blue starters. Even though blue jets and blue starter have different ISUAL SP2 (N2 2P, 337.0nm), SP3 (N2 1N, 391.4nm) and SP6 (250-390nm) intensities, but the peak ratio between SP2 and SP6 are ~ 0.5 and the peak ratio between SP3 and SP2 are ~ 0.07. This means blue jets and starters possess the same spectral properties and the same degree of ionization. Finally, the relation between jets and the nearby lightning will also be addressed.

Chou, J.; Tsai, L.; Kuo, C.; Lee, Y.; Chen, Y.; Hu, C.; Chen, A. B.; Su, H.; Hsu, R.; Lee, L.

2007-12-01

26

Drilling submarine pyroclastic deposits emplaced during gigantic caldera-forming eruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gigantic caldera-forming eruptions have repeatedly occurred in areas of deep\\/shallow oceans, with the production of voluminous pyroclastic flows. Such eruptions are a crucial part of the record of silicic magmatism along subduction plate boundaries. In order to contribute exploring 'subduction zones and volcanic arcs', gigantic caldera-forming events must be a target in the next phase of IODP. Ocean drilling provides

Fukashi MAENO

27

Rare examples of early VLF events observed in association with ISUAL-detected gigantic jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine narrowband VLF observations and investigate the association of early VLF perturbations with gigantic jets recorded by the Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightnings (ISUAL) instrument aboard FORMOSAT-2. From its inception in 2004 to April 2013, the ISUAL instrument has recorded 90 gigantic jets using a triggered camera. Stanford VLF receivers located around the world are used to detect perturbations to VLF transmitter signals associated with lightning. While nine gigantic jet events occurred within 100 km of a VLF transmitter-receiver great circle path, only four early VLF events were detected in association with three ISUAL gigantic jets. One of these is a moderate event of 0.4 dB amplitude change, and the others are very small. The recovery time of these events are less than a couple of minutes and so do not constitute the "long recovery" early VLF events that have been postulated to be associated with gigantic jets. We speculate on possible explanations for the lack of other events on monitored paths, including a lack of significant ionization produced in the D region ionosphere by the gigantic jet event, weak transmitter signals recorded by the receivers, or mode effects on transmitter paths.

Marshall, R. A.; Adachi, T.; Hsu, R.-R.; Chen, A. B.

2014-01-01

28

Model of UV Flashes Due to Gigantic Blue Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon termed Gigantic Blue Jet (GBJ) was discovered by Pasko et al. [1] when observing a thunderstorm over the Atlantic Ocean. A number of GBJ's was observed since from the ground and from space by the ISUAL optical detector flying on the board of the FORMOSA-2 satellite. Alike blue jets the GBJ's have a pencil-like shape however a trunk of GBJ is crowned with a few prongs which escape into the ionosphere. Current models suggest that a blue jet consists of the bi-leader, and is capped at the top side of the leader by its streamer zone [2]. The opposite polarity leaders grow in opposite directions and supply each other with the charge via the highly conductive channel. Evidently, if the bi-leader is initiated in the anvil, one of the leaders can extend beyond the cloud top. Furthermore, the UV instrument flying on board of microsatellite "Tatiana" detected a number of intense flashes with duration 1-64 ms originated in the equatorial region of the Earth [3]. The satellite was flying on the height 950 km along the circular orbit. The detector operates in the wavelength rage 300-400 nm. It should be emphasized that both GBJ and UV flashes were detected mainly over oceans and shores where the rate of lightning flashes is low. The detected UV flashes radiate about 0.1 MJ which in the range of the energy of gigantic blue jets. There are two scales of the flashes duration, 1-4 ms and 10-64 ms. The first one corresponds to the lifetime of individual long streamers (prongs), while the second corresponds to the lifetime of slow moving leader (or the streamer zone of a leader, since a number of individual streamers which form the streamer zone can radiate the UV emission). Therefore we suggest that the UV flashes detected by "Tatiana" were generated by GBJ. This paper presents a model of UV flashes due to an individual long streamer. Using earlier developed model of upward propagation of long streamer in the exponential atmosphere [2] the temporal evolution of the UV intensity generated by such streamer in the given spectral range 300-400 nm is described, and then check the model against the data obtained by "Tatiana". [1] V. Pasko et al., 2002 Nature, 416, 152 [2] Y. Raiser et al., 2007 J. Atm. Solar-Terr. Phys., 69, 925 [3] G. Garipov et al., 2005 JETP Lett., 82, 185.

Shneider, M.; Milikh, G.

2008-12-01

29

LTR Retrotransposons Contribute to Genomic Gigantism in Plethodontid Salamanders  

PubMed Central

Among vertebrates, most of the largest genomes are found within the salamanders, a clade of amphibians that includes 613 species. Salamander genome sizes range from ?14 to ?120 Gb. Because genome size is correlated with nucleus and cell sizes, as well as other traits, morphological evolution in salamanders has been profoundly affected by genomic gigantism. However, the molecular mechanisms driving genomic expansion in this clade remain largely unknown. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of transposable element (TE) content in salamanders. Using high-throughput sequencing, we generated genomic shotgun data for six species from the Plethodontidae, the largest family of salamanders. We then developed a pipeline to mine TE sequences from shotgun data in taxa with limited genomic resources, such as salamanders. Our summaries of overall TE abundance and diversity for each species demonstrate that TEs make up a substantial portion of salamander genomes, and that all of the major known types of TEs are represented in salamanders. The most abundant TE superfamilies found in the genomes of our six focal species are similar, despite substantial variation in genome size. However, our results demonstrate a major difference between salamanders and other vertebrates: salamander genomes contain much larger amounts of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, primarily Ty3/gypsy elements. Thus, the extreme increase in genome size that occurred in salamanders was likely accompanied by a shift in TE landscape. These results suggest that increased proliferation of LTR retrotransposons was a major molecular mechanism contributing to genomic expansion in salamanders.

Sun, Cheng; Shepard, Donald B.; Chong, Rebecca A.; Lopez Arriaza, Jose; Hall, Kathryn; Castoe, Todd A.; Feschotte, Cedric; Pollock, David D.; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge

2012-01-01

30

[Complex ultrasonic diagnosis of large and gigantic non-parasitic cysts of liver].  

PubMed

The results of clinical and complex ultrasonic examination of 95 patients with large and gigantic liver non-parasitic cysts (LNC) are analyzed. The morphological examination was performed in all the cases. The mean diameter of large LNC was 105+/-7 mm, of gigantic cysts -- 149+/-33 mm (p<0,05), cyst volume was respectively 600+/-142 and 1721+/-954 ml (p<0,05). Analysis of clinical, ultrasonic and laboratory data allowed to describe three variants of large and gigantic, complicated and non-complicated cysts with 97,9% accuracy. The 3-D US reconstruction permitted to precise the anatomic structure and trace selection during transcutaneous US-assisted treatment. PMID:18231101

Kuntsevich, G I; Gavrilin, A V; Vishnevski?, V A; Zhurenkova, T V; Chebysheva, E N; Zhavoronkova, O I; Agafonov, V A

2007-01-01

31

An Evolutionary Cascade Model for Sauropod Dinosaur Gigantism - Overview, Update and Tests  

PubMed Central

Sauropod dinosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaurs which exceeded all other terrestrial vertebrates in mean and maximal body size. Sauropod dinosaurs were also the most successful and long-lived herbivorous tetrapod clade, but no abiological factors such as global environmental parameters conducive to their gigantism can be identified. These facts justify major efforts by evolutionary biologists and paleontologists to understand sauropods as living animals and to explain their evolutionary success and uniquely gigantic body size. Contributions to this research program have come from many fields and can be synthesized into a biological evolutionary cascade model of sauropod dinosaur gigantism (sauropod gigantism ECM). This review focuses on the sauropod gigantism ECM, providing an updated version based on the contributions to the PLoS ONE sauropod gigantism collection and on other very recent published evidence. The model consist of five separate evolutionary cascades (“Reproduction”, “Feeding”, “Head and neck”, “Avian-style lung”, and “Metabolism”). Each cascade starts with observed or inferred basal traits that either may be plesiomorphic or derived at the level of Sauropoda. Each trait confers hypothetical selective advantages which permit the evolution of the next trait. Feedback loops in the ECM consist of selective advantages originating from traits higher in the cascades but affecting lower traits. All cascades end in the trait “Very high body mass”. Each cascade is linked to at least one other cascade. Important plesiomorphic traits of sauropod dinosaurs that entered the model were ovipary as well as no mastication of food. Important evolutionary innovations (derived traits) were an avian-style respiratory system and an elevated basal metabolic rate. Comparison with other tetrapod lineages identifies factors limiting body size.

Sander, P. Martin

2013-01-01

32

Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism  

PubMed Central

The herbivorous sauropod dinosaurs of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods were the largest terrestrial animals ever, surpassing the largest herbivorous mammals by an order of magnitude in body mass. Several evolutionary lineages among Sauropoda produced giants with body masses in excess of 50 metric tonnes by conservative estimates. With body mass increase driven by the selective advantages of large body size, animal lineages will increase in body size until they reach the limit determined by the interplay of bauplan, biology, and resource availability. There is no evidence, however, that resource availability and global physicochemical parameters were different enough in the Mesozoic to have led to sauropod gigantism. We review the biology of sauropod dinosaurs in detail and posit that sauropod gigantism was made possible by a specific combination of plesiomorphic characters (phylogenetic heritage) and evolutionary innovations at different levels which triggered a remarkable evolutionary cascade. Of these key innovations, the most important probably was the very long neck, the most conspicuous feature of the sauropod bauplan. Compared to other herbivores, the long neck allowed more efficient food uptake than in other large herbivores by covering a much larger feeding envelope and making food accessible that was out of the reach of other herbivores. Sauropods thus must have been able to take up more energy from their environment than other herbivores. The long neck, in turn, could only evolve because of the small head and the extensive pneumatization of the sauropod axial skeleton, lightening the neck. The small head was possible because food was ingested without mastication. Both mastication and a gastric mill would have limited food uptake rate. Scaling relationships between gastrointestinal tract size and basal metabolic rate (BMR) suggest that sauropods compensated for the lack of particle reduction with long retention times, even at high uptake rates. The extensive pneumatization of the axial skeleton resulted from the evolution of an avian-style respiratory system, presumably at the base of Saurischia. An avian-style respiratory system would also have lowered the cost of breathing, reduced specific gravity, and may have been important in removing excess body heat. Another crucial innovation inherited from basal dinosaurs was a high BMR. This is required for fueling the high growth rate necessary for a multi-tonne animal to survive to reproductive maturity. The retention of the plesiomorphic oviparous mode of reproduction appears to have been critical as well, allowing much faster population recovery than in megaherbivore mammals. Sauropods produced numerous but small offspring each season while land mammals show a negative correlation of reproductive output to body size. This permitted lower population densities in sauropods than in megaherbivore mammals but larger individuals. Our work on sauropod dinosaurs thus informs us about evolutionary limits to body size in other groups of herbivorous terrestrial tetrapods. Ectothermic reptiles are strongly limited by their low BMR, remaining small. Mammals are limited by their extensive mastication and their vivipary, while ornithsichian dinosaurs were only limited by their extensive mastication, having greater average body sizes than mammals.

Sander, P Martin; Christian, Andreas; Clauss, Marcus; Fechner, Regina; Gee, Carole T; Griebeler, Eva-Maria; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Hummel, Jurgen; Mallison, Heinrich; Perry, Steven F; Preuschoft, Holger; Rauhut, Oliver W M; Remes, Kristian; Tutken, Thomas; Wings, Oliver; Witzel, Ulrich

2011-01-01

33

Gigantic jets with negative and positive polarity streamers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ISUAL gigantic jets (GJs) are categorized into three types from their generating sequence and spectral properties. Generating sequence of the type I GJs resembles that reported previously; after the fully developed jet (FDJ) established the discharge channel, the ISUAL photometers registered a peak that was from a return-stroke-like process. The associated ULF (ultra-low-frequency) sferics of these type I GJs indicates that they are negative cloud-to-ionosphere discharges (-CIs). Type II GJs begin as blue jets and then developed into GJs in ˜100 ms. Blue jets also frequently occurred at the same region before and after the type II GJs. No identifiable ULF sferics of the type II GJs were found, though an extra event that has +CI ULF signature is probably a type II GJ. The FDJ streamer brightness of the type I GJs is ˜3.4 times of that of the type II GJs. These evidences suggest that the type II GJs are composed of positive streamers. Type III GJs were preceded by lightning, and a GJ subsequently occurred near this preceding lightning. The spectral data of the type III GJs are dominated by lightning signals and the ULF data have high background noise; thus both cannot be properly analyzed. However, the average brightness of the type III GJs falls between those of the other two types of GJs. We propose that the discharge polarity of the type III GJs can be either negative or positive, depending on the type of the charge imbalance left by the trigger lightning.

Chou, J. K.; Kuo, C. L.; Tsai, L. Y.; Chen, A. B.; Su, H. T.; Hsu, R. R.; Cummer, S. A.; Li, J.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Takahashi, Y.; Lee, L. C.

2010-07-01

34

Blue jets and gigantic jets: transient luminous events between thunderstorm tops and the lower ionosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of general phenomenology and proposed physical mechanisms of large scale electrical discharges termed 'blue jets' and 'gigantic jets' observed at high altitude in the Earth's atmosphere above thunderstorms is presented. The primary emphasis is placed on summarizing available experimental data on the observed morphological features of upward jet discharges and on the discussionofrecentlyadvancedtheoriesdescribingelectrodynamicconditions, which facilitate escape of conventional

V P Pasko

2008-01-01

35

Surgical management of a gigantic circumflex coronary artery aneurysm with fistulous connection to the coronary sinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the successful management of a gigantic circumflex coronary artery aneurysm with fistulisation into the coronary sinus. Transoesophageal echocardiography allowed continuous visualisation of ventricular wall motion during dissection and closure of the aneurysm whilst operating on cardiopulmonary bypass on the beating heart.

Martin H. Chamberlain; Ronald Henry; Stacey Brann; Gianni D. Angelini

2001-01-01

36

Gigantic lateral spreading of mountains in the epicentral area of the expected Tokai earthquake, central Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral spreading of mountains is not only a degradation process itself but also it could become the background of a catastrophic landslide that occurs at its spreading rims. We found gigantic lateral spreading behind the Yui landsllide area, which is located along the Pacific Sea coast in the epicentral area of the expected Tokai earthquake, central Japan. The Yui landslide

Masahiro Chigira; Takeshi Nakamura

2010-01-01

37

Gigantism in Mytilidae. A new Bathymodiolus from cold seep areas on the Barbados accretionary Prism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bathymodiolus boomerang n. sp., a very large mussel, is described from deep cold seeps located on a continental margin on the southern end of the Barbados accretionary Prism in the tropical western Atlantic. The exceptional gigantism of this species, which makes it the largest mussel presently known on earth, is related to its life history in a muddy biotope with

Rudo von Cosel; Karine Olu

1998-01-01

38

Rhinosporidiosis: gigantic cells with engulfed sporangia of Rhinosporidium seeberi in the case of dermosporidiosis.  

PubMed

Rhinosporidiosis in an Indian male with a tumorous skin lesion is reported. Histopathology from the skin lesion revealed gigantic foreign body giant cells bloated with multiple, engulfed sporangia of rhinosporidiosis, which has not been reported earlier. The term "dermosporidiosis", should be used to denote such predominant skin lesions of rhinosporidiosis. PMID:18613875

Ghorpade, Ashok

2008-07-01

39

Discharge processes, electric field, and electron energy in ISUAL-recorded gigantic jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reports the first high time resolution measurements of gigantic jets from the Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) experiment. The velocity of the upward propagating fully developed jet stage of the gigantic jets was ˜107 m s-1, which is similar to that observed for downward sprite streamers. Analysis of spectral ratios for the fully developed jet emissions gives a reduced E field of 400-655 Td and average electron energy of 8.5-12.3 eV. These values are higher than those in the sprites but are similar to those predicted by streamer models, which implies the existence of streamer tips in fully developed jets. The gigantic jets studied here all contained two distinct photometric peaks. The first peak is from the fully developed jet, which steadily propagates from the cloud top (˜20 km) to the lower ionosphere at ˜90 km. We suggest that the second photometric peak, which occurs ˜1 ms after the first peak, is from a current wave or potential wave-enhanced emissions that originate at an altitude of ˜50 km and extend toward the cloud top. We propose that the fully developed jet serves as an extension of the local ionosphere and produces a lowered ionosphere boundary. As the attachment processes remove the charges, the boundary of the local ionosphere moves up. The current in the channel persists and its contact point with the ionosphere moves upward, which produces the upward surging trailing jets. Imager and photometer data indicate that the lightning activity associated with the gigantic jets likely is in-cloud, and thus the initiation of the gigantic jets is not directly associated with cloud-to-ground discharges.

Kuo, Cheng-Ling; Chou, J. K.; Tsai, L. Y.; Chen, A. B.; Su, H. T.; Hsu, R. R.; Cummer, S. A.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Takahashi, Y.; Lee, L. C.

2009-04-01

40

Observations of Seven Blue/Gigantic Jets above One Storm over the Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blue/gigantic jets are electrical discharges developing from thundercloud tops and propagating to the upper atmosphere [e.g., Pasko et al., Nature, 416, 152, 2002; Su et al., Nature, 423, 973, 2003]. Not just producing an impressive display, gigantic jets establish a direct path of electrical contact between the upper troposphere and the lower ionosphere, capable of transferring a large amount of charge between them [Cummer et al., Nat. Geosci., 2, 617, 2009]. It has been suggested that they may play an important role in the earth's electrical environment [e. g., Pasko, Nature, 423, 927, 2003]. Upward discharges from thunderstorms like blue/gigantic jets are believed to originate from lightning leaders escaping from thunderclouds when the cloud's charges of different polarities are not balanced [Krehbiel et al., Nat. Geosci., 1, 233, 2008; Riousset et al., JGR, 115, A00E10, 2010]. On the evening of August 2, 2013, 4 gigantic jets, 2 blue jets and 1 blue starter were recorded within 26 min above a storm over the Atlantic Ocean by a low light level camera from the campus of Florida Institute of Technology. The events were also captured by two all-sky cameras: one again from the Florida Tech campus and the other from a nearby location. According to the NLDN data, positive intra-cloud flashes preceded all events except one gigantic jet. The distance between the observation site to the locations of the NLDN lightning discharges varies from 77 to 82 km. Optical signatures of intra-cloud discharge activities accompanied the events are clearly visible in the videos. The duration of each jet varies from about 300 ms to 1.2 s, and the 1.2 s duration is probably the longest that has been reported to date for jets. Rebrightening of gigantic jet structures occurs for at least two of the events. The upper terminal altitude of the 4 gigantic jets is greater than 76-81 km, the 2 blue jets reach about 48 and 51 km altitude, respectively, and the blue starter reaches 24 km altitude. The altitude of cloud tops varies from 14 to 20 km. All events exhibit a tree-like structure and develop in an impulsive manner. Similar to other observations of gigantic jets, bright beads appear at the tops of the gigantic jets. The impulsive upward propagation of the jets together with the positive polarity of the preceding intra-cloud discharges suggests that the jets originate from upward propagating negative leaders initiated inside the thundercloud. All events propagate upward from the top of the cloud nearly vertically except for one event that develops in a slanted direction, about twenty three degrees from the vertical. With only a few branches, the three blue jet/starter events display a structure very similar to a cloud-to-ground lightning stroke. Our observations support the unified view of the upward discharges from thunderclouds advanced by Krehbiel et al. [2008] and Riousset et al. [2010]. In this talk, we discuss the video observations of the events and the associated radio signatures in detail.

Liu, N.; Spiva, N.; Dwyer, J. R.; Rassoul, H.; Free, D. L.; Cummer, S. A.

2013-12-01

41

Gigantic self-confined pahoehoe inflated lava flows in Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest lava flows on Earth are pahoehoe basalts emplaced by inflation, a process which can change lava lobes initially a few decimetres thick into large lava sheets several metres thick. Inflation involves the initial formation of a thin, solidified, viscoelastic crust, under which liquid lava is continually added. This thermally efficient endogenous growth process explains the spread of huge volumes of lava over large, almost flat areas, as in the sheet flows which characterise the distal portions of Hawaiian volcanoes or some continental flood basalt provinces. Long, narrow, inflated pahoehoe flows have occasionally been described, either emplaced along pre-existing river channels or confined within topographic barriers. In this contribution we present previously unknown inflated pahoehoe lava flows following very long, narrow pathways over an almost flat surface, with no topographic confinement. Lava, which erupted in Late Quaternary times from the eastern tip of a 60 km long volcanic fissure in Argentina, formed several discrete flows extending as far as 180 km from the source. This fissure was characterized by a long-lasting and complex activity. Alkali-basaltic lava flows were emitted at the two extremities of the fissure system. In the intermediate section of the fissure, the Payun Matru, a great trachitic composite volcano, developed, giving rise to a large caldera which produced large pyroclastic flows. Alkali-basalts predate and postdate the trachitic activity, in fact at the end of the trachitic activity, new basaltic lava flows (mainly aa) were emitted from both ends of the fissure. We studied in details the youngest of the gigantic flows (Pampas Onduladas lava flow), which progressively develops through differing thermally-efficient flow mechanisms. The flow created a large shield volcanic structure at the eastern tip of the E-W fissure and spread to the E forming a very large and thick inflated pahoehoe sheet flow. Leaving the flanks of the volcano, the flow spreads all over a large tectonic depression, forming a large inflated pahoehoe sheet flow. The flow continues downstream, always showing typical inflation features, forming a very long and narrow tongue, developed over the nearly flat Pampa plain (gradient 0.5%) with an average width of 3 km and a length of 120 km. A peculiar feature of this portion of the flow, apart from its exceptional length, is the very low width-to-length ratio. This is even more surprising if we consider that no pre-existing topographic feature (e.g. river channel, etc.) is responsible for this behaviour, which appears to be only the result of some kind of self-confinement mechanism. The structural, morphological and eruptive complexities of this volcanic structure are exceptional by themselves since there are no similar features both in the Andes calcalkaline volcanism or in the Patagonian basaltic plateaus and they pose problems even in the nomenclatural definition of the Payun Matru as an individual volcanic construct. Moreover, understanding the mechanisms responsible for the exceptional behaviour of this lava flow may provide new constraints on the physics of inflated pahoehoe flow emplacement. Results in this direction may also offer useful proxies for interpreting volcanic processes on terrestrial planets such as Mars and Venus, on which individual lava flows of similar shape and dimensions have been observed.

Pasquare', G.; Bistacchi, A.

2007-05-01

42

The gigantic Rashba effect of surface states energetically buried in the topological insulator Bi2Te2Se  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have clarified that a topological insulator, Bi2Te2Se, shows two surface states with gigantic Rashba-type spin-splitting located at a binding energy deeper than the topological surface state. The magnitude of the Rashba parameter, as well as the momentum splitting, is found to be large enough to realize a number of nanometer-sized spintronic devices. This novel finding paves the way to studies of gigantic Rashba systems that are suitable for future spintronic applications.

Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, T.; Nurmamat, M.; Nakatake, M.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Chulkov, E. V.; Kokh, K. A.; Tereshchenko, O. E.; Kimura, A.

2014-06-01

43

Cope's Rule and Romer's theory: patterns of diversity and gigantism in eurypterids and Palaeozoic vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Gigantism is widespread among Palaeozoic arthropods, yet causal mechanisms, particularly the role of (abiotic) environmental factors versus (biotic) competition, remain unknown. The eurypterids (Arthropoda: Chelicerata) include the largest arthropods; gigantic predatory pterygotids (Eurypterina) during the Siluro-Devonian and bizarre sweep-feeding hibbertopterids (Stylonurina) from the Carboniferous to end-Permian. Analysis of family-level originations and extinctions among eurypterids and Palaeozoic vertebrates show that the diversity of Eurypterina waned during the Devonian, while the Placodermi radiated, yet Stylonurina remained relatively unaffected; adopting a sweep-feeding strategy they maintained their large body size by avoiding competition, and persisted throughout the Late Palaeozoic while the predatory nektonic Eurypterina (including the giant pterygotids) declined during the Devonian, possibly out-competed by other predators including jawed vertebrates.

Lamsdell, James C.; Braddy, Simon J.

2010-01-01

44

The evolution of island gigantism and body size variation in tortoises and turtles  

PubMed Central

Extant chelonians (turtles and tortoises) span almost four orders of magnitude of body size, including the startling examples of gigantism seen in the tortoises of the Galapagos and Seychelles islands. However, the evolutionary determinants of size diversity in chelonians are poorly understood. We present a comparative analysis of body size evolution in turtles and tortoises within a phylogenetic framework. Our results reveal a pronounced relationship between habitat and optimal body size in chelonians. We found strong evidence for separate, larger optimal body sizes for sea turtles and island tortoises, the latter showing support for the rule of island gigantism in non-mammalian amniotes. Optimal sizes for freshwater and mainland terrestrial turtles are similar and smaller, although the range of body size variation in these forms is qualitatively greater. The greater number of potential niches in freshwater and terrestrial environments may mean that body size relationships are more complicated in these habitats.

Jaffe, Alexander L.; Slater, Graham J.; Alfaro, Michael E.

2011-01-01

45

Analysis of the first gigantic jet recorded over continental North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two low-light cameras near Marfa, TX recorded a gigantic jet over northern Mexico on 13 May 2005 at approximately 0423:50 UTC. Assuming the farthest of two candidate storm systems, the bright lower channel ended in a fork at around 50-59 km height with the very dim upper branches extended to 69-80 km altitude. During the time window containing the jet,

Oscar A. van der Velde; Walter A. Lyons; Thomas E. Nelson; Steven A. Cummer; Jingbo Li; James Bunnell

2007-01-01

46

Gigantic jet observation by the ISUAL payload of FORMOSAT-2 satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gigantic jet is a kind of transient luminous events (TLEs), which was first discovered in 2002 [Su et al]. Based on the 16ms time resolution black\\/white images, three luminous stages, called leading jet, fully-developed jet, and trailing jet, were identified. At the fully-developed stage, the fully-extended luminous body connected the cloud top at 15km with the E-layer ionosphere at 90km.

R. Hsu; A. B. Chen; C. Kuo; Y. Lee; H. Su; H. Fukunishi; Y. Takahashi; T. Adachi; K. Yamamoto; H. U. Frey; S. B. Mende; L. Lee

2005-01-01

47

The small but clear gravity signal above the natural cave 'Grotta Gigante' (Trieste, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity observations are a powerful means for detecting underground mass changes. The Italian and Slovenian Karst has a number of explored caves, several are also touristic due to their size (e.g. Grotta Gigante in Italy; Skocjianske Jame and Postojnska Jama in Slovenia). Just a few years ago another big cave was discovered by chance close to Trieste when drilling a tunnel for a motor-highway, which shows that more caves are expected to be discovered in coming years. We have acquired the gravity field above the Grotta Gigante cave, a cave roughly 100 m high and 200 m long with a traditional spring-gravity meter (Lacoste&Romberg) and height measurements made with GPS and total station. The GPS was made with two different teams and processing algorithms, to cross-check accuracy and error estimate. Some stations had to be surveyed with a classical instrument due to the vegetation which concealed the satellite positioning signal. Here we present the results of the positioning acquisitions and the gravity field. The cave produces a signal of 1.5 mGal, with a clear elongated concentric symmetry. The survey shows that a systematic coverage of the Karst would have the benefit to recover the position of all of the greater existing caves. This will have a large impact on civil and environmental purposes, since it will for example allow to plan the urban development at a safety distance from subsurface caves.

Braitenberg, Carla; Sampietro, Daniele; Zuliani, David; Barbagallo, Alfio; Fabris, Paolo; Fabbri, Julius; Rossi, Lorenzo; Handi Mansi, Ahmed

2014-05-01

48

A gigantic coronal jet ejected from a compact active region in a coronal hole  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gigantic coronal jet greater than 3 x 10(exp 5) km long (nearly half the solar radius) has been found with the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on board the solar X-ray satellite, Yohkoh. The jet was ejected on 1992 January 11 from an 'anemone-type' active region (AR) appearing in a coronal hole and is one of the largest coronal X-ray jets observed so far by SXT. This gigantic jet is the best observed example of many other smaller X-ray jets, because the spatial structures of both the jet and the AR located at its base are more easily resolved. The range of apparent translational velocities of the bulk of the jet was between 90 and 240 km s(exp -1), with the corresponding kinetic energy estimated to be of order of 10(exp 28) ergs. A detailed analysis reveals that the jet was associated with a loop brightening (a small flare) that occurred in the active region. Several features of this observation suggest and are consistent with a magnetic reconnection mechanism for the production of such a 'jet-loop-brightening' event.

Shibata, K.; Nitta, N.; Strong, K. T.; Matsumoto, R.; Yokoyama, T.; Hirayama, T.; Hudson, H.; Ogawara, Y.

1994-01-01

49

A New Gigantic Nucinella (Bivalvia: Solemyoida) from the Cretaceous Cold-seep Deposit in Hokkaido, Northern Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucinella gigantea, sp. nov is described from the Campanian cold-seep deposits in Hokkaido, northern Japan. This species is characterized by its gigantic size within the genus and by its radiating interior striation. Its morphological features, associated fauna, lithofacies and carbon isotope suggest that N. gigantea lived in the bathyal cold-seep site, and depended on chemosymbiosis. In addition, this new species

KAZUTAKA AMANO; ROBERT G. JENKINS; YOSHINORI HIKIDA

50

Optical emissions and behaviors of the blue starters, blue jets, and gigantic jets observed in the Taiwan transient luminous event ground campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue jets\\/starters have significant red band emissions in our observationThe first type II gigantic jet ever has been observed from the groundThe interplay between the lightning and the jets is studied

J. K. Chou; L. Y. Tsai; C. L. Kuo; Y. J. Lee; C. M. Chen; A. B. Chen; H. T. Su; R. R. Hsu; P. L. Chang; L. C. Lee

2011-01-01

51

Intraspecific competition and high food availability are associated with insular gigantism in a lizard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resource availability, competition, and predation commonly drive body size evolution. We assess the impact of high food availability and the consequent increased intraspecific competition, as expressed by tail injuries and cannibalism, on body size in Skyros wall lizards ( Podarcis gaigeae). Lizard populations on islets surrounding Skyros (Aegean Sea) all have fewer predators and competitors than on Skyros but differ in the numbers of nesting seabirds. We predicted the following: (1) the presence of breeding seabirds (providing nutrients) will increase lizard population densities; (2) dense lizard populations will experience stronger intraspecific competition; and (3) such aggression, will be associated with larger average body size. We found a positive correlation between seabird and lizard densities. Cannibalism and tail injuries were considerably higher in dense populations. Increases in cannibalism and tail loss were associated with large body sizes. Adult cannibalism on juveniles may select for rapid growth, fuelled by high food abundance, setting thus the stage for the evolution of gigantism.

Pafilis, Panayiotis; Meiri, Shai; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Valakos, Efstratios

2009-09-01

52

Can Oxygen Set Thermal Limits in an Insect and Drive Gigantism?  

PubMed Central

Background Thermal limits may arise through a mismatch between oxygen supply and demand in a range of animal taxa. Whilst this oxygen limitation hypothesis is supported by data from a range of marine fish and invertebrates, its generality remains contentious. In particular, it is unclear whether oxygen limitation determines thermal extremes in tracheated arthropods, where oxygen limitation may be unlikely due to the efficiency and plasticity of tracheal systems in supplying oxygen directly to metabolically active tissues. Although terrestrial taxa with open tracheal systems may not be prone to oxygen limitation, species may be affected during other life-history stages, particularly if these rely on diffusion into closed tracheal systems. Furthermore, a central role for oxygen limitation in insects is envisaged within a parallel line of research focussing on insect gigantism in the late Palaeozoic. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we examine thermal maxima in the aquatic life stages of an insect at normoxia, hypoxia (14 kPa) and hyperoxia (36 kPa). We demonstrate that upper thermal limits do indeed respond to external oxygen supply in the aquatic life stages of the stonefly Dinocras cephalotes, suggesting that the critical thermal limits of such aquatic larvae are set by oxygen limitation. This could result from impeded oxygen delivery, or limited oxygen regulatory capacity, both of which have implications for our understanding of the limits to insect body size and how these are influenced by atmospheric oxygen levels. Conclusions/Significance These findings extend the generality of the hypothesis of oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance, suggest that oxygen constraints on body size may be stronger in aquatic environments, and that oxygen toxicity may have actively selected for gigantism in the aquatic stages of Carboniferous arthropods.

Verberk, Wilco C. E. P.; Bilton, David T.

2011-01-01

53

A Gray-purple Mass on the Floor of the Mouth: Gigantic Mucogingival Pyogenic Granuloma in a Teenage Patient  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic granuloma is defined as a benign neoplasm of vascular phenotype. This case describes the clinical and histopathological features of a gigantic mucogingival pyogenic granuloma, in a 14-year-old healthy black boy. This exophytic gray-purple mass, related to a toothpick injury, had more than twelve-month evolution on the anterior mandible involving lingual area besides to the floor of the mouth pressing the right salivary duct. Conservative excision was performed, followed by uncomplicated healing with no recurrence in two years. The histopathological examination reported a pyogenic granuloma (lobular capillary haemangioma). The authors provide a discussion of the presurgical differential diagnosis of the lesion. This case report presents an extremely uncommon location of a gigantic pyogenic granuloma, involving mucogingival complex and affecting the salivary outflow. This clinical manuscript may shed light on the controversies about possible mechanisms inducing oral pyogenic granuloma.

Brunet-LLobet, Lluis; Miranda-Rius, Jaume; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Mrina, Ombeni; Nadal, Alfons

2014-01-01

54

GaAs-oxide interface states - A gigantic photoionization effect and its implications to the origin of these states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gigantic photoionization was discovered on GaAs-oxide interfaces leading to the discharge of deep surface states with rates exceeding 1000 times those of photoionization transitions to the conduction band. It exhibits a peak similar to acceptor-donor transitions and is explained as due to energy transfer from photo-excited donor-acceptor pairs to deep surface states. This new process indicates the presence of significant

J. Lagowski; W. Walukiewicz; T. E. Kazior; H. C. Gatos; J. Siejka

1981-01-01

55

Gigantic jet observation by the ISUAL payload of FORMOSAT-2 satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gigantic jet is a kind of transient luminous events (TLEs), which was first discovered in 2002 [Su et al]. Based on the 16ms time resolution black/white images, three luminous stages, called leading jet, fully-developed jet, and trailing jet, were identified. At the fully-developed stage, the fully-extended luminous body connected the cloud top at 15km with the E-layer ionosphere at 90km. The leading jet, which can be viewed as the pre-stage of the fully- developed jet, behaved like a stepped leader of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning. The trailing jets have similar dynamical evolution features as the blue jets, where a funnel-shape jet emerged from the cloud-top and propagating upward. The luminous period of these jets lasted from 300 ms to 500 ms, which is longer than typical sprites but is shorter than that of the large blue jets observed by Pasko et al (2002). From the associated ELF emissions, the charge moment changes of GJs were estimated to be 1000-2000C-km and the polarity was determined to be negative. Both optical and radio signals suggested that GJs were not CG-induced events, and likely are true discharges from thundercloud to the ionosphere. Among the TLE events recorded by the ISUAL payload on the FORMOSAT-2 satellite, a gigantic jet event was identified. The spectrophotometric data recorded by the ISUAL SP reveals that the GJ is more energetic than sprites. The expected spatial-temporal properties of GJ were confirmed by the ISUAL array photometer. The ISUAL AP data indicates that the electric field intensity of GJ is much larger than the sprite QE field intensity above 70 km. Both ISUAL imager and AP data demonstrate that the fully-developed stage in GJ truly is an upward discharge from the cloud-top to ionosphere and plays the similar role as the return stroke in cloud-to-ground lightning. In this paper, the ISUAL data on this fantastic event will be presented, including its spectroscopic data and dynamical properties at 1ms time resolution. The corresponding ELF signals, observed by Onagawa station in Japan and Esrange station in Sweden, will also be shown.

Hsu, R.; Chen, A. B.; Kuo, C.; Lee, Y.; Su, H.; Fukunishi, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Adachi, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Lee, L.

2005-12-01

56

Gravity combined with laser-scan in Grotta Gigante: a benchmark cave for gravity studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser scanning has become one of the most important topographic techniques in the last decades, due to its ability to reconstruct complex surfaces with high resolution and precision and due to its fast acquisition time. Recently a laser-scan survey has been acquired (Fingolo et al., 2011) in the "Grotta Gigante" cave near Trieste, Italy, the biggest cave worldwide according to the Guinness Awards. In this paper this survey is used to obtain a 3D discretization of the cave with prisms. Then through this new model, with the densities derived from campaign measurements, the exact gravimetric effect of the structure was computed (Nagy et al., 2000) and compared with the gravity observation at the surface. The transition from the cloud of laser-scan points to the prism model was carried out by different computer elaborations; first of all the reduction of the data density through an averaging process that allows to pass from over 10000 points/m2 to less than 10points/m2. Then the whole dataset was filtered from the outliers by the means of a simple quadratic surface that fit the data (Turner, 1999). The reduced data points should be divided into the 2 surfaces of top and bottom, that are used to define the prisms. This step was performed using the local regression method (Loess) to calculate a surface located halfway between top and bottom points. Once the top and bottom interfaces were obtained it was possible to get the final prism representation and calculate the gravity signal. The observed Bouguer field is explained very well by our model and the residuals are used to evaluate possible secondary caves. The final prism model together with the gravity database on surface and inside the cave form a perfect benchmark to test forward and inverse potential field algorithms. References Fingolo M., Facco L., Ceccato A., Breganze C., Paganini P., Cezza M., Grotta Gigante di Trieste. Tra realtà virtuale e rilievi 3D ad alta risoluzione, Veneto Geologi, 75, pp.21-25, 2011 Nagy D., Papp G., Benedek J., The gravitational potential and its derivatives for the prism, Journal of Geodesy, 74 (7-8), pp. 552-560, 2000 Turner D. A., Anderson I. J., Mason J. C., Cox M. G., An algorithm for fitting an ellipsoid to data, CiteseerXBeta, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.36.2773 , 1999

Pivetta, Tommaso; Braitenberg, Carla

2014-05-01

57

Discovery of gigantic molecular nanostructures using a flow reaction array as a search engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of gigantic molecular nanostructures like coordination and polyoxometalate clusters is extremely time-consuming since a vast combinatorial space needs to be searched, and even a systematic and exhaustive exploration of the available synthetic parameters relies on a great deal of serendipity. Here we present a synthetic methodology that combines a flow reaction array and algorithmic control to give a chemical ‘real-space’ search engine leading to the discovery and isolation of a range of new molecular nanoclusters based on [Mo2O2S2]2+-based building blocks with either fourfold (C4) or fivefold (C5) symmetry templates and linkers. This engine leads us to isolate six new nanoscale cluster compounds: 1, {Mo10(C5)}; 2, {Mo14(C4)4(C5)2}; 3, {Mo60(C4)10}; 4, {Mo48(C4)6}; 5, {Mo34(C4)4}; 6, {Mo18(C4)9}; in only 200 automated experiments from a parameter space spanning ~5 million possible combinations.

Zang, Hong-Ying; de La Oliva, Andreu Ruiz; Miras, Haralampos N.; Long, De-Liang; McBurney, Roy T.; Cronin, Leroy

2014-04-01

58

Discovery of gigantic molecular nanostructures using a flow reaction array as a search engine.  

PubMed

The discovery of gigantic molecular nanostructures like coordination and polyoxometalate clusters is extremely time-consuming since a vast combinatorial space needs to be searched, and even a systematic and exhaustive exploration of the available synthetic parameters relies on a great deal of serendipity. Here we present a synthetic methodology that combines a flow reaction array and algorithmic control to give a chemical 'real-space' search engine leading to the discovery and isolation of a range of new molecular nanoclusters based on [Mo(2)O(2)S(2)](2+)-based building blocks with either fourfold (C4) or fivefold (C5) symmetry templates and linkers. This engine leads us to isolate six new nanoscale cluster compounds: 1, {Mo(10)(C5)}; 2, {Mo(14)(C4)4(C5)2}; 3, {Mo(60)(C4)10}; 4, {Mo(48)(C4)6}; 5, {Mo(34)(C4)4}; 6, {Mo(18)(C4)9}; in only 200 automated experiments from a parameter space spanning ~5 million possible combinations. PMID:24770632

Zang, Hong-Ying; de la Oliva, Andreu Ruiz; Miras, Haralampos N; Long, De-Liang; McBurney, Roy T; Cronin, Leroy

2014-01-01

59

Commissioning of the gigantic anaerobic sludge digesters at the wastewater treatment plant of Athens.  

PubMed

The pre-commissioning strategy, the start-up procedure and the analytical data obtained during the commissioning period for the first of the four new anaerobic gigantic digesters, with active volume of 10,000 m3 each, are presented in this paper. The digester was initially filled up with water, and the temperature was raised to 36 +/- 1 degrees C. Then, a total amount of 1,860 m3 of digested primary sludge was transferred, in four equal daily batches, into the digester from neighbouring digesters, performing routine operation. Following this, the digester was gradually fed with fresh primary thickened sludge, up to the point that the retention time reached approximately 20 d. A number of significant operational parameters (pH, alkalinity, total and volatile solids concentration, volatile fatty acids concentration, biogas production rate and composition) were monitored several times per day, and the appropriate adjustments were performed in order to achieve stable operation. The time duration of the whole process was about two and a half months. Later on, the digester was supplied with a mixture of primary and biological sludge. PMID:18613612

Gikas, P

2008-02-01

60

Respiratory Evolution Facilitated the Origin of Pterosaur Flight and Aerial Gigantism  

PubMed Central

Pterosaurs, enigmatic extinct Mesozoic reptiles, were the first vertebrates to achieve true flapping flight. Various lines of evidence provide strong support for highly efficient wing design, control, and flight capabilities. However, little is known of the pulmonary system that powered flight in pterosaurs. We investigated the structure and function of the pterosaurian breathing apparatus through a broad scale comparative study of respiratory structure and function in living and extinct archosaurs, using computer-assisted tomographic (CT) scanning of pterosaur and bird skeletal remains, cineradiographic (X-ray film) studies of the skeletal breathing pump in extant birds and alligators, and study of skeletal structure in historic fossil specimens. In this report we present various lines of skeletal evidence that indicate that pterosaurs had a highly effective flow-through respiratory system, capable of sustaining powered flight, predating the appearance of an analogous breathing system in birds by approximately seventy million years. Convergent evolution of gigantism in several Cretaceous pterosaur lineages was made possible through body density reduction by expansion of the pulmonary air sac system throughout the trunk and the distal limb girdle skeleton, highlighting the importance of respiratory adaptations in pterosaur evolution, and the dramatic effect of the release of physical constraints on morphological diversification and evolutionary radiation.

Claessens, Leon P. A. M.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Unwin, David M.

2009-01-01

61

Discovery of gigantic molecular nanostructures using a flow reaction array as a search engine  

PubMed Central

The discovery of gigantic molecular nanostructures like coordination and polyoxometalate clusters is extremely time-consuming since a vast combinatorial space needs to be searched, and even a systematic and exhaustive exploration of the available synthetic parameters relies on a great deal of serendipity. Here we present a synthetic methodology that combines a flow reaction array and algorithmic control to give a chemical ‘real-space’ search engine leading to the discovery and isolation of a range of new molecular nanoclusters based on [Mo2O2S2]2+-based building blocks with either fourfold (C4) or fivefold (C5) symmetry templates and linkers. This engine leads us to isolate six new nanoscale cluster compounds: 1, {Mo10(C5)}; 2, {Mo14(C4)4(C5)2}; 3, {Mo60(C4)10}; 4, {Mo48(C4)6}; 5, {Mo34(C4)4}; 6, {Mo18(C4)9}; in only 200 automated experiments from a parameter space spanning ~5 million possible combinations.

Zang, Hong-Ying; de la Oliva, Andreu Ruiz; Miras, Haralampos N.; Long, De-Liang; McBurney, Roy T.; Cronin, Leroy

2014-01-01

62

New color images of sprites, halos and gigantic jets from the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During July-August 2011, Expedition 28/29 JAXA astronaut Satoshi Furukawa conducted TLE observations from the International Space Station in conjunction with the "Cosmic Shore" program produced by NHK. An EMCCD normal video-rate color TV camera was used to conduct directed observations from the Earth-pointing Copula module. The target selection was based on the methodology developed for the MEIDEX sprite campaign on board the space shuttle Columbia in January 2003 (Ziv et al., 2004). We used the Aviation Weather Center (http://aviationweather.gov) daily significant weather forecast maps (SIGWX) to select regions with high probability for convective activity and thunderstorm such that they were within the camera FOV as deduced from the ISS trajectory and distance to the limb (2240 km). For increasing the chance for successful observations, only storms with predicted "Frequent Cb" and cloud tops above 45 Kft (~14 km) were selected. Additionally, we targeted tropical storms and hurricanes over the oceans. The observation geometry was pre-determined and uploaded daily to the ISS with pointing options to limb, oblique or nadir, based on the predicted location of the storm with regards to the ISS. The pointing angle was rotated in real-time according to visual eyesight by the astronaut. We present results of 10 confirmed TLEs: 8 sprites, 1 sprite halo and 1 gigantic jet, out of <2 hours of video. Sprites tend to appear in a single frame simultaneously with maximum lightning brightness. Unique images (a) from nadir of a sprite horizontally displaced form the lightning light and (b) from oblique view of a sprite halo, enable the calculation of dimensions and volumes occupied by these TLEs. Since time stamping on the ISS images was accurate within 1 s, matching with ELF and WWLLN data for the parent lightning location is limited. Nevertheless, the results prove that the ISS is an ideal platform for lightning and TLE observations, and careful operational procedures greatly enhance the value of observation time.;

Yair, Y.; Rubanenko, L.; Mezuman, K.; Elhalel, G.; Pariente, M.; Glickman-Pariente, M.; Ziv, B.; Takahashi, Y.; Inoue, T.

2012-12-01

63

Sex Determination and Polyploid Gigantism in the Dwarf Surfclam (Mulinia Lateralis Say)  

PubMed Central

Mulinia lateralis, the dwarf surfclam, is a suitable model for bivalve genetics because it is hardy and has a short generation time. In this study, gynogenetic and triploid. M. lateralis were successfully induced. For gynogenesis, eggs were fertilized with sperm irradiated with ultraviolet light and subsequently treated with cytochalasin B to block the release of the second polar body (PB2). Triploidy was induced by blocking PB2 in normally fertilized eggs. The survival of gynogenetic diploids was very low, only 0.7% to 8 days post-fertilization (PF), compared with 15.2% in the triploid groups and 27.5% in the normal diploid control. Larvae in all groups metamorphosed at 8-10 days PF, and there was no significant post-larval mortality. At sexual maturation (2-3 months PF), all gynogenetic diploids were female, and there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in sex ratio between diploids and triploids. These results suggested that the dwarf surfclam may have an XX-female, XY-male sex determination with Y-domination. Compared with diploids, triploids had a relative fecundity of 59% for females and 80% for males. Eggs produced by triploid females were 53% larger (P < 0.001) in volume than those from diploid females. In both length and weight measurements at three months PF, the gynogenetic diploids were not significantly (P > 0.33) different from normal diploid females, suggesting that inbreeding depression was minimal in meiosis II gynogens. Triploid clams were significantly larger (P < 0.001) than normal diploids. We hypothesize that the increased body-size in triploids was caused by a polyploid gigantism due to the increased cell volume and a lack of cell-number compensation.

Guo, X.; Allen-Jr., S. K.

1994-01-01

64

Dramatically accelerated growth and extraordinary gigantism of transgenic mud loach Misgurnus mizolepis.  

PubMed

Transgenic mud loaches (Misgurnus mizolepis), in which the entire transgene originated from the same species, have been generated by microinjecting the mud loach growth hormone (mlGH) gene fused to the mud loach beta-actin promoter. Out of 4,100 eggs injected, 7.5% fish derived from the injected eggs showed dramatically accelerated growth, with a maximum of 35-fold faster growth than their non-transgenic siblings. Many fast-growing transgenic individuals showed extraordinary gigantism: their body weight and total length (largest fish attained to 413 g and 41.5 cm) were larger and longer than even those of 12-year-old normal broodstock (maximum size reached to 89 g and 28 cm). Of 46 transgenic founders tested, 30 individuals transmitted the transgene to next generation with a wide range of germ-line transmission frequencies ranging from 2% to 33%. The growth performance of the subsequent generation (F1) was also dramatically accelerated up to 35-fold, although the levels of enhanced growth were variable among transgenic lines. Three transgenic germ-lines up to F4 were established, showing the expected Mendelian inheritance of the transgene. Expression of GH mRNA in many tissues was detected by RT-PCR analyses. The time required to attain marketable size (10 g) in these transgenic lines was only 30-50 days after fertilization, while at least 6 months in non-transgenic fish. Besides growth enhancement, significantly improved feed-conversion efficiency up to 1.9-fold was also observed. PMID:11592714

Nam, Y K; Noh, J K; Cho, Y S; Cho, H J; Cho, K N; Kim, C G; Kim, D S

2001-08-01

65

Optical and radio signatures of negative gigantic jets: Cases from Typhoon Lionrock (2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 31 August 2010, more than 100 transient luminous events were observed to occur over Typhoon Lionrock when it passed at ˜210 km to the southwest of the NCKU site in Taiwan. Among them, 14 negative gigantic jets (GJs) with clear recognizable morphologies and radio frequency signals are analyzed. These GJs are all found to have negative discharge polarity and thus are type I GJs. Morphologically, they are grouped into three forms: tree-like, carrot-like, and a new intermediate type called tree-carrot-like GJs. The ULF and ELF/VLF band signals of these events contain clear signatures associated with GJ development stages, including the initiating lightning, the leading jet, the fully developed jet, and the trailing jet. Though the radio waveform for each group of GJs always contains a fast descending pulse linked with the surge current upon the GJ-ionosphere contact, the detailed waveforms actually vary substantially. Cross analysis of the optical and radio frequency signals for these GJs indicates that a large surge current moment (CM) (>60 kA-km) appears to be essentially associated with the tree-like GJs. In contrast, the carrot-like and the tree-carrot-like GJs are both related to a surge CM less than 36 kA-km, and a continuing CM less than 27 kA-km further separates the carrot-like GJs from the tree-carrot-like GJs. Furthermore, on the peak CM versus charge moment change diagram for the initiating lightning, different groups of GJs seem to exhibit different trends. This feature suggests that the eventual forms of negative GJs may have been determined at the initiating lightning stage.

Huang, Sung-Ming; Hsu, Rue-Rou; Lee, Li-Jou; Su, Han-Tzong; Kuo, Cheng-Ling; Wu, Chun-Chieh; Chou, Jung-Kuang; Chang, Shu-Chun; Wu, Yen-Jung; Chen, Alfred B.

2012-08-01

66

Gigantic hepatic amebic abscess presenting as acute abdomen: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Amebiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica. It most commonly results in asymptomatic colonization of the gastrointestinal tract, but some patients develop intestinal invasive or extra-intestinal diseases. Liver abscess is the most common extra-intestinal manifestation. The large number of clinical presentations of amebic liver abscess makes the diagnosis very challenging in non-endemic countries. Late diagnosis of the amebic abscess may lead to perforation and amebic peritonitis, resulting in high mortality rates. Case presentation This report describes a 37-year-old white man, suffering from hepatitis B, with a gigantic amebic liver abscess presenting as an acute abdomen due to its rupture. Rapid deterioration of the patient's condition and acute abdomen led to an emergency operation. A large volume of free fluid together with debris was found at the moment of entry into the peritoneal cavity because of a rupture of the hepatic abscess at the position of the segment VIII. Surgical drainage of the hepatic abscess was performed; two wide drains were placed in the remaining hepatic cavities and one on the right hemithorax. The patient was hospitalized in the ICU for 14 days and for another 14 days in our department. The diagnosis of amebic abscess was made by the pathologists who identified E. histolytica in the debris. Conclusion Acute abdomen due to a ruptured amebic liver abscess is extremely rare in western countries where the parasite is not endemic. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are fundamental to preserving the patient's life since the mortality rates remain extremely high when untreated, even nowadays.

Papavramidis, TS; Sapalidis, K; Pappas, D; Karagianopoulou, G; Trikoupi, A; Souleimanis, Ch; Papavramidis, ST

2008-01-01

67

Paleostress analysis of a gigantic gravitational mass movement in active tectonic setting: The Qoshadagh slope failure, Ahar, NW Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For better understanding of the dynamics of large slope failures, the slope-scale stress field reconstructions are eligible. A new approach of paleostress analysis of large gravitational mass movements, based on the multiple inverse method in 9D space and processed by a non-commercial code MARK2010, is demonstrated on the case of a gigantic gravitational slope failure in active tectonic setting at Mount Qoshadagh in NW Iran. The entire slope failure represents a very deep-seated gravitational slope deformation with relatively short displacement, roto-translational base and an estimated volume of about 83-110 km3 which is of the last glacial age. This gigantic slope failure has developed in an active-tectonic setting along the Qoshadagh Fault System (or called South Ahar Fault), which caused fast uplift of the entire mountain range of Qoshadagh, and it was probably seismically triggered. Using this paleostress approach, we were able to distinguish the mass-movement stress phase of NW compression in the rockslide's zone of compression and NW-SE extension in the upper part from a variety of other 8 regional-tectonic and 2 subsequent gravitational phases. Maximum principal stress of the slope-failure phase was in its compression zone sub-parallel to the estimated displacement vector; in the head it was sub-vertical. The paleostress analysis has been proved as a useful tool for reconstructing the stress field evolution of large slope failures.

Baro?, I.; Kernstocková, M.; Faridi, M.; Bubík, M.; Milovský, R.; Melichar, R.; Sabouri, J.; Bab?rek, J.

2013-10-01

68

Optical emissions and behaviors of the blue starters, blue jets, and gigantic jets observed in the Taiwan transient luminous event ground campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 22 July 2007, 37 blue jets/starters and 1 gigantic jet occurring over a thunderstorm in the Fujian province of China were observed from the Lulin observatory on the central mountain ridge of Taiwan. The majority of the jets were observed to occur in a 5 min window during the mature phase of the jet-producing thunderstorm. These jets have significant red band emissions. However, the blue emissions from these jets were not discernible due to severe atmospheric scattering. A model estimation of the emissions from a streamer reveals that the red emissions in blue starters and blue jets are mainly from the nitrogen first positive band (1PN2). The type II gigantic jet is the first of this type that was observed from the ground. The generation sequence of the gigantic jet begins with a blue starter, then a blue jet occurs at the same cloud top after ˜100 ms and finally develops into a gigantic jet ˜50 ms later. Using “optical strokes” as surrogates of the lightning strokes, the correlations between jets and the cloud lightning are explored. The results indicate that the occurrence of jets can be affected by the preceding local cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning or nearby lightning (intracloud (IC) or CG), while in turn the jets might also affect the ensuing lightning activity.

Chou, J. K.; Tsai, L. Y.; Kuo, C. L.; Lee, Y. J.; Chen, C. M.; Chen, A. B.; Su, H. T.; Hsu, R. R.; Chang, P. L.; Lee, L. C.

2011-07-01

69

Giant Higgins-larvae with paedogenetic reproduction from the deep sea of the Angola Basin – evidence for a new life cycle and for abyssal gigantism in Loricifera?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genus and species of Loricifera, Titaniloricus inexpectatovus (Pliciloricidae) represented by a new type of Higgins-larva is described from the deep sea of the Angola Basin. The new larva is characterized by its gigantic size which is unusual for larval Loricifera, by six rows of scalids on the unit of introvert and neck, by an additional transversal row of

Gunnar Gad

2005-01-01

70

Climatic control on the growth of gigantic gypsum crystals within hypogenic caves (Naica mine, Mexico)?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three hypogenic caves within the Naica mine of Mexico ( Cueva de los Cristales — CLC, Ojo de la Reina — OR, and Cueva de las Velas — CLV) host spectacular gypsum crystals up to 11 m in length. These caves are close to another shallow cave of the area ( Cueva de las Espadas — CLE), with which they cover a 160 m-deep vertical section of the local drainage basin. Similar to other hypogenic caves, all these caves lack a direct connection with the land surface and should be unrelated with climate. A record of multi-technique fluid inclusion data and pollen spectra from cave and mine gypsum indicates surprisingly that climatic changes occurring at Naica could have controlled fluid composition in these caves, and hence crystal growth. Microthermometry and LA-ICP-Mass Spectrometry of fluid inclusions indicate that the shallow, chemically peculiar, saline fluid (up to 7.7 eq. wt.%NaCl) of CLE could have formed from evaporation, during a dry and hot climatic period. The fluid of the deep caves was instead of low salinity (˜ 3.5 eq. wt.% NaCl) and chemically homogeneous, and was poorly affected by evaporation. We propose that mixing of these two fluids, generated at different depths of the Naica drainage basin, determined the stable supersaturation conditions for the gigantic gypsum crystals to grow. Fluid mixing was controlled by the hydraulic communication between CLE and the other deep caves, and must have taken place during cycles of warm-dry and fresh-wet climatic periods, which are known to have occurred in the region. Pollen grains from a 35 ka-old gypsum crystal of CLC corresponds to a fairly homogenous catchment basin made of a mixed broadleaf wet forest, which suggests precipitation during a fresh-wet climatic period and confirms our interpretation of the fluid inclusion data. The unusual combination of geological and geochemical factors of Naica suggests that other hypogenic caves found elsewhere may not host similar crystals. However, this work shows that fluid inclusions and pollen spectra represent a useful tool for cave studies in general, and if used in future studies might be essential to unravel the mechanisms of hypogenic deposition.

Garofalo, Paolo S.; Fricker, Mattias B.; Günther, Detlef; Forti, Paolo; Mercuri, Anna-Maria; Loreti, Mara; Capaccioni, Bruno

2010-01-01

71

Gigantic lateral spreading of mountains in the epicentral area of the expected Tokai earthquake, central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lateral spreading of mountains is not only a degradation process itself but also it could become the background of a catastrophic landslide that occurs at its spreading rims. We found gigantic lateral spreading behind the Yui landsllide area, which is located along the Pacific Sea coast in the epicentral area of the expected Tokai earthquake, central Japan. The Yui landslide area is located on a socially very important place, where are major lifelines connecting east and west Japan: Tokaido railway, Tokaido Shinkansen, and Tomei highway. The Yui landslide area comprises many landslide units and has been causing many catastrophs. The lateral spreading is characterized by NS-trending multiple ridges and linear depressions as long as 1 to 2 km and up to 60 m deep. These features are observable on the aerial photographs and are clearly identified by using airborne laser scanner. Mountains subjected to the lateral spreading is 3 km wide in EW and 6 km long in NS and are 250 to 500 m high above sea level. These morphological features suggest that the NS trending ridges spread laterally to EW and their central parts settled down like the way by which horsts and grabens are made. The ridges are underlain by Miocene beds consisting of the alternating beds of mudstone and sandstone in the lower part and of sandstone and conglomerate in the upper part. The spreading ridge occupies the axial part of a NS-trending syncline, which has a half wave length longer than 2 km and comprises minor folds with a wavelength on the order of hundred meters. This structure, synclinorium, suggests that there could be decollements along the enveloping surface of the minor folds and that the lateral spreading could have a low-angle slip surface along the enveloping surface of the minor folds. There are many landslides along the side slopes of the laterally spread ridges and they have been moving many times by rainstorms and also by earthquakes. The movements are recorded since 1781, but the history long before has not been clarified. We sampled plant fragments from the deposits in a depression at the head of a landslide along a linear depression. They were dated by using C-14, of which results suggest that major movement of landslides and possibly lateral spreading might occurred 3100, 2600, and 2200 BC, which may correspond to the occurrence of large earthquake. The lateral spreading may have occurred intermittently and destabilized their side slopes, which could have slid during earthquakes and rainstorms.

Chigira, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takeshi

2010-05-01

72

System of gigantic valleys northwest of Tharsis, Mars: Latent catastrophic flooding, northwest watershed, and implications for northern plains ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) reveals a system of gigantic valleys to the northwest of the huge martian shield volcano, Arsia Mons, in the western hemisphere of Mars. These newly identified northwestern slope valleys (NSVs) potentially signify previously undocumented martian catastrophic floods and may corroborate the northern ocean hypotheses. These features, which generally correspond spatially to gravity lows, were previously obscurred in Mariner and Viking Orbiter imagery by veneers of materials, including volcanic lava flows and air fall deposits. Geologic investigations of the Tharsis region suggest that the NSVs were mainly carved prior to the construction of Arsia Mons and its associated Late Hesperian and Amazonian age lava flows, concurrent with the early development of the outflow channels that debouch into Chryse Planitia.

Dohm, J. M.; Anderson, R. C.; Baker, V. R.; Ferris, J. C.; Hare, T. M.; Strom, R. G.; Rudd, L. P.; Rice, Jr. , J. W.; Casavant, R. R.; Scott, D. H.

2000-01-01

73

Gigantic transverse x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in ultrathin Co in Au/Co/Au(001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transverse-geometry x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (TXMCD) measurements on Au/Co-staircase/Au(001) reveal the orbital origin of intrinsic in-plane magnetic anisotropy A gigantic TXMCD was successfully observed at the Co L3,2 edges for Co thickness (tC0) in the 2-monolayer regime. A TXMCD-sum-rule analysis shows a remarkable enhancement of an orbital-moment anisotropy (?morb) and of an in-plane magnetic dipole moment (m||T). Both ?morb and m||T exhibit close similarity in tCo dependence, reflecting the in-plane magnetic anisotropy These observations evidence that extremely strong, intrinsic, in-plane magnetic anisotropy originates from the anisotropic orbital part of the wave function, dominating the dipole-dipole-interaction-derived, extrinsic, in-plane magnetic anisotropy.

Koide, T.; Mamiya, K.; Asakura, D.; Osatune, Y.; Fujimori, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Katayama, T.; Yuasa, S.

2014-04-01

74

Galls and gall makers in plants from the Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil.  

PubMed

Thirty-six morphologically different types of galls were obtained in leaves, leaflets, veins, petioles, stems, tendrils and flower buds from twenty-five species of plants in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve, municipality of Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The host plant species belong to the closely related families Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Caryocaraceae, Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, Malpighiaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Polygalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, and Smilacaceae. The most common gall makers included Cecidomyiidae (Diptera), Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera) and Diaspididae (Sternorrhyncha-Hemiptera). This is the first report of galls found in the following plant genera: Gochnatia (Asteraceae), Distictela (Bignoniaceae), Banisteriopsis (Malpighiaceae), Ouratea (Ochnaceae), and Bredemeyera (Polygalaceae). The results of this work contribute to the body of knowledge about the relationship among host plants, gall makers, and the gall morphology of Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve. PMID:16710528

Urso-Guimarães, M V; Scareli-Santos, C

2006-02-01

75

Gigantic terahertz magnetochromism via electromagnons in the hexaferrite magnet Ba2Mg2Fe12O22  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of temperature (6-225 K) and magnetic field (0-7 T) on the low-energy (1.2-5 meV) electrodynamics of the electromagnon, the magnetic resonance driven by the light electric field, have been investigated for a hexaferrite magnet Ba2Mg2Fe12O22 by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. We find the gigantic terahertz magnetochromism via electromagnons; the magnetochromic change, as defined by the difference of the absorption intensity with and without magnetic field, exceeds 500% even at 0.6 T. The results arise from the fact that the spectral intensity of the electromagnon critically depends on the magnetic structure. With changing the conical spin structures in terms of the conical angle ? from the proper screw (?=0°) to the ferrimagnetic (?=90°) through the conical spin-ordered phases (0°

Kida, N.; Kumakura, S.; Ishiwata, S.; Taguchi, Y.; Tokura, Y.

2011-02-01

76

No More Gigantism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The food situation in India is critical. It requires the development of both land and water resources, both of which are largely untapped. Ground water is one undeveloped resource that can help alleviate the irrigation problems facing agriculture. More efficient utilization could free millions of hectares of land for cultivation. (MA)

Vohra, B. B.

1975-01-01

77

[Gigantic nasal tumor].  

PubMed

A space-occupying lesion, which had been growing on the external surface of the nose of a 57-year-old man for 5 years was considered to most likely be an angiofibroma after surgical removal and histological examination, but the final clinical diagnosis was clearly a rhinophyma. This discrepancy is relevant for surgical treatment, because the vessel-rich tumor tended to substantial intraoperative bleeding. PMID:19183915

Lehnerdt, G; Oztürk, E; Grabellus, F

2009-04-01

78

[Effect of an algae extract and several plant growth regulators on the nutritional value of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. var. gigant)].  

PubMed

Four commercial plant-growth (Biofol, Biozyme, Cytokin and Activol) and an extract from algae (AlgaEnzims) were applied at commercial doses in potatoes (S. tuberosum L. var. gigant) with and objective to evaluate its effect on nutritional value (dry-matter, water content, ashes, fat, protein, carbohydrates and assimilable fiber). These parameters were analyzed according to the Official Methods of Analysis (AOAC). The experimental design was in Random Blocks with 8 treatments and 4 replications with 32 lots in total. The statistical analysis was after Random Blocks for all bromatological analyses. The treatment algae in soil gave the highest ash content (6.20). Algae in soil (9.30), algae on foliage (8.90) and Cytokin (8.70) gave the highest values in protein as compared with test (6.20). Carbohydrate content was highest in Biofol (88.21), assimilable fiber was higher in algae in soil and on foliage (5.84) and lowest with Biofol (1.67). Highest fat content in the tuber was obtained with Biozyme and Cytokin and highest protein content with AlgaEnzims. With Activol the highest tuber production is obtained. PMID:10488397

Martínez Lozano, S; Verde Star, J; Maiti, R K; Oranday, A; Gaona, H; Aranda, E; Rojas, M

1999-06-01

79

Gigantic Cavernous Hemangioma of the Liver Treated by Intra-Arterial Embolization with Pingyangmycin-Lipiodol Emulsion: A Multi-Center Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of pingyangmycin-lipiodol emulsion (PLE) intra-arterial embolization for treating gigantic cavernous hemangioma of the liver (CHL).Methods: Three hospitals (Nanfang Hospital, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region's Hospital and Huai He Hospital) participated in the study during 1997-2001. A total of 98 patients with CHL were embolized with PLE via the hepatic artery. The therapeutic effects including changes in tumor diameter, symptomatic improvement and occurrence of complications were evaluated for a period of 12 months after the procedure.Results: The tumor diameters decreased significantly from 9.7 {+-} 2.3 cm to 5.6 {+-} 1.6 cm 6 months after the treatment (P < 0.01), and then to 3.0 {+-} 1.2 cm at 12 months (P < 0.01). Transient impairment of liver function was found in 77 cases after embolization, 69 cases of which returned to normal in 2 weeks, and the other eight cases of which recovered 1 month later. The clinical symptoms were significantly relieved in all 53 symptomatic patients. Persistent pain in the hepatic region was found in two cases, and these two patients resorted to surgery eventually.Conclusion: Intra-arterial PLE embolization proves to be effective and safe in treating patients with CHL.

Zeng Qingle; Li Yanhao; Chen Yong [Nanfang Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (China); Ouyang Yong [Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region's Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (China); He Xiang; Zhang Heping [Huai He Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (China)

2004-09-15

80

A new X-linked dysplasia gigantism syndrome: follow up in the first family and report on a second Austrian family.  

PubMed

We report on a new X-linked recessive syndrome in 2 unrelated families, consisting of pre- and postnatal growth excess, typical facial phenotype allowing diagnosis at birth, and usually normal physical and intellectual development. The minor anomalies seen at birth include a "coarse" face with wide nasal bridge, short nose with upturned nasal tip, wide open mouth, thick lips, midline depression of the lower lip, enlarged tongue, highly arched palate, large maxilla and jaw, and a short broad neck. Voice is hoarse and affected individuals have a plump, stocky body with pectus excavatum, thoracic scoliosis, hepatosplenomegaly, umbilical and/or inguinal hernias, broad short hands and feet, and in some cases preauricular dimples, abnormal ears, postaxial hexadactyly, hypoplastic index finger nails, and abnormal dermatoglyphics. Early postnatal death is frequent and pathogenetically unexplained. During infancy and childhood the leading manifestations are the overgrowth (greater than 97th centile), striking facial appearance, hypodontia and/or malposition of teeth, genua valga, hypoplastic calf muscles, and clumsiness. Adolescent and adult patients have well proportioned "gigantism" of athletic build (192-210 cm), large "coarse" face, and a deep voice. General intellectual and motor development are either normal or mildly delayed. Results of routine laboratory tests are normal, as are growth hormone and IGF I levels and chromosomes. Pathogenesis remains unknown. Heterozygotes may show some of the characteristic facial changes. PMID:3177454

Behmel, A; Plöchl, E; Rosenkranz, W

1988-01-01

81

Electromagnetic-ram action of the plasma focus as a paradigm for the production of gigantic galactic jets and cosmic rays  

SciTech Connect

A recent paper suggests that the electromagnetic-ram action of the plasma focus is trying to tell us how cosmic rays acquire their energy. It will be only natural for those theoretical astrophysicists who are steeped in statistical mechanics and turbulent processes, and who are now having a love affair with the black hole, to scoff at such a suggestion. But this author, undaunted, plunges even further into this cosmical question: he has the audacity to suggest further that the gigantic galactic jets in the active galaxies such as are now being observed by the computer-synthesized data of the radio signals at a number of wavelengths with the Very Large Array radio telescope in New Mexico, from radio galaxies like Cygnus A and Centaurus A (NGC 5128), are being produced by an electromagnetic-ram action similar to that of the plasma focus; and further, that this action is producing not only these spectacular jets, but also the acceleration of the cosmic ray at the same time in the same accelerating gap.

Bostick, W.

1985-04-01

82

Numerical modeling of the formation of the screening charge near the thundercloud boundaries and its impact on the initiation and early stages of development of blue and gigantic jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both normal and anomalous polarity thunderstorms occasionally produce upward propagating discharges called blue jets [Wescott et al., GRL, 22(10), 1995; Sentman and Wescott, Phys. Plasmas, 2(6), 1995; Boeck et al., JGR, 100, 1465, 1995] and gigantic jets [Pasko et al., Nature, 416, 152, 2002; Su et al., Nature, 423, 974, 2003; van der Velde et al., JGR, 112, D20104, 2007], depending on their polarity, their initiation location in the thundercloud and their termination altitude [Krehbiel et al., Nature Geoscience, 1(4), 233, 2008]. Such discharges are initiated by regular lightning leaders escaping the cloud near the top [Petrov and Petrova, Tech. Phys., 44, 472, 1999]. The recent work by Krehbiel et al., 2008] confirmed Petrov and Petrova's [1999] hypothesis and further demonstrated how charge imbalances could be responsible for the initiation and early stages of development of both blue and gigantic jets. Krehbiel et al. [2008] also identified three possible origins of these charge imbalances: occurrence of a cloud-to-cloud discharge, of an unbalancing intracloud discharge, and dissipation of charge due to the atmospheric conductivity. The first two hypotheses were supported by numerical simulations of the thundercloud and new Lightning Mapping Array observations, respectively. The last was suggested as early as the 1920's by C.T.R. Wilson [Phys. Trans. Roy. Soc. London A, 221, 73, 1921] and subsequently investigating in a later publication [Wilson, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A, 236, 297, 1956]. In this work, we present a new two dimensional axisymmetric model of Maxwellian relaxation of the atmosphere and demonstrate how realistic conductivity profiles combined with experimentally substantiated thundercloud geometries lead to the formation of screening charges near the cloud boundaries, locally reducing the net charge content or forming extra charge layers, ultimately resulting in the initiation of blue and gigantic jets.

Riousset, J. A.; Pasko, V. P.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Stanley, M. A.

2008-12-01

83

Physics of Streamer-to-Leader Transition at Reduced Air Density and Its Implications for the Vertical Structuring of Gigantic Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gigantic jets (GJs) are observed as filamentary optical flashes leaving thundercloud tops and propagating through the stratosphere and mesosphere at speeds of tens to hundreds of kilometers per second. They culminate connecting to the ionosphere, playing an analogous role to cloud-to-ground lightning in neutralizing thundercloud charge. In the present work, we provide theoretical evidences that GJs and lightning also share common fundamental physics. For this study, we have developed a one-dimensional axisymmetric model to describe the interaction of the electrical current of a streamer corona with air. The model accounts for heating and expansion of air, excitation of vibrational levels of nitrogen molecules, vibrational-translational energy exchange, and 67 chemical reactions involving 10 neutral and 7 charged plasma species. The electron-impact reactions account for: direct, stepwise and associative ionization, two- and three-body attachment, recombination, and detachment. When provided with standard conditions for the leader stem, the model allows one to calculate the streamer-to-leader transition time scale (and leader speed) as a function of the leader current and the ambient air density (or altitude in Earth's atmosphere). Our recent results [da Silva and Pasko, GRL, 39, L13805, 2012] indicate that streamer coronas with currents as low as a few amperes can promote leader formation in the altitude range 20-45 km on the time scales of the GJ phenomenon. We demonstrate that the initial speed of GJs, between ~50-100 km/s, below 30 km altitude, are compatible to speeds of laboratory leaders in the current range of ~2-8 A, evidencing GJs as a manifestation of the leader breakdown mechanism at reduced air density. In the other hand, in observations, GJs are observed to exhibit strong acceleration as they propagate through the middle atmosphere, reaching speeds >1000 km/s, characteristic of streamer discharges. Our analysis of the streamer-to-leader transition process at altitudes >50 km indicates that a leader is unlikely to be formed on the GJ time scales. Thus, the GJ acceleration can be indicative of its vertical structuring: thermalized leader channels at lower altitudes and cold streamer channels in the upper part.

da Silva, C. L.; Pasko, V. P.

2012-12-01

84

[Adnexal skin tumors, gigantic dimensions].  

PubMed

Adnexal skin tumors are rare and mostly not common. Their appearance are atypical and only histologically to save. 2 cases were demonstrated with impressing extension demanding a complex surgical approach. PMID:23129411

Halbach, E; La Forza, F; Schepler, H

2012-12-01

85

The very-broad-band long-base tiltmeters of Grotta Gigante (Trieste, Italy): Secular term tilting and the great Sumatra-Andaman islands earthquake of December 26, 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The horizontal pendulums of the Grotta Gigante (Giant Cave) in the Trieste Karst, are long-base tiltmeters with Zöllner type suspension. The instruments have been continuously recording tilt and shear in the Grotta Gigante since the date of their installation by Prof. Antonio Marussi in 1966. Their setup has been completely overhauled several times since installation, restricting the interruptions of the measurements though to a minimum. The continuous recordings, apart from some interruptions, cover thus almost 40 years of measurements, producing a very noticeable long-term tiltmeter record of crustal deformation. The original recording system, still in function, was photographic with a mechanical timing and paper-advancing system, which has never given any problems at all, as it is very stable and not vulnerable by external factors as high humidity, problems in power supply, lightning or similar. In December 2003 a new recording system was installed, based on a solid-state acquisition system intercepting a laser light reflected from a mirror mounted on the horizontal pendulum beam. The sampling rate is 30 Hz, which turns the long-base instrument to a very-broad-band tiltmeter, apt to record the tilt signal on a broad-band of frequencies, ranging from secular deformation rate through the earth tides to seismic waves. Here we describe the acquisition system and present two endline members of the instrumental observation, the up to date long-term recording, and the observation of the great Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, seismic moment magnitude Mw = 9.1-9.3 [Lay, T., Kanamori, H., Ammon, C.J., Nettles, M., Ward, S.N., Aster, R.C., Beck, S.L., Bilek, S.L., Brudzinski, M.L., Butler, R., DeShon, H.R., Ekström, G., Satake, K., Sipkin, S., 2005. The Great Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 26 December 2004. Science. 308, 1127-1133.]. The secular-term observations indicate an average tilting over the last four decades towards NW of 23.4 nrad/year. We find evidences that this tilting is regional and has been going on since at least 125 ka. The recent earthquake of December 26, 2004 was well recorded by the pendulums. We show that the free oscillation modes were activated, including the lowest modes as e.g. 0T 2, 0T 3, 0T 4, 0T 5 and 2S 1, 0S 3, 0S 4, 1S 2.

Braitenberg, Carla; Romeo, Giovanni; Taccetti, Quintilio; Nagy, Ildikò

2006-01-01

86

Gigantic Maximum of Nanoscale Noncontact Friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report measurements of noncontact friction between surfaces of NbSe2 and SrTiO3 and a sharp Pt-Ir tip that is oscillated laterally by a quartz tuning fork cantilever. At 4.2 K, the friction coefficients on both the metallic and insulating materials show a giant maximum at the tip-surface distance of several nanometers. The maximum is strongly correlated with an increase in the spring constant of the cantilever. These features can be understood phenomenologically by a distance-dependent relaxation mechanism with distributed time scales.

Saitoh, Kohta; Hayashi, Kenichi; Shibayama, Yoshiyuki; Shirahama, Keiya

2010-12-01

87

Evolution of Gigantism in Amphiumid Salamanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amphiumidae contains three species of elongate, permanently aquatic salamanders with four diminutive limbs that append one, two, or three toes. Two of the species, Amphiuma means and A. tridactylum, are among the largest salamanders in the world, reaching lengths of more than one meter, whereas the third species (A. pholeter), extinct amphiumids, and closely related salamander families are relatively

Ronald M. Bonett; Paul T. Chippindale; Paul E. Moler; R. Wayne Van Devender; David B. Wake

2009-01-01

88

Evolution of Gigantism in Amphiumid Salamanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not Available Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Return: Query Results Return items starting with number Query Form Database: Astronomy Physics arXiv e-prints

Ronald M. Bonett; Paul T. Chippindale; Paul E. Moler; R. Wayne van Devender; David B. Wake; Michael Knapp

2009-01-01

89

Cerebral gigantism (Sotos syndrome). Compiled data of 22 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in depth study on growth, bone age, cranial CT scans and plasma somatomedin activity (SM-act) was made of 22 children with Sotos syndrome. In addition to the known characteristics of the syndrome, thin and brittle nails were found in three adolescent patients. The mean body stature, expressed as standard deviation score, increased from 2.2–2.8 in the 1st year of

J. M. Wit; F. A. Beemer; P. G. Barth; J. W. E. Oorthuys; P. F. Dijkstra; J. L. Van den Brande; N. J. Leschot

1985-01-01

90

Acromegalic gigantism, physicians and body snatching. Past or present?  

PubMed

The skeletons of 2 famous acromegalic giants: Charles Byrne (1761-1783) and Henri Cot = Joseph Dusorc (1883-1912) and the embalmed body of the famous acromegalic giant Édouard Beaupré (1881-1904) all ended up in the medical collections of museums despite the fact that these patients had never donated or even refused to donate their corpses, nor had their relatives given permission. The corpse of the acromegalic giant John Aasen (1890-1938) was voluntarily donated to a physician annex collector of trivia from acromegalic giants. The autopsy on the acromegalic giant John Turner (1874-1911) was performed during his funeral ceremony without the relatives being informed. Only recently, the acromegalic giant Alexander Sizonenko (1959-2012) was made a financial offer during his life in exchange for his body after his death. The case-histories of these 6 patients and also the circumstances that led to the (in-) voluntary donation of their bodies are reviewed. PMID:22481633

de Herder, Wouter W

2012-09-01

91

Gigantism, temperature and metabolic rate in terrestrial poikilotherms  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms dictating upper limits to animal body size are not well understood. We have analysed body length data for the largest representatives of 24 taxa of terrestrial poikilotherms from tropical, temperate and polar environments. We find that poikilothermic giants on land become two–three times shorter per each 10 degrees of decrease in ambient temperature. We quantify that this diminution of maximum body size accurately compensates the drop of metabolic rate dictated by lower temperature. This supports the idea that the upper limit to body size within each taxon can be set by a temperature-independent critical minimum value of mass-specific metabolic rate, a fall below which is not compatible with successful biological performance.

Makarieva, Anastassia M; Gorshkov, Victor G; Li, Bai-Lian

2005-01-01

92

A gigantic bird from the Upper Cretaceous of Central Asia  

PubMed Central

We describe an enormous Late Cretaceous fossil bird from Kazakhstan, known from a pair of edentulous mandibular rami (greater than 275 mm long), which adds significantly to our knowledge of Mesozoic avian morphological and ecological diversity. A suite of autapomorphies lead us to recognize the specimen as a new taxon. Phylogenetic analysis resolves this giant bird deep within Aves as a basal member of Ornithuromorpha. This Kazakh fossil demonstrates that large body size evolved at least once outside modern birds (Neornithes) and reveals hitherto unexpected trophic diversity within Cretaceous Aves.

Naish, Darren; Dyke, Gareth; Cau, Andrea; Escuillie, Francois; Godefroit, Pascal

2012-01-01

93

Gigantic dispersive wave emission from dual concentric core microstructured fiber.  

PubMed

We achieved efficient frequency conversion from a 1064 nm subnanosecond pulse pump to a dispersive wave (DW) centered around 1535 nm in a microstructured double core fiber. We experimentally observed that at the output of a 4 m span of fiber almost half of the input pump power was transferred to a 100 nm band around the peak of the DW. Such outstanding conversion efficiency is an outcome of the fiber dispersion curve exhibiting a large normal peak around 1515 nm, which allows for the resonant energy transfer into the DW directly from the solitons which are generated nearby the pump wavelength. PMID:23027292

Manili, G; Tonello, A; Modotto, D; Andreana, M; Couderc, V; Minoni, U; Wabnitz, S

2012-10-01

94

Familial gigantism caused by an NSD1 mutation.  

PubMed

A three-generation family with autosomal dominant segregation of a novel NSD1 mutation (6605G --> A, resulting in Cys2202Tyr) is reported. Haploinsufficiency of NSD1 has been identified as the major cause of Sotos syndrome. The overgrowth condition (MIM 117550) is characterized by facial anomalies, macrocephaly, advanced bone age, and learning disabilities. Manifestations in the present family include dramatically increased height, weight, and head circumference together with a long face, large mandible, and large ears, but mental deficiency was absent. PMID:16222665

van Haelst, Mieke M; Hoogeboom, Jeannette J M; Baujat, Genevieve; Brüggenwirth, Hennie T; Van de Laar, Ingrid; Coleman, Kim; Rahman, Nazneen; Niermeijer, Martinus F; Drop, Sten L S; Scambler, Peter J

2005-11-15

95

On perception of size: Comparing gigantic mice and tiny elephants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human computer interaction and communication is becoming more and more frequent. This means that computers must understand the meanings of words used to describe objects and events, as well as comprehend the meaning of modifiers used to describe them. This is often a difficult task: the word large means two different things when describing a chair and a building. This

Julia M. Taylor; Lawrence J. Mazlack

2008-01-01

96

Gigantic macroautophagy in programmed nuclear death of Tetrahymena thermophila  

PubMed Central

Programmed nuclear death (PND) in Tetrahymena is a unique process during conjugation, in which only the parental macronucleus is degraded and then eliminated from the progeny cytoplasm, but other co-existing nuclei such as new micro- and macronuclei are unaffected. PND through autophagic elimination is expected to be strictly controlled, considering the significant roles in ciliates such as turnover of disused organelles and production of the next generation. Here we demonstrate that PND in Tetrahymena involves peculiar aspects of autophagy, which differ from mammalian or yeast macroautophagy. Drastic change of the parental macronucleus occurs when differentiation of new macronuclei is initiated. Combined use of monodansylcadaverine and a lysosome indicator LysoTracker Red showed that prior to nuclear condensation, the envelope of the parental macronucleus changed its nature as if it is an autophagic membrane, without the accumulation of a pre-autophagosomal structure from the cytoplasm. Subsequently, lysosomes approached only to the parental macronucleus and localized at the envelope until a final resorption stage. In addition, we found that the parental macronucleus exhibits certain sugars and phosphatidylserine on the envelope, which are possible “attack me” signals, that are not found on other types of nuclei. These findings suggest that PND is a highly elaborated process, different from the typical macroautophagy seen in other systems, and is executed through interaction between specific molecular signals on the parental macronuclear envelope and autophagic/lysosomal machineries.

Pearlman, Ronald E; Endoh, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

97

Gigantic recurrent abdominal desmoid tumour: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deeply seated fibromatosis or desmoid tumour (DT) is a rare entity characterized by benign proliferation of fibroblasts. Although\\u000a non-malignant, this tumour can be life-threatening due to its invasive property and high recurrence rate. We report a unique\\u000a case of a huge recurrent abdominal DT (36 cm in diameter, 25 kg in weight) that caused pressure necrosis and sloughing of\\u000a the overlying anterior

E. A. Rakha; M. A. Kandil; M. G. El-Santawe

2007-01-01

98

A gigantic bird from the Upper Cretaceous of Central Asia.  

PubMed

We describe an enormous Late Cretaceous fossil bird from Kazakhstan, known from a pair of edentulous mandibular rami (greater than 275 mm long), which adds significantly to our knowledge of Mesozoic avian morphological and ecological diversity. A suite of autapomorphies lead us to recognize the specimen as a new taxon. Phylogenetic analysis resolves this giant bird deep within Aves as a basal member of Ornithuromorpha. This Kazakh fossil demonstrates that large body size evolved at least once outside modern birds (Neornithes) and reveals hitherto unexpected trophic diversity within Cretaceous Aves. PMID:21835881

Naish, Darren; Dyke, Gareth; Cau, Andrea; Escuillié, François; Godefroit, Pascal

2012-02-23

99

Natural Disasters: Explosive Volcanic Eruptions and Gigantic Landslides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1990s have been designated the International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction; and this paper discusses two natural disasters. In the first we show how to model massive, ground-hugging ash flows, known as pyroclastic flows by geologists, in terms of particle-driven, turbulent gravity currents. A framework for solving forward problems is set up so that, for different geometries, all the

Herbert E. Huppert; W. Brian Dade

1998-01-01

100

Natural Disasters: Explosive Volcanic Eruptions and Gigantic Landslides  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The 1990s have been designated the International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction; and this paper discusses two natural\\u000a disasters. In the first we show how to model massive, ground-hugging ash flows, known as pyroclastic flows by geologists,\\u000a in terms of particle-driven, turbulent gravity currents. A framework for solving forward problems is set up so that, for different\\u000a geometries, all

Herbert E. Huppert; W. Brian Dade

1998-01-01

101

Gigantic SO2 emission from Miyakejima volcano, Japan, caused by caldera collapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extremely large amount of volcanic gas has been released since mid-August 2000 from the volcanic island of Miyakejima, Japan, after formation of a summit caldera of 1.6 km diameter. The volcanic gas emission was continuous with very little extrusive magma activity. Variation of the SO2 emission rate was monitored by repeated measurements with an airborne correlation spectrometer. In December

Kohei Kazahaya; Hiroshi Shinohara; Kozo Uto; Masanobu Odai; Yasuhiro Nakahori; Hirokazu Mori; Hideki Iino; Makoto Miyashita; Junichi Hirabayashi

2004-01-01

102

Nrdp1-mediated degradation of the gigantic IAP, BRUCE, is a novel pathway for triggering apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Degradation of certain inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) appears to be critical in the initiation of apoptosis, but the factors that regulate their degradation in mammalian cells are unknown. Nrdp1/FLRF is a RING finger-containing ubiquitin ligase that catalyzes degradation of the EGF receptor family member, ErbB3. We show here that Nrdp1 associates with BRUCE/apollon, a 530 kDa membrane-associated IAP, which contains a ubiquitin-carrier protein (E2) domain. In the presence of an exogenous E2, UbcH5c, purified Nrdp1 catalyzes BRUCE ubiquitination. In vivo, overexpression of Nrdp1 promotes ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of BRUCE. In many cell types, apoptotic stimuli induce proteasomal degradation of BRUCE (but not of XIAP or c-IAP1), and decreasing Nrdp1 levels by RNA interference reduces this loss of BRUCE. Furthermore, decreasing BRUCE content by RNA interference or overexpression of Nrdp1 promotes apoptosis. Thus, BRUCE normally inhibits apoptosis, and Nrdp1 can be important in the initiation of apoptosis by catalyzing ubiquitination and degradation of BRUCE.

Qiu, Xiao-Bo; Markant, Shirley L; Yuan, Junying; Goldberg, Alfred L

2004-01-01

103

Gigantic Diamondiferous Eclogite from Udachnaya: Mineralogy and Tomography of this Yakutian Xenolith  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamondiferous eclogites are rare unique xenoliths brought to the surface of the Earth by kimberlites. The Udachnaya pipe of Yakutia contains many such unusual xenoliths, largely because of the freshness of this kimberlite; usually only 30-80 gm portions are collected during the crushing and production process. However, a giant 8.8 kg relatively fresh diamondiferous eclogite was recently recovered from the

L. A. Taylor; R. Ketchum; J. M. Day; A. Stepanov; W. Carlson; Y. Liu; V. Shatsky

2005-01-01

104

Construction is a Hot, New Board Game with Complex Rules and Gigantic Stakes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School construction is a politically charged challenge. Examples from a number of districts illustrate controversy over bond issue elections, facility planning, bidding, site selection, and new attendance boundaries. The real key to success is getting the community involved. (MLF)

Zakariya, Sally Banks

1988-01-01

105

Occurrence of gigantic biogenic magnetite during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is one of the most severe climatic events of the Cenozoic Era. A massive injection of light carbon into the oceans and atmosphere over a few thousand of years triggered drastic perturbation of Earth's climate resulting in abrupt global warming of ~5-9oC [Sluijs et al., 2007] that persisted for ~180,000 years. This episode is marked by the diversification and radiation of terrestrial plants and mammals while in the marine realm numerous deep-sea benthic foraminifera species disappeared and new forms evolved. Sediments deposited during the PETM are clay-rich and contain distinct evidence of these climatic changes. Kopp et al., (2007) and Lippert & Zachos (2007) report an extraordinary magnetofossil ‘Lagerstätte' in lowermost Eocene kaolinite-rich clay sediments deposited at subtropical paleolatitude in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of New Jersey, USA. Magnetofossils are magnetic particles produced most abundantly by magnetotactic bacteria. Kopp et al. (2007) and Lippert & Zachos (2007) used ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy, other rock magnetic methods, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of magnetic separates to characterize sediments from boreholes at Ancora (ODP Leg 174AX) and Wilson Lake, NJ, respectively. These sediments contain abundant ~40- to 300-nm cuboidal, elongate-prismatic and bullet-shaped magnetofossils, sometimes arranged in short chains, resembling crystals in living magnetotactic bacteria. Despite the scarcity of intact magnetofossil chains, the asymmetry ratios of the FMR spectra reflects a profusion of elongate single domain (SD) crystals and/or chains. Here we address both conundrums by reporting the discovery from these same sediments of exceptionally large and novel biogenic magnetite crystals unlike any previously reported from living organisms or from sediments. Aside from abundant bacterial magnetofossils, electron microscopy reveals novel spearhead-like and spindle-like magnetite crystals up to 4 ?m long (eight times larger than magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria) and elongated hexaoctahedra up to 1.4 ?m long. Similar to magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria, these single-crystal particles exhibit chemical composition and lattice perfection consistent with a biogenic origin. The oxygen isotopic composition of indiviual particles supports a low temperature aquatic origin. Electron holography indicates single-domain magnetization despite the large crystal size. In a few cases, we observed apparently intact, tip-outward spherical assemblages of spearhead-like particles that possibly represent the preserved original biological arrangement of these crystals in a hitherto unknown magnetite producing organism. The discovery of these exceptionally large biogenic magnetite crystals that possibly represent the remains of a new microorganism that appeared and disappeared with the PETM sheds some light upon the ecological response to biogeochemical changes that occurred during this warming event. The abundance of fossil magnetotactic bacteria on the Atlantic Coastal Plain during the PETM could be explained by enhanced production, enhanced preservation, or both. The presence of novel magnetofossils, however, argues that changes in growth conditions are a major part of the explanation. Considering that other bacterial magnetofossils are present (although less abundant) and well-preserved in sediments below and above the PETM clay, as well as in a sand lens within the PETM clay [Kopp et al., 2007], suggests that the new magnetofossils are unlikely to be a preservation artefact. We conclude, therefore, that the development of a thick suboxic zone with high iron bioavailability - a product of dramatic changes in weathering and sedimentation patterns driven by severe global warming - resulted in diversification of magnetite-forming organisms, likely including eukaryotes. In this study we extended the search for these new magnetofossils [Schumann et al. 2008] to other PETM locations of the Atlantic margin and to a possible modern

Schumann, D.; Raub, T. D.; Kopp, R. E.; Guerquin-Kern, J. L.; Wu, T. D.; Rouiller, I.; Smirnov, A. V.; Sears, S. K.; Lücken, U.; Tikoo, S. M.; Hesse, R.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Vali, H.

2009-04-01

106

Gigantism in honeybees: Apis cerana queens reared in mixed-species colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of animals depends on both genetic and environmental effects to a varying extent. Their relative influences can be evaluated in the social insects by raising the intracolonial diversity to an extreme in nests consisting of workers from more than one species. In this study, we studied the effects of mixed honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana on the rearing of grafted queen larvae of A. cerana. A. mellifera sealed worker brood was introduced into A. cerana colonies and on emergence, the adults were accepted. Then, A. cerana larvae were grafted for queen rearing into two of these mixed-species colonies. Similarly, A. cerana larvae and A. mellifera larvae were also grafted conspecifically as controls. The success rate of A. cerana queen rearing in the test colonies was 64.5%, surpassing all previous attempts at interspecific queen rearing. After emergence, all virgin queens obtained from the three groups ( N=90) were measured morphometrically. The A. cerana queens from the mixed-species colonies differed significantly in size and pigmentation from the A. cerana control queens and closely approximated the A. mellifera queens. It is inferred that these changes in the A. cerana queens reared in the mixed-species colonies can be attributed to feeding by heterospecific nurse bees and/or chemical differences in royal jelly. Our data show a strong impact of environment on the development of queens. The results further suggest that in honeybees the cues for brood recognition can be learned by heterospecific workers after eclosion, thereby providing a novel analogy to slave making in ants.

Tan, Ken; Hepburn, H. R.; He, Shaoyu; Radloff, S. E.; Neumann, P.; Fang, Xiang

2006-07-01

107

Granuloma elastolítico anular de células gigantes: a propósito de un caso localizado en áreas no fotoexpuestas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) is an uncommon entity clinically characterized by erythematous annular plaques with atrophic and hypopigmented center, that predominates in sun-exposed zones. The histology shows a granulomatous infiltrate without palisading image, made up of lymphocytes, histiocytes and giant cells, with phagocytosis of elastic fibers, without necrobiosis or mucin deposit. We present the case of a male

Lucía Campos-Muñoz; Alicia Quesada-Cortés; Natalia Hernández-Cano; Rita María Regojo-Zapata; Mariano Casado Jiménez

2006-01-01

108

Cryptococcus neoformans Capsular Enlargement and Cellular Gigantism during Galleria mellonella Infection  

PubMed Central

We have studied infection of Cryptococcus neoformans in the non-vertebrate host Galleria mellonella with particular interest in the morphological response of the yeast. Inoculation of C. neoformans in caterpillars induced a capsule-independent increase in haemocyte density 2 h after infection. C. neoformans manifested a significant increase in capsule size after inoculation into the caterpillar. The magnitude of capsule increase depended on the temperature, being more pronounced at 37°C than at 30°C, which correlated with an increased virulence of the fungus and reduced phagocytosis at 37°C. Capsule enlargement impaired phagocytosis by haemocytes. Incubation of the yeast in G. mellonella extracts also resulted in capsule enlargement, with the polar lipidic fraction having a prominent role in this effect. During infection, the capsule decreased in permeability. A low proportion of the cells (<5%) recovered from caterpillars measured more than 30 µm and were considered giant cells. Giant cells recovered from mice were able to kill the caterpillars in a manner similar to regular cells obtained from in vivo or grown in vitro, establishing their capacity to cause disease. Our results indicate that the morphological transitions exhibited by C. neoformans in mammals also occur in a non-vertebrate host system. The similarities in morphological transitions observed in different animal hosts and in their triggers are consistent with the hypothesis that the cell body and capsular responses represent an adaptation of environmental survival strategies to pathogenesis.

Garcia-Rodas, Rocio; Casadevall, Arturo; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Zaragoza, Oscar

2011-01-01

109

Gigantic Diamondiferous Eclogite from Udachnaya: Mineralogy and Tomography of this Yakutian Xenolith.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamondiferous eclogites are rare unique xenoliths brought to the surface of the Earth by kimberlites. The Udachnaya pipe of Yakutia contains many such unusual xenoliths, largely because of the freshness of this kimberlite; usually only 30-80 gm portions are collected during the crushing and production process. However, a giant 8.8 kg relatively fresh diamondiferous eclogite was recently recovered from the ore stockpile. There appear to be two, possibly more, different types of eclogites in this one xenolith, one with Group A garnets, the other with Group B. Three-dimensional, high-resolution computed X-ray tomography (HRCXT) of this diamondiferous eclogite, difficult for its size, has successfully imaged the multitude of diamonds (micro up to 2-3 cts) and their textural relationships with co-existing minerals. This is an extension to the tomography and xenolith dissections performed previously on diamondiferous eclogites by our group (e.g., Taylor et al., 2000, Int'l Geol Rev 42; Anand et al., 2004, Lithos 77). Spatial relationships between diamonds and their surroundings provide clues to the processes that control diamond crystallization. These relationships can be determined by rotating and viewing the 3-D model at different perspectives and orientations to look for specific associations/alignments. The maps obtained from this tomography also form the basis for the delicate dissection of the xenolith, revealing the diamonds as they formed in their mantle host rock. A previous eclogite of 65 g contained 74 macro-diamonds. Inspection of the surface of this 8.8 kg eclogite and examination of the tomographic images indicates that >100 diamonds exist in this eclogite. The diamonds appear to be preferentially located in zones with a prominent sub-planar fabric of secondary mineralization - i.e., zones of increased permeability. Diamond was never observed in direct contact with any fresh, primary minerals. Also, there is insufficient sulfide mineralization to call upon an immiscible-sulfide melt as the diamond-forming medium. The association of the diamonds with secondary minerals is further evidence that the diamonds formed after the initial host eclogite, probably from the introduction of metasomatic carbonate-rich fluids.

Taylor, L. A.; Ketchum, R.; Day, J. M.; Stepanov, A.; Carlson, W.; Liu, Y.; Shatsky, V.

2005-12-01

110

High-level organization of isochores into gigantic superstructures in the human genome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human DNA shows a complex structure with compositional features at many scales; the isochores—long DNA segments (~105 bp) of relatively homogeneous guanine-cytosine (G + C) content—are the largest well-documented and well-analyzed compositional structures. However, we report here on the existence of a high-level compositional organization of isochores in the human genome. By using a segmentation algorithm incorporating the long-range correlations existing in human DNA, we find that every chromosome is composed of a few huge segments (~ 107 bp) of relatively homogeneous G + C content, which become the largest compositional organization of the genome. Finally, we show evidence of the biological relevance of these superstructures, pointing to a large-scale functional organization of the human genome.

Carpena, P.; Oliver, J. L.; Hackenberg, M.; Coronado, A. V.; Barturen, G.; Bernaola-Galván, P.

2011-03-01

111

Unigas readies for motor fuel surge with supplies from gigantic plant  

SciTech Connect

Nestled away a short distance from the smog and congestion of Mexico City is a sprawling LP-gas plant from which 72 million gallons of propane are shipped annually. Boasting a storage capacity of 865,000 gal. in 19 tanks, this plant is believed to possess the largest total reserve capacity of any such facility south of the border and in all of Latin America. This paper reports on a tour of the Unigas plant in Ixhuatepec, hosted by general director Carlos Venegas Baeza, which provides insight into three major areas: the operations and plans of one of the largest LP-gas companies in Mexico, the booming market in carburetion, and most noteworthy, the technologically advanced safety/security system that has been installed at this point.

Not Available

1992-10-01

112

Gigantism in unique biogenic magnetite at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum  

PubMed Central

We report the discovery of exceptionally large biogenic magnetite crystals in clay-rich sediments spanning the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in a borehole at Ancora, NJ. Aside from previously described abundant bacterial magnetofossils, electron microscopy reveals novel spearhead-like and spindle-like magnetite up to 4 ?m long and hexaoctahedral prisms up to 1.4 ?m long. Similar to magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria, these single-crystal particles exhibit chemical composition, lattice perfection, and oxygen isotopes consistent with an aquatic origin. Electron holography indicates single-domain magnetization despite their large crystal size. We suggest that the development of a thick suboxic zone with high iron bioavailability—a product of dramatic changes in weathering and sedimentation patterns driven by severe global warming—drove diversification of magnetite-forming organisms, likely including eukaryotes.

Schumann, Dirk; Raub, Timothy D.; Kopp, Robert E.; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Wu, Ting-Di; Rouiller, Isabelle; Smirnov, Aleksey V.; Sears, S. Kelly; Lucken, Uwe; Tikoo, Sonia M.; Hesse, Reinhard; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Vali, Hojatollah

2008-01-01

113

Gela submarine slide: gigantic basin-wide event in the Plio-Quaternary foredeep of Sicily  

SciTech Connect

The Gela basin is a Pliocene-Quaternary foredeep basin located at the front of the Maghrebian fold-thrust belt of Sicily, filled with 2,500 m-thick shallowing-upward marine sediments. An important contribution to the basin fill comes from a huge, basin-wide submarine slide which extends for 3,500 km/sup 2/ and thickens as much as 450 m; the estimated sediment volume involved in the slide is close to 1,000 km/sup 3/. The authors investigation used more than 3,000 km of multichannel and single-channel seismic reflection profiles. The slide depositional geometries and facies relationships have been reconstructed from seismic interpretation to provide insight into transport and emplacement mechanisms. Apparently, the slide was not simply deposited via mass transfer from the slope into the basin. Indeed, the bulk of the slide is composed of basin sediments plastically deformed under the gravitational force driven by the correspondent slope sediments. Such a deformation occurred above an extremely effective decollement surface which controlled the slide distribution throughout the basin. More localized decollement planes are, however, present within the slide body and contributed to its complex deformation. The slide can thus be considered the result of a generalized gravitational collapse which affected the sediments lying above a peculiar decollement horizon. A general uplift characterized the late Quaternary evolution of the area, and volcanic activity was quite widespread and documented in the historical record. A punctuated episode of energy release (volcanic related ), superimposed to the uplift trend, may have triggered the slide in conjunction with potentially easy detachment of a decollement.

Argnani, A.; Trincardi, F.

1988-08-01

114

Detecção da fase impulsiva de uma explosão solar gigante até 405 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A explosão ocorrida no dia 25/08/2001 foi uma das mais intensas do presente ciclo solar em ondas de rádio de altas frequências. Foram medidas em ondas milimétricas e submilimétricas, aproximadamente, 105 e vários milhares de unidades de fluxo solar, respectivamente. Apresentamos um estudo deste evento em múltiplas frequências, desde microondas (1GHz), até ondas submilimétricas (405 GHz) detectadas pelo Telescópio Solar para ondas Submilimétricas (SST). Esta base de dados foi complementada utilizando-se o experimento Yohkoh, incluindo a emissão em raios-X duros e raios-g (até 100 MeV), e imagens em raios-X moles da região ativa envolvida. Enfocamos e discutimos principalmente os seguintes aspectos da fase impulsiva do evento: (i) as implicações deduzidas do espectro eletromagnético, obtido pela primeira vez até 405 GHz; (ii) a dinâmica da região ativa. Os resultados mostram que para explicar o espectro rádio observado, são necessários entre 3.5×1037 e 1.5×1039 elétrons acelerados acima de 20 keV em uma região de campo magnético entre 300 e 800 Gauss. A estimativa do fluxo de fótons que seria produzido por estes elétrons, mostra que grande parte deles não precipitou na baixa atmosfera. A evolução temporal da emissão em raios-X moles revela que a configuração magnética da região ativa foi muito dinâmica durante a fase impulsiva da explosão. Em particular, mostramos que a produção dos elétrons altamente energéticos foi iniciada junto com a aparição, na baixa coroa solar, de um novo sistema compacto de estruturas magnéticas. Este fato sugere que os locais de aceleração estão localizados na baixa atmosfera do Sol, como resultado da interação entre o novo sistema compacto e o campo magnético ambiente da região ativa.

Raulin, J.-P.; Makhmutov, V.; Kaufmann, P.; Pacini, A. A.; Luethi, T.; Hudson, H. S.; Gary, D. E.; Yoshimori, M.

2003-08-01

115

Sudden pressure increase in magma reservoir triggered by gigantic lava-dome collapse on Montserrat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dilatometers recorded pressure changes within the Soufrière Hills Volcano's magma chamber during the 13 July 2003 collapse of its� lava dome. Strain data was evaluated to determine the depth of the pressure source. Results suggest an ellipsoidal magma chamber source at a depth of roughly six kilometers and an average radius of about one kilometer. The observed increase in pressure was consistent with the magma containing pressurized bubbles that expanded when the ambient pressure was reduced.

Al., Voight E.; Agu

116

Geomorphology and evolution of the gigantic Murray canyons on the Australian southern margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Murray canyons are a group of deeply incised submarine canyons on a steep 400?km section of the continental slope off Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Some of the canyons are amongst the largest on Earth. The canyons, some 80?km long, descend from the shelf edge to the abyssal plain 5200?m deep. Sprigg Canyon, the deepest and one of the largest,

Hill Pj; P. De Deckker; Exon Nf

2005-01-01

117

Climatic control on the growth of gigantic gypsum crystals within hypogenic caves (Naica mine, Mexico)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three hypogenic caves within the Naica mine of Mexico (Cueva de los Cristales — CLC, Ojo de la Reina — OR, and Cueva de las Velas — CLV) host spectacular gypsum crystals up to 11m in length. These caves are close to another shallow cave of the area (Cueva de las Espadas — CLE), with which they cover a 160m-deep

Paolo S. Garofalo; Mattias B. Fricker; Detlef Günther; Paolo Forti; Anna-Maria Mercuri; Mara Loreti; Bruno Capaccioni

2010-01-01

118

Occurrence of gigantic biogenic magnetite during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is one of the most severe climatic events of the Cenozoic Era. A massive injection of light carbon into the oceans and atmosphere over a few thousand of years triggered drastic perturbation of Earth's climate resulting in abrupt global warming of ~5-9oC [Sluijs et al., 2007] that persisted for ~180,000 years. This episode is marked

D. Schumann; T. D. Raub; R. E. Kopp; J. L. Guerquin-Kern; T. D. Wu; I. Rouiller; A. V. Smirnov; S. K. Sears; U. Lücken; S. M. Tikoo; R. Hesse; J. L. Kirschvink; H. Vali

2009-01-01

119

Earth’s Ionosphere as a Gigantic Detector of Extraterrestrial Energetic Phenomena: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the ionospheric effects due to radiation from the transient extraterrestrial sources like Gamma Ray Bursts, Soft Gamma Ray Repeaters, Anomalous X-ray Pulsars, X-ray novae and X-ray transient sources. Gamma rays could penetrate deep in the atmosphere due to their high energy in comparison with other types of radiation. If the transient radiation from the above sources is

S. K. Mondal; S. K. Chakrabarti

2010-01-01

120

GaAs-oxide interface states - Gigantic photoionization via Auger-like process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral and transient responses of photostimulated current in MOS structures were employed for the study of GaAs-anodic oxide interface states. Discrete deep traps at 0.7 and 0.85 eV below the conduction band were found with concentrations of 5 x 10 to the 12th\\/sq cm and 7 x 10 to the 11th\\/sq cm, respectively. These traps coincide with interface states induced

J. Lagowski; T. E. Kazior; H. C. Gatos; W. Walukiewicz; J. Siejka

1981-01-01

121

Earth's Ionosphere as a Gigantic Detector of Extra-terrestrial Energetic Phenomena: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the ionospheric effects due to radiation from the transient extraterrestrial sources like Gamma Ray Bursts, Soft Gamma Ray Repeaters, Anomalous X-ray Pulsars, X-ray novae and X-ray transient sources. Gamma rays could penetrate deep in the atmosphere due to their high energy in comparison with other types of radiation. If the transient radiation from the above sources is strong enough to enhance the ionospheric ionization, VLF radio propagation could be affected. In the paper, we discuss the evidences of detection of such phenomena in VLF data and explain some of the observations using theoretical considerations.

Mondal, S. K.; Chakrabarti, S. K.

2010-10-01

122

Earth's Ionosphere as a Gigantic Detector of Extraterrestrial Energetic Phenomena: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the ionospheric effects due to radiation from the transient extraterrestrial sources like Gamma Ray Bursts, Soft Gamma Ray Repeaters, Anomalous X-ray Pulsars, X-ray novae and X-ray transient sources. Gamma rays could penetrate deep in the atmosphere due to their high energy in comparison with other types of radiation. If the transient radiation from the above sources is

S. K. Mondal; S. K. Chakrabarti

2010-01-01

123

Dramatically accelerated growth and extraordinary gigantism of transgenic mud loach Misgurnus mizolepis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic mud loaches (Misgurnus mizolepis), in which the entire transgene originated from the same species, have been generated by microinjecting the mud loach growth hormone (mlGH) gene fused to the mud loach ß-actin promoter. Out of 4,100 eggs injected, 7.5% fish derived from the injected eggs showed dramatically accelerated growth, with a maximum of 35-fold faster growth than their non-transgenic

Yoon Kwon Nam; Jae Koo Noh; Young Sun Cho; Hyo Jong Cho; Kyu-Nam Cho; Chul Geun Kim; Dong Soo Kim

2001-01-01

124

A silent gigantic solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura: case report  

PubMed Central

Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura is a rare mesenchymal tumor, representing less than 5% of all neoplasms associated with the pleura. A 57-year-old man had general malaise without chest symptoms for 1 month. A chest roentgenogram and computed tomography showed a giant mass in the left thorax. Although the tumor compressed the descending aorta and other mediastinal structures strongly, thereby shifting them to the right side, the patient had no symptoms except malaise. The tumor was successfully resected via two separate thoracotomies. The tumor was measured (20 cm × 19 cm × 15 cm) and weighed (2150 g). The tumor was histologically and immunohistochemically diagnosed as benign. Although SFT is benign, a long follow-up period is essential as even patients with complete resection are at risk of recurrence many years after surgery.

2011-01-01

125

Gigantic swelling of inorganic layered materials: a bridge to molecularly thin two-dimensional nanosheets.  

PubMed

Platy microcrystals of a typical layered material, protonated titanate, have been shown to undergo an enormous degree of swelling in aqueous solutions of various amines, including tertiary amines, quaternary ammonium hydroxides, and primary amines. Introducing these solutions expanded the crystal gallery height by up to ?100-fold. Through systematic analysis, we determined that ammonium ion intercalation is predominantly affected by the acid-base equilibrium and that the degree of swelling or inflow of H2O is controlled by the osmotic pressure balance between the gallery and the solution environment, both of which are relatively independent of electrolyte identity but substantially dependent on molarity. In solutions of tertiary amines and quaternary ammonium hydroxides, the uptake of ammonium ions increases nearly linearly with increasing external concentration before reaching a saturation plateau, i.e., ?40% relative to the cation-exchange capacity of the crystals used. The only exception is tetrabutylammonium ions, which yield a lower saturation value, ?30%, owing to steric effects. The swelling behaviors in some primary amine solutions differ as a result of the effect of attractive forces between amine solute molecules on the solution osmotic pressure. Although the swelling is essentially colligative in nature, the stability of the resultant swollen structure is heavily dependent on the chemical nature of the guest ions. Intercalated ions of higher polarity and smaller size help stabilize the swollen structure, whereas ions of lower polarity and larger size lead readily to exfoliation. The insight gained from this study sheds new light on both the incorporation of guest molecules into a gallery of layered structures in general and the exfoliation of materials into elementary single-layer nanosheets. PMID:24635385

Geng, Fengxia; Ma, Renzhi; Ebina, Yasuo; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Nobuyoshi; Sasaki, Takayoshi

2014-04-01

126

Cryptococcus neoformans capsular enlargement and cellular gigantism during Galleria mellonella infection.  

PubMed

We have studied infection of Cryptococcus neoformans in the non-vertebrate host Galleria mellonella with particular interest in the morphological response of the yeast. Inoculation of C. neoformans in caterpillars induced a capsule-independent increase in haemocyte density 2 h after infection. C. neoformans manifested a significant increase in capsule size after inoculation into the caterpillar. The magnitude of capsule increase depended on the temperature, being more pronounced at 37°C than at 30°C, which correlated with an increased virulence of the fungus and reduced phagocytosis at 37°C. Capsule enlargement impaired phagocytosis by haemocytes. Incubation of the yeast in G. mellonella extracts also resulted in capsule enlargement, with the polar lipidic fraction having a prominent role in this effect. During infection, the capsule decreased in permeability. A low proportion of the cells (<5%) recovered from caterpillars measured more than 30 µm and were considered giant cells. Giant cells recovered from mice were able to kill the caterpillars in a manner similar to regular cells obtained from in vivo or grown in vitro, establishing their capacity to cause disease. Our results indicate that the morphological transitions exhibited by C. neoformans in mammals also occur in a non-vertebrate host system. The similarities in morphological transitions observed in different animal hosts and in their triggers are consistent with the hypothesis that the cell body and capsular responses represent an adaptation of environmental survival strategies to pathogenesis. PMID:21915338

García-Rodas, Rocío; Casadevall, Arturo; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luís; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Zaragoza, Oscar

2011-01-01

127

Gigantic Ordovician volcanic ash fall in North America and Europe: Biological, tectonomagmatic, and event-stratigraphic significance  

SciTech Connect

Biostratigraphical, geochemical, isotopic, and paleogeographic data suggest that the Millbrig K-bentonite, one of the thickest and most widespread Ordovician volcanic ash beds in eastern North America, is the same as the so-called 'Big Bentonite' in Baltoscandia. This is the first time that the same K-bentonite has been identified in both North America and Europe, and it serves as a unique event-stratigraphic marker over a large portion of the Northern Hemisphere. This eruption produced at least 340 km[sup 3] of dense-rock-equivalent ash that was deposited in a layer up to 1-2 m thick over several million square kilometers. As much as 800 km[sup 3] of additional ash may have fallen into the Iapetus Ocean, for a total of 1,140 km[sup 3]. Trace element geochemistry shows that the ash was derived from a felsic calc-alkalic magmatic source characteristic of volcanism in a continental crust-based, destructive plate-margin setting. This is one of the largest, if not the largest, ash falls recorded in Earth's Phanerozoic stratigraphic record, but its recognizable effect on faunas and floras was minimal, and it did not result in a global extinction event. The Millbrig-Big Bentonite bed provides accurate time control for sedimentologic, paleoecologic, and paleogeographic reconstructions across plates positioned in tropical (Laurentia) and temperate (Baltica) latitudes during Middle Ordovician time.

Huff, W.D. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Bergstroem, S.M. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States)); Kolata, D.R. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (United States))

1992-10-01

128

Gigantic ferroelectric polarization and magnetoelectric coupling in a ferrimagnetic oxide CaBaCo4O7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From both fundamental and applications points of view, improper ferroelectrics that exhibiting a strong coupling between polarization and magnetic structure are challenging the scientific community. Several multiferroics belonging to that category have been reported; however, they exhibit rather small values of electric polarization combined with low magnetic ordering temperatures. Only the CuO (tenorite), the ordered perovskites LBaCuFeO5 and the Z-type hexaferrites display magnetic ordering temperatures near room temperature, but they all suffer from polarization much smaller than that of proper ferroelectrics. Here, we report a ferrimagnetic cobaltite, CaBaCo4O7, crystallizing in a polar space group, which enters an improper ferroelectric phase below TC= 64 K. Single crystals of CaBaCo4O7 demonstrate the highest polarization value reported among improper ferroelectrics to date, reaching 10 mC/m^2 at TC and approaching 16 mC/m^2 at 8 K. Moreover a large magnetoelectric coupling coefficient is also evidenced near TC. This result points to routes for exploring new multiferroics among ferrimagnetic phases.

Mitchell, John; Caignert, Vincent; Maignan, Antoine; Singh, Kiran; Simon, Charles; Raveau, Bernard; Pralong, Valerie; Chapon, Laurent

2013-03-01

129

Gigantism in a Bacterium, Epulopiscium fishelsoni, Correlates with Complex Patterns in Arrangement, Quantity, and Segregation of DNA  

PubMed Central

Epulopiscium fishelsoni, gut symbiont of the brown surgeonfish (Acanthurus nigrofuscus) in the Red Sea, attains a larger size than any other eubacterium, varies 10- to 20-fold in length (and >2,000-fold in volume), and undergoes a complex daily life cycle. In early morning, nucleoids contain highly condensed DNA in elongate, chromosome-like structures which are physically separated from the general cytoplasm. Cell division involves production of two (rarely three) nucleoids within a cell, deposition of cell walls around expanded nucleoids, and emergence of daughter cells from the parent cell. Fluorescence measurements of DNA, RNA, and other cell components indicate the following. DNA quantity is proportional to cell volume over cell lengths of ?30 ?m to >500 ?m. For cells of a given size, nucleoids of cells with two nucleoids (binucleoid) contain approximately equal amounts of DNA. And each nucleoid of a binucleoid cell contains one-half the DNA of the single nucleoid in a uninucleoid cell of the same size. The life cycle involves approximately equal subdivision of DNA among daughter cells, formation of apical caps of condensed DNA from previously decondensed and diffusely distributed DNA, and “pinching” of DNA near the middle of the cell in the absence of new wall formation. Mechanisms underlying these patterns remain unclear, but formation of daughter nucleoids and cells occurs both during diurnal periods of host feeding and bacterial cell growth and during nocturnal periods of host inactivity when mean bacterial cell size declines.

Bresler, V.; Montgomery, W. L.; Fishelson, L.; Pollak, P. E.

1998-01-01

130

End-Permian catastrophe by a bolide impact: Evidence of a gigantic release of sulfur from the mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our studies in southern China have revealed a remarkable sulfur and strontium isotope excursion at the end of the Permian, along with a coincident concentration of impact- metamorphosed grains and kaolinite and a significant decrease in manganese, phosphorous, calcium, and microfossils (foraminifera). These data suggest that an asteroid or a comet hit the ocean at the end of Permian time and caused a rapid and massive release of sulfur from the mantle to the ocean-atmosphere system, leading to significant oxygen consumption, acid rain, and the most severe biotic crisis in the history of life on Earth.

Kaiho, Kunio; Kajiwara, Yoshimichi; Nakano, Takanori; Miura, Yasunori; Kawahata, Hodaka; Tazaki, Kazue; Ueshima, Masato; Chen, Zhongqiang; Shi, Guang R.

2001-09-01

131

EVIDENCIA ICNOL~GICA DE UN DINOSAURIO TEROPODO GIGANTE EN EL BERRIASIENSE (CRETACICO INFERIOR) DE LAURASIA (LAS VILLASECAS, SORIA, ESPARA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing to Upper Jurassic and uppermost Lower Cretaceous al1 over the world, dinosaur fossil record in the Berriasian is small. Wide continental outcrops with great abundante and diversity of theropod, sauropod, orni- thopod and avian tracks, Tithonian-Berriasian in age, are usual in Cameros Basin (central and western aseas of the Iberian Range, Spain). Although theropod tracks are very abundant, giant

Josk Luis BARCO; Ignacio CANUDO; Ignacio RUIZ-OMEÃ; Luis RUBIO

132

A new genus and species of gigantic marine turtles (Chelonioidea: Cheloniidae) from the Maastrichtian of the Harrana Fauna-Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine turtle fossils are extremely rare in the Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation of the Harrana Fauna in comparison to the relatively rich variety of other vertebrate fossils collected from this locality. This paper reports and describes the remains of an extinct marine turtle (Chelonioidea) which will be tentatively assigned to a new genus and species of marine turtles (Cheloniidae Bonaparte,

H. F. Kaddumi

2006-01-01

133

Conhecimento sobre o molusco gigante africano Achatina fulica entre estudantes de uma escola pública na Região Metropolitana do Recife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students' knowledge on the African giant mollusk Achatina fulica in a public school in the Recife metropolitan region. The African giant mollusk Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 was introduced into Brazil in 1988 as a substitute for the European escargot Helix sp. This action did not induce the expected results and the gastropod has become an invasive species according to records

Renata Manzi de Souza; Ângelo Giuseppe; Chaves Alves; Marcos Souto Alves

134

Layered point clouds: a simple and efficient multiresolution structure for distributing and rendering gigantic point-sampled models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently introduced an efficient multiresolution structure for distributing a nd render- ing very large point sampled models on consumer graphics platforms (1). The structure is based on a hierarchy of precomputed object-space point clouds, that are combined coarse- to-fine at rendering time to locally adapt sample densities according to the proje cted size in the image. The progressive block

Enrico Gobbetti; Fabio Marton

2004-01-01

135

A Gigantic Sarcopterygian (Tetrapodomorph Lobe-Finned Fish) from the Upper Devonian of Gondwana (Eden, New South Wales, Australia)  

PubMed Central

Edenopteron keithcrooki gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Famennian Worange Point Formation; the holotype is amongst the largest tristichopterids and sarcopterygians documented by semi-articulated remains from the Devonian Period. The new taxon has dentary fangs and premaxillary tusks, features assumed to be derived for large Northern Hemisphere tristichopterids (Eusthenodon, Hyneria, Langlieria). It resembles Eusthenodon in ornament, but is distinguished by longer proportions of the parietal compared to the post-parietal shield, and numerous differences in shape and proportions of other bones. Several characters (accessory vomers in the palate, submandibulars overlapping ventral jaw margin, scales ornamented with widely-spaced deep grooves) are recorded only in tristichopterids from East Gondwana (Australia-Antarctica). On this evidence Edenopteron gen. nov. is placed in an endemic Gondwanan subfamily Mandageriinae within the Tristichopteridae; it differs from the nominal genotype Mandageria in its larger size, less pointed skull, shape of the orbits and other skull characters. The hypothesis that tristichopterids evolved in Laurussia and later dispersed into Gondwana, and a derived subgroup of large Late Devonian genera dispersed from Gondwana, is inconsistent with the evidence of the new taxon. Using oldest fossil and most primitive clade criteria the most recent phylogeny resolves South China and Gondwana as areas of origin for all tetrapodomorphs. The immediate outgroup to tristichopterids remains unresolved – either Spodichthys from Greenland as recently proposed, or Marsdenichthys from Gondwana, earlier suggested to be the sister group to all tristichopterids. Both taxa combine two characters that do not co-occur in other tetrapodomorphs (extratemporal bone in the skull; non-cosmoid round scales with an internal boss). Recently both ‘primitive’ and ‘derived’ tristichopterids have been discovered in the late Middle Devonian of both hemispheres, implying extensive ghost lineages within the group. Resolving their phylogeny and biogeography will depend on a comprehensive new phylogenetic analysis.

Young, Ben; Dunstone, Robert L.; Senden, Timothy J.; Young, Gavin C.

2013-01-01

136

Oceanic ecosystem dynamics during gigantic volcanic episodes: the Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus recorded by calcareous nannoplankton. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's volcanic activity introduces environmental stress that biota are forced to survive. There is a general consensus on the role of volcanogenic carbon dioxide increases, and implicit tectonic-igneous events, triggering major climate changes and profound variations in chemical, physical and trophic characteristics of the oceans through the Phanerozoic. Cretaceous geological records indicate conditions of excess atmCO2 (up to 2000-3000 ppm) derived from construction of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). In such “high CO2 world” and greenhouse conditions, the deep ocean became depleted of oxygen promoting the accumulation and burial of massive amounts of organic matter; such episodes are recognized as Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) and their geological records merit careful examination of how the Earth system, and Life in particular, can overcome extreme experiments of global change. The Early Aptian (˜ 120 million years ago) OAE1a is a complex example of volcanicCO2-induced environmental stress. There is a general consensus on the causes of this case-history, namely excess CO2 derived from the construction of the Ontong Java-Manihiki LIP. Multi- and inter-disciplinary studies of the OAE1a have pointed out C, O, Os, Sr isotopic anomalies, a biocalcification crisis in pelagic and neritic settings, enhanced fertility and primary productivity, as well as ocean acidification. Available cyclochronology allows high-resolution dating of biotic and environmental fluctuations, providing the precision necessary for understanding the role of volcanogenic CO2 on nannoplankton biocalcification, adaptations, evolutionary innovation and/or extinctions. The reconstructed sequence of volcanogenic CO2 pulses, and perhaps some clathrate melting, triggered a climate change to supergreenhouse conditions, anoxia and ocean acidification. The demise of heavily calcified nannoconids and reduced calcite paleofluxes marks beginning of the pre-OAE1a calcification crisis. Ephemeral coccolith dwarfism and malformation represent adjustments to survive lower pH. Deep-water acidification occurs with a delay of 25-30 thousand years: a dissolution event recording 1 to 2km shallowing of the Calcite Compensation Depth anticipated the onset of anoxic sedimentation. A major acceleration in weathering has been identified in the lowermost part of OAE1a. After acidification-dissolution climax, nannoplankton and carbonate recovery developed over ~160 kyr, under persisting global dysoxia-anoxia. This recovery presumably implies a stasis of the LIP activity and gradual buffering of ocean acidification or a decrease in volcanogenic CO2 emissions and consistently higher CO2 drawdown through Corg burial and/or weathering. Rising CO2 and surface-ocean acidification during OAE1a triggered false extinctions among calcareous nannoplankton. Conversely, a major origination episode starts approximately 1 My before global anoxia and persists through OAE1a and associated acidification. Increasing pCO2 caused complex and species-specific reactions, including production of r-strategist taxa, which, however, secreted dwarf and malformed coccoliths as a strategy to overcome acidification.

Erba, E.

2010-12-01

137

Gigantic retroperitoneal hematoma as a complication of anticoagulation therapy with heparin in therapeutic doses: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage is a distinct clinical entity that can present as a rare life-threatening event characterized by sudden onset of bleeding into the retroperitoneal space, occurring in association with bleeding disorders, intratumoral bleeding, or ruptures of any retroperitoneal organ or aneurysm. The spontaneous form is the most infrequent retroperitoneal hemorrhage, causing significant morbidity and representing a diagnostic challenge.

Stavros I Daliakopoulos; Andreas Bairaktaris; Dimitrios Papadimitriou; Perikles Pappas

2008-01-01

138

Oceanic ecosystem dynamics during gigantic volcanic episodes: the Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus recorded by calcareous nannoplankton. (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth's volcanic activity introduces environmental stress that biota are forced to survive. There is a general consensus on the role of volcanogenic carbon dioxide increases, and implicit tectonic-igneous events, triggering major climate changes and profound variations in chemical, physical and trophic characteristics of the oceans through the Phanerozoic. Cretaceous geological records indicate conditions of excess atmCO2 (up to 2000-3000 ppm)

E. Erba

2010-01-01

139

Metal/nanowire contacts, quantum confinement, and their roles in the generation of new, gigantic actions in nanowire transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A distinctly new route for the design, modeling and electrical behavior of very short-channel (5-10 nm in channel length) nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) has been presented. Essential elements of the approach entail a drain current determined by thermionic emission, but not by carrier mobility in the channel of the transistor. A basic understanding of the fundamental physics and the concepts of Schottky-barrier-based design for the proposed route have been described. Quantum confinement in the nanowire channel together with Schottky barrier tailing and temperature-dependent fluctuations of applied biases has been taken into account for the development of the model. Both current-voltage characteristics and transconductance of FETs have been studied. The calculated results are in near-quantitative agreement with the available experiments. Measured data show very diverse (e.g., exponential, linear, saturating, and non-linear non-exponential non-saturating) nanowire transistor characteristics. The model explains these characteristics well and reveals a number of new transistor actions. It highlights the impacts of quantum confinement and Schottky contacts for these new transistor actions. It also quantifies the significant enhancement of the drain-source current and transconductance. With new findings thus achieved, suggestions for the realization of very high-performance, small-diameter (preferably 2 nm), small-Schottky-barrier-height, high-operating temperature, ultra-short-channel-length, nanowire transistors have been made. Optimized design of these transistors has been suggested. And the range (in terms of device and technological parameters) of the proposed model has been elucidated.

Mohammad, S. Noor

2013-11-01

140

A gigantic sarcopterygian (tetrapodomorph lobe-finned fish) from the upper Devonian of Gondwana (Eden, New South Wales, Australia).  

PubMed

Edenopteron keithcrooki gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Famennian Worange Point Formation; the holotype is amongst the largest tristichopterids and sarcopterygians documented by semi-articulated remains from the Devonian Period. The new taxon has dentary fangs and premaxillary tusks, features assumed to be derived for large Northern Hemisphere tristichopterids (Eusthenodon, Hyneria, Langlieria). It resembles Eusthenodon in ornament, but is distinguished by longer proportions of the parietal compared to the post-parietal shield, and numerous differences in shape and proportions of other bones. Several characters (accessory vomers in the palate, submandibulars overlapping ventral jaw margin, scales ornamented with widely-spaced deep grooves) are recorded only in tristichopterids from East Gondwana (Australia-Antarctica). On this evidence Edenopteron gen. nov. is placed in an endemic Gondwanan subfamily Mandageriinae within the Tristichopteridae; it differs from the nominal genotype Mandageria in its larger size, less pointed skull, shape of the orbits and other skull characters. The hypothesis that tristichopterids evolved in Laurussia and later dispersed into Gondwana, and a derived subgroup of large Late Devonian genera dispersed from Gondwana, is inconsistent with the evidence of the new taxon. Using oldest fossil and most primitive clade criteria the most recent phylogeny resolves South China and Gondwana as areas of origin for all tetrapodomorphs. The immediate outgroup to tristichopterids remains unresolved - either Spodichthys from Greenland as recently proposed, or Marsdenichthys from Gondwana, earlier suggested to be the sister group to all tristichopterids. Both taxa combine two characters that do not co-occur in other tetrapodomorphs (extratemporal bone in the skull; non-cosmoid round scales with an internal boss). Recently both 'primitive' and 'derived' tristichopterids have been discovered in the late Middle Devonian of both hemispheres, implying extensive ghost lineages within the group. Resolving their phylogeny and biogeography will depend on a comprehensive new phylogenetic analysis. PMID:23483884

Young, Ben; Dunstone, Robert L; Senden, Timothy J; Young, Gavin C

2013-01-01

141

Espectroscopía del triplete del CaII de gigantes rojas del campo de la Nube Menor de Magallanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using spectra obtained with the VLT (Chile), we determined the metallic- ity of 360 red giant field stars surrounding 15 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) star clusters previously studied by us. Using this information, as well as that available for 13 other previously studied fields and for our 15 clusters, we found no evidence of metallicity gradient in the SMC. Besides, we observed a clear tendency for the field stars to be more metal-poor than the corresponding cluster they surround. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Parisi, M. C.; Geisler, D.; Grocholski, A. J.; Clariá, J. J.; Sarajedini, A.

142

Aggressive angiomyxoma in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Aggressive angiomyxoma (AA) is a rare, slow-growing mesenchymal neoplasm of vulvo-perineal region. Although AA is common in females of reproductive age, only a few cases during pregnancy have been documented in the English literature. It carries a high risk of local recurrence but rarely metastasizes. The high recurrence rate can partially be due to inadequate excision, which may be due to an incorrect preoperative diagnosis. We present a case of 25-year-old pregnant female presenting with a painless and soft mass attached to left labia majora by a stalk. This mass was clinically thought to be a lipoma. It was completely excised and was diagnosed as AA on histopathology. Gynecologists should consider the diagnosis of AA when a young female especially during her pregnancy presents with a vulvo-perineal mass. Incorrect diagnosis may lead to incomplete excision and recurrence. PMID:25002951

Goyal, Prashant; Agrawal, Dipti; Sehgal, Shelly; Ghosh, Soumyesh; Kumar, Awanindra; Singh, Sompal

2014-05-13

143

Aggressive Angiomyxoma in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Aggressive angiomyxoma (AA) is a rare, slow-growing mesenchymal neoplasm of vulvo-perineal region. Although AA is common in females of reproductive age, only a few cases during pregnancy have been documented in the English literature. It carries a high risk of local recurrence but rarely metastasizes. The high recurrence rate can partially be due to inadequate excision, which may be due to an incorrect preoperative diagnosis. We present a case of 25-year-old pregnant female presenting with a painless and soft mass attached to left labia majora by a stalk. This mass was clinically thought to be a lipoma. It was completely excised and was diagnosed as AA on histopathology. Gynecologists should consider the diagnosis of AA when a young female especially during her pregnancy presents with a vulvo-perineal mass. Incorrect diagnosis may lead to incomplete excision and recurrence.

Goyal, Prashant; Agrawal, Dipti; Sehgal, Shelly; Ghosh, Soumyesh; Kumar, Awanindra; Singh, Sompal

2014-01-01

144

Subcutaneous photophores in the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (d'Orbigny, 1835) (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) Fotóforos subcutáneos en el calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas (d'Orbigny, 1835) (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen.- En Dosidicus gigas se observaron pequeñas inclusiones de color amarillo pálido embebidas a distintas profundidades en el músculo del manto, las que corresponden a fotóforos. A nivel histológico los fotóforos están formados por un tejido fotogenerador, que se tiñe de color naranja intenso con tinción tricrómica de Mallory y un tejido vacuolar, que lo rodea y penetra en éste,

Karin B. Lohrmann

2008-01-01

145

Partial characterization of 5?-nucleotidase from giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) mantle Caracterización parcial de la enzima 5?-nucleotidasa del manto de calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important cephalopod resource in the northwestern area of Mexico is the jumbo squid whose postmortem biochemical behavior has been studied in detail. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) degradation in this organism is different than the other species because of the fast degradation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) metabolite in mantle. In this research, AMP deaminase from jumbo squid mantle was partially

R. Pacheco-Aguilar; V. M. Ocano-Higuera; J. M. Ezquerra-Brauer; F. J. Castillo-Yañez; G. García-Sánchez; E. Marquez-Rios

2010-01-01

146

Synergistic Combination of Multi-Zr(IV) Cations and Lacunary Keggin Germanotungstates Leading to a Gigantic Zr24-Cluster-Substituted Polyoxometalate.  

PubMed

Synergistic directing roles of six lacunary fragments resulted in an unprecedented Zr24-cluster substituted poly(polyoxotungstate) Na10K22[Zr24O22(OH)10(H2O)2(W2O10H)2(GeW9O34)4(GeW8O31)2]·85H2O (Na10K22·1·85H2O), which contains the largest [Zr24O22(OH)10(H2O)2] (Zr24) cluster in all the Zr-based poly(polyoxometalate)s to date. The most remarkable feature is that the centrosymmetric Zr24-cluster-based hexamer contains two symmetry-related [Zr12O11(OH)5(H2O)(W2O10H)(GeW9O34)2(GeW8O31)](16-) trimers via six ?3-oxo bridges and was simultaneously trapped by three types of different segments of B-?-GeW9O34, B-?-GeW8O31, and W2O10. The other interesting characteristic is that there are two pairs of intriguing triangular atom alignments: one is composed of the Zr(2,4,6,8,11) and W21 atoms and the other contains the Ge(1-3), Zr(3,5,7,9,10,12) and W26 atoms, and the Zr5 atom is inside the triangle; a linking mode is unobserved. The oxygenation reactions of thioethers by H2O2 were evaluated when Na10K22·1·85H2O served as a catalyst. Results show that it is an effective catalyst for oxygenation of thioethers by H2O2. The unique redox property of oxygen-enriched polyoxotungstate fragments and Lewis acidity of the Zr cluster imbedded in Na10K22·1·85H2O provide a sufficient driving force for the catalytic conversion from thioethers to sulfoxides/sulfones. PMID:24819708

Huang, Ling; Wang, Sa-Sa; Zhao, Jun-Wei; Cheng, Lin; Yang, Guo-Yu

2014-05-28

147

Crescimento ponderal de filhotes de tartaruga gigante da Amazônia (Podocnemis expansa) submetidos a tratamento com rações isocalóricas contendo diferentes níveis de proteína bruta  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A criação de Podocnemis expansa, a tartaruga-da-amazônia, com finalidade comercial foi implantada no Brasil em 1992. Contudo, muitas questões acerca do manejo, da nutrição, da sanidade e, principalmente, da reprodução ainda são obscuras. Visando contribuir para o desenvolvimento de uma metodologia alimentar da espécie, objetivou-se testar diferentes níveis de proteína da dieta. Uma amostra de 480 animais neonatos

Vinicius Augusto Sá; Leonardo C. Quintanilha; Gustavo Eduardo Freneau; Vera Lucia Ferreira Luz; Arcádio de Los Reyes Borja; Paulo César Silva

2004-01-01

148

Development of a Joint Inversion Technique using Gravimetric and Muon-radiographic Data for Resolving Three-dimensional Density Structure of a Gigantic Body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a method of analyzing gravimetric and muon-radiographic data for visualizing a three-dimensional density structure of a volcano. The method searches for a density structure that best explains the muon and gravity data simultaneously. For finding a solution, techniques in least-squares inversion were employed. According to the model simulation we have conducted, this new method was proved to have higher potential than previous gravimetric inversion and previous muon tomography [Taira,2010; Tanaka et al.,2010]. As a demonstration, we applied this method to Mt. Showa-Shinzan lava dome, Hokkaido, Japan. At this site, muon observation has already been performed with emulsion cloud chamber (ECC). The effective area of ECC was 1200 cm2, and the exposure time was 4 month.Tanaka et al.,[2007] calculated the amount of matter on the muon trajectories in the unit of gcm-2 (density times length). In addition to the muon data, we newly collected gravity data at 35 stations on / around the lava dome. The data was measured by using a LaCoste Romberg Gravimeter (G-875). Position of a gravity station was determined by GPS interferometry between a reference station and a moving station. Thereby, we conducted joint inversion of the muon and gravity data. The joint inversion yielded us the three-dimensional density profile of Mt.Showa-Shinzan. The density profile suggested the two features of the dome. Firstly, lava had intruded beneath the dome in a cylindrical shape whose diameter was 300 meter. This is inferred by the existence of high density(? > 2.4g/cc) region localized at an altitude of 220 ~ 260 meter. Secondly, we found a ultra high density region which was suspected to be a spine spreading vertically near the top of the dome.

Nishiyama, R.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Okubo, S.; Oshima, H.; Maekawa, T.

2012-04-01

149

The electromagnetic Ram action of the plasma focus as a paradigm for the generation of cosmic rays and the gigantic jets in active galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent measurements of the energy spectrum of the plasma-focus-generated deuteron beam yield as spectrum of the form N(E)=(approx.) E to the -2.7 for 1MeV E 13 MeV. Other measurements show that the beta 1 electron beam which is generated simultaneously with the deuteron beam is interrupted into segments of spacing 25ps and duration approximately 4ps. A stuttering-electro-magnetic-ram (ser) model of the plasma focus in proposed which is similar to Raudorf's electronic ram which produces a similar spectrum for an electron beam for 1Mev E 10MeV. It is proposed that the cosmic ray spectrum and the giganic galactic jets are both generated by ser action near the centers of active galaxies.

Bostick, W. H.; Nardi, V.

1985-08-01

150

Hemangioma cavernoso gigante de seno maxilar. Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura Giant cavernous hemangioma of the maxillary sinus. Case report and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Los hemangiomas son neoplasias vasculares benignas que se presentan de preferencia en la región cervicofacial, siendo raros en las fosas nasales y excepcionales en los senos paranasales, con pocos casos reportados. Se presenta un paciente de sexo masculino y 33 años de edad, que consultó por obstrucción nasal, aumento de volumen maxilar y exoftalmo izquierdo de 2 años de

Alfredo Naser G; Arturo Samith M; Carlos Ríos D

151

Aggressive angiomyxoma of vulva recurring 8 years after initial diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Aggressive angiomyxoma is an uncommon soft tissue tumor which preferentially involves pelvic and vulvoperineal regions of\\u000a young adult females. The typical characteristics include gelatinous appearance and locally infiltrative nature without evidence\\u000a of nuclear atypia or mitosis. Treatment involves surgery, but local recurrence is high in spite of apparently complete surgical\\u000a resection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case  A 28-year-old woman who had had a history of

Mehmet Coskun Salman; Gamze Mocan Kuzey; Nasuh Utku Dogan; Kunter Yuce

2009-01-01

152

Arms races and the evolution of big fierce societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The causes of biological gigantism have received much attention, but only for individual organisms. What selection pressures might favour the evolution of gigantic societies? Here we consider the largest single-queen insect societies, those of the Old World army ant, Dorylus; single colonies of which can have 20 million workers. We propose that colony gigantism in Dorylus arises as a

Graeme P. Boswell; Nigel R. Franks; N. F. Britton

2001-01-01

153

Variabilidad en la estructura poblacional del calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas) en Santa Rosalía, región central del Golfo de California Variability in the population structure of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) in Santa Rosalía, central Gulf of California  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the population structure of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the area of Santa Rosalía (central Gulf of California) during the years 2003 and 2004, and analyzes the interannual variability in the size structure over a wider time period, 1996-2004 (except 2000-2002). The results revealed clear differences in the size structure and sexual maturity of males and females

G Bazzino; C Salinas-Zavala; U Markaida

2007-01-01

154

Producción y evaluación funcional de un concentrado proteico de calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas) obtenido mediante disolución alcalina Production and functional evaluation of a protein concentrate from giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) obtained by alkaline dissolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protein concentrate from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) was produced under alkaline conditions. Solubility, recovery of proteins, electrophoretic profile, as well as changes in the pattern of solubility of proteins recovered were determined. In the gels, its capability (functional–technological) was evaluated in terms of texture profile analysis, folding test, water holding capacity, and color attributes. The alkaline treatment promoted the

G. Dihort-Garcia; V. M. Ocano-Higuera; J. M. Ezquerra-Brauer; M. E. Lugo-Sanchez; R. Pacheco-Aguilar; S. M. Barrales-Heredia; E. Marquez-Rios

2011-01-01

155

CARACTERIZACIÓN PARCIAL DEL COLÁGENO EXTRAÍDO A PARTIR DEL MANTO, ALETA Y TENTÁCULOS DE CALAMAR GIGANTE (Dosidicus gigas) PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COLLAGEN FROM MANTLE, FIN, AND ARMS OF JUMBO SQUID (Dosidicus gigas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Dosidicus gigas or jumbo squid, collagen plays an important role in squid swimming mechanisms. Scarce information is available on collagen. The content as well some physical and chemical properties of pepsin-soluble (PSC) and insoluble collagen (IC) were compared in mantle, arm, and fin from adult fresh jumbo squid. The total collagen content and SDS-electrophoresis profile were different in each

W. Torres-Arreola; R. Pacheco-Aguilar; R. R. Sotelo-Mundo; O. Rouzaud-Sández; J. M. Ezquerra-Brauer

2008-01-01

156

Parameterization of a B3LYP specific correction for non-covalent interactions and basis set superposition error on a gigantic dataset of CCSD(T) quality non-covalent interaction energies  

PubMed Central

A vast number of non-covalent interaction energies at the counterpoise corrected CCSD(T) level have been collected from the literature to build a diverse new dataset. The whole dataset, which consists of 2027 CCSD(T) energies, includes most of the published data at this level. A large subset of the data was then used to train a novel, B3LYP specific, empirical correction scheme for non-covalent interactions and basis set superposition error (abbreviated as B3LYP-MM). Results obtained with our new correction scheme were directly compared to benchmark results obtained with B3LYP-D31 and M06-2X2 (two popular density functions designed specifically to accurately model non-covalent interactions). For non-covalent complexes dominated by dispersion or dipole-dipole interactions all three tested methods give accurate results with the medium size aug-cc-pVDZ3–6 basis set with MUE’s of 0.27 (B3LYP-MM), 0.32 (B3LYP-D3) and 0.47 kcal/mol (M06-2X) (with explicit counterpoise corrections). These results validate both B3LYP-D3 and M06-2X for interactions of this type using a much larger data set than was presented in prior work. However, our new dispersion correction scheme shows some clear advantages for dispersion and dipole-dipole dominated complexes with the small LACVP* basis set, which is very popular in use due to its low associated computational cost: The MUE for B3LYP-MM with the LACVP* basis set for this subset of complexes (without explicit counterpoise corrections) is only 0.28 kcal/mol, compared to 0.65 kcal/mol for M06-2X or 1.16 kcal/mol for B3LYP-D3. Additionally, our new correction scheme also shows major improvements in accuracy for hydrogen-bonded systems and for systems involving ionic interactions, for example cation-? interactions. Compared to B3LYP-D3 and M06-2X, we also find that our new B3LYP-MM correction scheme gives results of higher or equal accuracy for a large dataset of conformer energies of di- and tripeptides, sugars, and cysteine.

Schneebeli, Severin T.; Bochevarov, Arteum D.; Friesner, Richard A.

2011-01-01

157

Qual é a profundidade da pigmentação do nevus piloso gigante que acomete o dorso? Congenital giant nevocellular nevus of the back with worsening deep extension to the fat and fascia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giant congenital nevi are melanocytic lesions that cover large areas of the body and are associated with the development of malignant melanoma. Recent numbers showed that the risk of malignancy is lower than previously reported, making the treatment based merely on oncologic anticipation no longer suitable. The presence of deep pigmentation makes certain treatment options not as effective as surgical

MARCOS R. O. JAEGER

158

Endocrine glands  

MedlinePLUS

... Hypothalamus Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas Ovaries Parathyroid Pineal Pituitary Testes Thyroid ... Adrenogenital syndrome Cushing syndrome Pheochromocytoma Pancreas: ... Acromegaly Diabetes Gigantism Diabetes insipidus Testes and ...

159

Fine genetic mapping of a gene required for Rice yellow mottle virus cell-to-cell movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The very high resistance to Rice yellow mottle virus observed in the two rice varieties Gigante ( Oryza sativa) and Tog 5681 ( O. glaberrima) is monogenic and recessive. Bulked segregant analysis was carried out to identify AFLP markers linked to the resistance gene. Mapping of PCR-specific markers, CAPS and microsatellite markers on 429 individuals of an IR64 × Gigante

L. Albar; M.-N. Ndjiondjop; Z. Esshak; A. Berger; A. Pinel; M. Jones; D. Fargette; A. Ghesquière

2003-01-01

160

Reviews of Topical Problems: Ocean eddies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and empirical data for three classes of ocean eddies are summarized: 1) gigantic anticyclonic gyres; 2) meanders, rings, and synoptic eddies in the open ocean; and, 3) mesoscale eddies (lenses of foreign waters and rotating cells of forced convection). A number of new results obtained in the last few years are reported: linear and nonlinear instability of gigantic

A. S. Monin; G. M. Zhikharev

1990-01-01

161

Ocean eddies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and empirical data for three classes of ocean eddies are summarized: 1) gigantic anticyclonic gyres; 2) meanders, rings, and synoptic eddies in the open ocean; and, 3) mesoscale eddies (lenses of foreign waters and rotating cells of forced convection). A number of new results obtained in the last few years are reported: linear and nonlinear instability of gigantic

A S Monin; G M Zhikharev

1990-01-01

162

Macrodystrophia lipomatosa with syndactyly.  

PubMed

Macrodystrophia lipomatosa (MDL) is a rare form of congenital localized gigantism characterized by hypertrophy of all mesenchymal tissues of the affected digits, with particular overgrowth of fat. Syndactyly is a rare association. We report a case of MDL associated with syndactyly affecting the hand. We describe the characteristic radiographic and MRI findings that distinguish the abnormality from other causes of localized gigantism. PMID:18690319

Mahafza, Waleed S; Haroun, Azmi A; Abdul-Wahab, Ahmed D; Hadidi, Shaher T

2008-08-01

163

Fermi discovers giant bubbles in Milky Way  

NASA Video Gallery

Using data from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, scientists have recently discovered a gigantic, mysterious structure in our galaxy. This feature looks like a pair of bubbles extending above...

164

Cloud Formation and Water Transport on Mars After Major Outflow Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The triggering of a robust water cycle on Mars might have been caused by the gigantic flooding events evidenced by outflow channels. We use the Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) to test this hypothesis.

Santiago, D. L.; Colaprete, A.; Kreslavsky, M.; Kahre, M. A.; Asphaug, E.

2012-03-01

165

Deep Water Isopods (Crustacea. Isopoda) of the North-Western Part of the Pacific Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Systematic list of the species discovered; Classification; Vertical distribution; Morphological peculiarities of deep-water Isopoda; Deep-water gigantism; Feeding; Reproduction; Epiphytes and parasites; Zoogeography; Some problems of origin and ...

Y. A. Birstein

1973-01-01

166

Remembering the Space Age: Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary Conference.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics covered include: Gigantic Follies. Human Exploration and the Space Age in Long-term Historical Perspective; National Aspirations on a Global Stage: Fifty Years of Spaceflight; Building Space Capability through European Regional Collaboration; Imagi...

S. J. Dick

2008-01-01

167

Growth hormone test  

MedlinePLUS

... growth hormone can cause abnormal growth patterns called acromegaly in adults and gigantism in children. Too little ... test may be used to monitor response to acromegaly treatment. Different tests are used to diagnose growth ...

168

The plating solution and the human body: Complex electrochemical systems  

SciTech Connect

A thesis proposed is that a plating solution is much like the human body. The body is nothing more than a gigantic complex of molecules and chemicals working together in harmony - so is a plating solution.

Dini, J.W.

1986-06-18

169

Estimación estocástica de la capturabilidad y el reclutamiento del calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835) del Golfo de California, México Stochastic estimation of the catchability and recruitment of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835) from the Gulf of California, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a depletion model with two different approaches (stochastic and deterministic) was analyzed, in order to compare the observation error hypothesis in the catch-per-unit effort (CPUE) data, and the process error in the model, as well as its effect on the recruitment and catchability estimates in the jumbo squid fishery from the Gulf of California, Mexico. Results showed

Enrique Morales-Bojórquez; Manuel O. Nevárez-Martínez

2002-01-01

170

TEMPERATURAS DEL GOLFO DE CALIFORNIA DURANTE MAYO Y JUNIO DE 1996 Y SU RELACIÓN CON LAS CAPTURAS DE CALAMAR GIGANTE (Dosidicus gigas D'ORBIGNY, 1835) WATER TEMPERATURES IN THE GULF OF CALIFORNIA IN MAY AND JUNE 1996 AND THEIR RELATION TO THE CAPTURE OF GIANT SQUID ( Dosidicus gigas D'ORBIGNY, 1835)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between water temperature and the capture of giant squid in the Gulf of California was analyzed. Data were collected in May and June 1996 at 60 stations. Each fishing session lasted 30 minutes, and an average of 100 organisms per 0.5º × 0.5º square were caught. The hypothesis was that if

S. C. Mar

2000-01-01

171

EFECTO DE LA CALIDAD DEL AGUA Y TAMAÑO DE PARTÍCULA EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE QUITOSANO A PARTIR DE ?-QUITINA EXTRAÍDA DE DESPERDICIOS DE CALAMAR GIGANTE (Dosidicus gigas) EFFECT OF WATER QUALITY AND PARTICLE SIZE ON THE PRODUCTION OF CHITOSAN FROM ?-CHITIN ISOLATED FROM JUMBO SQUID PROCESSING WASTES (Dosidicus gigas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jumbo squid wastes represent an important source of ?-chitin, which recently has been studied for its properties and potential applications. ?-chitin is characterized for chains in parallel fashion with weaker intermolecular interactions than ?-chitin. Therefore ?-chitin is more soluble in common solvents as well as it display higher reactivity for deacetylation and chemical modification than ?-chitin. Preparation of ?-chitin was

Z. Rocha-Pino; K. Shirai; L. Arias; H. Vázquez-Torres

2008-01-01

172

Validación histológica de los estadios de madurez gonádica de las hembras de calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas) en el Golfo de California, México Histological validation of the gonadal maturation stages of female jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the Gulf of California, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oocyte structure of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) female gonads was analyzed to validate morphochromatic sexual maturation stages based on a six-phase scale. Samples were obtained fortnightly from the Santa Rosalía area, Baja California Sur, from June 2001 to November 2002. Histological preparations were obtained from each gonad to count the number of oocytes at each level of development. The

JG Díaz-Uribe; A Hernández-Herrera; E Morales-Bojórquez; S Martínez-Aguilar; MC Suárez-Higuera; A Hernández-López

2006-01-01

173

Effect of lyophilized jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) fin and mantle muscle on dough properties and bread baking performance of commercial wheat flour Efecto de aleta y músculo de manto de calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas) liofilizado sobre las propiedades de la masa y la calidad panadera de una harina de trigo comercial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 25 and 50 g\\/kg of lyophilized jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) fin (JSF) and mantle muscle (JSM) on dough properties and baking performance of wheat flour were studied. Dough maximum resistance (Rmax), extensibility, deformation work (Area, 45-min resting time), baking performance, loaf volume, and acceptability were evaluated. JSF (25 g\\/kg) almost tripled (P ? 0.05) Rmax compared to

J. C. Ramirez-Suarez; A. R. Islas-Rubio; L. C. Montoya-Ballesteros; M. C. Granados-Nevarez; F. Vázquez-Lara; R. Pacheco-Aguilar; M. E. Lugo-Sánchez

2012-01-01

174

Liposarcoma of the breast, review of the literature and a report of a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of gigantic liposarcoma of the breast in a 52-year-old woman was reported. She had a small indolent mass in the left\\u000a breast for twenty years. The mass grew rapidly from the summer of 1979 and became gigantic and penetrated the skin over the\\u000a mass. Her general condition on admission was poor but resection, of the tumor was carried

Kazuo Kanemoto; Takuji Nakamura; Shiro Matsuyama; Masaaki Arai; Mitsugu Muratani

1981-01-01

175

Giant claw reveals the largest ever arthropod.  

PubMed

The fossil record has yielded various gigantic arthropods, in contrast to their diminutive proportions today. The recent discovery of a 46 cm long claw (chelicera) of the pterygotid eurypterid ('sea scorpion') Jaekelopterus rhenaniae, from the Early Devonian Willwerath Lagerstätte of Germany, reveals that this form attained a body length of approximately 2.5 m-almost half a metre longer than previous estimates of the group, and the largest arthropod ever to have evolved. Gigantism in Late Palaeozoic arthropods is generally attributed to elevated atmospheric oxygen levels, but while this may be applicable to Carboniferous terrestrial taxa, gigantism among aquatic taxa is much more widespread and may be attributed to other extrinsic factors, including environmental resources, predation and competition. A phylogenetic analysis of the pterygotid clade reveals that Jaekelopterus is sister-taxon to the genus Acutiramus, and is among the most derived members of the pterygotids, in contrast to earlier suggestions. PMID:18029297

Braddy, Simon J; Poschmann, Markus; Tetlie, O Erik

2008-02-23

176

On the negative selection and the danger theory inspired security for heterogeneous networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspirations for a boundless communication paradigm for future generation networks have changed the conventional way of looking at network security. With such a vision, security techniques should not only be securing local end-users but also be protecting entire networks from malicious adversaries. Unfortunately, providing security protection for such gigantic networks is a very challenging task. Based on the analogous relationships

Fazirulhisyam Hashim; KUMUDU S. MUNASINGHE; Abbas Jamalipour

2012-01-01

177

Mixed-magma pyroclastic surge deposits associated with debris avalanche deposits at Colima volcanoes, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition between the terminal cones and the ancestral edifices of Nevado de Colima and Fuego de Colima volcanoes is marked by the deposits of gigantic volcanic debris avalanches of the Mount St. Helens (MSH) or Bezymianny type. Unusual mafic juvenile fragments and cauliflower bombs as well as juvenile fragments of mixed and more evolved composition are abundant in dune-bedded

Claude Robin; Jean-Christophe Komorowski; Christian Boudal; Philippe Mossand

1990-01-01

178

Science 101: If an insect grows to human size, will it have superhuman strength?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If insects grew to gigantic proportions, could they take over the world with their super-strength? To find and understand the answer, you have to understand a bit of basic geometry and how it applies to all kinds of organisms of different sizes.

Robertson, William C.

2006-04-01

179

Research Challenges for Data Mining in Science and Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of computer and information technology in the last several decades, an enormous amount of data in science and engineering has been and will con- tinuously be generated in massive scale, either being stored in gigantic storage devices or ?owing into and out of the system in the form of data streams. Moreover, such data has been

Jiawei Han

180

Treatises on the paleohydrology of Mars and Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paleotopographic reconstruction has revealed the potential existence of an ancient enormous drainage basin and productive regional aquifer system in the eastern part of the Tharsis region. The basin model addresses a fundamental question in martian paleohydrology: Where did the massive amount of water required to carve the catastrophic outflow channels come from? These gigantic channels are typified in the

Justin Claus Ferris

2002-01-01

181

Swimming at low Reynolds number: a beginners guide to undulatory locomotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undulatory locomotion is a means of self-propulsion that relies on the generation and propagation of waves along a body. As a mode of locomotion it is primitive and relatively simple, yet can be remarkably robust. No wonder then, that it is so prevalent across a range of biological scales from motile bacteria to gigantic prehistoric snakes. Key to understanding undulatory

Netta Cohen; Jordan H. Boyle

2010-01-01

182

Neural fibrolipoma of the foot.  

PubMed

Neural fibrolipoma is a benign tumor comprised of hypertrophied fibrofatty tissue with intermixed nerve tissue. We present the case of a neural fibrolipoma of the foot that underwent above-ankle amputation and review the characteristic features of this unique form of localized gigantism. PMID:12886159

Ly, Justin Q; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; SanDiego, Jerry W; Beaman, Nancy A; Ficke, James R

2003-01-01

183

Blueprint and reality: Navi Mumbai, the city of the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Navi Mumbai, perhaps world's largest new town, was born with a specific purpose: to decongest Mumbai (previously Bombay) and become an alternative haven for the multitudes that throng Mumbai from different parts of India. Much has been written about this new town and its gigantic task. At different stages of growth, scholars and citizens have tried to assess the success

Aparna Vedula

2007-01-01

184

Origin of ELF\\/ULF waves triggered by positive cloud to ground lightning above mesoscale connective systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powerful electric currents and transient luminous events (sprites, blue jets and gigantic jets) have been detected in discharges between thunderclouds and the lower Ionosphere. The occurrence of such phenomena is strongly related to the occurrence of Ultra Low Frequency (ULF ~ 6-50 Hz) waves and to the occurrence of positive polarity cloud-to-ground flashes. In the present letter, we present a

G. Sorasio; P. K. Shukla; D. P. Resendes; J. T. Mendonça

2004-01-01

185

The evolution dynamics of the Strigiformes in the Mediterranean islands with the description of Aegolius martae n. sp. (Aves, Strigidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living and fossil owls (Aves, Strigiformes) constitute an important group for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of birds in island environments. After their different trends in island evolution, the Strigiformes can be seen as a representative of insular adaptations of birds as a whole. In fact they respond quickly to isolation with deep changes in body size, including dwarfism and gigantism,

Marco Pavia

2008-01-01

186

The Quaternary vegetation and landscape evolution of Novaya Zemlya in the light of palynological records  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of paleoenvironmental (pollen) investigations of Novaya Zemlya throughout all the Quaternary, including Eopleistocene, Pleistocene and Holocene. Clear evidence of continuity between the modern flora and paleofloras confirms the lack of sharp and continuous interruptions in the vegetation development in high latitudes as well as the absence of gigantic ice sheets in the Eastern Arctic. During

Leonid Serebryanny; Eugeniya Malyasova

1998-01-01

187

The Story of Semco: The Company that Humanized Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines and analyzes Semco, a company that changed the way it viewed and treated its workers for the better. It is the contention of Semco's CEO, that at most large corporations "everyone is part of a gigantic, impersonal machine, and it is impossible to feel motivated when you feel you are just another cog. Human nature demands…

Vanderburg, David

2004-01-01

188

Soil Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Humans use soil for their daily needs but do not sufficiently take account of its slow formation and fast loss. Discover the amazing geology of soil formation and the basic rock and soil types.Although soil seems the end product from weathering rocks, it is merely a stage in the gigantic cycle of mineral recycling by the movement of tectonic plates.

2008-07-24

189

Imaging sprites aboard TARANIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

TLE (Transient Luminous Event) is the generic name for phenomena which occur over thundercloud from the troposphere to the lower thermosphere (20 to 100 km-height). They are called sprites, elves, blue jets, gigantic jets . . . Each class of phenomenon has their own properties: duration, vertical and horizontal extension, delay after their parent lightning. They are mainly observed from

Thomas Farges; Elisabeth Blanc; Mitsuteru Sato; Yukihiro Takahashi; Makoto Suzuki; Olivier Grosjean

2008-01-01

190

Kuba, Kids, and an Airport: How One Community Celebrates Art and Imagination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes "The Kuba Project: An Exhibit of Gigantic Proportions" in which high school students learned about the Kuba people of the Congo and created monumental ceramic works of art. Explains that the student artwork was exhibited at the Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in Phoenix (Arizona) as part of the Sky Harbor Art Program. (CMK)

Eller, Lennee; Grigsby, Eugene, Jr.

2003-01-01

191

Sobre el principio y posterior hegemonía económico-política y militar de EE.UU tras la Segunda Guerra Mundial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las principales tendencias de desarrollo económico y social dentro de la estructura del capitalismo moderno se expresan en EE.UU de la forma más preponderante. La posición político-militar del gigante americano lo transforma en el centro neurálgico del imperialismo mundial, al liderar el bloque del Atlántico Norte, y al llevar a cabo una política de reacción contra las fuerzas de Movimiento

José Antonio Ascanio Barrio

2011-01-01

192

The Emerging Field of Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, data analysts would pour over hundreds, maybe even thousands of bits of data looking for underlying patterns that would reliably predict future outcomes. With the advent of the computer age, people have begun using computers to automate the data gathering process and store the information in databases. Computers are so well suited to this task that gigantic databases

Patrick Whalin

193

E-CANES: A Research Network dedicated to Electromagnetic Coupling of the Atmosphere With Near-Earth Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient luminous events in the stratosphere and mesosphere, the sprites, elves, blue jets and gigantic jets, are observed above intense thunderstorms in association with particularly intense lightning discharges. Their recent discovery (1989) offers an opportunity to study the fundamental process of the electric discharge under the different conditions of the troposphere (lightning), stratosphere (blue jets) and the mesosphere (sprites) and

C. Hanuise; E. Blanc; N. Crosby; U. Ebert; E. Mareev; T. Neubert; H. Rothkaehl; O. Santolik; Y. Yair; P. Gille

2008-01-01

194

Mechanical Analysis of Feeding Behavior in the Extinct ``Terror Bird'' Andalgalornis steulleti (Gruiformes: Phorusrhacidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South American phorusrhacid bird radiation comprised at least 18 species of small to gigantic terrestrial predators for which there are no close modern analogs. Here we perform functional analyses of the skull of the medium-sized (?40 kg) patagornithine phorusrhacid Andalgalornis steulleti (upper Miocene–lower Pliocene, Andalgalá Formation, Catamarca, Argentina) to assess its mechanical performance in a comparative context. Based on

Federico J. Degrange; Claudia P. Tambussi; Karen Moreno; Lawrence M. Witmer; Stephen Wroe; Samuel T. Turvey

2010-01-01

195

Renal cell carcinoma in a patient with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a patient with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) who developed renal cell carcinoma (RCC). At birth, this patient presented with macroglossia, diastasis recti, mild gigantism, hepatomegaly and hypoglycemia, and the diagnosis of BWS was made. At 22 months, an intrapelvic rhabdomyosarcoma was detected and resected. At 37 months, computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a small mass with high

T. Yamaguchi; T. Fukuda; M. Uetani; K. Hayashi; N. Kurosaki; H. Maeda; T. Matsumoto; H. Miyake

1996-01-01

196

Emissions of VOCs at Urban Petrol Retail Distribution Centres in India (Delhi and Mumbai)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution has assumed gigantic proportion killing almost half a million Asians every year. Urban pollution mainly comprises of emissions from buses, trucks, motorcycle other forms of motorized transport and its supporting activities. As Asia's cities continue to expand the number of vehicles have risen resulting in greater pollution. Fugitive emissions from retail distribution center in urban area constitute a

Anjali Srivastava; A. E. Joseph; Ajit More; Sunil Patil

2005-01-01

197

The requirement for the publication of detailed global marine casualties statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, ships' seaworthiness, naigation and safety and the protection of the marine environment rank very highly among shipping political issues. Yet, the available published statistical data concerning marine casualties relate ony to ‘total losses’. Obviously, total losses are just the tip of a gigantic iceberg of marine incidents and a far more complete analysis of th causes, circumstances and consequences

Jean-Pierre Dobler

1994-01-01

198

Government can help more by doing less  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gasoline shortage in the US in the summer of 1979 stimulated Congress to take action, even though the actions threaten to make the imbalance worse. The House passed a measure that would create a gigantic new industry to replace imported oil with synthetic fuels derived from coal, shale, and biomass. The Senate is now considering the measure introduced by

1979-01-01

199

Life-cycle energy assessment of urban residential buildings in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of rapid urbanization in China, urban residential buildings play an important role in the fulfillment of well-being society. Behind the gigantic demand on housings in the future decade, urban residential buildings will exert great impacts on the sustainable development of entire nation which deserves research and analysis. Based on the dichotomized energy types (emergy and operation energy),

Lei Shu-hual; Chang Yuan; Zhang Xue

2010-01-01

200

The Mystical Effects of Dermatological Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topical treatment of the skin is as old as the evolution of man. Instinctively, we try to treat a skin injury or irritation with cooling or soothing substances. Even animals lick their wounds, trusting instinctively in the healing power of saliva. When did this archaic pattern of treatment take the gigantic leap from folk medicine to modern drug therapy? This

Christian Surber; Eric W. Smith

2005-01-01

201

A text mining approach for automatic construction of hypertexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The research on automatic hypertext construction emerges,rapidly in the last decade because there exists a urgent need to translate the gigantic amount of legacy documents into web pages. Unlike traditional ‘flat’ texts, a hypertext contains a number of navigational hyperlinks that point to some related hypertexts or locations of the same hypertext. Traditionally, these hyperlinks were constructed by the

Hsin-chang Yang; Chung-hong Lee

2005-01-01

202

Fraud in the acid rain debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric utility executives, according to the author, and millions of other Americans are the victims of a gigantic fraud being carried on in the name of controlling acid rain. This fraud, states the author, involves the distorted, dire image of acidity in nature being created by environmental groups, politicians and others - to gain public sympathy for their legislative goals.

Bagge

1984-01-01

203

Geological and geophysical evidence for a holocene tsunami deposit in the astern Mediterranean deep-sea record  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended geological and geophysical exploration of basinal settings in different areas of the eastern Mediterranean demonstrate the existence of a Holocene mud layer several metres in thickness (up to more than 20 m) and typically showing a graded basal part. The event producing this peculiar deposit is correlated with the gigantic ‘Bronze Age’ or Minoan eruption of the Santorini volcano

Maria Bianca Cita; Bianca Rimoldi

1997-01-01

204

Riding the Dinosaur Wave.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As his geology students' specialized knowledge of the Mesozoic era increased, a high school teacher realized he needed a way to showcase their work. The Mesozoic Resource Center's biggest hit was a walk-through diorama showing how life might have been during each of three Mesozoic periods. Highlights included two gigantic student-built dinosaur…

Girod, Mark

1998-01-01

205

Untying the Gordian Data Knot. A Paper on Information Engineering (IE) and Corporate Information Management (CIM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic building blocks are coming together, but the most difficult work is yet to come. DoD must find the best way to transition the data in its legacy and migration systems which today are integrated into a gigantic gordian knot. The Defense Informati...

W. F. Reyers

1993-01-01

206

Using the Structure of HTML Documents to Improve Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Wide Web (WWW) is a gigantic information resource, which is growing daily. As more and more data are added to the WWW, it is becoming increasingly difficult to effectively locate useful information from this environment. In this paper, we propose a method for making use of the structures and hyperlinks of HTML documents to improve the effectiveness of

Michal Cutler; Yungming Shih; Weiyi Meng

1997-01-01

207

Not Your Parents' Marching Bands: The History of HONK!, Pedagogy and Music Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The HONK! Festival of Activist Street Bands (honkfest.org) is an independent, grassroots, non-commercial weekend festival held each autumn in Somerville, Massachusetts. It is a moving spectacle of colourful marching bands, gigantic puppets, creative bikers, jugglers, hoopers, flag twirlers and stilt walkers, interspersed with unions, activist…

Garofalo, Reebee

2011-01-01

208

Occurrence and distribution of global TLE activities and their effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 3-year survey of ISUAL experiment on the FORMOSAT-2 satellite, thousands of TLEs including sprites, elves, halos and jets have been recorded. The most dominated type (~80%) of TLEs was recognized as elves, and only 20% of the recorded events are sprites and halos. In addition, ISUAL also recorded 13 gigantic jets during this time span. Distributions of the

A. B. Chen; C. Kuo; Y. Lee; R. Hsu; H. Su; J. Chern; H. U. Frey; S. B. Mende; H. Fukunishi; Y. Takahashi; T. Liu; Y. Chang; L. Lee

2007-01-01

209

The Experience of External Studies. Occasional Papers No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document brings together four invited papers by external students who have graduated from Riverina College: (1) "The External Student: One Profile" (Christine Del Gigante); (2) "Managing Life as a External Student" (Robert Landow); (3) "The Computerised Student" (John Chant); and (4) "The Right to Study" (Coral Davidson). Topics covered…

Riverina Coll. of Advanced Education, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales (Australia).

210

Coral Reefs: A Gallery Program, Grades 7-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gallery classes at the National Aquarium in Baltimore give the opportunity to study specific aquarium exhibits which demonstrate entire natural habitats. The coral reef gallery class features the gigantic western Atlantic coral reef (325,000 gallons) with over 1,000 fish. The exhibit simulates a typical Caribbean coral reef and nearby sandy…

National Aquarium in Baltimore, MD. Dept. of Education.

211

Rock "n" Roll Presidents on Mount Rushmore. Second Grade Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A historian, Doane Robinson, and a sculptor, Gutzon Borglum, worked together to build a gigantic monument in South Dakota that honored four of the greatest U.S. presidents: George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt, and Thomas Jefferson. Robinson and Borglum wanted the monument to represent U.S. ideals. To celebrate the anniversary of…

Sawyer, Debbie

212

Dabur India—Working Capital and Cost Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

After running as a family business for over 100 years, when in late 1990s, the management of the Dabur was handed over to a team of professional managers, the new management faced a gigantic task of improving performance in several critical areas. In particular, working capital and cost management required urgent attention as the company's performance in these areas had

Narender L. Ahuja; Sweta Gupta

2007-01-01

213

Markarian 348 - A tidally disturbed Seyfert galaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined optical and radio images of galaxies can provide new insights into the sizes, masses, and possible evolution of these objects. Deep optical and neutral hydrogen images of Markarian 348, a type 2 Seyfert galaxy, show that it is a gigantic spiral (perhaps the largest known noncluster galaxy). Measurements of the neutral hydrogen velocity field and spiral structure, and detection

Susan M. Simkin; Jacqueline van Gorkom; John Hibbard; Hong-Jun Su

1987-01-01

214

First insights into the biodiversity and biogeography of the Southern Ocean deep sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow marine benthic communities around Antarctica show high levels of endemism, gigantism, slow growth, longevity and late maturity, as well as adaptive radiations that have generated considerable biodiversity in some taxa. The deeper parts of the Southern Ocean exhibit some unique environmental features, including a very deep continental shelf and a weakly stratified water column, and are the source for

A. Brandt; A. J. Gooday; S. N. Brandao; Mesel de I. G

2007-01-01

215

Wireless network deployment configurations: Dwesa marginalized area as a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several technological initiatives have been, and will continue to be implemented across the world to tackle the major barriers in bridging the digital divide. These include the use of Internet and other ICTs. This is seen as a gigantic step in the alleviation of the different paramount social-economic problems, at the same time, in the transformation of the society and

Nkanyiso Ndlovu; Nobert Jere; Handsome Mpofu

2010-01-01

216

Hypothetical endosymbiontic zooxanthellae in rudists are not needed to explain their ecological niches and thick shells in comparison with hermatypic corals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragments of gigantic Durania farafrahensis Douvillé from Maastrichtian pelagic settings (Ghareb chalk) in southern Israel triggered the re-evaluation of the hypothetical symbiosis of rudists with photosynthesizing zooxanthellae. This Durania lived as separate individuals on the muddy bottom of the deep sea and hence was the only rigid substrate to which sponges, octocorals and algae probably attached, attracting other organisms for

Z. Lewy

1995-01-01

217

Deep Footprints of OdysseyChinese Sources of India–China Civilisational Dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the presentation of the joint project on twenty centuries of civilisational dialogue between India and China, India and China: Twenty Centuries of Civilizational Interaction and Vibrations, with Professor Tan Chung. Chinese literature, in its gigantic historical spatiality, has captured crucial glimpses and registered innumerable milestones of the odyssey of India–China civilisational dialogue. The division of labour between me

Geng Yinzeng

2006-01-01

218

Hydrogeological insights in antiquity as indicated by Canaanite and Israelite water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazor, one of the largest fortified city during the Israelite (Iron-Age) period, encompasses a gigantic underground water system within its perimeter, supplying water to thousands of its inhabitants. It is considered as the ultimate example that Iron-Age engineers had mastered the concept of regional groundwater table. However, evaluating the hydrogeological conditions and the degree of success in finding water in

Ram Weinberger; Amihai Sneh; Eyal Shalev

2008-01-01

219

Sadness, tragedy and mass disaster in Oklahoma City: providing critical incident stress debriefings to a community in crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortly after 09:00 h on 19 April 1995, the Alfred P Murrah Federal Building, located in downtown Oklahoma City, was devastated with a bomb blast of such gigantic proportions that it was heard 60 miles away in neighbouring Norman, Oklahoma. Oklahomans routinely commuting to work on that sunny Wednesday morning went about their business as usual. A crude bomb chemically

J. A. Davis

1996-01-01

220

Familial Dandy-Walker malformation and leukodystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first familial cases with two different types of posterior fossa cystic malformation and a leukodystrophic-like aspect on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The girl and her brother had severe encephalopathy, marked hypotonia, absent deep tendon reflexes, macrocrania, gigantism, and dysmorphic face and extremities. The girl had generalized seizures. The boy had unilateral cataract and bilateral optic atrophy.

Véronique T. Humbertclaude; Philippe A. Coubes; Nicolas Leboucq; Bernard B. Echenne

1997-01-01

221

Oxygen from the lunar soil by molten silicate electrolysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accepting that oxygen, rather than gigantic gems or gold, is likely to make the Moon's Klondike, the extraction of oxygen from the lunar soil by molten silicate electrolysis has chosen to be investigated. Process theory and proposed lunar factory are addressed.

Colson, Russell O.; Haskin, Larry A.

1992-01-01

222

Polyketide biosynthesis: understanding and exploiting modularity: One contribution of 17 to a Triennial Issue 'Chemistry and life science'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyketide-based pharmaceuticals are some of our most important medicines. They are constructed in micro-organisms (typically bacteria and fungi) by gigantic enzyme catalysts called polyketide synthases (PKSs). The organization of PKSs into molecular assembly lines makes them particularly appealing targets for genetic engineering because, in principle, an alteration in the enzyme organization might translate into a predictable change in polyketide structure.

Kira J. Weissman

2004-01-01

223

GMS-4 observations of volcanic eruption clouds from Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies are presented of IR and visible imageries of the gigantic volcanic eruption clouds (VECs) from Mt. Pinatubo taken on June 15, 1991 at one hour intervals by the geostationary meteorological satellite. A huge disk-shaped VEC showing a 'wave' texture appeared in the 0640 UT visible image covering an area 300 km in diameter.

Tokuno, Masami

1991-11-01

224

Computer-Guided, Population-Based Screening System for Growth Disorders (CrescNet®) and On-Line Generation of Normative Data for Growth and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mean age at which the diagnosis of growth disorders such as Turner’s syndrome, growth hormone (GH) deficiency or true GH-dependent gigantism is established is still rather late in many countries around the world. In addition, the question of secular trends in a given population and the rate at which childhood obesity is increasing in industrialized countries make it mandatory

W. Kiess; R. Gausche; A. Keller; J. Burmeister; H. Willgerodt; E. Keller

2001-01-01

225

The Power of Wetherill's Friend, Jupiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jupiter is a gigantic gravitational sling that can alter the orbits of small bodies while triggering their “chaotic” diffusion. This property was used to fly the spacecraft Ulysses around the solar poles. Ulysses was not fired directly to the Sun but to Jupiter, which did sling it back to the Sun, thus saving the spacecraft a lot of energy.

Maurette, Michel

226

BotEC: The Right Eye of the Man in the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Question The "right eye" of the Man in the Moon is really Mare Imbrium, the central portion of a gigantic multi-ring basin formed by a colossal meteorite impact several billion years ago. Which of the following is approximately the same size as Mare Imbrium? Choose from the Pacific Ocean, the North Atlantic Ocean, Australia, Texas, and New York State.

Tewksbury, Barb

227

Dysplasies hamartomateuses avec hémihypertrophie. Deux observations dont un syndrome Protée  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamartomatous dysplasias with hemihypertrophy are a part of several congenital diseases, sometimes difficult to classify when their symptomatology is relatively poor. Case reports. - Case 1. A girl, 11 year-old, suffered from gigantism of the feet, left hemihypertrophy of the limbs, scoliosis and kyphosis. X-rays showed frontal hyperostose, bony and soft tissues overgrowth involving the left limbs and pelvis with

E Delaporte; R Wendehenne; S Descamps; V Bitbol-Duneton; P. Y Hatron; F Piette; H Bergoend

1995-01-01

228

Urano y sus dos satélites irregulares recientemente descubiertos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hasta hace poco tiempo, Urano era el único de los Planetas Gigantes que no poseía satélites irregulares. Esto lo diferenciaba del resto de los planetas Gigantes, al igual que la peculiar oblicuidad de su eje de spin. La gran inclinación de su eje de rotación se debe probablemente a una colisión que sufrió el planeta con otro embrión planetario al final del proceso de formación. Esta colisión habría desligado satélites exteriores preexistentes del planeta. Recientemente se han descubierto dos satélites irregulares de Urano, lo que introduce algunas nuevas cotas y condiciones en el escenario de la "Hipótesis de la Gran Colisión" . Los satélites irregulares de Urano tuvieron que ser capturados en una etapa posterior a la del escenario de la Gran Colisión, de no ser así, hubieran sido eyectados del sistema por el impulso impartido con ese gran impacto. En este trabajo, se discuten los posibles mecanismos de captura de los satélites irregulares y se presenta un nuevo posible mecanismo para dicha captura.

Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

229

Galaxies Behind the Milky Way and the Great Attractor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust and stars in the plane of the Milky Way create a “Zone of Avoidance” in the extragalactic sky. Galaxies are distributed\\u000a in gigantic labyrinth formations, filaments and great walls with occasional dense clusters. They can be traced all over the\\u000a sky, except where the dust within our own galaxy becomes too thick - leaving about 25% of the extragalactic

Renee C. Kraan-Korteweg

230

Testing ecological and developmental hypotheses of mean and variation in adult size in nephilid orb-weaving spiders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecundity selection has been hypothesized to drive the evolution of female gigantism in the orb-weaving family Nephilidae.\\u000a Several species of these spiders also exhibit large amounts of variation in size at maturity in one or both sexes. In this\\u000a article, we attempt to detect correlations of mean and variation in adult size at a phylogenetic scale between the sexes and

Linden Higgins; Jonathan Coddington; Charles Goodnight; Matjaž Kuntner

231

Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome: presentation of clinical and cytogenetic data on 22 new cases and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main features of Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS) include macroglossia, abdominal wall defects, visceromegaly, gigantism, hypoglycemia, ear creases, nevus flammeus, and mid-face hypoplasia. Twenty-two cases of WBS were examined clinically and cytogenetically, and compared to 226 previously reported cases. Aspects of the clinical evaluations are discussed. All individuals examined were chromosomally normal with no evidence of 11p abnormality as has been

M. J. Pettenati; J. L. Haines; R. R. Higgins; R. S. Wappner; C. G. Palmer; D. D. Weaver

1986-01-01

232

A Study on Management Risk Evaluation System of Large-Scale Complex Construction Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A large-scale complex construction project is a gigantic system integrated with multiple factors, participants, management\\u000a levels and relations. Complicated and varying management risks arise in such projects due to the diversity of project targets,\\u000a the limitation of resources, the variation of environments and conflicts of multiple interests. Traditional risk management\\u000a methods may be improper and inadaptable for large complex projects.

Linlin Xie; Yu Yang

233

The Oort cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Views of the large-scale structure of the solar system, consisting of the Sun, the nine planets and their satellites, changed when Oort demonstrated that a gigantic cloud of comets (the Oort cloud) is located on the periphery of the solar system. The following subject areas are covered: (1) the Oort cloud's mass; (2) Hill's cloud mass; (3) angular momentum distribution in the solar system; and (4) the cometary cloud around other stars.

Marochnik, Leonid S.; Mukhin, Lev M.; Sagdeev, Roald Z.

1991-01-01

234

Age of Carcharodon megalodon?  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAURICE Lariche1 states that the teeth of the gigantic extinct shark, Carcharodon megalodon, found on the bottom of modern oceans belong to the Pleistocene period. The report of the Challenger Expedition2 states that some shark teeth from the same station were covered with a layer of manganese dioxide-one slightly, another deeply. Among them at Station 281, depth 2,385 fathoms, South

W. Tschernezky

1959-01-01

235

Dinosaur Deaths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If the extinction of the dinosaurs was caused by a gigantic meteor that hit the earth 65 million years ago, as many scientists believe, then there should be traces of meteor dust in the geological record. This radio broadcast reports on a group of oceanographers who are drilling into the ocean floor to look for that meteor dust. The clip is 2 minutes in length.

236

Cold Nuclear Fusion Induced by Controlled Out-Diffusion of Deuterons in Palladium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gigantic neutron burst of (1--2)× 106 n\\/s has been detected from deuterated Pd plates with heterostructures set in a vacuum chamber. An explosive release of D2 gas, biaxial bending of all the samples, and excess heat evolution were also observed at the same time. It has been concluded that these phenomena are caused by the cooperative production of D

Eiichi Yamaguchi; Takashi Nishioka

1990-01-01

237

Mass Loss in Galactic Globulars: Red Giant Stragglers and Helium White Dwarfs  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN En este trabajo se estudia la evoluci6n de las gigantes rojas de poblaci6n II con perdida de masa, esquematizada a trave's de la formula de Reimers. Se presentan ca'lculos evolutivos para modelos caracterizados por M = 0.8M0, Y = 0.23 y Z = 0.0002, y un amplio conjunto de valores del parametro que determina la tasa de pe'rdida de

V. Luridiana

1994-01-01

238

Protection of Cities from Small Rockets, Missiles, Projectiles and Mortar Shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors suggest a low cost closed AB-Dome, which may protect small cities such as Sederot from rockets, mortar shells, chemical and biological weapons. The offered AB-Dome is also very useful in peacetime because it protects the city from outside weather (violent storms, hail) and creates a fine climate within the Dome. The roughly hemispherical AB-Dome is a gigantic inflated

Alexander Bolonkin; Joseph Friedlander

2008-01-01

239

Physics of ultrathin photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors consider physical properties of ultrathin photovoltaics with thickness (<~1 ?m) smaller than both the depletion width and diffusion length, applicable to the cases of amorphous, polycrystalline, and nanostructured devices. Three phenomena underlie the unique physics of such systems: (1) lateral screening by conducting electrodes, (2) leakiness due to defect assisted tunneling, and (3) gigantic capacitive energy conducive to shunting breakdown. The authors give numerical estimates and discuss practical implications of these phenomena.

Karpov, V. G.; Cooray, M. L. C.; Shvydka, Diana

2006-10-01

240

Low-field magnetoelectric effect at room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discoveries of gigantic ferroelectric polarization in BiFeO3 (ref. 1) and ferroelectricity accompanied by a magnetic order in TbMnO3 (ref. 2) have renewed interest in research on magnetoelectric multiferroics, materials in which magnetic and ferroelectric orders coexist, from both fundamental and technological points of view. Among several different types of magnetoelectric multiferroic, magnetically induced ferroelectrics in which ferroelectricity is induced

Yutaro Kitagawa; Yuji Hiraoka; Takashi Honda; Taishi Ishikura; Hiroyuki Nakamura; Tsuyoshi Kimura

2010-01-01

241

A rare tumour of the vulva: a case report of a vulva angioneurofibroma hamartoma in a Cameroonian woman  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a rare vulva tumour, in a 33 years Cameroonian old woman and managed in Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of Yaoundé Central Hospital in Cameroon. It was a painless pedunculated vulva tumour which developed over a period of six months. This gigantic rapidly growing tumour, was treated with simple surgical resection. After surgical resection, histology confirmed an angioneurofibroma hamartoma. There has been no recurrence and presently the patient is symptom-free.

Ymele, Florent Fouelifack; Bechem, Efuetnkeng; Njotang, Philip Nana; Nangue, Charlette; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Damtheou, Sadjoli; Enoh, Robinson Mbu

2013-01-01

242

Colossal enhancement of magnetoresistance in La(0.67)Sr(0.33)MnO(3) thin films: possible evidence of electronic phase separation.  

PubMed

A gigantic three orders of magnitude change of resistivity in La(0.67)Sr(0.33)MnO(3) (LSMO) thin film, on application of magnetic field, has been observed. The transport and magnetic properties are characteristic of electronic phase separation between ferromagnetic metallic and antiferromagnetic charge-ordered insulating regions, unusual for a canonical double exchange system such as LSMO. PMID:21814010

Mukhopadhyay, Soumik; Das, I; Banerjee, S

2009-01-14

243

ARTICLE The island rule and the evolution of body size in the deep sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Our goal is to test the generality of the island rule - a graded trend from gigantism in small-bodied species to dwarfism in large-bodied species - in the deep sea, a non-insular but potentially analogous system. Location Shallow-water and deep-sea benthic habitats in the western Atlantic Ocean from the North to South Poles. Methods We conducted regression analyses of

Craig R. McClain; Alison G. Boyer; Gary Rosenberg

244

Four New Bat Species (Rhinolophus hildebrandtii Complex) Reflect Plio-Pleistocene Divergence of Dwarfs and Giants across an Afromontane Archipelago  

PubMed Central

Gigantism and dwarfism evolve in vertebrates restricted to islands. We describe four new species in the Rhinolophus hildebrandtii species-complex of horseshoe bats, whose evolution has entailed adaptive shifts in body size. We postulate that vicissitudes of palaeoenvironments resulted in gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands fragmented across eastern and southern Africa. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences recovered two clades of R. hildebrandtii senso lato which are paraphyletic with respect to a third lineage (R. eloquens). Lineages differ by 7.7 to 9.0% in cytochrome b sequences. Clade 1 includes R. hildebrandtii sensu stricto from the east African highlands and three additional vicariants that speciated across an Afromontane archipelago through the Plio-Pleistocene, extending from the Kenyan Highlands through the Eastern Arc, northern Mozambique and the Zambezi Escarpment to the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa. Clade 2 comprises one species confined to lowland savanna habitats (Mozambique and Zimbabwe). A third clade comprises R. eloquens from East Africa. Speciation within Clade 1 is associated with fixed differences in echolocation call frequency, and cranial shape and size in populations isolated since the late Pliocene (ca 3.74 Mya). Relative to the intermediate-sized savanna population (Clade 2), these island-populations within Clade 1 are characterised by either gigantism (South African eastern Great Escarpment and Mts Mabu and Inago in Mozambique) or dwarfism (Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge, Zimbabwe and Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa). Sympatry between divergent clades (Clade 1 and Clade 2) at Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge (NW Zimbabwe) is attributed to recent range expansions. We propose an “Allometric Speciation Hypothesis”, which attributes the evolution of this species complex of bats to divergence in constant frequency (CF) sonar calls. The origin of species-specific peak frequencies (overall range?=?32 to 46 kHz) represents the allometric effect of adaptive divergence in skull size, represented in the evolution of gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands.

Taylor, Peter J.; Stoffberg, Samantha; Monadjem, Ara; Schoeman, Martinus Corrie; Bayliss, Julian; Cotterill, Fenton P. D.

2012-01-01

245

Four new bat species (Rhinolophus hildebrandtii complex) reflect Plio-Pleistocene divergence of dwarfs and giants across an Afromontane archipelago.  

PubMed

Gigantism and dwarfism evolve in vertebrates restricted to islands. We describe four new species in the Rhinolophus hildebrandtii species-complex of horseshoe bats, whose evolution has entailed adaptive shifts in body size. We postulate that vicissitudes of palaeoenvironments resulted in gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands fragmented across eastern and southern Africa. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences recovered two clades of R. hildebrandtii senso lato which are paraphyletic with respect to a third lineage (R. eloquens). Lineages differ by 7.7 to 9.0% in cytochrome b sequences. Clade 1 includes R. hildebrandtii sensu stricto from the east African highlands and three additional vicariants that speciated across an Afromontane archipelago through the Plio-Pleistocene, extending from the Kenyan Highlands through the Eastern Arc, northern Mozambique and the Zambezi Escarpment to the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa. Clade 2 comprises one species confined to lowland savanna habitats (Mozambique and Zimbabwe). A third clade comprises R. eloquens from East Africa. Speciation within Clade 1 is associated with fixed differences in echolocation call frequency, and cranial shape and size in populations isolated since the late Pliocene (ca 3.74 Mya). Relative to the intermediate-sized savanna population (Clade 2), these island-populations within Clade 1 are characterised by either gigantism (South African eastern Great Escarpment and Mts Mabu and Inago in Mozambique) or dwarfism (Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge, Zimbabwe and Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa). Sympatry between divergent clades (Clade 1 and Clade 2) at Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge (NW Zimbabwe) is attributed to recent range expansions. We propose an "Allometric Speciation Hypothesis", which attributes the evolution of this species complex of bats to divergence in constant frequency (CF) sonar calls. The origin of species-specific peak frequencies (overall range = 32 to 46 kHz) represents the allometric effect of adaptive divergence in skull size, represented in the evolution of gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands. PMID:22984399

Taylor, Peter J; Stoffberg, Samantha; Monadjem, Ara; Schoeman, Martinus Corrie; Bayliss, Julian; Cotterill, Fenton P D

2012-01-01

246

Worlds Unnumbered: The Search for Extrasolar Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Described by "Booklist" as an "exciting account of the new planets. The burning curiosity, of course, is whether the newcomers could support life: the answer is no; most are gigantic and too close to their stars, and an earth-size planet found orbiting a pulsar would obviously be a crispy critter...Goldsmith reports with the enthusiasm and clarity essential to popular works. Two dozen color plates, some imagining the appearance of the new planets, gussy up a wonderful science acquisition."

Goldsmith, Donald; Lomberg, Jon

247

Zelda and company - Petrogenesis of sulfide-rich Fremdlinge and constraints on solar nebula processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed petrographic and chemical study of Zelda (a gigantic sulfide-rich Fremdling from the Allende Ca-rich inclusion, CAI, Egg 6) and its contact with the host was conducted using analytical SEM and electron-microprobe techniques, and the results were compared with those obtained on other sulfide-rich and oxide-rich Fremdlinge. Strong evidence is presented that Zelda, a type-example of sulfide-rich Fremdlinge, has

John T. Armstrong; Ian D. Hutcheon; G. J. Wasserburg

1987-01-01

248

Manifestations of extraterrestrial vulcanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence of volcanic activity on the moon, the terrestrial planets and Io is reviewed. Phenomena discussed include lava flows and channels and (infrequently observed) possible gas eruptions on the moon; lava-like formations on Mercury; annular mountain ranges, magma-like surface rocks, and atmospheric SO2 (indicative of active volcanoes) on Venus; gigantic volcano cones (inactive since 100 Myr to 1 Gyr

R. Froboese

1983-01-01

249

An update on chloroplast genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cells possess two more genomes besides the central nuclear genome: the mitochondrial genome and the chloroplast genome\\u000a (or plastome). Compared to the gigantic nuclear genome, these organelle genomes are tiny and are present in high copy number.\\u000a These genomes are less prone to recombination and, therefore, retain signatures of their age to a much better extent than\\u000a their nuclear

V. Ravi; J. P. Khurana; A. K. Tyagi; P. Khurana

2008-01-01

250

The soil–air exchange characteristics of total gaseous mercury from a large-scale municipal landfill area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cycle of mercury (Hg) from a gigantic landfill area (area ?2.72km2) was investigated by conducting micrometeorological measurements of its exchange rates across soil–air boundary during the spring season of 2000. Based on this field campaign, we attempted to provide various insights into the Hg exchange processes, especially with respect to the decoupling of the mixed signatures of complex source

Ki-Hyun Kim; Min-Young Kim; Gangwoong Lee

2001-01-01

251

A Novel Telescope with Micromirror for Observation of Transient Luminous Events from Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel type of telescope, a pinhole-like camera with a micromirror array, is introduced for space observation of transient luminous events (TLEs) like gigantic lightning occurring at upper atmosphere currently under question or investigation. The presented telescope has a unique feature of wide field of view (FOV) of surveillance, fast zoom-in and tracking. A high-fill factor, two-axis rotational micromirror array

J. H. Park; S. Nam; G. Garipov; J. A. Jeon; J. Y. Jin; B. Khrenov; J. E. Kim; M. Kim; Y. K. Kim; J. Lee; G. W. Na; I. H. Park; Y.-S. Park; B. W. Yoo

2009-01-01

252

A sulfur isotope event at the end of the Permian  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hypothesis of light sulfur injection to the ocean-atmosphere system at the end of the Permian was presented by Kaiho et al. [Kaiho, K., Kajiwara, Y.,Nakano, T., Miura, Y., Kawahata, H., Tazaki, K., Ueshima, M., Chen, Z.Q., Shi, G.R., 2001. End-Permian catastrophe by a bolide impact: evidence of a gigantic release of sulfur from the mantle. Geology 29, 815–818] based

Kunio Kaiho; Yoshimichi Kajiwara; Zhong-Qiang Chen; Paul Gorjan

2006-01-01

253

Proteus syndrome: A rare case report  

PubMed Central

Proteus syndrome (PS) is a rare hamartomatous disorder characterized by various cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, including vascular malformations, lipomas, hyperpigmentation, and several types of nevi. Partial gigantism with limb or digital overgrowth is pathognomonic of PS. We report a rare case of PS in a 50-year-old man who presented with inferior wall myocardial infarction and was incidentally detected to have hypertrophy of index and middle fingers of both the hands.

Talari, Keerthi; Subbanna, Praveen Kumar Arinaganhalli; Amalnath, Deepak; Suri, Subrahmanyam Dharanitragada Krishna

2012-01-01

254

[Surgery of congenital angiodysplasia (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Diagnostically and therapeutically, three types of angiodysplasias interfere with venous surgery: 1. Congenital arteriovenous fistulas (Type F.P. Weber: secondary varicosis with local gigantism)--surgical reduction of the shunt-volume is usually indicated. 2. Type Klippel-Trenaunay: Surgery for varicose veins is dangerous due to the frequent hypo- or aplasia of the deep venous system. 3. Venous hemangiomatosis (Type Servelle-Martorell or Kasabach-Merritt): Any surgical intervention is contraindicated (only external compressive therapy). PMID:215857

Vollmar, J; Voss, E U

1978-11-01

255

Component azimuths of the CEArray stations estimated from P-wave particle motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently built China Digital Seismic Network consists of the China National Digital Seismic Network (CNDSN), 31 regional\\u000a seismic networks and several small aperture arrays with more than 1 000 stations including 850+ broadband stations. It forms\\u000a a gigantic seismic array that provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the Earth’s deep interior besides its routine\\u000a task of seismic monitoring. Many

Fenglin Niu; Juan Li

2011-01-01

256

The largest landslide dam in Turkey: Tortum landslide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gigantic Tortum landslide blocked the Tortum River and formed the largest landslide-dammed lake in Turkey measuring 8500 m length, 2500 m width and a surfacial area of 6.77 km2. Large and deep-seated landslides are prevalent along the steep slopes in the Tortum Valley. The Tortum landslide, located 90 km to the north of Erzurum, is one of the typical cases in the region.

Tamer Y. Duman

2009-01-01

257

39. Chirurgie der kongenitalen Angiodysplasien  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Diagnostically and therapeutically, three types ofangiodysplasias interfere with venous surgery:1.Congenital arteriovenous fistulas (Type F. P. Weber: secondary varicosis with local gigantism) — surgical reduction of the shunt-volume is usually indicated.2.Type Klippel-Trenaunay: Surgery for varicose veins is dangerous due to the frequent hypo- or aplasia of the deep venous system.3.Venous hemangiomatosis (Type Servelle-Martorell or Kasabach-Merritt) Any surgical intervention is contraindicated

Jörg Vollmar; E. U. Voss

1978-01-01

258

Sea-floor scour at the mouth of Hudson Strait by deep-keeled icebergs from the Laurentide Ice Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical evidence on the dimensions of icebergs released from the mouth of Hudson Strait into the northwest Atlantic during the last Heinrich event (H-0) is presented. Side-scan sonar imagery shows scour marks up to 700 m wide and longer than 28 km. These scour marks were carved by gigantic icebergs (megabergs) with keel drafts possibly as great as 660 m capable of scouring

J. M. Metz; J. A. Dowdeswell; C. M. T. Woodworth-Lynas

2008-01-01

259

Surface runoff in a torrent catchment area in Middle Europe and its prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Schesa, a sinister contributory torrent to the Ill river near Bludenz (federal province of Vorarlberg) is the largest\\u000a basin-shaped gully of Middle Europe and endangers the underlying villages by torrential debris flow and gigantic mass movements.\\u000a The catchment is characterized by a complex geological situation, high annual precipitation and torrential rains from spring\\u000a to early autumn, which cause enormous

G. Markart; B. Kohl; R. Kirnbauer; H. Pirkl; H. Bertle; R. Stern; A. Reiterer; P. Zanetti

2006-01-01

260

Workshop report: large-scale parallel KDD systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionWith the unprecedented rate at which data is beingcollected today in almost all elds of human endeavor,there is an emerging economic and scientic needto extract useful information from it. For example,many companies already have data-warehouses in theterabyte range (e.g., FedEx, Walmart). The WorldWide Web has an estimated 800 million web-pages.Similarly, scientic data is reaching gigantic proportions(e.g., NASA space missions, Human

Mohammed J. Zaki; Ching-tien Ho

2000-01-01

261

Ranking canonical views for tourist attractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online photo collections have become truly gigantic. Photo sharing sites such as Flickr (http:\\/\\/www.flickr.com\\/) host billions of photographs, a large portion of which are contributed by tourists. In this paper, we leverage online photo\\u000a collections to automatically rank canonical views for tourist attractions. Ideal canonical views for a tourist attraction\\u000a should both be representative of the site and exhibit a

Lin Yang; John Johnstone; Chengcui Zhang

2010-01-01

262

An Atypical Case of Pityriasis Rosea Gigantea after Influenza Vaccination  

PubMed Central

Pityriasis rosea is a common erythematosquamous eruption, typically presenting along the cleavage lines of the skin. A wide spectrum of atypical manifestations may challenge even the most experienced physician. Here we report a rare case of a suberythrodermic pityriasis rosea with gigantic plaques after an influenza vaccination, and we discuss the possible triggers of atypical manifestations of such a common dermatological disease in the setting of an altered immunity.

Papakostas, Dimitrios; Stavropoulos, Panagiotis G.; Papafragkaki, Dafni; Grigoraki, Ekaterini; Avgerinou, Georgia; Antoniou, Christina

2014-01-01

263

Nanoscale disorder and local electronic properties of CaCu3Ti4O12 : An integrated study of electron, neutron, and x-ray diffraction, x-ray absorption fine structure, and first-principles calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a combined experimental and theoretical study of CaCu3Ti4O12 . Based on our experimental observations of nanoscale regions of Ca-Cu antisite defects in part of the structure, we carried out density-functional theory (DFT) calculations that suggest a possible electronic mechanism to explain the gigantic dielectric response in this material. The defects are evident in atomically resolved transmission electron microscopy

Jin-Cheng Zheng; A. I. Frenkel; L. Wu; J. Hanson; W. Ku; E. S. Bozin; S. J. L. Billinge; Yimei Zhu; Y. Zhu

2010-01-01

264

Taking the Long View: Panoramic Photographs 1851-1991  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Taking the Long View contains thousands of images that are at least twice as long as they are wide, creating the impression of a panoramic view. They depict many aspects of life in the US and selected foreign countries. The collection's emphasis is on cityscapes and group portraits. Images can be browsed by subject, author, or location, or searched, and are available as large thumbnails, very large jpegs, and gigantic high resolution tifs.

1997-01-01

265

Discos de acreción circumplanares: Modelo de Co-acreción  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Los discos de acreción circumplanetarios precursores de los satélites regulares de los planetas gigantes, se pueden formar por cuatro mecanismos (Pollack y otros, 1991, In Uranus, Bergtralh, Miner y Mattews, Eds., p. 469, Univ. de Arizona Press, Tucson). En este trabajo estudiamos uno de tales mecanismos: el Modelo de Co-acreción. En dicho modelo, el disco circumplanetario se forma a partir de las colisiones mutuas entre planetesimales dentro de la esfera de Hill del planeta durante el proceso de formación planetaria. Realizamos un modelo semi-analítico para calcular la masa del disco y compararla con la masa requerida para formar los satélites regulares de los planetas gigantes. Hemos obtenido una cota superior para la masa del disco que resulta inferior a la masa de los satélites más grandes de los planetas gigantes. En principio, estos resultados permitirían descartar el modelo de co-acreción como uno de los procesos que podrían dar lugar a la formación de los satélites regulares. Estos resultados permiten obtener restricciones en el escenario de formación planetaria y en los mecanismos de formación de sistemas de satélites.

Parisi, M. G.; de Elía, G.

266

ULF Waves Triggered by Cloud to Ground Lightning above Mesoscale Convective Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk we explore theoretically the role of lightning and atmospheric discharges in destabilizing Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves in the Ionosphere. The idea, which could seem quite exotic, takes its origin from the experimental observation that the occurrence of Ultra Low Frequency (ULF ˜ 6 -- 50 Hz) waves is strongly related to the occurrence of cloud-to-ground flashes (CG). The interest in the subject, on the other hand, comes from the fact that the occurrence of ULF waves is not only related to the occurrence of lightning flashes but also to the occurrence of newly discovered transient luminous phenomena as sprites, blue jets and gigantic jets. Sprites, as well as blue jets and gigantic jets, are luminous events that have been detected in discharges between thunderclouds ( ˜ 10 km from Earth's surface) and the lower Ionosphere (mesosphere ˜ 90 km). These transient luminous phenomena strongly affect the atmospheric electricity, due to transfer of large amounts of charge between different regions of the atmosphere (a gigantic jet can remove as much as 0.02% of the total atmospheric charge), and suggest that some important components of the global electric circuit have still to be identified and incorporated in the theoretical framework. Another important aspect is that, during the charge transfer process (electrical discharge), sprites, blue jets and gigantic jets modify the chemistry of a large portion of the stratosphere and mesosphere, with poorly understood influences on global climate changes. In order to survey the total rate of occurrence and the implications of such phenomena on continental and global scale one needs a signature to be easily detected by remote measurements and independent from in situ video observations. To understand whether the ULF waves can be used as sprites signatures, we explore the relation between lightning and ULF waves by presenting a theory, which explains the origin and threshold of the observed ULF waves. As a result, we obtain that very large positive polarity flashes give rise to ULF Dust Acoustic waves in the Ionosphere. We also find that the ULF waves may be destabilized, in absence of lightning, by mean of very large Ionosphere to thunderclouds discharges, such as gigantic blue jets, which create large dipole electric fields, comparable with the ones produced by CG lightning.

Sorasio, Gianfranco; Shukla, P. K.; Luca Delzanno, Gian

2004-11-01

267

Instability and Threshold of ULF Waves Triggered by Positive Cloud to Ground Lightning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we explore theoretically the role of lightning and atmospherical discharges in destabilizing Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves in the Ionosphere. The idea, which could seem quite exotic, takes its origin from the experimental observation that the occurrence of Ultra Low Frequency ULF ~ 6 50 Hz) waves is strongly related to the occurrence of positive polarity cloud-to-ground flashes (+CG) The interest in the subject, on the other hand, comes from the fact that the occurrence of ULF waves is not only related to the occurrence of positive polarity flashes but also to the occurrence of newly discovered transient luminous phenomena as sprites, blue jets and gigantic jets. Sprites, as well as blue jets and gigantic jets, are luminous events which have been detected in discharges between thunderclouds (~ 10 km from Earth's surface) and the lower Ionosphere (mesosphere ~90 km) These transient luminous phenomena strongly affect the atmospheric electricity, due to transfer of large amounts of charge between different regions of the atmosphere (a gigantic jet can remove as much as 0.02% of the total atmospheric charge), and suggest that some important components of the global electric circuit have still to be identified and incorporated in the theoretical framework. Another important aspect is that, during the charge transfer process (electrical discharge), sprites, blue jets and gigantic jets modify the chemistry of a large portion of the stratosphere and mesosphere, with poorly understood influences on global climate changes. In order to survey the total rate of occurrence and the implications of such phenomena on continental and global scale one needs a signature that can be easily detected by remote measurements and independent from in situ video observations. To understand whether the ULF waves can be used as sprites signatures, we explore the relation between positive polarity lightning and ULF waves by presenting a theory which explains the origin and threshold of the observed ULF waves. As a result, we obtain that very large positive polarity flashes give rise to ULF Dust Acoustic waves in the Ionosphere. We also find that the ULF waves may be destabilized, in absence of positive polarity flashes, by mean of very large Ionosphere to thunderclouds discharges, such as gigantic blue jets, which create large dipole electric fields, comparable with the ones produced by +CG lightning.

Sorasio, Gianfranco; Kant Shukla, Padma; Delzanno, Gian Luca

2004-01-01

268

La masa de los grandes impactores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Los planetas han sido formados fundamentalmente acretando masa a través de colisiones con planetesimales sólidos. La masa más grande de la distribución de planetesimales y las masas máxima y mínima de los impactores, han sido calculadas usando los valores actuales del período y de la inclinación de los planetas (Lissauer & Safronov 1991; Parisi & Brunini 1996). Recientes investigaciones han mostrado, que las órbitas de los planetas gigantes no han sufrido variaciones con el tiempo, siendo su movimiento regular durante su evolución a partir de la finalización de la etapa de acreción (Laskar 1990, 1994). Por lo tanto, la eccentricidad actual de los planetas gigantes se puede utilizar para imponer una cota máxima a las masas y velocidades orbitales de los grandes impactores. Mediante un simple modelo dinámico, y considerando lo arriba mencionado, obtenemos la cota superior para la masa del planetesimal más grande que impactó a cada planeta gigante al final de su etapa de acreción. El resultado más importante de este trabajo es la estimación de la masa máxima permitida para impactar a Júpiter, la cúal es ~ 1.136 × 10 -1, siendo en el caso de Neptuno ~ 3.99 × 10 -2 (expresada en unidades de la masa final de cada planeta). Además, fue posible obtener la velocidad orbital máxima permitida para los impactores como una función de su masa, para cada planeta. Las cotas obtenidas para la masa y velocidad de los impactores de Saturno y Urano (en unidades de la masa y velocidad final de cada planeta respectivamente) son casi las mismas que las obtenidas para Júpiter debido a que estos tres planetas poseen similar eccentricidad actual. Nuestros resultados están en buen acuerdo con los obtenidos por Lissauer & Safronov (1991). Estas cotas podrían ser utilizadas para obtener la distribución de planetesimales en el Sistema Solar primitivo.

Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

269

Two-dimensional atomic crystals  

PubMed Central

We report free-standing atomic crystals that are strictly 2D and can be viewed as individual atomic planes pulled out of bulk crystals or as unrolled single-wall nanotubes. By using micromechanical cleavage, we have prepared and studied a variety of 2D crystals including single layers of boron nitride, graphite, several dichalcogenides, and complex oxides. These atomically thin sheets (essentially gigantic 2D molecules unprotected from the immediate environment) are stable under ambient conditions, exhibit high crystal quality, and are continuous on a macroscopic scale.

Novoselov, K. S.; Jiang, D.; Schedin, F.; Booth, T. J.; Khotkevich, V. V.; Morozov, S. V.; Geim, A. K.

2005-01-01

270

Controls on size and occurrence of the largest sub-aerial landslide on Earth: Seymareh (Saidmarreh) landslide, Zagros fold-thrust belt, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gigantic (> 1 Gm3) landslides are high-magnitude, low-frequency extremes of mass movements. They are important factors in topographic evolution and hazard in mountain regions due to their magnitude. However, few examples exist for study because of their infrequency. Consequently, controls on the location and size gigantic landslides remain poorly understood. Re-examination of the Seymareh (Saidmarreh) rock avalanche, Zagros fold-thrust belt, shows it to be the largest sub-aerial landslide on Earth (initial failure volume 38 Gm3), thus representing the upper magnitude limit for terrestrial landslides. Detailed examination of the source area (including orbital remote sensing, geotechnical investigation and structural mapping) provides new insights into controls on the size and mobility of gigantic landslides. The gigantic Early Holocene rockslide initiated on the northeast limb of Kabir Kuh, the largest anticline in the Zagros fold-thrust belt, and involved the simultaneous failure of a rock mass measuring 15 km along strike. The rockslide transformed into a rock avalanche that ran-out 19.0 km, filling two adjacent valleys and overtopping an intervening low mountain ridge. The failure involved 220 m of competent jointed limestone (Asmari Formation) underlain by 580 m of weaker mudrock-dominated units. Geologic structure, geomechanical strength and topography of the source slope strongly controlled failure initiation. Extreme landslide dimensions resulted in part from extensive uniform pre-failure stability, produced by structural and topographic features related to the large scale of the Kabir Kuh anticline. High continuity bedding planes determined the large lateral extent along strike. Bedding normal joints, the breached nature of the anticline and fluvial undercutting at the slope toe accommodated expansive lateral, headscarp and toe release, respectively, necessary for extensive failure. Geomechanically weak units at depth aided the penetration of the failure surface into the source slope while low bedding dip (ca. 19°) allowed kinematic freedom of a particularly thick sequence to move downslope. Prevention of gradual rockmass removal by smaller-magnitude, more frequent denudation ensured its preservation for later simultaneous failure. The overall failure surface (11°) cut across weaker beds and finally breached the Asmari carapace by break-out at the base of the source slope. Relative relief of the source slope on Kabir Kuh was modest (1350 m on average) indicating that uniform structural and topographic conditions along strike, shallow bedding dips, and the geomechnical properties of the source rock mass were more important in determining the magnitude of the landslide that forms the upper magnitude limit for subaerial landslides.

Roberts, N. J.; Evans, S. G.

2009-12-01

271

Benign cystic mesothelioma presenting as a huge pelvic mass--a case report.  

PubMed

Benign cystic mesothelioma is an extremely rare peritoneal tumor. It is reported in women of childbearing [corrected] age but also in males and needs a careful [corrected] differential diagnosis between benign and malign neoplasia to choose the most [corrected] adeguate therapy. A 25-year-old female [corrected] was treated in our clinic for a gigantic cystic mass (25 x 22 x 3 cm in diameter) containing [corrected] many to [corrected] cysts of different sizes. All tumoral markers were within normal range. Surgical [corrected] treatment consisted of radical excision of the mass and the prognosis was good [corrected]. PMID:17290598

Coskun, A; Guven, M A; Ozdemir, O; Cirakli, H; Karakus, S

2006-01-01

272

The Thinking Machine: A Physical Science Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science projects can be a wonderful opportunity for learning and creativity, or a gigantic headache for teachers. After several years of implementation, experience, and revision, the author has put together a fun and engaging project centered on machines that is appropriate for middle school students. This project came to be known simply as "The Thinking Machine Project," which draws its origin from the national Rube Goldberg Machine competition held each year at Purdue University. Here is one way to bring technology, writing, drawing, creativity, and hands-on ingenuity together in a single fun and successful project.

Jarrard, Amber

2008-11-01

273

Theory of magneto-optical effects in helical multiferroic materials via toroidal magnon excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate dynamical magnetoelectric effect owing to Nambu-Goldstone magnon resonance in helical multiferroic materials. Using the spin wave expansion, we analyzed magneto- and electroactive modes in the J1-J2 Heisenberg model through the spin-current mechanism. Under external magnetic field, the Nambu-Goldstone magnons accompany dynamical toroidal moments, i.e., toroidal magnons, and their resonant absorption shows anomalous features such as nonreciprocal directional dichroism and natural circular dichroism. The estimation indicates that such effects are gigantic in helical magnets.

Miyahara, S.; Furukawa, N.

2014-05-01

274

Probing membrane potential with nonlinear optics.  

PubMed Central

The nonlinear optical phenomenon of second harmonic generation is shown to have intrinsic sensitivity to the voltage across a biological membrane. Our results demonstrate that this second order nonlinear optical process can be used to monitor membrane voltage with excellent signal to noise and other crucial advantages. These advantages suggest extensive use of this novel approach as an important new tool in elucidating membrane potential changes in biological systems. For this first demonstration of the effect we use a chiral styryl dye which exhibits gigantic second harmonic signals. Possible mechanisms of the voltage dependence of the second harmonic signal are discussed.

Bouevitch, O; Lewis, A; Pinevsky, I; Wuskell, J P; Loew, L M

1993-01-01

275

Ar-40 to Ar-39 dating of pseudotachylites from the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa, with implications for the formation of the Vredefort Dome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formation of the Vredefort Dome, a structure in excess of 100 km in diameter and located in the approximate center of the Witwatersrand basin, is still the subject of lively geological controversy. It is widely accepted that its formation seems to have taken place in a single sudden event, herein referred to as the Vredefort event, accompanied by the release of gigantic amounts of energy. It is debated, however, whether this central event was an internal one, i.e., a cryptoexplosion triggered by volcanic or tectonic processes, or the impact of an extraterrestrial body. The results of this debate are presented.

Trieloff, M.; Kunz, J.; Jessberger, E. K.; Reimold, W. U.; Boer, R. H.; Jackson, M. C.

1992-01-01

276

Stable optical trapping of latex nanoparticles with ultrashort pulsed illumination.  

PubMed

Here we report how ultrafast pulsed illumination at low average power results in a stable three-dimensional (3D) optical trap holding latex nanoparticles which is otherwise not possible with continuous wave lasers at the same power level. The gigantic peak power of a femtosecond pulse exerts a huge instantaneous gradient force that has been predicted theoretically earlier and implemented for microsecond pulses in a different context by others. In addition, the resulting two-photon fluorescence allows direct observation of trapping events by providing intrinsic 3D resolution. PMID:19881642

De, Arijit Kumar; Roy, Debjit; Dutta, Aveek; Goswami, Debabrata

2009-11-01

277

[Rupture of a superficial femoral aneurysm in the context of neurofibromatosis. Report of a case].  

PubMed

The authors observed the spontaneous rupture of a dysplastic superficial femoral artery in a 47 years old patient with Von Recklinghausen disease. The patient presents a gigantism of his right lower limb. On angiography, the femoropopliteal axis is polyaneurysmal and there is evidence of rupture at mid-thigh. The diseased artery is excluded by interposition of a dacron prosthesis, with reimplantation of the deep femoral artery. Histology shows fibrohyalin thickening of the intima. Dysplasia of large limb arteries is excessively rare in Von Recklinghausen disease. PMID:8027684

Van Damme, H; Deprez, M; de Leval, L; Vahdat, O; Calteux, N; Boniver, J; Limet, R

1994-01-01

278

High-spin structure in154Er  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High spin states in the nucleus154Er have been reinvestigated using the123Sb(35Cl, 4 n) reaction and a variety of spectroscopic techniques including excitation functions, ?-? coincidences, ? angular distribution and linear polarization measurements. From the measured energies, relative intensities and transition multipolarities a new level scheme has been deduced up to an excitation energy of ˜12 MeV and spin 36. An interpretation of the experimental results is given in terms of the deformed Woods-Saxon orbitals. Gigantic backbending (superdeformation) effect is studied theoretically within the cranking model.

Beck, F. A.; Dudek, J.; Haas, B.; Merdinger, J. C.; Nourreddine, A.; Schutz, Y.; Vivien, J. P.; Hubert, Ph; Dassié, D.; Bastin, G.; Nguyen, L.; Thibaud, J. P.; Nazarewicz, W.

1984-06-01

279

The key role of charge carriers scattering on polar optical phonons in semiconductors for thermoelectric energy conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boltzmann equation for charge carriers in n-type InSb is solved by numerical procedure. Temperature and donor atoms concentration dependences of kinetic coefficients are studied with respect to the thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency. It is found that the mechanism of the charge carriers scattering on polar optical phonons is of crucial importance for thermoelectric figure of merit of semiconductors. High thermoelectric efficiency of compounds and alloys comprising such heavy atoms as Pb or Bi is explained by weakening of the above mentioned scattering mechanism due to gigantic values of dielectric constants of substances caused by high polarizability of heavy atoms.

Orlov, V. G.; Sergeev, G. S.

2013-11-01

280

Assembly of polymer-gold nanostructures with high reproducibility into a monolayer film SERS substrate with 5 nm gaps for pesticide trace detection.  

PubMed

A very simple and versatile polymer assembly approach was developed. We use methoxy-mercapto-poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG-SH) to conjugate multiple Au shapes to form dense Au monolayer films (MLFs) with 5 nm gaps and generate gigantic enhancement. The results of the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method to calculate the local electric field distribution of the nanoparticle dimer are in agreement with the experimental data of sensitivity of multiple Au MLFs. 3D Raman spectra, relative standard deviation (RSD) calculation and Raman mapping were used to study the high-reproducibility of the assembled substrate, which is sufficient for trace pesticide residue detection. PMID:23912071

Zhou, Xia; Zhou, Fei; Liu, Honglin; Yang, Liangbao; Liu, Jinhuai

2013-10-01

281

Large space structures - Fantasies and facts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of large space structures activities from 1973 to 1979 is presented. Long-range studies of space colonies, gigantic solar power stations and projected earth applications revived interest in space activities. Studies suggest opportunities for advanced antenna and platform applications. Matching low-thrust propulsion to large flexible vehicles will be a key technology. Current structures technology investigations include deployable and erectable structures and assembly techniques. Based on orbited structures experience, deployment reliability is a critical issue for deployable structures. For erectable structures, concepts for earth-fabricated and space-fabricated memb

Card, M. F.; Boyer, W. J.

1980-01-01

282

Features of the microwave radiation under the fan instability development and accelerated electron interaction with magnetic ripples in the FT-2 tokamak ohmically heated plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of observation of anomalously intense microwave radiation (MR) in the electron plasma frequency range of 10-20 GHz that is generated continuously during ohmic heating of moderately dense plasma in the FT-2 tokamak are presented. Its appearance is associated with development of the "fan" plasma instability, and the presence of a large number of the local ripples of the toroidal magnetic field. It was found that MR is accompanied by the short gigantic and less intense flashes in the range of magnetic broadening of the first harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency (57-75 GHz). As is known, the latter occurs upon maser amplification of the synchrotron radiation of accelerated electrons interacting with the harmonics of local magnetic ripples in an autoresonance cyclotron mode. In our conditions, due to the nonlinear transformation of plasma waves into electromagnetic ones under the buildup of the fan instability, collective radiation (CR) is generated. Therefore, an abnormally high MR-intensity is probably due to CR maser amplification, whereas gigantic flashes occur during the self-excitation of maser amplifier under suitable conditions.

Rozhdestvensky, V. V.; Krikunov, S. V.; Lashkul, S. I.; Esipov, L. A.; Altukhov, A. B.; Kuprienko, D. V.

2014-03-01

283

Development of high purity large forgings for nuclear power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent increase in the size of energy plants has been supported by the development of manufacturing technology for high purity large forgings for the key components of the plant. To assure the reliability and performance of the large forgings, refining technology to make high purity steels, casting technology for gigantic ingots, forging technology to homogenize the material and consolidate porosity are essential, together with the required heat treatment and machining technologies. To meet these needs, the double degassing method to reduce impurities, multi-pouring methods to cast the gigantic ingots, vacuum carbon deoxidization, the warm forging process and related technologies have been developed and further improved. Furthermore, melting facilities including vacuum induction melting and electro slag re-melting furnaces have been installed. By using these technologies and equipment, large forgings have been manufactured and shipped to customers. These technologies have also been applied to the manufacture of austenitic steel vessel components of the fast breeder reactors and components for fusion experiments.

Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Sato, Ikuo

2011-10-01

284

Heat storage in Asian elephants during submaximal exercise: behavioral regulation of thermoregulatory constraints on activity in endothermic gigantotherms.  

PubMed

Gigantic size presents both opportunities and challenges in thermoregulation. Allometric scaling relationships suggest that gigantic animals have difficulty dissipating metabolic heat. Large body size permits the maintenance of fairly constant core body temperatures in ectothermic animals by means of gigantothermy. Conversely, gigantothermy combined with endothermic metabolic rate and activity likely results in heat production rates that exceed heat loss rates. In tropical environments, it has been suggested that a substantial rate of heat storage might result in a potentially lethal rise in core body temperature in both elephants and endothermic dinosaurs. However, the behavioral choice of nocturnal activity might reduce heat storage. We sought to test the hypothesis that there is a functionally significant relationship between heat storage and locomotion in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), and model the thermoregulatory constraints on activity in elephants and a similarly sized migratory dinosaur, Edmontosaurus. Pre- and post-exercise (N=37 trials) measurements of core body temperature and skin temperature, using thermography were made in two adult female Asian elephants at the Audubon Zoo in New Orleans, LA, USA. Over ambient air temperatures ranging from 8 to 34.5°C, when elephants exercised in full sun, ~56 to 100% of active metabolic heat production was stored in core body tissues. We estimate that during nocturnal activity, in the absence of solar radiation, between 5 and 64% of metabolic heat production would be stored in core tissues. Potentially lethal rates of heat storage in active elephants and Edmontosaurus could be behaviorally regulated by nocturnal activity. PMID:23785105

Rowe, M F; Bakken, G S; Ratliff, J J; Langman, V A

2013-05-15

285

Geological and Hydrodynamical Examination of the Bathyal Tsunamigenic Origin of Miocene Conglomerates in Chita Peninsula, Central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conglomerate appears on a rocky coast called "Tsubutega-ura Coast", located on the southwestern coast near the southern tip of the Chita Peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, central Japan. The conglomerate belongs to Miocene sedimentary rocks termed the Morozaki Group. The conglomerate includes meter-scale boulders, indicating that it was formed by an extraordinary event. In the geological investigation, we observed that the conglomerate shows alternate changes of paleocurrent directions between seaward and landward. This feature is supposed to be formed by tsunami currents. In the hydrodynamical investigation, we obtained following results: (1) the lowest limit of a current velocity to move a boulder of about 3 m in diameter would be about 2-3 m/s, (2) the speed of tsunami currents reproduced by tsunami simulation exceeds 3 m/s at 300 m in depth when the tsunami is generated by a gigantic earthquake with magnitude 9.0 or more, (3) the transport distance of the boulder would be several hundred meters to several kilometers by one tsunami event caused by a gigantic earthquake. We conclude that tsunamis best explain the formation of the conglomerate deposited in upper bathyal environments about 200-400 m depth, both from geological and hydrodynamical viewpoints.

Tachibana, Toru; Tsuji, Yoshinobu

2011-06-01

286

Well-being and excellence in the Earth sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the symposium on Earth Sciences and Society at the Spring AGU Meeting May 29-June 1, Baltimore, Md.), I was assigned to speak on the maintenance of excellence and national well-being in the Earth sciences. I developed serious writer's block every time I approached the topic until I remembered a paragraph at the beginning of Doug Adams' great text, The Restaurant at the End of the Universe [Adams, 1982]. It tells how [A race of highly intelligent pan-dimensional beings once built themselves a gigantic supercomputer called Deep Thought to calculate once and for all the Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, Universe and Everything. For seven and a half million years, Deep Thought computed and calculated, and in the end announced that the answer was in fact Forty-two—and so another, even bigger, computer had to be built to find out what the actual question was. And this computer, which was called the Earth, was so large that it was frequently mistaken for a planet-especially by the strange apelike beings who roamed its surface, totally unaware that they were simply part of a gigantic computer program. And this is very odd, because without that fairly simple and obvious piece of knowledge, nothing that ever happened on the Earth could possibly make the slightest bit of sense.

Drake, Charles L.

287

The Climatic Observatory of the Karst (O.C.C.), a scientific facility within an important tourist framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Climatic Observatory of the Karst, officially inaugurated on 2nd October, 2008, is born in the same place of the historical headquarter of the Borgo Grotta Gigante Meteorological Office, which was set up in 1966 and has been officially operating since 1st January, 1967. The meteorological facilities and the weather office are located on the premises of the visitor centre of "Grotta Gigante”, which is a very popular karstic cave of Trieste, visited each year by at least 70k people. The privileged position induced the promoters of this initiative to think about an integrated meteorological multilanguages system for the visitors. This system provides in real time weather forecasts and meteorological data and, at the same time, general tourist information as well. The synergic cooperation of various Scientific Organizations, which are involved in climatic research at the Borgo Grotta Gigante Climatic Observatory of the Karst, makes possible the realization of this project: "E.Boegan” Cave Commission of S.A.G. (the administrative body); ARPA-OSMER, the Friuli Venezia-Giulia Meteorological Observatory of the Regional Agency of the Environmental Protection, (which manages the automatic station, broadcasts and publishes data in real time and forecasts in the visitors waiting room); C.N.R.-I.S.M.A.R., the Marine Science Institute in Trieste of the National Research Council of Italy (which manages and maintains mechanical instruments, publishes data and carries out checks, files data and publishes reports); U.M.F.V.G., the Friuli Venezia Giulia Meteorological Union (which is involved in scientific dissemination activity and web sharing of information); the Environmental and Public Works Section and Water Service of the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region (water resources monitoring). Moreover one of the main characteristic of the Observatory, also because of didactic reasons, is to maintain the traditional mechanical-analogue part of data collection, carried out by observers, alongside the electronic sensors. This factor is essential for the continuity and the homogeneity of historical series and it distinguishes the observatory from a normal weather station. The data collected is published annually in the "Osservazioni meteoriche" magazine, a publication edited by CGEB as a supplement to the scientific journal "Atti e memorie", which is sent to various Public Authorities, Scientific Organizations, libraries and anyone who applies for it.

Colucci, R. R.; Micheletti, S.; Fabbo, R.

2009-09-01

288

Mechanism of enhanced optical second-harmonic generation in the conducting pyrochlore-type Pb2Ir2O7-x oxide compound.  

PubMed

The structural, electronic, and optical properties of pyrochlore-type Pb(2)Ir(2)O(6)O(0.55)('), which is a metal without spatial inversion symmetry at room temperature, were investigated. Structural analysis revealed that the structural distortion relevant to the breakdown of the inversion symmetry is dominated by the Pb-O' network but is very small in the Ir-O network. At the same time, gigantic second-harmonic generation signals were observed, which can only occur if the local environment of the Ir 5d electrons features broken inversion symmetry. First-principles electronic structure calculations reveal that the underlying mechanism for this phenomenon is the induction of the noncentrosymmetricity in the Ir 5d bands by the strong hybridization with O' 2p orbitals. Our results stimulate theoretical study of inversion-broken iridates, where exotic quantum states such as a topological insulator and Dirac semimetal are anticipated. PMID:23683242

Hirata, Yasuyuki; Nakajima, Makoto; Nomura, Yusuke; Tajima, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Asoh, Keiko; Kiuchi, Yoko; Eguiluz, Adolfo G; Arita, Ryotaro; Suemoto, Tohru; Ohgushi, Kenya

2013-05-01

289

Armageddon, oil, and the Middle East crisis  

SciTech Connect

This book relates the intricate subject of biblical prophecy to the current crisis in the Middle East. With the development of oil politics, Dr. Walvoord believes a new world government will emerge, centered in the Middle East, which will eclipse the United States and Russia as world powers. The world government will be subjected to catastrophic, divine judgments which precipitate a gigantic world war culminating in Armageddon. Each chapter is devoted to the scriptural explanations of events leading to the second coming of Christ. The result is a prophetic calendar summing up to the countdown to Armageddon. Some of the chapter titles include: the Arab oil blackmail; watch Jerusalen; the rising tide of world religion; the coming Middle East peace; the coming world dictator; and Armageddon: the world's death struggle.

Walvoord, J.F.; Walvoord, J.E.

1980-01-01

290

Wild wall crossing and BPS giants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the BPS spectrum of pure SU(3) four-dimensional super Yang-Mills with = 2 supersymmetry exhibits a surprising phenomenon: there are regions of the Coulomb branch where the growth of the BPS degeneracies with the charge is exponential. We show this using spectral networks and independently using wall-crossing formulae and quiver methods. The computations using spectral networks provide a very nontrivial example of how these networks determine the four-dimensional BPS spectrum. We comment on some physical implications of the wild spectrum: for example, exponentially many field-theoretic BPS states with large charge are gigantic. Finally, we exhibit some surprising, thus far unexplained, regularities of the BPS spectrum.

Galakhov, Dmitry; Longhi, Pietro; Mainiero, Tom; Moore, Gregory W.; Neitzke, Andrew

2013-11-01

291

Analysis of UV flashes of millisecond scale detected by a low-orbit satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microsatellite Tatiana recently detected two scales of the UV flash duration: 1-4 ms and 10-64 ms. This paper studies the atmospheric electricity phenomena that can serve as a source for short-millisecond-range flashes. It is shown that UV flashes in the millisecond scale detected by Tatiana may be explained as generated by gigantic blue jets (GBJ). The influence of an assumed self-consistent governing electric field in the GBJ streamer zone on the UV pulse shape and duration is revealed. It is also shown that red sprites can be a source for UV flashes with similar temporal profiles but at much lower intensity. The model results are also compared with the observations made by the Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightnings imager on board the FORMOSAT-2 satellite.

Shneider, Mikhail N.; Milikh, Gennady M.

2010-05-01

292

The aerodynamics of Argentavis, the world's largest flying bird from the Miocene of Argentina  

PubMed Central

We calculate the flight performance of the gigantic volant bird Argentavis magnificens from the upper Miocene (?6 million years ago) of Argentina using a computer simulation model. Argentavis was probably too large (mass ?70 kg) to be capable of continuous flapping flight or standing takeoff under its own muscle power. Like extant condors and vultures, Argentavis would have extracted energy from the atmosphere for flight, relying on thermals present on the Argentinean pampas to provide power for soaring, and it probably used slope soaring over the windward slopes of the Andes. It was an excellent glider, with a gliding angle close to 3° and a cruising speed of 67 kph. Argentavis could take off by running downhill, or by launching from a perch to pick up flight speed. Other means of takeoff remain problematic.

Chatterjee, Sankar; Templin, R. Jack; Campbell, Kenneth E.

2007-01-01

293

On the fate of pumice rafts formed during the 2012 Havre submarine eruption  

PubMed Central

Pumice rafts are floating mobile accumulations of low-density pumice clasts generated by silicic volcanic eruptions. Pumice in rafts can drift for years, become waterlogged and sink, or become stranded on shorelines. Here we show that the pumice raft formed by the impressive, deep submarine eruption of the Havre caldera volcano (Southwest Pacific) in July 2012 can be mapped by satellite imagery augmented by sailing crew observations. Far from coastal interference, the eruption produced a single >400?km2 raft in 1 day, thus initiating a gigantic, high-precision, natural experiment relevant to both modern and prehistoric oceanic surface dispersal dynamics. Observed raft dispersal can be accurately reproduced by simulating drift and dispersal patterns using currents from an eddy-resolving ocean model hindcast. For future eruptions that produce potentially hazardous pumice rafts, our technique allows real-time forecasts of dispersal routes, in addition to inference of ash/pumice deposit distribution in the deep ocean.

Jutzeler, Martin; Marsh, Robert; Carey, Rebecca J.; White, James D. L.; Talling, Peter J.; Karlstrom, Leif

2014-01-01

294

Effect of Echinostoma friedi (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) experimental infection on longevity, growth and fecundity of juvenile Radix peregra (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) and Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) snails.  

PubMed

The effect of Echinostoma friedi experimental infection on longevity, growth and fecundity of two susceptible first intermediate host snails, Radix peregra and Biomphalaria glabrata, was studied to contrast the level of compatibility. 120 R. peregra and 150 B. glabrata snails were used exposed to one, three or five miracidia and divided in three categories: INF (snails exposed and infected); ENI (exposed but not infected) and C (control or not miracidial-exposed snails). R. peregra INF snails' death process starts sooner, but in a prolonged extension, while B. glabrata INF snails have a much shorter life span. The infection and the miracidial exposure are able to reduce R. peregra normal development (stunting). B. glabrata INF snails' growth exceeds that of C snails (gigantism). E. friedi produces a total parasitic castration of R. peregra and B. glabrata INF snails. R. peregra would be considered as the required snail host, while B. glabrata only as an adequate snail host. PMID:17805574

Muñoz-Antoli, Carla; Marín, Antoni; Toledo, Rafael; Esteban, José-Guillermo

2007-11-01

295

On the fate of pumice rafts formed during the 2012 Havre submarine eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pumice rafts are floating mobile accumulations of low-density pumice clasts generated by silicic volcanic eruptions. Pumice in rafts can drift for years, become waterlogged and sink, or become stranded on shorelines. Here we show that the pumice raft formed by the impressive, deep submarine eruption of the Havre caldera volcano (Southwest Pacific) in July 2012 can be mapped by satellite imagery augmented by sailing crew observations. Far from coastal interference, the eruption produced a single >400?km2 raft in 1 day, thus initiating a gigantic, high-precision, natural experiment relevant to both modern and prehistoric oceanic surface dispersal dynamics. Observed raft dispersal can be accurately reproduced by simulating drift and dispersal patterns using currents from an eddy-resolving ocean model hindcast. For future eruptions that produce potentially hazardous pumice rafts, our technique allows real-time forecasts of dispersal routes, in addition to inference of ash/pumice deposit distribution in the deep ocean.

Jutzeler, Martin; Marsh, Robert; Carey, Rebecca J.; White, James D. L.; Talling, Peter J.; Karlstrom, Leif

2014-04-01

296

Mass extinctions and cosmic collisions - A lunar test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility has been considered that some or all major mass extinctions in the geologic record of earth are caused by the collision of massive, cosmic objects. Thus, it has been proposed that the unusual concentration of siderophile elements in strata at which the boundary between the Cretaceous (K) and Tertiary (T) geologic time periods has been placed must represent the remnants of a gigantic meteorite. However, a large 65-m.y.-old crater which could have been the result of the impact of this meteorite is not presently known on earth. One approach to evaluate the merits of the collisional hypothesis considered is based on the study of the probability of collision between a cosmic object of a suitable size and the earth. As moon and earth were subject to the same bombardment history and the preservation of craters on the moon is much better than on earth, a consideration of the lunar cratering record may provide crucial information.

Horz, F.

1985-01-01

297

NGC5291 - a case study of collisional debris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to image the extended gas distribution and kinematics of the peculiar galaxy system NGC5291 (D = 56 Mpc) and the surrounding cluster members. The NGC5291 system can be regarded as the "Rosetta Stone" for the evolution and formation of galaxies. It is well known for its gigantic intergalactic HI ring (diameter about 10' or 200 kpc; MHI = 3.6 x 10^10 Msun) that partially surrounds the lenticular galaxy NGC5291 and the peculiar Seashell galaxy and contains a nursery of newly forming galaxies. The proposed observations will provide high surface brightness sensitivity and good velocity resolution allowing us to study in detail the origin, dynamics, and dark matter content of the system and compare with recent numerical simulations.

Koribalski, Baerbel; Braine, Jonathan

2007-04-01

298

Macrodystrophia lipomatosa of foot involving great toe.  

PubMed

Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare form of congenital disorder in which there is localized gigantism characterized by progressive overgrowth of all mesenchymal elements with a disproportionate increase in the fibroadipose tissues. The adipose tissue infiltration involves subcutaneous tissue, periosteum, nerves and bone marrow. Most of the cases reported have hand or foot involvement. Patient seeks medical help for improving cosmesis or to get the size of the involved part reduced in order to reduce mechanical problems. We report a case of macrodystrophia lipomatosa involving medial side of foot with significant enlargement of great toe causing concern for cosmesis and inconvenience due to mechanical problems. The X-rays showed increased soft tissue with more of adipose tissue and increased size of involved digits with widening of ends. Since the patient's mother did not want any surgical intervention he was educated about foot care and proper footwear design was suggested. PMID:24703060

Gaur, A K; Mhambre, A S; Popalwar, H; Sharma, R

2014-06-01

299

Visualizing a Complete Siphoviridae Member by Single-Particle Electron Microscopy: the Structure of Lactococcal Phage TP901-1  

PubMed Central

Tailed phages are genome delivery machines exhibiting unequaled efficiency acquired over more than 3 billion years of evolution. Siphophages from the P335 and 936 families infect the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis using receptor-binding proteins anchored to the host adsorption apparatus (baseplate). Crystallographic and electron microscopy (EM) studies have shed light on the distinct adsorption strategies used by phages of these two families, suggesting that they might also rely on different infection mechanisms. Here, we report electron microscopy reconstructions of the whole phage TP901-1 (P335 species) and propose a composite EM model of this gigantic molecular machine. Our results suggest conservation of structural proteins among tailed phages and add to the growing body of evidence pointing to a common evolutionary origin for these virions. Finally, we propose that host adsorption apparatus architectures have evolved in correlation with the nature of the receptors used during infection.

Bebeacua, Cecilia; Lai, Livia; Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Br?ndsted, Lone; van Heel, Marin

2013-01-01

300

Structural analysis suggests that renin is released by compound exocytosis.  

PubMed

The mode of renin release from renal juxtaglomerular cells into circulation is still unsolved in several aspects. Here we studied the intracellular organization of renin-storage vesicles and their changes during controlled stimulation of renin release. This was accomplished using isolated perfused mouse kidneys with 3-dimensional electron microscopic analyses of renin-producing cells. Renin was found to be stored in a network of single granules and cavern-like structures, and dependent on the synthesis of glycosylated prorenin. Acute stimulation of renin release led to increased exocytosis in combination with intracellular fusion of vesicles to larger caverns and their subsequent emptying. Renin release from the kidneys of SCID-beige mice, which contain few but gigantic renin-storage vesicles, was no different from that of kidneys from wild-type mice. Thus, our findings suggest that renin is released by mechanisms similar to compound exocytosis. PMID:23235568

Steppan, Dominik; Zügner, Anita; Rachel, Reinhard; Kurtz, Armin

2013-02-01

301

MoMA: The Changing of the Avant-Garde  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web exhibition from MoMA presents a history of modern utopian and visionary architecture, using architectural drawings donated to the museum by the Howard Gilman Foundation in 2000. The drawings date from the late 1950s to the 1970s. The main menu is two spheres, Megastructures (larger, public buildings and complexes) and Postmodern Roots (smaller buildings, retail and houses), from which users can select names to view particular projects. Each project consists of two to four drawings and explanatory text, with larger views of all the drawings available. An interesting example under Megastructures is Superstudio, a group of five Italian architects who, in the 1960s, created a set of purely theoretical drawing that impose gigantic, white, grid-patterned structures on natural landscapes such as rivers, ocean coastlines, and the Alps. Megastructures give way to Postmodern Roots in the 1960s, where drawings of projects by Robert Venturi, Michael Graves, James Stirling, Rem Koolhaas, and others can be seen.

2002-01-01

302

Petroleum, alcohol, and energy substitution in Brazil: Theoretical and empirical issues  

SciTech Connect

As in other Latin American nations, the petroleum industry has always been surrounded by controversy in Brazil. Issues related to exploration, exploitation, and import of crude have received special attention by Brazilian decision makers. In the past decade, an additional relevant issue was brought into play by the oil crisis. An import substitution program for energy was implemented by the development of alternative indigenous energy sources. Among these sources, sugarcane was viewed as a reliable renewable resource for the production of fuel alcohol and, very recently, of electricity. Brazil engaged in a gigantic program of fuel substitution, which is now facing severe problems due to the fall of petroleum prices. This study analyzes the recent energy import substitution program in Brazil, specifically concentrating on microeconomic and environmental aspects of fuel substitution.

Biller, D.

1991-01-01

303

Urabn land cover at criticality and city size distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human development has far-reaching impacts on the surface of the globe. The transformation of natural land cover has different forms and besides agricultural practices, urban growth is an eminent transformative process. We analyze global land cover data and extract cities as defined by maximally connected urban clusters. The analysis of city size distribution for all cities on the globe confirms Zipf's law. Moreover, investigating the percolation properties of the urban fabric we determine the closeness to criticality for various counties. At the identified critical thresholds, the urban land cover of the countries undergoes a transition from separated clusters to a gigantic component of country scale. We find that the Zipf-exponent decreases approx. logarithmically with the considered observational scale.

Fluschnik, Till; Kriewald, Steffen; Garcia Cantu Ros, Anselmo; Zouh, Bin; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

2013-04-01

304

Tissue specific expression profile of Mediator genes in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Mediator is a gigantic multiprotein complex required for transcription of almost all the protein coding genes. In this report, we have analyzed the transcript abundance of 31 Med genes in different tissues of Arabidopsis. Our analysis revealed the tissue specific differential expression profile of many Med subunit genes suggesting they might be contributing in the formation, maturation or function of that specific tissue. Moreover, we also found increase or decrease in the expression level of several Med subunits during the same duration of specific processes (for example flowering) indicating probable enrichment of a particular arrangement of selected subunits during that process. Thus, this study suggests that not only specific Med subunits have functional relevance in specific processes, but specific arrangements of Med subunits might also play significant role in some processes in Arabidopsis or other plants.

Pasrija, Richa; Thakur, Jitendra K.

2013-01-01

305

Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis of Acromegaly  

PubMed Central

Acromegaly and gigantism are due to excess GH production, usually as a result of a pituitary adenoma. The incidence of acromegaly is 5 cases per million per year and the prevalence is 60 cases per million. Clinical manifestations in each patient depend on the levels of GH and IGF-I, age, tumor size, and the delay in diagnosis. Manifestations of acromegaly are varied and include acral and soft tissue overgrowth, joint pain, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and heart and respiratory failure. Acromegaly is a disabling disease that is associated with increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The diagnosis is based primarily on clinical features and confirmed by measuring GH levels after oral glucose loading and the estimation of IGF-I. It has been suggested that the rate of mortality in patients with acromegaly is correlated with the degree of control of GH. Adequately treated, the relative mortality risk can be markedly reduced towards normal.

Lugo, Gloria; Pena, Lara; Cordido, Fernando

2012-01-01

306

Magnetodielectric response of coexisting phases in half doped manganites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field dependence of dielectric permittivity and resistivity has been measured simultaneously in two separate half doped manganites Pr0.75Na0.25MnO3 and Pr0.5Ca0.5Mn0.975Al0.025O3. A gigantic change in dielectric permittivity was detected near the percolation threshold. The hysteresis in dielectric permittivity as well as in resistivity supports the first order nature of the insulator-metal transition while the tunability is due to the coexisting of phases across the transition. A highly resistivity correlated dielectric behaviour has been observed throughout the insulator to metal transition evidencing the dielectric catastrophe phenomenon. The field dependent dielectric data are analyzed in the framework of Maxwell-Garnett theory in association with Mott-Hubbard model.

Dash, S.; Banerjee, A.; Chaddah, P.

2013-05-01

307

Competition and constraint drove Cope's rule in the evolution of giant flying reptiles  

PubMed Central

The pterosaurs, Mesozoic flying reptiles, attained wingspans of more than 10?m that greatly exceed the largest birds and challenge our understanding of size limits in flying animals. Pterosaurs have been used to illustrate Cope’s rule, the influential generalization that evolutionary lineages trend to increasingly large body sizes. However, unambiguous examples of Cope’s rule operating on extended timescales in large clades remain elusive, and the phylogenetic pattern and possible drivers of pterosaur gigantism are uncertain. Here we show 70 million years of highly constrained early evolution, followed by almost 80 million years of sustained, multi-lineage body size increases in pterosaurs. These results are supported by maximum-likelihood modelling of a comprehensive new pterosaur data set. The transition between these macroevolutionary regimes is coincident with the Early Cretaceous adaptive radiation of birds, supporting controversial hypotheses of bird–pterosaur competition, and suggesting that evolutionary competition can act as a macroevolutionary driver on extended geological timescales.

Benson, Roger B. J.; Frigot, Rachel A.; Goswami, Anjali; Andres, Brian; Butler, Richard J.

2014-01-01

308

From paper drawings to computer-aided design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The benefits of a fully integrated computer-aided design and drafting system (CADDS) database are today very well accepted by industry, and major engineering companies implementing CADDS are confronted with the gigantic task of entering the existing multidisciplinary engineering information into the CADDS database. The present investigation is concerned with the findings of a feasibility study which had been conducted by a Canadian company to explore data capture on engineering drawings. A review of the state of the art in digitization is presented, and attention is given to specific problems arising in the case of the Canadian company. It is found that substantial advancements have been made toward the automatic 'reading' of existing drawings on paper media. However, no system exists currently which fully automates the data capturing process in the engineering environment and generates intelligent databases for use by CADD systems. Suitable approaches for 'data capture' under the given conditions are discussed.

Karima, M.; Sadhal, K. S.; McNeil, T. O.

1985-02-01

309

Anomalous Pressure Effect in Heteroacene Organic Field-Effect Transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalous pressure dependent conductivity is revealed for heteroacene organic field-effect transistors of dinaphtho[2, 3-b:2', 3'-f]thieno[3, 2-b]thiophene single crystals in the direction of a and b crystallographic axes. In contrast to the normal characteristics of a monotonic increase in mobility ? with the application of external hydrostatic pressure P in conductors, we found that the present organic semiconductor devices exhibit nonmonotonic and gigantic pressure dependence including an even negative pressure coefficient d?/dP. In combination with a structural analysis based on x-ray diffraction experiments under pressure, it is suggested that on-site molecular orientation and displacement peculiar in heteroacene molecules are responsible for the anomalous pressure effect.

Sakai, K.; Okada, Y.; Kitaoka, S.; Tsurumi, J.; Ohishi, Y.; Fujiwara, A.; Takimiya, K.; Takeya, J.

2013-03-01

310

6Li-loaded directionally sensitive anti-neutrino detector for possible geo-neutrinographic imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the latent and unique benefits of imaging uranium and thorium's distribution in the earth's interior, previously proposed experimental techniques used to identify the incoming geo-neutrino's direction are not applicable to practical imaging due to the high miss-identification in a neutrino's track reconstruction. After performing experimental studies and Monte-Carlo simulations, we confirmed that a significant improvement is possible in neutrino tracking identification with a 6Li-loaded neutrino detector. For possible imaging applications, we also explore the feasibility of producing geo-neutrinographic images of gigantic magmatic reservoirs and deep structure in the mantle. We anticipate and plan to apply these newly designed detectors to radiographic imaging of the Earth's interior, monitoring of nuclear reactors, and tracking astrophysical sources of neutrinos.

Tanaka, H. K. M.; Watanabe, H.

2014-04-01

311

Slow and Steady: Ocean Circulation. The Influence of Sea Surface Height on Ocean Currents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of ocean circulation is vital to understanding how our climate works. The movement of the ocean is closely linked to the progression of atmospheric motion. Winds close to sea level add momentum to ocean surface currents. At the same time, heat that is stored and transported by the ocean warms the atmosphere above and alters air pressure distribution. Therefore, any attempt to model climate variation accurately must include reliable calculations of ocean circulation. Unlike movement of the atmosphere, movement of the ocean's waters takes place mostly near the surface. The major patterns of surface circulation form gigantic circular cells known as gyres. They are categorized according to their general location-equatorial, subtropical, subpolar, and polar-and may run across an entire ocean. The smaller-scale cell of ocean circulation is known' as an eddy. Eddies are much more common than gyres and much more difficult to track in computer simulations of ocean currents.

Haekkinen, Sirpa

2000-01-01

312

Lead in ancient Rome's city waters.  

PubMed

It is now universally accepted that utilization of lead for domestic purposes and water distribution presents a major health hazard. The ancient Roman world was unaware of these risks. How far the gigantic network of lead pipes used in ancient Rome compromised public health in the city is unknown. Lead isotopes in sediments from the harbor of Imperial Rome register the presence of a strong anthropogenic component during the beginning of the Common Era and the Early Middle Ages. They demonstrate that the lead pipes of the water distribution system increased Pb contents in drinking water of the capital city by up to two orders of magnitude over the natural background. The Pb isotope record shows that the discontinuities in the pollution of the Tiber by lead are intimately entwined with the major issues affecting Late Antique Rome and its water distribution system. PMID:24753588

Delile, Hugo; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Keay, Simon; Albarède, Francis

2014-05-01

313

6Li-loaded directionally sensitive anti-neutrino detector for possible geo-neutrinographic imaging applications  

PubMed Central

Despite the latent and unique benefits of imaging uranium and thorium's distribution in the earth's interior, previously proposed experimental techniques used to identify the incoming geo-neutrino's direction are not applicable to practical imaging due to the high miss-identification in a neutrino's track reconstruction. After performing experimental studies and Monte-Carlo simulations, we confirmed that a significant improvement is possible in neutrino tracking identification with a 6Li-loaded neutrino detector. For possible imaging applications, we also explore the feasibility of producing geo-neutrinographic images of gigantic magmatic reservoirs and deep structure in the mantle. We anticipate and plan to apply these newly designed detectors to radiographic imaging of the Earth's interior, monitoring of nuclear reactors, and tracking astrophysical sources of neutrinos.

Tanaka, H. K. M.; Watanabe, H.

2014-01-01

314

Ancient DNA reveals elephant birds and kiwi are sister taxa and clarifies ratite bird evolution.  

PubMed

The evolution of the ratite birds has been widely attributed to vicariant speciation, driven by the Cretaceous breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana. The early isolation of Africa and Madagascar implies that the ostrich and extinct Madagascan elephant birds (Aepyornithidae) should be the oldest ratite lineages. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of two elephant birds and performed phylogenetic analyses, which revealed that these birds are the closest relatives of the New Zealand kiwi and are distant from the basal ratite lineage of ostriches. This unexpected result strongly contradicts continental vicariance and instead supports flighted dispersal in all major ratite lineages. We suggest that convergence toward gigantism and flightlessness was facilitated by early Tertiary expansion into the diurnal herbivory niche after the extinction of the dinosaurs. PMID:24855267

Mitchell, Kieren J; Llamas, Bastien; Soubrier, Julien; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Worthy, Trevor H; Wood, Jamie; Lee, Michael S Y; Cooper, Alan

2014-05-23

315

Primary bronchial tumors in childhood. A clinicopathologic study of six cases.  

PubMed

A primary bronchial tumor was diagnosed in six children younger than age 12 years. These cases include four bronchial carcinoids, a low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and a granular cell tumor ("myoblastoma"). Lobar or segmental resection was performed in each case and remains the treatment of choice. The most common bronchial tumors in childhood are carcinoids with 17 other evaluable cases in the English Literature. This series includes the youngest child to be reported with bilateral choroidal metastases leading to blindness; in addition, there were clinical manifestations of gigantism and acromegaly possibly related to ectopic hormone production. Low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas rank second in frequency to carcinoids and have an excellent prognosis. Judging from the childhood bronchial tumors reported to date, proved examples of bronchogenic carcinoma are vanishingly rare. PMID:6295603

Lack, E E; Harris, G B; Eraklis, A J; Vawter, G F

1983-02-01

316

Quantifying volcanic ash dispersal and impact of the Campanian Ignimbrite super-eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a novel computational approach to assess, for the first time, volcanic ash dispersal during the Campanian Ignimbrite (Italy) super-eruption providing insights into eruption dynamics and the impact of this gigantic event. The method uses a 3D time-dependent computational ash dispersion model, a set of wind fields, and more than 100 thickness measurements of the CI tephra deposit. Results reveal that the CI eruption dispersed 250-300 km3 of ash over ˜3.7 million km2. The injection of such a large quantity of ash (and volatiles) into the atmosphere would have caused a volcanic winter during the Heinrich Event 4, the coldest and driest climatic episode of the Last Glacial period. Fluorine-bearing leachate from the volcanic ash and acid rain would have further affected food sources and severely impacted Late Middle-Early Upper Paleolithic groups in Southern and Eastern Europe.

Costa, A.; Folch, A.; Macedonio, G.; Giaccio, B.; Isaia, R.; Smith, V. C.

2012-05-01

317

Magnetoelectric Coupling and Relaxation in Yttrium Iron Garnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of the magnetic and dielectric relaxation measurement on yttrium iron garnet Y3Fe5O12 which shows the 2nd order magneto-electric (ME) effect under an applied electric field [1] and the 1st order ME effect by an electric field cooling procedure [2]. We found that the temperature dependence of the dielectric relaxation dynamics coincides with that of magnetic one. This suggests a strong magneto-electric coupling between dielectric and magnetic relaxation dynamics. Indeed the dielectric relaxation strengths are enhanced by an applied magnetic field; namely the amplitude of electric dipole moment can be tuned by magnetic field. This effect accounts for the magnetic field induced change of the static dielectric permittivity and thereby the gigantic 2nd order ME effect as observed. [1] T.H. O'Dell, Phil. Mag. 16, 487 (1967), [2] H. Ogawa et al., JPSJ 56, 452 (1987).

Yamasaki, Yuichi; Kohara, Yuki; Tokura, Yoshinori

2009-03-01

318

The skull of the giant predatory pliosaur Rhomaleosaurus cramptoni: implications for plesiosaur phylogenetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The predatory pliosaurs were among the largest creatures ever to inhabit the oceans, some reaching gigantic proportions greater than 15 m in length. Fossils of this subclade of plesiosaurs are known from sediments all over the world, ranging in age from the Hettangian (approximately 198 Myr) to the Turonian (approximately 92 Myr). However, due to a lack of detailed studies and because only incomplete specimens are usually reported, pliosaur evolution remains poorly understood. In this paper, we describe the three dimensionally preserved skull of the giant Jurassic pliosaur Rhomaleosaurus cramptoni. The first phylogenetic analysis dedicated to in-group relationships of pliosaurs allows us to hypothesise a number of well-supported lineages that correlate with marine biogeography and the palaeoecology of these reptiles. Rhomaleosaurids comprised a short-lived and early diverging lineage within pliosaurs, whose open-water top-predator niche was filled by other pliosaur taxa by the mid-late Jurassic.

Smith, Adam S.; Dyke, Gareth J.

2008-10-01

319

The skull of the giant predatory pliosaur Rhomaleosaurus cramptoni: implications for plesiosaur phylogenetics.  

PubMed

The predatory pliosaurs were among the largest creatures ever to inhabit the oceans, some reaching gigantic proportions greater than 15 m in length. Fossils of this subclade of plesiosaurs are known from sediments all over the world, ranging in age from the Hettangian (approximately 198 Myr) to the Turonian (approximately 92 Myr). However, due to a lack of detailed studies and because only incomplete specimens are usually reported, pliosaur evolution remains poorly understood. In this paper, we describe the three dimensionally preserved skull of the giant Jurassic pliosaur Rhomaleosaurus cramptoni. The first phylogenetic analysis dedicated to in-group relationships of pliosaurs allows us to hypothesise a number of well-supported lineages that correlate with marine biogeography and the palaeoecology of these reptiles. Rhomaleosaurids comprised a short-lived and early diverging lineage within pliosaurs, whose open-water top-predator niche was filled by other pliosaur taxa by the mid-late Jurassic. PMID:18523747

Smith, Adam S; Dyke, Gareth J

2008-10-01

320

Magnetic Biasing of a Ferroelectric Hysteresis Loop in a Multiferroic Orthoferrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a multiferroic orthoferrite Dy0.7Tb0.3FeO3, which shows electric-field-(E-)driven magnetization (M) reversal due to a tight clamping between polarization (P) and M, a gigantic effect of magnetic-field (H) biasing on P-E hysteresis loops is observed in the case of rapid E sweeping. The magnitude of the bias E field can be controlled by varying the magnitude of H, and its sign can be reversed by changing the sign of H or the relative clamping direction between P and M. The origin of this unconventional biasing effect is ascribed to the difference in the Zeeman energy between the +P and -P states coupled with the M states with opposite sign.

Tokunaga, Y.; Taguchi, Y.; Arima, T.; Tokura, Y.

2014-01-01

321

Magnetic Transitions of Multiferroic Frustrated Magnets Revealed by Resonant Soft X-ray Magnetic Scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coexistence of magnetism and ferroelectricity with cross coupling, termed multiferroicity, rarely occurs. The discovery of gigantic magnetoelectric coupling in frustrated magnets has revived interest in their multiferroic behavior. Here, we review the measurements of resonant soft-X-ray magnetic scattering in the multiferroic frustrated magnets TbMn2O5, LiCu2O2, and CoCr2O4. In addition to the experimental technique used, the evolution of the wave vector of magnetic ordering about the temperature of multiferroic transitions is discussed. We proffer scattering evidence of multiferroicity and a pathway for understanding the intricate coupling between magnetism and ferroelectricity in magnets with spin spirals. Our results also reveal the low-dimension nature of a quantum spin-chain multiferroics and the evolution of the interrelation between the polarization P, the magnetization M, and the spiral wave vector Q.

Huang, Di-Jing; Okamoto, Jun; Huang, Shih-Wen; Mou, Chung-Yu

2010-01-01

322

The potassium-argon age of the Kara craters and their relation to the Cretaceous-Paleogene impact event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented of the potassium-argon dating of glass and rock samples from the Kara and the Us't'-Kara craters (believed to be connected with the catastrophic collision of the earth with a gigantic meteorite, believed by some to have caused a major biological catastrophe in the late Mesozoic period), showing that the ages obtained depend upon the structure of samples and, thus, can be inaccurate. No difference was found for the times of origin estimated for the Kara and the Us't'-Kara craters. Their isochrone age is about 66.1 + or - 0.8 years, corresponding to the present estimates of the boundary between the Cretaceous and Paleogene periods.

Kolesnikov, E. M.; Nazarov, M. A.; Badiukov, D. D.; Korina, M. I.; Smoliar, M. I.

1990-04-01

323

Acinic Cell Carcinoma of Minor Salivary Gland of the Base of Tongue That Required Reconstructive Surgery  

PubMed Central

Acinic cell carcinoma of minor salivary gland of the base of tongue is very rare. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common tumor in the base of tongue. We present a patient with gigantic acinic cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. This patient required emergency tracheotomy before surgery, because he had dyspnea when he came to our hospital. We removed this tumor by pull-through method and performed reconstructive surgery using a rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. It was a case that to preserved movement of the tongue and swallowing function by keeping lingual arteries and hypoglossal nerves. This case was an extremely rare case of ACC of the base of tongue that required reconstructive surgery.

Wada, Kota; Watanabe, Subaru; Ando, Yuji; Seino, Yoichi; Moriyama, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

324

Zelda and company - Petrogenesis of sulfide-rich Fremdlinge and constraints on solar nebula processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed petrographic and chemical study of Zelda (a gigantic sulfide-rich Fremdling from the Allende Ca-rich inclusion, CAI, Egg 6) and its contact with the host was conducted using analytical SEM and electron-microprobe techniques, and the results were compared with those obtained on other sulfide-rich and oxide-rich Fremdlinge. Strong evidence is presented that Zelda, a type-example of sulfide-rich Fremdlinge, has been formed from a preexisting Ur-Fremdling, similar by composition to Willy, by closed-system sulfidization of magnetite and metal. At least two different sulfidization mechanisms appear to have occurred in altering Fremdlinge: one producing compositionally homogeneous equigranular objects such as Zelda, the other producing compositionally and texturally heterogeneous objects.

Armstrong, John T.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Wasserburg, G. J.

1987-12-01

325

Dynamics of the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere and its Connection to the Ionosphere: Current Understanding and Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth's inner magnetosphere, a vast volume in space spanning from 1.5 Re (Earth radii) to 10 Re, is a host to a variety of plasma populations (with energy from 1 eV to few MeV) and physical processes where most of which involve plasma and field coupling. As a gigantic particle accelerator, the inner magnetosphere includes three overlapping regions: the plasmasphere, the ring current, and the Van Allen radiation belt. The complex structures and dynamics of these regions are externally driven by solar activities and internally modulated by intricate interactions and coupling. As a major constituent of Space Weather, the inner magnetosphere is both scientifically intriguing and practically important to our society. In this presentation, I will discuss our recent results from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model, in the context of our current understanding of the inner magnetosphere in general and challenges ahead in making further progresses.

Zheng, Yihua

2010-01-01

326

Dynamics of the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere and Its Connection to the Ionosphere: Current Understanding and Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth's inner magnetosphere, a vast volume in space spanning from 1.5 Re (Earth radii) to 10 Re, is a host to a variety of plasma populations (with energy from 1 eV to few MeV) and physical processes where most of which involve plasma and field coupling. As a gigantic particle accelerator, the inner magnetosphere includes three overlapping regions: the plasmasphere, the ring current, and the Van Allen radiation belt. The complex structures and dynamics of these regions are externally driven by solar activities and internally modulated by intricate interactions and coupling. As a major constituent of Space Weather, the inner magnetosphere is both scientifically intriguing and practically important to our society. In this presentation, I will discuss our recent results from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model, in the context of our current understanding of the inner magnetosphere in general and challenges ahead in making further progresses.

Zheng, Yihua

2011-01-01

327

Leaf development in Xylopia aromatica (Lam) Mart. (Annonaceae): implications for palatability to Stenoma scitiorella Walker 1864 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae).  

PubMed

Variations in specific foliar mass and water content, nitrogen, soluble carbohydrates and tannins were studied during the growth and maturation processes of the Xylopia aromatica leaves, to determine the effects of such alterations on the herbivory of Stenoma scitiorella caterpillars. This work was carried out in the physiognomy of the typical cerrado of the Parque Estadual de Vassununga, Gleba Pé-de Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo State, Brazil. While nutritional quality (water and nitrogen) decreases during expansion and maturation of Xylopia aromatica leaves, the chemical (tannins) and physical (sclerophylly) defenses are raised. In agreement with the observations on herbivory, the results support the hypothesis that the reduction in palatability and increase in chemical defenses of Xylopia aromatica leaves account for the caterpillars' preference for young expanding leaves. PMID:19197502

Varanda, E M; Costa, A A; Barosela, J R

2008-11-01

328

The influence of imitated microgravity on the amyloplast structure, the composition and characteristics of potato minituber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of imitated microgravity (clinorotation, 2 rev/min) of long-term duration on the structural-functional organization of Solanum tuberosum L. (cv Adreta) minituber cells is studied. An essential influence on 45-day minituber size, on the content and composition of starch, on the solubility of starch in water and on the structure of amyloplasts in the storage parenchyma of potato minitubers is detected. The appearance of a fraction of "gigantic" amyloplasts in starch-storage parenchyma is observed during horizontal clinorotation of long-term duration. The correlation between the decrease of content amylose and the inhibition of starch solubility in water is detected under long-term clinorotation. The results point to some changes of the carbohydrate metabolism of potato storage organs under the effect of microgravity imitation.

Nedukha, O. M.; Kordyum, Ye. L.; Schnyukova, Ye. I.

329

Discovering Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Much of our current knowledge of Mars is the result of investigations conducted by a fleet of spacecraft starting with the Mariners in the mid-1960's. The 1971 Mariner 9 mission which looked at the entire planet instead of just the southern hemisphere, as was the case with the earlier missions, reveals huge volcanic mountains and discloses surface erosion and dried riverbeds. This pamphlet gives a chronology of the United States and Russian spacecraft that have examined Mars along with a short description of each mission. Photos of the Martian surface are included along with descriptions of the topography of the planet. The reverse side of the pamphlet contains a large photo of the Martian surface which clearly depicts the Vallis Marineris, a gigantic rift valley extending a distance equivalent to that from New York to Los Angeles.

1992-01-01

330

Zelda and company - Petrogenesis of sulfide-rich Fremdlinge and constraints on solar nebula processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed petrographic and chemical study of Zelda (a gigantic sulfide-rich Fremdling from the Allende Ca-rich inclusion, CAI, Egg 6) and its contact with the host was conducted using analytical SEM and electron-microprobe techniques, and the results were compared with those obtained on other sulfide-rich and oxide-rich Fremdlinge. Strong evidence is presented that Zelda, a type-example of sulfide-rich Fremdlinge, has been formed from a preexisting Ur-Fremdling, similar by composition to Willy, by closed-system sulfidization of magnetite and metal. At least two different sulfidization mechanisms appear to have occurred in altering Fremdlinge: one producing compositionally homogeneous equigranular objects such as Zelda, the other producing compositionally and texturally heterogeneous objects.

Armstrong, John T.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Wasserburg, G. J.

1987-01-01

331

A Graph Summarization Algorithm Based on RFID Logistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) applications are set to play an essential role in object tracking and supply chain management systems. The volume of data generated by a typical RFID application will be enormous as each item will generate a complete history of all the individual locations that it occupied at every point in time. The movement trails of such RFID data form gigantic commodity flowgraph representing the locations and durations of the path stages traversed by each item. In this paper, we use graph to construct a warehouse of RFID commodity flows, and introduce a database-style operation to summarize graphs, which produces a summary graph by grouping nodes based on user-selected node attributes, further allows users to control the hierarchy of summaries. It can cut down the size of graphs, and provide convenience for users to study just on the shrunk graph which they interested. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

Sun, Yan; Hu, Kongfa; Lu, Zhipeng; Zhao, Li; Chen, Ling

332

Análisis del espectro infrarrojo del polvo interestelar asociado con cúmulos globulares y de su evolución temporal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El trabajo que se presenta investiga la dinámica de las partículas de polvo interestelar eyectadas por estrellas gigantes rojas en un cúmulo globular utilizando simulaciones numéricas de su interacción con el campo gravitatorio y con la radiación electromagnética de las estrellas. Se pretende con ello determinar la distribución espacial de ese material como una función del tiempo en un sistema similar a NGC 104 (47 Tuc). A partir de la distribución espacial resultante se obtuvo el espectro infrarrojo integrado el cual sugiere que el máximo contraste con la radiación estelar ocurre en longitudes de onda cercanas a 300 ?m y que decrece rápidamente hacia longitudes de onda menores, en las que suelen realizarse las observaciones.

Pellizza, L. J.; Forte, J. C.; Carpintero, D.

333

?Li-loaded directionally sensitive anti-neutrino detector for possible geo-neutrinographic imaging applications.  

PubMed

Despite the latent and unique benefits of imaging uranium and thorium's distribution in the earth's interior, previously proposed experimental techniques used to identify the incoming geo-neutrino's direction are not applicable to practical imaging due to the high miss-identification in a neutrino's track reconstruction. After performing experimental studies and Monte-Carlo simulations, we confirmed that a significant improvement is possible in neutrino tracking identification with a (6)Li-loaded neutrino detector. For possible imaging applications, we also explore the feasibility of producing geo-neutrinographic images of gigantic magmatic reservoirs and deep structure in the mantle. We anticipate and plan to apply these newly designed detectors to radiographic imaging of the Earth's interior, monitoring of nuclear reactors, and tracking astrophysical sources of neutrinos. PMID:24759616

Tanaka, H K M; Watanabe, H

2014-01-01

334

The Intersection of Urban Planning, Art, and Public Health: The Sunnyside Piazza  

PubMed Central

Deteriorating physical features of urban environments can negatively influence public health. Dilapidated environments and urban blight tend to promote alienation and can be associated with social disorder, vandalism, crime, drug abuse, traffic violations, and littering, which in turn affects health and well-being. In the late 1990s, the Sunnyside neighborhood in Portland, Ore, was plagued by many of these problems. In an attempt to invigorate neighborhood stewardship, the community organized and created a public gathering place; together, they painted a gigantic sunflower in the middle of an intersection and installed several interactive art features. As a result of these collective actions of “place-making,” social capital has increased, thus revitalizing the community, and expanded social networks among residents have stimulated a sense of well-being.

Semenza, Jan C.

2003-01-01

335

NOVA's Runaway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOVA's Runaway Universe site is the companion Web site to the television program of the same name, which followed the efforts of two rival teams of astronomers as they search for exploding stars, map out gigantic cosmic patterns of galaxies, and grapple with the ultimate question: What is the fate of the universe? Visitors of the site will find an interactive timeline of the universe, learn what happens during a supernova explosion, take a virtual tour of the universe, learn how the Doppler effect is used to determine a stellar objects speed, and several other cool interactive and educational activities. This unique and quite interesting site is well worth exploring, although an adequate modem and computer are needed to fully appreciate what it has to offer.

2000-01-01

336

How can you sail in outer space?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can a spaceship save on fuel by sailing in space? This riddle asks students how such a feat could be accomplished. A paragraph and video clip on a clue page sum up two girls' investigation into one possible solution. The girls knew that air is absent in space, so they set out to see if a fan would move a sail in a vacuum chamber. When students select the correct answer from the riddle's three answer choices, a brief video plays that describes how sunlight can exert enough force to propel spacecraft equipped with solar sails (thin, gigantic mirrors). The video explains why this technique can work in space but not on Earth. A text version of the riddle is available.

Television, Twin C.

2004-01-01

337

A normal and superoutburst study of the eclipsing SU UMa star: DV Ursae Majoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on time-resolved photometry carried out during the 1995 short outburst and the 1997 long outburst in the eclipsing dwarf nova DV UMa. The revised orbital period is 0.0858526172 (67)d. We detected gigantic superhumps with an amplitude of ~0.6mag in the mid-phase of the 1997 outburst, revealing the SU UMa nature of DV UMa. The superhump period is 0.0887 (4)d. The superhumps became less clear during the late phase of the superoutburst, and we found two possible periods of 0.0885 (15) and 0.0764 (15). During both outbursts, the eclipse was wide and shallow near the maximum, and then became narrower and deeper, which is qualitatively well explained by the current disc instability theory.

Nogami, Daisaku; Kato, Taichi; Baba, Hajime; Novák, Rudolf; Lockley, J. J.; Somers, M.

2001-03-01

338

M31-RV evolution (1942-1993) (Boschi+, 2004)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photometric evolution of M31-RV has been investigated on 1447 plates of the Andromeda galaxy obtained over half a century with the Asiago telescopes. M31-RV is a gigantic stellar explosion that occurred during 1988 in the Bulge of M31 and that was characterized by the appearance for a few months of an M supergiant reaching Mbol=-10. The 1988 outburst has been positively detected on Asiago plates, and it has been the only such event recorded over the period covered by the plates (1942-1993). In particular, an alleged previous outburst in 1967 is excluded by the more numerous and deeper Asiago plates, with relevant implication for the interpretative models of this unique event. (1 data file).

Boschi, F.; Munari, U.

2004-03-01

339

Impact of the photoinduced space charge upon semiconductor photoresponse dependence on the concentration of recombination centers under weak optical radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of theoretical analysis of influence of the photo-induced space charge upon the photo-carrier initiation, the Dember's effect (photo-EMF) and the photocurrent amplification in the case of inter-band absorption of weak optical radiation and non-equilibrium carrier recombination via deep impurity are presented. The model of a single recombination deep acceptor level and shallow donor impurity is considered. The tasks (including the effect of the gigantic splash of semiconductor photoconductivity upon an increase in the concentration of recombination centers) are solved beyond the commonly used approximation of quasi-neutrality. It is shown that the solutions beyond the approximation of quasi-neutrality may be basically differed from the quasi-neutral solutions.

Kholodnov, Vyacheslav A.; Drugova, Albina A.

2000-11-01

340

Millimeter Radio Astronomy and the Solar Convection Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global distribution of solar surface activity (active regions) is connected with processes in the convection zone. To extract the information on large-scale motions in the convection zone, we study the solar synoptic charts (Mount Wilson 1998-2004, Fe I, 525.02 nm). The clear indication of large-scale ( ? 18 degree) turbulence is found. This may be a manifestations of the deep convection because there is no such global turbulent eddies in the solar photosphere. The preferred scales of longitudinal variations in surface solar activity are revealed. These correspond to about 15 degree to 51 degree (gigantic convection cells), 90 degree, 180 degree and 360 degree. Similar scales (e.g., 40 degree and 90 degree) are found in the millimeter radio-images (Metsahovi Radio Observatory 1994-1998, 37 and 87 GHz). Hence, the millimeter radio astronomy could prove useful for remote sensing of the solar convection zone.

Arkhypov, O. V.; Antonov, O. V.; Khodachenko, M. L.

341

Massive Star Formation and Dust in Collisional Ring Galaxies: From GALEX to Spitzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some first results from a GALEX and Spitzer survey of a dozen collisional ring galaxies. The combination of UV and mid-IR imaging and spectroscopy will allow us to investigate the relationship between massive star formation sites, PAH molecular--band strengths, and dust heating in these mainly simultaneous starburst rings. A deep observation of the well-known Cartwheel ring galaxy has revealed a gigantic outer UV disk which extends to at least twice the radius of the outer blue star--forming ring. A lack of UV variability in the outer Cartwheel ring rules out an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) as the origin of the brightest of a dozen ULX source seen by Chandra in the ring.

Appleton, P. N.; Gil de Paz, A.; Madore, B.; Reach, W.; Struck, C.; Brandl, B.; Jarrett, T.; Fadda, D.; Charmadaris, V.; Armus, L.; Smith, B.; Mazzarella, J.; Lord, S.; Laine, S.; Borne, K.

2008-03-01

342

Velocity-depth ambiguity and the seismic structure of large igneous provinces: a case study from the Ontong Java Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic structure of large igneous provinces provides unique constraints on the nature of their parental mantle, allowing us to investigate past mantle dynamics from present crustal structure. To exploit this crust-mantle connection, however, it is prerequisite to quantify the uncertainty of a crustal velocity model, as it could suffer from considerable velocity-depth ambiguity. In this contribution, a practical strategy is suggested to estimate the model uncertainty by explicitly exploring the degree of velocity-depth ambiguity in the model space. In addition, wide-angle seismic data collected over the Ontong Java Plateau are revisited to provide a worked example of the new approach. My analysis indicates that the crustal structure of this gigantic plateau is difficult to reconcile with the melting of a pyrolitic mantle, pointing to the possibility of large-scale compositional heterogeneity in the convecting mantle.

Korenaga, Jun

2011-05-01

343

Supergiant Complexes of Solar Activity and Convection Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global distribution of solar surface activity (active regions) is apparently connected with processes in the convection zone. The large-scale magnetic structures above the tachocline could in a pronounced way be observable in the surface magnetic field. To get the information regarding large-scale magnetic formations in the convection zone, a set of solar synoptic charts (Mount Wilson 1998 - 2004, Fe i, 525.02 nm) have been analyzed. It is shown that the longitudinal dimensions and dynamics of supergiant complexes of solar surface activity carry valuable information about the processes in the convection zone of the Sun. A clear effect of large-scale (global) turbulence is found. This is a `fingerprint' of deep convection, because there are no such large-scale turbulent eddies in the solar photosphere. The preferred scales of longitudinal variations in surface solar activity are revealed. These are: ˜ 24° (gigantic convection cells), 90°, 180° and 360°.

Arkhypov, O. V.; Antonov, O. V.; Khodachenko, M. L.

2011-05-01

344

Unravelling the determinants of insular body size shifts  

PubMed Central

The island rule, a pattern of size shifts on islands, is an oft-cited but little understood phenomenon of evolutionary biology. Here, we explore the evolutionary mechanisms behind the rule in 184 mammal species, testing climatic, ecological and phylogenetic hypotheses in a robust quantitative framework. Our findings confirm the importance of species’ ecological traits in determining both the strength and the direction of body size changes on islands. Although the island rule pattern appears relatively weak overall, we find strongest support for models incorporating trait, climatic and geographical factors in a phylogenetic context, lending support to the idea that the island rule is a complex phenomenon driven by interacting intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Overall, we find that different clades may be evolutionarily predisposed to dwarfism or gigantism, but the magnitude of size changes depends more on adaptation to the novel island environment.

McClain, Craig R.; Durst, Paul A. P.; Boyer, Alison G.; Francis, Clinton D.

2013-01-01

345

HERA: a Supermicroscope for Investigating the Structure of the Proton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HERA, a high energy particle collider at the Deutsches Elektronensychrotron DESY in Hamburg, allows investigation of the structure of the proton with a spatial resolution of 10 -16 cm, corresponding to about 1/1000 of its diameter. This view deep into the inner properties of matter is obtained from the scattering of high-energy electrons or positrons from high-energy protons. With its 6.3 km circumference, HERA can be regarded as a gigantic electron microscope. The high energies available at HERA allow a wealth of further studies on the properties of elementary particles and their interactions. After a brief review of earlier experiments, the article describes the concept of HERA and the detectors H1 and ZEUS, with which the scattering events are analyzed, as well as some of the physics results.

Buschhorn, Gerd W.

346

The supergiant amphipod Alicella gigantea (Crustacea: Alicellidae) from hadal depths in the Kermadec Trench, SW Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we provide the first record of the 'supergiant' amphipod Alicella gigantea Chevreux, 1899 (Alicellidae) from the Southern Hemisphere, and extend the known bathymetric range by over 1000 m to 7000 m. An estimated nine individuals were observed across 1500 photographs taken in situ by baited camera at 6979 m in the Kermadec Trench, SW Pacific Ocean. Nine specimens, ranging in length from 102 to 290 mm were recovered by baited trap at depths of 6265 m and 7000 m. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences obtained indicate a cosmopolitan distribution for the species. Data and observations from the study are used to discuss the reason for gigantism in this species, and its apparently disjunct geographical distribution.

Jamieson, A. J.; Lacey, N. C.; Lörz, A.-N.; Rowden, A. A.; Piertney, S. B.

2013-08-01

347

Potential for Atlantic current collapse confirmed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential for Atlantic current collapse confirmed The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a gigantic heat, salt, and nutrient mixer that spans the length of the Atlantic Ocean. Drawing warming surface waters up from the south through the Gulf Stream and along the North Atlantic Current, the system has a large amount of control over the climate of western Europe. Once in the North Atlantic, the water cools, becoming more dense and sinking to between 3000 and 5000 meters in depth before commencing a return journey south. Both paleoclimate evidence and simplified ocean circulation models suggest that the AMOC may have two stable states (either its current behavior or an “off” mode), and this has left some researchers worried that the system may experience a sudden and drastic cessation. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL047208, 2011)

Schultz, Colin

2011-07-01

348

[Congenital angiodysplasia of the limbs; diagnosis and therapy].  

PubMed

A complete check-up of vascular morphology and haemodynamics in patients resulted in a differentiation of three clinical entities: (I) type F. P. Weber: multiple active arteriovenous fistulas inducing overgrowth of the skeleton, (2) type Klippel-Trenaunay: venous angiodysplasia with the triad localized gigantism, varicose veins, naevus flammeus, (3) type Servelle-Martorell: systemic haemangiomatosis including the bone and soft tissues resulting in hypoplasia of the skeleton. Early diagnosis and differentiation of these different clinical types are needed for the assessment of the spontaneous course of the disease and choice of an optimal therapeutical approach. In the presence of active arteriovenous fistula (type F. P. Weber) the therapeutic principle should be focused on the normalisation of the shunt volume by surgery (skeletonisation) or catheter embolisation. In patients with venous angiodysplasias (type Klippel-Trenaunay or Servelle-Martorell) the therapy is aimed at prevention or reduction of deep venous insufficiency and is basically conservative by external compression bandages. PMID:2154709

Paes, E H; Vollmar, J F

1990-02-01

349

Galaxy Formation in Action: A Multi-Wavelength Study of Ly-alpha Nebulae in the Distant Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lyman-alpha blobs are mysterious objects in the distant Universe extending over 50-100 kpc. Because these gigantic gas clouds have been detected only in optically thick and highly resonant Lyman-alpha emission, their power source remains a puzzle. Due to the rarity of blobs, the form of their evolution to the present day is also unknown. We are conducting multi-wavelength, deep, and large area surveys to identify tens of blobs at redshifts 2-5. These surveys have now produced the first constraints on blob clustering, showing that blobs occupy massive halos likely to evolve into rich clusters today. Blobs are not only tracers of the most overdense environments at early times, but also may mark the sites of brightest cluster galaxy formation. By targeting the optically-thin lines such as Halpha, we have obtained the first measurements of gas kinematics in blobs, excluding strong outflows as the source of Lyman-alpha emission.

Zabludoff, Ann I.

2012-01-01

350

Familial Dandy-Walker malformation and leukodystrophy.  

PubMed

We report the first familial cases with two different types of posterior fossa cystic malformation and a leukodystrophic-like aspect on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The girl and her brother had severe encephalopathy, marked hypotonia, absent deep tendon reflexes, macrocrania, gigantism, and dysmorphic face and extremities. The girl had generalized seizures. The boy had unilateral cataract and bilateral optic atrophy. The parents were first cousins, suggesting autosomal recessive transmission. MRI showed Dandy-Walker variant in the girl, with cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and expansion of the cisterna magna, which communicated with the fourth ventricle. Her brother had mega cisterna magna communicating with the fourth ventricle and a normal cerebellum. The 2 children had abnormally high signal in the supratentorial white matter. Visual and auditory evoked potentials revealed prolonged latencies. Motor and sensory conduction velocities were normal. Muscle and nerve biopsies were normal. Metabolic exploration demonstrated no abnormality. PMID:9258968

Humbertclaude, V T; Coubes, P A; Leboucq, N; Echenne, B B

1997-05-01

351

Turnaround in cyclic cosmology.  

PubMed

It is speculated how dark energy in a brane world can help reconcile an infinitely cyclic cosmology with the second law of thermodynamics. A cyclic model is described, in which dark energy with w<-1 equation of state leads to a turnaround at a time, extremely shortly before the would-be big rip, at which both volume and entropy of our Universe decrease by a gigantic factor, while very many independent similarly small contracting universes are spawned. The entropy of our model decreases almost to zero at turnaround but increases for the remainder of the cycle by a vanishingly small amount during contraction, empty of matter, then by a large factor during inflationary expansion. PMID:17359014

Baum, Lauris; Frampton, Paul H

2007-02-16

352

THE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF URINARY 17-KETOSTEROID ASSAYS  

PubMed Central

The urinary 17-ketosteroids are a group of compounds derived from complex steroids produced by the adrenal cortex, testis, or ovary. The method of determining the amount excreted has been simplified so that it is available for routine diagnostic purposes. Usually the amount is increased in diseases in which there is hyperfunction of the adrenal cortex due to tumor or hyperplasia, and decreased in lesions that impair the function of the adrenal cortex. Other conditions such as myxedema, eunuchism, gout, and arthritis may alter the excretion of the 17-ketosteroids. Low levels are also found in the young and in the aged. Case histories are presented to illustrate the findings in the following diseases: Tumors of the adrenal cortex with (a) masculinization, (b) Cushing's syndrome with virilism and, (c) hirsutism; as well as in gigantism with acromegaly, in gout, eunuchism, Addison's disease, myxedema, and severe panhypopituitarism.

Biskind, Gerson R.

1950-01-01

353

Hypomethylation of the H19 Gene Causes Not Only Silver-Russell Syndrome (SRS) but Also Isolated Asymmetry or an SRS-Like Phenotype  

PubMed Central

The H19 differentially methylated region (DMR) controls the allele-specific expression of both the imprinted H19 tumor-suppressor gene and the IGF2 growth factor. Hypermethylation of this DMR—and subsequently of the H19 promoter region—is a major cause of the clinical features of gigantism and/or asymmetry seen in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome or in isolated hemihypertrophy. Here, we report a series of patients with hypomethylation of the H19 locus. Their main clinical features of asymmetry and growth retardation are the opposite of those seen in patients with hypermethylation of this region. In addition, we show that complete hypomethylation of the H19 promoter is found in two of three patients with the full clinical spectrum of Silver-Russell syndrome. This syndrome is also characterized by growth retardation and asymmetry, among other clinical features. We conclude that patients with these clinical features should be analyzed for H19 hypomethylation.

Bliek, Jet; Terhal, Paulien; van den Bogaard, Marie-Jose; Maas, Saskia; Hamel, Ben; Salieb-Beugelaar, Georgette; Simon, Marleen; Letteboer, Tom; van der Smagt, Jasper; Kroes, Hester; Mannens, Marcel

2006-01-01

354

Assessing dinosaur growth patterns: a microscopic revolution.  

PubMed

Some of the longest standing questions in dinosaur paleontology pertain to their development. Did dinosaurs grow at slow rates similar to extant reptiles or rapidly similar to living birds and mammals? How did some forms attain gigantic proportions? Conversely, how did birds (avian dinosaurs) become miniaturized? New data on dinosaur longevity garnered from bone microstructure (i.e. osteohistology) are making it possible to assess basic life-history parameters of the dinosaurs such as growth rates and timing of developmental events. Analyses of these data in an evolutionary context are enabling the identification of developmental patterns that lead to size changes within the Dinosauria. Furthermore, this rich new database is providing inroads for studying individual and population biology. All in all, paleohistological research is proving to be the most promising avenue towards gaining a comprehensive understanding of dinosaur biology. PMID:16701457

Erickson, Gregory M

2005-12-01

355

Cancer Epigenetics for the 21st Century  

PubMed Central

The discovery of global DNA hypomethylation events in human tumors in the early 1980s and the identification of CpG island promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells in the mid 1990s opened the door to the current excitement about the contribution of epigenetic disruption to human disease. The recent gigantic advances in technology make it possible to obtain complete DNA methylomes, histonomes, and non-coding RNA transcriptomes for many biological settings and their associated disorders. Furthermore, whole genome sequencing analyses yields an increasing number of mutated epigenetic genes in neoplasia. It is time to sit back, enjoy the show with a little help of friendly bioinformatic tools, and wonder about what will happen next.

Esteller, Manel

2011-01-01

356

Atmospheric oxygen concentration controls the size history of foraminifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Body size correlates with numerous physiological traits and thus influences organism fitness. However, long-term controls on size evolution remain poorly understood because few datasets spans sufficiently long intervals. One proposed controlling factor is variation in atmospheric oxygen, which is widely argued to have influenced size evolution in numerous taxa, notably gigantism in arthropods during the late Paleozoic. In this study, we compiled a comprehensive genus- and species-level size database of foraminifers (marine protists) to enable an extensive analysis of factors influencing size evolution. Foraminifers are an ideal study group because they are present in all Phanerozoic periods and have been diverse and abundant in shallow-marine habitats since Devonian time. We observe significant correlation between foraminiferan size and atmospheric oxygen concentration in foraminifers as a whole and in half of the major subclades. Larger size is associated with higher oxygen concentrations, as predicted by simple physiological models based on changes in the ratio of surface area to volume. Because the oxygen content ocean waters is controlled in part by atmospheric pO2, we interpret the association between foraminiferan size and pO2 to result from a direct physiological effect of oxygen availability. Atmospheric oxygen concentration predicts foraminiferan size better than six other Phanerozoic time series (pCO2, sea level, number of named geological formations, ?18O, ?13C, 87Sr/86Sr), further suggesting the correlation between oxygen and size does not occur simply through some common geological cause that influences many aspects of Earth system history. These findings support the hypothesis that widespread Permo-Carboniferous gigantism was enabled by high pO2 and suggest that oxygen availability has been among the most important influences on size evolution through Phanerozoic time.

Payne, J.; Jost, A. B.; Ouyang, X.; Skotheim, J. M.; Wang, S. C.

2010-12-01

357

Measuring the vertical electrical field above an oceanic convection system using a meteorological sounding balloon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertical electric field above thundercloud plays an important role in the generation and modeling of transient luminous events. For example, Pasko [1995] proposed that the high quasi-static E-field following the positive cloud-to-ground lightning could accelerate and input energy to ambient electrons; as they collide and excite nitrogen and oxygen molecules in upper atmosphere, sprites may be induced. A series of balloon experiments led by Holzworth have investigated the temporal and spatial fluctuations of the electric field and conductivity in the upper atmosphere at different sites [Holzworth 2005, and references in]. But the strength and variation of the vertical electric field above thundercloud, especially oceanic ones, are not well documented so far. A lightweight, low-cost measurement system including an electric field meter and the associated aviation electronics are developed to carry out the in-situ measurement of the vertical electric field and the inter-cloud charge distribution. Our measuring system was first deployed using a meteorological sounding balloon from Taitung, Taiwan in May 2012. The measured electric field below 3km height shows an exponential decay and it is consistent with the expected potential gradient variation between ionosphere and the Earth surface. But the background strength of the measured E-field grows up exponentially and a violent fluctuations is also observed when the balloon flew over a developing oceanic convection cell. The preliminary results from this flight will be reported and discussed. This low-cost electric field meter is developed within one year. In the coming months, more flights will be performed with the aim to measure the rapid variation of the electric field above thundercloud as well as the E-field that may induce transient luminous events. Our ground campaigns show that the occurrence rates of blue and gigantic jet are relatively high in the vicinity of Taiwan. Our experiment can be used to diagnose the dynamics of the E-field associated with blue and gigantic jets.

Chen, A. B.; Chiu, C.; Lai, S.; Chen, C.; Kuo, C.; Su, H.; Hsu, R.

2012-12-01

358

Global distributions and occurrence rates of transient luminous events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the global transient luminous event (TLE) distributions and rates based on the Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) experiment onboard the FORMOSAT-2 satellite. ISUAL observations cover 45°S to 25°N latitude during the northern summer and 25°S to 45°N latitude during the northern winter. From July 2004 to June 2007, ISUAL recorded 5,434 elves, 633 sprites, 657 halos, and 13 gigantic jets. Surprisingly, elve is the dominant type of TLEs, while sprites/halos are a distant second. Elve occurrence rate jumps as the sea surface temperature exceeds 26 degrees Celsius, manifesting an ocean-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling. In the ISUAL survey, elves concentrate over the Caribbean Sea, South China Sea, east Indian Ocean, central Pacific Ocean, west Atlantic Ocean, and southwest Pacific Ocean; while sprites congregate over central Africa, Japan Sea, and west Atlantic Ocean. The ISUAL experiment observed global rates of 3.23, 0.50, 0.39, and 0.01 events per minute for elves, sprites, halos, and gigantic jets, respectively. Taking the instrumental detection sensitivity and the restricted survey area into account, the corrected global occurrence rates for sprites and elves likely are a factor of two and an order of magnitude higher, respectively. ISUAL observations also indicate that the relative frequency of high peak current lightning (>80 kA) is 10 times higher over the oceans than over the land. On the basis of the corrected ISUAL elve global occurrence rate, the total electron content at the lower ionosphere above elve hot zones was computed to be elevated by more than 5%.

Chen, Alfred B.; Kuo, Cheng-Ling; Lee, Yi-Jen; Su, Han-Tzong; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Chern, Jyh-Long; Frey, Harald U.; Mende, Stephen B.; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Fukunishi, Hiroshi; Chang, Yeou-Shin; Liu, Tie-Yue; Lee, Lou-Chuang

2008-08-01

359

Physical characteristics of TLEs inferred from ISUAL observations (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ISUAL/FORMOSAT-2 is the first satellite mission for the long term survey of upper atmospheric transient luminous phenomena/events (TLEs). The payload consists of three sensor packages including an intensified CCD imager, a six-channel spectrophotometer and a dual-band array photometer. Hence ISUAL experiment could provide information to understand the spatial and the temporal evolutions of TLEs. In this presentation, we will review the important findings of the ISUAL mission in the first five years of operation; mainly on the electric field of sprites streamers [Pasko, 2004; Kuo et al., 2005; Liu et al., 2006; Adachi et al., 2006; Liu et al, 2010; Celestin and Pasko, 2010], the FUV emissions of elves [Mende et al., 2005; Chang et al., 2010], the luminous and electric properties of gigantic jets [Su et al., 2005; Kuo et al., 2009; Chou et al., 2010], and the high-altitude sprite current and the lightning continuing current [Cummer et al, 2006; Adachi et al, 2009]. ISUAL has carried out 762 nm-filtered, 557.7 nm-filtered and 427.8 nm-filtered imager campaigns, besides the regular 1PN2 emission survey. For the 762 nm-filtered imager campaign, a weak but detectable O2 Atmospheric band emission (~1 kR) was predicted based on a plasma chemistry model [Sentman et al., 2008], and the image data may have confirmed the existence of this band emission. While, no significant 557.7 nm emissions were detected from the ISUAL recorded elves. In the 427.8 nm campaign, altitudinal ionization profile of sprites was inferred. The ionization structure of elves and the leader structure of gigantic jets will also be discussed.

Kuo, C.; Chen, A. B.; Su, H.; Hsu, R.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Takahashi, Y.; Lee, L.

2010-12-01

360

Earliest Example of a Giant Monitor Lizard (Varanus, Varanidae, Squamata)  

PubMed Central

Background Varanidae is a clade of tiny (<20 mm pre-caudal length [PCL]) to giant (>600 mm PCL) lizards first appearing in the Cretaceous. True monitor lizards (Varanus) are known from diagnostic remains beginning in the early Miocene (Varanus rusingensis), although extremely fragmentary remains have been suggested as indicating earlier Varanus. The paleobiogeographic history of Varanus and timing for origin of its gigantism remain uncertain. Methodology/Principal Findings A new Varanus from the Mytilini Formation (Turolian, Miocene) of Samos, Greece is described. The holotype consists of a partial skull roof, right side of a braincase, partial posterior mandible, fragment of clavicle, and parts of six vertebrae. A cladistic analysis including 83 taxa coded for 5733 molecular and 489 morphological characters (71 previously unincluded) demonstrates that the new fossil is a nested member of an otherwise exclusively East Asian Varanus clade. The new species is the earliest-known giant (>600 mm PCL) terrestrial lizard. Importantly, this species co-existed with a diverse continental mammalian fauna. Conclusions/Significance The new monitor is larger (longer) than 99% of known fossil and living lizards. Varanus includes, by far, the largest limbed squamates today. The only extant non-snake squamates that approach monitors in maximum size are the glass-snake Pseudopus and the worm-lizard Amphisbaena. Mosasauroids were larger, but exclusively marine, and occurred only during the Late Cretaceous. Large, extant, non-Varanus, lizards are limbless and/or largely isolated from mammalian competitors. By contrast, our new Varanus achieved gigantism in a continental environment populated by diverse eutherian mammal competitors.

Conrad, Jack L.; Balcarcel, Ana M.; Mehling, Carl M.

2012-01-01

361

Dinámica y crecimiento de los granos de polvo en la nebulosa protoplanetaria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En el escenario estándar de la formación planetaria, los planetesimales (cuerpos de tamaño kilométrico) crecen a partir de granos de polvo, similares a los interestelares, embebidos en un disco gaseoso denominado nebulosa protoplanetaria. Durante esta etapa, los movimientos del gas pueden tener gran influencia en la dinámica y el crecimiento de los granos de polvo, dado que el flujo kepleriano del gas frena el movimiento de los mismos haciendo que caigan hacia el Sol, y la turbulencia inhibe la inestabilidad gravitacional de la capa de polvo. Aunque se acepta que los planetesimales fueron los elementos constituyentes de los planetas, todavía se desconoce cómo se produjo la formación de los mismos. Por esta razón, en los estudios más recientes, existe un renovado interés por comprender mejor la evolución de la capa de polvo inmersa en el disco gaseoso de la Nebulosa. El gas que fluye en el disco puede engendrar estructuras carentes de simetría axial, como por ejemplo ondas espirales y vórtices, a partir de gran variedad de mecanismos de excitación e inestabilidad. En 1995, Barge y Sommeria pusieron de manifiesto que la existencia de vórtices gaseosos persistentes en la nebulosa solar tendría importantes consecuencias sobre la formación de los planetesimales y el posterior crecimiento de los planetas gigantes. La investigación desarrollada en esta Tesis analiza la relación entre el polvo y el gas debida al acoplamiento por fricción dinámica entre ambos; en concreto, se estudia el efecto del flujo medio del gas sobre la dinámica de las partículas de polvo. El primer objetivo es investigar en profundidad los procesos de captura y crecimiento de los granos de polvo dentro de un vórtice y su posible relevancia en cuanto a la formación de los planetesimales. El segundo objetivo es la exploración de los efectos de ondas espirales propagándose en el disco gaseoso sobre la dinámica y el crecimiento de las partículas. La presencia de líneas de corriente no circulares perturba significativamente el movimiento de las partículas alrededor del Sol e incrementa su vida media en la Nebulosa. El flujo medio del gas se modela de forma simple, analizándose la dinámica y el crecimiento de las partículas mediante simulaciones numéricas. Al incrementarse la vida media y la densidad superficial de las partículas sólidas, los mecanismos de confinamiento derivados de la presencia de vórtices y ondas espirales actuan sobre el material sólido de la Nebulosa (mediante agregación colisional o inestabilidades gravitacionales) de manera mucho más eficiente que la previamente considerada. Esto ofrece nuevas posibilidades para la formación de planetesimales y núcleos de planetas gigantes, y puede explicar la formación rápida de planetas extrasolares gigantes. Además, esta Tesis analiza la respuesta de las partículas, en un disco protoplanetario con un radio de 100 UA en torno a una estrella de tipo solar, al campo gravitatorio derivado de la presencia de dos estrellas compañeras ligadas en una órbita relativamente elongada (300-1600 UA). Para llevar a cabo este análisis, se han realizado una serie de simulaciones numéricas de configuraciones jerárquicas coplanares utilizando un programa FORTRAN que integra directamente las ecuaciones del movimiento con el objeto de modelar la presencia de las fuerzas gravitacionales y viscosas. El disco protoplanetario masivo se encuentra en torno a una de las componentes de la binaria. La evolución temporal del subdisco de polvo depende directamente de la naturaleza (directa o retrógrada) de la revolución relativa de la compañera estelar, y de la temperatura y la masa del disco circunestelar.

de La Fuente Marcos, Carlos

2001-06-01

362

Electron energy distribution functions and transport coefficients relevant for air plasmas in the troposphere: impact of humidity and gas temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Boltzmann and Monte Carlo analysis of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and transport coefficients for air plasmas is presented for the conditions of the Earth troposphere where some transient luminous events (TLEs) such as blue jets, blue starters and gigantic jets have been observed. According to recent model results (Minschwaner et al 2004 J. Climate 17 1272) supported by the halogen occultation experiment, the relative humidity of the atmospheric air between 0 and 15 km can change between 15% and 100% depending on the altitude investigated and the ground temperature. The latter results cover a region of latitudes between -25°S and +25°N, that is, the Earth tropical region where lightning and TLE activity is quite high. The calculations shown here suggest that the relative humidity has a clear impact on the behaviour of the EEDF and magnitude of the transport coefficients of air plasmas at ground (0 km) and room temperature conditions (293 K). At higher altitudes (11 and 15 km), the influence of the relative humidity is negligible when the values of the gas temperature are assumed to be the 'natural' ones corresponding to those altitudes, that is, ~215 K (at 11 km) and ~198 K (at 15 km). However, it is found that a small enhancement (of maximum 100 K) in the background gas temperature (that could be reasonably associated with the TLE activity) would lead to a remarkable impact of the relative humidity on the EEDF and transport coefficients of air plasmas under the conditions of blue jets, blue starters and gigantic jets at 11 and 15 km. The latter effects are visible for relatively low reduced electric fields (E/N <= 25 Td) that could be controlling the afterglow kinetics of the air plasmas generated by TLEs. However, for much higher fields such as, for instance, 400 Td (representative of the fields in the streamer coronas and lightning leaders), the impact of increasing the relative humidity and gas temperature is only slightly noticeable in the attachment coefficient that can exhibit an increase of up to one order of magnitude at 11 km and 15 km for temperatures of 313 K and 308 K, respectively. Finally, a brief analysis is carried out on the impact of the gas temperature on the diffusion coefficients of neutrals and ions. The present results show quite reasonable agreement with available measurements in dry and moist air.

Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.; Donkó, Z.

2009-08-01

363

Evidence of cumulative offset along the inland Itozawa fault possibly triggered by the past M9 Tohoku, Japan, megathrust earthquakes revealed from a borehole survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gigantic Mw 9.0 11 March 2011 Tohoku earthquake suddenly changed the overriding inland area from a compressional stress to an extensional stress regime and then triggered massive seismic swarms in the coastal Fukushima region. The Fukushima-ken-hamadori earthquake on 11 April 2011 (hereinafter, Iwaki earthquake), which was the largest inland off-fault aftershock of the Tohoku earthquake, ruptured the two previously mapped normal faults, the Yunodake fault and the Itozawa fault (Toda and Tsutsumi, BSSA, 2013). The Iwaki earthquake implies that the past gigantic megathrust earthquakes, if they exist, might have frequently triggered slip on similar normal faults including the Itozawa and Yunodake faults themselves. Ideally, collecting all the paleoseismic records from all the normal faults would give us the history of the past M9 class megathrust events and an average inter-event time. Among the series of surveys including paleoseismic trenches (e.g., Toda and Tsutsumi, 2013), we conducted a borehole survey across the central part of the Itozawa fault (Shionohira, Iwaki City), where the maximum vertical displacement 2.1 m was measured. In both upthrown and downthrown sides, extracted core samples expose bedrock conglomerate, fluvial sand and gravel deposits, and artificial fill, from lower to upper, in ascending order. Only in downthrown side, an organic-rich fine layer overlays fluvial deposit, indicating environmental changes from river channel to marsh or pond. We found evidence for cumulative vertical displacement on the top of pre-2011 artificial fill (1.7 m), river channel gravel layer (2.5 m), and bedrock (3.4 m). On the basis of sudden environmental changes from river to pond observed after the Iwaki earthquake due to subsided upstream area (Toda and Tsutsumi, 2013), we interpret that change in sedimentary facies from fluvial gravel to marsh or pond organic layer in the downthrown side corresponds to one of the past surface-rupturing earthquakes. Radiocarbon age yielded from the organic-rich unit suggests that one of the pre-2011 surface rupturing earthquakes occurred about 50,000 years ago. The amount of vertical displacement at one of the pre-2011 earthquakes (ca. 0.8 m) is significantly smaller than displacement at the Iwaki earthquake. Together with large coseismic slip at the 2011 event, it implies that the characteristic earthquake model cannot be simply applied to the faults largely influenced or directly triggered by huge megathrust earthquakes nearby.

Niwa, Y.; Toda, S.; Omata, M.; Mori, Y.

2013-12-01

364

The island wind buoyancy connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of recent studies have suggested that the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is at least partially controlled by the Southern Ocean (SO) winds. The paradoxical implication is that a link exists between the global surface buoyancy flux to the ocean (which is needed for the density transformation between surface and deep water) and the SO winds. Although the dependency of buoyancy forcing on local wind is obvious, the global forcings are usually viewed independently with regard to their role as drivers of the global ocean circulation. The present idealized study is focused on understanding this wind buoyancy connection. In order to isolate and investigate the effect of SO winds on the overturning we have neglected other important key processes such as SO eddies.We present the wind buoyancy connection in the framework of a single gigantic island that lies between latitude bands free of continents (such as the land mass of the Americas). The unique geometry of a gigantic island on a sphere allows for a clear and insightful examination of the wind buoyancy connection. This is because it enables us to obtain analytical solutions and it circumvents the need to calculate the torque exerted on zonal sills adjacent to the island tips (e.g. the Bering Strait). The torque calculation is notoriously difficult and is avoided here by the clockwise integration, which goes twice through the western boundary of the island (in opposite directions) eliminating any unknown pressure torques.The link between SO winds and global buoyancy forcing is explored qualitatively, using salinity and temperature mixed dynamical-box models and a temperature slab model, and semiquantitatively, employing a reduced gravity model which includes parametrized thermodynamics. Our main finding is that, in all of these cases the island geometry implies that the stratification (and, hence, the air sea heat flux) can always adjust itself to allow the overturning forced by the wind. We find that, in the mixed dynamical-box models, the salinity and temperature differences between the boxes are inversely proportional to the MOC. In spite of the resulting smaller north south temperature difference, the meridional heat transport is enhanced.

de Boer, Agatha M.; Nof, Doron

2005-10-01

365

Rheological profile of the Tohoku-oki interplate megathrust across the source region of the M9 great earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before attacked by the 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake (M9.0), large earthquakes off the Pacific coast of NE Japan had been believed to occur at specific areas, named asperities, on the subducting plate interface. In the NE Japan subduction zone, a typical asperity was found offshore of Miyagi Prefecture (Miyagi-oki), where M7-class earthquakes occurred in 1936, 1978, and 2005, with recurrence intervals of 37 years. However, the M9 gigantic earthquake occurred at the up-dip side of the asperity of the M7-class Miyagi-oki earthquakes. The large slips at the M9 event have been differently explained by different numerical models due to the lack of our knowledge on frictional properties and stress states at the plate interface. Here we constrain the stress states on the NE Japan interplate megathrust from a viewpoint of rock rheology. A strength profile of the megathrust was constructed across the source region of the M9 Tohoku-oki earthquake using laboratory data of friction, fracturing and ductile flow. Rheological properties of siliceous sedimentary rocks and subducting seamounts at the top of the oceanic plate were represented by those of wet quartz and gabbro, respectively. Depth-dependent changes of pressure, temperature, and pore pressure ratio were incorporated into the model. The frictional strength of the thrust fault was estimated to be about 150 MPa at the hypocenter of the M9 earthquake, which is located 17-18 km below the sea level. The large coseismic slips observed at the M9 event are explained by the large difference in fault strength between the shallow tsunami-genic zone and the M9 hypocentral zone. A large stress drop induced by a collapse of a subducted seamount possibly triggered the gigantic earthquake. At the deep (>35 km) part of the thrust fault, where M7-class Miyagi-oki earthquakes repeatedly occurred, siliceous rocks become ductile whereas gabbroic rocks are brittle and strong. Thus, the asperity of the M7-class earthquakes is considered as a broken seamount, which is surrounded by siliceous sedimentary rocks. A conditionally stable nature of the surrounding region is explained by frictional behaviors of quartz in the brittle-ductile transition zone. In contrast to the deep M7-class asperity, the M9 asperity (i.e., a region that was strongly coupled before the M9 Tohoku-oki earthquake) occupies a large part of the plate interface because shear strength is relatively insensitive to rock types at the intermediate depth. The along-arc extension of the M9 asperity is possibly constrained by fluid distributions on the plate interface.

Shimizu, I.

2013-12-01

366

[An adult case of Chédiak-Higashi syndrome with parkinsonism and marked atrophy of the central nervous system].  

PubMed

Chédiak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is often a fatal disease of childhood characterized by oculocutaneous forms of albinism with congenital gigantism of peroxidase granules, granulation anomaly of leukocytes, hereditary gigantism of cytoplasmic organelles and a marked susceptibility to infections. A few patients have survived to age 20 years. A 39-year-old woman developed tremor and gait disturbance at age 22 years. At age 25 years, she was admitted to the Hospital for evaluation. Mental impairment, horizontal nystagmus, bradyphrenia, cogwheel rigidity, tremor at tongue, mandible and hands, bradykinesia, and unsteady gait were found and a juvenile parkinsonism was diagnosed. However, there was no favorable response by levodopa therapy. She became unable to walk at age 33 years. On admission, Oct. 27, 1988, at age 39 years, she was bedridden with a posture of decorticate rigidity. She was found to have partial depigmentation of the retina and choroid, pale and atrophic optic disc and subluxation of the mandible, Onuaguluchi's finger deformities and pes cavus. Neurological examination disclosed that she was alert but had marked difficulty in speaking. The communication was only possible by giving a sign of grasping of the left hand. The patient also showed oculogyric crisis, dystonic rigidity of the neck, diffuse muscular atrophy, complete paraplegia and decreased deep tendon reflexes with Babinski sign. On laboratory studies, at age 39, the white cells count was decreased (2,510/mm3), the hemoglobin level was 10.3 g/dl, the serum iron was 12 micrograms/dl, IgG 2,828 mg/dl, IgA 1,002 mg/dl, and the activity of natural killer cell was profoundly decreased (2%, normal; 18-40). Hematological examination revealed peroxidase positive giant granules in leukocytes. Chest X-ray film disclosed marked abnormal colon gas which located right subdiaphragma (Chilaiditi syndrome). Cerebrospinal fluid contained 12 cells/mm3, 99% lymphocytes; protein, 58.8 mg/dl; IgG, 6.8 mg/dl; HVA, 4.5 ng/ml (normal 41.8-44.6); 5-HIAA, 1.3 ng/ml (11.3-29.2); MHPG, 5.8 ng/ml (13.2-22.2).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2044302

Uyama, E; Hirano, T; Yoshida, A; Doi, O; Maruoka, S; Araki, S

1991-01-01

367

Analysis of impulse signals with Hylaty ELF station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lighting discharges generate electromagnetic field pulses that propagate in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. The attenuation in the ELF range is so small that the pulses originating from strong atmospheric discharges can be observed even several thousand kilometers away from the individual discharge. The recorded waveform depends on the discharge process, the Earth-ionosphere waveguide properties on the source-receiver path, and the transfer function of the receiver. If the distance from the source is known, an inverse method can be used for reconstructing the current moment waveform and the charge moment of the discharge. In order to reconstruct the source parameters from the recorded signal a reliable model of the radio wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide as well as practical signal processing techniques are necessary. We present two methods, both based on analytical formulas. The first method allows for fast calculation of the charge moment of relatively short atmospheric discharges. It is based on peak amplitude measurement of the recorded magnetic component of the ELF EM field and it takes into account the receiver characteristics. The second method, called "inverse channel method" allows reconstructing the complete current moment waveform of strong atmospheric discharges that exhibit the continuing current phase, such as Gigantic Jets and Sprites. The method makes it possible to fully remove from the observed waveform the distortions related to the receiver's impulse response as well as the influence of the Earth-ionosphere propagation channel. Our ELF station is equipped with two magnetic antennas for Bx and By components measurement in the 0.03 to 55 Hz frequency range. ELF Data recording is carried out since 1993, with continuous data acquisition since 2005. The station features low noise level and precise timing. It is battery powered and located in the sparsely populated area, far from major electric power lines, which results in high quality signal recordings and allows for precise calculations of the charge moments of upward discharges and strong cloud-to-ground discharges originating from distant sources. The same data is used for Schumann resonance observation. We demonstrate the use of our methods based on recent recordings from the Hylaty ELF station. We include examples of GJ (Gigantic Jet) and TGF (Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash) related discharges.

Kulak, A.; Mlynarczyk, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Kubisz, J.; Michalec, A.

2012-04-01

368

Noachian Faulting: What Do Faults Tell Us About the Tectonic History of Tharsis?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The western hemisphere of Mars is dominated by the formation of Tharsis, which is an enormous high-standing region (roughly 25% of the surface area of the planet) capped by volcanics, including the solar system's largest shield volcanoes. Tharsis is surrounded by an enormous radiating system of grabens and a circumferential system of wrinkle ridges that extends over the entire western hemisphere of Mars. This region is perhaps the largest and most long lived tectonic and volcanic province of any of the terrestrial planets with a well-preserved history of magmatic-driven activity that began in the Noachian and has lasted throughout Martian geologic time. Tharsis and the surrounding regions comprise numerous components, including volcanic constructs of varying sizes and extensive lava flow fields, large igneous plateaus, fault and ridge systems of varying extent and relative age of formation, gigantic outflow channel systems, vast system of canyons, and local and regional centers of tectonic activity. Many of these centers are interpreted to be the result of magmatic-related activity, including uplift, faulting, dike emplacement, volcanism, and local hydrothermal activity. Below we present a summary of our work for Tharsis focusing primarily on the earliest stage of development, the Noachian period. Here we hone in on the early centers and how they relate to the early development of the Tharsis Magmatic Complex (TMC).

Anderson, R. C.; Dohm, J. M.

2001-01-01

369

Anomalous surface lattice dynamics in the low-temperature phase of Ba(Fe1?xCox)2As2  

PubMed Central

In complex materials, how correlation between charge, spin, and lattice affects the emergent phenomena remains unclear. The newly discovered iron-based high-temperature superconductors and related compounds present to the community a prototype family of materials, where interplay between charge, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom can be explored. With the occurrence of structural, magnetic, and superconducting transitions in the bulk of these materials, creating a surface will change the delicate balance between these phases, resulting in new behavior. A surface lattice dynamics study on (001) Ba(Fe1?xCox)2As2, through electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements, reveals unusual temperature dependence of both the phonon frequency and line width in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase. The rate of change of phonon frequency with temperature is gigantic, two orders of magnitude larger than in the bulk. This behavior cannot be explained using conventional models of anharmonicity or electron–phonon coupling; instead, it requires that a large surface-spin-charge-lattice coupling be included. Furthermore, the higher surface-phase-transition temperature driven by surface stabilization of the low-temperature orthorhombic phase seems to turn the first-order transition (bulk) into the second-order type, equivalent to what is observed in the bulk by applying a uniaxial pressure. Such equivalence indicates that the surface mirrors the bulk under extreme conditions.

Teng, Jing; Chen, Chen; Xiong, Yimin; Zhang, Jiandi; Jin, Rongying; Plummer, E. W.

2013-01-01

370

Effect of particle size and annealing on spin and phonon behavior in TbMnO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest has grown to study TbMnO3 as it was recently reported to show a gigantic magnetoelectric effect. Here, we report the synthesis and detailed magnetic and Raman spectroscopy study on TbMnO3 particles of size ~25 nm and 2-3 ?m, respectively. The incommensurate-commensurate (lock-in) transition, usually observed at 27 K for bulk phase of TbMnO3 was not observed in susceptibility versus T curve but was seen at 30 K in the coercivity versus T curve in ~25 nm particles. This transition, which is due to the spin modulation length scale, gets weakened in nanosize due to the increased intrinsic lattice strain observed in 2-3 ?m particles, due to the effect of increased particle size. The increased value of magnetization in the 2-3 ?m sample was attributed to double exchange interactions between Mn+3 and Mn+4 spins. The role of annealing related effects on the fate of the Néel temperature for TbMnO3 was investigated. Raman spectroscopy indicated a decrease in the lattice distortion for ~25 nm particles.

Das, Raja; Jaiswal, Adhish; Adyanthaya, Suguna; Poddar, Pankaj

2011-03-01

371

Argon plasma coagulation of hemorrhagic solitary rectal ulcer syndrome.  

PubMed

Solitary ulcer syndrome (SUS) is a rare disorder that may provoke hematochezia. Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is used in a wide range of gastrointestinal bleeding. We experienced APC in a patient with a bleeding gigantic SUS: a 64-year-old woman who developed a SUS at 60. After 3 years, recurrent hematochezia, secondary anemia, and rectal pain occurred. Endoscopy revealed a large rectal bleeding ulcer. Moreover, the pain led the patient to assume analgesics. These conditions stimulated us to treat this ulcer with APC within 4 sessions; each session spaced out at 30-day intervals. The patient experienced and maintained the following benefits: (1) resolution of bleeding and secondary anemia after the first session, (2) reduction of ulcer depth, disappearance of pain and analgesic withdrawal at the end of the cycle, (3) almost complete endoscopic healing of the ulcer after 9 months of follow-up. This experience suggests that APC may represent a therapeutic approach for bleeding SUS even if controlled studies are necessary before recommending it as acceptable treatment. PMID:14564186

Stoppino, Vincenzo; Cuomo, Rosario; Tonti, Paolo; Gentile, Marco; De Francesco, Vincenzo; Muscatiello, Nicola; Panella, Carmine; Ierardi, Enzo

2003-01-01

372

An improved distance matrix computation algorithm for multicore clusters.  

PubMed

Distance matrix has diverse usage in different research areas. Its computation is typically an essential task in most bioinformatics applications, especially in multiple sequence alignment. The gigantic explosion of biological sequence databases leads to an urgent need for accelerating these computations. DistVect algorithm was introduced in the paper of Al-Neama et al. (in press) to present a recent approach for vectorizing distance matrix computing. It showed an efficient performance in both sequential and parallel computing. However, the multicore cluster systems, which are available now, with their scalability and performance/cost ratio, meet the need for more powerful and efficient performance. This paper proposes DistVect1 as highly efficient parallel vectorized algorithm with high performance for computing distance matrix, addressed to multicore clusters. It reformulates DistVect1 vectorized algorithm in terms of clusters primitives. It deduces an efficient approach of partitioning and scheduling computations, convenient to this type of architecture. Implementations employ potential of both MPI and OpenMP libraries. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs improvement of around 3-fold speedup upon SSE2. Further it also achieves speedups more than 9 orders of magnitude compared to the publicly available parallel implementation utilized in ClustalW-MPI. PMID:25013779

Al-Neama, Mohammed W; Reda, Naglaa M; Ghaleb, Fayed F M

2014-01-01

373

The first freshwater mosasauroid (Upper Cretaceous, Hungary) and a new clade of basal mosasauroids.  

PubMed

Mosasauroids are conventionally conceived of as gigantic, obligatorily aquatic marine lizards (1000s of specimens from marine deposited rocks) with a cosmopolitan distribution in the Late Cretaceous (90-65 million years ago [mya]) oceans and seas of the world. Here we report on the fossilized remains of numerous individuals (small juveniles to large adults) of a new taxon, Pannoniasaurus inexpectatus gen. et sp. nov. from the Csehbánya Formation, Hungary (Santonian, Upper Cretaceous, 85.3-83.5 mya) that represent the first known mosasauroid that lived in freshwater environments. Previous to this find, only one specimen of a marine mosasauroid, cf. Plioplatecarpus sp., is known from non-marine rocks in Western Canada. Pannoniasaurus inexpectatus gen. et sp. nov. uniquely possesses a plesiomorphic pelvic anatomy, a non-mosasauroid but pontosaur-like tail osteology, possibly limbs like a terrestrial lizard, and a flattened, crocodile-like skull. Cladistic analysis reconstructs P. inexpectatus in a new clade of mosasauroids: (Pannoniasaurus (Tethysaurus (Yaguarasaurus, Russellosaurus))). P. inexpectatus is part of a mixed terrestrial and freshwater faunal assemblage that includes fishes, amphibians turtles, terrestrial lizards, crocodiles, pterosaurs, dinosaurs and birds. PMID:23284766

Makádi, László; Caldwell, Michael W; ?si, Attila

2012-01-01

374

Intercontinental dispersal of giant thermophilic ants across the Arctic during early Eocene hyperthermals.  

PubMed

Early Eocene land bridges allowed numerous plant and animal species to cross between Europe and North America via the Arctic. While many species suited to prevailing cool Arctic climates would have been able to cross throughout much of this period, others would have found dispersal opportunities only during limited intervals when their requirements for higher temperatures were met. Here, we present Titanomyrma lubei gen. et sp. nov. from Wyoming, USA, a new giant (greater than 5 cm long) formiciine ant from the early Eocene (approx. 49.5 Ma) Green River Formation. We show that the extinct ant subfamily Formiciinae is only known from localities with an estimated mean annual temperature of about 20°C or greater, consistent with the tropical ranges of almost all of the largest living ant species. This is, to our knowledge, the first known formiciine of gigantic size in the Western Hemisphere and the first reported cross-Arctic dispersal by a thermophilic insect group. This implies intercontinental migration during one or more brief high-temperature episodes (hyperthermals) sometime between the latest Palaeocene establishment of intercontinental land connections and the presence of giant formiciines in Europe and North America by the early middle Eocene. PMID:21543354

Archibald, S Bruce; Johnson, Kirk R; Mathewes, Rolf W; Greenwood, David R

2011-12-22

375

The Chandra XRCF Calibration Experience - A Personal Recollection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My undergraduate thesis research involved calibrating an imaging proportion counter for the Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer on the Einstein X-ray Observatory. The testing was done in a laboratory on the 5th floor of MIT’s Center for Space Research, with one or two other people in the room. Years later, when I joined the Chandra project, I had the unique experience of participating in the calibration of the mirrors and detectors at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville Alabama. This was an eye-opening experience of an entirely different magnitude! A quarter-mile long vacuum tube extended from an X-ray source building to a two-story structure housing a gigantic vacuum test chamber. Teams representing every part of the Observatory worked 24 hours a day, seven days a week for nearly half a year. This experience represented an immense milestone - for the Observatory, perhaps for X-ray astronomy, and certainly for the people who worked so hard (and sacrificed so much) to achieve it.

Flanagan, Kathryn

2013-01-01

376

Citations to papers from Brazilian institutions: a more effective indicator to assess productivity and the impact of research in graduate programs.  

PubMed

A recent assessment of 4400 postgraduate courses in Brazil by CAPES (a federal government agency dedicated to the improvement of the quality of and research at the postgraduate level) stimulated a large amount of manifestations in the press, scientific journals and scientific congresses. This gigantic effort to classify 16,400 scientific journals in order to provide indicators for assessment proved to be puzzling and methodologically erroneous in terms of gauging the institutions from a metric point of view. A simple algorithm is proposed here to weigh the scientometric indicators that should be considered in the assessment of a scientific institution. I conclude here that the simple gauge of the total number of citations accounts for both the productivity of scientists and the impact of articles. The effort spent in this exercise is relatively small, and the sources of information are fully accessible. As an exercise to estimate the value of the methodology, 12 institutions of physics (10 from Brazil, one from the USA and one from Italy) have been evaluated. PMID:21710100

Meneghini, R

2011-08-01

377

Sobre el estado evolutivo de ? Pictoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en ? Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. ? Pic está rodeada de un disco asimétrico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vacío a distancias <= 40 AU. Esto se considera una fuerte evidencia en favor de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado líneas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la caída de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a ?Pic. Sin embargo, la evaporación de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparación entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evolución y los datos observados en ? Pic indica edades avanzadas para ? Pic. Esta estimación debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Además mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evolución estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para ? Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

378

An Improved Distance Matrix Computation Algorithm for Multicore Clusters  

PubMed Central

Distance matrix has diverse usage in different research areas. Its computation is typically an essential task in most bioinformatics applications, especially in multiple sequence alignment. The gigantic explosion of biological sequence databases leads to an urgent need for accelerating these computations. DistVect algorithm was introduced in the paper of Al-Neama et al. (in press) to present a recent approach for vectorizing distance matrix computing. It showed an efficient performance in both sequential and parallel computing. However, the multicore cluster systems, which are available now, with their scalability and performance/cost ratio, meet the need for more powerful and efficient performance. This paper proposes DistVect1 as highly efficient parallel vectorized algorithm with high performance for computing distance matrix, addressed to multicore clusters. It reformulates DistVect1 vectorized algorithm in terms of clusters primitives. It deduces an efficient approach of partitioning and scheduling computations, convenient to this type of architecture. Implementations employ potential of both MPI and OpenMP libraries. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs improvement of around 3-fold speedup upon SSE2. Further it also achieves speedups more than 9 orders of magnitude compared to the publicly available parallel implementation utilized in ClustalW-MPI.

Al-Neama, Mohammed W.; Reda, Naglaa M.; Ghaleb, Fayed F. M.

2014-01-01

379

Global transients in ultraviolet and red-infrared ranges from data of Universitetsky-Tatiana-2 satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light detectors sensitive to wavelength ranges 240-400 nm and beyond 610 nm (which we refer to, for simplicity, as the UV and Red bands) on board Universitetsky-Tatiana-2 satellite have detected transient flashes in the atmosphere of duration 1-128 ms. Measured ratio of the number of Red photons to the number of UV photons indicates that source of transient radiation is at high atmosphere altitude (>50 km). Distribution of events with various photon numbers Qa in the atmosphere found to be different for "luminous" events Qa = 1023 - 1026 (with exponent of differential distribution -2.2) and for "faint" events Qa = 1021 - 1023 (with exponent - 0.97). Luminous event parameters (atmosphere altitude, energy released to radiation, and temporal profiles) are similar to observed elsewhere parameters of transient luminous events (TLE) of elves, sprites, halo, and gigantic blue jets types. Global map of luminous events demonstrates concentration to equatorial zones (latitudes 30°N to 30°S) above continents. Faint events (with number of photons Qa = 1020 - 5? 1021) are distributed more uniformly over latitudes and longitudes. Phenomenon of series of transients registered every minute along satellite orbit (from 3 to 16 transients in one series) was observed. Most TLE-type events belonged to series. Single transients are in average fainter than serial ones. Some transients belonging to series occurs far away of thunderstorm regions. Origin of faint single transients is not clear; several hypothetical models of their production are discussed.

Garipov, G. K.; Khrenov, B. A.; Klimov, P. A.; Klimenko, V. V.; Mareev, E. A.; Martines, O.; Mendoza, E.; Morozenko, V. S.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Park, I. H.; Ponce, E.; Rivera, L.; Salazar, H.; Tulupov, V. I.; Vedenkin, N. N.; Yashin, I. V.

2013-01-01

380

The Mn concentration dependence of photoluminescence spectra in CdMnTe/CdMgTe quantum Hall system at high magnetic fields up to 25 T  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed polarized photoluminescence (PL) experiments in the quantum Hall system of II-VI semiconductors, Cd 1- xMn xTe/CdMgTe single quantum well at steady magnetic fields up to 25 T. The evolution of the spectra with changing Mn concentration x was investigated. In CdTe/CdMgTe quantum well ( x=0), the oscillatory behaviors of the PL due to the many-body effect were observed at the integer filling factor clearly. In the lower Mn sample, the effective g-factor of electron was tuned to nearly zero and the PL was polarized in ?+ polarization because of the gigantic Zeeman splitting in the valence band. The observation of the Auger and spin-flip recombination processes around ??3 supports this situation. In the higher Mn sample, the PL is also highly polarized in ?+ polarization due to the large Zeeman splitting of both the conduction band and the valence band. The sudden shift of the PL energy was observed at the filling factor ?=1 only for the higher Mn sample.

Imanaka, Y.; Takamasu, T.; Kido, G.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.; Kossut, J.

2001-05-01

381

The effect of albumin fusion structure on the production and bioactivity of the somatostatin-28 fusion protein in Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

Somatostatin, a natural inhibitor of growth hormone (GH), and its analogs have been used in clinical settings for the treatment of acromegaly, gigantism, thyrotropinoma, and other carcinoid syndromes. However, natural somatostatin is limited for clinical usage because of its short half-life in vivo. Albumin fusion technology was used to construct long-acting fusion proteins and Pichia pastoris was used as an expression system. Three fusion proteins (SS28)(2)-HSA, (SS28)(3)-HSA, and HSA-(SS28)(2), were constructed with different fusion copies of somatostatin-28 and fusion orientations. The expression level of (SS28)(3)-HSA was much lower than (SS28)(2)-HSA and HSA-(SS28)(2) due to the additional fusion of the somatostatin-28 molecule. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealed that severe degradation occurred in the fermentation process. Similar to the standard, somatostatin-14, all three fusion proteins were able to inhibit GH secretion in blood, with (SS28)(2)-HSA being the most effective one. A pharmacokinetics study showed that (SS28)(2)-HSA had a prolonged half-life of 2 h. These results showed that increasing the number of small protein copies fused to HSA may not be a suitable method for improving protein bioactivity. PMID:24752560

Ding, Yuedi; Fan, Jun; Li, Wenxin; Peng, Ying; Yang, Runlin; Deng, Lili; Fu, Qiang

2014-06-01

382

The Kunlun Fault  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Kunlun fault is one of the gigantic strike-slip faults that bound the north side of Tibet. Left-lateral motion along the 1,500-kilometer (932-mile) length of the Kunlun has occurred uniformly for the last 40,000 years at a rate of 1.1 centimeter per year, creating a cumulative offset of more than 400 meters. In this image, two splays of the fault are clearly seen crossing from east to west. The northern fault juxtaposes sedimentary rocks of the mountains against alluvial fans. Its trace is also marked by lines of vegetation, which appear red in the image. The southern, younger fault cuts through the alluvium. A dark linear area in the center of the image is wet ground where groundwater has ponded against the fault. Measurements from the image of displacements of young streams that cross the fault show 15 to 75 meters (16 to 82 yards) of left-lateral offset. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) acquired the visible light and near infrared scene on July 20, 2000. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

2002-01-01

383

Surface heating of wire plasmas using laser-irradiated cone geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petawatt lasers can generate extreme states of matter, making them unique tools for high-energy-density physics. Pressures in the gigabar regime can potentially be generated with cone-wire targets when the coupling efficiency is high and temperatures reach 2-4keV (ref. 1). The only other method of obtaining such gigantic pressures is to use the megajoule laser facilities being constructed (National Ignition Facility and Laser MégaJoule). The energy can be transported over surprisingly long distances but, until now, the guiding mechanism has remained unclear. Here, we present the first definitive experimental proof that the heating is maximized close to the wire surface, by comparison of interferometric measurements with hydrodynamic simulations. New hybrid particle-in-cell simulations show the complex field structures for the first time, including a reversal of the magnetic field on the inside of the wire. This increases the return current in a spatially separated thin layer below the wire surface, resulting in the enhanced level of ohmic heating. There are a significant number of applications in high-energy-density science, ranging from equation-of-state studies to bright, hard X-ray sources, that will benefit from this new understanding of energy transport.

Green, J. S.; Lancaster, K. L.; Akli, K. U.; Gregory, C. D.; Beg, F. N.; Chen, S. N.; Clark, D.; Freeman, R. R.; Hawkes, S.; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Habara, H.; Heathcote, R.; Hey, D. S.; Highbarger, K.; Key, M. H.; Kodama, R.; Krushelnick, K.; Musgrave, I.; Nakamura, H.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Patel, N.; Stephens, R.; Storm, M.; Tampo, M.; Theobald, W.; van Woerkom, L.; Weber, R. L.; Wei, M. S.; Woolsey, N. C.; Norreys, P. A.

2007-12-01

384

Northwestern Tharsis Latent Outflow Activity Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previously defined outflow channels, which are indicated by relict landforms similar to those observed on Earth, signify ancient catastrophic flood events on Mars. These conspicuous geomorphic features are some of the most remarkable yet profound discoveries made by geologists to date. These outflow channels, which debouched tremendous volumes of water into topographic lows such as Chryse, Utopia, Elysium, and Hellas Planitiae, may represent the beginning of warmer and wetter climatic periods unlike the present-day cold and dry Mars. In addition to the previously identified outflow channels, observations permitted by the newly acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data have revealed a system of gigantic valleys, referred to as the northwestern slope valleys (NSV), that are located to the northwest of a huge shield volcano, Arsia Mons, western hemisphere of Mars. These features generally correspond spatially to gravity lows similar to the easternmost, circum-Chryse outflow channel systems. Geologic investigations of the Tharsis region suggest that the large valley system pre-dates the construction of Arsia Mons and its extensive associated lava flows of mainly Late Hesperian and Amazonian age and coincides stratigraphically with the early development of the circum-Chryse outflow channel systems that debouch into Chryse Planitia. This newly identified system, the NSV, potentially signifies the largest flood event(s) ever recorded for the solar system. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

Dohm, J. M.; Anderson, R. C.; Baker, V. R.; Ferris, J. C.; Hare, T. M.; Strom, R. G.; Rudd, L.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Scott, D. H.

2000-01-01

385

Resection of a giant bilateral retrovascular intrathoracic goiter causing severe upper airway obstruction, 2 years after subtotal thyroidectomy: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

The intrathoracic (or substernal) goiter is more often benign; but it can be malignant in 2-22% of patients. There is history of prior thyroid surgery in 10% to more than 30% of patients. Intrathoracic goiters cause adjacent structure compression more frequently than the cervical goiters, due to the limited space of the thoracic cage. Compression of trachea, oesophagus, vascular and neural structures may cause dyspnoea, dysphagia, superior vena cava syndrome, subclavian vein thrombosis, hoarseness, and Horner’s syndrome. There is usually progressive deterioration, but acute exacerbation may occur. The presence of a thoracic goiter (>50% of the mass below the thoracic inlet) is per se an indication for resection. Tracheal compression by (cervical or thoracic) goiter is also an indication for resection; early tracheal decompression is recommended particularly in symptomatic patients. In severe respiratory distress, intubation and semi-urgent operation may be required. With early intervention, most intrathoracic goiters can be removed through a cervical approach, while tracheomalacia is avoided. We hereby present successful and uncomplicated total thyroidectomy, through a median sternotomy, of a benign, gigantic, bilateral, retrovascular, posterior mediastinal, intrathoracic goiter, encircling the trachea, and causing severe respiratory distress in a 63 year old man with history of previous subtotal thyroidectomy.

Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Visouli, Aikaterini N.; Karapantzos, Elias; Mpakas, Andreas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Stylianaki, Aikaterini; Christofis, Christos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Courcoutsakis, Nicolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

2012-01-01

386

La formación de la Nube de Oort y el entorno galáctico primitivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se analizan las condiciones de formación de la nube de Oort en el medio galáctico primitivo, bajo la suposición de que los objetos que alcanzaron la nube fueron planetesimales residuales eyectados por los planetas gigantes durante las etapas finales de su acreción. Los objetos que adquieren órbitas cuasiparabólicas están sujetos a las perturbaciones de estrellas vecinas y al potencial del disco galáctico, las que desacoplan sus perihelios de la región planetaria, dando a los objetos una larga estabilidad dinámica. Se demuestra que un entorno galáctico como el presente pudo, sin embargo, no ser suficiente para formar un reservorio cometario con una vida dinámica comparable a la vida del sistema solar. La existencia de la nube de Oort después de 4600 millones de años es, pues, una fuerte indicación de que el sistema solar se formó en un entorno galáctico mucho mas denso que el presente, tal vez en una nube molecular y/o un cúmulo abierto, que es el modo de producción de la mayoría de las estrellas. Se encuentra que un campo perturbador externo mas intenso, producto de un entorno galáctico mas denso, sería capaz de formar una nube de Oort mas compacta, con un radio del orden de 103- 104 UA. El campo externo mas intenso cesó de actuar una vez que la nube molecular y/o el cúmulo abierto se disiparon, previniendo entonces que ese mismo campo externo disolviera el reservorio cometario.

Fernández, J. A.

387

Wafer-scale metasurface for total power absorption, local field enhancement and single molecule Raman spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The ability to detect molecules at low concentrations is highly desired for applications that range from basic science to healthcare. Considerable interest also exists for ultrathin materials with high optical absorption, e.g. for microbolometers and thermal emitters. Metal nanostructures present opportunities to achieve both purposes. Metal nanoparticles can generate gigantic field enhancements, sufficient for the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Thin layers containing metal nanostructures (“metasurfaces”) can achieve near-total power absorption at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Thus far, however, both aims (i.e. single molecule Raman and total power absorption) have only been achieved using metal nanostructures produced by techniques (high resolution lithography or colloidal synthesis) that are complex and/or difficult to implement over large areas. Here, we demonstrate a metasurface that achieves the near-perfect absorption of visible-wavelength light and enables the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Our metasurface is fabricated using thin film depositions, and is of unprecedented (wafer-scale) extent.

Wang, Dongxing; Zhu, Wenqi; Best, Michael D.; Camden, Jon P.; Crozier, Kenneth B.

2013-01-01

388

Developmental palaeontology in synapsids: the fossil record of ontogeny in mammals and their closest relatives  

PubMed Central

The study of fossilized ontogenies in mammals is mostly restricted to postnatal and late stages of growth, but nevertheless can deliver great insights into life history and evolutionary mechanisms affecting all aspects of development. Fossils provide evidence of developmental plasticity determined by ecological factors, as when allometric relations are modified in species which invaded a new space with a very different selection regime. This is the case of dwarfing and gigantism evolution in islands. Skeletochronological studies are restricted to the examination of growth marks mostly in the cement and dentine of teeth and can provide absolute age estimates. These, together with dental replacement data considered in a phylogenetic context, provide life-history information such as maturation time and longevity. Palaeohistology and dental replacement data document the more or less gradual but also convergent evolution of mammalian growth features during early synapsid evolution. Adult phenotypes of extinct mammals can inform developmental processes by showing a combination of features or levels of integration unrecorded in living species. Some adult features such as vertebral number, easily recorded in fossils, provide indirect information about somitogenesis and hox-gene expression boundaries. Developmental palaeontology is relevant for the discourse of ecological developmental biology, an area of research where features of growth and variation are fundamental and accessible among fossil mammals.

Sanchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

2010-01-01

389

Pituitary Tumors in Childhood: an update in their diagnosis, treatment and molecular genetics  

PubMed Central

Pituitary tumors are rare in childhood and adolescence, with a reported prevalence of up to 1 per million children. Only 2 - 6% of surgically treated pituitary tumors occur in children. Although pituitary tumors in children are almost never malignant and hormonal secretion is rare, these tumors may result in significant morbidity. Tumors within the pituitary fossa are of two types mainly, craniopharyngiomas and adenomas; craniopharyngiomas cause symptoms by compressing normal pituitary, causing hormonal deficiencies and producing mass effects on surrounding tissues and the brain; adenomas produce a variety of hormonal conditions such as hyperprolactinemia, Cushing disease and acromegaly or gigantism. Little is known about the genetic causes of sporadic lesions, which comprise the majority of pituitary tumors, but in children, more frequently than in adults, pituitary tumors may be a manifestation of genetic conditions such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1), Carney complex, familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA), and McCune-Albright syndrome. The study of pituitary tumorigenesis in the context of these genetic syndromes has advanced our knowledge of the molecular basis of pituitary tumors and may lead to new therapeutic developments.

Keil, Margaret F.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

2009-01-01

390

Soluble dietary fibres in Jerusalem artichoke powders: composition and application in bread.  

PubMed

Powders of tubers from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus, L.), cultivar Gigant, of different harvesting times (autumn and spring) were applied in bakery products, particularly in wheat/rye bread. The quality of this bread was compared to bread with cereal flours substituted with commercial products as Raftilin ST and Raftilose P95. Compared to standard and substituted bread, Jerusalem artichoke bread shows a high quality in organoleptic evaluation (grade I with 36.5 and 37.5 scores). In utilised Jerusalem artichoke powders (JAPs) the amount of fructan (inulin) hydrolysis to fructose during the baking process depends on its initial degree of polymerisation (dp). With JAP of autumn harvest (fructan: dpn = 9.9, dpw = 21.8) less fructose (24.6%) is formed than with those of spring harvest (fructan: dpn = 4.9, dpw = 7.1) (40.7%). Compared to this bread, substitution with commercial products Raftilin ST (inulin: dpn = 8.4, dpw = 17.4) and Raftilose P95 (fructo-oligosaccharides: dpn = 2.7, dpw = 3.0) yields 11.9% and 45.8% of fructose upon total hydrolysis, respectively. The loss of fructan content by the bakery process is 38% in bread with JAP of autumn and 43% in bread with JAP of spring harvest; Raftilin ST- and Raftilose P95-bread come up with loss of fructan content of 35% and 47%, respectively. PMID:12108213

Praznik, W; Cie?lik, E; Filipiak-Florkiewicz, A

2002-06-01

391

Ultrafast observation of critical nematic fluctuations and giant magnetoelastic coupling in iron pnictides.  

PubMed

Many of the iron pnictides have strongly anisotropic normal-state characteristics, important for the exotic magnetic and superconducting behaviour these materials exhibit. Yet, the origin of the observed anisotropy is unclear. Electronically driven nematicity has been suggested, but distinguishing this as an independent degree of freedom from magnetic and structural orders is difficult, as these couple together to break the same tetragonal symmetry. Here we use time-resolved polarimetry to reveal critical nematic fluctuations in unstrained Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2. The femtosecond anisotropic response, which arises from the two-fold in-plane anisotropy of the complex refractive index, displays a characteristic two-step recovery absent in the isotropic response. The fast recovery appears only in the magnetically ordered state, whereas the slow one persists in the paramagnetic phase with a critical divergence approaching the structural transition temperature. The dynamics also reveal a gigantic magnetoelastic coupling that far exceeds electron-spin and electron-phonon couplings, opposite to conventional magnetic metals. PMID:24499997

Patz, Aaron; Li, Tianqi; Ran, Sheng; Fernandes, Rafael M; Schmalian, Joerg; Bud'ko, Sergey L; Canfield, Paul C; Perakis, Ilias E; Wang, Jigang

2014-01-01

392

Interplay between superconductivity and magnetism in Fe(1-x)Pd(x)Te.  

PubMed

The attractive/repulsive relationship between superconductivity and magnetic ordering has fascinated the condensed matter physics community for a century. In the early days, magnetic impurities doped into a superconductor were found to quickly suppress superconductivity. Later, a variety of systems, such as cuprates, heavy fermions, and Fe pnictides, showed superconductivity in a narrow region near the border to antiferromagnetism (AFM) as a function of pressure or doping. However, the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetic (FM) or AFM ordering is found in a few compounds [RRh4B4 (R = Nd, Sm, Tm, Er), R'Mo6X8 (R' = Tb, Dy, Er, Ho, and X = S, Se), UMGe (M = Ge, Rh, Co), CeCoIn5, EuFe2(As(1-x)P(x))2, etc.], providing evidence for their compatibility. Here, we present a third situation, where superconductivity coexists with FM and near the border of AFM in Fe(1-x)Pd(x)Te. The doping of Pd for Fe gradually suppresses the first-order AFM ordering at temperature T(N/S), and turns into short-range AFM correlation with a characteristic peak in magnetic susceptibility at T'(N). Superconductivity sets in when T'(N) reaches zero. However, there is a gigantic ferromagnetic dome imposed in the superconducting-AFM (short-range) cross-over regime. Such a system is ideal for studying the interplay between superconductivity and two types of magnetic (FM and AFM) interactions. PMID:23690601

Karki, Amar B; Garlea, V Ovidiu; Custelcean, Radu; Stadler, Shane; Plummer, E W; Jin, Rongying

2013-06-01

393

Interplay between superconductivity and magnetism in Fe1?xPdxTe  

PubMed Central

The attractive/repulsive relationship between superconductivity and magnetic ordering has fascinated the condensed matter physics community for a century. In the early days, magnetic impurities doped into a superconductor were found to quickly suppress superconductivity. Later, a variety of systems, such as cuprates, heavy fermions, and Fe pnictides, showed superconductivity in a narrow region near the border to antiferromagnetism (AFM) as a function of pressure or doping. However, the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetic (FM) or AFM ordering is found in a few compounds [RRh4B4 (R = Nd, Sm, Tm, Er), R?Mo6X8 (R? = Tb, Dy, Er, Ho, and X = S, Se), UMGe (M = Ge, Rh, Co), CeCoIn5, EuFe2(As1?xPx)2, etc.], providing evidence for their compatibility. Here, we present a third situation, where superconductivity coexists with FM and near the border of AFM in Fe1?xPdxTe. The doping of Pd for Fe gradually suppresses the first-order AFM ordering at temperature TN/S, and turns into short-range AFM correlation with a characteristic peak in magnetic susceptibility at T?N. Superconductivity sets in when T?N reaches zero. However, there is a gigantic ferromagnetic dome imposed in the superconducting-AFM (short-range) cross-over regime. Such a system is ideal for studying the interplay between superconductivity and two types of magnetic (FM and AFM) interactions.

Karki, Amar B.; Garlea, V. Ovidiu; Custelcean, Radu; Stadler, Shane; Plummer, E. W.; Jin, Rongying

2013-01-01

394

Intercontinental dispersal of giant thermophilic ants across the Arctic during early Eocene hyperthermals  

PubMed Central

Early Eocene land bridges allowed numerous plant and animal species to cross between Europe and North America via the Arctic. While many species suited to prevailing cool Arctic climates would have been able to cross throughout much of this period, others would have found dispersal opportunities only during limited intervals when their requirements for higher temperatures were met. Here, we present Titanomyrma lubei gen. et sp. nov. from Wyoming, USA, a new giant (greater than 5 cm long) formiciine ant from the early Eocene (approx. 49.5 Ma) Green River Formation. We show that the extinct ant subfamily Formiciinae is only known from localities with an estimated mean annual temperature of about 20°C or greater, consistent with the tropical ranges of almost all of the largest living ant species. This is, to our knowledge, the first known formiciine of gigantic size in the Western Hemisphere and the first reported cross-Arctic dispersal by a thermophilic insect group. This implies intercontinental migration during one or more brief high-temperature episodes (hyperthermals) sometime between the latest Palaeocene establishment of intercontinental land connections and the presence of giant formiciines in Europe and North America by the early middle Eocene.

Archibald, S. Bruce; Johnson, Kirk R.; Mathewes, Rolf W.; Greenwood, David R.

2011-01-01

395

Key results from the first fourteen months of ISUAL experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) is a scientific payload onboard the FORMOSAT-2 satellite. The ISUAL payload contains three sensor packages; an ICCD imager, a six-channel spectrophotometer, and a duel-band array photometer. As the FORMOSAT-2 motions from the southern to the northern night hemisphere, ISUAL looks across the track toward the local mid-night region to monitor the activity of transient luminous events (TLEs; sprites, elves, blue jets, gigantic jets, etc). In a given day, the field-of-view of ISUAL sweeps through most of the Earth's tropical and sub-tropical regions. With the long term and global observation data, ISUAL experiment strives to elucidate the characteristics, occurrence frequency, and global distribution of TLEs from space. After the first light on 1 July 2004, ISUAL has registered approximately two thousands TLE events as of the end of August 2005. In the talk, key results based on these data will be presented; including the major hot TLE zones, the spectroscopic characteristics of TLEs (sprites, elves, and jets), the electric characteristics of TLEs, the meteorological conditions for the occurrence of TLEs, etc.

Su, H.; Hsu, R.; Chen, A. B.; Lee, L.; Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.; Fukunishi, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Kuo, C.

2005-12-01

396

Protein Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proteins combine properties of solids, liquids, and glasses. Schr"odinger anticipated the main features of biomolecules long ago by stating that they had to be solid-like, but able to assume many different conformations. Indeed proteins can assume a gigantic number of conformational substates with the same primary sequence but different conformations. The different substates are described as craters in a very-high-dimensional energy landscape. The energy landscape is organized in a hierarchy of tiers, craters within craters within craters. Protein motions are pictured as transition between substates - jumps from crater to crater. Initially we assumed that these jumps were controlled by internal barriers between substates, but experiments have shown that nature selected a different approach. Proteins are surrounded by one to two layers of water and are embedded in a bulk solvent. Structural motions of the protein are controlled by the alpha fluctuations in the solvent surrounding the protein. Some internal motions most likely involving side chains are controlled electrostatically by beta fluctuations in the hydration shell. The dynamics of proteins is consequently dominated by the environment (H. Frauenfelder et al. PNAS 106, 5129 (2009). One can speculate that this organization permits exchange of information among biomolecules. The energy landscape is not just organized into two tiers, alpha and beta, but cryogenic experiments have revealed more tiers and protein more properties similar to that of glasses. While proteins function at ambient temperatures, cryogenic studies are necessary to understand the physics relevant for biology.

Frauenfelder, Hans

2011-03-01

397

Ultrafast observation of critical nematic fluctuations and giant magnetoelastic coupling in iron pnictides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the iron pnictides have strongly anisotropic normal-state characteristics, important for the exotic magnetic and superconducting behaviour these materials exhibit. Yet, the origin of the observed anisotropy is unclear. Electronically driven nematicity has been suggested, but distinguishing this as an independent degree of freedom from magnetic and structural orders is difficult, as these couple together to break the same tetragonal symmetry. Here we use time-resolved polarimetry to reveal critical nematic fluctuations in unstrained Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2. The femtosecond anisotropic response, which arises from the two-fold in-plane anisotropy of the complex refractive index, displays a characteristic two-step recovery absent in the isotropic response. The fast recovery appears only in the magnetically ordered state, whereas the slow one persists in the paramagnetic phase with a critical divergence approaching the structural transition temperature. The dynamics also reveal a gigantic magnetoelastic coupling that far exceeds electron-spin and electron-phonon couplings, opposite to conventional magnetic metals.

Patz, Aaron; Li, Tianqi; Ran, Sheng; Fernandes, Rafael M.; Schmalian, Joerg; Bud'Ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Perakis, Ilias E.; Wang, Jigang

2014-02-01

398

Revolutionising landscapes: Hydroelectricity and the heavy industrialisation of society and environment in the Comte de Beauharnois, 1927--1948  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation analyses the rapid industrialisation of the rural Comte de Beauharnois and the adjacent stretch of the Fleuve Saint-Laurent owing to the construction, between 1929 and 1948, of a gigantic canal for hydroelectricity production and navigation by an electricity corporation called the Beauharnois Light Heat and Power (BLH&P). Using principally the archives of the BLH&P---especially its complaints files and its rich photographic record---this thesis argues that this process exemplifies the finance capitalist reorganisation of the society and ecosystems of the Canadian province of Quebec from the 19th century to the Great Depression. In keeping with recent work in environmental history, the transformation of rural landscapes and a river for heavy industry is described as an important dimension of a revolution in modes of production. More specifically, I argue that, in the case under study, the finance-capitalist reorganisation of Quebec revolved around two central and explicit projects, one social and the other environmental: the grouping of most individuals in an industrial working class without control over the means of production and the reorganisation of rural landscapes into reservoirs of modern energy and industrial natural resources.

Pelletier, Louis-Raphael

399

A visualization framework for large-scale virtual astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by advances in modern positional astronomy, this research attempts to digitally model the entire Universe through computer graphics technology. Our first challenge is space itself. The gigantic size of the Universe makes it impossible to put everything into a typical graphics system at its own scale. The graphics rendering process can easily fail because of limited computational precision, The second challenge is that the enormous amount of data could slow down the graphics; we need clever techniques to speed up the rendering. Third, since the Universe is dominated by empty space, objects are widely separated; this makes navigation difficult. We attempt to tackle these problems through various techniques designed to extend and optimize the conventional graphics framework, including the following: power homogeneous coordinates for large-scale spatial representations, generalized large-scale spatial transformations, and rendering acceleration via environment caching and object disappearance criteria. Moreover, we implemented an assortment of techniques for modeling and rendering a variety of astronomical bodies, ranging from the Earth up to faraway galaxies, and attempted to visualize cosmological time; a method we call the Lightcone representation was introduced to visualize the whole space-time of the Universe at a single glance. In addition, several navigation models were developed to handle the large-scale navigation problem. Our final results include a collection of visualization tools, two educational animations appropriate for planetarium audiences, and state-of-the-art-advancing rendering techniques that can be transferred to practice in digital planetarium systems.

Fu, Chi-Wing

400

Catastrophic Hsiaolin landslide in southern Taiwan triggered by Morakot Typhoon: Insights from 3-D discrete element simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Typhoon Morakot on August 8th 2009 bought a heavy rainfall in southern Taiwan and caused a catastrophic landslide which buried Hsiaolin Village of Kaohsiung County in southern Taiwan and caused a mortality of more than 400 people. The landslide initiated at Shamdushan from a slope of about 500 m to 900 m above the riverbed and huge amount of slide materials moved quickly downward and became a debris flow. A part of debris topped over the highland of 590 m and spread on the hillslope. The slide materials finally destroyed the Hsiaolin village. Most debris kept downward movement along the gully and reached the Chishan River, and blocked the main stream forming a dammed lake. In this study, we used 3D discrete element method with granular particle assemblage (PFC3D) to simulate kinematic process and mechanics of this catastrophic landslide. According to the 3-D numerical simulation, Hsiaolin village might be buried in 60 seconds after the triggering of landslide in Shamdushan. The predicted maximum velocity is about 50 m/sec and the debris could reach to the other side of the Chishan River. Consequently a dammed lake was formed in the Chishan River. From the viewpoint of the assessment of catastrophic landslides, the analysis of sensibility of landslide potential is a crucial topics, furthermore the 3-D discrete element method is a powerful tool to elucidate the mechanics and kinematics of landslide process and impact area induced by gigantic landslide event.

Hu, Jyr-Ching; Tang, Chao-Lung; Lo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Ming-Lang; Dong, Jia-Jyun; Lee, Chyi-Tyi

2010-05-01

401

Estudio fotométrico de estrellas tardías de alta luminosidad en 23 cúmulos abiertos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se presentan resultados obtenidos en los Observatorios de Cerro Tololo, Kitt Peak, Lowell y Las Campanas, a partir de fotometría UBV y DDO de 54 estrellas tardías de alta luminosidad en 23 cúmulos abiertos. La aplicación de dos criterios fotométricos independientes permite asignar a cada estrella probabilidades de pertenencia a cada agregado. Se encuentra que 32 estrellas son muy probablemente miembros de los cúmulos, mientras que las restantes son objetos del campo. En todos los casos se determinan excesos de color E(B-V) a través de procedimientos fotométricos y espectroscópicos tradicionales. Recientes calibraciones del sistema DDO permiten, además, derivar tipos espectrales MK, temperaturas efectivas, y abundancias superficiales de la muestra examinada. Las metalicidades DDO derivadas se distribuyen entre valores típicos de cúmulos moderadamente pobres en metales ([Fe/H]~=-0.3) y moderadamente ricos ([Fe/H]~=0.2), en tanto que las masas calculadas para las gigantes rojas oscilan entre 1 y 4 masas solares, con una dispersión dentro de cada cúmulo menor que 1 Msolar.

Clariá, J. J.; Piatti, A. E.; Osborn, W.

402

Aniakchak Crater, Alaska Peninsula  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The discovery of a gigantic crater northwest of Aniakchak Bay (see fig. 11) closes what had been thought to be a wide gap in the extensive series of volcanoes occurring at irregular intervals for nearly 600 miles along the axial line of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. In this belt there are more active and recently active volcanoes than in all the rest of North America. Exclusive of those on the west side of Cook Inlet, which, however, belong to the same group, this belt contains at least 42 active or well-preserved volcanoes and about half as many mountains suspected or reported to be volcanoes. The locations of some of these mountains and the hot springs on the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands are shown on a map prepared by G. A. Waring. Attention has been called to these volcanoes for nearly two centuries, but a record of their activity since the discovery of Alaska is far from being complete, and an adequate description of them as a group has never been written. Owing to their recent activity or unusual scenic beauty, some of the best known of the group are Mounts Katmai, Bogoslof, and Shishaldin, but there are many other beautiful and interesting cones and craters.

Smith, Walter R.

1925-01-01

403

Comparable Analysis of the Distribution Functions of Runup Heights of the 1896, 1933 and 2011 Japanese Tsunamis in the Sanriku Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from a field survey of the 2011 tsunami in the Sanriku area of Japan is presented and used to plot the distribution function of runup heights along the coast. It is shown that the distribution function can be approximated using a theoretical log-normal curve [Choi et al, 2002]. The characteristics of the distribution functions derived from the runup-heights data obtained during the 2011 event are compared with data from two previous gigantic tsunamis (1896 and 1933) that occurred in almost the same region. The number of observations during the last tsunami is very large (more than 5,247), which provides an opportunity to revise the conception of the distribution of tsunami wave heights and the relationship between statistical characteristics and number of observations suggested by Kajiura [1983]. The distribution function of the 2011 event demonstrates the sensitivity to the number of observation points (many of them cannot be considered independent measurements) and can be used to determine the characteristic scale of the coast, which corresponds to the statistical independence of observed wave heights.

Choi, B. H.; Min, B. I.; Yoshinobu, T.; Kim, K. O.; Pelinovsky, E.

2012-04-01

404

Anomalous surface lattice dynamics in the low-temperature phase of Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2.  

PubMed

In complex materials, how correlation between charge, spin, and lattice affects the emergent phenomena remains unclear. The newly discovered iron-based high-temperature superconductors and related compounds present to the community a prototype family of materials, where interplay between charge, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom can be explored. With the occurrence of structural, magnetic, and superconducting transitions in the bulk of these materials, creating a surface will change the delicate balance between these phases, resulting in new behavior. A surface lattice dynamics study on (001) Ba(Fe(1-x)Co(x))(2)As(2), through electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements, reveals unusual temperature dependence of both the phonon frequency and line width in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase. The rate of change of phonon frequency with temperature is gigantic, two orders of magnitude larger than in the bulk. This behavior cannot be explained using conventional models of anharmonicity or electron-phonon coupling; instead, it requires that a large surface-spin-charge-lattice coupling be included. Furthermore, the higher surface-phase-transition temperature driven by surface stabilization of the low-temperature orthorhombic phase seems to turn the first-order transition (bulk) into the second-order type, equivalent to what is observed in the bulk by applying a uniaxial pressure. Such equivalence indicates that the surface mirrors the bulk under extreme conditions. PMID:23284168

Teng, Jing; Chen, Chen; Xiong, Yimin; Zhang, Jiandi; Jin, Rongying; Plummer, E W

2013-01-15

405

Genome Evolution by Matrix Algorithms: Cellular Automata Approach to Population Genetics  

PubMed Central

Mammalian genomes are replete with millions of polymorphic sites, among which those genetic variants that are colocated on the same chromosome and exist close to one another form blocks of closely linked mutations known as haplotypes. The linkage within haplotypes is constantly disrupted due to meiotic recombination events. Whole ensembles of such numerous haplotypes are subjected to evolutionary pressure, where mutations influence each other and should be considered as a whole entity—a gigantic matrix, unique for each individual genome. This idea was implemented into a computational approach, named Genome Evolution by Matrix Algorithms (GEMA) to model genomic changes taking into account all mutations in a population. GEMA has been tested for modeling of entire human chromosomes. The program can precisely mimic real biological processes that have influence on genome evolution such as: 1) Authentic arrangements of genes and functional genomic elements, 2) frequencies of various types of mutations in different nucleotide contexts, and 3) nonrandom distribution of meiotic recombination events along chromosomes. Computer modeling with GEMA has demonstrated that the number of meiotic recombination events per gamete is among the most crucial factors influencing population fitness. In humans, these recombinations create a gamete genome consisting on an average of 48 pieces of corresponding parental chromosomes. Such highly mosaic gamete structure allows preserving fitness of population under the intense influx of novel mutations (40 per individual) even when the number of mutations with deleterious effects is up to ten times more abundant than those with beneficial effects.

Qiu, Shuhao; McSweeny, Andrew; Choulet, Samuel; Saha-Mandal, Arnab; Fedorova, Larisa; Fedorov, Alexei

2014-01-01

406

Pressure-induced Polarization Reversal in Z-type Hexaferrite Single Crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiferroic materials with a gigantic magnetoelectric (ME) coupling at room temperature have been searched for applications to novel devices. Recently, large direct and converse ME effects were realized at room temperature in the so-called Z-type hexaferrite (Ba,Sr)3Co2Fe24O41 single crystals [1,2]. To obtain a new control parameter for realizing a sensitive ME tuning, we studied ME properties of the crystals under uniaxial pressure. Upon applying a tiny uniaxial pressure of about 0.6 GPa, magnetic field-driven electric polarization reversal and anomaly in a M-H loop start to appear at 10 K and gradually disappear at higher temperature above 130 K. By comparing those results with longitudinal magnetostriction at ambient pressure, we propose the pressure-dependent variations of transverse conical spin configuration as well as its domain structure under small magnetic field bias, and point out the possibility of having two different physical origins of the ME coupling in this system. [1] Y. Kitagawa et al., Nat. Mater. 9, 797 (2010) [2] S. H. Chun et al., submitted.

Jeon, Byung-Gu; Chun, Sae Hwan; Kim, Kee Hoon

2012-02-01

407

Ion Characteristics in Jupiter's Magnetotail from New Horizon data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jupiter's gigantic magnetotail, extending 2500 Jovian radii, is the largest cohesive structure in our solar system. For the first time, NASA's New Horizons (NH) satellite in 2007 traversed almost axially. Data from its onboard SWAP instrument (Solar Wind Around Pluto), which makes coincidence measurements of the ions shows many periodic structures and existence of light and heavy ion species with varying densities in Jupiter's magnetotail plasma population. A better understanding of the physical processes governing such diversity requires knowing the characteristics of the various charged particles present, such as the ion density, velocity, temperature, and pressure. We have developed a 3-dimensional phase-space distribution model by constructing the observed signatures along with the calibration parameters provided by the SWAP team during the NH magnetotail flyby. The model uses five input parameters from SWAP. A 3-D isotropic Maxwellian distribution function is used to estimate density, velocity, and temperature, which is then converted into counts as the instrument measures the count rates. Finally, minimizing the chi-square fitting of our model results in the maximum likelihood of the various parameters. We will show our results from 500-800 RJ.

Hui, Debrup; Su, Yi-Jiun; Elliott, Heather; McComas, Dave; Bagenal, Fran; Crary, Frank

2009-04-01

408

Light Work: Contemporary Artists Consider the Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern day life and timekeepers have profoundly affected the way we conceptualize time and our position in the universe. Over the past year, I have been investigating the apparent movement of the Sun both sculpturally and photographically. In this paper, I discuss my collaborations with Woody Sullivan and highlight several of the sundials, both gigantic and intimate, created by University of Washington students in the class Where is Noon? Regarding Giant Sundials that we co-taught in Spring 2003. I have continued to develop artistic approaches to solar events. Some of these sunworks have not been designed specifically to measure the exact time of day as a classic sundial does, but to stimulate a greater awareness of our subjective and paradoxical relationship to nature and technology. Other, almost domestic, poetic, humorous or intimate ways of interacting with science and technology are being actively explored. I will also provide a background to previous works I have done in relation to the Sun and optics, and briefly mention artists who are using astronomical events as a point of departure.

Cummins, Rebecca

2005-01-01

409

Solitary ganglioneuromatosis of the descending colon, presenting as giant retroperitoneal tumour.  

PubMed

Ganglioneuroma (GN) is a benign neoplasia of the autonomous nervous system, colonic GN is uncommon in adults. There are three subgroups: polypoid GN, ganglioneuromatous polyposis and diffuse ganglioneuromatosis. Ganglioneuromatosis is highly-associated to neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b (MEN2B). A 68-year-old female, with a discrete retarded emission of stools, was admitted for a large tumor in the left flank; CT scan, urography and barium enema demonstrated a large retroperitoneal mass, presumed as sarcoma. Open surgery discovered a 16 10 11 cm solid and encapsulated tumor, attached to the retroperitoneal descending colon, with no macroscopic mucosal involvement; the pathologic diagnosis of the resected specimen (en-bloc tumorectomy with limited colectomy) was intramural colonic ganglio-neuromatosis. Anamnesis, physical examination and complete endoscopic explorations showed no evidence of personal bearing or familial aggregation of genetic syndromes. In adults, association of transmural ganglioneuromatosis to NF1 or MEN2B is not mandatory; presentation often mimics obstructive carcinoma and positive diagnosis is provided by pathological examination of the resected specimen. In this peculiar case, the loose tissue of the retroperitoneal space favoured a slow development of intramural ganglioneuromatosis, presenting as a gigantic retroperitoneal mass with no radiological evidence of its colonic origin. PMID:23958108

Mate?, In; Iosif, C; Dinu, D; Constantinoiu, S

2013-01-01

410

Tracing explosives in soil with transcriptional regulators of Pseudomonas putida evolved for responding to nitrotoluenes  

PubMed Central

Summary Although different biological approaches for detection of anti?personnel mines and other unexploded ordnance (UXO) have been entertained, none of them has been rigorously documented thus far in the scientific literature. The industrial 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) habitually employed in the manufacturing of mines is at all times tainted with a small but significant proportion of the more volatile 2,4 dinitrotoluene (2,4 DNT) and other nitroaromatic compounds. By using mutation?prone PCR and DNA sequence shuffling we have evolved in vitro and selected in vivo variants of the effector recognition domain of the toluene?responsive XylR regulator of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida that responds to mono?, bi? and trinitro substituted toluenes. Re?introduction of such variants in P. putida settled the transcriptional activity of the cognate promoters (Po and Pu) as a function of the presence of nitrotoluenes in the medium. When strains bearing transcriptional fusions to reporters with an optical output (luxAB, GFP) were spread on soil spotted with nitrotoluenes, the signal triggered by promoter activation allowed localization of the target compounds on the soil surface. Our data provide a proof of concept that non?natural transcription factors evolved to respond to nitroaromatics can be engineered in soil bacteria and inoculated on a target site to pinpoint the presence of explosives. This approach thus opens new ways to tackle this gigantic humanitarian problem.

Garmendia, Junkal; De Las Heras, Aitor; Galvao, Teca Calcagno; De Lorenzo, Victor

2008-01-01

411

Dynamics of multiple phases in manganite as revealed by dielectric spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase separation is a very important feature in correlated electron oxides. The coexistence and competition of multiple phases give rise to gigantic response to tiny stimuli, producing dramatic changes in magnetic, transport, and other properties in these compounds [1]. It is crucial to probe the physical properties of each phase separately for a comprehensive understanding of correlated electron oxide materials and their phase separation, but it is difficult due to their nano-scale distribution. Here we report dynamic properties of multiple phases in manganite thin films by using dielectric spectroscopy with a unique p-N junction configuration. The multiple dielectric relaxations have been detected and we distinguished their corresponding multiple phases. The activation energy and dielectric properties of different phases have been deduced separately. We also elucidated their phase evolution with changing of temperature or applied magnetic field from viewpoint of dielectric response. These results provide a guideline to explore the electronic phase separation phenomena in correlated electron oxides. [4pt] [1] Y. Tokura et al. Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 797 (2006).

Sheng, Zhigao; Nakamura, Masao; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori

2012-02-01

412

Immunohistochemical localization of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta in the rat central nervous system.  

PubMed

We examined regional and intracellular distribution of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta (CaM-KK beta), which activated Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I and IV (CaM-K I and IV) immunohistochemically in the central nervous system of the rat by light and electron microscopy. Although most neurons in the brain and spinal cord exhibited the immunoreactivity, no labeled neurons were observed in the globus pallidus or entopeduncular nucleus, and only a small number of neurons showed weak immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra pars reticulata. In general, the immunoreactivity was observed both in the cytoplasm and cellular nucleus, although the immunoreactivity was not found in the cellular nucleus in some large neurons such as in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, lateral vestibular nucleus or gigant cellular reticular formation. As to motoneurons of the cranial nerve nuclei and the anterior horn of the spinal cord, they revealed the immunoreactivity both in the cytoplasm and nucleus. The reaction product appeared as fine granules in the cytoplasm and nucleus under light microscopy. Electron microscopic observations confirmed that the reaction product was localized mainly on the Golgi apparatus or on the nuclear chromatin. Immunolabeling for antibody against CaM-KK beta was discussed with the distribution of CaM-K I, IV and another CaM-KK, CaM-KK alpha, in the central nervous system. PMID:11223463

Nakamura, Y; Okuno, S; Kitani, T; Otake, K; Sato, F; Fujisawa, H

2001-02-01

413

What big eyes you have: the ecological role of giant pterygotid eurypterids.  

PubMed

Eurypterids are a group of extinct chelicerates that ranged for over 200 Myr from the Ordovician to the Permian. Gigantism is common in the group; about 50% of families include taxa over 0.8 m in length. Among these were the pterygotids (Pterygotidae), which reached lengths of over 2 m and were the largest arthropods that ever lived. They have been interpreted as highly mobile visual predators on the basis of their large size, enlarged, robust chelicerae and forward-facing compound eyes. Here, we test this interpretation by reconstructing the visual capability of Acutiramus cummingsi (Pterygotidae) and comparing it with that of the smaller Eurypterus sp. (Eurypteridae), which lacked enlarged chelicerae, and other arthropods of similar geologic age. In A. cummingsi, there is no area of lenses differentiated to provide increased visual acuity, and the interommatidial angles (IOA) do not fall within the range of high-level modern arthropod predators. Our results show that the visual acuity of A. cummingsi is poor compared with that of co-occurring Eurypterus sp. The ecological role of pterygotids may have been as predators on thin-shelled and soft-bodied prey, perhaps in low-light conditions or at night. PMID:25009243

Anderson, Ross P; McCoy, Victoria E; McNamara, Maria E; Briggs, Derek E G

2014-07-01

414

Quantifying distal dispersal and impact of volcanic ash from super-eruptions: an application to Campanian Ignimbrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distal and ultra-distal volcanic ash dispersal during a super-eruption was reconstructed for the first time, providing insights into eruption dynamics and the impact of these gigantic events. A novel computational methodology was applied to the ash fallout of the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI), the most powerful volcanic eruption in Europe in the last 200 kyrs. The method uses a 3D time-dependent computational ash dispersion model, an ensemble of wind fields, and hundreds of thickness observations of the CI tephra deposit. Results reveal that 250-300 km3 of fallout material was produced during the eruption, blanketing a region of ~3.7 million km2 with more than 5 mm of fine ash. The model also indicates that the column height was ~37-40 km, and the eruption lasted 2-4 days. The eruption would have caused a volcanic winter within the coldest and driest Heinrich event. Fluorine-bearing leachate from the volcanic ash and acid rain would have further affected food sources and severely impacted Late Middle Paleolithic groups in Southern and Eastern Europe.

Costa, A.; Folch, A.; Macedonio, G.; Giaccio, B.; Isaia, R.; Smith, V. C.

2012-04-01

415

Long-term monitoring of fish farms: application of Nematode/Copepod index to oligotrophic conditions.  

PubMed

Interannual variability (2003-2008) of meiofaunal assemblages were analyzed in sediments beneath fish cages (Impact group) and in areas not affected by aquaculture activities (Control group). Organisms responded with spatial and seasonal variation in meiofauna assemblages, with an abrupt increase of abundances in locations beneath fish cages throughout the study period. This increase was greater during the last sampling year (2008) and mainly due to high abundances of nematodes. Univariate analyses showed differences between control and impacted sites at both sites, however, only significant variations were found in Los Gigantes, which are consistent with seasonal meiofauna variations throughout the study period. These results are partially explained by differences in current velocity between both sampling areas. The Ne/Co index showed the same trend and it seems to be a reliable index in sediment slightly affected by aquaculture wastes. This index is especially recommended in oligotrophic areas (e.g. Canary Islands) where meiofaunal assemblages are poorly represented in terms of abundances. PMID:22317790

Riera, Rodrigo; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Rodríguez, Myriam; Monterroso, Oscar; Ramos, Eva

2012-04-01

416

Chemical control of downy mildew on lettuce and basil under greenhouse.  

PubMed

Eight experimental trials were carried out during 2007 and 2008 to evaluate the efficacy of different fungicides against downy mildew of lettuce (Bremia lactucae) and basil (Peronospora belbahrii) under greenhouse conditions, at temperatures ranging from 19 to 24 degrees C. The mixture fluopicolide (fungicide belonging to the + propamocarb hydrochloride (fungicide belonging to the new chemical class of acyl-picolides) was compared with metalaxyl m + copper, zoxamide + mancozeb, iprovalicarb + Cu, fenamidone + fosetyl-Al and azoxystrobin. Two treatments were carried out at 8-12 day interval on lettuce and basil. The artificial inoculation of B. lactucae on lettuce (cv Cobham Green) and P. belbahrii. on basil (cv Genovese gigante) was carried out by using 1 x 10(5) CFU/ml 24 h after the first treatment. In the presence of a medium-high disease severity, all fungicides tested in these trials were effective against downy mildew on lettuce and basil as the other fungicides already available. The importance of the availability of a number of different chemicals to control downy mildews is discussed. PMID:20222581

Gullino, M L; Gilardi, G; Garibaldi, A

2009-01-01

417

An archaic crested plesiosaur in opal from the Lower Cretaceous high-latitude deposits of Australia  

PubMed Central

Umoonasaurus demoscyllus gen. et sp. nov. is a new small-bodied (approx. 2.5?m) pliosauroid plesiosaur from the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian–Albian) of southern Australia. It is represented by several partial skeletons (one with a near complete skull is the most complete opalized vertebrate fossil yet known), and is unique in having large crests on the skull midline and above the orbits. Umoonasaurus is surprisingly archaic despite its relatively late age (approx. 115?Myr ago)—being simultaneously the most basal (primitive) and last surviving rhomaleosaurid. Notably, it lacks the ‘pliosauromorph’ features (large head, short neck, gigantism) typically characterizing many more derived Jurassic rhomaleosaurids; thus, reinforcing the suspected convergent evolution of the ‘pliosauromorph’ hypercarnivore body plan. Umoonasaurus inhabited an Early Cretaceous high-latitude (approx. 70°?S) inland seaway subject to seasonally near-freezing climatic conditions. This extreme environment supported a diverse range of plesiosaur taxa, suggesting that these marine reptiles might have possessed adaptations (e.g. heightened metabolic levels) to cope with cold-water temperatures. Indeed, survival of ancient endemic lineages such as Umoonasaurus is a common phenomenon in Australian Cretaceous vertebrate assemblages and might have been facilitated by isolation in low-temperature high-latitude regions.

Kear, Benjamin P; Schroeder, Natalie I; Lee, Michael S.Y

2006-01-01

418

An archaic crested plesiosaur in opal from the Lower Cretaceous high-latitude deposits of Australia.  

PubMed

Umoonasaurus demoscyllus gen. et sp. nov. is a new small-bodied (approx. 2.5m) pliosauroid plesiosaur from the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) of southern Australia. It is represented by several partial skeletons (one with a near complete skull is the most complete opalized vertebrate fossil yet known), and is unique in having large crests on the skull midline and above the orbits. Umoonasaurus is surprisingly archaic despite its relatively late age (approx. 115 Myr ago)--being simultaneously the most basal (primitive) and last surviving rhomaleosaurid. Notably, it lacks the 'pliosauromorph' features (large head, short neck, gigantism) typically characterizing many more derived Jurassic rhomaleosaurids; thus, reinforcing the suspected convergent evolution of the 'pliosauromorph' hypercarnivore body plan. Umoonasaurus inhabited an Early Cretaceous high-latitude (approx. 70 degrees S) inland seaway subject to seasonally near-freezing climatic conditions. This extreme environment supported a diverse range of plesiosaur taxa, suggesting that these marine reptiles might have possessed adaptations (e.g. heightened metabolic levels) to cope with cold-water temperatures. Indeed, survival of ancient endemic lineages such as Umoonasaurus is a common phenomenon in Australian Cretaceous vertebrate assemblages and might have been facilitated by isolation in low-temperature high-latitude regions. PMID:17148303

Kear, Benjamin P; Schroeder, Natalie I; Lee, Michael S Y

2006-12-22

419

Multiferroic states in perovskite type orthoferrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Versatile and gigantic magnetoelectric (ME) phenomena have been found for a single crystal of perovskite-type orthoferrite DyFeO3[1]. Below the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature of Dy moments, a linear ME tensor component as large as ?zz˜2.4 x10-2 in dimensionless CGS unit is observed. In addition, it is revealed that the application of magnetic field along the c axis induced a ferroelectric order whose large polarization (>= 0.2 ?C/cm^2 along the c-axis) can be directly reversed by either of magnetic field or electric field. It is noteworthy that this magnetically driven ferroelectric state is even weakly ferromagnetic, i.e., truly multiferroic, in nature. We propose here that the exchange striction working between adjacent Fe^3+ and Dy^3+ layer with the respective layered antiferromagnetic components can be the origin of the ferroelectricity with such a large polarization value. It is further argued that the reversal process of electric polarization by magnetic (electric) field is inherently related to the change of the relative phase of antiferromagnetic spin (moment) arrangement of Fe (Dy)[0pt] [1] Y. Tokunaga et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 097205 (2008).

Tokunaga, Yusuke; Iguchi, Satoshi; Taguchi, Yasujiro; Arima, Takahisa; Tokura, Yoshinori

2009-03-01

420

Resection of a giant bilateral retrovascular intrathoracic goiter causing severe upper airway obstruction, 2 years after subtotal thyroidectomy: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

The intrathoracic (or substernal) goiter is more often benign; but it can be malignant in 2-22% of patients. There is history of prior thyroid surgery in 10% to more than 30% of patients. Intrathoracic goiters cause adjacent structure compression more frequently than the cervical goiters, due to the limited space of the thoracic cage. Compression of trachea, oesophagus, vascular and neural structures may cause dyspnoea, dysphagia, superior vena cava syndrome, subclavian vein thrombosis, hoarseness, and Horner's syndrome. There is usually progressive deterioration, but acute exacerbation may occur. The presence of a thoracic goiter (>50% of the mass below the thoracic inlet) is per se an indication for resection. Tracheal compression by (cervical or thoracic) goiter is also an indication for resection; early tracheal decompression is recommended particularly in symptomatic patients. In severe respiratory distress, intubation and semi-urgent operation may be required. With early intervention, most intrathoracic goiters can be removed through a cervical approach, while tracheomalacia is avoided. We hereby present successful and uncomplicated total thyroidectomy, through a median sternotomy, of a benign, gigantic, bilateral, retrovascular, posterior mediastinal, intrathoracic goiter, encircling the trachea, and causing severe respiratory distress in a 63 year old man with history of previous subtotal thyroidectomy. PMID:23304440

Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Visouli, Aikaterini N; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Karapantzos, Elias; Mpakas, Andreas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Stylianaki, Aikaterini; Christofis, Christos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Courcoutsakis, Nicolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

2012-11-01

421

Giant blocks in the South Kona landslide, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A large field of blocky sea-floor hills, up to 10km long and 500 high, are gigantic slide blocks derived from the west flank of Mauna Loa volcano on the island of Hawaii. These megablocks are embedded in the toe of the south Kona landslide, which extends ~80km seaward from the present coastline to depths of nearly 5km. A 10-15km-wide belt of numerous, smaller, 1-3 km-long slide blocks separates the area of giant blocks from two submarine benches at depths of 2600 and 3700m depth that terminate seaward 20 to 30km from the shoreline. Similar giant blocks are found on several other major submarine Hawaiian landslides, including those north of Oahu and Molokai, but the South Kona blocks are the first to be examined in detail using high-resolution bathymetry, dredging, and submersible diving. Dredging of two of the giant blocks brought up pillowed tholeiitic lava. Megablocks were carried by a late Pleistocene giant landslide 40-80km west from the ancestral shoreline of Mauna Loa volcano before growth of the midslope benches by later slump movement. -from Authors

Moore, J. G.; Bryan, W. B.; Beeson, M. H.; Normark, W. R.

1995-01-01

422

X-Raying Chemical Evolution and Galaxy Formation in the Antennae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the integrated 411 ks Chandra ACIS-S exposure of the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/39). Besides a rich population of pointlike sources, this spectacular image reveals a spatially and spectrally complex hot diffuse gaseous component. For the first time we detect intense line emission from Fe, Ne, Mg, and Si in the Antennae and obtain a detailed picture of spatially varied metal abundances in the hot interstellar medium (ISM) of a galaxy. In certain regions, the abundances of ?-elements may be many times solar, while the Fe abundance is subsolar or near-solar. The differences in the local metal enrichment of the hot ISM may be related to the local star formation rates and to the degree of confinement of the enriched hot ISM. We also report large-scale gaseous features, including two gigantic, ~10 kpc scale ``loops'' extending to the south of the merging disks and a low surface brightness hot halo, extending out to ~18 kpc. These features may be related to superwinds from the starburst in the Antennae or result from the merger hydrodynamics. Their long cooling times suggest that they may persist to form the hot X-ray halo of the emerging elliptical galaxy.

Fabbiano, G.; Baldi, A.; King, A. R.; Ponman, T. J.; Raymond, J.; Read, A.; Rots, A.; Schweizer, François; Zezas, A.

2004-04-01

423

p27Kip1 Directly Represses Sox2 during Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Summary The mechanisms responsible for the transcriptional silencing of pluripotency genes in differentiated cells are poorly understood. We have observed that cells lacking the tumor suppressor p27 can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in the absence of ectopic Sox2. Interestingly, cells and tissues from p27 null mice, including brain, lung, and retina, present an elevated basal expression of Sox2, suggesting that p27 contributes to the repression of Sox2. Furthermore, p27 null iPSCs fail to fully repress Sox2 upon differentiation. Mechanistically, we have found that upon differentiation p27 associates to the SRR2 enhancer of the Sox2 gene together with a p130-E2F4-SIN3A repressive complex. Finally, Sox2 haploinsufficiency genetically rescues some of the phenotypes characteristic of p27 null mice, including gigantism, pituitary hyperplasia, pituitary tumors, and retinal defects. Collectively, these results demonstrate an unprecedented connection between p27 and Sox2 relevant for reprogramming and cancer and for understanding human pathologies associated with p27 germline mutations.

Li, Han; Collado, Manuel; Villasante, Aranzazu; Matheu, Ander; Lynch, Cian J.; Canamero, Marta; Rizzoti, Karine; Carneiro, Carmen; Martinez, Gloria; Vidal, Anxo; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Serrano, Manuel

2012-01-01

424

Catastrophic flood origin, little Missouri River valley, Montana, South Dakota, and North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Mosaics of photographically reduced topographic maps demonstrate the Little Missouri River valley was developed by gigantic floods. Catastrophic flood landforms, oriented in a northwest-southeast direction, cross the entire Little Missouri drainage basin. Field evidence, consisting of abundant flood-deposited alluvium, supports map evidence. Flood-produced landforms, cut in easily eroded claystone bedrock, appear fresh, suggesting that floods occurred late during the last glacial cycle. Sheets of water, several hundred kilometers wide, flowed in a southeast direction, parallel with a continental ice margin. Erosion lowered the regional surface from a level corresponding to the tops of the highest present-day buttes to the surface now crossed by the headwaters of the Moreau, Grand, Cannonball, Heart, and Green Rivers. Spillway trenches served to channel flow and rapidly cut headward into easily eroded claystone. These trenches include the Moreau, Grand, Cannonball, Heart, and Missouri valleys. The Missouri valley in western North Dakota became the dominant spillway as tributary trenches systematically cut off flow feeding competing spillways. Formation of the Little Missouri spillway, first as a north-trending valley, progressively cut off floodwaters flowing into the Heart, Cannonball, Grand, and Moreau spillways. The north end of the Little Missouri spillway also was cut off by a deeper east-trending spillway. Huge sheets of floodwater continued to pour across the divide west of the Little Missouri continuing to lower that surface. These floodwaters were cut off by development of the Yellowstone spillway in eastern Montana.

Clausen, E.N.

1988-07-01

425

Nitrogen nutrition and antioxidant metabolism in ammonium-tolerant and -sensitive plants.  

PubMed

Ammonium nutrition is of interest as an alternative to that of using nitrate. However, the former has been reported as stressful to many plant species especially to some important crops, as most abiotic stresses may trigger oxidative imbalances in plants. In this work, we investigate the response of oxidative metabolism of two plant species, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Gigante de invierno) and pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Rondo), which have distinct tolerance to ammonium. Plants were grown in the presence of 1.5 and 3.0 mM N as ammonium and compared with equivalent nitrate nutrition. The antioxidant enzymes and metabolites as well as oxidative damage to proteins were determined. Protein and amino acid contents in both types of plants were also analysed. Ammonium nutrition in sensitive spinach or in the tolerant pea plants does not alter the redox status of ascorbate and glutathione or the phenolic contents, while no clear effect is seen in the antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that the stress originated from applying ammonium as the only N source is not an oxidative stress, independent of the ammonium tolerance of the plant species studied. Moreover, ammonium stress diminishes oxidative damage to proteins in the spinach plants. The data of the protein oxidation together with those from N metabolism highlight the relation between the stress induced by ammonium and an increased protein turnover. PMID:18275467

Domínguez-Valdivia, María Dolores; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro María; Lamsfus, Carmen; Cruz, Cristina; Martins-Loução, Maria Amelia; Moran, Jose Fernando

2008-03-01

426

Structural Control of Giant Rock Avalanches in Argentina  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jigsaw version: To prepare, students do background reading on landslides and rock avalanches and read the introductory portion of Hermanns and Strecker's 1999 article on rock avalanches in Argentina. In class, students receive data (assembled from figures in the article) on bedrock geology and physiography, as well as stereonets showing orientations of prominent joint sets, bedding, and foliations in the bedrock. Their task is to answer the question of why gigantic rock avalanches occur is some places but not others in this part of Argentina. Each student receives one of four possible data sets and works with a team to analyze the data and solve the problem for the team's area. Each team member must then individually explain his/her analysis to a group of three other students, one from each of the other teams, and the group then compares the four locations for similarities and differences. The activity gives students practice in interpreting geologic maps, using stereonets, and peer teaching. The activity also connects structural geology to another geoscience discipline.Short case example version: This is an abbreviated version of the jigsaw activity described above and focuses on only one of the rock avalanche areas.

Tewksbury, Barb

427

El proyecto AUGER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hace ya más de 30 años en Volcano Ranch, EE.UU., un extenso chubasco cósmico (ECC) fue detectado con energía en exceso de 1020 eV. Desde entonces, observatorios ubicados en Haverah Park del Reino Unido, Yakutsk de Rusia, AGASA de Japón y Dugway de EE.UU. también han observado ECC con energías mayores que 1020 eV. Poco se sabe de dichos rayos, y en particular cuál es la naturaleza del primario, de dónde provienen, y cómo son acelerados, pero su naturaleza ultrarelativista excluye la mayoría de las respuestas dejando sólo algunas plausibles de ser investigadas experimentalmente. Grupos de científicos de 20 países están trabajando con el fin de construir dos arreglos de detectores gigantes, uno en cada hemisferio a lo largo de 3000 km2 c/u. Dichas dimensiones son necesarias debido al flujo estimado de 1 rayo cósmico/centuria/km2/sr. La sede del Observatorio del Sur es la Argentina. El proyecto fue nombrado Pierre Auger en conmemoración del célebre físico francés que detectó por primera vez chubascos cósmicos en 1938. El proyecto focaliza su interés en rayos cósmicos con energías mayores que 1020 eV.

Etchegoyen, A.

428

Evaluation of the antiplasmodial and cytotoxicity potentials of husk fiber extracts from Cocos nucifera, a medicinal plant used in Nigeria to treat human malaria.  

PubMed

Nigeria is an African country where transmission of malaria occurs all year round and where most inhabitants use plants as remedies against parasitic diseases, including malaria. Some of such medicinal plants have their antimalarial efficacies already demonstrated experimentally, active compounds isolated and the mechanism of drug action suggested. Decoction of Cocos nucifera husk is used in the middle belt region of Nigeria as an antimalarial remedy. In our current studies, we tested extracts from husks of four varieties of C. nucifera, all collected in Brazil, where the plant fruit is popularly named 'coco'. The husks of coco mestiço, amarelo, anão and gigante collected in the Northeast of Brazil were used to prepare extracts at the Chemistry Department, Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL), which were then tested for their antiplasmodial activities, cytotoxicities and hemolytic activities in vitro. Only the hexane extract of coco mestiço was active against the blood forms of Plasmodium falciparum human malaria parasite maintained in continuous culture. Most extracts presented selectivity indices of <10, while hexane extract of coco mestiço had a selectivity index of 35, meaning that the extract is not toxic. The isolation of the active compounds from coco mestiço husks has not yet been done. PMID:22241625

Adebayo, J O; Santana, A E G; Krettli, A U

2012-03-01

429

Practical application of toxicogenomics for profiling toxicant-induced biological perturbations.  

PubMed

A systems-level understanding of molecular perturbations is crucial for evaluating chemical-induced toxicity risks appropriately, and for this purpose comprehensive gene expression analysis or toxicogenomics investigation is highly advantageous. The recent accumulation of toxicity-associated gene sets (toxicogenomic biomarkers), enrichment in public or commercial large-scale microarray database and availability of open-source software resources facilitate our utilization of the toxicogenomic data. However, toxicologists, who are usually not experts in computational sciences, tend to be overwhelmed by the gigantic amount of data. In this paper we present practical applications of toxicogenomics by utilizing biomarker gene sets and a simple scoring method by which overall gene set-level expression changes can be evaluated efficiently. Results from the gene set-level analysis are not only an easy interpretation of toxicological significance compared with individual gene-level profiling, but also are thought to be suitable for cross-platform or cross-institutional toxicogenomics data analysis. Enrichment in toxicogenomics databases, refinements of biomarker gene sets and scoring algorithms and the development of user-friendly integrative software will lead to better evaluation of toxicant-elicited biological perturbations. PMID:20957103

Kiyosawa, Naoki; Manabe, Sunao; Yamoto, Takashi; Sanbuissho, Atsushi

2010-01-01

430

Study of Historical 4B/X17 Mega Flare on 28 October 2003 (P58)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

wuddin_99@yahoo.com We analysed multi-wavelength data of 28 October 2003 4B/X17.2 class extremely energetic parallel ribbon solar flare, which occurred in NOAA 10486. The flare was well observed in H-alpha at ARIES, Nainital and various space (SOHO, TRACE, RHESSI, WIND etc.) and ground based Observatories. The H-alpha observations show the stretching/detwisting and eruption of helically twisted S shaped (sigmoid) filament in the South-West direction of the active region with bright shock front followed by rapid increase in intensity and area of the gigantic flare. The flare is associated with a bright/fast full halo earth directed CME, strong type II, III and IV radio bursts, an intense proton event and GLE. It seems that the filament eruption triggered the halo CME because the helical structure is clearly visible in the SOHO/LASCO C2, C3 images. This indicates helicity transfer from chromosphere to corona and interplanetary medium. The magnetic field of the flaring region was most complex with high magnetic shear. From the above analysis we feel that the energy buildup/release process of this unique flare support helically twisted magnetic flux rope model.

Uddin, W.; Chandra, R.; Ali, S. S.

2006-11-01

431

The change of amyloplasts structure and composition of storage starch in potato minitubers during imitated microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potato was designated for food production in the controlled ecological life-support system CELSS because its tubers as it is known contain starch and significant protein content and are edible food after the long-term storage We used the cultivation of potato miniplants under influence of long-term horizontal clinorotation 2 rev min which imitated microgravity as a model for the technology of potato food production in the CELSS The aim of our work was to determine content and composition storage starch as well as amyloplast ultrastructure of storage parenchyma cells in potato minitubers formed under long-term to 6 weeks slow horizontal clinorotation 2 rpm Minitubers developed from axillary buds of potato miniplants growing in the aseptic stationary conditions and under clinorotation Methods of scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used for the study of surface and ultrastructure of amyloplasts the biochemical method by Hovenkamp-Hermelink et al 1988 - for study of starch composition Some differences were observed in amyloplast structure under clinorotation namely increased volume of starch grains in plastid decreased stroma volume changed structure of envelope membranes in comparison with the stationary control Besides an appearance of fraction of gigantic amyloplasts in central layers of parenchyma was observed under clinorotation after 4 weeks of growth The total starch content increased and reached to 219 5 - 4 1 mg g FW at 6 weeks of clinorotation it was 167 5 - 5 6 mg g FW in the control minitubers A ratio of

Nedukha, O. M.; Kordyum, E. L.; Martyn, G. M.; Schnyukova, E. I.

432

Global energy deposition and chemical effect by transient luminous events in the upper atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the analysis of the data from the imager of sprites and upper atmospheric lightning (ISUAL) experiment on the FORMOSAT-2 satellite, it has been reported that elve is the most dominant type of transient luminous events (TLEs) and the global occurrence rates of sprites, halos and elves are ~1, ~1 and 35 events/min, respectively [Chen et al, 2008]. In this presentation, we will review some of the important findings in the ISUAL experiment, including the deduction of the reduced E-field in sprites, the comparison of the modeling results with the observed elves, and detailed analyses of gigantic jets. Also through computing the radiative emissions in ISUAL recorded TLE and their energy deposition in the upper atmosphere, we found that for sprites, halos and elves the energy deposition is 22, 14 and 19 MJ per event, respectively. After factoring in the global occurrence rates, the global energy deposition rates in the upper atmosphere are 22, 14 and 665 MJ /min from sprites, halos and elves. Also in-line with the works of Sentman et al. (2008) on the chemical processes in discharge phenomena, we will discuss the possible chemical effects of TLEs in the upper atmosphere. * Work performed at NCKU was supported in part by National Space Center and National Central University in Taiwan under grant numbers 97-NSPO(B)-ISUAL-FA09-01, NSC 96-2111-M-008-019, NSC 97-2111-M-006- 001-MY3.

Kuo, C.; Chen, B. A.; Chang, S.; Lee, L.; Chou, J.; Tsai, L.; Hsu, R.; Su, H.; Lee, L.; Frey, H.; Mende, S.; Takahashi, Y.

2008-12-01

433

Occurrence and distribution of global TLE activities and their effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 3-year survey of ISUAL experiment on the FORMOSAT-2 satellite, thousands of TLEs including sprites, elves, halos and jets have been recorded. The most dominated type (~80%) of TLEs was recognized as elves, and only 20% of the recorded events are sprites and halos. In addition, ISUAL also recorded 13 gigantic jets during this time span. Distributions of the ISUAL TLEs show that sprites congregate mainly over continents as lightning does, whereas elves scatter mostly over oceans. The global occurrence rates of TLEs are also derived. However, a detailed study of the peak CG current distribution and the ISUAL imager detection threshold indicates that only around 1% CG lightning are able to generate ISUAL detectable elves. The true occurrence rates of TLEs could range from a factor of two to an order magnitude higher than detected rates. The strong dependency of elve occurrence on the sea surface temperature, updraft flow of global atmosphere circulation, and precipitation implies that the warm tropical oceans act as the heat reservoirs to drive vertical convection and accelerate charge accumulation by rainfall, thus produce intense oceanic lightnings, which induce a large fraction of observed elves. This process suggests that oceans, atmosphere and ionosphere are coupled. Sprites and jets are able to transport electrons between thunderclouds and lower ionosphere, and elves contribute substantial free electrons and ions at ~90km height from EMP-heated ionization. In this presentation we also discuss the role of TLE in the global circuit and atmospheric chemistry quantitatively.

Chen, A. B.; Kuo, C.; Lee, Y.; Hsu, R.; Su, H.; Chern, J.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Fukunishi, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Liu, T.; Chang, Y.; Lee, L.

2007-12-01

434

TLEs, ITCZ, Storm Tracks and Their Correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between July 2004 and February 2008, ISUAL has recorded 6747 elves, 718 sprites, 783 halos, 1081 blue jets, and 17 gigantic jets. We examine the correlation between the distribution of TLEs and the annual Inter- tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) distribution by analyzing the outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) data from NOAA/ESRL Physical Sciences Division. The results indicate that there are two different TLE distribution patterns. For the low latitude region, the movement of TLEs occurrence follows the seasonal migration of the IITCZ. In northern hemisphere summer, the ITCZ is mainly located to the north of the equator and the distribution of TLEs follows. In southern hemisphere summer, part of ITCZ moves to south of the equator and so does the distribution of TLEs. In the middle and high latitude winter regions, the ISUAL recorded TLEs are defined as the winter TLEs, which are generally associated with cold fronts, air masses and mid-latitude cyclones. From the global distribution of winter TLEs, it is shown that they tend to congregate in some specific regions. Namely, in the northern winter , TLEs concentrate over the Japan Sea , north Pacific Ocean , northwest Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea ; while in the southern winter , TLEs distribute primarily over the south coast of Australia , south Pacific Ocean and east coast of south America. We find the distribution of winter TLEs is well collocated with the storm tracks. The correlation between the winter TLEs and storm tracks is thus analyzed.

Lee, L.; Chen, A. B.; Tsai, L.; Chou, J.; Chang, S.; Kuo, C.; Su, H.; Hsu, R.; Wu, C.; Lin, P.; Lee, L.

2008-12-01

435

Meteorological aspects of elves and jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence for ocean-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling is revealed in recent studies of ISUAL transient luminous events (TLEs) [Chen et al., 2008]. The results suggest that the meteorological systems below the stratosphere, primarily driven by sea surface temperature and solar radiation, play essential roles in inducing TLEs between the cloud top and the lower ionosphere. Through analyzing the ISUAL-recorded TLEs since July 2004, we realize that different types of TLEs are likely associated with different meteorological systems. For example, the elves are mainly located above Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ); elves also are strongly correlated with the atmospheric updraft and the precipitation. The fall/winter elves distribute along storm tracks poleward of 30 degrees north or south, implying their association with extratropical cyclones. Numerous blue jets and gigantic jets are recorded around tropical cyclones by ISUAL. Several recent examples indicate that blue jets and lightning often occur in rapid successions in the strong convective regions associated with the spiral rainbands of typhoons or hurricanes. Illustrative data and some of the probable mechanisms will be presented in the conference.

Chen, A. B.; Tsai, L.; Lee, L.; Chou, J.; Su, H.; Hsu, R.; Wu, C.; Lin, P.; Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.; Takahashi, Y.; Lee, L.

2008-12-01

436

Wafer-scale metasurface for total power absorption, local field enhancement and single molecule Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The ability to detect molecules at low concentrations is highly desired for applications that range from basic science to healthcare. Considerable interest also exists for ultrathin materials with high optical absorption, e.g. for microbolometers and thermal emitters. Metal nanostructures present opportunities to achieve both purposes. Metal nanoparticles can generate gigantic field enhancements, sufficient for the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Thin layers containing metal nanostructures ("metasurfaces") can achieve near-total power absorption at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Thus far, however, both aims (i.e. single molecule Raman and total power absorption) have only been achieved using metal nanostructures produced by techniques (high resolution lithography or colloidal synthesis) that are complex and/or difficult to implement over large areas. Here, we demonstrate a metasurface that achieves the near-perfect absorption of visible-wavelength light and enables the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Our metasurface is fabricated using thin film depositions, and is of unprecedented (wafer-scale) extent. PMID:24091825

Wang, Dongxing; Zhu, Wenqi; Best, Michael D; Camden, Jon P; Crozier, Kenneth B

2013-01-01

437

Space Weather: The Solar Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term space weather refers to conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and that can affect human life and health. Our modern hi-tech society has become increasingly vulnerable to disturbances from outside the Earth system, in particular to those initiated by explosive events on the Sun: Flares release flashes of radiation that can heat up the terrestrial atmosphere such that satellites are slowed down and drop into lower orbits, solar energetic particles accelerated to near-relativistic energies may endanger astronauts traveling through interplanetary space, and coronal mass ejections are gigantic clouds of ionized gas ejected into interplanetary space that after a few hours or days may hit the Earth and cause geomagnetic storms. In this review, I describe the several chains of actions originating in our parent star, the Sun, that affect Earth, with particular attention to the solar phenomena and the subsequent effects in interplanetary space.

Schwenn, Rainer

2006-08-01

438

Regulation of alternative splicing within the supraspliceosome.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing is a fundamental feature in regulating the eukaryotic transcriptome, as ~95% of multi-exon human Pol II transcripts are subject to this process. Regulated splicing operates through the combinatorial interplay of positive and negative regulatory signals present in the pre-mRNA, which are recognized by trans-acting factors. All these RNA and protein components are assembled in a gigantic, 21 MDa, ribonucleoprotein splicing machine - the supraspliceosome. Because most alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms vary between different cell and tissue types, the ability to perform alternative splicing is expected to be an integral part of the supraspliceosome, which constitutes the splicing machine in vivo. Here we show that both the constitutively and alternatively spliced mRNAs of the endogenous human pol II transcripts: hnRNP A/B, survival of motor neuron (SMN) and ADAR2 are predominantly found in supraspliceosomes. This finding is consistent with our observations that the splicing regulators hnRNP G as well as all phosphorylated SR proteins are predominantly associated with supraspliceosomes. We further show that changes in alternative splicing of hnRNP A/B, affected by up regulation of SRSF5 (SRp40) or by treatment with C6-ceramide, occur within supraspliceosomes. These observations support the proposed role of the supraspliceosome in splicing regulation and alternative splicing. PMID:22100336

Sebbag-Sznajder, Naama; Raitskin, Oleg; Angenitzki, Minna; Sato, Taka-Aki; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth

2012-01-01

439

Geophysical evidence of deep-keeled icebergs on the Rockall Bank, Northeast Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution multibeam swath bathymetric data acquired from the Rockall Bank reveal an abundance of linear to slightly sinuous seabed incisions. These features, interpreted as relict iceberg scours, provide for the first time evidence that the Rockall Bank was intensively scoured by iceberg keels. While the shallower portion of the Rockall Bank lacks evidence of iceberg scouring, on the western and southern flanks (between 250 and 450 m water depth) the seabed is almost completely covered by thousands of cross-cutting scours. More isolated scours, up to 800 m wide and 25 km long are also observed down to nearly 600 m water depth. Based on a full glacial sea level low stand of 120 m, these isolated scour marks must have been carved by gigantic icebergs with keels up to 500 m deep and able to create incisions up to 15 m deep in the seabed. Analysis of scour orientation, length, width, and depth indicates that these mega-icebergs were likely calved from large, fast-flowing ice sheet outlets draining circum-North Atlantic ice sheets. Prevailing scour orientations suggest a number of possible ice sheet sources, including southeast and southern Greenland and the Donegal-Barra ice stream of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet. The bimodal distribution of the scour depth observed across the Rockall Bank suggest either different icebergs provenances or physical and climatic controls on icebergs draft.

Sacchetti, F.; Benetti, S.; Ó Cofaigh, C.; Georgiopoulou, A.

2012-07-01

440

Interaction of the Ultra Relativistic Pulsar Plasma with the Upper Atmosphere of the Star-Companion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic types of losses of the ultra relativistic electron-positron pulsar plasma in the upper atmosphere of a star-companion are considered. These types include: ionization losses of the medium atoms, their excitation losses, the losses connected with the energies transferred to the particles of plasma, the formation losses of the recoil ? electrons and Cherenkov radiation losses of moving particles, bremsstrahlung losses, the synchrotron radiation losses and the losses, connected with the inverse Compton emission. It is shown that the most rapid component of pulsar plasma can reach the top of convective zone. The range of kinetic energies of the plasma particles that reach the upper boundary of the convection zone will correspond to the range of the gigantic dipole resonance (GDR). The result of interaction of the pulsar plasma and of the upper atmosphere of examined star-companion will be the non-homogeneous heating of the local zones of photosphere and boundary between the photosphere and zone of convection on the different depths.

Ulyanov, Oleg M.

2010-08-01

441

Plume-related mantle source of super-large rare metal deposits from the Lovozero and Khibina massifs on the Kola Peninsula, Eastern part of Baltic Shield: Sr, Nd and Hf isotope systematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two world’s largest complexes of highly alkaline nepheline syenites and related rare metal loparite and eudialyte deposits, the Khibina and Lovozero massifs, occur in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. We measured for the first time in situ the trace element concentrations and the Sr, Nd and Hf isotope ratios by LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer) in loparite, eudialyte an in some other pegmatitic minerals. The results are in aggreement with the whole rock Sr and Nd isotope which suggests the formation of these superlarge rare metal deposits in a magmatic closed system. The initial Hf, Sr, Nd isotope ratios are similar to the isotopic signatures of OIB indicating depleted mantle as a source. This leads to the suggestion that the origin of these gigantic alkaline intrusions is connected to a deep seated mantle source—possibly to a lower mantle plume. The required combination of a depleted mantle and high rare metal enrichment in the source can be explained by the input of incompatible elements by metasomatising melts/fluids into the zones of alkaline magma generation shortly before the partial melting event (to avoid ingrowth of radiogenic isotopes). The minerals belovite and pyrochlore from the pegmatites are abnormally high in 87Sr /86Sr ratios. This may be explained by closed system isotope evolution as a result of a significant increase in Rb/Sr during the evolution of the peralkaline magma.

Kogarko, L. N.; Lahaye, Y.; Brey, G. P.

2010-03-01

442

Geological and geophysical evidence for a holocene tsunami deposit in the astern Mediterranean deep-sea record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extended geological and geophysical exploration of basinal settings in different areas of the eastern Mediterranean demonstrate the existence of a Holocene mud layer several metres in thickness (up to more than 20 m) and typically showing a graded basal part. The event producing this peculiar deposit is correlated with the gigantic 'Bronze Age' or Minoan eruption of the Santorini volcano (3500 years BP), which resulted in caldera collapse and supposedly produced a strong seismic sea-wave, that is a tsunami. Order of magnitude calculations demonstrate that the wave speed was sufficient to induce erosion and liquefaction of the soft unconsolidated sediments draping the deep-sea floor. The event is recorded in over 50 deep-sea cores recovered in the last 20 years which contain the fine grained 'Homogenite' layer starting with a fining-upwards sandy base and having a thickness of more than 24 m in the Sirte Abyssal Plain area. Several depositional models related to setting and source areas and based on thickness, composition, carbonate content and sedimentary structures of the deposits have been proposed.

Cita, Maria Bianca; Rimoldi, Bianca

1997-09-01

443

Environmental and biotic controls on the evolutionary history of insect body size  

PubMed Central

Giant insects, with wingspans as large as 70 cm, ruled the Carboniferous and Permian skies. Gigantism has been linked to hyperoxic conditions because oxygen concentration is a key physiological control on body size, particularly in groups like flyin