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1

Vulvoperineal reconstruction after excision of anogenital multifocal intraepithelial neoplasia ("MIN").  

PubMed

Over the past 7 years, 12 women have been treated utilising a radical surgical approach for extensive vulval involvement as a component of multifocal intraepithelial neoplasia (MIN) of the female genital tract. The patients were analysed with respect to the anatomical site of involvement, age, presenting complaints and their duration, colposcopic examination, histopathology and surgical treatment. Gynaecologists, general surgeons and plastic surgeons were involved in the surgical treatment which was an initial colostomy followed by a definitive vulvoperineal resection and simultaneous vulval reconstruction using meshed split skin grafts or a combination of skin grafts and local flaps. 17 vulvoperineal reconstructions were done for 12 patients. Three had an incomplete histopathological clearance at the initial operation. Apart from these three patients, one had recurrence of symptoms alone, without any evidence of MIN, which was possibly due to human papilloma virus infection. One patient developed malignant squamous invasion 4 years later, which was cured with surgical excision and reconstruction. Colostomy closure was done after achieving local control of the disease. This staged approach does achieve the objectives of eliminating disease and alleviating symptoms. It preserves function and attempts to reconstruct normal anatomy without compromising the principles of surgical oncology and results in a high patient satisfaction. PMID:8976746

Thomas, S S; Chenoy, R; Fielding, J W; Rollason, T P; Jordan, J A; Bracka, A

1996-12-01

2

HERNIA DE BOCHDALECK GIGANTE. PRESENTACIÓNDE UN CASO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se presenta un caso de hernia de Bochdaleck gigante en un varón de 14 años que fue diagnosticado de forma casual. Se revisa la escasa bibliografía sobre la ausencia radiológica de hemidiafragma, comentándose además la aportación del diagnóstico por imagen, fundamentalmente la tomografia axial computarizada (TAC) y la resonancia nuclear magnética (RNM). Finalmente, se revisan las asociaciones más frecuentes de

L. M. Entrenas Costa; T. Domínguez Platas; J. M. Checa Pinilla; J. M. Antona Gómez; F. Fuentes Otero

1992-01-01

3

Sotos syndrome: An interesting disorder with gigantism  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 16-year-old boy diagnosed to have Sotos syndrome, with rare association of bilateral primary optic atrophy and epilepsy. He presented with accelerated linear growth, facial gestalt, distinctive facial features, seizures and progressive diminution of vision in both eyes. He had features of gigantism from early childhood. An MRI showed that brain and endocrine functions were normal. This case is of interest, as we have to be aware of this not so rare disorder. In addition to the classic features, there were two unusual associations with Sotos syndrome in the patient. PMID:19893668

Nalini, A.; Biswas, Arundhati

2008-01-01

4

Ependimoma myxopapilar sacro gigante con osteolisis  

PubMed Central

Objetivo: la presentación de un caso de una paciente con un ependimoma sacro con extensa infiltración y destrucción ósea local. Descripción del caso: una mujer de 53 años acudió a la consulta por dolor lumbosacro y alteraciones sensitivas perineales y esfinterianas. La imágenes por Resonancia Magnética (IRM) y la Tomografía Axial Computada (TAC) mostraron una lesión expansiva gigante a nivel S2-S4 con extensa osteólisis e invasión de tejidos adyacentes. Se realizó una exéresis tumoral completa con mejoría del estatus funcional. La anatomía patológica informó ependimoma mixopapilar. Discusión: la extensión de la resección quirúrgica es el mejor predictor de buen pronóstico. El tratamiento radiante se reserva como opción adyuvante para las resecciones incompletas y recidiva tumoral. La quimioterapia sólo debería utilizarse en casos en que la cirugía y la radioterapia estén contraindicadas. Conclusión: Los ependimomas mixopapilares sacros con destrucción ósea y presentación intra y extradural son muy infrecuentes y deben ser tenidos en cuenta entre los diagnósticos diferenciales preoperatorios. Su resección total, siempre que sea posible, es la mejor alternativa terapéutica. PMID:25165615

Ajler, Pablo; Landriel, Federico; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Campero, Álvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio

2014-01-01

5

Late paleozoic fusulinoidean gigantism driven by atmospheric hyperoxia.  

PubMed

Atmospheric hyperoxia, with pO(2) in excess of 30%, has long been hypothesized to account for late Paleozoic (360-250 million years ago) gigantism in numerous higher taxa. However, this hypothesis has not been evaluated statistically because comprehensive size data have not been compiled previously at sufficient temporal resolution to permit quantitative analysis. In this study, we test the hyperoxia-gigantism hypothesis by examining the fossil record of fusulinoidean foraminifers, a dramatic example of protistan gigantism with some individuals exceeding 10 cm in length and exceeding their relatives by six orders of magnitude in biovolume. We assembled and examined comprehensive regional and global, species-level datasets containing 270 and 1823 species, respectively. A statistical model of size evolution forced by atmospheric pO(2) is conclusively favored over alternative models based on random walks or a constant tendency toward size increase. Moreover, the ratios of volume to surface area in the largest fusulinoideans are consistent in magnitude and trend with a mathematical model based on oxygen transport limitation. We further validate the hyperoxia-gigantism model through an examination of modern foraminiferal species living along a measured gradient in oxygen concentration. These findings provide the first quantitative confirmation of a direct connection between Paleozoic gigantism and atmospheric hyperoxia. PMID:22946813

Payne, Jonathan L; Groves, John R; Jost, Adam B; Nguyen, Thienan; Moffitt, Sarah E; Hill, Tessa M; Skotheim, Jan M

2012-09-01

6

Gigantism and comparative life-history parameters of tyrannosaurid dinosaurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

How evolutionary changes in body size are brought about by variance in developmental timing and\\/or growth rates (also known as heterochrony) is a topic of considerable interest in evolutionary biology. In particular, extreme size change leading to gigantism occurred within the dinosaurs on multiple occasions. Whether this change was brought about by accelerated growth, delayed maturity or a combination of

Gregory M. Erickson; Peter J. Makovicky; Philip J. Currie; Mark A. Norell; Scott A. Yerby; Christopher A. Brochu

2004-01-01

7

Twin Explosions In Gigantic Dusty Potato Crisp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO's Very Large Telescope, equipped with the multi-mode FORS instrument, took an image of NGC 3190, a galaxy so distorted that astronomers gave it two names. And as if to prove them right, in 2002 it fired off, almost simultaneously, two stellar explosions, a very rare event. This beautiful edge-on spiral galaxy with tightly wound arms and a warped shape that makes it resemble a gigantic potato crisp lies in the constellation Leo ('the Lion') [1] and is approximately 70 million light years away. It is the dominant member of a small group of galaxies known as Hickson 44, named after the Canadian astronomer, Paul Hickson. In addition to NGC 3190 [2], Hickson 44 consists of one elliptical and two spiral galaxies. These are, however, slightly out of the field of view and therefore not visible here. ESO PR Photo 17/06 ESO PR Photo 17/06 The Spiral Galaxy NGC 3190 In 1982, Hickson published a catalogue of over 400 galaxies found in compact, physically-related groups of typically 4 to 5 galaxies per group (see the image of Robert's Quartet in ESO PR Photo 34/05 as another example). Such compact groups allow astronomers to study how galaxies dynamically affect each other, and help them test current ideas on how galaxies form. One idea is that compact groups of galaxies, such as Hickson 44, merge to form a giant elliptical galaxy, such as NGC 1316 (see ESO PR 17/00). Indeed, signs of tidal interactions are visible in the twisted dust lane of NGC 3190. This distortion initially misled astronomers into assigning a separate name for the southwestern side, NGC 3189, although NGC 3190 is the favoured designation. NGC 3190 has an 'Active Galactic Nucleus', and as such, the bright, compact nucleus is thought to host a supermassive black hole. In March 2002, a new supernova (SN 2002bo) was found in between the 'V' of the dust lanes in the southeastern part of NGC 3190. It was discovered independently by the Brazilian and Japanese amateur astronomers, Paulo Cacella and Yoji Hirose. SN 2002bo was caught almost two weeks before reaching its maximum brightness, allowing astronomers to study its evolution. It has been the subject of intense monitoring by a world-wide network of telescopes. The conclusion was that SN 2002bo is a rather unusual Type Ia supernova [3]. The image presented here was taken in March 2003, i.e. about a year after the maximum of the supernova which is 50 times fainter on the image than a year before. While observing SN 2002bo in May 2002, a group of Italian astronomers discovered another supernova, SN 2002cv, on the other side of NGC 3190. Two supernovae of this type appearing nearly simultaneously in the same galaxy is a rare event, as normally astronomers expect only one such event per century in a galaxy. SN 2002cv was best visible at infrared wavelengths as it was superimposed on the dust lane of NGC 3190, and therefore hidden by a large quantity of dust. In fact, this supernova holds the record for the most obscured Type Ia event. The image was obtained with a total exposure time of 14 minutes only. Yet, with the amazing power of the Very Large Telescope, it reveals a large zoo of galaxies of varying morphologies. How many can you find? A high resolution image and its caption is available on this page.

2006-05-01

8

A gigantic feathered dinosaur from the lower cretaceous of China.  

PubMed

Numerous feathered dinosaur specimens have recently been recovered from the Middle-Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits of northeastern China, but most of them represent small animals. Here we report the discovery of a gigantic new basal tyrannosauroid, Yutyrannus huali gen. et sp. nov., based on three nearly complete skeletons representing two distinct ontogenetic stages from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, China. Y. huali shares some features, particularly of the cranium, with derived tyrannosauroids, but is similar to other basal tyrannosauroids in possessing a three-fingered manus and a typical theropod pes. Morphometric analysis suggests that Y. huali differed from tyrannosaurids in its growth strategy. Most significantly, Y. huali bears long filamentous feathers, thus providing direct evidence for the presence of extensively feathered gigantic dinosaurs and offering new insights into early feather evolution. PMID:22481363

Xu, Xing; Wang, Kebai; Zhang, Ke; Ma, Qingyu; Xing, Lida; Sullivan, Corwin; Hu, Dongyu; Cheng, Shuqing; Wang, Shuo

2012-04-01

9

Facile Synthesis of Monodisperse Microspheres and Gigantic Hollow Shells of Mesoporous Silica in Mixed Water-Ethanol Solvents  

E-print Network

Facile Synthesis of Monodisperse Microspheres and Gigantic Hollow Shells of Mesoporous Silica of morphologies, such as monodisperse microspheres, gigantic hollow structures comprising a thin shell with a hole, the morphology of mesoporous silica can be regulated from microspheres through gigantic hollow structures

Qi, Limin

10

Proteus syndrome: A rare cause of gigantic limb  

PubMed Central

A congenital disorder with variable manifestations, including partial gigantism of the hands and feet with hypertrophy of soles, nevi, hemihypertrophy, gynecomastia, macrocephaly and other skull abnormalities, and abdominal lipomatosis. The cause is unknown, although a genetic origin, generally of autosomal-dominant transmission, has been conjectured. Symptoms can be treated, but there is no known cure. We present the case of a young male with grotesque overgrowth of the right lower limb, splenomegaly and multiple nevi. Angiography revealed venous malformation within the limb. The findings are in conformity to the criteria for the Proteus syndrome. PMID:24860761

Chakrabarti, Nandini; Chattopadhyay, Chandan; Bhuban, Majhi; Pal, Salil Kumar

2014-01-01

11

Proteus syndrome: A rare cause of gigantic limb.  

PubMed

A congenital disorder with variable manifestations, including partial gigantism of the hands and feet with hypertrophy of soles, nevi, hemihypertrophy, gynecomastia, macrocephaly and other skull abnormalities, and abdominal lipomatosis. The cause is unknown, although a genetic origin, generally of autosomal-dominant transmission, has been conjectured. Symptoms can be treated, but there is no known cure. We present the case of a young male with grotesque overgrowth of the right lower limb, splenomegaly and multiple nevi. Angiography revealed venous malformation within the limb. The findings are in conformity to the criteria for the Proteus syndrome. PMID:24860761

Chakrabarti, Nandini; Chattopadhyay, Chandan; Bhuban, Majhi; Pal, Salil Kumar

2014-04-01

12

Hereditary Gigantism-the biblical giant Goliath and his brothers.  

PubMed

The biblical giant Goliath has an identifiable family tree suggestive of autosomal dominant inheritance. We suggest that he had a hereditary pituitary disorder possibly due to the AIP gene, causing early onset and familial acromegaly or gigantism. We comment on the evidence within the scriptures for his other relatives including a relative with six digits and speculate on possible causes of the six digits. Recognition of a hereditary pituitary disorder in the biblical Goliath and his family sheds additional information on his and other family members' battles with David and his relatives. PMID:25075136

Donnelly, Deirdre E; Morrison, Patrick J

2014-05-01

13

Model of UV flashes due to gigantic blue jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of UV flashes observed by the UV detector on board the 'Tatiana' microsatellite suggests, based on their location, pulse width and energy of the source of the photons, that the flashes were generated by gigantic blue jets (GBJs). Presented in this paper is a numerical model of UV flashes due to a bunch of long streamers which form a leader, a prong such as that observed in a GBJ. Using a previously developed model of upward propagation of a long streamer in the exponential atmosphere the paper describes temporal evolution of the UV flux generated by a bunch of long streamers, in the given spectral range 300-400 nm used by the UV detector on board 'Tatiana'. The model is in agreement with the observations.

Milikh, G. M.; Shneider, M. N.

2008-12-01

14

Avian-style respiration allowed gigantism in pterosaurs.  

PubMed

Powered flight has evolved three times in the vertebrates: in the birds, the bats and the extinct pterosaurs. The largest bats ever known are at least an order of magnitude smaller than the largest members of the other two groups. Recently, it was argued that different scaling of wingbeat frequencies to body mass in birds and bats can help explain why the largest birds are larger than the largest bats. Here, I extend this argument in two ways. Firstly, I suggest that different respiratory physiologies are key to understanding the restriction on bat maximum size compared with birds. Secondly, I argue that a respiratory physiology similar to birds would have been a prerequisite for the gigantism seen in pterosaurs. PMID:24855669

Ruxton, Graeme

2014-08-01

15

Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma.  

PubMed

Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH) during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL). Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings. PMID:25077093

Rhee, Noorisaem; Jeong, Kumi; Yang, Eun Mi; Kim, Chan Jong

2014-06-01

16

Linker Chains of the Gigantic Hemoglobin of the Earthworm Lumbricus terrestris: Primary Structures of  

E-print Network

Linker Chains of the Gigantic Hemoglobin of the Earthworm Lumbricus terrestris: Primary Structures The extracellular hemoglobin (Hb) of the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, has four major kinds of globin chains: a

Riggs, Austen

17

Model of UV Flashes Due to Gigantic Blue Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon termed Gigantic Blue Jet (GBJ) was discovered by Pasko et al. [1] when observing a thunderstorm over the Atlantic Ocean. A number of GBJ's was observed since from the ground and from space by the ISUAL optical detector flying on the board of the FORMOSA-2 satellite. Alike blue jets the GBJ's have a pencil-like shape however a trunk of GBJ is crowned with a few prongs which escape into the ionosphere. Current models suggest that a blue jet consists of the bi-leader, and is capped at the top side of the leader by its streamer zone [2]. The opposite polarity leaders grow in opposite directions and supply each other with the charge via the highly conductive channel. Evidently, if the bi-leader is initiated in the anvil, one of the leaders can extend beyond the cloud top. Furthermore, the UV instrument flying on board of microsatellite "Tatiana" detected a number of intense flashes with duration 1-64 ms originated in the equatorial region of the Earth [3]. The satellite was flying on the height 950 km along the circular orbit. The detector operates in the wavelength rage 300-400 nm. It should be emphasized that both GBJ and UV flashes were detected mainly over oceans and shores where the rate of lightning flashes is low. The detected UV flashes radiate about 0.1 MJ which in the range of the energy of gigantic blue jets. There are two scales of the flashes duration, 1-4 ms and 10-64 ms. The first one corresponds to the lifetime of individual long streamers (prongs), while the second corresponds to the lifetime of slow moving leader (or the streamer zone of a leader, since a number of individual streamers which form the streamer zone can radiate the UV emission). Therefore we suggest that the UV flashes detected by "Tatiana" were generated by GBJ. This paper presents a model of UV flashes due to an individual long streamer. Using earlier developed model of upward propagation of long streamer in the exponential atmosphere [2] the temporal evolution of the UV intensity generated by such streamer in the given spectral range 300-400 nm is described, and then check the model against the data obtained by "Tatiana". [1] V. Pasko et al., 2002 Nature, 416, 152 [2] Y. Raiser et al., 2007 J. Atm. Solar-Terr. Phys., 69, 925 [3] G. Garipov et al., 2005 JETP Lett., 82, 185.

Shneider, M.; Milikh, G.

2008-12-01

18

LTR Retrotransposons Contribute to Genomic Gigantism in Plethodontid Salamanders  

PubMed Central

Among vertebrates, most of the largest genomes are found within the salamanders, a clade of amphibians that includes 613 species. Salamander genome sizes range from ?14 to ?120 Gb. Because genome size is correlated with nucleus and cell sizes, as well as other traits, morphological evolution in salamanders has been profoundly affected by genomic gigantism. However, the molecular mechanisms driving genomic expansion in this clade remain largely unknown. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of transposable element (TE) content in salamanders. Using high-throughput sequencing, we generated genomic shotgun data for six species from the Plethodontidae, the largest family of salamanders. We then developed a pipeline to mine TE sequences from shotgun data in taxa with limited genomic resources, such as salamanders. Our summaries of overall TE abundance and diversity for each species demonstrate that TEs make up a substantial portion of salamander genomes, and that all of the major known types of TEs are represented in salamanders. The most abundant TE superfamilies found in the genomes of our six focal species are similar, despite substantial variation in genome size. However, our results demonstrate a major difference between salamanders and other vertebrates: salamander genomes contain much larger amounts of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, primarily Ty3/gypsy elements. Thus, the extreme increase in genome size that occurred in salamanders was likely accompanied by a shift in TE landscape. These results suggest that increased proliferation of LTR retrotransposons was a major molecular mechanism contributing to genomic expansion in salamanders. PMID:22200636

Sun, Cheng; Shepard, Donald B.; Chong, Rebecca A.; López Arriaza, José; Hall, Kathryn; Castoe, Todd A.; Feschotte, Cédric; Pollock, David D.; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge

2012-01-01

19

Gigantism and comparative life-history parameters of tyrannosaurid dinosaurs.  

PubMed

How evolutionary changes in body size are brought about by variance in developmental timing and/or growth rates (also known as heterochrony) is a topic of considerable interest in evolutionary biology. In particular, extreme size change leading to gigantism occurred within the dinosaurs on multiple occasions. Whether this change was brought about by accelerated growth, delayed maturity or a combination of both processes is unknown. A better understanding of relationships between non-avian dinosaur groups and the newfound capacity to reconstruct their growth curves make it possible to address these questions quantitatively. Here we study growth patterns within the Tyrannosauridae, the best known group of large carnivorous dinosaurs, and determine the developmental means by which Tyrannosaurus rex, weighing 5,000 kg and more, grew to be one of the most enormous terrestrial carnivorous animals ever. T. rex had a maximal growth rate of 2.1 kg d(-1), reached skeletal maturity in two decades and lived for up to 28 years. T. rex's great stature was primarily attained by accelerating growth rates beyond that of its closest relatives. PMID:15306807

Erickson, Gregory M; Makovicky, Peter J; Currie, Philip J; Norell, Mark A; Yerby, Scott A; Brochu, Christopher A

2004-08-12

20

Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism  

PubMed Central

The herbivorous sauropod dinosaurs of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods were the largest terrestrial animals ever, surpassing the largest herbivorous mammals by an order of magnitude in body mass. Several evolutionary lineages among Sauropoda produced giants with body masses in excess of 50 metric tonnes by conservative estimates. With body mass increase driven by the selective advantages of large body size, animal lineages will increase in body size until they reach the limit determined by the interplay of bauplan, biology, and resource availability. There is no evidence, however, that resource availability and global physicochemical parameters were different enough in the Mesozoic to have led to sauropod gigantism. We review the biology of sauropod dinosaurs in detail and posit that sauropod gigantism was made possible by a specific combination of plesiomorphic characters (phylogenetic heritage) and evolutionary innovations at different levels which triggered a remarkable evolutionary cascade. Of these key innovations, the most important probably was the very long neck, the most conspicuous feature of the sauropod bauplan. Compared to other herbivores, the long neck allowed more efficient food uptake than in other large herbivores by covering a much larger feeding envelope and making food accessible that was out of the reach of other herbivores. Sauropods thus must have been able to take up more energy from their environment than other herbivores. The long neck, in turn, could only evolve because of the small head and the extensive pneumatization of the sauropod axial skeleton, lightening the neck. The small head was possible because food was ingested without mastication. Both mastication and a gastric mill would have limited food uptake rate. Scaling relationships between gastrointestinal tract size and basal metabolic rate (BMR) suggest that sauropods compensated for the lack of particle reduction with long retention times, even at high uptake rates. The extensive pneumatization of the axial skeleton resulted from the evolution of an avian-style respiratory system, presumably at the base of Saurischia. An avian-style respiratory system would also have lowered the cost of breathing, reduced specific gravity, and may have been important in removing excess body heat. Another crucial innovation inherited from basal dinosaurs was a high BMR. This is required for fueling the high growth rate necessary for a multi-tonne animal to survive to reproductive maturity. The retention of the plesiomorphic oviparous mode of reproduction appears to have been critical as well, allowing much faster population recovery than in megaherbivore mammals. Sauropods produced numerous but small offspring each season while land mammals show a negative correlation of reproductive output to body size. This permitted lower population densities in sauropods than in megaherbivore mammals but larger individuals. Our work on sauropod dinosaurs thus informs us about evolutionary limits to body size in other groups of herbivorous terrestrial tetrapods. Ectothermic reptiles are strongly limited by their low BMR, remaining small. Mammals are limited by their extensive mastication and their vivipary, while ornithsichian dinosaurs were only limited by their extensive mastication, having greater average body sizes than mammals. PMID:21251189

Sander, P Martin; Christian, Andreas; Clauss, Marcus; Fechner, Regina; Gee, Carole T; Griebeler, Eva-Maria; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Hummel, Jürgen; Mallison, Heinrich; Perry, Steven F; Preuschoft, Holger; Rauhut, Oliver W M; Remes, Kristian; Tütken, Thomas; Wings, Oliver; Witzel, Ulrich

2011-01-01

21

Zinc Phosphate with Gigantic Pores of 24 Tetrahedra Guo-Yu Yang and Slavi C. Sevov*  

E-print Network

Zinc Phosphate with Gigantic Pores of 24 Tetrahedra Guo-Yu Yang and Slavi C. Sevov* Department.e., pores of more than 12 tetrahedra, has grown steadily since 1988, when VPI-5 with 18-membered rings of corner-sharing tetrahedra of oxygen c

22

The properties of a gigantic jet reflected in a simultaneous sprite: Observations interpreted by a model  

E-print Network

net positive charge upwards, and that gigantic jets are of negative polarity, although the reverse," such as their polarity, conductivity, and currents, have been predicted by models, but are poorly characterized et al., 1998a]. Theories predict that blue jets most commonly are of positive polarity, transporting

Cummer, Steven A.

23

Gigantic clavicle osteochondroma with carotid compression as a rare cause of stroke.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented with embolic stroke from left common carotid artery compression by a gigantic clavicular osteochondroma. To our knowledge, this is the only such case described in the literature. The other particularity of this case is the delayed appearance of this childhood tumor. Surgery was successful, with a satisfying outcome. PMID:23446126

Gouicem, Djelloul; Palcau, Laura; Hello, Claire Le; Coffin, Olivier; Maiza, Dominique; Berger, Ludovic

2013-03-01

24

Radar and lightning analyses of gigantic jet-producing storms Tiffany C. Meyer,1,2  

E-print Network

Radar and lightning analyses of gigantic jet-producing storms Tiffany C. Meyer,1,2 Timothy J. Lang range of very high frequency lightning mapping networks. All six were within range of operational radars and two-dimensional lightning network coverage: five within the National Lightning Detection Network

Rutledge, Steven

25

Lightning development associated with two negative gigantic jets Gaopeng Lu,1  

E-print Network

Lightning development associated with two negative gigantic jets Gaopeng Lu,1 Steven A. Cummer,1 very highfrequency (VHF) lightning mapping networks that the associated lightning character- istics intracloud lightning with upper level channels attempting to exit the cloud, and then produced the upward

Cummer, Steven A.

26

The Architecture The universe resembles an unfathomably large honeycomb. Gigantic galaxy clusters occupy  

E-print Network

The Architecture of Space The universe resembles an unfathomably large honeycomb. Gigantic galaxy of galaxies, and in the process, encounters the invisible aspects of space. What the eye doesn't see: The Coma the individual galaxies (gray spots). X-ray scouts like the ROSAT satellite, on the other hand, reveal

27

A gigantic nothosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Middle Triassic of SW China and its implication for the Triassic biotic recovery  

PubMed Central

The presence of gigantic apex predators in the eastern Panthalassic and western Tethyan oceans suggests that complex ecosystems in the sea had become re-established in these regions at least by the early Middle Triassic, after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (PTME). However, it is not clear whether oceanic ecosystem recovery from the PTME was globally synchronous because of the apparent lack of such predators in the eastern Tethyan/western Panthalassic region prior to the Late Triassic. Here we report a gigantic nothosaur from the lower Middle Triassic of Luoping in southwest China (eastern Tethyan ocean), which possesses the largest known lower jaw among Triassic sauropterygians. Phylogenetic analysis suggests parallel evolution of gigantism in Triassic sauropterygians. Discovery of this gigantic apex predator, together with associated diverse marine reptiles and the complex food web, indicates global recovery of shallow marine ecosystems from PTME by the early Middle Triassic. PMID:25429609

Liu, Jun; Hu, Shi-xue; Rieppel, Olivier; Jiang, Da-yong; Benton, Michael J.; Kelley, Neil P.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.; Zhou, Chang-yong; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-yuan; Xie, Tao; Lv, Tao

2014-01-01

28

A gigantic nothosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Middle Triassic of SW China and its implication for the Triassic biotic recovery.  

PubMed

The presence of gigantic apex predators in the eastern Panthalassic and western Tethyan oceans suggests that complex ecosystems in the sea had become re-established in these regions at least by the early Middle Triassic, after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (PTME). However, it is not clear whether oceanic ecosystem recovery from the PTME was globally synchronous because of the apparent lack of such predators in the eastern Tethyan/western Panthalassic region prior to the Late Triassic. Here we report a gigantic nothosaur from the lower Middle Triassic of Luoping in southwest China (eastern Tethyan ocean), which possesses the largest known lower jaw among Triassic sauropterygians. Phylogenetic analysis suggests parallel evolution of gigantism in Triassic sauropterygians. Discovery of this gigantic apex predator, together with associated diverse marine reptiles and the complex food web, indicates global recovery of shallow marine ecosystems from PTME by the early Middle Triassic. PMID:25429609

Liu, Jun; Hu, Shi-Xue; Rieppel, Olivier; Jiang, Da-Yong; Benton, Michael J; Kelley, Neil P; Aitchison, Jonathan C; Zhou, Chang-Yong; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-Yuan; Xie, Tao; Lv, Tao

2014-01-01

29

Velocidades radiales de estrellas gigantes rojas y blue stragglers en cúmulos abiertos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se presentan mediciones de las estrellas más brillantes en los campos de los cúmulos abiertos NGC 6530, NGC 2516, NGC 3114, Cr 223 y NGC 2437. Mediante correlaciones cruzadas se obtiene la velocidad de unas 25 gigantes rojas con el objeto de derivar la velocidad media de cada asociación. En base a los espectros obtenidos de los blue stragglers se discuten sus principales características y su probabilidad de pertenencia. Finalmente, se presentan las observaciones para cinco nuevas binarias espectroscópicas detectadas.

González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

30

Starvation reveals the cause of infection-induced castration and gigantism  

PubMed Central

Parasites often induce life-history changes in their hosts. In many cases, these infection-induced life-history changes are driven by changes in the pattern of energy allocation and utilization within the host. Because these processes will affect both host and parasite fitness, it can be challenging to determine who benefits from them. Determining the causes and consequences of infection-induced life-history changes requires the ability to experimentally manipulate life history and a framework for connecting life history to host and parasite fitness. Here, we combine a novel starvation manipulation with energy budget models to provide new insights into castration and gigantism in the Daphnia magna–Pasteuria ramosa host–parasite system. Our results show that starvation primarily affects investment in reproduction, and increasing starvation stress reduces gigantism and parasite fitness without affecting castration. These results are consistent with an energetic structure where the parasite uses growth energy as a resource. This finding gives us new understanding of the role of castration and gigantism in this system, and how life-history variation will affect infection outcome and epidemiological dynamics. The approach of combining targeted life-history manipulations with energy budget models can be adapted to understand life-history changes in other disease systems. PMID:25143034

Cressler, Clayton E.; Nelson, William A.; Day, Troy; McCauley, Edward

2014-01-01

31

Starvation reveals the cause of infection-induced castration and gigantism.  

PubMed

Parasites often induce life-history changes in their hosts. In many cases, these infection-induced life-history changes are driven by changes in the pattern of energy allocation and utilization within the host. Because these processes will affect both host and parasite fitness, it can be challenging to determine who benefits from them. Determining the causes and consequences of infection-induced life-history changes requires the ability to experimentally manipulate life history and a framework for connecting life history to host and parasite fitness. Here, we combine a novel starvation manipulation with energy budget models to provide new insights into castration and gigantism in the Daphnia magna-Pasteuria ramosa host-parasite system. Our results show that starvation primarily affects investment in reproduction, and increasing starvation stress reduces gigantism and parasite fitness without affecting castration. These results are consistent with an energetic structure where the parasite uses growth energy as a resource. This finding gives us new understanding of the role of castration and gigantism in this system, and how life-history variation will affect infection outcome and epidemiological dynamics. The approach of combining targeted life-history manipulations with energy budget models can be adapted to understand life-history changes in other disease systems. PMID:25143034

Cressler, Clayton E; Nelson, William A; Day, Troy; McCauley, Edward

2014-10-01

32

Are Sick Individuals Weak Competitors? Competitive Ability of Snails Parasitized by a Gigantism-Inducing Trematode  

PubMed Central

Parasitized individuals are often expected to be poor competitors because they are weakened by infections. Many trematode species, however, although extensively exploiting their mollusc hosts, also induce gigantism (increased host size) by diverting host resources towards growth instead of reproduction. In such systems, alternatively to reduced competitive ability due to negative effects of parasitism on host performance, larger size could allow more efficient resource acquisition and thus increase the relative competitive ability of host individuals. We addressed this hypothesis by testing the effect of a trematode parasite Diplostomum pseudospathaceum on the competitive ability of its snail host Lymnaea stagnalis. We experimentally examined the growth of snails kept in pairs in relation to their infection status and intensity of resource competition (i.e. food availability). We found that parasitized snails grew faster and their reproduction was reduced compared to unparasitized individuals indicating parasite-induced gigantism. However, growth of the snails was faster when competing with parasitized individuals compared to unparasitized snails indicating reduced competitive ability due to parasitism. The latter effect, however, was relatively weak suggesting that the effects of the parasite on snail physiology may partly override each other in determining competitive ability. PMID:24205383

Seppälä, Otto; Karvonen, Anssi; Kuosa, Marja; Haataja, Maarit; Jokela, Jukka

2013-01-01

33

The small but clear gravity signal above the natural cave 'Grotta Gigante' (Trieste, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity observations are a powerful means for detecting underground mass changes. The Italian and Slovenian Karst has a number of explored caves, several are also touristic due to their size (e.g. Grotta Gigante in Italy; Skocjianske Jame and Postojnska Jama in Slovenia). Just a few years ago another big cave was discovered by chance close to Trieste when drilling a tunnel for a motor-highway, which shows that more caves are expected to be discovered in coming years. We have acquired the gravity field above the Grotta Gigante cave, a cave roughly 100 m high and 200 m long with a traditional spring-gravity meter (Lacoste&Romberg) and height measurements made with GPS and total station. The GPS was made with two different teams and processing algorithms, to cross-check accuracy and error estimate. Some stations had to be surveyed with a classical instrument due to the vegetation which concealed the satellite positioning signal. Here we present the results of the positioning acquisitions and the gravity field. The cave produces a signal of 1.5 mGal, with a clear elongated concentric symmetry. The survey shows that a systematic coverage of the Karst would have the benefit to recover the position of all of the greater existing caves. This will have a large impact on civil and environmental purposes, since it will for example allow to plan the urban development at a safety distance from subsurface caves.

Braitenberg, Carla; Sampietro, Daniele; Zuliani, David; Barbagallo, Alfio; Fabris, Paolo; Fabbri, Julius; Rossi, Lorenzo; Handi Mansi, Ahmed

2014-05-01

34

Web gigantism in Darwin's bark spider, a new species from Madagascar (Araneidae: Caerostris) Matjaz Kuntner1,2  

E-print Network

Web gigantism in Darwin's bark spider, a new species from Madagascar (Araneidae: Caerostris) Matjaz, is grossly underestimated. Most species build large webs at forest edges, clearings, and gardens niche: casting its web across streams, rivers and lakes, so that the orb is suspended above water

Agnarsson, Ingi

35

Intraspecific competition and high food availability are associated with insular gigantism in a lizard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resource availability, competition, and predation commonly drive body size evolution. We assess the impact of high food availability and the consequent increased intraspecific competition, as expressed by tail injuries and cannibalism, on body size in Skyros wall lizards ( Podarcis gaigeae). Lizard populations on islets surrounding Skyros (Aegean Sea) all have fewer predators and competitors than on Skyros but differ in the numbers of nesting seabirds. We predicted the following: (1) the presence of breeding seabirds (providing nutrients) will increase lizard population densities; (2) dense lizard populations will experience stronger intraspecific competition; and (3) such aggression, will be associated with larger average body size. We found a positive correlation between seabird and lizard densities. Cannibalism and tail injuries were considerably higher in dense populations. Increases in cannibalism and tail loss were associated with large body sizes. Adult cannibalism on juveniles may select for rapid growth, fuelled by high food abundance, setting thus the stage for the evolution of gigantism.

Pafilis, Panayiotis; Meiri, Shai; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Valakos, Efstratios

2009-09-01

36

ecCNO solar neutrinos: A challenge for gigantic ultra-pure liquid scintillator detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrinos produced in the Sun by electron capture reactions on 13N, 15O and 17F, to which we refer as ecCNO neutrinos, are not usually considered in solar neutrino analysis since the expected fluxes are extremely low. The experimental determination of this sub-dominant component of the solar neutrino flux is very difficult but could be rewarding since it provides a determination of the metallic content of the solar core and, moreover, probes the solar neutrino survival probability in the transition region at E? ? 2.5 MeV. In this Letter, we suggest that this difficult measure could be at reach for future gigantic ultra-pure liquid scintillator detectors, such as LENA.

Villante, F. L.

2015-03-01

37

A gigantic, exceptionally complete titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from southern Patagonia, Argentina.  

PubMed

Titanosaurian sauropod dinosaurs were the most diverse and abundant large-bodied herbivores in the southern continents during the final 30 million years of the Mesozoic Era. Several titanosaur species are regarded as the most massive land-living animals yet discovered; nevertheless, nearly all of these giant titanosaurs are known only from very incomplete fossils, hindering a detailed understanding of their anatomy. Here we describe a new and gigantic titanosaur, Dreadnoughtus schrani, from Upper Cretaceous sediments in southern Patagonia, Argentina. Represented by approximately 70% of the postcranial skeleton, plus craniodental remains, Dreadnoughtus is the most complete giant titanosaur yet discovered, and provides new insight into the morphology and evolutionary history of these colossal animals. Furthermore, despite its estimated mass of about 59.3 metric tons, the bone histology of the Dreadnoughtus type specimen reveals that this individual was still growing at the time of death. PMID:25186586

Lacovara, Kenneth J; Lamanna, Matthew C; Ibiricu, Lucio M; Poole, Jason C; Schroeter, Elena R; Ullmann, Paul V; Voegele, Kristyn K; Boles, Zachary M; Carter, Aja M; Fowler, Emma K; Egerton, Victoria M; Moyer, Alison E; Coughenour, Christopher L; Schein, Jason P; Harris, Jerald D; Martínez, Rubén D; Novas, Fernando E

2014-01-01

38

Can Oxygen Set Thermal Limits in an Insect and Drive Gigantism?  

PubMed Central

Background Thermal limits may arise through a mismatch between oxygen supply and demand in a range of animal taxa. Whilst this oxygen limitation hypothesis is supported by data from a range of marine fish and invertebrates, its generality remains contentious. In particular, it is unclear whether oxygen limitation determines thermal extremes in tracheated arthropods, where oxygen limitation may be unlikely due to the efficiency and plasticity of tracheal systems in supplying oxygen directly to metabolically active tissues. Although terrestrial taxa with open tracheal systems may not be prone to oxygen limitation, species may be affected during other life-history stages, particularly if these rely on diffusion into closed tracheal systems. Furthermore, a central role for oxygen limitation in insects is envisaged within a parallel line of research focussing on insect gigantism in the late Palaeozoic. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we examine thermal maxima in the aquatic life stages of an insect at normoxia, hypoxia (14 kPa) and hyperoxia (36 kPa). We demonstrate that upper thermal limits do indeed respond to external oxygen supply in the aquatic life stages of the stonefly Dinocras cephalotes, suggesting that the critical thermal limits of such aquatic larvae are set by oxygen limitation. This could result from impeded oxygen delivery, or limited oxygen regulatory capacity, both of which have implications for our understanding of the limits to insect body size and how these are influenced by atmospheric oxygen levels. Conclusions/Significance These findings extend the generality of the hypothesis of oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance, suggest that oxygen constraints on body size may be stronger in aquatic environments, and that oxygen toxicity may have actively selected for gigantism in the aquatic stages of Carboniferous arthropods. PMID:21818347

Verberk, Wilco C. E. P.; Bilton, David T.

2011-01-01

39

Loss of Heterozygosity on Chromosome 11q13 in Two Families with Acromegaly\\/Gigantism Is Independent of Mutations of the Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial acromegaly\\/gigantism occurring in the absence of multi- ple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN-1) or the Carney complex has been reported in 18 families since the biochemical diagnosis of GH excess became available, and the genetic defect is unknown. In the present study we examined 2 unrelated families with isolated acro- megaly\\/gigantism. In family A, 3 of 4 siblings were

MONICA R. GADELHA; TONI R. PREZANT; KARINA N. UNE; ROBERTA P. GLICK; STANLEY F. MOSKAL; MARIO VAISMAN; SHLOMO MELMED; RHONDA D. KINEMAN; LAWRENCE A. FROHMAN

40

A Gray-purple Mass on the Floor of the Mouth: Gigantic Mucogingival Pyogenic Granuloma in a Teenage Patient  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic granuloma is defined as a benign neoplasm of vascular phenotype. This case describes the clinical and histopathological features of a gigantic mucogingival pyogenic granuloma, in a 14-year-old healthy black boy. This exophytic gray-purple mass, related to a toothpick injury, had more than twelve-month evolution on the anterior mandible involving lingual area besides to the floor of the mouth pressing the right salivary duct. Conservative excision was performed, followed by uncomplicated healing with no recurrence in two years. The histopathological examination reported a pyogenic granuloma (lobular capillary haemangioma). The authors provide a discussion of the presurgical differential diagnosis of the lesion. This case report presents an extremely uncommon location of a gigantic pyogenic granuloma, involving mucogingival complex and affecting the salivary outflow. This clinical manuscript may shed light on the controversies about possible mechanisms inducing oral pyogenic granuloma. PMID:24987485

Brunet-LLobet, Lluís; Miranda-Rius, Jaume; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Mrina, Ombeni; Nadal, Alfons

2014-01-01

41

Gravity combined with laser-scan in Grotta Gigante: a benchmark cave for gravity studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser scanning has become one of the most important topographic techniques in the last decades, due to its ability to reconstruct complex surfaces with high resolution and precision and due to its fast acquisition time. Recently a laser-scan survey has been acquired (Fingolo et al., 2011) in the "Grotta Gigante" cave near Trieste, Italy, the biggest cave worldwide according to the Guinness Awards. In this paper this survey is used to obtain a 3D discretization of the cave with prisms. Then through this new model, with the densities derived from campaign measurements, the exact gravimetric effect of the structure was computed (Nagy et al., 2000) and compared with the gravity observation at the surface. The transition from the cloud of laser-scan points to the prism model was carried out by different computer elaborations; first of all the reduction of the data density through an averaging process that allows to pass from over 10000 points/m2 to less than 10points/m2. Then the whole dataset was filtered from the outliers by the means of a simple quadratic surface that fit the data (Turner, 1999). The reduced data points should be divided into the 2 surfaces of top and bottom, that are used to define the prisms. This step was performed using the local regression method (Loess) to calculate a surface located halfway between top and bottom points. Once the top and bottom interfaces were obtained it was possible to get the final prism representation and calculate the gravity signal. The observed Bouguer field is explained very well by our model and the residuals are used to evaluate possible secondary caves. The final prism model together with the gravity database on surface and inside the cave form a perfect benchmark to test forward and inverse potential field algorithms. References Fingolo M., Facco L., Ceccato A., Breganze C., Paganini P., Cezza M., Grotta Gigante di Trieste. Tra realtà virtuale e rilievi 3D ad alta risoluzione, Veneto Geologi, 75, pp.21-25, 2011 Nagy D., Papp G., Benedek J., The gravitational potential and its derivatives for the prism, Journal of Geodesy, 74 (7-8), pp. 552-560, 2000 Turner D. A., Anderson I. J., Mason J. C., Cox M. G., An algorithm for fitting an ellipsoid to data, CiteseerXBeta, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.36.2773 , 1999

Pivetta, Tommaso; Braitenberg, Carla

2014-05-01

42

Discovery of gigantic molecular nanostructures using a flow reaction array as a search engine  

PubMed Central

The discovery of gigantic molecular nanostructures like coordination and polyoxometalate clusters is extremely time-consuming since a vast combinatorial space needs to be searched, and even a systematic and exhaustive exploration of the available synthetic parameters relies on a great deal of serendipity. Here we present a synthetic methodology that combines a flow reaction array and algorithmic control to give a chemical ‘real-space’ search engine leading to the discovery and isolation of a range of new molecular nanoclusters based on [Mo2O2S2]2+-based building blocks with either fourfold (C4) or fivefold (C5) symmetry templates and linkers. This engine leads us to isolate six new nanoscale cluster compounds: 1, {Mo10(C5)}; 2, {Mo14(C4)4(C5)2}; 3, {Mo60(C4)10}; 4, {Mo48(C4)6}; 5, {Mo34(C4)4}; 6, {Mo18(C4)9}; in only 200 automated experiments from a parameter space spanning ~5 million possible combinations. PMID:24770632

Zang, Hong-Ying; de la Oliva, Andreu Ruiz; Miras, Haralampos N.; Long, De-Liang; McBurney, Roy T.; Cronin, Leroy

2014-01-01

43

Discovery of gigantic molecular nanostructures using a flow reaction array as a search engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of gigantic molecular nanostructures like coordination and polyoxometalate clusters is extremely time-consuming since a vast combinatorial space needs to be searched, and even a systematic and exhaustive exploration of the available synthetic parameters relies on a great deal of serendipity. Here we present a synthetic methodology that combines a flow reaction array and algorithmic control to give a chemical ‘real-space’ search engine leading to the discovery and isolation of a range of new molecular nanoclusters based on [Mo2O2S2]2+-based building blocks with either fourfold (C4) or fivefold (C5) symmetry templates and linkers. This engine leads us to isolate six new nanoscale cluster compounds: 1, {Mo10(C5)}; 2, {Mo14(C4)4(C5)2}; 3, {Mo60(C4)10}; 4, {Mo48(C4)6}; 5, {Mo34(C4)4}; 6, {Mo18(C4)9}; in only 200 automated experiments from a parameter space spanning ~5 million possible combinations.

Zang, Hong-Ying; de La Oliva, Andreu Ruiz; Miras, Haralampos N.; Long, De-Liang; McBurney, Roy T.; Cronin, Leroy

2014-04-01

44

Lower limb gigantism, lymphedema, and painful varicosities following a thigh vascular access graft.  

PubMed

Prosthetic arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) are associated with greater morbidity than autogenous arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), but their use is indicated when AVF formation is not possible. This report adds to the literature a case of lower limb gigantism, painful varicosities, and lymphedema following long-term use of AVG in the upper thigh. The patient's past medical history included renal transplantation on the same side well before the AVG was inserted and right leg deep vein thrombosis. Suspicion of AVG thrombosis was excluded by Doppler ultrasound, which demonstrated an access flow of 1700?mL/min. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis did not identify the cause of her symptoms. Whereas functional incompetence of the iliac vein valve might be responsible for the varicosities, the extent of hypertrophy in this case raises the suspicion of lymphatic blockage possibly secondary to groin dissection undertaken at the time of graft insertion, in addition to the previous dissection at the time of transplantation. This case highlights the need for minimal groin dissection during AVG insertion, particularly in patients with a history of previous abdominopelvic surgery. PMID:24467313

Thompson, Michael; Mathuram Thiyagarajan, Umasankar; Akoh, Jacob A

2014-07-01

45

Sex Determination and Polyploid Gigantism in the Dwarf Surfclam (Mulinia Lateralis Say)  

PubMed Central

Mulinia lateralis, the dwarf surfclam, is a suitable model for bivalve genetics because it is hardy and has a short generation time. In this study, gynogenetic and triploid. M. lateralis were successfully induced. For gynogenesis, eggs were fertilized with sperm irradiated with ultraviolet light and subsequently treated with cytochalasin B to block the release of the second polar body (PB2). Triploidy was induced by blocking PB2 in normally fertilized eggs. The survival of gynogenetic diploids was very low, only 0.7% to 8 days post-fertilization (PF), compared with 15.2% in the triploid groups and 27.5% in the normal diploid control. Larvae in all groups metamorphosed at 8-10 days PF, and there was no significant post-larval mortality. At sexual maturation (2-3 months PF), all gynogenetic diploids were female, and there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in sex ratio between diploids and triploids. These results suggested that the dwarf surfclam may have an XX-female, XY-male sex determination with Y-domination. Compared with diploids, triploids had a relative fecundity of 59% for females and 80% for males. Eggs produced by triploid females were 53% larger (P < 0.001) in volume than those from diploid females. In both length and weight measurements at three months PF, the gynogenetic diploids were not significantly (P > 0.33) different from normal diploid females, suggesting that inbreeding depression was minimal in meiosis II gynogens. Triploid clams were significantly larger (P < 0.001) than normal diploids. We hypothesize that the increased body-size in triploids was caused by a polyploid gigantism due to the increased cell volume and a lack of cell-number compensation. PMID:7896101

Guo, X.; Allen-Jr., S. K.

1994-01-01

46

Optical and radio signatures of negative gigantic jets: Cases from Typhoon Lionrock (2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 31 August 2010, more than 100 transient luminous events were observed to occur over Typhoon Lionrock when it passed at ˜210 km to the southwest of the NCKU site in Taiwan. Among them, 14 negative gigantic jets (GJs) with clear recognizable morphologies and radio frequency signals are analyzed. These GJs are all found to have negative discharge polarity and thus are type I GJs. Morphologically, they are grouped into three forms: tree-like, carrot-like, and a new intermediate type called tree-carrot-like GJs. The ULF and ELF/VLF band signals of these events contain clear signatures associated with GJ development stages, including the initiating lightning, the leading jet, the fully developed jet, and the trailing jet. Though the radio waveform for each group of GJs always contains a fast descending pulse linked with the surge current upon the GJ-ionosphere contact, the detailed waveforms actually vary substantially. Cross analysis of the optical and radio frequency signals for these GJs indicates that a large surge current moment (CM) (>60 kA-km) appears to be essentially associated with the tree-like GJs. In contrast, the carrot-like and the tree-carrot-like GJs are both related to a surge CM less than 36 kA-km, and a continuing CM less than 27 kA-km further separates the carrot-like GJs from the tree-carrot-like GJs. Furthermore, on the peak CM versus charge moment change diagram for the initiating lightning, different groups of GJs seem to exhibit different trends. This feature suggests that the eventual forms of negative GJs may have been determined at the initiating lightning stage.

Huang, Sung-Ming; Hsu, Rue-Rou; Lee, Li-Jou; Su, Han-Tzong; Kuo, Cheng-Ling; Wu, Chun-Chieh; Chou, Jung-Kuang; Chang, Shu-Chun; Wu, Yen-Jung; Chen, Alfred B.

2012-08-01

47

Gigantic solitary fibrous tumour of extra-peritoneal space. A case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare soft tissue tumour which belongs to fibroblastic/myofibroblastic group of tumours. The most often it appears in pleura, also in pericardium, internal organs, peritoneum and extraperitoenal space. SFT was first described as a new type of pleura's tumour by Klemperer and Rabin in 1931. The histogenesis of SFT's has been discussed for years suggesting its mesothelial origin. Recently, SFT has been classified as a mesenchymal fibroblastic tumour. We report a very rare case of 71-year old man suffering from gigantic solitary fibrous tumour of extraperitoneal space who underwent curative surgery in the Department of General, Gastroenterological and Oncologic Surgery in 2011. PMID:25222582

Guzel, Tomasz; D?browski, Bohdan; Mazurkiewicz, Micha?; Makiewicz, Marcin; Krasno?bski, Ireneusz W

2014-07-01

48

Gigantic lateral spreading of mountains in the epicentral area of the expected Tokai earthquake, central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lateral spreading of mountains is not only a degradation process itself but also it could become the background of a catastrophic landslide that occurs at its spreading rims. We found gigantic lateral spreading behind the Yui landsllide area, which is located along the Pacific Sea coast in the epicentral area of the expected Tokai earthquake, central Japan. The Yui landslide area is located on a socially very important place, where are major lifelines connecting east and west Japan: Tokaido railway, Tokaido Shinkansen, and Tomei highway. The Yui landslide area comprises many landslide units and has been causing many catastrophs. The lateral spreading is characterized by NS-trending multiple ridges and linear depressions as long as 1 to 2 km and up to 60 m deep. These features are observable on the aerial photographs and are clearly identified by using airborne laser scanner. Mountains subjected to the lateral spreading is 3 km wide in EW and 6 km long in NS and are 250 to 500 m high above sea level. These morphological features suggest that the NS trending ridges spread laterally to EW and their central parts settled down like the way by which horsts and grabens are made. The ridges are underlain by Miocene beds consisting of the alternating beds of mudstone and sandstone in the lower part and of sandstone and conglomerate in the upper part. The spreading ridge occupies the axial part of a NS-trending syncline, which has a half wave length longer than 2 km and comprises minor folds with a wavelength on the order of hundred meters. This structure, synclinorium, suggests that there could be decollements along the enveloping surface of the minor folds and that the lateral spreading could have a low-angle slip surface along the enveloping surface of the minor folds. There are many landslides along the side slopes of the laterally spread ridges and they have been moving many times by rainstorms and also by earthquakes. The movements are recorded since 1781, but the history long before has not been clarified. We sampled plant fragments from the deposits in a depression at the head of a landslide along a linear depression. They were dated by using C-14, of which results suggest that major movement of landslides and possibly lateral spreading might occurred 3100, 2600, and 2200 BC, which may correspond to the occurrence of large earthquake. The lateral spreading may have occurred intermittently and destabilized their side slopes, which could have slid during earthquakes and rainstorms.

Chigira, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takeshi

2010-05-01

49

Optical emissions and behaviors of the blue starters, blue jets, and gigantic jets observed in the Taiwan transient luminous event ground campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 22 July 2007, 37 blue jets/starters and 1 gigantic jet occurring over a thunderstorm in the Fujian province of China were observed from the Lulin observatory on the central mountain ridge of Taiwan. The majority of the jets were observed to occur in a 5 min window during the mature phase of the jet-producing thunderstorm. These jets have significant red band emissions. However, the blue emissions from these jets were not discernible due to severe atmospheric scattering. A model estimation of the emissions from a streamer reveals that the red emissions in blue starters and blue jets are mainly from the nitrogen first positive band (1PN2). The type II gigantic jet is the first of this type that was observed from the ground. The generation sequence of the gigantic jet begins with a blue starter, then a blue jet occurs at the same cloud top after ˜100 ms and finally develops into a gigantic jet ˜50 ms later. Using “optical strokes” as surrogates of the lightning strokes, the correlations between jets and the cloud lightning are explored. The results indicate that the occurrence of jets can be affected by the preceding local cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning or nearby lightning (intracloud (IC) or CG), while in turn the jets might also affect the ensuing lightning activity.

Chou, J. K.; Tsai, L. Y.; Kuo, C. L.; Lee, Y. J.; Chen, C. M.; Chen, A. B.; Su, H. T.; Hsu, R. R.; Chang, P. L.; Lee, L. C.

2011-07-01

50

Geomorphic and sedimentary evidence of a gigantic outburst flood from Towada caldera after the 15 ka Towada–Hachinohe ignimbrite eruption, northeast Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on geomorphic and sedimentary evidence for a gigantic breakout flood from Towada caldera, Honshu Island, northeast Japan, as observed along the Oirase River downstream from the outlet of the caldera lake. A number of features of the Oirase River are inconsistent with its present discharge, including the occurrence of 1) hanging valleys and a horseshoe-shaped waterfall in

Kyoko S. Kataoka

2010-01-01

51

System of gigantic valleys northwest of Tharsis, Mars: Latent catastrophic flooding, northwest watershed, and implications for northern plains ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) reveals a system of gigantic valleys to the northwest of the huge martian shield volcano, Arsia Mons, in the western hemisphere of Mars. These newly identified northwestern slope valleys (NSVs) potentially signify previously undocumented martian catastrophic floods and may corroborate the northern ocean hypotheses. These features, which generally correspond spatially to gravity lows, were previously obscurred in Mariner and Viking Orbiter imagery by veneers of materials, including volcanic lava flows and air fall deposits. Geologic investigations of the Tharsis region suggest that the NSVs were mainly carved prior to the construction of Arsia Mons and its associated Late Hesperian and Amazonian age lava flows, concurrent with the early development of the outflow channels that debouch into Chryse Planitia.

Dohm, J.M.; Anderson, R.C.; Baker, V.R.; Ferris, J.C.; Hare, T.M.; Strom, R.G.; Rudd, L.P.; Rice, J.W., Jr.; Casavant, R.R.; Scott, D.H.

2000-01-01

52

Galls and gall makers in plants from the Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil.  

PubMed

Thirty-six morphologically different types of galls were obtained in leaves, leaflets, veins, petioles, stems, tendrils and flower buds from twenty-five species of plants in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve, municipality of Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The host plant species belong to the closely related families Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Caryocaraceae, Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, Malpighiaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Polygalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, and Smilacaceae. The most common gall makers included Cecidomyiidae (Diptera), Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera) and Diaspididae (Sternorrhyncha-Hemiptera). This is the first report of galls found in the following plant genera: Gochnatia (Asteraceae), Distictela (Bignoniaceae), Banisteriopsis (Malpighiaceae), Ouratea (Ochnaceae), and Bredemeyera (Polygalaceae). The results of this work contribute to the body of knowledge about the relationship among host plants, gall makers, and the gall morphology of Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve. PMID:16710528

Urso-Guimarães, M V; Scareli-Santos, C

2006-02-01

53

Herbivory and Body Size: Allometries of Diet Quality and Gastrointestinal Physiology, and Implications for Herbivore Ecology and Dinosaur Gigantism  

PubMed Central

Digestive physiology has played a prominent role in explanations for terrestrial herbivore body size evolution and size-driven diversification and niche differentiation. This is based on the association of increasing body mass (BM) with diets of lower quality, and with putative mechanisms by which a higher BM could translate into a higher digestive efficiency. Such concepts, however, often do not match empirical data. Here, we review concepts and data on terrestrial herbivore BM, diet quality, digestive physiology and metabolism, and in doing so give examples for problems in using allometric analyses and extrapolations. A digestive advantage of larger BM is not corroborated by conceptual or empirical approaches. We suggest that explanatory models should shift from physiological to ecological scenarios based on the association of forage quality and biomass availability, and the association between BM and feeding selectivity. These associations mostly (but not exclusively) allow large herbivores to use low quality forage only, whereas they allow small herbivores the use of any forage they can physically manage. Examples of small herbivores able to subsist on lower quality diets are rare but exist. We speculate that this could be explained by evolutionary adaptations to the ecological opportunity of selective feeding in smaller animals, rather than by a physiologic or metabolic necessity linked to BM. For gigantic herbivores such as sauropod dinosaurs, other factors than digestive physiology appear more promising candidates to explain evolutionary drives towards extreme BM. PMID:24204552

Clauss, Marcus; Steuer, Patrick; Müller, Dennis W. H.; Codron, Daryl; Hummel, Jürgen

2013-01-01

54

Gigantic enhancement in the dielectric properties of polymer-based composites using core/shell MWCNT/amorphous carbon nanohybrids.  

PubMed

Novel core/shell structured multi-walled carbon nanotube/amorphous carbon (MWCNT@AC) nanohybrids were successfully prepared using a simple and novel method. Subsequently, the MWCNT@AC nanohybrids were used as fillers to enhance the dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based composites. It is found that the dielectric constant of the MWCNT@AC/PVDF composites can reach 5910 (the dielectric loss is ?2), which is considerably better than that of MWCNT/PVDF composites. The uniform amorphous carbon shell provides an insulative layer between adjacent MWCNTs in the polymer matrix, which not only prevents the direct contact of MWCNTs but also improves the dispersibility of the MWCNTs. Therefore, a surprising number of microcapacitors could be formed in the composites before the formation of a conductive network, leading to a gigantic enhancement in the dielectric properties. Our strategy provides a new approach to fabricate excellent dielectric materials for energy storage capacitors. In addition, the design concept used in this work can be extended to other carbon materials. PMID:25640081

Guo, Qikai; Xue, Qingzhong; Sun, Jin; Dong, Mingdong; Xia, Fujun; Zhang, Zhongyang

2015-02-12

55

Gigantic enhancement in the dielectric properties of polymer-based composites using core/shell MWCNT/amorphous carbon nanohybrids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel core/shell structured multi-walled carbon nanotube/amorphous carbon (MWCNT@AC) nanohybrids were successfully prepared using a simple and novel method. Subsequently, the MWCNT@AC nanohybrids were used as fillers to enhance the dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based composites. It is found that the dielectric constant of the MWCNT@AC/PVDF composites can reach 5910 (the dielectric loss is ~2), which is considerably better than that of MWCNT/PVDF composites. The uniform amorphous carbon shell provides an insulative layer between adjacent MWCNTs in the polymer matrix, which not only prevents the direct contact of MWCNTs but also improves the dispersibility of the MWCNTs. Therefore, a surprising number of microcapacitors could be formed in the composites before the formation of a conductive network, leading to a gigantic enhancement in the dielectric properties. Our strategy provides a new approach to fabricate excellent dielectric materials for energy storage capacitors. In addition, the design concept used in this work can be extended to other carbon materials.

Guo, Qikai; Xue, Qingzhong; Sun, Jin; Dong, Mingdong; Xia, Fujun; Zhang, Zhongyang

2015-02-01

56

Predation as the primary selective force in recurrent evolution of gigantism in Poecilozonites land snails in Quaternary Bermuda  

PubMed Central

During the last half million years, pulses of gigantism in the anagenetic lineage of land snails of the subgenus Poecilozonites on Bermuda were correlated with glacial periods when lower sea level resulted in an island nearly an order of magnitude larger than at present. During those periods, the island was colonized by large vertebrate predators that created selection pressure for large size and rapid growth in the snails. Extreme reduction in land area from rising seas, along with changes in ecological conditions at the onset of interglacial episodes, marked extinction events for large predators, after which snails reverted to much smaller size. The giant snails were identical in morphology during the last two glacials when the predators included a large flightless rail Rallus recessus (marine isotope stages (MIS) 4-2) and a crane Grus latipes and a duck Anas pachysceles (MIS 6). In a preceding glacial period (MIS 10), when the fauna also included the tortoise Hesperotestudo bermudae, the snails were not only large, but the shells were much thicker, presumably to prevent crushing by tortoises. Evolution of Poecilozonites provides an outstanding example of dramatic morphological change in response to environmental pressures in the absence of cladogenesis. PMID:20554560

Olson, Storrs L.; Hearty, Paul J.

2010-01-01

57

What Lies Beneath: Sub-Articular Long Bone Shape Scaling in Eutherian Mammals and Saurischian Dinosaurs Suggests Different Locomotor Adaptations for Gigantism  

PubMed Central

Eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs both evolved lineages of huge terrestrial herbivores. Although significantly more saurischian dinosaurs were giants than eutherians, the long bones of both taxa scale similarly and suggest that locomotion was dynamically similar. However, articular cartilage is thin in eutherian mammals but thick in saurischian dinosaurs, differences that could have contributed to, or limited, how frequently gigantism evolved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that sub-articular bone, which supports the articular cartilage, changes shape in different ways between terrestrial mammals and dinosaurs with increasing size. Our sample consisted of giant mammal and reptile taxa (i.e., elephants, rhinos, sauropods) plus erect and non-erect outgroups with thin and thick articular cartilage. Our results show that eutherian mammal sub-articular shape becomes narrow with well-defined surface features as size increases. In contrast, this region in saurischian dinosaurs expands and remains gently convex with increasing size. Similar trends were observed in non-erect outgroup taxa (monotremes, alligators), showing that the trends we report are posture-independent. These differences support our hypothesis that sub-articular shape scales differently between eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs. Our results show that articular cartilage thickness and sub-articular shape are correlated. In mammals, joints become ever more congruent and thinner with increasing size, whereas archosaur joints remained both congruent and thick, especially in sauropods. We suggest that gigantism occurs less frequently in mammals, in part, because joints composed of thin articular cartilage can only become so congruent before stress cannot be effectively alleviated. In contrast, frequent gigantism in saurischian dinosaurs may be explained, in part, by joints with thick articular cartilage that can deform across large areas with increasing load. PMID:24130690

Bonnan, Matthew F.; Wilhite, D. Ray; Masters, Simon L.; Yates, Adam M.; Gardner, Christine K.; Aguiar, Adam

2013-01-01

58

Nanoscale assemblies of gigantic molecular {Mo154}-rings: (dimethyldioctadecylammonium)20[Mo154O462H8(H2O)70].  

PubMed

Clusters based on the mixed-valence gigantic inorganic ring [Mo154O462H14(H2O)70]14- ({Mo154}-ring) and dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DODA) were combined to form novel molecular assemblies of an inorganic-organic hybrid molecular system as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and cast films. (DODA)20[Mo154O462H8(H2O)70] (2) was prepared by cation exchange and was characterized by a combination of thermogravimetry, IR, UV-vis-NIR, 1H NMR, and XRD measurements. The salt 2 was soluble in common organic solvents, and the chemical stability of {Mo154}-ring encapsulated by DODA cationic surfactants in CHCl3 was found to be higher than that of the "native" sodium salt of the {Mo154}-ring in H2O. Uniform spherical vesicle-like molecular assemblies of (DODA)20[Mo154O462H8(H2O)70] were observed in dilute THF, whose average diameter of 95 nm and a normalized variance of 5.7% were confirmed by a X-ray small-angle scattering. Deposition of 2 as a cast film showed circular domains with a typical diameter of approximately 100 nm, indicating possible similarities between solution and surface-deposited structures. The resulting LB films of salt 2 were transferred from an acidic buffer subphase with pH = 1.5 onto mica, giving a two-dimensional film surface with a unity transfer ratio. Further, the electronic absorption spectra of the LB multilayer were consistent with the classic type II mixed-valence MoV/MoVI electronic state well know for molybdenum blue {Mo154}-ring systems, and it appears that on the surface the plane of the {Mo154}-ring is approximately parallel to the substrate surface, as indicated by polarized electronic spectra, while the alkyl chains of DODA were relatively normal to the substrate surface. Therefore, the layer between the {Mo154}-rings and DODA cations was alternately stacked along the direction of film propagation. Finally, it was found that the surface morphology of the cast and LB films was determined by the molecular assembly of (DODA)20[Mo154O462H8(H2O)70] in solution and the air-water interface, respectively. PMID:18041852

Akutagawa, Tomoyuki; Jin, Reina; Tunashima, Ryo; Noro, Shin-Ichiro; Cronin, Leroy; Nakamura, Takayoshi

2008-01-01

59

Reduced predator species richness drives the body gigantism of a frog species on the Zhoushan Archipelago in China.  

PubMed

1. Shifts in the body size of insular vertebrates have been an interesting theme in ecological and evolutionary studies. Four primary factors, including predation pressures, resource availability, inter-species competition and immigrant selection, have been proposed to explain the trend in insular body size. Life-history theory predicts that body size, average age, the proportion of old-aged members and the density of insular populations are negatively correlated with predator species richness, and that body size and population density are positively related to resource availability. The niche expansion hypothesis argues that a positive relationship is expected to exist between insular body size and prey size, which varies in response to extinction due to small or large competitors. The immigrant hypothesis predicts that insular body size is positively correlated with distance to the mainland. 2. We tested these hypotheses by using populations of rice frogs Rana limnocharis on 20 islands in the Zhoushan Archipelago and two sites of nearby mainland China. 3. The body size (snout-vent length) of rice frogs on half of the islands was larger before and after the variable of age was controlled for; rice frog density and prey availability was higher and prey size was larger on most of the islands as compared to the two mainland sites. On the islands, the body size and other features [e.g. average age, the proportion of old-aged frogs (ages 3 and 4) and density] of the rice frogs were negatively associated with predator species richness; female body size and other features were positively associated with prey availability. The inference of multivariate linear models based on corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AIC(c) ) showed that the relative importance of predator species richness on body size and each of the other features was larger than that of prey availability, prey size and distance to the mainland. In addition, the parameters for predator species richness were all negative. 4. The results provided strong support for the life-history theory of predation pressures, but weak evidence for the life-history theory of prey availability, the niche expansion or the immigrant hypothesis. The reduced predator species richness was a dominant factor contributing to the body gigantism of rice frogs on the islands. PMID:20840555

Li, Yiming; Xu, Feng; Guo, Zhongwei; Liu, Xuan; Jin, Changnan; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Supen

2011-01-01

60

No More Gigantism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The food situation in India is critical. It requires the development of both land and water resources, both of which are largely untapped. Ground water is one undeveloped resource that can help alleviate the irrigation problems facing agriculture. More efficient utilization could free millions of hectares of land for cultivation. (MA)

Vohra, B. B.

1975-01-01

61

Darwin's "Gigantic Blunder."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Darwin's attempt at unraveling the Glen Roy parallel road mystery is discussed. He admitted that Louis Agassiz's glacier theory seemed reasonable but he was reluctant to give up on his own marine theory. (DF)

Barrett, Paul H.

1973-01-01

62

A distância e o conteúdo estelar da região HII gigante G333.1-0.4 - vínculos para a taxa de formação estelar da galáxia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho apresentamos imagens de alta resolução angular da região HII gigante G333.1-0.4 obtidas através dos filtros J, H e K no telescópio de 4-m do CTIO. Este trabalho faz parte de um estudo de regiões HII gigantes no infravermelho próximo que tem por objetivo estudar a natureza da formação de estrelas massivas e traçar a estrutura espiral de nossa galáxia. Nossa determinação da distância é baseada no método da paralaxe espectroscópica de estrelas OB localizadas na seqüência principal de idade zero (ZAMS) do Diagrama HR. No caso de G333.1-0.4, a magnitude aparente das estrelas localizadas na ZAMS indica que a distância não pode ser maior do que o limite inferior determinado por técnica rádio (2,8 kpc). Resultados semelhantes foram encontrados para regiões estudadas anteriormente, reforçando a idéia de que a taxa de formação estelar na Via Láctea é menor do que o determinado a partir de dados rádio. Nossos resultados mais recentes sobre o conteúdo estelar de G333.1-0.4 revelaram vários objetos que possuem cores bastante avermelhadas (H-K > 2,0). Nós identificamos estes objetos usando os diagramas cor-cor e cor-magnitude dos aglomerados. Estes objetos apresentam um forte excesso em emissão na banda K e possivelmente se tratam de estrelas do tipo OB envolvidas por um disco/envelope circumestelar espesso. O estudo da função de massa inical desta região, em conjunto com resultados de nossos trabalhos anteriores, aponta para uma IMF independente da posição galática. A contagem de estrelas nos fornece um valor para o número de fótons no contínuo de Lyman que corrobora com a afirmação de que G333.1-0.4 se encontra mais próxima da menor distância determinada por rádio.

Figuerêdo, E.; Damineli, A.; Blum, R.; Conti, P.

2003-08-01

63

Gigantic Cavernous Hemangioma of the Liver Treated by Intra-Arterial Embolization with Pingyangmycin-Lipiodol Emulsion: A Multi-Center Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of pingyangmycin-lipiodol emulsion (PLE) intra-arterial embolization for treating gigantic cavernous hemangioma of the liver (CHL).Methods: Three hospitals (Nanfang Hospital, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region's Hospital and Huai He Hospital) participated in the study during 1997-2001. A total of 98 patients with CHL were embolized with PLE via the hepatic artery. The therapeutic effects including changes in tumor diameter, symptomatic improvement and occurrence of complications were evaluated for a period of 12 months after the procedure.Results: The tumor diameters decreased significantly from 9.7 {+-} 2.3 cm to 5.6 {+-} 1.6 cm 6 months after the treatment (P < 0.01), and then to 3.0 {+-} 1.2 cm at 12 months (P < 0.01). Transient impairment of liver function was found in 77 cases after embolization, 69 cases of which returned to normal in 2 weeks, and the other eight cases of which recovered 1 month later. The clinical symptoms were significantly relieved in all 53 symptomatic patients. Persistent pain in the hepatic region was found in two cases, and these two patients resorted to surgery eventually.Conclusion: Intra-arterial PLE embolization proves to be effective and safe in treating patients with CHL.

Zeng Qingle; Li Yanhao; Chen Yong [Nanfang Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (China); Ouyang Yong [Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region's Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (China); He Xiang; Zhang Heping [Huai He Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (China)

2004-09-15

64

A probable case of gigantism/acromegaly in skeletal remains from the Jewish necropolis of "Ronda Sur" (Lucena, Córdoba, Spain; VIII-XII centuries CE).  

PubMed

Pituitary gigantism is a rare endocrine disorder caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone during growing period. Individuals with this disorder have an enormous growth in height and associated degenerative changes. The continued hypersecretion of growth hormone during adulthood leads to acromegaly, a condition related to the disproportionate bone growth of the skull, hands and feet. The skeletal remains studied belong to a young adult male from the Jewish necropolis of "Ronda Sur" in Lucena (Córdoba, Spain, VIII-XII centuries CE). The individual shows a very large and thick neurocranium, pronounced supraorbital ridges, an extremely prominent occipital protuberance, and an extremely large and massive mandible. Additional pathologies include enlargement of the vertebral bodies with degenerative changes, thickened ribs, and a slight increased length of the diaphysis with an increased cortical bone thickness of lower limbs. Comparative metric analysis of the mandible with other individuals from the same population and a contemporary Mediterranean population shows a trend toward acromegalic morphology. This case is an important contribution in paleopathological literature because it is a rare condition that has not been widely documented in ancient skeletal remains. PMID:25776010

Viciano, Joan; De Luca, Stefano; López-Lázaro, Sandra; Botella, Daniel; Diéguez-Ramírez, Juan Pablo

2015-01-01

65

Geomorphic and sedimentary evidence of a gigantic outburst flood from Towada caldera after the 15 ka Towada-Hachinohe ignimbrite eruption, northeast Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports on geomorphic and sedimentary evidence for a gigantic breakout flood from Towada caldera, Honshu Island, northeast Japan, as observed along the Oirase River downstream from the outlet of the caldera lake. A number of features of the Oirase River are inconsistent with its present discharge, including the occurrence of 1) hanging valleys and a horseshoe-shaped waterfall in the upstream gorge area, 2) boulder bars and scattered flood boulders, 3) a dry valley at a high elevation in the gorge, and 4) a large fan (the Sanbongi fan) in the downstream area of the river. The Sanbongi fan is composed of thick, lithic-rich hyperconcentrated flow deposits that include pumice clasts derived from the 15 ka Towada-Hachinohe ignimbrite and well-rounded meter-sized (and outsized) boulders derived from bedrock of welded ignimbrite. The deposits are entirely aggradational, with no major channels, indicating the absence of a major hiatus during sedimentation. The depositional facies also indicate that a single sheet-like flood event deposited the sediment within the Sanbongi fan area. Based on the age of the Sanbongi fan, the flood occurred between 15 and 12 ka, after eruption of the Towada-Hachinohe ignimbrite. The most probable water source for the flood is Towada caldera lake, as suggested by landforms and sediments along the lake outlet. A paleohydrological analysis indicates that at least 6 km 3 of water was released from the caldera at a peak discharge of > 2 × 10 4 to 3 × 10 5 m 3 s - 1 during the breakout flood. Although the Sanbongi fan was previously considered to be a "normal" alluvial fan that formed during a stage of low-stand sea level, the present results show that the formation of the fan was closely related to a catastrophic flood from Towada caldera rather than perennial fluvial activity, climate change, or a change in relative sea level.

Kataoka, Kyoko S.

2011-01-01

66

Gigantic eruption of the volcano bezymianny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  Summarizing some numerical values for the eruption of Bezymianny we get the following results: total energy of the eruption\\u000a — 2.2 1025 ergs, explosion energy on March 30th — 4 1023 ergs, volume of material ejected by the explosion — about 1.0 km3, its weight 2.4 109 t. Volume of agglomerate flow — about 1.8 km3, its weight — 4.3

G. S. Gorshkov

1959-01-01

67

Gigantism, temperature and metabolic rate in terrestrial poikilotherms  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms dictating upper limits to animal body size are not well understood. We have analysed body length data for the largest representatives of 24 taxa of terrestrial poikilotherms from tropical, temperate and polar environments. We find that poikilothermic giants on land become two–three times shorter per each 10 degrees of decrease in ambient temperature. We quantify that this diminution of maximum body size accurately compensates the drop of metabolic rate dictated by lower temperature. This supports the idea that the upper limit to body size within each taxon can be set by a temperature-independent critical minimum value of mass-specific metabolic rate, a fall below which is not compatible with successful biological performance. PMID:16191647

Makarieva, Anastassia M; Gorshkov, Victor G; Li, Bai-Lian

2005-01-01

68

Giant Squid: One Gigantic Mystery (ScienceWorld)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Science Explorations, a collaboration between AMNH and Scholastic designed to promote science literacy. Written for students in grades 6-10, this article from Science World magazine has an interview with AMNH paleontologist Neal Landman, in which he discusses the giant squid and what scientists have been able to learn by studying only dead specimens. There are Web links that offer further opportunities for learning about the giant squid.

69

A Gigantic Anogenital Lesion: Buschke-Lowenstein Tumor  

PubMed Central

Buschke-Lowenstein tumor is a relatively rare sexually transmitted disease. It is a neoplasm of the anogenital region which has benign appearance on histopathology but is locally destructive. It carries a high recurrence rate and a significant potential for malignant transformation. Human papilloma virus has been implicated as an etiologic agent for this tumor. Since this disease is rare and no controlled studies exist, radical excision of this anogenital lesion is generally recommended as the first line therapy and close vigilance and followup are essential. We have discussed an overview of etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of this uncommonly encountered disease. PMID:25431694

Sandhu, Rikinder; Min, Zaw; Bhanot, Nitin

2014-01-01

70

Gigantic macroautophagy in programmed nuclear death of Tetrahymena thermophila.  

PubMed

Programmed nuclear death (PND) in Tetrahymena is a unique process during conjugation, in which only the parental macronucleus is degraded and then eliminated from the progeny cytoplasm, but other co-existing nuclei such as new micro- and macronuclei are unaffected. PND through autophagic elimination is expected to be strictly controlled, considering the significant roles in ciliates such as turnover of disused organelles and production of the next generation. Here we demonstrate that PND in Tetrahymena involves peculiar aspects of autophagy, which differ from mammalian or yeast macroautophagy. Drastic change of the parental macronucleus occurs when differentiation of new macronuclei is initiated. Combined use of monodansylcadaverine and a lysosome indicator LysoTracker Red showed that prior to nuclear condensation, the envelope of the parental macronucleus changed its nature as if it is an autophagic membrane, without the accumulation of a pre-autophagosomal structure from the cytoplasm. Subsequently, lysosomes approached only to the parental macronucleus and localized at the envelope until a final resorption stage. In addition, we found that the parental macronucleus exhibits certain sugars and phosphatidylserine on the envelope, which are possible "attack me" signals, that are not found on other types of nuclei. These findings suggest that PND is a highly elaborated process, different from the typical macroautophagy seen in other systems, and is executed through interaction between specific molecular signals on the parental macronuclear envelope and autophagic/lysosomal machineries. PMID:20798592

Akematsu, Takahiko; Pearlman, Ronald E; Endoh, Hiroshi

2010-10-01

71

Detecção da fase impulsiva de uma explosão solar gigante até 405 GHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

A explosão ocorrida no dia 25\\/08\\/2001 foi uma das mais intensas do presente ciclo solar em ondas de rádio de altas frequências. Foram medidas em ondas milimétricas e submilimétricas, aproximadamente, 105 e vários milhares de unidades de fluxo solar, respectivamente. Apresentamos um estudo deste evento em múltiplas frequências, desde microondas (1GHz), até ondas submilimétricas (405 GHz) detectadas pelo Telescópio Solar

J.-P. Raulin; V. Makhmutov; P. Kaufmann; A. A. Pacini; T. Luethi; H. S. Hudson; D. E. Gary; M. Yoshimori

2003-01-01

72

Gigantism in unique biogenic magnetite at the PaleoceneEocene Thermal Maximum  

E-print Network

in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of New Jersey. The sediments were deposited 55.6 million years ago during, France; hDepartment of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences, Michigan Technological University suggest that the development of a thick suboxic zone with high iron bioavailability--a product of dramatic

73

Hard magnetic ferrite with a gigantic coercivity and high frequency millimetre wave rotation.  

PubMed

Magnetic ferrites such as Fe(3)O(4) and Fe(2)O(3) are extensively used in a range of applications because they are inexpensive and chemically stable. Here we show that rhodium-substituted ?-Fe(2)O(3), ?-Rh(x)Fe(2-x)O(3) nanomagnets prepared by a nanoscale chemical synthesis using mesoporous silica as a template, exhibit a huge coercive field (H(c)) of 27 kOe at room temperature. Furthermore, a crystallographically oriented sample recorded an H(c) value of 31 kOe, which is the largest value among metal-oxide-based magnets and is comparable to those of rare-earth magnets. In addition, ?-Rh(x)Fe(2-x)O(3) shows high frequency millimetre wave absorption up to 209 GHz. ?-Rh(0.14)Fe(1.86)O(3) exhibits a rotation of the polarization plane of the propagated millimetre wave at 220 GHz, which is one of the promising carrier frequencies (the window of air) for millimetre wave wireless communications. PMID:22948817

Namai, Asuka; Yoshikiyo, Marie; Yamada, Kana; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Goto, Takashi; Yoshida, Takayuki; Miyazaki, Tatsuro; Nakajima, Makoto; Suemoto, Tohru; Tokoro, Hiroko; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi

2012-01-01

74

Hard magnetic ferrite with a gigantic coercivity and high frequency millimetre wave rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic ferrites such as Fe3O4 and Fe2O3 are extensively used in a range of applications because they are inexpensive and chemically stable. Here we show that rhodium-substituted ?-Fe2O3, ?-RhxFe2-xO3 nanomagnets prepared by a nanoscale chemical synthesis using mesoporous silica as a template, exhibit a huge coercive field (Hc) of 27 kOe at room temperature. Furthermore, a crystallographically oriented sample recorded an Hc value of 31 kOe, which is the largest value among metal-oxide-based magnets and is comparable to those of rare-earth magnets. In addition, ?-RhxFe2-xO3 shows high frequency millimetre wave absorption up to 209 GHz. ?-Rh0.14Fe1.86O3 exhibits a rotation of the polarization plane of the propagated millimetre wave at 220 GHz, which is one of the promising carrier frequencies (the window of air) for millimetre wave wireless communications.

Namai, Asuka; Yoshikiyo, Marie; Yamada, Kana; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Goto, Takashi; Yoshida, Takayuki; Miyazaki, Tatsuro; Nakajima, Makoto; Suemoto, Tohru; Tokoro, Hiroko; Ohkoshi, Shin-Ichi

2012-09-01

75

Diagnóstico del consumo del calamar gigante en México y en Sonora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to diagnose the consumption of giant squid in Mexico and Sonora. We have carried out a comparative analysis of the nutritional properties and the consumption levels between giant squid and meat pro- ducts. In order to describe the aspects related to the taste and preferences of the consumer of giant squid, we have used

JOSÉ ISABEL URCIAGA GARCÍA; CÉSAR AUGUSTO; SALINAS ZAVALA; MIGUEL ÁNGEL; CISNEROS MATA; LUIS FELIPE; BELTRÁN MORALES

2006-01-01

76

Gigantism in honeybees: Apis cerana queens reared in mixed-species colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of animals depends on both genetic and environmental effects to a varying extent. Their relative influences can be evaluated in the social insects by raising the intracolonial diversity to an extreme in nests consisting of workers from more than one species. In this study, we studied the effects of mixed honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana on the rearing of grafted queen larvae of A. cerana. A. mellifera sealed worker brood was introduced into A. cerana colonies and on emergence, the adults were accepted. Then, A. cerana larvae were grafted for queen rearing into two of these mixed-species colonies. Similarly, A. cerana larvae and A. mellifera larvae were also grafted conspecifically as controls. The success rate of A. cerana queen rearing in the test colonies was 64.5%, surpassing all previous attempts at interspecific queen rearing. After emergence, all virgin queens obtained from the three groups ( N=90) were measured morphometrically. The A. cerana queens from the mixed-species colonies differed significantly in size and pigmentation from the A. cerana control queens and closely approximated the A. mellifera queens. It is inferred that these changes in the A. cerana queens reared in the mixed-species colonies can be attributed to feeding by heterospecific nurse bees and/or chemical differences in royal jelly. Our data show a strong impact of environment on the development of queens. The results further suggest that in honeybees the cues for brood recognition can be learned by heterospecific workers after eclosion, thereby providing a novel analogy to slave making in ants.

Tan, Ken; Hepburn, H. R.; He, Shaoyu; Radloff, S. E.; Neumann, P.; Fang, Xiang

2006-07-01

77

Alcohol chemistry in the Galactic Center molecular clouds. A gigantic Hot Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out a systematic study of CH3OH, C2H5OH, (CH3)2O, HCOOCH3, HCOOH, CH3COOH, H2CO and CS in different Galactic Center (GC) molecular clouds. Figure 1 shows the relative abundances of those molecules with respect to CH3OH in the GC as function of the CH3OH abundance. The CH3OH abundance between sources in the GC varies in nearly two orders of magnitude. The abundance ratio of these molecules relative to CH3OH is basically independent of the CH3OH abundances and only varies in a factor of ~ 4 - 8. The abundance ratio of CS relative to CH3OH seem to vary by a factor of 60. Our data are compared with observations of the same molecules in short-lived objects like the hot cores. The abundance and the abundance ratios of the complex molecules relative to CH3OH in massive hot cores are similar to that found in the GC clouds. Alcohol related chemistry is believed to be driven by gas phase reactions after evaporation of alcohols from grain mantles. Gas phase chemistry based in the ejection of alcohols from grains (see Charnley et al. 1995; Horn et al. (2004)) can not explain the observed abundances of HCOOCH3 in the GC and the rather constant relative abundances of the other complex molecules. Our data suggest that basically all the molecules related to alcohol chemistry could be produced on grain mantles and/or depleted from gas phase after their formation. This interpretation requires frequent shocks in the GC region to keep the high abundances of these molecules in gas phase and a rather uniform average composition of the icy grain mantles. The molecular clouds associated with the Sickle and the Thermal Radio Arches (TRA), which seem to be affected by UV radiation, see Rodriguez-Fernandez et al. (2001), show lower abundances of C2H5OH relative to CH3OH which could be explained by shock ejection and photo dissociation conditions.

Requena Torres, M. A.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Rodríguez-Franco, A.; Martín, S.; Rodríguez-Fer?Ndez, N. J.

78

Gigantic density of states in 1.22nm nanocrystalline nickel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel nanoparticles (Ni-NPs) of 1.22nm were synthesized by thermal decomposition method and specific heat measurements were done in the temperature range of 5-300K. Exceptionally large enhancement of specific heat (70%) and consequent enhancements in the electronic (517%) and phonon (1351%) density of states (DOS) were observed. This was attributed to the quantum size effect.

Das, Sourav; Rawat, R.; Lalla, N. P.; Okram, G. S.

2012-06-01

79

Simulation of leader speeds at gigantic jet altitudes Caitano L. da Silva1  

E-print Network

initiated by conventional intra-cloud lightning discharges and escaping upward from thunder- cloud tops Received 4 May 2012; revised 7 June 2012; accepted 8 June 2012; published 10 July 2012. [1] Lightning altitude. Similarly to cloud-to-ground lightning, these events neutralize thundercloud charge, however

Pasko, Victor

80

The Battle of the Pronouns: Gigantic Clashes in a Book of Dinasaur Riddles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author of "Tyrannosaurus Wrecks: A Book of Dinosaur Riddles" discusses her difficulties in choosing appropriate male-female pronouns for the subjects of her riddles. The problems consisted of the necessity of using entrenched male stereotypes, avoiding damaging female stereotypes, and breaking through stereotypes. (KC)

Sterne, Noelle

1981-01-01

81

Hard magnetic ferrite with a gigantic coercivity and high frequency millimetre wave rotation  

PubMed Central

Magnetic ferrites such as Fe3O4 and Fe2O3 are extensively used in a range of applications because they are inexpensive and chemically stable. Here we show that rhodium-substituted ?-Fe2O3, ?-RhxFe2?xO3 nanomagnets prepared by a nanoscale chemical synthesis using mesoporous silica as a template, exhibit a huge coercive field (Hc) of 27 kOe at room temperature. Furthermore, a crystallographically oriented sample recorded an Hc value of 31 kOe, which is the largest value among metal-oxide-based magnets and is comparable to those of rare-earth magnets. In addition, ?-RhxFe2?xO3 shows high frequency millimetre wave absorption up to 209 GHz. ?-Rh0.14Fe1.86O3 exhibits a rotation of the polarization plane of the propagated millimetre wave at 220 GHz, which is one of the promising carrier frequencies (the window of air) for millimetre wave wireless communications. PMID:22948817

Namai, Asuka; Yoshikiyo, Marie; Yamada, Kana; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Goto, Takashi; Yoshida, Takayuki; Miyazaki, Tatsuro; Nakajima, Makoto; Suemoto, Tohru; Tokoro, Hiroko; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi

2012-01-01

82

The Ophiuchus Superbubble: A Gigantic Eruption from the Inner Disk of the Milky Way  

E-print Network

While studying extraplanar neutral hydrogen in the disk-halo transition of the inner Galaxy we have discovered what appears to be a huge superbubble centered around l ~ 30 deg, whose top extends to latitudes > 25 deg at a distance of about 7 kpc. It is detected in both HI and Halpha. Using the Green Bank Telescope of the NRAO, we have measured more than 220,000 HI spectra at 9' angular resolution in and around this structure. The total HI mass in the system is ~ 10^6 Msol and it has an equal mass in H+. The Plume of HI capping its top is 1.2 x 0.6 kpc in l and b and contains 3 x 10^4 Msol of HI. Despite its location, (the main section is 3.4 kpc above the Galactic plane) the kinematics of the Plume appears to be dominated by Galactic rotation, but with a lag of 27 km/s from corotation. At the base of this structure there are ``whiskers'' of HI several hundreds of pc wide, reaching more than 1 kpc into the halo; they have a vertical density structure suggesting that they are the bubble walls and have been created by sideways rather than upwards motion. They resemble the vertical dust lanes seen in NGC891. From a Kompaneets model of an expanding bubble, we estimate that the age of this system is ~ 30 Myr and its total energy content ~ 10^53 ergs. It may just now be at the stage where its expansion has ceased and the shell is beginning to undergo significant instabilities. This system offers an unprecedented opportunity to study a number of important phenomena at close range, including superbubble evolution, turbulence in an HI shell, and the magnitude of the ionizing flux above the Galactic disk.

Yurii Pidopryhora; Felix J. Lockman; Joseph C. Shields

2006-10-30

83

Low levels of LTR retrotransposon deletion by ectopic recombination in the gigantic genomes of salamanders.  

PubMed

Across the tree of life, species vary dramatically in nuclear genome size. Mutations that add or remove sequences from genomes-insertions or deletions, or indels-are the ultimate source of this variation. Differences in the tempo and mode of insertion and deletion across taxa have been proposed to contribute to evolutionary diversity in genome size. Among vertebrates, most of the largest genomes are found within the salamanders, an amphibian clade with genome sizes ranging from ~14 to ~120 Gb. Salamander genomes have been shown to experience slower rates of DNA loss through small (i.e., <30 bp) deletions than do other vertebrate genomes. However, no studies have addressed DNA loss from salamander genomes resulting from larger deletions. Here, we focus on one type of large deletion-ectopic-recombination-mediated removal of LTR retrotransposon sequences. In ectopic recombination, double-strand breaks are repaired using a "wrong" (i.e., ectopic, or non-allelic) template sequence-typically another locus of similar sequence. When breaks occur within the LTR portions of LTR retrotransposons, ectopic-recombination-mediated repair can produce deletions that remove the internal transposon sequence and the equivalent of one of the two LTR sequences. These deletions leave a signature in the genome-a solo LTR sequence. We compared levels of solo LTRs in the genomes of four salamander species with levels present in five vertebrates with smaller genomes. Our results demonstrate that salamanders have low levels of solo LTRs, suggesting that ectopic-recombination-mediated deletion of LTR retrotransposons occurs more slowly than in other vertebrates with smaller genomes. PMID:25608479

Frahry, Matthew Blake; Sun, Cheng; Chong, Rebecca A; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge

2015-02-01

84

Gigantic low-gradient landslides in the northern periphery of the Crimean Mountains (Ukraine)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale, low-gradient ancient landslides estimated at 5.4-18.9 km 2 in area and ˜ 0.2-1.2 km 3 in volume have been studied in the northern hilly periphery of the Crimean Mountains (Ukraine). They originated on slopes along wide water gaps of rivers (Belbek, Kacha, Alma and Biyuk-Karasu) crossing the cuestas of the northern foothills. The slopes generally consist of slightly northward tilting Miocene (mainly Sarmatian) limestones overlying weak, clay-rich Lower Neogene-Palaeogene substratum with a significant content of smectite. Although the region is characterised by the least active contemporary morphodynamics within the Crimean Mountains, the landslides which were studied are of the same size or even larger than various types of landslides occupying active geomorphic domains of the highest mountain range in the southernmost part of the peninsula. The landslides are generally a spreading type, but the sliding mechanics were probably very complex, involving toppling, rotational slides, gravitational folding and translational block slides. All the landslides which were studied are located in the vicinity of regional faults and three of them have headscarps aligned along faults. A common feature is also a location close (within several km) to the Mesozoic suture zone which is the most important tectonic feature in the northern periphery of the Crimean Orogene. This suture was formerly classified as aseismic; however, evidence of strong, low-frequency palaeoearthquakes was collected during the last decade within both the Mesozoic suture and the low-lying northern part of the Crimean Peninsula. Radiocarbon dating of deposits associated with the landslides has revealed at least two phases of increased landslide-activity during the Late Glacial chronozone and Holocene epoch. The main landslide phase presumably took place at some time between the Late Glacial and Atlantic chronozones. Minor reactivation of landslide toes occurred during the Subatlantic chronozone and some of them have been active up to recent times. The first major landslide phase was possibly triggered by an earthquake, whereas late Holocene activity can be attributed both to seismic and hydroclimatic factors.

Pánek, Tomáš; Hradecký, Jan; Smolková, Veronika; Šilhán, Karel

2008-03-01

85

Nrdp1-mediated degradation of the gigantic IAP, BRUCE, is a novel pathway for triggering apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Degradation of certain inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) appears to be critical in the initiation of apoptosis, but the factors that regulate their degradation in mammalian cells are unknown. Nrdp1/FLRF is a RING finger-containing ubiquitin ligase that catalyzes degradation of the EGF receptor family member, ErbB3. We show here that Nrdp1 associates with BRUCE/apollon, a 530 kDa membrane-associated IAP, which contains a ubiquitin-carrier protein (E2) domain. In the presence of an exogenous E2, UbcH5c, purified Nrdp1 catalyzes BRUCE ubiquitination. In vivo, overexpression of Nrdp1 promotes ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of BRUCE. In many cell types, apoptotic stimuli induce proteasomal degradation of BRUCE (but not of XIAP or c-IAP1), and decreasing Nrdp1 levels by RNA interference reduces this loss of BRUCE. Furthermore, decreasing BRUCE content by RNA interference or overexpression of Nrdp1 promotes apoptosis. Thus, BRUCE normally inhibits apoptosis, and Nrdp1 can be important in the initiation of apoptosis by catalyzing ubiquitination and degradation of BRUCE. PMID:14765125

Qiu, Xiao-Bo; Markant, Shirley L; Yuan, Junying; Goldberg, Alfred L

2004-01-01

86

Occurrence of gigantic biogenic magnetite during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is one of the most severe climatic events of the Cenozoic Era. A massive injection of light carbon into the oceans and atmosphere over a few thousand of years triggered drastic perturbation of Earth's climate resulting in abrupt global warming of ~5-9oC [Sluijs et al., 2007] that persisted for ~180,000 years. This episode is marked by the diversification and radiation of terrestrial plants and mammals while in the marine realm numerous deep-sea benthic foraminifera species disappeared and new forms evolved. Sediments deposited during the PETM are clay-rich and contain distinct evidence of these climatic changes. Kopp et al., (2007) and Lippert & Zachos (2007) report an extraordinary magnetofossil ‘Lagerstätte' in lowermost Eocene kaolinite-rich clay sediments deposited at subtropical paleolatitude in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of New Jersey, USA. Magnetofossils are magnetic particles produced most abundantly by magnetotactic bacteria. Kopp et al. (2007) and Lippert & Zachos (2007) used ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy, other rock magnetic methods, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of magnetic separates to characterize sediments from boreholes at Ancora (ODP Leg 174AX) and Wilson Lake, NJ, respectively. These sediments contain abundant ~40- to 300-nm cuboidal, elongate-prismatic and bullet-shaped magnetofossils, sometimes arranged in short chains, resembling crystals in living magnetotactic bacteria. Despite the scarcity of intact magnetofossil chains, the asymmetry ratios of the FMR spectra reflects a profusion of elongate single domain (SD) crystals and/or chains. Here we address both conundrums by reporting the discovery from these same sediments of exceptionally large and novel biogenic magnetite crystals unlike any previously reported from living organisms or from sediments. Aside from abundant bacterial magnetofossils, electron microscopy reveals novel spearhead-like and spindle-like magnetite crystals up to 4 ?m long (eight times larger than magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria) and elongated hexaoctahedra up to 1.4 ?m long. Similar to magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria, these single-crystal particles exhibit chemical composition and lattice perfection consistent with a biogenic origin. The oxygen isotopic composition of indiviual particles supports a low temperature aquatic origin. Electron holography indicates single-domain magnetization despite the large crystal size. In a few cases, we observed apparently intact, tip-outward spherical assemblages of spearhead-like particles that possibly represent the preserved original biological arrangement of these crystals in a hitherto unknown magnetite producing organism. The discovery of these exceptionally large biogenic magnetite crystals that possibly represent the remains of a new microorganism that appeared and disappeared with the PETM sheds some light upon the ecological response to biogeochemical changes that occurred during this warming event. The abundance of fossil magnetotactic bacteria on the Atlantic Coastal Plain during the PETM could be explained by enhanced production, enhanced preservation, or both. The presence of novel magnetofossils, however, argues that changes in growth conditions are a major part of the explanation. Considering that other bacterial magnetofossils are present (although less abundant) and well-preserved in sediments below and above the PETM clay, as well as in a sand lens within the PETM clay [Kopp et al., 2007], suggests that the new magnetofossils are unlikely to be a preservation artefact. We conclude, therefore, that the development of a thick suboxic zone with high iron bioavailability - a product of dramatic changes in weathering and sedimentation patterns driven by severe global warming - resulted in diversification of magnetite-forming organisms, likely including eukaryotes. In this study we extended the search for these new magnetofossils [Schumann et al. 2008] to other PETM locations of the Atlantic margin and to a possible modern

Schumann, D.; Raub, T. D.; Kopp, R. E.; Guerquin-Kern, J. L.; Wu, T. D.; Rouiller, I.; Smirnov, A. V.; Sears, S. K.; Lücken, U.; Tikoo, S. M.; Hesse, R.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Vali, H.

2009-04-01

87

Sudden pressure increase in magma reservoir triggered by gigantic lava-dome collapse on Montserrat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dilatometers recorded pressure changes within the Soufrière Hills Volcano's magma chamber during the 13 July 2003 collapse of its? lava dome. Strain data was evaluated to determine the depth of the pressure source. Results suggest an ellipsoidal magma chamber source at a depth of roughly six kilometers and an average radius of about one kilometer. The observed increase in pressure was consistent with the magma containing pressurized bubbles that expanded when the ambient pressure was reduced.

Voight et al.

88

Unigas readies for motor fuel surge with supplies from gigantic plant  

SciTech Connect

Nestled away a short distance from the smog and congestion of Mexico City is a sprawling LP-gas plant from which 72 million gallons of propane are shipped annually. Boasting a storage capacity of 865,000 gal. in 19 tanks, this plant is believed to possess the largest total reserve capacity of any such facility south of the border and in all of Latin America. This paper reports on a tour of the Unigas plant in Ixhuatepec, hosted by general director Carlos Venegas Baeza, which provides insight into three major areas: the operations and plans of one of the largest LP-gas companies in Mexico, the booming market in carburetion, and most noteworthy, the technologically advanced safety/security system that has been installed at this point.

Not Available

1992-10-01

89

World War II and the growth of southern city planning: a gigantic force?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many historians believe that war produces revolutionary or at least extraordinary change. That would seem to be true of some wars in a military sense and sometimes in a diplomatic sense. However, the picture of non-military change is not so clear for every society. Since World War II had such a great impact on American cities, the experience of cities

Roger Lotchin

2003-01-01

90

Gigantism in a Bacterium, Epulopiscium fishelsoni, Correlates with Complex Patterns in Arrangement, Quantity, and Segregation of DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epulopiscium fishelsoni, gut symbiont of the brown surgeonfish (Acanthurus nigrofuscus) in the Red Sea, attains a larger size than any other eubacterium, varies 10- to 20-fold in length (and >2,000-fold in volume), and undergoes a complex daily life cycle. In early morning, nucleoids contain highly condensed DNA in elongate, chromosome-like structures which are physically separated from the general cytoplasm. Cell

V. BRESLER; W. L. MONTGOMERY; L. FISHELSON; P. E. POLLAK

1998-01-01

91

Gigantism in a Bacterium, Epulopiscium fishelsoni, Correlates with Complex Patterns in Arrangement, Quantity, and Segregation of DNA  

PubMed Central

Epulopiscium fishelsoni, gut symbiont of the brown surgeonfish (Acanthurus nigrofuscus) in the Red Sea, attains a larger size than any other eubacterium, varies 10- to 20-fold in length (and >2,000-fold in volume), and undergoes a complex daily life cycle. In early morning, nucleoids contain highly condensed DNA in elongate, chromosome-like structures which are physically separated from the general cytoplasm. Cell division involves production of two (rarely three) nucleoids within a cell, deposition of cell walls around expanded nucleoids, and emergence of daughter cells from the parent cell. Fluorescence measurements of DNA, RNA, and other cell components indicate the following. DNA quantity is proportional to cell volume over cell lengths of ?30 ?m to >500 ?m. For cells of a given size, nucleoids of cells with two nucleoids (binucleoid) contain approximately equal amounts of DNA. And each nucleoid of a binucleoid cell contains one-half the DNA of the single nucleoid in a uninucleoid cell of the same size. The life cycle involves approximately equal subdivision of DNA among daughter cells, formation of apical caps of condensed DNA from previously decondensed and diffusely distributed DNA, and “pinching” of DNA near the middle of the cell in the absence of new wall formation. Mechanisms underlying these patterns remain unclear, but formation of daughter nucleoids and cells occurs both during diurnal periods of host feeding and bacterial cell growth and during nocturnal periods of host inactivity when mean bacterial cell size declines. PMID:9791108

Bresler, V.; Montgomery, W. L.; Fishelson, L.; Pollak, P. E.

1998-01-01

92

Oceanic ecosystem dynamics during gigantic volcanic episodes: the Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus recorded by calcareous nannoplankton. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's volcanic activity introduces environmental stress that biota are forced to survive. There is a general consensus on the role of volcanogenic carbon dioxide increases, and implicit tectonic-igneous events, triggering major climate changes and profound variations in chemical, physical and trophic characteristics of the oceans through the Phanerozoic. Cretaceous geological records indicate conditions of excess atmCO2 (up to 2000-3000 ppm) derived from construction of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). In such “high CO2 world” and greenhouse conditions, the deep ocean became depleted of oxygen promoting the accumulation and burial of massive amounts of organic matter; such episodes are recognized as Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) and their geological records merit careful examination of how the Earth system, and Life in particular, can overcome extreme experiments of global change. The Early Aptian (˜ 120 million years ago) OAE1a is a complex example of volcanicCO2-induced environmental stress. There is a general consensus on the causes of this case-history, namely excess CO2 derived from the construction of the Ontong Java-Manihiki LIP. Multi- and inter-disciplinary studies of the OAE1a have pointed out C, O, Os, Sr isotopic anomalies, a biocalcification crisis in pelagic and neritic settings, enhanced fertility and primary productivity, as well as ocean acidification. Available cyclochronology allows high-resolution dating of biotic and environmental fluctuations, providing the precision necessary for understanding the role of volcanogenic CO2 on nannoplankton biocalcification, adaptations, evolutionary innovation and/or extinctions. The reconstructed sequence of volcanogenic CO2 pulses, and perhaps some clathrate melting, triggered a climate change to supergreenhouse conditions, anoxia and ocean acidification. The demise of heavily calcified nannoconids and reduced calcite paleofluxes marks beginning of the pre-OAE1a calcification crisis. Ephemeral coccolith dwarfism and malformation represent adjustments to survive lower pH. Deep-water acidification occurs with a delay of 25-30 thousand years: a dissolution event recording 1 to 2km shallowing of the Calcite Compensation Depth anticipated the onset of anoxic sedimentation. A major acceleration in weathering has been identified in the lowermost part of OAE1a. After acidification-dissolution climax, nannoplankton and carbonate recovery developed over ~160 kyr, under persisting global dysoxia-anoxia. This recovery presumably implies a stasis of the LIP activity and gradual buffering of ocean acidification or a decrease in volcanogenic CO2 emissions and consistently higher CO2 drawdown through Corg burial and/or weathering. Rising CO2 and surface-ocean acidification during OAE1a triggered false extinctions among calcareous nannoplankton. Conversely, a major origination episode starts approximately 1 My before global anoxia and persists through OAE1a and associated acidification. Increasing pCO2 caused complex and species-specific reactions, including production of r-strategist taxa, which, however, secreted dwarf and malformed coccoliths as a strategy to overcome acidification.

Erba, E.

2010-12-01

93

Investigation of Initiation of Gigantic Jets connecting Thunderclouds to the Ionosphere Lizhu Tong, Kenichi Nanbu, and Hiroshi Fukunishi 1)  

E-print Network

are unknown. Finding such conditions is the aim of the present work. Since the extremely-low- frequency (ELF to ionosphere (NCI) discharge could lead to the generation of these ELF waves (Su el al., 2003), here we

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

94

Climate warming and stability of cold hanging glaciers: Lessons from the gigantic 1895 Altels break-off  

E-print Network

The Altels hanging glacier broke off on September 11, 1895. The ice volume of this catastrophic rupture was estimated at $\\rm 4.10^6$ cubic meters and is the largest ever observed ice fall event in the Alps. The causes of this collapse are however not entirely clear. Based on previous studies, we reanalyzed this break-off event, with the help of a new numerical model, initially developed by Faillettaz and others (2010) for gravity-driven instabilities. The simulations indicate that a break-off event is only possible when the basal friction at the bedrock is reduced in a restricted area, possibly induced by the storage of infiltrated water within the glacier. Moreover, our simulations reveal a two-step behavior: (i) A first quiescent phase, without visible changes, with a duration depending on the rate of basal changes; (ii) An active phase with a rapid increase of basal motion over a few days. The general lesson obtained from the comparison between the simulations and the available evidence is that visible si...

Faillettaz, Jerome; Funk, Martin

2011-01-01

95

A Gigantic Sarcopterygian (Tetrapodomorph Lobe-Finned Fish) from the Upper Devonian of Gondwana (Eden, New South Wales, Australia)  

PubMed Central

Edenopteron keithcrooki gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Famennian Worange Point Formation; the holotype is amongst the largest tristichopterids and sarcopterygians documented by semi-articulated remains from the Devonian Period. The new taxon has dentary fangs and premaxillary tusks, features assumed to be derived for large Northern Hemisphere tristichopterids (Eusthenodon, Hyneria, Langlieria). It resembles Eusthenodon in ornament, but is distinguished by longer proportions of the parietal compared to the post-parietal shield, and numerous differences in shape and proportions of other bones. Several characters (accessory vomers in the palate, submandibulars overlapping ventral jaw margin, scales ornamented with widely-spaced deep grooves) are recorded only in tristichopterids from East Gondwana (Australia-Antarctica). On this evidence Edenopteron gen. nov. is placed in an endemic Gondwanan subfamily Mandageriinae within the Tristichopteridae; it differs from the nominal genotype Mandageria in its larger size, less pointed skull, shape of the orbits and other skull characters. The hypothesis that tristichopterids evolved in Laurussia and later dispersed into Gondwana, and a derived subgroup of large Late Devonian genera dispersed from Gondwana, is inconsistent with the evidence of the new taxon. Using oldest fossil and most primitive clade criteria the most recent phylogeny resolves South China and Gondwana as areas of origin for all tetrapodomorphs. The immediate outgroup to tristichopterids remains unresolved – either Spodichthys from Greenland as recently proposed, or Marsdenichthys from Gondwana, earlier suggested to be the sister group to all tristichopterids. Both taxa combine two characters that do not co-occur in other tetrapodomorphs (extratemporal bone in the skull; non-cosmoid round scales with an internal boss). Recently both ‘primitive’ and ‘derived’ tristichopterids have been discovered in the late Middle Devonian of both hemispheres, implying extensive ghost lineages within the group. Resolving their phylogeny and biogeography will depend on a comprehensive new phylogenetic analysis. PMID:23483884

Young, Ben; Dunstone, Robert L.; Senden, Timothy J.; Young, Gavin C.

2013-01-01

96

From Ally McBeal to Sabado Gigante: Contributions of Television Viewing to the Gender Role Attitudes of Latino Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous findings indicate that frequent television viewing is associated with holding more stereotypical attitudes about gender, no studies have examined this connection among Latino youth, who are frequent viewers of both English- and Spanish-language programming. The present study attempted to rectify this situation by examining…

Rivadeneyra, Rocio; Ward, L. Monique

2005-01-01

97

Oceanic ecosystem dynamics during gigantic volcanic episodes: the Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus recorded by calcareous nannoplankton. (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth's volcanic activity introduces environmental stress that biota are forced to survive. There is a general consensus on the role of volcanogenic carbon dioxide increases, and implicit tectonic-igneous events, triggering major climate changes and profound variations in chemical, physical and trophic characteristics of the oceans through the Phanerozoic. Cretaceous geological records indicate conditions of excess atmCO2 (up to 2000-3000 ppm)

E. Erba

2010-01-01

98

Swift follow-up of the gigantic TeV outburst of PKS 2155-304 in 2006  

E-print Network

At the end of July 2006, the blazar PKS 2155-304 (z=0.116) underwent a strong outburst observed at TeV energies by HESS (up to 17 Crab flux level at E > 200 GeV). The Swift satellite followed the evolution of the source for about one month. The data analysis - reported in another paper - has shown that, despite the violent activity at TeV energies, the synchrotron energy distribution increased in normalization, but only with a small shift in frequency. In the present work, we fit the broad-band spectrum with a log-parabolic model, to search for indications of intrinsic curvature, which in turn is usually interpreted as a signature of energy-dependent acceleration mechanisms of electrons.

L. Foschini; G. Ghisellini; F. Tavecchio; A. Treves; L. Maraschi; M. Gliozzi; C. M. Raiteri; M. Villata; E. Pian; G. Tagliaferri; G. Tosti; R. M. Sambruna; G. Malaguti; G. Di Cocco; P. Giommi

2007-03-30

99

Aggressive Angiomyxoma in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Aggressive angiomyxoma (AA) is a rare, slow-growing mesenchymal neoplasm of vulvo-perineal region. Although AA is common in females of reproductive age, only a few cases during pregnancy have been documented in the English literature. It carries a high risk of local recurrence but rarely metastasizes. The high recurrence rate can partially be due to inadequate excision, which may be due to an incorrect preoperative diagnosis. We present a case of 25-year-old pregnant female presenting with a painless and soft mass attached to left labia majora by a stalk. This mass was clinically thought to be a lipoma. It was completely excised and was diagnosed as AA on histopathology. Gynecologists should consider the diagnosis of AA when a young female especially during her pregnancy presents with a vulvo-perineal mass. Incorrect diagnosis may lead to incomplete excision and recurrence. PMID:25002951

Goyal, Prashant; Agrawal, Dipti; Sehgal, Shelly; Ghosh, Soumyesh; Kumar, Awanindra; Singh, Sompal

2014-01-01

100

Aggressive angiomyxoma in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Aggressive angiomyxoma (AA) is a rare, slow-growing mesenchymal neoplasm of vulvo-perineal region. Although AA is common in females of reproductive age, only a few cases during pregnancy have been documented in the English literature. It carries a high risk of local recurrence but rarely metastasizes. The high recurrence rate can partially be due to inadequate excision, which may be due to an incorrect preoperative diagnosis. We present a case of 25-year-old pregnant female presenting with a painless and soft mass attached to left labia majora by a stalk. This mass was clinically thought to be a lipoma. It was completely excised and was diagnosed as AA on histopathology. Gynecologists should consider the diagnosis of AA when a young female especially during her pregnancy presents with a vulvo-perineal mass. Incorrect diagnosis may lead to incomplete excision and recurrence. PMID:25002951

Goyal, Prashant; Agrawal, Dipti; Sehgal, Shelly; Ghosh, Soumyesh; Kumar, Awanindra; Singh, Sompal

2014-05-13

101

Dual electron-phonon coupling model for gigantic photoenhancement of the dielectric constant and electronic conductivity in SrTi O3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In connection with the recent experimental discovery on photoenhancements of the electronic conductivity and the quasi-static electric susceptibility in SrTiO3 , we theoretically study a photogeneration mechanism of charged and conductive ferroelectric domains in this perovskite type quantum dielectric. The photo-generated electron, being quite itinerant in the 3d band of Ti4+ , is assumed to couple weakly but quadratically with soft-anharmonic T1u phonons in this quantum dielectric, in view of the parity of this lattice vibration. The photo-generated electron is also assumed to couple strongly but linearly with the breathing type high energy phonons. Using a tight-binding model for electrons, we will show that this dual electron-phonon coupling results in two types of polarons, a “super-para-electric (SPE) large polaron” with a quasi-globle parity violation, and an “off-center type self-trapped polaron” with only a local parity violation. This SPE large polaron is shown to be equal to a singly charged (e-) and conductive ferroelectric domain with a quasi-macroscopic range. Two of such large polarons are shown to aggregate and form an SPE large bipolaron, which is still conductive. Various other bipolaron clusters are also shown to be formed in this electron-phonon coupled system. These large polarons have a high mobility and an enhanced quasi-static dielectric susceptibility. Effect of adulteration is also discussed.

Qiu, Y.; Wu, C. Q.; Nasu, K.

2005-12-01

102

Partial characterization of 5?-nucleotidase from giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) mantle Caracterización parcial de la enzima 5?-nucleotidasa del manto de calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important cephalopod resource in the northwestern area of Mexico is the jumbo squid whose postmortem biochemical behavior has been studied in detail. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) degradation in this organism is different than the other species because of the fast degradation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) metabolite in mantle. In this research, AMP deaminase from jumbo squid mantle was partially

R. Pacheco-Aguilar; V. M. Ocano-Higuera; J. M. Ezquerra-Brauer; F. J. Castillo-Yañez; G. García-Sánchez; E. Marquez-Rios

2010-01-01

103

Rumors about invasive snakehead fish, dubbed "Frankenfish," have claimed that these toothy beasts breathe air, walk on land, grow to gigantic size, and attack humans. Although many of  

E-print Network

of bass is more diverse and crayfish are an important prey item. Snakeheads are native to southern 1 Science: War on Lionfish Promising 2 Science: Invaders Rarely Common 2 Science: Carp Consumption 3 Invasive species: commonly rare, rarely common Invasive carp safe for consumption Assessing carp

Jawitz, James W.

104

Replacement of wheat bran with spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill cv Gigante) and urea in the diets of Holstein x Gyr heifers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the replacement effect of wheat bran with spineless cactus and urea in heifers. Twenty-four heifers with an average initial weight of 185?±?13 kg were used in this experiment. Four levels of spineless cactus corrected with urea and ammonium sulfate (9:1) were studied: 0, 33, 66, and 100 % replacement with wheat bran. Samples of feed, orts, and feces were analyzed to estimate the intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Indigestible neutral detergent fiber was used as an internal marker. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design. Dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient intake demonstrated a quadratic effect (P?

de Figueiredo Monteiro, Carolina Corrêa; Silva de Melo, Airon Aparecido; Ferreira, Marcelo Andrade; de Souza Campos, José Mauricio; Rodrigues Souza, Julyana Sena; Dos Santos Silva, Evannielly Thuanny; de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Rafael; da Silva, Emmanuelle Cordeiro

2014-10-01

105

Genetics Home Reference: Sotos syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... names do people use for Sotos syndrome? cerebral gigantism Sotos sequence Sotos' syndrome For more information about ... cancer ; cell ; contiguous ; deletion ; disabilities ; disability ; DNA ; gene ; gigantism ; histone ; hyperactivity ; hypotonia ; incidence ; inheritance ; jaundice ; kidney ; methyl ; ...

106

Genetics Home Reference: Familial isolated pituitary adenoma  

MedlinePLUS

... children or adolescents can lead to increased height (gigantism), because the long bones of their arms and ... adenoma? adenoma ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; cell ; familial ; gene ; gigantism ; growth hormone ; hormone ; inherited ; mutation ; neoplasia ; penetrance ; pituitary ...

107

Growth hormone test  

MedlinePLUS

... increased growth patterns called acromegaly in adults and gigantism in children. Too little growth hormone can cause ... high level of growth hormone may indicate: Acromegaly Gigantism Growth hormone resistance Pituitary tumor A low level ...

108

Growth hormone suppression test  

MedlinePLUS

... level of GH, a condition that leads to gigantism in children and acromegaly in adults. It is ... during the suppression test, the doctor will suspect gigantism or acromegaly. You may need to be retested ...

109

Aggressive angiomyxoma of vulva recurring 8 years after initial diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Aggressive angiomyxoma is an uncommon soft tissue tumor which preferentially involves pelvic and vulvoperineal regions of\\u000a young adult females. The typical characteristics include gelatinous appearance and locally infiltrative nature without evidence\\u000a of nuclear atypia or mitosis. Treatment involves surgery, but local recurrence is high in spite of apparently complete surgical\\u000a resection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case  A 28-year-old woman who had had a history of

Mehmet Coskun Salman; Gamze Mocan Kuzey; Nasuh Utku Dogan; Kunter Yuce

2009-01-01

110

Producción y evaluación funcional de un concentrado proteico de calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas) obtenido mediante disolución alcalina Production and functional evaluation of a protein concentrate from giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) obtained by alkaline dissolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protein concentrate from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) was produced under alkaline conditions. Solubility, recovery of proteins, electrophoretic profile, as well as changes in the pattern of solubility of proteins recovered were determined. In the gels, its capability (functional–technological) was evaluated in terms of texture profile analysis, folding test, water holding capacity, and color attributes. The alkaline treatment promoted the

G. Dihort-Garcia; V. M. Ocano-Higuera; J. M. Ezquerra-Brauer; M. E. Lugo-Sanchez; R. Pacheco-Aguilar; S. M. Barrales-Heredia; E. Marquez-Rios

2011-01-01

111

HPV genotypes concordance between sex partners.  

PubMed

The HPV genotype concordance in the sexual couples could support the sexual viral transmission of HPV infection. The present study contains a case-report of a stable Italian sex couple harbouring the same five HPV genotypes in their genital samples. The female partner, affected by vulvar condilomatosis, evidenced positivity in her cervicovaginal scraping with high risk HPV DNA Hybrid Capture 2 test and was negative at liquid-based performed Pap Test and at colposcopic examination. The male partner was clinically healthy regarding his external genitalia. In both male and female genital scrapings, the following HPV genotypes were detected by means of a PCR-based assay: 6, 16, 53, 73 and 84. This considerably high genotype concordance does not appear to be casual and supports, in our opinion, the hypothesis that genital HPV types are sexually transmitted agents PMID:18365561

Benevolo, M; Mottolese, M; Marandino, F; Carosi, M; Diodoro, M G; Sentinelli, S; Visca, P; Rollo, F; Mariani, L; Vocaturo, G; Sindico, R; Di Giannuario, D; Perrone Donnorso, R; Pellicciotta, M; Vocaturo, A

2007-12-01

112

Emergency Control in Shipyard Safety Systems Augusto Celentano, Fabio Furlan  

E-print Network

.burcovich@fincantieri.it Abstract Large shipyards for gigantic cruise ships require a spe- cial attention to safety due to the huge Large shipyards for gigantic cruise ships require a special attention to safety due to the huge number to the shipyard dynamics. During the building of an environment wide and complex like a cruise ship plans must

Celentano, Augusto

113

Producción sostenible y conservación de la rana gigante del lago Titikaka (Telmatobius culeus, Anura: Leptodactylidae): un nuevo desafío para La Paz, Bolivia. Conservation and sustainable production of Titikaka's lake giant toad (Telmatobius culeus, Anura: Leptodactylidae): a new challenge to La Paz, Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most relevant aspects about sustainable production and industrialization of Telmatobius culeus at Bolivian rural communities were mentioned and analyzed through a biodiversity conservation and industrial quality-controlled processes (more efficient and less contaminating) production proposal. This sustainable production proposal gives a new challenge to region's people, who

Francisco Fontúrbel Rada

114

TEMPERATURAS DEL GOLFO DE CALIFORNIA DURANTE MAYO Y JUNIO DE 1996 Y SU RELACIÓN CON LAS CAPTURAS DE CALAMAR GIGANTE (Dosidicus gigas D'ORBIGNY, 1835) WATER TEMPERATURES IN THE GULF OF CALIFORNIA IN MAY AND JUNE 1996 AND THEIR RELATION TO THE CAPTURE OF GIANT SQUID ( Dosidicus gigas D'ORBIGNY, 1835)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between water temperature and the capture of giant squid in the Gulf of California was analyzed. Data were collected in May and June 1996 at 60 stations. Each fishing session lasted 30 minutes, and an average of 100 organisms per 0.5º × 0.5º square were caught. The hypothesis was that if

S. C. Mar

2000-01-01

115

Fermi discovers giant bubbles in Milky Way - Duration: 93 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

Using data from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, scientists have recently discovered a gigantic, mysterious structure in our galaxy. This feature looks like a pair of bubbles extending above...

116

NewDevelopment? provincializing  

E-print Network

of Campinas - UNICAMP, Brazil O Brasil Gigante: Reproducing the Brazilian Miracle in Sub Saharan Africa. Ryan Arabia. Timm Lau, Professor, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Applying STS in Industrial - UFMG, Brazil Developing Economic eory:

Silver, Whendee

117

Pest&Crop No. 18 July 28, 2006 Page 1 Purdue Cooperative Extension Service  

E-print Network

Japanesebeetlehasnotoccurredbutrather another related Scarab, the green June beetle, has been seenwithmorefrequencythisyear Insects, Mites, and Nematodes · RootwormBeetlesInvadingWeedySoybeanFields · GiganticJapaneseBeetleFillStagesinCorn Weather Update · TemperatureAccumulations Succotashorvolunteercorncertainlyattractrootworm beetles

Ginzel, Matthew

118

Astrophysics: A burst of new ideas  

E-print Network

Gigantic cosmological gamma-ray bursts have fallen into a dichotomy of long and short bursts, each with a very different origin. The discovery of an oddball burst calls for a rethink of that classification.

Bing Zhang

2006-12-21

119

Neil Armstrong Eulogy It is a special honor to be able to share some thoughts this morning  

E-print Network

contraptions with gigantic, flame-belching engines tied onto big fuel tanks. And #12;3 before he was a test and skill on Gemini 8, as a test pilot pushing the envelope he had strapped himself into terrifying looking

Franco, John

120

CHAPTER NINE GIANTS ON PARADE, TYRANTS AFLAME  

E-print Network

discourse. The Golden-Age comedia has been the object of most scholarly attention in this regard an explanation of the gigante. Perhaps Spanish editors have deemed the sonnet's principal image too patently

Sheldon, Nathan D.

121

Vertex sparsification and universal rounding algorithms  

E-print Network

Suppose we are given a gigantic communication network, but are only interested in a small number of nodes (clients). There are many routing problems we could be asked to solve for our clients. Is there a much smaller network ...

Moitra, Ankur

2011-01-01

122

The plating solution and the human body: Complex electrochemical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thesis proposed is that a plating solution is much like the human body. The body is nothing more than a gigantic complex of molecules and chemicals working together in harmony - so is a plating solution.

Dini

1986-01-01

123

Super Hero, Japanese Style  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Super Sentai is a long-running Japanese TV series about regular humans who destroy bad guys using nothing but their color-coded uniforms, excellent martial arts skills and, you know, totally advanced weapons and gigantic...

Hacker, Randi

2013-10-02

124

The evolution of high energy accelerators  

SciTech Connect

In this lecture I would like to trace how high energy particle accelerators have grown from tools used for esoteric small-scale experiments to gigantic projects being hotly debated in Congress as well as in the scientific community.

Courant, E.D.

1989-10-01

125

SYNTHESIS Of mice and mammoths: generality and antiquity of the island rule  

E-print Network

, Italy, 4 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI, 02912, USA from gigantism in small species to dwarf- ism in large species (Fig. 1). The generality of this pattern

Sax, Dov

126

J. Fluid Mech. (2003), vol. 492, pp. 207230. c 2003 Cambridge University Press DOI: 10.1017/S0022112003005639 Printed in the United Kingdom  

E-print Network

Intyre 2003). The resulting polar upwelling supplies water vapour from below and acts as a gigantic natural refrigerator. Despite intense solar radiation, which is maximal at the pole because of the Earth's tilt

Cambridge, University of

2003-01-01

127

Pressure variation of Rashba spin splitting toward topological transition in the polar semiconductor BiTeI  

E-print Network

BiTeI is a polar semiconductor with gigantic Rashba spin-split bands in bulk. We have investigated the effect of pressure on the electronic structure of this material via magnetotransport. Periods of Shubunikov–de Haas ...

Ideue, T.

128

Sotos Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Sotos Syndrome Information Page Synonym(s): Cerebral Gigantism Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Sotos Syndrome? Is there any treatment? What is the prognosis? What research is ...

129

McCune-Albright syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... fractures Deformities of the bones in the face Gigantism Irregular, large patchy café-au-lait spots , especially ... skull Abnormal heart rhythms ( arrhythmias ) Acromegaly Adrenal ... Hyperthyroidism Hypophosphatemia Large café-au-lait spots ...

130

Pelvic Congestion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Patients with pelvic congestion syndrome present with otherwise unexplained chronic pelvic pain that has been present for greater than 6 months, and anatomic findings that include pelvic venous insufficiency and pelvic varicosities. It remains an underdiagnosed explanation for pelvic pain in young, premenopausal, usually multiparous females. Symptoms include noncyclical, positional lower back, pelvic and upper thigh pain, dyspareunia, and prolonged postcoital discomfort. Symptoms worsen throughout the day and are exacerbated by activity or prolonged standing. Examination may reveal ovarian tenderness and unusual varicosities—vulvoperineal, posterior thigh, and gluteal. Diagnosis is suspected by clinical history and imaging that demonstrates pelvic varicosities. Venography is usually necessary to confirm ovarian vein reflux, although transvaginal ultrasound may be useful in documenting this finding. Endovascular therapy has been validated by several large patient series with long-term follow-up using standardized pain assessment surveys. Embolization has been shown to be significantly more effective than surgical therapy in improving symptoms in patients who fail hormonal therapy. Although there has been variation in approaches between investigators, the goal is elimination of ovarian vein reflux with or without direct sclerosis of enlarged pelvic varicosities. Symptom reduction is seen in 70 to 90% of the treated females despite technical variation. PMID:24436564

Durham, Janette D.; Machan, Lindsay

2013-01-01

131

Influence of trematode parasitism on the growth of a bivalve host in the field.  

PubMed

Trematode-induced gigantism of molluscs, enhanced growth of trematode-parasitised individuals, has been observed in many laboratory studies. This study reports the effect of the sterilising trematode, Rhipidicotyle fennica, on the growth of the freshwater clam Anodonta piscinalis under field conditions. In addition to single infections (prevalence 44%), a few clams (3%) were infected with both R. fennica and Rhipidicotyle campanula. Parasite-induced gigantism was not found; parasites lowered host growth. The decreased in growth was correlated with the quantity of parasite material. Clams with double infections grew the least, although they did not differ significantly from hosts with a heavy single species infection. The growth of the experimental clams was lower than that of undisturbed control clams. Trematode-induced gigantism of molluscs in the field, in general, remains undemonstrated. PMID:9602381

Taskinen, J

1998-04-01

132

J. Zoo/., Lond (2000) 251, 369-375 2000 The Zoological Society of London Printed in the United Kingdom The relationship of neonate mass and incubation temperature  

E-print Network

of animals, ectothermic and endothermic, invertebrate and vertebrate, microscopic and gigantic. We begin development time to neonate mass in these aquatic ectotherms to those for terrestrial ectotherms (reptiles either as a function of temperature (as with ectotherms) or size (as with endotherms), with differences

Gillooly, Jamie

133

Released upon receipt but intended for us8  

E-print Network

, 1930 By Charlea Fitzhu& Talman, Authority on Meteorology. LENTICULAR CLOUDS %e more o r less lene Erebus *whalebacks.1` In the b o r e s a lenticular cloud that often forms fin the lee of Pic0 is known the Val del Bove, there is frequently formed a lenticular cloud that resembles a gigantic This is but one

134

Familial Dandy-Walker malformation and leukodystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first familial cases with two different types of posterior fossa cystic malformation and a leukodystrophic-like aspect on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The girl and her brother had severe encephalopathy, marked hypotonia, absent deep tendon reflexes, macrocrania, gigantism, and dysmorphic face and extremities. The girl had generalized seizures. The boy had unilateral cataract and bilateral optic atrophy.

Véronique T. Humbertclaude; Philippe A. Coubes; Nicolas Leboucq; Bernard B. Echenne

1997-01-01

135

The class material is designed to address fundamental yet extremely interesting questions about earthquakes and plate tectonic activity and their cyclicity. For example: Just why and how are earthquakes generated at plate edges and  

E-print Network

earthquakes and plate tectonic activity and their cyclicity. For example: Just why and how are earthquakes? Ideas about interactions of the various components of the plate tectonic model and its attendant of crustal deformation produced during complex plate tectonic interactions. Earth is a gigantic heat engine

136

The Quaternary vegetation and landscape evolution of Novaya Zemlya in the light of palynological records  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of paleoenvironmental (pollen) investigations of Novaya Zemlya throughout all the Quaternary, including Eopleistocene, Pleistocene and Holocene. Clear evidence of continuity between the modern flora and paleofloras confirms the lack of sharp and continuous interruptions in the vegetation development in high latitudes as well as the absence of gigantic ice sheets in the Eastern Arctic. During

Leonid Serebryanny; Eugeniya Malyasova

1998-01-01

137

11/26/12 4:27 PMCoal mine fossils: Paleontology shows us past climate change. -Slate Magazine Page 1 of 4http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/coal/2012/11/coal_mine_fossils_paleontology_shows_us_past_climate_change.single.html  

E-print Network

11/26/12 4:27 PMCoal mine fossils: Paleontology shows us past climate change. - Slate Magazine Page 1 of 4http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/coal/2012/11/coal_mine by Michael Loccisano/Getty Images. Mining for Gigantic Fossil Snakes The most valuable thing in a coal mine

Montañez, Isabel Patricia

138

The Mystical Effects of Dermatological Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topical treatment of the skin is as old as the evolution of man. Instinctively, we try to treat a skin injury or irritation with cooling or soothing substances. Even animals lick their wounds, trusting instinctively in the healing power of saliva. When did this archaic pattern of treatment take the gigantic leap from folk medicine to modern drug therapy? This

Christian Surber; Eric W. Smith

2005-01-01

139

Oxygen from the lunar soil by molten silicate electrolysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accepting that oxygen, rather than gigantic gems or gold, is likely to make the Moon's Klondike, the extraction of oxygen from the lunar soil by molten silicate electrolysis has chosen to be investigated. Process theory and proposed lunar factory are addressed.

Colson, Russell O.; Haskin, Larry A.

1992-01-01

140

Lyapunov exponent of the random Schrodinger operator with short-range correlated noise potential  

E-print Network

the sensitivity of field enhancement effects at Fabry-Perot resonances against the bandwidth of the excitation- tures include photonic crystals, coupled-resonator optical waveguides, slow-light devices, metamaterials. The gigantic amplitude increase produced by such resonances was observed, which dramatically deteriorates under

Godin, Yuri A.

141

Chapter 7 Current tasks and challenges for exhaust after-treatment research: An industrial viewpoint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The market of Diesel vehicles in Western Europe is, presently, still growing. In Asia, this market is still in an embryonic state (but should result as gigantic), while tomorrow the USA could become ‘The Market’. Diesel technology is an important issue for the carmakers, because it emits noticeably less ‘Greenhouse gas’ than its gasoline counterpart.Compliance with the EuroIII standards (2000)

J. M. Trichard

2007-01-01

142

Coral Reefs: A Gallery Program, Grades 7-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gallery classes at the National Aquarium in Baltimore give the opportunity to study specific aquarium exhibits which demonstrate entire natural habitats. The coral reef gallery class features the gigantic western Atlantic coral reef (325,000 gallons) with over 1,000 fish. The exhibit simulates a typical Caribbean coral reef and nearby sandy…

National Aquarium in Baltimore, MD. Dept. of Education.

143

The Experience of External Studies. Occasional Papers No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document brings together four invited papers by external students who have graduated from Riverina College: (1) "The External Student: One Profile" (Christine Del Gigante); (2) "Managing Life as a External Student" (Robert Landow); (3) "The Computerised Student" (John Chant); and (4) "The Right to Study" (Coral Davidson). Topics covered…

Riverina Coll. of Advanced Education, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales (Australia).

144

The evolution of planktivory in sharks and rays. Supervisor: Dr Charlie Underwood (Birkbeck Earth Sciences)  

E-print Network

The evolution of planktivory in sharks and rays. Supervisor: Dr Charlie Underwood (Birkbeck Earth Sciences) Large to gigantic plankton feeding sharks and rays are found throughout the world's oceans with subordinate chondrichthyans (sharks and rays). In contrast, planktivory has evolved several times amongst

Crawford, Ian

145

Third Stage (S-IVB) At KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA technician is dwarfed by the gigantic Third Stage (S-IVB) as it rests on supports in a facility at KSC. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

1960-01-01

146

Yes we can: simplex volume maximization for descriptive web-scale matrix factorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix factorization methods are among the most common techniques for detecting latent components in data. Popular examples include the Singular Value Decomposition or Non-negative Matrix Factorization. Unfortunately, most methods suffer from high computational complexity and therefore do not scale to massive data. In this paper, we present a linear time algorithm for the factorization of gigantic matrices that iteratively yields

Christian Thurau; Kristian Kersting; Christian Bauckhage

2010-01-01

147

Rock "n" Roll Presidents on Mount Rushmore. Second Grade Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A historian, Doane Robinson, and a sculptor, Gutzon Borglum, worked together to build a gigantic monument in South Dakota that honored four of the greatest U.S. presidents: George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt, and Thomas Jefferson. Robinson and Borglum wanted the monument to represent U.S. ideals. To celebrate the anniversary of…

Sawyer, Debbie

148

Introduction The Sun is a mass of incandescent gas  

E-print Network

and isotopic compositions, we can analyze actual pieces of stars in the laboratory, using mass spectrometersChapter 1 Introduction The Sun is a mass of incandescent gas A gigantic nuclear furnace Building hydrogen into helium At a temperature of millions of degrees They Might be Giants We are stardust Joni

Nittler, Larry R.

149

A Science Service FeatureI-By Dr, Charles F. Brooks  

E-print Network

USeS a moist vind to blon into the continent day after day. These summer shoaers are mere individual expressions of a gigantic DlOve- The heating of the continent results in euch an expansion of the air that Thc

150

Histological studies of the neurosecretory and retrocerebral complex of the water beetle, Hydrophilus olivaceus Fabr. (Insecta, Coleoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurosecretory cells (NSC) in the breeding phases show gigantic sized droplets. NSC show two peaks of activity in females at midnight and at 9 A.M., while a single peak occurs in males between midnight and 3 A.M. Light has a triggering effect on the neurosecretory release. The corpus cardiacum is the main neurohaemal organ. It has a nerve core

H. S. Gundevia; P. S. Ramamurty

1972-01-01

151

Saturn's rings and moons are a model for how planetary systems  

E-print Network

Saturn's rings and moons are a model for how planetary systems may be forming around nearby stars't know about Saturn's luminous rings, even though the gigantic, gaseous planet is readily visible in the night sky. When Galileo became the first person to peer at Saturn through a telescope in 1610, he

152

Alien grasses in Brazilian savannas: a threat to the biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

African grasses used as forage are spreading fast in cerrado (Brazilian savanna) patches, prob- ably displacing native species. An analysis of the graminoid species abundance was performed in Cerrado Pé-de-Gigante Reserve (São Paulo State, Brazil), where their relative frequency, density, dominance and the value of importance were assessed in two cerrado forms: cerrado sensu stricto (denser) and campo cerrado (open).

VÂNIA REGINA PIVELLO; CLÁUDIA NAGAKO SHIDA; SÉRGIO TADEU MEIRELLES

1999-01-01

153

Kuba, Kids, and an Airport: How One Community Celebrates Art and Imagination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes "The Kuba Project: An Exhibit of Gigantic Proportions" in which high school students learned about the Kuba people of the Congo and created monumental ceramic works of art. Explains that the student artwork was exhibited at the Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in Phoenix (Arizona) as part of the Sky Harbor Art Program. (CMK)

Eller, Lennee; Grigsby, Eugene, Jr.

2003-01-01

154

REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Birth and life of massive black holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of massive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are reviewed. The dynamical evolution of compact star systems ends naturally in a gigantic concentrated mass of gas, containing an admixture of surviving stars, that unavoidably collapses into a black hole. The subsequent joint evolution of the remnant star system with a massive black hole at the center

V. I. Dokuchaev

1991-01-01

155

ON LOCATION Earth is subjected to continuous bombardment. At any point in time, somewhere in the depths of the universe, a star explodes or a  

E-print Network

in the depths of the universe, a star explodes or a black hole ejects gigantic gas clouds from the core to better understand the cosmic particle catapults, such as supernovae and black holes. Glow under a Starry for all life, as the energy dose would be lethal in the long term. However, the gamma light doesn't vanish

156

Gender, Education and Child Labour: A Sociological Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In all societies, boys and girls are assigned different societal roles and experience different perspectives of life as a result of their being male or female. Such differences have a gigantic impact on their lives. The importance of gender perspective is very important in understanding the convolution of child labour. Gender, as opposed to sex,…

Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

2010-01-01

157

Tech&Science WETTER Suche | |NEWSLETTER ABO KONTAKT | |TV KINO EVENTS  

E-print Network

. Er hat Versuchspersonen auf dem PC- Schirm Bilder ganz neutraler Gesichter - ohne Emotion - gezeigt: Auch ihr und Vergleichspersonen hat man Gesichter am PC gezeigt und sie elektronisch verschleiert, um A380 Grö�tes Passagierflugzeug aller Zeiten. Gigant: NEUES GAME Aufregendes virtuelles Leben Sims 2

Gosselin, Frédéric

158

Molecular Clouds, Star Formation and Galactic Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radio observations show that the gigantic clouds of molecules where stars are born are distributed in various ways in spiral galaxies, perhaps accounting for the variation in their optical appearance. Research studies and findings in this area are reported and discussed. (JN)

Scoville, Nick; Young, Judith S.

1984-01-01

159

Methods of Mathematical and Computational Physics for Industry, Science, and Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many industrial problems provide scientists with important and challenging problems that need to be solved today rather than tomorrow. The key role of mathematical physics, modelling, and computational methodologies in addressing such problems continues to increase. Science has never been exogenous to applied research. Gigantic ships and steam engines, repeating catapult of Dionysius and the Antikythera `computer' invented around 80BC

Roderick V N Melnik; Frands Voss

2006-01-01

160

Soil Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Humans use soil for their daily needs but do not sufficiently take account of its slow formation and fast loss. Discover the amazing geology of soil formation and the basic rock and soil types.Although soil seems the end product from weathering rocks, it is merely a stage in the gigantic cycle of mineral recycling by the movement of tectonic plates.

161

DNA, RNA , and protein  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered why you look like your mother while your brother looks like your grandfather? Consult life's gigantic book of information! This resource contains an illustrated interactive explanation of RNA, DNA, and proteins. This resource is appropriate for all users as it provides useful background information to enhance STEM teaching and learning for all. Copyright 2005 EDC

Nobel e-Museum

2001-01-01

162

Hypothetical endosymbiontic zooxanthellae in rudists are not needed to explain their ecological niches and thick shells in comparison with hermatypic corals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragments of gigantic Durania farafrahensis Douvillé from Maastrichtian pelagic settings (Ghareb chalk) in southern Israel triggered the re-evaluation of the hypothetical symbiosis of rudists with photosynthesizing zooxanthellae. This Durania lived as separate individuals on the muddy bottom of the deep sea and hence was the only rigid substrate to which sponges, octocorals and algae probably attached, attracting other organisms for

Z. Lewy

1995-01-01

163

PEST&CROP INDEX 2007 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

, and Beetles ­ 13 What is That Gigantic Beetle - 16 Mexican Bean Beetle Millipede Expect the Unexpected WhenPEST&CROP INDEX 2007 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES Asian Lady Beetle Asiatic Garden Beetle A New Field Crops Pest for Indiana: Asiatic Garden Beetle ­ 11 Asiatic Beetle Grub Update - 12 Alfalfa Weevil

Ginzel, Matthew

164

The Story of Semco: The Company that Humanized Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines and analyzes Semco, a company that changed the way it viewed and treated its workers for the better. It is the contention of Semco's CEO, that at most large corporations "everyone is part of a gigantic, impersonal machine, and it is impossible to feel motivated when you feel you are just another cog. Human nature demands…

Vanderburg, David

2004-01-01

165

Shake It up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If scientists know where earthquakes are most likely to occur, then architects and engineers can design safer buildings for such areas and potentially prevent some of the devastating aftereffects. Engineers have met this challenge through the design and use of gigantic shake tables to evaluate the stability of various structures. In this 45-minute…

Gilstrap, Tatiana; Sheldon, Peter; Schimmoeller, Peggy

2010-01-01

166

8 FEBRUARY 2008 VOL 319 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org730 n 2006, China's carbon dioxide emission  

E-print Network

and the Yellow rivers, several major Asian rivers, such as Ganges and Mekong, originate from the Tibetan plateau, the Yangtze River delta radiating inland from Shanghai, and the Pearl River delta encom- passing Hong Kong Project, a gigantic project that will divert water from three points of the Yangtze River basin

Zeng, Ning

167

SME Development Policies in Different Stages of Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preponderance of large firms and economic gigantism under the communist economic system, has been steadily reversed over the last decade in most transition economies. Typically, the largest proportion of the numbers of firms are now classified in the category of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). As one would expect, their contribution to employment and value added is of

Will Bartlett

2001-01-01

168

Biology 495: Monster Biology Syllabus, Spring 2002  

E-print Network

1998) Mar. 5, 7 Fossorial critters: Biomechanics, scaling, and physiology (Tremors ; The Mole People, 1956 ; see also Dune, 1984 Thursday, 7 March Quiz #2 (50points); Mar. 12, 14 Spring Break Mar. 19, 21 The physiology of gigantism: scaling of the cardiovascular and nervous systems (King Kong, 1932 ) Mar. 26, 28

Warrick, Douglas R.

169

Developments in South American Squid Fisheries  

E-print Network

Developments in South American Squid Fisheries Marcelo Juanico is with the Museo Nacional deI., 1975). Up to now squids have been only a minor and scarce resource in the Chilean fisheries, recorded gigante," Humboldt squid) with a man- tle length of up to I m and a weight of 35 kg. It is fished mainly

170

BotEC: The Right Eye of the Man in the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Question The "right eye" of the Man in the Moon is really Mare Imbrium, the central portion of a gigantic multi-ring basin formed by a colossal meteorite impact several billion years ago. Which of the following is approximately the same size as Mare Imbrium? Choose from the Pacific Ocean, the North Atlantic Ocean, Australia, Texas, and New York State.

Barb Tewksbury

171

Early Warning For Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents NASA scientist Friedemann Freund's experiments on why radio frequency phenomena precede some earthquakes. He demonstrated in the laboratory how the earth's crust can act as a gigantic battery to drive a geological radio circuit that extends more than 30 kilometers below the ground. It is too soon to say whether Freund's theories will be upheld or refuted,

Alberto Enriquez

2007-01-01

172

Quaternary Geochronology 2 (2007) 290295 Research paper  

E-print Network

at the beginning of the Last Interglacial. These are in good agreement with the 10 Be cosmogenic dates obtained of the strongest ever recorded intracontinental earthquakes (magnitude 8.3 on Richter scale). PreviousQuaternary Geochronology 2 (2007) 290­295 Research paper Luminescence dating of a gigantic

Long, Bernard

173

[Acromegaly--from myths to facts].  

PubMed

The authors present numerous historical descriptions of persons who might suffered from gigantism or acromegaly. The oldest medical data of patients, initial attempts of causal neurosurgical treatment, history of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth hormone releasing hormone and somatostatin discovery is reported. The highest contemporary living persons are also listed. PMID:18615400

Ka?uzny, Marcin; Bolanowski, Marek

2008-01-01

174

How to Make Maps from Cosmic Microwave Background Data without Losing Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next generation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments can measure cosmological parameters with unprecedented accuracy---in principle. To achieve this in practice when faced with such gigantic data sets, elaborate data analysis methods are needed to make it computationally feasible. An important step in the data pipeline is to make a map, which typically reduces the size of the data

Max Tegmark

1997-01-01

175

The Hardness and Approximation Algorithms for L-Diversity  

E-print Network

- mer guarantees provably low information loss, whereas the latter incurs gigantic loss in the worst level (bachelor) of Calvin, and (ii) Calvin has a record in the microdata. Thus, s/he easily finds out that Tuple 3 is Calvin's record and hence, Calvin contracted pneumonia. In the above attack, columns Age

Yi, Ke "Kevin"

176

Air-density-dependent model for analysis of air heating associated with streamers, leaders, and transient luminous events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue and gigantic jets are transient luminous events in the middle atmosphere that form when conventional lightning leaders escape upward from the thundercloud. The conditions in the Earth's atmosphere (i.e., air density, reduced electric field, etc.) leading to conversion of hot leader channels driven by thermal ionization near cloud tops to nonthermal streamer forms observed at higher altitudes are not

Jeremy A. Riousset; Victor P. Pasko; Anne Bourdon

2010-01-01

177

\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amazon Rainforest is endowed with a wide range of natural resources. Ancestral com- munities depended on the forest for their livelihoods and displayed a good repertoire of imaginative forms of resource management, adapted to climate extremes in temperature and rainfall. From the midst of the 1900's, however, the Amazon Rainforest became a labour safety valve, perceived as a gigantic reserve

Isabel Maria Madaleno

2008-01-01

178

Centroid single force inversion of seismic waves generated by landslides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The centroid moment tensor (CMT) waveform inversion method of Dziewonski et al. (1981) is modified to analyze long period seismic waves generated by ``single force'' events such as the gigantic landslides associated with the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. We refer to the method as centroid single force (CSF) inversion. As the result of the inversion we obtain the

Hitoshi Kawakatsu

1989-01-01

179

Processing Streams of Points Technical Report ifi-2005.03  

E-print Network

With the gigantic sizes of captured 3D models, e.g. from high-res- olution laser range scanning devices, it has in most 3D object acquisition sys- tems, e.g. laser range scanning of large objects [LPC +00]. In fact, points or 3D coordinates are the fundamental geometry-defining entities. Satisfying provably correct

Pajarola, Renato B.

180

Atmospheric anomalies in summer 1908: Water in the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gigantic noctilucent cloud field was formed and different solar halos were observed after the Tunguska catastrophe. To explain these anomalous phenomena, it is necessary to assume that a large quantity of water was carried into the atmosphere, which indicates that the Tunguska cosmic body was of a comet origin. According to rough estimates, the quantity of water that is

O. G. Gladysheva

2011-01-01

181

Parvilux, a new genus of Myctophid fishes from the Northeastern Pacific, with two new species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relatively gigantic species of lanternfish, described below as representing a new genus, has appeared sparingly since 1950 in bathypelagic collections from off southern California and northern Baja California, Mexico. Although the distinctness of the species has been known for some time, most available specimens had generally been so badly damaged by the nets that an adequate evaluation of the

C. L. Hubbs; R. L. Wisner

1964-01-01

182

636 nature physics | VOL 6 | SEPTEMBER 2010 | www.nature.com/naturephysics research highlights  

E-print Network

gigantic black holes in galaxies far from our own, and it is unlikely that nuclei could have travelled through the galaxy reproduces the observed effect. The model suggests that it is the more effective in the dark Opt. Lett. 35, 2639­2641 (2010) It was recently di

Loss, Daniel

183

Using lunar resources - the next step?  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the Soviets launched a small metallic sphere called 'Sputnik' into space back in 1957 nobody imagined that it constituted the prelude to some of the most gigantic projects of the 21st Century. Now, as we stand on the verge of the second millenium, is the era of such mammoth projects as Apollo over forever, or will man walk again

M. Lyonnet Du Moutier; J. Collet

1994-01-01

184

Latent outflow activity for western Tharsis, Mars: Significant flood record exposed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Observations permitted by the newly acquired Mars Observer Laser Altimeter data have revealed a system of gigantic valleys northwest of the huge Martian shield volcano, Arsia Mons, in the western hemisphere of Mars (northwestern slope valleys (NSVs)). These features, which generally correspond spatially to gravity lows, are obscured by veneers of materials including volcanic lava flows, air fall deposits, and eolian materials. Geologic investigations of the Tharsis region suggest that the system of gigantic valleys predates the construction of Arsia Mons and its extensive associated lava flows of mainly late Hesperian and Amazonian age and coincides stratigraphically with the early development of the outflow channels that debouch into Chryse Planitia. Similar to the previously identified outflow channels, which issued tremendous volumes of water into topographic lows such as Chryse Planitia, the NSVs potentially represent flooding of immense magnitude and, as such, a source of water for a northern plains ocean.

Dohm, J.M.; Anderson, R.C.; Baker, V.R.; Ferris, J.C.; Rudd, L.P.; Hare, T.M.; Rice, J.W., Jr.; Casavant, R.R.; Strom, R.G.; Zimbelman, J.R.; Scott, D.H.

2001-01-01

185

Meta-tag propagation by co-training an ensemble classifier for improving image search relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ever-increasing gigantic amount of images over the Web necessitates automatic schemes for meta-tagging content descriptions such as object categories. These meta-tags are essential to text-based image search engines to improve their search relevance. Traditional supervised scheme is not suitable for this task because it needs too much manual labelling efforts and yet is hard to scale to a large

Aayush Sharma; Gang Hua; Zicheng Liu; Zhengyou Zhang

2008-01-01

186

Proteus syndrome: A rare case report  

PubMed Central

Proteus syndrome (PS) is a rare hamartomatous disorder characterized by various cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, including vascular malformations, lipomas, hyperpigmentation, and several types of nevi. Partial gigantism with limb or digital overgrowth is pathognomonic of PS. We report a rare case of PS in a 50-year-old man who presented with inferior wall myocardial infarction and was incidentally detected to have hypertrophy of index and middle fingers of both the hands. PMID:23716948

Talari, Keerthi; Subbanna, Praveen Kumar Arinaganhalli; Amalnath, Deepak; Suri, Subrahmanyam Dharanitragada Krishna

2012-01-01

187

Virulence domain of the RYMV genome-linked viral protein VPg towards rice rymv 1–2-mediated resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virulent variants of Rice yellow mottle virus (genus Sobemovirus) can emerge on the highly resistant rice cultivars Gigante and Bekarosaka. Non-synonymous mutations responsible for the breakdown\\u000a of the recessive resistance gene rymv1–2 were located in the VPg after determination of its termini in the polyprotein P2a. The secondary structure of this protein\\u000a was predicted to include a central ?-helix. The

Eugénie Hébrard; Agnès Pinel-Galzi; Denis Fargette

2008-01-01

188

Workshop report: large-scale parallel KDD systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionWith the unprecedented rate at which data is beingcollected today in almost all elds of human endeavor,there is an emerging economic and scientic needto extract useful information from it. For example,many companies already have data-warehouses in theterabyte range (e.g., FedEx, Walmart). The WorldWide Web has an estimated 800 million web-pages.Similarly, scientic data is reaching gigantic proportions(e.g., NASA space missions, Human

Mohammed J. Zaki; Ching-tien Ho

2000-01-01

189

Cold Nuclear Fusion Induced by Controlled Out-Diffusion of Deuterons in Palladium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gigantic neutron burst of (1--2)× 106 n\\/s has been detected from deuterated Pd plates with heterostructures set in a vacuum chamber. An explosive release of D2 gas, biaxial bending of all the samples, and excess heat evolution were also observed at the same time. It has been concluded that these phenomena are caused by the cooperative production of D

Eiichi Yamaguchi; Takashi Nishioka

1990-01-01

190

A-. Sctence Service Feature 2el.eae;od upon receipt  

E-print Network

and cast down as a streak h o n g the Nootka the thunder bird is associatsd of lightnfng, k i l l i n g the mh2le. James 0. Swan, writing of the Indians of Cape Flattery, says that among the tribes on that part of the coast the thwder bird is supposed t o be a gigantic Indian, variously known E ~ F ;Xn

191

Domestication evolution, genetics and genomics in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestication of plants and animals is the major factor underlying human civilization and is a gigantic evolutionary experiment\\u000a of adaptation and speciation, generating incipient species. Wheat is one of the most important grain crops in the world, and\\u000a consists mainly of two types: the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) accounting for about 95% of world wheat production, and the tetraploid

Junhua H. Peng; Dongfa Sun; Eviatar Nevo

192

Saturn V First Stage (S-1C) At MSFC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This small group of unidentified officials is dwarfed by the gigantic size of the Saturn V first stage (S-1C) at the shipping area of the Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

1960-01-01

193

Four New Bat Species (Rhinolophus hildebrandtii Complex) Reflect Plio-Pleistocene Divergence of Dwarfs and Giants across an Afromontane Archipelago  

PubMed Central

Gigantism and dwarfism evolve in vertebrates restricted to islands. We describe four new species in the Rhinolophus hildebrandtii species-complex of horseshoe bats, whose evolution has entailed adaptive shifts in body size. We postulate that vicissitudes of palaeoenvironments resulted in gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands fragmented across eastern and southern Africa. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences recovered two clades of R. hildebrandtii senso lato which are paraphyletic with respect to a third lineage (R. eloquens). Lineages differ by 7.7 to 9.0% in cytochrome b sequences. Clade 1 includes R. hildebrandtii sensu stricto from the east African highlands and three additional vicariants that speciated across an Afromontane archipelago through the Plio-Pleistocene, extending from the Kenyan Highlands through the Eastern Arc, northern Mozambique and the Zambezi Escarpment to the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa. Clade 2 comprises one species confined to lowland savanna habitats (Mozambique and Zimbabwe). A third clade comprises R. eloquens from East Africa. Speciation within Clade 1 is associated with fixed differences in echolocation call frequency, and cranial shape and size in populations isolated since the late Pliocene (ca 3.74 Mya). Relative to the intermediate-sized savanna population (Clade 2), these island-populations within Clade 1 are characterised by either gigantism (South African eastern Great Escarpment and Mts Mabu and Inago in Mozambique) or dwarfism (Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge, Zimbabwe and Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa). Sympatry between divergent clades (Clade 1 and Clade 2) at Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge (NW Zimbabwe) is attributed to recent range expansions. We propose an “Allometric Speciation Hypothesis”, which attributes the evolution of this species complex of bats to divergence in constant frequency (CF) sonar calls. The origin of species-specific peak frequencies (overall range?=?32 to 46 kHz) represents the allometric effect of adaptive divergence in skull size, represented in the evolution of gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands. PMID:22984399

Taylor, Peter J.; Stoffberg, Samantha; Monadjem, Ara; Schoeman, Martinus Corrie; Bayliss, Julian; Cotterill, Fenton P. D.

2012-01-01

194

Alien grasses in Brazilian savannas: a threat to the biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

African grasses used as forage are spreading fast in cerrado (Brazilian savanna) patches, probably displacing native species. An analysis of the graminoid species abundance was performed in Cerrado Pé-de-Gigante Reserve (São Paulo State, Brazil), where their relative frequency, density, dominance and the value of importance were assessed in two cerrado forms: cerrado sensu stricto (denser) and campo cerrado (open). Thirty-six

Vânia Regina Pivello; Cláudia Nagako Shida; Sérgio Tadeu Meirelles

1999-01-01

195

An Atypical Case of Pityriasis Rosea Gigantea after Influenza Vaccination  

PubMed Central

Pityriasis rosea is a common erythematosquamous eruption, typically presenting along the cleavage lines of the skin. A wide spectrum of atypical manifestations may challenge even the most experienced physician. Here we report a rare case of a suberythrodermic pityriasis rosea with gigantic plaques after an influenza vaccination, and we discuss the possible triggers of atypical manifestations of such a common dermatological disease in the setting of an altered immunity. PMID:24847250

Papakostas, Dimitrios; Stavropoulos, Panagiotis G.; Papafragkaki, Dafni; Grigoraki, Ekaterini; Avgerinou, Georgia; Antoniou, Christina

2014-01-01

196

Analysis of UV flashes of millisecond scale detected by a low-orbit satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microsatellite Tatiana recently detected two scales of the UV flash duration: 1–4 ms and 10–64 ms. This paper studies the atmospheric electricity phenomena that can serve as a source for short-millisecond-range flashes. It is shown that UV flashes in the millisecond scale detected by Tatiana may be explained as generated by gigantic blue jets (GBJ). The influence of an

Mikhail N. Shneider; Gennady M. Milikh

2010-01-01

197

Nonreciprocal metamaterials based on magnetic photonic crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite metamaterials based on magnetic photonic crystals can display unique. electromagnetic properties such as gigantic magnetoelectric effect, one-way transparency (electromagnetic unidirectionality), and the ability to slow down and trap incoming microwave radiation. Such metamaterials can be made from off-the-shelf ferrites and other readily available dielectric components. The key to the desired properties is the proper spatial arrangement of the constitutive

A. Figotin; L. Vitebskiy

2004-01-01

198

Damage from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami - A quick report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tohoku region, Northeast Japan, was hit by a gigantic earthquake which occurred in the Pacific close to Tohoku, and subsequently\\u000a by a giant tsunami. These hazards have caused huge damage on the eastern coast Japan. The earthquake’s magnitude was 9.0,\\u000a the strongest ever recorded in Japan. The tsunami was also historical as its run-up height reached over 39 m. As

Nobuo Mimura; Kazuya Yasuhara; Seiki Kawagoe; Hiromune Yokoki; So Kazama

2011-01-01

199

Institutional causes for the slowing transition, unemployment and unequal distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usually 65%–80% of the employment can be taken by small-and-medium-sized enterprises in a country. The more small-and-medium-sized\\u000a enterprises are active in the economy, the higher proportion of the middle income classes in the population, and the lower\\u000a proportion of the poor people caused by unemployment and under-employment. Therefore, without changing the policy inclination\\u000a to support gigantic or large companies we

Tianyong Zhou

2007-01-01

200

[Preperitoneal suprainguinal access with prosthesis of the anterior abdominal wall in treatment of complex forms of incarcerated inguinal hernias].  

PubMed

The article describes a non-typical access to treatment of gigantic incarcerated inguinal hernias. Preperitoneal suprainguinal access allows solution of the main task of operative aid in this pathology: inspection of the strangulated organs, safe dissection of the incarcerating ring and prosthesis of the anterior abdominal wall. This method in many aspects is comparable with traditional methods of hernioplasty, but the postoperative quality of life is much better. PMID:20552796

Fedoseev, A V; Leonchenko, S V; Faber, M I; Murav'ev, S Iu

2010-01-01

201

NGCN: A P2P-based distributed next generation core network towards 4G  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of mobile Internet and distributed technologies, the traditional telecommunications network is subject to many challenges. Skype, a popular peer-to-peer VoIP (Voice over IP) application, shows the gigantic advantage of distributed communication. Therefore, we are trying to design a Next Generation Core Network (NGCN), which utilizes distributed technologies such as P2P, cloud computing, virtualization, etc. It can not

Zhou Naibao; Peng Jin; Wei Bing

2009-01-01

202

An update on chloroplast genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cells possess two more genomes besides the central nuclear genome: the mitochondrial genome and the chloroplast genome\\u000a (or plastome). Compared to the gigantic nuclear genome, these organelle genomes are tiny and are present in high copy number.\\u000a These genomes are less prone to recombination and, therefore, retain signatures of their age to a much better extent than\\u000a their nuclear

V. Ravi; J. P. Khurana; A. K. Tyagi; P. Khurana

2008-01-01

203

The Oort cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Views of the large-scale structure of the solar system, consisting of the Sun, the nine planets and their satellites, changed when Oort demonstrated that a gigantic cloud of comets (the Oort cloud) is located on the periphery of the solar system. The following subject areas are covered: (1) the Oort cloud's mass; (2) Hill's cloud mass; (3) angular momentum distribution in the solar system; and (4) the cometary cloud around other stars.

Marochnik, Leonid S.; Mukhin, Lev M.; Sagdeev, Roald Z.

1991-01-01

204

Four new bat species (Rhinolophus hildebrandtii complex) reflect Plio-Pleistocene divergence of dwarfs and giants across an Afromontane archipelago.  

PubMed

Gigantism and dwarfism evolve in vertebrates restricted to islands. We describe four new species in the Rhinolophus hildebrandtii species-complex of horseshoe bats, whose evolution has entailed adaptive shifts in body size. We postulate that vicissitudes of palaeoenvironments resulted in gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands fragmented across eastern and southern Africa. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences recovered two clades of R. hildebrandtii senso lato which are paraphyletic with respect to a third lineage (R. eloquens). Lineages differ by 7.7 to 9.0% in cytochrome b sequences. Clade 1 includes R. hildebrandtii sensu stricto from the east African highlands and three additional vicariants that speciated across an Afromontane archipelago through the Plio-Pleistocene, extending from the Kenyan Highlands through the Eastern Arc, northern Mozambique and the Zambezi Escarpment to the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa. Clade 2 comprises one species confined to lowland savanna habitats (Mozambique and Zimbabwe). A third clade comprises R. eloquens from East Africa. Speciation within Clade 1 is associated with fixed differences in echolocation call frequency, and cranial shape and size in populations isolated since the late Pliocene (ca 3.74 Mya). Relative to the intermediate-sized savanna population (Clade 2), these island-populations within Clade 1 are characterised by either gigantism (South African eastern Great Escarpment and Mts Mabu and Inago in Mozambique) or dwarfism (Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge, Zimbabwe and Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa). Sympatry between divergent clades (Clade 1 and Clade 2) at Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge (NW Zimbabwe) is attributed to recent range expansions. We propose an "Allometric Speciation Hypothesis", which attributes the evolution of this species complex of bats to divergence in constant frequency (CF) sonar calls. The origin of species-specific peak frequencies (overall range = 32 to 46 kHz) represents the allometric effect of adaptive divergence in skull size, represented in the evolution of gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands. PMID:22984399

Taylor, Peter J; Stoffberg, Samantha; Monadjem, Ara; Schoeman, Martinus Corrie; Bayliss, Julian; Cotterill, Fenton P D

2012-01-01

205

Low-field magnetoelectric effect at room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discoveries of gigantic ferroelectric polarization in BiFeO3 (ref. 1) and ferroelectricity accompanied by a magnetic order in TbMnO3 (ref. 2) have renewed interest in research on magnetoelectric multiferroics, materials in which magnetic and ferroelectric orders coexist, from both fundamental and technological points of view. Among several different types of magnetoelectric multiferroic, magnetically induced ferroelectrics in which ferroelectricity is induced

Yutaro Kitagawa; Yuji Hiraoka; Takashi Honda; Taishi Ishikura; Hiroyuki Nakamura; Tsuyoshi Kimura

2010-01-01

206

Vissage: ALMA VO Desktop Viewer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vissage (VISualisation Software for Astronomical Gigantic data cubEs) is a FITS browser primarily targeting FITS data cubes obtained from ALMA. Vissage offers basic functionality for viewing three-dimensional data cubes, integrated intensity map, flipbook, channel map, and P-V diagram. It has several color sets and color scales available, offers panning and zooming, and can connect with the ALMA WebQL system and the JVO Subaru Image Cutout Service.

Kawasaki, Wataru

2014-02-01

207

Subwave spikes of the orbital angular momentum of the vortex-beams in a uniaxial crystal  

E-print Network

We have theoretically predicted the gigantic spikes of the orbital angular momentum caused by the conversion processes of the centered optical vortex in the circularly polarized components of the elliptic vortex beam propagating perpendicular to the crystal optical axis. We have experimentally observed the conversion process inside the subwave deviations of the crystal length. We have found that the total orbital angular momentum of the wave beam is conserved.

Fadeyeva, T; Rubass, A; Zinov'ev, A; Konovalenko, V; Volyar, A

2011-01-01

208

Low H/L of initial and secondary landslides on Mars Valles Marineris floor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Global Surveyer (MGS) has investigated the almost whole Martian topography with high resolution and its products are reflected in the Google Earth's martian option. This digital service provide huge opportunities to public to view the preserved landslide topography as well as to measure the parameters for landslide mobility such as average coefficient of friction (H/L), and apparent friction angle. Among those views, the Valles Marineris is the most landslide prone area and a lot of long runout gigantic landslides can be extracted along the tectonic cliff. Authors encouraged undergraduate students to measure this parameter as an exercise of introductory course of planetary science, especially of the gigantic initial landslides to compare with those of secondary landslides which looks like induced by subsequent triggers such as earthquake or metor impact. Preliminary results show that (1) The H/L values of the gigantic initial landslides are dependent on landslide volume as reported by previous studies; (2) secondary landslides of much less volumes generally have wide and thin spread features but much smaller friction like debris flows. Those characters imply that those landslides might have been induced in the landslide deposits of higher moisture content and/or runout on valley floor of highly saturated or shallow ground water table.

Sagi, H.; Fukuoka, H.

2012-12-01

209

Effects of snail size and age on the prevalence and intensity of avian schistosome infection: relating laboratory to field studies.  

PubMed

Both the prevalence and intensity of patent infection by avian schistosomes (Trichobilharzia ocellata) increase with increasing size of lymnaeid snails (Stagnicola elrodi) collected in Flathead Lake, Montana. Because the size and age of a snail are positively correlated, snails of different sizes may have experienced differential duration of exposure to and development of infection. Another possibility is that infection itself induces snail gigantism. Each of these possibilities could lead to increased prevalence and intensity of infection among the oldest-largest snails. To decouple size variation from many correlated effects of age and to test for parasite-induced gigantism, laboratory experiments standardized snail size-age-at-infection, exposure history, inoculating dose, and duration of infection. The positive relationship between size and prevalence was eliminated in the laboratory, but the relationship between size and infection intensity remained. Laboratory results thus suggest that infection intensity is related to snail size per se, whereas prevalence in the field is related to snail size only through the correlation between size and age. In addition, under these experimental conditions, infected snails were no larger than uninfected snails, so the patterns observed in the field might not be attributable to gigantism. PMID:12880242

Graham, Andrea L

2003-06-01

210

Reconstruction of difficult wounds with tissue-expanded free flaps.  

PubMed

Tissue expansion of free flaps before transfer have been used to increase the size of the transferred tissue and to allow primary closure of the donor site. This is especially important in burns when there is a lack of healthy tissue, and in children when there is a relative lack of tissue. In this study the authors present their 17-year experience with tissue-expanded free flaps. Between 1985 and 2002, 14 cases of tissue expansion of free flaps before transfer were performed at the authors' institution. The indications for vascularized tissue were 9 facial defects (8 severe burns and 1 neurofibromatosis), 3 large lumbosacral ulcers resulting from spina bifida, 1 large vulvoperineal defect resulting from resection for Chron disease, and 1 large circumferential tissue defect at the lower extremity resulting from tumor extirpation. The flaps were 6 radial forearm, 4 parascapular, and 4 lateral arm free flaps. Tissue expanders were placed under the subcutaneous plane between the deep fascia and the muscle layer, preserving the pedicle architecture and integrity. The size of the tissue expander ranged from 250 to 700 mL and expansions were done either weekly or biweekly for a 10- to 20-week period. The patients were followed for 1 to 17 years. The outcome of the study was based on donor and recipient site morbidity, rate of complications, patient satisfaction, and long-term outcome of the donor and recipient sites. There was no failure in any of the transferred tissue at the recipient site and no tissue loss. Three patients had transient congestion of the free flaps, which resolved without any intervention. In all patients the donor area was closed primarily. One black patient had hypertrophic scar formation at the radial forearm donor site requiring reexpansion and primary closure. In other patients the scar was acceptable. One patient had an infection at the tissue expander site that was treated with removal of the implant and transfer of the free flap to the recipient defect the following day. In 4 patients with facial burns, posttransfer tissue expansion of the free flap at the recipient site was performed for minor revisions at later dates. All patients had good outcomes and were satisfied with the procedure. Preexpansion of free flaps is an effective but underused method. It is safe in terms of complications, results in a better appearing donor site scar, and allows transfer of larger amounts of tissue in patients with tissue deficiency. PMID:15096936

Acarturk, T Oguz; Glaser, Donald P; Newton, E Douglas

2004-05-01

211

La Thuile 2014: Theoretical premises to neutrino round table  

E-print Network

This talk, dedicated to the memory of G. Giacomelli, introduced the round table on neutrinos held in February 2014. The topics selected for the discussion are: 1) the neutrinoless double beta decay rate (interpretation in terms of light neutrinos, nuclear uncertainties); 2) the physics in the gigantic water Cherenkov detectors (proton decay, atmospheric neutrinos); 3) the study of neutrino oscillations (mass hierarchy and CP violation; other neutrino states); 4) the neutrino astronomy at low and high energies (solar, supernova, cosmic neutrinos). The importance of an active interplay between theory and experiment is highlighted.

Francesco Vissani

2014-05-25

212

Slimeware: engineering devices with slime mold.  

PubMed

The plasmodium of the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum is a gigantic single cell visible to the unaided eye. The cell shows a rich spectrum of behavioral patterns in response to environmental conditions. In a series of simple experiments we demonstrate how to make computing, sensing, and actuating devices from the slime mold. We show how to program living slime mold machines by configurations of repelling and attracting gradients and demonstrate the workability of the living machines on tasks of computational geometry, logic, and arithmetic. PMID:23834592

Adamatzky, Andrew

2013-01-01

213

A minimal form of Proteus syndrome presenting with macrodactyly and hand hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by progressive course and great variability of clinical presentation with partial gigantism of extremities, hemihyperplasia with macrocephaly, epidermal nevus, mesodermal hamartomas and the presence of peculiar cerebriform masses on the palms/soles. Many atypical cases have been reported and this is probably due to the mosaicism of the genetic disorder displaying different clinical features. We describe a patient with an extremely mild form of Proteus syndrome presenting macrodactyly and hyperplasia of one hand which was misdiagnosed until the age of 33 years. PMID:12695139

Morelli, Federica; Feliciani, Claudio; Toto, Paola; De Benedetto, Anna; Tulli, Antonello

2003-01-01

214

Light-induced change in magnetization-induced second harmonic generation of Fe0.52Rh0.48 films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiating with pulsed laser light induces high-speed optical switching of surface magnetization-induced second harmonic generation (MSHG) in Fe0.52Rh0.48 thin films at room temperature. The second harmonic rotation angle (?SH) of 25.0° was recorded in the irradiated film at 2000 Oe. This ?SH value is as much as 740 times larger than the normal Kerr rotation angle (0.034° at 388 nm). The observed gigantic ?SH value is attributed to surface MSHG on the ferromagnetic phase in Fe0.52Rh0.48, which is generated by the optical heating.

Nuida, Tomohiro; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi

2011-09-01

215

Design of a Template for Handwriting Based Hindi Text Entry in Handheld Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile phones, in the recent times, have become affordable and accessible to a wider range of users including the hitherto technologically and economically under-represented segments. Indian users are a gigantic consumer base for mobile phones. With Hindi being one of the most widely spoken languages in the country and the primary tool of communication for about a third of its population, an effective solution for Hindi text entry in mobile devices is expected to be immensely useful to the non English speaking users. This paper proposes a mobile phone handwriting based text entry solution for Hindi language, which allows for an easy text entry method, while facilitating better recognition accuracy.

Gangopadhyay, Diya; Vasal, Ityam; Yammiyavar, Pradeep

216

Delayed male maturity is a cost of producing large sperm in Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

Among fruit-fly species of the genus Drosophila there is remarkable variation in sperm length, with some species producing gigantic sperm (e.g., > 10 times total male body length). These flies are also unusual in that males of some species exhibit a prolonged adult nonreproductive phase. We document sperm length, body size, and sex-specific ages of reproductive maturity for 42 species of Drosophila and, after controlling for phylogeny, test hypotheses to explain the variation in rates of sexual maturation. Results suggest that delayed male maturity is a cost of producing long sperm. A possible physiological mechanism to explain the observed relationship is discussed. PMID:7479851

Pitnick, S; Markow, T A; Spicer, G S

1995-01-01

217

Black Smokers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage contains a brief introduction to the discovery of hydrothermal systems and black smokers. Within the webpage are links to information on gigantic tube worms, polychaete worms, oceans, and extreme environments. This site also provides a list of hydrothermal systems, relevant links to organizations, laboratories and observatories, WebQuests, and other websites with further information on hydrothermal systems. As part of the Environmental Literacy Council site, this webpage also contains links to other resources with environmental content, including air climate, land, water, ecosystems, energy, food, and environment and society.

218

Anomalous increase of the thermal emf in epitaxial graphene on size-quantized films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermoelectric effect in epitaxial graphene formed on the surface of a size-quantized metal film is examined in the context of a Davydov model. An approach based on the Kubo formula for the conductivity and differential thermal emf is used. It is shown that because of size quantization, near the edges of the energy levels the thermal emf of epitaxial graphene increases to gigantic values of 200 ?V/K, or almost a factor of seven greater than the emf of isolated graphene (about 30 ?V/K).

Alisultanov, Z. Z.; Mirzegasanova, N. A.

2014-05-01

219

Stable optical trapping of latex nanoparticles with ultrashort pulsed illumination.  

PubMed

Here we report how ultrafast pulsed illumination at low average power results in a stable three-dimensional (3D) optical trap holding latex nanoparticles which is otherwise not possible with continuous wave lasers at the same power level. The gigantic peak power of a femtosecond pulse exerts a huge instantaneous gradient force that has been predicted theoretically earlier and implemented for microsecond pulses in a different context by others. In addition, the resulting two-photon fluorescence allows direct observation of trapping events by providing intrinsic 3D resolution. PMID:19881642

De, Arijit Kumar; Roy, Debjit; Dutta, Aveek; Goswami, Debabrata

2009-11-01

220

Sea, soil, sky: testing solar's limits  

SciTech Connect

Gigantic heat exchangers for ocean-thermal energy conversion, vast plantations harvested for fuel, and massive arrays of photovoltaic cells in geocentric orbit have captured conceptual fancy in recent years. But the facts emerging from engineering assessments and the limitation of federal support point to lower priority among the research and development options. For the foreseeable future, greater emphasis will be placed on less grandiose schemes, such as forest and agricultural waste combustion and municipal refuse, which may have significant local impacts. 6 references, 1 figure.

Hopkinson, J.; DeMeo, E.

1981-12-01

221

Large space structures - Fantasies and facts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of large space structures activities from 1973 to 1979 is presented. Long-range studies of space colonies, gigantic solar power stations and projected earth applications revived interest in space activities. Studies suggest opportunities for advanced antenna and platform applications. Matching low-thrust propulsion to large flexible vehicles will be a key technology. Current structures technology investigations include deployable and erectable structures and assembly techniques. Based on orbited structures experience, deployment reliability is a critical issue for deployable structures. For erectable structures, concepts for earth-fabricated and space-fabricated memb

Card, M. F.; Boyer, W. J.

1980-01-01

222

Ferroelectricity and giant magnetocapacitance in perovskite rare-earth manganites.  

PubMed

The relationships among magnetism, lattice modulation, and dielectric properties have been investigated for RMnO3 (R=Eu, Gd, Tb, and Dy). These compounds show a transition to an incommensurate lattice structure below their Néel temperature, and subsequently undergo an incommensurate-commensurate (IC-C) phase transition. For TbMnO3 and DyMnO3 it was found that the IC-C transition is accompanied by a ferroelectric transition, associated with a lattice modulation in the C phase. DyMnO3 shows a gigantic magnetocapacitance with a change of dielectric constant up to Deltaepsilon/epsilon approximately 500%. PMID:15245056

Goto, T; Kimura, T; Lawes, G; Ramirez, A P; Tokura, Y

2004-06-25

223

Toward chemistry-based design of the simplest metalloenzyme-like catalyst that works efficiently in water.  

PubMed

Enzymes exhibit overwhelmingly superior catalysis compared with artificial catalysts. Current strategies to rival enzymatic catalysis require unmodified or minimally modified structures of active sites, gigantic molecular weight, and sometimes the use of harsh conditions such as extremely low temperatures in organic solvents. Herein, we describe a design of small molecules that act as the simplest metalloenzyme-like catalysts that can function in water, without mimicking enzyme structures. These artificial catalysts efficiently promoted enantioselective direct-type aldol reactions using aqueous formaldehyde. The reactions followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and heat-resistant asymmetric environments were constructed in water. PMID:25349140

Kitanosono, Taku; Kobayashi, Sh?

2015-01-01

224

Ar-40 to Ar-39 dating of pseudotachylites from the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa, with implications for the formation of the Vredefort Dome  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formation of the Vredefort Dome, a structure in excess of 100 km in diameter and located in the approximate center of the Witwatersrand basin, is still the subject of lively geological controversy. It is widely accepted that its formation seems to have taken place in a single sudden event, herein referred to as the Vredefort event, accompanied by the release of gigantic amounts of energy. It is debated, however, whether this central event was an internal one, i.e., a cryptoexplosion triggered by volcanic or tectonic processes, or the impact of an extraterrestrial body. The results of this debate are presented.

Trieloff, M.; Kunz, J.; Jessberger, E. K.; Reimold, W. U.; Boer, R. H.; Jackson, M. C.

1992-01-01

225

Large meteorite impacts: The K/T model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary event represents probably the largest meteorite impact known on Earth. It is the only impact event conclusively linked to a worldwide mass extinction, a reflection of its gigantic scale and global influence. Until recently, the impact crater was not definitively located and only the distal ejecta of this impact was available for study. However, detailed investigations of this ejecta's mineralogy, geochemistry, microstratigraphy, and textures have allowed its modes of ejection and dispersal to be modeled without benefit of a source crater of known size and location.

Bohor, B. F.

1992-01-01

226

The Final Proceedings of the DOE/NASA Solar Power Satellite Program Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar power satellite (SPS) concept defined as 'placing gigantic satellites in geosynchronous orbit to capture sunlight, changing the energy into an appropriate form for transmission to Earth, and introducing the energy into the electric power grid' is evaluated in terms of costs and benefits. The concept development and evaluation program is reviewed in four general areas: systems definition; environmental; societal; and comparative assessments. Specific factors addressed include: transportation, construction in space, methods of conversion of sunlight into energy, transmission to Earth, maintenance in orbit and decommissioning of satellites; environmental, political, and economic effects; and comparison of SPS to other forms of power generation, both terrestrial and in space.

1980-01-01

227

The Thinking Machine: A Physical Science Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science projects can be a wonderful opportunity for learning and creativity, or a gigantic headache for teachers. After several years of implementation, experience, and revision, the author has put together a fun and engaging project centered on machines that is appropriate for middle school students. This project came to be known simply as "The Thinking Machine Project," which draws its origin from the national Rube Goldberg Machine competition held each year at Purdue University. Here is one way to bring technology, writing, drawing, creativity, and hands-on ingenuity together in a single fun and successful project.

Amber Jarrard

2008-11-01

228

Molarization of Mandibular Second Premolar  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Macrodontia (megadontia, megalodontia, mac rodontism) is a rare shape anomaly that has been used to describe dental gigantism. Mandibular second premolars show an elevated variability of crown morphology, as are its eruptive potential and final position in the dental arch. To date, only eight cases of isolated macrodontia of second premolars have been reported in the literature. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of unusual and rare case of isolated unilateral molarization of left mandibular second premolar. How to cite this article: Mangla N, Khinda VIS, Kallar S, Brar GS. Molarization of Mandibular Second Premolar. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):137-139. PMID:25356014

Singh Khinda, Vineet Inder; Kallar, Shiminder; Singh Brar, Gurlal

2014-01-01

229

Probing membrane potential with nonlinear optics.  

PubMed Central

The nonlinear optical phenomenon of second harmonic generation is shown to have intrinsic sensitivity to the voltage across a biological membrane. Our results demonstrate that this second order nonlinear optical process can be used to monitor membrane voltage with excellent signal to noise and other crucial advantages. These advantages suggest extensive use of this novel approach as an important new tool in elucidating membrane potential changes in biological systems. For this first demonstration of the effect we use a chiral styryl dye which exhibits gigantic second harmonic signals. Possible mechanisms of the voltage dependence of the second harmonic signal are discussed. PMID:8218895

Bouevitch, O; Lewis, A; Pinevsky, I; Wuskell, J P; Loew, L M

1993-01-01

230

Generation-X Mission Technology Drivers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gen-X is envisioned to be an observatory with a gigantic X-ray collection area and exquisite angular resolution and energy spectral resolution. As such it presents a number of technological challenges: extremely lightweight X-ray optics, large area and fast readout imaging detectors with excellent energy resolution, and efficient gratings. These challenges call for development of both the basic technologies and large-scale precision manufacture techniques. In this paper we present and discuss these challenges and outline a plan that will address these challenges in the next two decades.

Zhang, Will

2004-01-01

231

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome with overlapping Perlman syndrome manifestation.  

PubMed

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome known as exomphalos-macroglossia - gigantism syndrome. Prognosis is good, prenatal diagnosis is important for pregnancy management but might be difficult due to clinical overlap with other syndromes. Perlman syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome with high perinatal mortality, most frequent antenatal findings include polyhydramnios, macrosomia, visceromegaly, nephromegaly and foetal ascites. Authors present a case of prenatally diagnosed BWS with severe ascites as first antenatal finding and lethal course, signs more typical of Perlman syndrome. This combination of clinical signs has not been published yet and may contribute to specification of possible prenatal manifestation of BWS. PMID:24215131

Ferianec, Vladimír; Bartova, Michaela

2014-10-01

232

Molarization of mandibular second premolar.  

PubMed

Macrodontia (megadontia, megalodontia, mac rodontism) is a rare shape anomaly that has been used to describe dental gigantism. Mandibular second premolars show an elevated variability of crown morphology, as are its eruptive potential and final position in the dental arch. To date, only eight cases of isolated macrodontia of second premolars have been reported in the literature. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of unusual and rare case of isolated unilateral molarization of left mandibular second premolar. How to cite this article: Mangla N, Khinda VIS, Kallar S, Brar GS. Molarization of Mandibular Second Premolar. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):137-139. PMID:25356014

Mangla, Neha; Singh Khinda, Vineet Inder; Kallar, Shiminder; Singh Brar, Gurlal

2014-05-01

233

Development of high purity large forgings for nuclear power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent increase in the size of energy plants has been supported by the development of manufacturing technology for high purity large forgings for the key components of the plant. To assure the reliability and performance of the large forgings, refining technology to make high purity steels, casting technology for gigantic ingots, forging technology to homogenize the material and consolidate porosity are essential, together with the required heat treatment and machining technologies. To meet these needs, the double degassing method to reduce impurities, multi-pouring methods to cast the gigantic ingots, vacuum carbon deoxidization, the warm forging process and related technologies have been developed and further improved. Furthermore, melting facilities including vacuum induction melting and electro slag re-melting furnaces have been installed. By using these technologies and equipment, large forgings have been manufactured and shipped to customers. These technologies have also been applied to the manufacture of austenitic steel vessel components of the fast breeder reactors and components for fusion experiments.

Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Sato, Ikuo

2011-10-01

234

Physicochemical, digestibility and structural characteristics of starch isolated from banana cultivars.  

PubMed

Banana starches from diverse varieties (Macho, Morado, Valery and Enano Gigante) were studied in their physicochemical, structural and digestibility features. X-ray diffraction indicated that the banana starches present a B-type crystallinity pattern, with slight difference in the crystallinity level. Macho and Enano Gigante starches showed the highest pasting temperatures (79 and 78°C, respectively), whilst Valery and Morado varieties presented a slight breakdown and higher setback than the formers. Morado starch presented the highest solubility value and Valery starch the lowest one. The swelling pattern of the banana starches was in agreement with their pasting profile. All banana starches showed a shear-thinning profile. The resistant starch (RS) fraction was the main fraction in the uncooked banana starches. Morado variety showed the highest amount of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and the lowest RS content reported until now in banana starches. Banana starch cooked samples presented an important amount of SDS and RS. Molecular weight and gyration radius of the four banana starches ranged between 2.88-3.14×10(8)g/mol and 286-302nm, respectively. The chain-length distributions of banana amylopectin showed that B1 chains (DP 13-24) is the main fraction, and an important amount of long chains (DP?37) are present. The information generated from this study can be useful to determine banana varieties for starch isolation with specific functionality. PMID:25839789

Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Nuñez-Santiago, Maria C; Alvarez-Ramirez, José; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

2015-06-25

235

Well-being and excellence in the Earth sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the symposium on Earth Sciences and Society at the Spring AGU Meeting May 29-June 1, Baltimore, Md.), I was assigned to speak on the maintenance of excellence and national well-being in the Earth sciences. I developed serious writer's block every time I approached the topic until I remembered a paragraph at the beginning of Doug Adams' great text, The Restaurant at the End of the Universe [Adams, 1982]. It tells how [A race of highly intelligent pan-dimensional beings once built themselves a gigantic supercomputer called Deep Thought to calculate once and for all the Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, Universe and Everything. For seven and a half million years, Deep Thought computed and calculated, and in the end announced that the answer was in fact Forty-two—and so another, even bigger, computer had to be built to find out what the actual question was. And this computer, which was called the Earth, was so large that it was frequently mistaken for a planet-especially by the strange apelike beings who roamed its surface, totally unaware that they were simply part of a gigantic computer program. And this is very odd, because without that fairly simple and obvious piece of knowledge, nothing that ever happened on the Earth could possibly make the slightest bit of sense.

Drake, Charles L.

236

Upward electrical discharges observed above Tropical Depression Dorian  

PubMed Central

Observation of upward electrical discharges from thunderstorms has been sporadically reported in the scientific literature. According to their terminal altitudes, they are classified as starters (20–30?km), jets (40–50?km) and gigantic jets (70–90?km). They not only have a significant impact on the occupied atmospheric volumes but also electrically couple different atmospheric regions. However, as they are rare and unpredictable, our knowledge of them has been built on observations that typically record only one type of such discharges. Here we report a close-distance observation of seven upward discharges including one starter, two jets and four gigantic jets above Tropical Depression Dorian. Our optical and electromagnetic data indicate that all events are of negative polarity, suggesting they are initiated in the same thundercloud charge region. The data also indicate that the lightning-like discharge channel can extend above thunderclouds by about 30?km, but the discharge does not emit low-frequency electromagnetic radiation as normal lightning. PMID:25607345

Liu, Ningyu; Spiva, Nicholas; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Rassoul, Hamid K.; Free, Dwayne; Cummer, Steven A.

2015-01-01

237

Chromosome evolution with naked eye: Palindromic context of the life origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the representation of the DNA sequence as a two-dimensional (2D) plane walk, we consider the problem of identification and comparison of functional and structural organizations of chromosomes of different organisms. According to the characteristic design of 2D walks we identify telomere sites, palindromes of various sizes and complexity, areas of ribosomal RNA, transposons, as well as diverse satellite sequences. As an interesting result of the application of the 2D walk method, a new duplicated gigantic palindrome in the X human chromosome is detected. A schematic mechanism leading to the formation of such a duplicated palindrome is proposed. Analysis of a large number of the different genomes shows that some chromosomes (or their fragments) of various species appear as imperfect gigantic palindromes, which are disintegrated by many inversions and the mutation drift on different scales. A spread occurrence of these types of sequences in the numerous chromosomes allows us to develop a new insight of some accepted points of the genome evolution in the prebiotic phase.

Larionov, Sergei; Loskutov, Alexander; Ryadchenko, Eugeny

2008-03-01

238

Upward electrical discharges observed above Tropical Depression Dorian  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observation of upward electrical discharges from thunderstorms has been sporadically reported in the scientific literature. According to their terminal altitudes, they are classified as starters (20–30?km), jets (40–50?km) and gigantic jets (70–90?km). They not only have a significant impact on the occupied atmospheric volumes but also electrically couple different atmospheric regions. However, as they are rare and unpredictable, our knowledge of them has been built on observations that typically record only one type of such discharges. Here we report a close-distance observation of seven upward discharges including one starter, two jets and four gigantic jets above Tropical Depression Dorian. Our optical and electromagnetic data indicate that all events are of negative polarity, suggesting they are initiated in the same thundercloud charge region. The data also indicate that the lightning-like discharge channel can extend above thunderclouds by about 30?km, but the discharge does not emit low-frequency electromagnetic radiation as normal lightning.

Liu, Ningyu; Spiva, Nicholas; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Rassoul, Hamid K.; Free, Dwayne; Cummer, Steven A.

2015-01-01

239

Permittivity spectroscopy - an insight into materials properties.  

PubMed

Permittivity Spectroscopy is a branch of the Impedance Spectroscopy specially tuned for measurements and analyses of dielectrics permittivity properties. The present paper presents experimental results on permittivity properties of composite objects in which a polarizable dielectric is distributed in a fine non-polarizable matrix (solid or liquid) measured in frequency range 1 MHz down to 0.01 Hz. Two types of objects are studied - water in porous functional ceramics and lubricating oils. In both systems gigantic enhancement of the effective capacitance is observed. The first series of experiments was performed on porous membranes of yttrium doped barium cerate, which is a proton conducting ceramics with hydrophilic properties. At a given level of watering the measured capacitance is sharply increasing (3 to 5 orders of magnitude) in the lower frequency range. The second example covers permittivity study of lubricating oils, where the increase is 2-3 orders of magnitude. The phenomenon of gigantic enhancement of the effective capacitance could be related to a formation of dipole volume structures induced by the external alternating electrical field. PMID:25125108

Stoynov, Zdravko; Mladenova, Emiliya; Levi, Daniela; Vladikova, Daria

2014-01-01

240

Upward electrical discharges observed above Tropical Depression Dorian.  

PubMed

Observation of upward electrical discharges from thunderstorms has been sporadically reported in the scientific literature. According to their terminal altitudes, they are classified as starters (20-30?km), jets (40-50?km) and gigantic jets (70-90?km). They not only have a significant impact on the occupied atmospheric volumes but also electrically couple different atmospheric regions. However, as they are rare and unpredictable, our knowledge of them has been built on observations that typically record only one type of such discharges. Here we report a close-distance observation of seven upward discharges including one starter, two jets and four gigantic jets above Tropical Depression Dorian. Our optical and electromagnetic data indicate that all events are of negative polarity, suggesting they are initiated in the same thundercloud charge region. The data also indicate that the lightning-like discharge channel can extend above thunderclouds by about 30?km, but the discharge does not emit low-frequency electromagnetic radiation as normal lightning. PMID:25607345

Liu, Ningyu; Spiva, Nicholas; Dwyer, Joseph R; Rassoul, Hamid K; Free, Dwayne; Cummer, Steven A

2015-01-01

241

The maintenance of hybrids by parasitism in a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

Hybrids have often been labelled evolutionary dead-ends due to their lower fertility and viability. However, there is growing awareness that hybridisation between different species may play a constructive role in animal evolution as a means to create variability. Thus, hybridisation and introgression may contribute to adaptive evolution, for example with regards to natural antagonists (parasites, predators, competitors) and adaptation to local environmental conditions. Here we investigated whether parasite intensity contributes to the continuous recreation of hybrids in 74 natural populations of Melanopsis, a complex of freshwater snails with three species. We also examined, under laboratory conditions, whether hybrids and their parental taxa differ in their tolerance of low and high temperatures and salinity levels. Infections were consistently less prevalent in males than in females, and lower in snails from deeper habitats. Infection prevalence in hybrids was significantly lower than in the parental taxa. Low hybrid infection rates could not be explained by sediment type, snail density or geographic distribution of the sampling sites. Interestingly, infected hybrid snails did not show signs of parasite-induced gigantism, whereas all parental taxa did. We found that hybrids mostly coped with extreme temperatures and salinity levels as well as their parental taxa did. Taken together, our results suggest that Melanopsis hybrids perform better in the presence of parasites and environmental stress. This may explain the widespread and long-term occurrence of Melanopsis hybrids as evidenced by paleontological and biogeographic data. Hybridisation may be an adaptive host strategy, reducing infection rates and resisting gigantism. PMID:25173837

Guttel, Yonathan; Ben-Ami, Frida

2014-11-01

242

The Climatic Observatory of the Karst (O.C.C.), a scientific facility within an important tourist framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Climatic Observatory of the Karst, officially inaugurated on 2nd October, 2008, is born in the same place of the historical headquarter of the Borgo Grotta Gigante Meteorological Office, which was set up in 1966 and has been officially operating since 1st January, 1967. The meteorological facilities and the weather office are located on the premises of the visitor centre of "Grotta Gigante”, which is a very popular karstic cave of Trieste, visited each year by at least 70k people. The privileged position induced the promoters of this initiative to think about an integrated meteorological multilanguages system for the visitors. This system provides in real time weather forecasts and meteorological data and, at the same time, general tourist information as well. The synergic cooperation of various Scientific Organizations, which are involved in climatic research at the Borgo Grotta Gigante Climatic Observatory of the Karst, makes possible the realization of this project: "E.Boegan” Cave Commission of S.A.G. (the administrative body); ARPA-OSMER, the Friuli Venezia-Giulia Meteorological Observatory of the Regional Agency of the Environmental Protection, (which manages the automatic station, broadcasts and publishes data in real time and forecasts in the visitors waiting room); C.N.R.-I.S.M.A.R., the Marine Science Institute in Trieste of the National Research Council of Italy (which manages and maintains mechanical instruments, publishes data and carries out checks, files data and publishes reports); U.M.F.V.G., the Friuli Venezia Giulia Meteorological Union (which is involved in scientific dissemination activity and web sharing of information); the Environmental and Public Works Section and Water Service of the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region (water resources monitoring). Moreover one of the main characteristic of the Observatory, also because of didactic reasons, is to maintain the traditional mechanical-analogue part of data collection, carried out by observers, alongside the electronic sensors. This factor is essential for the continuity and the homogeneity of historical series and it distinguishes the observatory from a normal weather station. The data collected is published annually in the "Osservazioni meteoriche" magazine, a publication edited by CGEB as a supplement to the scientific journal "Atti e memorie", which is sent to various Public Authorities, Scientific Organizations, libraries and anyone who applies for it.

Colucci, R. R.; Micheletti, S.; Fabbo, R.

2009-09-01

243

Introduction to Plasma Dynamo, Reconnection and Shocks  

SciTech Connect

In our plasma universe, most of what we can observe is composed of ionized gas, or plasma. This plasma is a conducting fluid, which advects magnetic fields when it flows. Magnetic structure occurs from the smallest planetary to the largest cosmic scales. We introduce at a basic level some interesting features of non linear magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). For example, in our plasma universe, dynamo creates magnetic fields from gravitationally driven flow energy in an electrically conducting medium, and conversely magnetic reconnection annihilates magnetic field and accelerates particles. Shocks occur when flows move faster than the local velocity (sonic or Alfven speed) for the propagation of information. Both reconnection and shocks can accelerate particles, perhaps to gigantic energies, for example as observed with 10{sup 20} eV cosmic rays.

Intrator, Thomas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-30

244

6Li-loaded directionally sensitive anti-neutrino detector for possible geo-neutrinographic imaging applications  

PubMed Central

Despite the latent and unique benefits of imaging uranium and thorium's distribution in the earth's interior, previously proposed experimental techniques used to identify the incoming geo-neutrino's direction are not applicable to practical imaging due to the high miss-identification in a neutrino's track reconstruction. After performing experimental studies and Monte-Carlo simulations, we confirmed that a significant improvement is possible in neutrino tracking identification with a 6Li-loaded neutrino detector. For possible imaging applications, we also explore the feasibility of producing geo-neutrinographic images of gigantic magmatic reservoirs and deep structure in the mantle. We anticipate and plan to apply these newly designed detectors to radiographic imaging of the Earth's interior, monitoring of nuclear reactors, and tracking astrophysical sources of neutrinos. PMID:24759616

Tanaka, H. K. M.; Watanabe, H.

2014-01-01

245

Saramago's All the Names and the epidemiological dream.  

PubMed

Language is crucial for all established scientific disciplines in contemporary society, particularly epidemiology. Portuguese writer Saramago wrote All the Names, a book about the Conservatória, a gigantic registry that stores the whole life of an entire population. A parallel is made with the first social observatories that used entire populations for systematic observation, permitting the development of epidemiological methodology. Such "epidemiological dream" almost became true in virtual form with the introduction of electronic data processing. The central thesis of this paper is that Saramago's Conservatória allegory might be interpreted as akin to the virtual world construed by epidemiological science. Specifically, it is about abstract realities (or theoretical environments) that by definition are necessary for the process of scientific inquiry, particularly when oriented by knowledge production through observational strategies. Reading Saramago, the epidemiological virtualscape may be envisaged, more imaginary than it is usual to imagine and more real than it is usual to realise. PMID:15310798

Almeida-Filho, Naomar

2004-09-01

246

Hypomethylation of the H19 Gene Causes Not Only Silver-Russell Syndrome (SRS) but Also Isolated Asymmetry or an SRS-Like Phenotype  

PubMed Central

The H19 differentially methylated region (DMR) controls the allele-specific expression of both the imprinted H19 tumor-suppressor gene and the IGF2 growth factor. Hypermethylation of this DMR—and subsequently of the H19 promoter region—is a major cause of the clinical features of gigantism and/or asymmetry seen in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome or in isolated hemihypertrophy. Here, we report a series of patients with hypomethylation of the H19 locus. Their main clinical features of asymmetry and growth retardation are the opposite of those seen in patients with hypermethylation of this region. In addition, we show that complete hypomethylation of the H19 promoter is found in two of three patients with the full clinical spectrum of Silver-Russell syndrome. This syndrome is also characterized by growth retardation and asymmetry, among other clinical features. We conclude that patients with these clinical features should be analyzed for H19 hypomethylation. PMID:16532391

Bliek, Jet; Terhal, Paulien; van den Bogaard, Marie-José; Maas, Saskia; Hamel, Ben; Salieb-Beugelaar, Georgette; Simon, Marleen; Letteboer, Tom; van der Smagt, Jasper; Kroes, Hester; Mannens, Marcel

2006-01-01

247

Monster of the Milky Way  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOVA television broadcast discusses black holes and presents new research indicating that a supermassive black hole may lurk at the center of our own galaxy. Features include interviews with researchers who explain the basics of black holes and reveal why they think the Milky Way may harbor a gigantic black hole at its center, and audio clips of physicists and astronomers describing their ideas about black holes. A slide show explains the process by which particularly massive stars consume their nuclear fuel, explode in a supernova, and collapse to an unimaginably dense point called a singularity. There is also a program preview and transcript, as well as an interactive catalog of other astronomical objects.

248

Petroleum, alcohol, and energy substitution in Brazil: Theoretical and empirical issues  

SciTech Connect

As in other Latin American nations, the petroleum industry has always been surrounded by controversy in Brazil. Issues related to exploration, exploitation, and import of crude have received special attention by Brazilian decision makers. In the past decade, an additional relevant issue was brought into play by the oil crisis. An import substitution program for energy was implemented by the development of alternative indigenous energy sources. Among these sources, sugarcane was viewed as a reliable renewable resource for the production of fuel alcohol and, very recently, of electricity. Brazil engaged in a gigantic program of fuel substitution, which is now facing severe problems due to the fall of petroleum prices. This study analyzes the recent energy import substitution program in Brazil, specifically concentrating on microeconomic and environmental aspects of fuel substitution.

Biller, D.

1991-01-01

249

The Financial Policy of William Pitt, 1784-1802  

E-print Network

The Commercial Treaty w i t h Prance Opposition E f f e c t on the Trade of England The C o n s o l i d a t i o n of Duties The Abuses i n the P o s t a l System The Shop tax The Income tax C r i t i c i s m on P i t t ' s Scheme Taxation E n g l i s h... l skeleton of a gigantic trade,important f o r the reason that customs duties and excise formed the l a r g e r portion of the m i n i s t e r s revenue. For the sake of getting a better understanding of the other taxes one or two have been...

Warkentin, John Henry

1908-01-01

250

Impact of Parallel Computing on Large Scale Aeroelastic Computations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeroelasticity is computationally one of the most intensive fields in aerospace engineering. Though over the last three decades the computational speed of supercomputers have substantially increased, they are still inadequate for large scale aeroelastic computations using high fidelity flow and structural equations. In addition to reaching a saturation in computational speed because of changes in economics, computer manufactures are stopping the manufacturing of mainframe type supercomputers. This has led computational aeroelasticians to face the gigantic task of finding alternate approaches for fulfilling their needs. The alternate path to over come speed and availability limitations of mainframe type supercomputers is to use parallel computers. During this decade several different architectures have evolved. In FY92 the US Government started the High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) program. As a participant in this program NASA developed several parallel computational tools for aeroelastic applications. This talk describes the impact of those application tools on high fidelity based multidisciplinary analysis.

Guruswamy, Guru P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

251

Analysis of UV flashes of millisecond scale detected by a low-orbit satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microsatellite Tatiana recently detected two scales of the UV flash duration: 1-4 ms and 10-64 ms. This paper studies the atmospheric electricity phenomena that can serve as a source for short-millisecond-range flashes. It is shown that UV flashes in the millisecond scale detected by Tatiana may be explained as generated by gigantic blue jets (GBJ). The influence of an assumed self-consistent governing electric field in the GBJ streamer zone on the UV pulse shape and duration is revealed. It is also shown that red sprites can be a source for UV flashes with similar temporal profiles but at much lower intensity. The model results are also compared with the observations made by the Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightnings imager on board the FORMOSAT-2 satellite.

Shneider, Mikhail N.; Milikh, Gennady M.

2010-05-01

252

Discovering Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Much of our current knowledge of Mars is the result of investigations conducted by a fleet of spacecraft starting with the Mariners in the mid-1960's. The 1971 Mariner 9 mission which looked at the entire planet instead of just the southern hemisphere, as was the case with the earlier missions, reveals huge volcanic mountains and discloses surface erosion and dried riverbeds. This pamphlet gives a chronology of the United States and Russian spacecraft that have examined Mars along with a short description of each mission. Photos of the Martian surface are included along with descriptions of the topography of the planet. The reverse side of the pamphlet contains a large photo of the Martian surface which clearly depicts the Vallis Marineris, a gigantic rift valley extending a distance equivalent to that from New York to Los Angeles.

1992-01-01

253

Isotope Fractionation and Atmospheric Oxygen: Implications for Phanerozoic O2 Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models describing the evolution of the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen over Phanerozoic time are constrained by the mass balances required between the inputs and outputs of carbon and sulfur to the oceans. This constraint has limited the applicability of proposed negative feedback mechanisms for maintaining levels of atmospheric O2 at biologically permissable levels. Here we describe a modeling approach that incorporates O2-dependent carbon and sulfur isotope fractionation using data obtained from laboratory experiments on carbon-13 discrimination by vascular land plants and marine plankton. The model allows us to calculate a Phanerozoic O2 history that agrees with independent models and with biological and physical constraints and supports the hypothesis of a high atmospheric O2 content during the Carboniferous (300 million years ago), a time when insect gigantism was widespread.

Berner, R. A.; Petsch, S. T.; Lake, J. A.; Beerling, D. J.; Popp, B. N.; Lane, R. S.; Laws, E. A.; Westley, M. B.; Cassar, N.; Woodward, F. I.; Quick, W. P.

2000-03-01

254

Isotope fractionation and atmospheric oxygen: implications for phanerozoic O(2) evolution  

PubMed

Models describing the evolution of the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen over Phanerozoic time are constrained by the mass balances required between the inputs and outputs of carbon and sulfur to the oceans. This constraint has limited the applicability of proposed negative feedback mechanisms for maintaining levels of atmospheric O(2) at biologically permissable levels. Here we describe a modeling approach that incorporates O(2)-dependent carbon and sulfur isotope fractionation using data obtained from laboratory experiments on carbon-13 discrimination by vascular land plants and marine plankton. The model allows us to calculate a Phanerozoic O(2) history that agrees with independent models and with biological and physical constraints and supports the hypothesis of a high atmospheric O(2) content during the Carboniferous (300 million years ago), a time when insect gigantism was widespread. PMID:10698733

Berner; Petsch; Lake; Beerling; Popp; Lane; Laws; Westley; Cassar; Woodward; Quick

2000-03-01

255

Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis of Acromegaly  

PubMed Central

Acromegaly and gigantism are due to excess GH production, usually as a result of a pituitary adenoma. The incidence of acromegaly is 5 cases per million per year and the prevalence is 60 cases per million. Clinical manifestations in each patient depend on the levels of GH and IGF-I, age, tumor size, and the delay in diagnosis. Manifestations of acromegaly are varied and include acral and soft tissue overgrowth, joint pain, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and heart and respiratory failure. Acromegaly is a disabling disease that is associated with increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The diagnosis is based primarily on clinical features and confirmed by measuring GH levels after oral glucose loading and the estimation of IGF-I. It has been suggested that the rate of mortality in patients with acromegaly is correlated with the degree of control of GH. Adequately treated, the relative mortality risk can be markedly reduced towards normal. PMID:22518126

Lugo, Gloria; Pena, Lara; Cordido, Fernando

2012-01-01

256

On the fate of pumice rafts formed during the 2012 Havre submarine eruption.  

PubMed

Pumice rafts are floating mobile accumulations of low-density pumice clasts generated by silicic volcanic eruptions. Pumice in rafts can drift for years, become waterlogged and sink, or become stranded on shorelines. Here we show that the pumice raft formed by the impressive, deep submarine eruption of the Havre caldera volcano (Southwest Pacific) in July 2012 can be mapped by satellite imagery augmented by sailing crew observations. Far from coastal interference, the eruption produced a single >400 km(2) raft in 1 day, thus initiating a gigantic, high-precision, natural experiment relevant to both modern and prehistoric oceanic surface dispersal dynamics. Observed raft dispersal can be accurately reproduced by simulating drift and dispersal patterns using currents from an eddy-resolving ocean model hindcast. For future eruptions that produce potentially hazardous pumice rafts, our technique allows real-time forecasts of dispersal routes, in addition to inference of ash/pumice deposit distribution in the deep ocean. PMID:24755668

Jutzeler, Martin; Marsh, Robert; Carey, Rebecca J; White, James D L; Talling, Peter J; Karlstrom, Leif

2014-01-01

257

On the fate of pumice rafts formed during the 2012 Havre submarine eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pumice rafts are floating mobile accumulations of low-density pumice clasts generated by silicic volcanic eruptions. Pumice in rafts can drift for years, become waterlogged and sink, or become stranded on shorelines. Here we show that the pumice raft formed by the impressive, deep submarine eruption of the Havre caldera volcano (Southwest Pacific) in July 2012 can be mapped by satellite imagery augmented by sailing crew observations. Far from coastal interference, the eruption produced a single >400?km2 raft in 1 day, thus initiating a gigantic, high-precision, natural experiment relevant to both modern and prehistoric oceanic surface dispersal dynamics. Observed raft dispersal can be accurately reproduced by simulating drift and dispersal patterns using currents from an eddy-resolving ocean model hindcast. For future eruptions that produce potentially hazardous pumice rafts, our technique allows real-time forecasts of dispersal routes, in addition to inference of ash/pumice deposit distribution in the deep ocean.

Jutzeler, Martin; Marsh, Robert; Carey, Rebecca J.; White, James D. L.; Talling, Peter J.; Karlstrom, Leif

2014-04-01

258

On the fate of pumice rafts formed during the 2012 Havre submarine eruption  

PubMed Central

Pumice rafts are floating mobile accumulations of low-density pumice clasts generated by silicic volcanic eruptions. Pumice in rafts can drift for years, become waterlogged and sink, or become stranded on shorelines. Here we show that the pumice raft formed by the impressive, deep submarine eruption of the Havre caldera volcano (Southwest Pacific) in July 2012 can be mapped by satellite imagery augmented by sailing crew observations. Far from coastal interference, the eruption produced a single >400?km2 raft in 1 day, thus initiating a gigantic, high-precision, natural experiment relevant to both modern and prehistoric oceanic surface dispersal dynamics. Observed raft dispersal can be accurately reproduced by simulating drift and dispersal patterns using currents from an eddy-resolving ocean model hindcast. For future eruptions that produce potentially hazardous pumice rafts, our technique allows real-time forecasts of dispersal routes, in addition to inference of ash/pumice deposit distribution in the deep ocean. PMID:24755668

Jutzeler, Martin; Marsh, Robert; Carey, Rebecca J.; White, James D. L.; Talling, Peter J.; Karlstrom, Leif

2014-01-01

259

Slow and Steady: Ocean Circulation. The Influence of Sea Surface Height on Ocean Currents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of ocean circulation is vital to understanding how our climate works. The movement of the ocean is closely linked to the progression of atmospheric motion. Winds close to sea level add momentum to ocean surface currents. At the same time, heat that is stored and transported by the ocean warms the atmosphere above and alters air pressure distribution. Therefore, any attempt to model climate variation accurately must include reliable calculations of ocean circulation. Unlike movement of the atmosphere, movement of the ocean's waters takes place mostly near the surface. The major patterns of surface circulation form gigantic circular cells known as gyres. They are categorized according to their general location-equatorial, subtropical, subpolar, and polar-and may run across an entire ocean. The smaller-scale cell of ocean circulation is known' as an eddy. Eddies are much more common than gyres and much more difficult to track in computer simulations of ocean currents.

Haekkinen, Sirpa

2000-01-01

260

The intersection of urban planning, art, and public health: the Sunnyside Piazza.  

PubMed

Deteriorating physical features of urban environments can negatively influence public health. Dilapidated environments and urban blight tend to promote alienation and can be associated with social disorder, vandalism, crime, drug abuse, traffic violations, and littering, which in turn affects health and well-being. In the late 1990s, the Sunnyside neighborhood in Portland, Ore, was plagued by many of these problems. In an attempt to invigorate neighborhood stewardship, the community organized and created a public gathering place; together, they painted a gigantic sunflower in the middle of an intersection and installed several interactive art features. As a result of these collective actions of "place-making," social capital has increased, thus revitalizing the community, and expanded social networks among residents have stimulated a sense of well-being. PMID:12948959

Semenza, Jan C

2003-09-01

261

Angiomyolipoma of the Thoracic Wall: An Extremely Rare Diagnostic Challenge  

PubMed Central

Extrarenal angiomyolipoma (AML) is an extremely uncommon lesion, accounting for less than 9% of all angiomyolipomas. We present a previously unreported case of a rarely located gigantic extrarenal angiomyolipoma at the posterolateral chest wall of a 35-year-old woman. Clinically, the lesion had all the characteristics of a benign tumor, being soft in palpation, painless, and growing in size in a slow rate. Histologically, the lesion consisted of convoluted thick-walled blood vessels without an elastic layer, interlacing fascicles of smooth muscle, and mature adipose tissue, features consistent with an angiomyolipoma. The mass was surgically removed, without any postoperative complications, and the patient has an uneventful postoperative course. Signs of local recurrence have not been observed. The purpose of this brief report is to point out the necessity of including angiomyolipoma in the differential diagnosis of adipose layer lesions. PMID:25276465

Gemenetzis, Georgios; Kostidou, Eleni; Goula, Kalliroi; Smyrniotis, Vassilios; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos

2014-01-01

262

Armageddon, oil, and the Middle East crisis  

SciTech Connect

This book relates the intricate subject of biblical prophecy to the current crisis in the Middle East. With the development of oil politics, Dr. Walvoord believes a new world government will emerge, centered in the Middle East, which will eclipse the United States and Russia as world powers. The world government will be subjected to catastrophic, divine judgments which precipitate a gigantic world war culminating in Armageddon. Each chapter is devoted to the scriptural explanations of events leading to the second coming of Christ. The result is a prophetic calendar summing up to the countdown to Armageddon. Some of the chapter titles include: the Arab oil blackmail; watch Jerusalen; the rising tide of world religion; the coming Middle East peace; the coming world dictator; and Armageddon: the world's death struggle.

Walvoord, J.F.; Walvoord, J.E.

1980-01-01

263

Fates of the most massive primordial stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our results of numerical simulations of the most massive primordial stars. For the extremely massive non-rotating Pop III stars over 300Msolar, they would simply die as black holes. But the Pop III stars with initial masses 140 - 260Msolar may have died as gigantic explosions called pair-instability supernovae (PSNe). We use a new radiation-hydrodynamics code CASTRO to study evolution of PSNe. Our models follow the entire explosive burning and the explosion until the shock breaks out from the stellar surface. In our simulations, we find that fluid instabilities occurred during the explosion. These instabilities are driven by both nuclear burning and hydrodynamical instability. In the red supergiant models, fluid instabilities can lead to significant mixing of supernova ejecta and alter the observational signature.

Chen, Ke-Jung; Heger, Alexander; Almgren, Ann; Woosley, Stan

2012-09-01

264

High Voltage Solar Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to manage gigantic power of SSPS (Space Solar Power System) efficiently, use of extreme high voltage is necessary unless we minimize the transmission distance by employing a sandwich type of generator/transmitter panel. For 1 GW-class SSPS, the power transmission/generation voltage of 10 kV is necessary to keep the cable mass below a few hundred tons. To realize high voltage photovoltaic power generation, arcing caused by environmental interaction must be overcome. Three issues are reviewed. The first is degradation of solar cell performance due to repetitive arcing resulted from surface charging in GEO. The second is sustained arc phenomenon that may lead to catastrophic loss of significant portion of the total power. The third is micrometeoroid or space debris impact and resulting sustained arc. A design of high voltage solar array is proposed to prevent solar cell degradation due to repeated trigger arcs and sustained arc.

Cho, Mengu

265

Saddlebags, Paperbacks and Mobile Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information is shaped by its format. The printing press with its repeatable layout laid ground for footnotes and references from other sources, and thus can be seen as the technology that initially generated the concept of hyperlinks. In the fifteenth century, printed matter quickly developed other formats like the paperback book or the flyer. These formats changed the content in almost every aspect significantly: books that fit in a saddlebag are mobile media and thus not as precious as the gigantic and prestigious folio placed on a lectern stand in a monastery. So books became a widespread, "ordinary" mobile medium and developed a multitude of purposes, aimed at different audiences, and generated a wide range of ideas for adequate content. The flyer in its limited size and public nature generated other forms of organizing and designing content: in order to fit the format and draw attention it uses a condensed form of messaging and an exaggerated typography.

Zwick, Carola

266

A Graph Summarization Algorithm Based on RFID Logistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) applications are set to play an essential role in object tracking and supply chain management systems. The volume of data generated by a typical RFID application will be enormous as each item will generate a complete history of all the individual locations that it occupied at every point in time. The movement trails of such RFID data form gigantic commodity flowgraph representing the locations and durations of the path stages traversed by each item. In this paper, we use graph to construct a warehouse of RFID commodity flows, and introduce a database-style operation to summarize graphs, which produces a summary graph by grouping nodes based on user-selected node attributes, further allows users to control the hierarchy of summaries. It can cut down the size of graphs, and provide convenience for users to study just on the shrunk graph which they interested. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

Sun, Yan; Hu, Kongfa; Lu, Zhipeng; Zhao, Li; Chen, Ling

267

Anisotropy of Spin Relaxation in Metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of anisotropy of spin relaxation in nonmagnetic metals with respect to the spin direction of the injected electrons relative to the crystal orientation is introduced. The effect is related to an anisotropy of the Elliott-Yafet parameter, arising from a modulation of the decomposition of the spin-orbit Hamiltonian into spin-conserving and spin-flip terms as the spin quantization axis is varied. This anisotropy, reaching gigantic values for uniaxial transition metals (e.g., 830% for hcp Hf) as density-functional calculations show, is related to extended “spin-flip hot areas” on the Fermi surface created by the proximity of extended sheets of the surface, or “spin-flip hot loops” at the Brillouin zone boundary, and has no theoretical upper limit. Possible ways of measuring the effect as well as consequences in application are briefly outlined.

Zimmermann, Bernd; Mavropoulos, Phivos; Heers, Swantje; Long, Nguyen H.; Blügel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy

2012-12-01

268

Quantifying volcanic ash dispersal and impact of the Campanian Ignimbrite super-eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a novel computational approach to assess, for the first time, volcanic ash dispersal during the Campanian Ignimbrite (Italy) super-eruption providing insights into eruption dynamics and the impact of this gigantic event. The method uses a 3D time-dependent computational ash dispersion model, a set of wind fields, and more than 100 thickness measurements of the CI tephra deposit. Results reveal that the CI eruption dispersed 250-300 km3 of ash over ˜3.7 million km2. The injection of such a large quantity of ash (and volatiles) into the atmosphere would have caused a volcanic winter during the Heinrich Event 4, the coldest and driest climatic episode of the Last Glacial period. Fluorine-bearing leachate from the volcanic ash and acid rain would have further affected food sources and severely impacted Late Middle-Early Upper Paleolithic groups in Southern and Eastern Europe.

Costa, A.; Folch, A.; Macedonio, G.; Giaccio, B.; Isaia, R.; Smith, V. C.

2012-05-01

269

How can you sail in outer space?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can a spaceship save on fuel by sailing in space? This riddle asks students how such a feat could be accomplished. A paragraph and video clip on a clue page sum up two girls' investigation into one possible solution. The girls knew that air is absent in space, so they set out to see if a fan would move a sail in a vacuum chamber. When students select the correct answer from the riddle's three answer choices, a brief video plays that describes how sunlight can exert enough force to propel spacecraft equipped with solar sails (thin, gigantic mirrors). The video explains why this technique can work in space but not on Earth. A text version of the riddle is available.

Twin Cities Public Television

2004-01-01

270

MoMA: The Changing of the Avant-Garde  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web exhibition from MoMA presents a history of modern utopian and visionary architecture, using architectural drawings donated to the museum by the Howard Gilman Foundation in 2000. The drawings date from the late 1950s to the 1970s. The main menu is two spheres, Megastructures (larger, public buildings and complexes) and Postmodern Roots (smaller buildings, retail and houses), from which users can select names to view particular projects. Each project consists of two to four drawings and explanatory text, with larger views of all the drawings available. An interesting example under Megastructures is Superstudio, a group of five Italian architects who, in the 1960s, created a set of purely theoretical drawing that impose gigantic, white, grid-patterned structures on natural landscapes such as rivers, ocean coastlines, and the Alps. Megastructures give way to Postmodern Roots in the 1960s, where drawings of projects by Robert Venturi, Michael Graves, James Stirling, Rem Koolhaas, and others can be seen.

2002-01-01

271

Metal Enrichment in the Fermi Bubbles as a Probe of Their Origin  

E-print Network

The Fermi bubbles are gigantic gamma-ray structure in our Galaxy. The physical origin of the bubbles is still under debate. The leading scenarios can be divided into two categories. One is the nuclear star forming activity like extragalactic starburst galaxies and the other is the past active galactic nucleus (AGN) like activity of the Galactic center supermassive black hole. In this letter, we propose that metal abundance measurements will provide an important clue to probe their origin. Based on a simple spherically symmetric bubble model, we find that the generated metallicity and abundance pattern of the bubbles gas strongly depend on assumed star formation or AGN activities. Star formation scenarios predict higher metallicities and abundance ratios of [O/Fe] and [Ne/Fe] than AGN scenarios do because of supernovae ejecta. Furthermore, the resultant abundance depends on the gamma-ray emission process because different mass injection histories are required for different the gamma-ray emission processes due ...

Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Tahara, Masaya; Kataoka, Jun; Totani, Tomonori; Fujita, Yutaka; Sofue, Yoshiaki

2015-01-01

272

Mechanism of enhanced optical second-harmonic generation in the conducting pyrochlore-type Pb2Ir2O7-x oxide compound.  

PubMed

The structural, electronic, and optical properties of pyrochlore-type Pb(2)Ir(2)O(6)O(0.55)('), which is a metal without spatial inversion symmetry at room temperature, were investigated. Structural analysis revealed that the structural distortion relevant to the breakdown of the inversion symmetry is dominated by the Pb-O' network but is very small in the Ir-O network. At the same time, gigantic second-harmonic generation signals were observed, which can only occur if the local environment of the Ir 5d electrons features broken inversion symmetry. First-principles electronic structure calculations reveal that the underlying mechanism for this phenomenon is the induction of the noncentrosymmetricity in the Ir 5d bands by the strong hybridization with O' 2p orbitals. Our results stimulate theoretical study of inversion-broken iridates, where exotic quantum states such as a topological insulator and Dirac semimetal are anticipated. PMID:23683242

Hirata, Yasuyuki; Nakajima, Makoto; Nomura, Yusuke; Tajima, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Asoh, Keiko; Kiuchi, Yoko; Eguiluz, Adolfo G; Arita, Ryotaro; Suemoto, Tohru; Ohgushi, Kenya

2013-05-01

273

3DScapeCS: application of three dimensional, parallel, dynamic network visualization in Cytoscape  

PubMed Central

Background The exponential growth of gigantic biological data from various sources, such as protein-protein interaction (PPI), genome sequences scaffolding, Mass spectrometry (MS) molecular networking and metabolic flux, demands an efficient way for better visualization and interpretation beyond the conventional, two-dimensional visualization tools. Results We developed a 3D Cytoscape Client/Server (3DScapeCS) plugin, which adopted Cytoscape in interpreting different types of data, and UbiGraph for three-dimensional visualization. The extra dimension is useful in accommodating, visualizing, and distinguishing large-scale networks with multiple crossed connections in five case studies. Conclusions Evaluation on several experimental data using 3DScapeCS and its special features, including multilevel graph layout, time-course data animation, and parallel visualization has proven its usefulness in visualizing complex data and help to make insightful conclusions. PMID:24225050

2013-01-01

274

Probing the extreme wind confinement of the most magnetic O star with COS spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to obtain phase-resolved UV spectroscopy of the recently discovered magnetic O star NGC 1624-2, which has the strongest magnetic field ever detected in a O-star, by an order of magnitude. We will use the strength and variability of the UV resonance line profiles to diagnose the density, velocity, and ionization structure of NGC 1624-2's enormous magnetosphere that results from entrapment of its stellar wind by its strong, nearly dipolar magnetic field. With this gigantic magnetosphere, NGC 1624-2 represents a new regime of extreme wind confinement that will constrain models of magnetized winds and their surface mass flux properties. A detailed understanding of such winds is necessary to study the rotational braking history of magnetic O-stars, which can shed new light on the fundamental origin of magnetism in massive, hot stars.

Petit, Veronique

2014-10-01

275

Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra).  

PubMed

Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-pregui a" (sloth's giant tick) is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae), Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae). Based on the material examined, the states of Rond nia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil. PMID:12563481

Marques, Sandro; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho

2002-12-01

276

Acinic Cell Carcinoma of Minor Salivary Gland of the Base of Tongue That Required Reconstructive Surgery  

PubMed Central

Acinic cell carcinoma of minor salivary gland of the base of tongue is very rare. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common tumor in the base of tongue. We present a patient with gigantic acinic cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. This patient required emergency tracheotomy before surgery, because he had dyspnea when he came to our hospital. We removed this tumor by pull-through method and performed reconstructive surgery using a rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. It was a case that to preserved movement of the tongue and swallowing function by keeping lingual arteries and hypoglossal nerves. This case was an extremely rare case of ACC of the base of tongue that required reconstructive surgery. PMID:23304595

Wada, Kota; Watanabe, Subaru; Ando, Yuji; Seino, Yoichi; Moriyama, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

277

The aerodynamics of Argentavis, the world's largest flying bird from the Miocene of Argentina  

PubMed Central

We calculate the flight performance of the gigantic volant bird Argentavis magnificens from the upper Miocene (?6 million years ago) of Argentina using a computer simulation model. Argentavis was probably too large (mass ?70 kg) to be capable of continuous flapping flight or standing takeoff under its own muscle power. Like extant condors and vultures, Argentavis would have extracted energy from the atmosphere for flight, relying on thermals present on the Argentinean pampas to provide power for soaring, and it probably used slope soaring over the windward slopes of the Andes. It was an excellent glider, with a gliding angle close to 3° and a cruising speed of 67 kph. Argentavis could take off by running downhill, or by launching from a perch to pick up flight speed. Other means of takeoff remain problematic. PMID:17609382

Chatterjee, Sankar; Templin, R. Jack; Campbell, Kenneth E.

2007-01-01

278

Ancient DNA reveals elephant birds and kiwi are sister taxa and clarifies ratite bird evolution.  

PubMed

The evolution of the ratite birds has been widely attributed to vicariant speciation, driven by the Cretaceous breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana. The early isolation of Africa and Madagascar implies that the ostrich and extinct Madagascan elephant birds (Aepyornithidae) should be the oldest ratite lineages. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of two elephant birds and performed phylogenetic analyses, which revealed that these birds are the closest relatives of the New Zealand kiwi and are distant from the basal ratite lineage of ostriches. This unexpected result strongly contradicts continental vicariance and instead supports flighted dispersal in all major ratite lineages. We suggest that convergence toward gigantism and flightlessness was facilitated by early Tertiary expansion into the diurnal herbivory niche after the extinction of the dinosaurs. PMID:24855267

Mitchell, Kieren J; Llamas, Bastien; Soubrier, Julien; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Worthy, Trevor H; Wood, Jamie; Lee, Michael S Y; Cooper, Alan

2014-05-23

279

The supergiant amphipod Alicella gigantea (Crustacea: Alicellidae) from hadal depths in the Kermadec Trench, SW Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we provide the first record of the 'supergiant' amphipod Alicella gigantea Chevreux, 1899 (Alicellidae) from the Southern Hemisphere, and extend the known bathymetric range by over 1000 m to 7000 m. An estimated nine individuals were observed across 1500 photographs taken in situ by baited camera at 6979 m in the Kermadec Trench, SW Pacific Ocean. Nine specimens, ranging in length from 102 to 290 mm were recovered by baited trap at depths of 6265 m and 7000 m. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences obtained indicate a cosmopolitan distribution for the species. Data and observations from the study are used to discuss the reason for gigantism in this species, and its apparently disjunct geographical distribution.

Jamieson, A. J.; Lacey, N. C.; Lörz, A.-N.; Rowden, A. A.; Piertney, S. B.

2013-08-01

280

Ancient drainage basin of the Tharsis region, Mars: Potential source for outflow channel systems and putative oceans or paleolakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Paleotopographic reconstructions based on a synthesis of published geologic information and high-resolution topography, including topographic profiles, reveal the potential existence of an enormous drainage basin/aquifer system in the eastern part of the Tharsis region during the Noachian Period. Large topographic highs formed the margin of the gigantic drainage basin. Subsequently, lavas, sediments, and volatiles partly infilled the basin, resulting in an enormous and productive regional aquifer. The stacked sequences of water-bearing strata were then deformed locally and, in places, exposed by magmatic-driven uplifts, tectonic deformation, and erosion. This basin model provides a potential source of water necessary to carve the large outflow channel systems of the Tharsis and surrounding regions and to contribute to the formation of putative northern-plains ocean(s) and/or paleolakes. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

Dohm, J.M.; Ferris, J.C.; Baker, V.R.; Anderson, R.C.; Hare, T.M.; Strom, R.G.; Barlow, N.G.; Tanaka, K.L.; Klemaszewski, J.E.; Scott, D.H.

2001-01-01

281

Mass extinctions and cosmic collisions - A lunar test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility has been considered that some or all major mass extinctions in the geologic record of earth are caused by the collision of massive, cosmic objects. Thus, it has been proposed that the unusual concentration of siderophile elements in strata at which the boundary between the Cretaceous (K) and Tertiary (T) geologic time periods has been placed must represent the remnants of a gigantic meteorite. However, a large 65-m.y.-old crater which could have been the result of the impact of this meteorite is not presently known on earth. One approach to evaluate the merits of the collisional hypothesis considered is based on the study of the probability of collision between a cosmic object of a suitable size and the earth. As moon and earth were subject to the same bombardment history and the preservation of craters on the moon is much better than on earth, a consideration of the lunar cratering record may provide crucial information.

Horz, F.

282

Dynamics of the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere and its Connection to the Ionosphere: Current Understanding and Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth's inner magnetosphere, a vast volume in space spanning from 1.5 Re (Earth radii) to 10 Re, is a host to a variety of plasma populations (with energy from 1 eV to few MeV) and physical processes where most of which involve plasma and field coupling. As a gigantic particle accelerator, the inner magnetosphere includes three overlapping regions: the plasmasphere, the ring current, and the Van Allen radiation belt. The complex structures and dynamics of these regions are externally driven by solar activities and internally modulated by intricate interactions and coupling. As a major constituent of Space Weather, the inner magnetosphere is both scientifically intriguing and practically important to our society. In this presentation, I will discuss our recent results from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model, in the context of our current understanding of the inner magnetosphere in general and challenges ahead in making further progresses.

Zheng, Yihua

2010-01-01

283

Dynamics of the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere and Its Connection to the Ionosphere: Current Understanding and Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth's inner magnetosphere, a vast volume in space spanning from 1.5 Re (Earth radii) to 10 Re, is a host to a variety of plasma populations (with energy from 1 eV to few MeV) and physical processes where most of which involve plasma and field coupling. As a gigantic particle accelerator, the inner magnetosphere includes three overlapping regions: the plasmasphere, the ring current, and the Van Allen radiation belt. The complex structures and dynamics of these regions are externally driven by solar activities and internally modulated by intricate interactions and coupling. As a major constituent of Space Weather, the inner magnetosphere is both scientifically intriguing and practically important to our society. In this presentation, I will discuss our recent results from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model, in the context of our current understanding of the inner magnetosphere in general and challenges ahead in making further progresses.

Zheng, Yihua

2011-01-01

284

Velocity of domain-wall motion during polarization reversal in ferroelectric thin films: Beyond Merz's Law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motion of domain walls (DWs) is critical to switching kinetics in ferroelectric (FE) materials. Merz's law, dependent only on the applied electric field, cannot explain recent experimental observations in FE thin films because these experiments showed that the DW velocity depends not only on the strength of the applied electric field but also on size of the reversal domain. In this paper, we derive a model to understand the dominant factors controlling the velocity of FE DWs. Our calculations reveal that the DW velocities are not only a function of the strength of the electric field but also decay exponentially with the increasing characteristic time of the measurement or the size of the growing domain. Our observations can naturally explain the gigantic variation reported in the literature, over 15 orders of magnitude, in the experimentally measured DW velocities and the formation of the stripe shape of FE domains.

Meng, Qingping; Han, Myung-Geun; Tao, Jing; Xu, Guangyong; Welch, David O.; Zhu, Yimei

2015-02-01

285

[Indications for surgical treatment of hard scarring gastric ulcers].  

PubMed

It was done the comparative analysis of the morphofunctional state of the upper gastrointestinal tract between 350 patients with effective conservative treatment and 104 patients with hard scarring gastric ulcers. The analysis identified the predictors of ineffective medical treatment and led to deliver the indications for timely surgical treatment. It was identified the next indications for planned organ-preserving surgical treatment of patients with hard scarring gastric ulcers: penetrating and non-healing ulcers with large or gigantic size in case of the adequate medical therapy, high-grade dysplasia and colonic metaplasia of the gastric epithelium in the borders or fundus of the ulcer,ulcers combination with fixed cardio-fundal or fundo-corporal hiatal hernias; hypotonic-hypokinetic type of the gastric and duodenal activity with the development of gastrostasis and pronounced duodenogastric reflux. PMID:24781063

Durleshter, V M; Korochanskaia, N V; Serikova, S N

2014-01-01

286

Morphological divergence in a continental adaptive radiation: South American ovenbirds of the genus Cinclodes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cinclodes is an ecologically diverse genus of South American passerine birds and represents a case of continental adaptive radiation along multiple axes. We investigated morphological diversification in Cinclodes using a comprehensive set of morphometric measurements of study skins. Principal component analysis identified 2 primary axes of morphological variation: one describing body size and a second capturing differences in wing-tip shape and toe length. Phylogenetic analyses of the first principal component suggest an early divergence ofCinclodes into 2 main clades characterized by large and small body sizes. We suggest that 2 morphological outliers within these main clades (C. antarcticus and C. palliatus) may be cases of island gigantism and that a third (C. patagonicus) may reflect ecological character displacement. Despite its ecological and physiological diversity, the genus Cinclodes does not appear to show morphological diversity beyond what is typical of other avian genera.

Rader, Jonathan A.; Dillon, Michael E.; Chesser, Terry; Sabat, Pablo; Martinez del Rio, Carlos

2015-01-01

287

?Li-loaded directionally sensitive anti-neutrino detector for possible geo-neutrinographic imaging applications.  

PubMed

Despite the latent and unique benefits of imaging uranium and thorium's distribution in the earth's interior, previously proposed experimental techniques used to identify the incoming geo-neutrino's direction are not applicable to practical imaging due to the high miss-identification in a neutrino's track reconstruction. After performing experimental studies and Monte-Carlo simulations, we confirmed that a significant improvement is possible in neutrino tracking identification with a (6)Li-loaded neutrino detector. For possible imaging applications, we also explore the feasibility of producing geo-neutrinographic images of gigantic magmatic reservoirs and deep structure in the mantle. We anticipate and plan to apply these newly designed detectors to radiographic imaging of the Earth's interior, monitoring of nuclear reactors, and tracking astrophysical sources of neutrinos. PMID:24759616

Tanaka, H K M; Watanabe, H

2014-01-01

288

Turnaround in Cyclic Cosmology  

SciTech Connect

It is speculated how dark energy in a brane world can help reconcile an infinitely cyclic cosmology with the second law of thermodynamics. A cyclic model is described, in which dark energy with w<-1 equation of state leads to a turnaround at a time, extremely shortly before the would-be big rip, at which both volume and entropy of our Universe decrease by a gigantic factor, while very many independent similarly small contracting universes are spawned. The entropy of our model decreases almost to zero at turnaround but increases for the remainder of the cycle by a vanishingly small amount during contraction, empty of matter, then by a large factor during inflationary expansion.

Baum, Lauris; Frampton, Paul H. [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3255 (United States)

2007-02-16

289

Critical dynamics and domain motion from permittivity of the electronic ferroelectric (TMTTF)2AsF6  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quasi one-dimensional organic conductor (TMTTF)2AsF6 shows the charge ordering transition at TCO=101 K to a state of the ferroelectric Mott insulator which is still well conducting. We present and interpret the experimental data on the gigantic dielectric response in the vicinity of TCO, concentrating on the frequency dependence of the inverse 1/? of the complex permittivity ?=??+i???. Surprisingly for a ferroelectric, we could closely approach the 2nd order phase transition and to deeply reach the critical dynamics of the polarization. We could analyze the critical slowing-down when approaching TCO from both sides and to extract the anomalous power law for the frequency dependence of the order parameter viscosity. Moreover, below TCO we could extract a sharp absorption feature coming from a motion of domain walls which shows up at a frequency well below the relaxation rate.

Brazovskii, Serguei; Monceau, Pierre; Nad, Felix Ya.

2015-03-01

290

Model of space debris density in the geostationary region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristic property of space debris in the geostationary region is the limitation of spatial area in which the abandoned objects and their fragments move for long time This gigantic tor requires special attention as its eternal population grows and carries threat to safety to the satellites Our task was the creation of a determined model of space debris density on the basis of the orbits of catalogued objects modeling fragments and results of observation Used approaches are stated numerical experiments are executed and the estimations of density and its evolution are received The developed model can be used for planning of ground- and space-based observations some examples are investigated and are given

Grigoriev, K.

291

Atmospheric anomalies in summer 1908: Water in the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gigantic noctilucent cloud field was formed and different solar halos were observed after the Tunguska catastrophe. To explain these anomalous phenomena, it is necessary to assume that a large quantity of water was carried into the atmosphere, which indicates that the Tunguska cosmic body was of a comet origin. According to rough estimates, the quantity of water that is released into the atmosphere as a result of a cosmic body's destruction is more than 1010 kg. The observation of a flying object in an area with a radius of ?700 km makes it possible to state that the Tunguska cosmic body looked like a luminous coma with a diameter not smaller than ?10 km and became visible at heights of >500 km. The assumption that the Tunguska cosmic body started disintegrating at a height of ˜1000 km explains the formation of an area where its mater diffused and formed a luminous area above Europe.

Gladysheva, O. G.

2011-10-01

292

NOVA's Runaway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOVA's Runaway Universe site is the companion Web site to the television program of the same name, which followed the efforts of two rival teams of astronomers as they search for exploding stars, map out gigantic cosmic patterns of galaxies, and grapple with the ultimate question: What is the fate of the universe? Visitors of the site will find an interactive timeline of the universe, learn what happens during a supernova explosion, take a virtual tour of the universe, learn how the Doppler effect is used to determine a stellar objects speed, and several other cool interactive and educational activities. This unique and quite interesting site is well worth exploring, although an adequate modem and computer are needed to fully appreciate what it has to offer.

293

Millimeter Radio Astronomy and the Solar Convection Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global distribution of solar surface activity (active regions) is connected with processes in the convection zone. To extract the information on large-scale motions in the convection zone, we study the solar synoptic charts (Mount Wilson 1998-2004, Fe I, 525.02 nm). The clear indication of large-scale ( ? 18 degree) turbulence is found. This may be a manifestations of the deep convection because there is no such global turbulent eddies in the solar photosphere. The preferred scales of longitudinal variations in surface solar activity are revealed. These correspond to about 15 degree to 51 degree (gigantic convection cells), 90 degree, 180 degree and 360 degree. Similar scales (e.g., 40 degree and 90 degree) are found in the millimeter radio-images (Metsahovi Radio Observatory 1994-1998, 37 and 87 GHz). Hence, the millimeter radio astronomy could prove useful for remote sensing of the solar convection zone.

Arkhypov, O. V.; Antonov, O. V.; Khodachenko, M. L.

294

The influence of imitated microgravity on the amyloplast structure, the composition and characteristics of potato minituber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of imitated microgravity (clinorotation, 2 rev/min) of long-term duration on the structural-functional organization of Solanum tuberosum L. (cv Adreta) minituber cells is studied. An essential influence on 45-day minituber size, on the content and composition of starch, on the solubility of starch in water and on the structure of amyloplasts in the storage parenchyma of potato minitubers is detected. The appearance of a fraction of "gigantic" amyloplasts in starch-storage parenchyma is observed during horizontal clinorotation of long-term duration. The correlation between the decrease of content amylose and the inhibition of starch solubility in water is detected under long-term clinorotation. The results point to some changes of the carbohydrate metabolism of potato storage organs under the effect of microgravity imitation.

Nedukha, O. M.; Kordyum, Ye. L.; Schnyukova, Ye. I.

295

Polarización lineal en estrellas simbióticas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se presenta un estudio de polarización lineal en las bandas UBVRI de un grupo de estrellas simbióticas, a fin de analizar el comportamiento del grado de polarización y del ángulo de posición en función de la longitud de onda. En aquellos sistemas observados repetidas veces, se analizan además variaciones temporales en los parámetros de polarización. En base a este comportamiento se determina si la polarización observada es puramente interestelar o si existe una contribución de polarización, intrínseca al objeto. La muestra de objetos estudiados presenta ciertas características comunes, es decir, son sistemas simbióticos tipo D, cuyas respectivas componentes gigantes son variables tipo Mira y además presentan nebulosas ionizadas extendidas con morfología y dimensiones conocidas. Esto es de importancia ya que el conocimiento de la estructura del gas extendido permite interpretar la geometría de scattering que produce la polarización observada. Las observaciones fueron realizadas con el Fotopolarímetro de Torino adosado al telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO.

Brandi, E.; García, L. G.; Ferrer, O. E.

296

Magnetic biasing of a ferroelectric hysteresis loop in a multiferroic orthoferrite.  

PubMed

In a multiferroic orthoferrite Dy0.7Tb0.3FeO3, which shows electric-field-(E-)driven magnetization (M) reversal due to a tight clamping between polarization (P) and M, a gigantic effect of magnetic-field (H) biasing on P-E hysteresis loops is observed in the case of rapid E sweeping. The magnitude of the bias E field can be controlled by varying the magnitude of H, and its sign can be reversed by changing the sign of H or the relative clamping direction between P and M. The origin of this unconventional biasing effect is ascribed to the difference in the Zeeman energy between the +P and -P states coupled with the M states with opposite sign. PMID:24484164

Tokunaga, Y; Taguchi, Y; Arima, T; Tokura, Y

2014-01-24

297

Surgical Treatment of an Immature Short-Rooted Traumatized Incisor with an Extensive Apical Lesion Using CEM Cement  

PubMed Central

Severe traumatic injuries to immature teeth often cause damage to periodontal ligament as well as dental pulp; pulp necrosis, root resorption and subsequent apical lesion are common consequences. This article reports the surgical management of an infected immature maxillary central incisor associated with a gigantic periradicular lesion and severe root resorption. The tooth had a history of trauma and the patient suffered from purulent sinus tract and tooth mobility. After unsuccessful multi-session disinfection with calcium hydroxide, root end surgery was planned. During flap surgery and lesion enucleation, the root end was cleaned and filled with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. After one year, the radiographic examination revealed that the lesion was almost completely replaced with newly formed bone. In addition, clinical examination showed favorable outcomes; the tooth was symptom-free and in function. Due to chemical, physical and biological properties of CEM cement, this biomaterial might be considered as the root-end filling material of choice.

Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta

2015-01-01

298

Competition and constraint drove Cope's rule in the evolution of giant flying reptiles.  

PubMed

The pterosaurs, Mesozoic flying reptiles, attained wingspans of more than 10 m that greatly exceed the largest birds and challenge our understanding of size limits in flying animals. Pterosaurs have been used to illustrate Cope's rule, the influential generalization that evolutionary lineages trend to increasingly large body sizes. However, unambiguous examples of Cope's rule operating on extended timescales in large clades remain elusive, and the phylogenetic pattern and possible drivers of pterosaur gigantism are uncertain. Here we show 70 million years of highly constrained early evolution, followed by almost 80 million years of sustained, multi-lineage body size increases in pterosaurs. These results are supported by maximum-likelihood modelling of a comprehensive new pterosaur data set. The transition between these macroevolutionary regimes is coincident with the Early Cretaceous adaptive radiation of birds, supporting controversial hypotheses of bird-pterosaur competition, and suggesting that evolutionary competition can act as a macroevolutionary driver on extended geological timescales. PMID:24694584

Benson, Roger B J; Frigot, Rachel A; Goswami, Anjali; Andres, Brian; Butler, Richard J

2014-01-01

299

Macrodystrophia lipomatosa of foot involving great toe.  

PubMed

Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare form of congenital disorder in which there is localized gigantism characterized by progressive overgrowth of all mesenchymal elements with a disproportionate increase in the fibroadipose tissues. The adipose tissue infiltration involves subcutaneous tissue, periosteum, nerves and bone marrow. Most of the cases reported have hand or foot involvement. Patient seeks medical help for improving cosmesis or to get the size of the involved part reduced in order to reduce mechanical problems. We report a case of macrodystrophia lipomatosa involving medial side of foot with significant enlargement of great toe causing concern for cosmesis and inconvenience due to mechanical problems. The X-rays showed increased soft tissue with more of adipose tissue and increased size of involved digits with widening of ends. Since the patient's mother did not want any surgical intervention he was educated about foot care and proper footwear design was suggested. PMID:24703060

Gaur, A K; Mhambre, A S; Popalwar, H; Sharma, R

2014-06-01

300

Crossing the line: increasing body size in a trans-Wallacean lizard radiation (Cyrtodactylus, Gekkota).  

PubMed

The region between the Asian and Australian continental plates (Wallacea) demarcates the transition between two differentiated regional biotas. Despite this striking pattern, some terrestrial lineages have successfully traversed the marine barriers of Wallacea and subsequently diversified in newly colonized regions. The hypothesis that these dispersals between biogeographic realms are correlated with detectable shifts in evolutionary trajectory has however rarely been tested. Here, we analyse the evolution of body size in a widespread and exceptionally diverse group of gekkotan lizards (Cyrtodactylus), and show that a clade that has dispersed eastwards and radiated in the Australopapuan region appears to have significantly expanded its body size 'envelope' and repeatedly evolved gigantism. This pattern suggests that the biotic composition of the proto-Papuan Archipelago provided a permissive environment in which new colonists were released from evolutionary constraints operating to the west of Wallacea. PMID:25296929

Oliver, Paul M; Skipwith, Phillip; Lee, Michael S Y

2014-10-01

301

Imaging features of macrodystrophia lipomatosa: an unusual cause of a brawny arm.  

PubMed

Macrodystrophia lipomatosa (MDL), a rare non-hereditary congenital disorder of localised gigantism, is characterised by progressive proliferation of all mesenchymal elements, with a disproportionate increase in fibroadipose tissue. We report a case of a 19-year-old man who presented with a history of painless enlargement of the left upper limb since childhood, which was gradually increasing in size and predominantly involving the radial aspect of the upper limb with relative sparing of the ulnar aspect. The patient was imaged with X-ray and MRI. Imaging and clinical features were classical of MDL. The patient underwent stage 1 reduction plasty of the left forearm; preoperative and histopathological findings confirmed the preoperative diagnosis. PMID:25406225

Dhanasekaran, Jagadeesan; Reddy, Ajit Kumar; Sarawagi, Radha; Lakshmanan, Prakash Manikka

2014-01-01

302

Is IGSF1 involved in human pituitary tumor formation?  

PubMed

IGSF1 is a membrane glycoprotein highly expressed in the anterior pituitary. Pathogenic mutations in the IGSF1 gene (on Xq26.2) are associated with X-linked central hypothyroidism and testicular enlargement in males. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IGSF1 is involved in the development of pituitary tumors, especially those that produce growth hormone (GH). IGSF1 was sequenced in 21 patients with gigantism or acromegaly and 92 healthy individuals. Expression studies with a candidate pathogenic IGSF1 variant were carried out in transfected cells and immunohistochemistry for IGSF1 was performed in the sections of GH-producing adenomas, familial somatomammotroph hyperplasia, and in normal pituitary. We identified the sequence variant p.N604T, which in silico analysis suggested could affect IGSF1 function, in two male patients and one female with somatomammotroph hyperplasia from the same family. Of 60 female controls, two carried the same variant and seven were heterozygous for other variants. Immunohistochemistry showed increased IGSF1 staining in the GH-producing tumor from the patient with the IGSF1 p.N604T variant compared with a GH-producing adenoma from a patient negative for any IGSF1 variants and with normal control pituitary tissue. The IGSF1 gene appears polymorphic in the general population. A potentially pathogenic variant identified in the germline of three patients with gigantism from the same family (segregating with the disease) was also detected in two healthy female controls. Variations in IGSF1 expression in pituitary tissue in patients with or without IGSF1 germline mutations point to the need for further studies of IGSF1 action in pituitary adenoma formation. PMID:25527509

Faucz, Fabio R; Horvath, Anelia D; Azevedo, Monalisa F; Levy, Isaac; Bak, Beata; Wang, Ying; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Gourgari, Evgenia; Manning, Allison D; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Bertollo; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Lodish, Maya; Hofman, Paul; Anderson, Yvonne C; Holdaway, Ian; Oldfield, Edward; Chittiboina, Prashant; Nesterova, Maria; Biermasz, Nienke R; Wit, Jan M; Bernard, Daniel J; Stratakis, Constantine A

2015-02-01

303

Earliest Example of a Giant Monitor Lizard (Varanus, Varanidae, Squamata)  

PubMed Central

Background Varanidae is a clade of tiny (<20 mm pre-caudal length [PCL]) to giant (>600 mm PCL) lizards first appearing in the Cretaceous. True monitor lizards (Varanus) are known from diagnostic remains beginning in the early Miocene (Varanus rusingensis), although extremely fragmentary remains have been suggested as indicating earlier Varanus. The paleobiogeographic history of Varanus and timing for origin of its gigantism remain uncertain. Methodology/Principal Findings A new Varanus from the Mytilini Formation (Turolian, Miocene) of Samos, Greece is described. The holotype consists of a partial skull roof, right side of a braincase, partial posterior mandible, fragment of clavicle, and parts of six vertebrae. A cladistic analysis including 83 taxa coded for 5733 molecular and 489 morphological characters (71 previously unincluded) demonstrates that the new fossil is a nested member of an otherwise exclusively East Asian Varanus clade. The new species is the earliest-known giant (>600 mm PCL) terrestrial lizard. Importantly, this species co-existed with a diverse continental mammalian fauna. Conclusions/Significance The new monitor is larger (longer) than 99% of known fossil and living lizards. Varanus includes, by far, the largest limbed squamates today. The only extant non-snake squamates that approach monitors in maximum size are the glass-snake Pseudopus and the worm-lizard Amphisbaena. Mosasauroids were larger, but exclusively marine, and occurred only during the Late Cretaceous. Large, extant, non-Varanus, lizards are limbless and/or largely isolated from mammalian competitors. By contrast, our new Varanus achieved gigantism in a continental environment populated by diverse eutherian mammal competitors. PMID:22900001

Conrad, Jack L.; Balcarcel, Ana M.; Mehling, Carl M.

2012-01-01

304

Abundância química de simbióticas na direção do bojo galáctico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O estudo da distribuição de metalicidades de gigantes K no Bojo indica um largo intervalo com valores entre 0.1 a 10 vezes o valor solar. As razões elementais Ca/Fe, Si/Fe, Mg/Fe são típicas de estrelas do halo, apontando para um processo rápido de enriquecimento, via estrelas masssivas (SN's tipo II). No entanto, este cenário não combina com os resultados derivados de nebulosas planetárias do bojo tais como os de Ratag et al. (1992, A&A,255,270), Cuisinier et al.(2000, A&A,353, 543), Escudero e Costa (2001, A&A,380, 300),que obtêm abundâncias análogas às do disco. Neste cenário, o estudo de estrelas simbióticas possibilita uma abordagem particularmente apropriada para o problema das abundâncias químicas de estrelas de massa intermediária em estágios avançados da evoluçao estelar. Apresentamos aqui os resultados da determinacão das abundâncias do grupo do CNO numa extensa amostra de simbióticas do bojo. Aliás, com a disponibilidade de espectros no visível determinamos também abundâncias de Ar, Ne, S e He, fundamentais para analisar os processos de enriquecimento químico ocorridos ao longo da evolução estelar, bem como a evolução química do meio interestelar. Com os espectros UV do satelite IUE obtivemos abundâncias de C, necessárias no estudo da evolução dos sistemas. As relaçoes C/N-O/N mostram que o material nebular é produto do vento da componente gigante e não dos eventos de nova que às vezes acontecem nestes sistemas, como foi mostrado por Nussbaumer et al (1988,A&A,198,179). As abundâncias de Ar, S, Ne e O são compativeis com resultados de fontes no disco e bojo, seguindo o gradiente proposto por muitos autores na literatura a partir de diferentes objetos como cefeidas, nebulosas planetárias e anãs G. (CAPES,FAPESP,CNPq)

Luna, G. J. M.; Costa, R. D. D.

2003-08-01

305

Abundâncias espectroscópicas de simbióticas amarelas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Este trabalho consiste no estudo de uma amostra de estrelas simbióticas amarelas cujas componentes frias apresentam tipos espectrais G ou K. Uma amostra de 20 estrelas foi usada, o que corresponde ao conjunto completo de estrelas simbióticas amarelas visíveis no hemisfério sul presentes no catálogo de Belczynski et al (2000 A&A Suppl. 146, 407). Os espectros estelares foram obtidos por observações usando os telescópios de 1,6 m do LNA e 1,52 m do ESO e os dados fornecidos pelo satélite IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) e posteriormente reduzidos no IAG. Os fluxos das linhas medidas de cada espectro foram calibrados em fluxo (com as correções de avermelhamento baseados no trabalho de Pacheco e Costa 1992, A&A 257, 619), e os parâmetros físicos (temperatura e densidade eletrônica) das nebulosas que envolvem os sistemas simbióticos determinados, usando-se fluxos medidos de OIII e NII da parte visível do espectro. Para a determinação das razões de abundâncias de C/N e O/N aplicou-se o método de Nussbaumer et al. (1988, A&A 198, 179). As razões de abundâncias foram derivadas das linhas de emissão (NIV, CIV, OIII, NIII e CIII) dos espectros IUE. Numa última fase plotou-se o diagrama C/N-O/N onde comparou-se a abundância química das simbióticas amarelas obtidas neste trabalho com as de gigantes normais. Os resultados mostram abundâncias compatíveis com aquelas derivadas para nebulosas planetárias do bojo, indicando que o material nebular é originado das gigantes vermelhas de cada sistema, e não da fonte quente. (FAPESP, CNPq)

Calbo, S. R.; Costa, R. D. D.

2003-08-01

306

Atmospheric oxygen concentration controls the size history of foraminifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Body size correlates with numerous physiological traits and thus influences organism fitness. However, long-term controls on size evolution remain poorly understood because few datasets spans sufficiently long intervals. One proposed controlling factor is variation in atmospheric oxygen, which is widely argued to have influenced size evolution in numerous taxa, notably gigantism in arthropods during the late Paleozoic. In this study, we compiled a comprehensive genus- and species-level size database of foraminifers (marine protists) to enable an extensive analysis of factors influencing size evolution. Foraminifers are an ideal study group because they are present in all Phanerozoic periods and have been diverse and abundant in shallow-marine habitats since Devonian time. We observe significant correlation between foraminiferan size and atmospheric oxygen concentration in foraminifers as a whole and in half of the major subclades. Larger size is associated with higher oxygen concentrations, as predicted by simple physiological models based on changes in the ratio of surface area to volume. Because the oxygen content ocean waters is controlled in part by atmospheric pO2, we interpret the association between foraminiferan size and pO2 to result from a direct physiological effect of oxygen availability. Atmospheric oxygen concentration predicts foraminiferan size better than six other Phanerozoic time series (pCO2, sea level, number of named geological formations, ?18O, ?13C, 87Sr/86Sr), further suggesting the correlation between oxygen and size does not occur simply through some common geological cause that influences many aspects of Earth system history. These findings support the hypothesis that widespread Permo-Carboniferous gigantism was enabled by high pO2 and suggest that oxygen availability has been among the most important influences on size evolution through Phanerozoic time.

Payne, J.; Jost, A. B.; Ouyang, X.; Skotheim, J. M.; Wang, S. C.

2010-12-01

307

Is IGSF1 involved in human pituitary tumor formation?  

PubMed Central

IGSF1 is a membrane glycoprotein highly expressed in the anterior pituitary. Pathogenic mutations in the IGSF1 gene (on Xq26.2) are associated with X-linked central hypothyroidism and testicular enlargement in males. In this study we tested the hypothesis that IGSF1 is involved in the development of pituitary tumors, especially those that produce growth hormone (GH). IGSF1 was sequenced in 21 patients with gigantism or acromegaly and 92 healthy individuals. Expression studies with a candidate pathogenic IGSF1 variant were carried out in transfected cells and immunohistochemistry for IGSF1 was performed in sections from GH-producing adenomas, familial somatomammotroph hyperplasia and in normal pituitary. In two male patients, and in one female, with somatomammotroph hyperplasia from the same family, we identified the sequence variant p.N604T, which in silico analysis suggested could affect IGSF1 function. Of 60 female controls, two carried the same variant, and seven were heterozygous for other variants. Immunohistochemistry showed increase IGSF1 staining in the GH-producing tumor from the patient with the IGSF1 p.N604T variant compared to a GH-producing adenoma from a patient negative for any IGSF1 variants and to normal control pituitary tissue. The IGSF1 gene appears polymorphic in the general population. A potentially pathogenic variant identified in the germline of three patients with gigantism from the same family (segregating with the disease) was also detected in two healthy female controls. Variations in IGSF1 expression in pituitary tissue in patients with or without IGSF1 germline mutations point to the need for further studies of IGSF1 action in pituitary adenoma formation. PMID:25527509

Faucz, Fabio R.; Horvath, Anelia D.; Azevedo, Monalisa F.; Levy, Isaac; Bak, Beata; Wang, Ying; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Gourgari, Evgenia; Manning, Allison D.; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Bertollo; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Lodish, Maya; Hofman, Paul; Anderson, Yvonne C; Holdaway, Ian; Oldfield, Edward; Chittiboina, Prashant; Nesterova, Maria; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Wit, Jan M.; Bernard, Daniel J.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

2014-01-01

308

Physical characteristics of TLEs inferred from ISUAL observations (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ISUAL/FORMOSAT-2 is the first satellite mission for the long term survey of upper atmospheric transient luminous phenomena/events (TLEs). The payload consists of three sensor packages including an intensified CCD imager, a six-channel spectrophotometer and a dual-band array photometer. Hence ISUAL experiment could provide information to understand the spatial and the temporal evolutions of TLEs. In this presentation, we will review the important findings of the ISUAL mission in the first five years of operation; mainly on the electric field of sprites streamers [Pasko, 2004; Kuo et al., 2005; Liu et al., 2006; Adachi et al., 2006; Liu et al, 2010; Celestin and Pasko, 2010], the FUV emissions of elves [Mende et al., 2005; Chang et al., 2010], the luminous and electric properties of gigantic jets [Su et al., 2005; Kuo et al., 2009; Chou et al., 2010], and the high-altitude sprite current and the lightning continuing current [Cummer et al, 2006; Adachi et al, 2009]. ISUAL has carried out 762 nm-filtered, 557.7 nm-filtered and 427.8 nm-filtered imager campaigns, besides the regular 1PN2 emission survey. For the 762 nm-filtered imager campaign, a weak but detectable O2 Atmospheric band emission (~1 kR) was predicted based on a plasma chemistry model [Sentman et al., 2008], and the image data may have confirmed the existence of this band emission. While, no significant 557.7 nm emissions were detected from the ISUAL recorded elves. In the 427.8 nm campaign, altitudinal ionization profile of sprites was inferred. The ionization structure of elves and the leader structure of gigantic jets will also be discussed.

Kuo, C.; Chen, A. B.; Su, H.; Hsu, R.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Takahashi, Y.; Lee, L.

2010-12-01

309

Dinámica y crecimiento de los granos de polvo en la nebulosa protoplanetaria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En el escenario estándar de la formación planetaria, los planetesimales (cuerpos de tamaño kilométrico) crecen a partir de granos de polvo, similares a los interestelares, embebidos en un disco gaseoso denominado nebulosa protoplanetaria. Durante esta etapa, los movimientos del gas pueden tener gran influencia en la dinámica y el crecimiento de los granos de polvo, dado que el flujo kepleriano del gas frena el movimiento de los mismos haciendo que caigan hacia el Sol, y la turbulencia inhibe la inestabilidad gravitacional de la capa de polvo. Aunque se acepta que los planetesimales fueron los elementos constituyentes de los planetas, todavía se desconoce cómo se produjo la formación de los mismos. Por esta razón, en los estudios más recientes, existe un renovado interés por comprender mejor la evolución de la capa de polvo inmersa en el disco gaseoso de la Nebulosa. El gas que fluye en el disco puede engendrar estructuras carentes de simetría axial, como por ejemplo ondas espirales y vórtices, a partir de gran variedad de mecanismos de excitación e inestabilidad. En 1995, Barge y Sommeria pusieron de manifiesto que la existencia de vórtices gaseosos persistentes en la nebulosa solar tendría importantes consecuencias sobre la formación de los planetesimales y el posterior crecimiento de los planetas gigantes. La investigación desarrollada en esta Tesis analiza la relación entre el polvo y el gas debida al acoplamiento por fricción dinámica entre ambos; en concreto, se estudia el efecto del flujo medio del gas sobre la dinámica de las partículas de polvo. El primer objetivo es investigar en profundidad los procesos de captura y crecimiento de los granos de polvo dentro de un vórtice y su posible relevancia en cuanto a la formación de los planetesimales. El segundo objetivo es la exploración de los efectos de ondas espirales propagándose en el disco gaseoso sobre la dinámica y el crecimiento de las partículas. La presencia de líneas de corriente no circulares perturba significativamente el movimiento de las partículas alrededor del Sol e incrementa su vida media en la Nebulosa. El flujo medio del gas se modela de forma simple, analizándose la dinámica y el crecimiento de las partículas mediante simulaciones numéricas. Al incrementarse la vida media y la densidad superficial de las partículas sólidas, los mecanismos de confinamiento derivados de la presencia de vórtices y ondas espirales actuan sobre el material sólido de la Nebulosa (mediante agregación colisional o inestabilidades gravitacionales) de manera mucho más eficiente que la previamente considerada. Esto ofrece nuevas posibilidades para la formación de planetesimales y núcleos de planetas gigantes, y puede explicar la formación rápida de planetas extrasolares gigantes. Además, esta Tesis analiza la respuesta de las partículas, en un disco protoplanetario con un radio de 100 UA en torno a una estrella de tipo solar, al campo gravitatorio derivado de la presencia de dos estrellas compañeras ligadas en una órbita relativamente elongada (300-1600 UA). Para llevar a cabo este análisis, se han realizado una serie de simulaciones numéricas de configuraciones jerárquicas coplanares utilizando un programa FORTRAN que integra directamente las ecuaciones del movimiento con el objeto de modelar la presencia de las fuerzas gravitacionales y viscosas. El disco protoplanetario masivo se encuentra en torno a una de las componentes de la binaria. La evolución temporal del subdisco de polvo depende directamente de la naturaleza (directa o retrógrada) de la revolución relativa de la compañera estelar, y de la temperatura y la masa del disco circunestelar.

de La Fuente Marcos, Carlos

2001-06-01

310

Body Size Evolution in Insular Speckled Rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalus mitchellii)  

PubMed Central

Background Speckled rattlesnakes (Crotalus mitchellii) inhabit multiple islands off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Two of the 14 known insular populations have been recognized as subspecies based primarily on body size divergence from putative mainland ancestral populations; however, a survey of body size variation from other islands occupied by these snakes has not been previously reported. We examined body size variation between island and mainland speckled rattlesnakes, and the relationship between body size and various island physical variables among 12 island populations. We also examined relative head size among giant, dwarfed, and mainland speckled rattlesnakes to determine whether allometric differences conformed to predictions of gape size (and indirectly body size) evolving in response to shifts in prey size. Methodology/Principal Findings Insular speckled rattlesnakes show considerable variation in body size when compared to mainland source subspecies. In addition to previously known instances of gigantism on Ángel de la Guarda and dwarfism on El Muerto, various degrees of body size decrease have occurred frequently in this taxon, with dwarfed rattlesnakes occurring mostly on small, recently isolated, land-bridge islands. Regression models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) showed that mean SVL of insular populations was most strongly correlated with island area, suggesting the influence of selection for different body size optima for islands of different size. Allometric differences in head size of giant and dwarf rattlesnakes revealed patterns consistent with shifts to larger and smaller prey, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Our data provide the first example of a clear relationship between body size and island area in a squamate reptile species; among vertebrates this pattern has been previously documented in few insular mammals. This finding suggests that selection for body size is influenced by changes in community dynamics that are related to graded differences in area over what are otherwise similar bioclimatic conditions. We hypothesize that in this system shifts to larger prey, episodic saturation and depression of primary prey density, and predator release may have led to insular gigantism, and that shifts to smaller prey and increased reproductive efficiency in the presence of intense intraspecific competition may have led to insular dwarfism. PMID:20209105

Meik, Jesse M.; Lawing, A. Michelle; Pires-daSilva, André

2010-01-01

311

Rheological profile of the Tohoku-oki interplate megathrust across the source region of the M9 great earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before attacked by the 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake (M9.0), large earthquakes off the Pacific coast of NE Japan had been believed to occur at specific areas, named asperities, on the subducting plate interface. In the NE Japan subduction zone, a typical asperity was found offshore of Miyagi Prefecture (Miyagi-oki), where M7-class earthquakes occurred in 1936, 1978, and 2005, with recurrence intervals of 37 years. However, the M9 gigantic earthquake occurred at the up-dip side of the asperity of the M7-class Miyagi-oki earthquakes. The large slips at the M9 event have been differently explained by different numerical models due to the lack of our knowledge on frictional properties and stress states at the plate interface. Here we constrain the stress states on the NE Japan interplate megathrust from a viewpoint of rock rheology. A strength profile of the megathrust was constructed across the source region of the M9 Tohoku-oki earthquake using laboratory data of friction, fracturing and ductile flow. Rheological properties of siliceous sedimentary rocks and subducting seamounts at the top of the oceanic plate were represented by those of wet quartz and gabbro, respectively. Depth-dependent changes of pressure, temperature, and pore pressure ratio were incorporated into the model. The frictional strength of the thrust fault was estimated to be about 150 MPa at the hypocenter of the M9 earthquake, which is located 17-18 km below the sea level. The large coseismic slips observed at the M9 event are explained by the large difference in fault strength between the shallow tsunami-genic zone and the M9 hypocentral zone. A large stress drop induced by a collapse of a subducted seamount possibly triggered the gigantic earthquake. At the deep (>35 km) part of the thrust fault, where M7-class Miyagi-oki earthquakes repeatedly occurred, siliceous rocks become ductile whereas gabbroic rocks are brittle and strong. Thus, the asperity of the M7-class earthquakes is considered as a broken seamount, which is surrounded by siliceous sedimentary rocks. A conditionally stable nature of the surrounding region is explained by frictional behaviors of quartz in the brittle-ductile transition zone. In contrast to the deep M7-class asperity, the M9 asperity (i.e., a region that was strongly coupled before the M9 Tohoku-oki earthquake) occupies a large part of the plate interface because shear strength is relatively insensitive to rock types at the intermediate depth. The along-arc extension of the M9 asperity is possibly constrained by fluid distributions on the plate interface.

Shimizu, I.

2013-12-01

312

Analysis of impulse signals with Hylaty ELF station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lighting discharges generate electromagnetic field pulses that propagate in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. The attenuation in the ELF range is so small that the pulses originating from strong atmospheric discharges can be observed even several thousand kilometers away from the individual discharge. The recorded waveform depends on the discharge process, the Earth-ionosphere waveguide properties on the source-receiver path, and the transfer function of the receiver. If the distance from the source is known, an inverse method can be used for reconstructing the current moment waveform and the charge moment of the discharge. In order to reconstruct the source parameters from the recorded signal a reliable model of the radio wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide as well as practical signal processing techniques are necessary. We present two methods, both based on analytical formulas. The first method allows for fast calculation of the charge moment of relatively short atmospheric discharges. It is based on peak amplitude measurement of the recorded magnetic component of the ELF EM field and it takes into account the receiver characteristics. The second method, called "inverse channel method" allows reconstructing the complete current moment waveform of strong atmospheric discharges that exhibit the continuing current phase, such as Gigantic Jets and Sprites. The method makes it possible to fully remove from the observed waveform the distortions related to the receiver's impulse response as well as the influence of the Earth-ionosphere propagation channel. Our ELF station is equipped with two magnetic antennas for Bx and By components measurement in the 0.03 to 55 Hz frequency range. ELF Data recording is carried out since 1993, with continuous data acquisition since 2005. The station features low noise level and precise timing. It is battery powered and located in the sparsely populated area, far from major electric power lines, which results in high quality signal recordings and allows for precise calculations of the charge moments of upward discharges and strong cloud-to-ground discharges originating from distant sources. The same data is used for Schumann resonance observation. We demonstrate the use of our methods based on recent recordings from the Hylaty ELF station. We include examples of GJ (Gigantic Jet) and TGF (Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash) related discharges.

Kulak, A.; Mlynarczyk, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Kubisz, J.; Michalec, A.

2012-04-01

313

Evidence of cumulative offset along the inland Itozawa fault possibly triggered by the past M9 Tohoku, Japan, megathrust earthquakes revealed from a borehole survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gigantic Mw 9.0 11 March 2011 Tohoku earthquake suddenly changed the overriding inland area from a compressional stress to an extensional stress regime and then triggered massive seismic swarms in the coastal Fukushima region. The Fukushima-ken-hamadori earthquake on 11 April 2011 (hereinafter, Iwaki earthquake), which was the largest inland off-fault aftershock of the Tohoku earthquake, ruptured the two previously mapped normal faults, the Yunodake fault and the Itozawa fault (Toda and Tsutsumi, BSSA, 2013). The Iwaki earthquake implies that the past gigantic megathrust earthquakes, if they exist, might have frequently triggered slip on similar normal faults including the Itozawa and Yunodake faults themselves. Ideally, collecting all the paleoseismic records from all the normal faults would give us the history of the past M9 class megathrust events and an average inter-event time. Among the series of surveys including paleoseismic trenches (e.g., Toda and Tsutsumi, 2013), we conducted a borehole survey across the central part of the Itozawa fault (Shionohira, Iwaki City), where the maximum vertical displacement 2.1 m was measured. In both upthrown and downthrown sides, extracted core samples expose bedrock conglomerate, fluvial sand and gravel deposits, and artificial fill, from lower to upper, in ascending order. Only in downthrown side, an organic-rich fine layer overlays fluvial deposit, indicating environmental changes from river channel to marsh or pond. We found evidence for cumulative vertical displacement on the top of pre-2011 artificial fill (1.7 m), river channel gravel layer (2.5 m), and bedrock (3.4 m). On the basis of sudden environmental changes from river to pond observed after the Iwaki earthquake due to subsided upstream area (Toda and Tsutsumi, 2013), we interpret that change in sedimentary facies from fluvial gravel to marsh or pond organic layer in the downthrown side corresponds to one of the past surface-rupturing earthquakes. Radiocarbon age yielded from the organic-rich unit suggests that one of the pre-2011 surface rupturing earthquakes occurred about 50,000 years ago. The amount of vertical displacement at one of the pre-2011 earthquakes (ca. 0.8 m) is significantly smaller than displacement at the Iwaki earthquake. Together with large coseismic slip at the 2011 event, it implies that the characteristic earthquake model cannot be simply applied to the faults largely influenced or directly triggered by huge megathrust earthquakes nearby.

Niwa, Y.; Toda, S.; Omata, M.; Mori, Y.

2013-12-01

314

Advanced Materials for Sustainable, Clean Energy Future  

SciTech Connect

The current annual worldwide energy consumption stands at about 15 terawatts (TW, x1012 watts). Approximately 80% of it is supplied from fossil fuels: oil (34 %), coal (25 %), and natural gas (21 %). Biomass makes up 8% of the energy supply, nuclear energy accounts for 6.5 %, hydropower has a 2% share and other technologies such as wind and solar make up the rest. Even with aggressive conservation and new higher efficiency technology development, worldwide energy demand is predicted to double to 30 TW by 2050 and triple to 46 TW by the end of the century. Meanwhile oil and natural gas production is predicted to peak over the next few decades. Abundant coal reserves may maintain the current consumption level for longer period of time than the oil and gas. However, burning the fossil fuels leads to a serious environmental consequence by emitting gigantic amount of green house gases, particularly CO2 emissions which are widely considered as the primary contributor to global warming. Because of the concerns over the greenhouse gas emission, many countries, and even some states and cities in the US, have adopted regulations for limiting CO2 emissions. Along with increased CO2 regulations, is an emerging trend toward carbon “trading,” giving benefits to low “carbon footprint” industries, while making higher emitting industries purchase carbon “allowances”. There have been an increasing number of countries and states adopting the trade and cap systems.

Yang, Zhenguo

2009-04-01

315

A transparently scalable visualization architecture for exploring the universe.  

PubMed

Modern astronomical instruments produce enormous amounts of three-dimensional data describing the physical Universe. The currently available data sets range from the solar system to nearby stars and portions of the Milky Way Galaxy, including the interstellar medium and some extrasolar planets, and extend out to include galaxies billions of light years away. Because of its gigantic scale and the fact that it is dominated by empty space, modeling and rendering the Universe is very different from modeling and rendering ordinary three-dimensional virtual worlds at human scales. Our purpose is to introduce a comprehensive approach to an architecture solving this visualization problem that encompasses the entire Universe while seeking to be as scale-neutral as possible. One key element is the representation of model-rendering procedures using power scaled coordinates (PSC), along with various PSC-based techniques that we have devised to generalize and optimize the conventional graphics framework to the scale domains of astronomical visualization. Employing this architecture, we have developed an assortment of scale-independent modeling and rendering methods for a large variety of astronomical models, and have demonstrated scale-insensitive interactive visualizations of the physical Universe covering scales ranging from human scale to the Earth, to the solar system, to the Milky Way Galaxy, and to the entire observable Universe. PMID:17093340

Fu, Chi-Wing; Hanson, Andrew J

2007-01-01

316

ADELE sensitivity to high-energy radiation from transient luminous events during the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinels campaigns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summers of 2013 and 2014, UCSC will fly the Airborne Detector for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE) instrument on board one of the Global Hawk aircraft of the NASA Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinels (HS3) campaign over storms in the Atlantic. In addition to Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs), which have been observed at gamma-ray energies by satellites such as RHESSI and FERMI, ADELE will also search for high-energy radiation from Transient Luminous Events (TLEs, i.e. elves, gigantic jets, blue jets, sprites, and sprite halos). High-energy radiation is plausible as a byproduct of stepped leaders in jets, streamers in sprites, and acceleration of electrons in the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) that produces elves. Because ADELE will fly at low altitudes, the intensity of radiation from these events could be orders of magnitude higher at ADELE than at satellites in low earth orbit. We will consider the high energy spectra that might be produced by TLEs and estimate to what extent these phenomena can be observed by ADELE on HS3.

Bowers, G.; Smith, D. M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Cummer, S. A.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; Kelley, N. A.; Harris, C. B.; Buzbee, P.

2012-12-01

317

[Historical development of tuberculosis since Robert Koch's discovery of the tubercle bacillus in 1882].  

PubMed

Robert Koch's single-handed discovery of M. tuberculosis, one of the most gigantic scientific accomplishments of all times, provided the necessary foundation for subsequent investigative breakthroughs that have made it possible for experts to begin to contemplate the ultimate eradication of TB: the dreaded pestilence that for centuries was the greatest cause of death in the world. Further important milestones in the fight against TB were the discovery of X-rays, the development of BCG vaccination, the introduction of chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis, and deciphering the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. First of all, though, we must find a way to deal with the recent resurgence of the disease in the poor countries of sub-Saharan Africa, which is being fueled by another scourge, HIV/AIDS. And there is also the global problem of worsening anti-TB drug resistance. Eradication is conceivable and a worthy goal, but, I suspect, we will need to wait for another one or two additional "milestones" to help us along before the long-awaited nirvana can finally occur. PMID:18098069

Murray, J F

2007-12-01

318

Initiating the effective unification of black hole horizon area and entropy quantization with quasi-normal modes  

E-print Network

Black hole (BH) quantization may be the key to unlocking a unifying theory of quantum gravity (QG). Surmounting evidence in the field of BH research continues to support a horizon (surface) area with a discrete and uniformly spaced spectrum, but there is still no general agreement on the level spacing. In this specialized and important BH case study, our objective is to report and examine the pertinent groundbreaking work of the strictly thermal and non-strictly thermal spectrum level spacing of the BH horizon area quantization with included entropy calculations, which aims to tackle this gigantic problem. In particular, this work exemplifies a series of imperative corrections that eventually permits a BH's horizon area spectrum to be generalized from strictly thermal to non-strictly thermal with entropy results, thereby capturing multiple preceding developments by launching an effective unification between them. Moreover, the identified results are significant because quasi-normal modes (QNM) and "effective states" characterize the transitions between the established levels of the non-strictly thermal spectrum.

C. Corda; S. H. Hendi; R. Katebi; N. O. Schmidt

2014-07-09

319

Isolation and characterization of a novel herpesvirus from a free-ranging eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).  

PubMed

We isolated a macropodid herpesvirus from a free-ranging eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteous) displaying clinical signs of respiratory disease and possibly neurologic disease. Sequence analysis of the herpesvirus glycoprotein G (gG) and glycoprotein B (gB) genes revealed that the virus was an alphaherpesvirus most closely related to macropodid herpesvirus 2 (MaHV-2) with 82.7% gG and 94.6% gB amino acid sequence identity. Serologic analyses showed similar cross-neutralization patterns to those of MaHV-2. The two viruses had different growth characteristics in cell culture. Most notably, this virus formed significantly larger plaques and extensive syncytia when compared with MaHV-2. No syncytia were observed for MaHV-2. Restriction endonuclease analysis of whole viral genomes demonstrated distinct restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns for all three macropodid herpesviruses. These studies suggest that a distinct macropodid alphaherpesvirus may be capable of infecting and causing disease in eastern grey kangaroos. PMID:23307380

Vaz, Paola Karinna; Motha, Julian; McCowan, Christina; Ficorilli, Nino; Whiteley, Pam Lizette; Wilks, Colin Reginald; Hartley, Carol Anne; Gilkerson, James Rudkin; Browning, Glenn Francis; Devlin, Joanne Maree

2013-01-01

320

The Revival of White Holes as Small Bangs  

E-print Network

Black holes are extremely dense and compact objects from which light cannot escape. There is an overall consensus that black holes exist and many astronomical objects are identified with black holes. White holes were understood as the exact time reversal of black holes, therefore they should continuously throw away material. It is accepted, however, that a persistent ejection of mass leads to gravitational pressure, the formation of a black hole and thus to the "death of while holes". So far, no astronomical source has been successfully tagged a white hole. The only known white hole is the Big Bang which was instantaneous rather than continuous or long-lasting. We thus suggest that the emergence of a white hole, which we name a 'Small Bang', is spontaneous - all the matter is ejected at a single pulse. Unlike black holes, white holes cannot be continuously observed rather their effect can only be detected around the event itself. Gamma ray bursts are the most energetic explosions in the universe. Long gamma-ray bursts were connected with supernova eruptions. There is a new group of gamma-ray bursts, which are relatively close to Earth, but surprisingly lack any supernova emission. We propose identifying these bursts with white holes. White holes seem like the best explanation of gamma-ray bursts that appear in voids. We also predict the detection of rare gigantic gamma-ray bursts with energies much higher than typically observed.

Alon Retter; Shlomo Heller

2011-07-17

321

Anomalous Nernst and Hall effects in magnetized platinum and palladium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) and anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in proximity-induced ferromagnetic palladium and platinum which is widely used in spintronics, within the Berry phase formalism based on the relativistic band-structure calculations. We find that both the anomalous Hall (?xyA) and Nernst (?xyA) conductivities can be related to the spin Hall conductivity (?xyS) and band exchange splitting (?ex) by relations ?xyA=?exe??xyS(EF)' and ?xyA=-?23kB2T?ex??xys(? )'', respectively. In particular, these relations would predict that the ?xyA in the magnetized Pt (Pd) would be positive (negative) since the ?xyS(EF)' is positive (negative). Furthermore, both ?xyA and ?xyA are approximately proportional to the induced spin magnetic moment (ms) because the ?ex is a linear function of ms. Using the reported ms in the magnetized Pt and Pd, we predict that the intrinsic anomalous Nernst conductivity (ANC) in the magnetic platinum and palladium would be gigantic, being up to ten times larger than, e.g., iron, while the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity (AHC) would also be significant.

Guo, G. Y.; Niu, Q.; Nagaosa, N.

2014-06-01

322

Creating the brain and interacting with the brain: an integrated approach to understanding the brain.  

PubMed

In the past two decades, brain science and robotics have made gigantic advances in their own fields, and their interactions have generated several interdisciplinary research fields. First, in the 'understanding the brain by creating the brain' approach, computational neuroscience models have been applied to many robotics problems. Second, such brain-motivated fields as cognitive robotics and developmental robotics have emerged as interdisciplinary areas among robotics, neuroscience and cognitive science with special emphasis on humanoid robots. Third, in brain-machine interface research, a brain and a robot are mutually connected within a closed loop. In this paper, we review the theoretical backgrounds of these three interdisciplinary fields and their recent progress. Then, we introduce recent efforts to reintegrate these research fields into a coherent perspective and propose a new direction that integrates brain science and robotics where the decoding of information from the brain, robot control based on the decoded information and multimodal feedback to the brain from the robot are carried out in real time and in a closed loop. PMID:25589568

Morimoto, Jun; Kawato, Mitsuo

2015-03-01

323

[Fiberoptic nasal intubation in a patient with huge laryngeal cyst].  

PubMed

Huge laryngeal cyst is rare, but may cause difficulty or inability in tracheal intubation during induction of general anesthesia. A 69-year-old patient was scheduled for laryngomicroscopic cystectomy. In this patient, we examined two methods of oro-tracheal intubation either with rigid laryngoscopy or flexible fiberscopy using transnasal fiberoptic monitoring. Direct laryngoscopy failed to expose the epiglottis because of large cyst being fragile and easy to bleed. And even oral fiberscopy intubation was also difficult since a large mass hindered acquiring a suitable view. However, trans-nasal fiberscopy monitoring could guide the oro-tracheal fiber into the trachea for intubation. When an anesthesiologist can predict the abnormality of epiglottis, this combination might be recommended for difficult airway and intubation. Postoperative respiratory management under intubating state was necessary because of bleeding, airway edema, and deviation of the larynx after tumor resection. We reported anesthetic management of a patient with epiglottis gigantic cyst occupying the laryngopharyngeal airway. It is a rare tumor leading to difficulty of induction of anesthesia and necessitating postoperative intubated respiratory care. PMID:11510074

Matsumoto, K

2001-07-01

324

Atmospheric oxygen level and the evolution of insect body size  

PubMed Central

Insects are small relative to vertebrates, possibly owing to limitations or costs associated with their blind-ended tracheal respiratory system. The giant insects of the late Palaeozoic occurred when atmospheric PO2 (aPO2) was hyperoxic, supporting a role for oxygen in the evolution of insect body size. The paucity of the insect fossil record and the complex interactions between atmospheric oxygen level, organisms and their communities makes it impossible to definitively accept or reject the historical oxygen-size link, and multiple alternative hypotheses exist. However, a variety of recent empirical findings support a link between oxygen and insect size, including: (i) most insects develop smaller body sizes in hypoxia, and some develop and evolve larger sizes in hyperoxia; (ii) insects developmentally and evolutionarily reduce their proportional investment in the tracheal system when living in higher aPO2, suggesting that there are significant costs associated with tracheal system structure and function; and (iii) larger insects invest more of their body in the tracheal system, potentially leading to greater effects of aPO2 on larger insects. Together, these provide a wealth of plausible mechanisms by which tracheal oxygen delivery may be centrally involved in setting the relatively small size of insects and for hyperoxia-enabled Palaeozoic gigantism. PMID:20219733

Harrison, Jon F.; Kaiser, Alexander; VandenBrooks, John M.

2010-01-01

325

Wafer-scale metasurface for total power absorption, local field enhancement and single molecule Raman spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The ability to detect molecules at low concentrations is highly desired for applications that range from basic science to healthcare. Considerable interest also exists for ultrathin materials with high optical absorption, e.g. for microbolometers and thermal emitters. Metal nanostructures present opportunities to achieve both purposes. Metal nanoparticles can generate gigantic field enhancements, sufficient for the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Thin layers containing metal nanostructures (“metasurfaces”) can achieve near-total power absorption at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Thus far, however, both aims (i.e. single molecule Raman and total power absorption) have only been achieved using metal nanostructures produced by techniques (high resolution lithography or colloidal synthesis) that are complex and/or difficult to implement over large areas. Here, we demonstrate a metasurface that achieves the near-perfect absorption of visible-wavelength light and enables the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Our metasurface is fabricated using thin film depositions, and is of unprecedented (wafer-scale) extent. PMID:24091825

Wang, Dongxing; Zhu, Wenqi; Best, Michael D.; Camden, Jon P.; Crozier, Kenneth B.

2013-01-01

326

Northwestern Tharsis Latent Outflow Activity Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previously defined outflow channels, which are indicated by relict landforms similar to those observed on Earth, signify ancient catastrophic flood events on Mars. These conspicuous geomorphic features are some of the most remarkable yet profound discoveries made by geologists to date. These outflow channels, which debouched tremendous volumes of water into topographic lows such as Chryse, Utopia, Elysium, and Hellas Planitiae, may represent the beginning of warmer and wetter climatic periods unlike the present-day cold and dry Mars. In addition to the previously identified outflow channels, observations permitted by the newly acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data have revealed a system of gigantic valleys, referred to as the northwestern slope valleys (NSV), that are located to the northwest of a huge shield volcano, Arsia Mons, western hemisphere of Mars. These features generally correspond spatially to gravity lows similar to the easternmost, circum-Chryse outflow channel systems. Geologic investigations of the Tharsis region suggest that the large valley system pre-dates the construction of Arsia Mons and its extensive associated lava flows of mainly Late Hesperian and Amazonian age and coincides stratigraphically with the early development of the circum-Chryse outflow channel systems that debouch into Chryse Planitia. This newly identified system, the NSV, potentially signifies the largest flood event(s) ever recorded for the solar system. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

Dohm, J. M.; Anderson, R. C.; Baker, V. R.; Ferris, J. C.; Hare, T. M.; Strom, R. G.; Rudd, L.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Scott, D. H.

2000-01-01

327

Structural Control of Giant Rock Avalanches in Argentina  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jigsaw version: To prepare, students do background reading on landslides and rock avalanches and read the introductory portion of Hermanns and Strecker's 1999 article on rock avalanches in Argentina. In class, students receive data (assembled from figures in the article) on bedrock geology and physiography, as well as stereonets showing orientations of prominent joint sets, bedding, and foliations in the bedrock. Their task is to answer the question of why gigantic rock avalanches occur is some places but not others in this part of Argentina. Each student receives one of four possible data sets and works with a team to analyze the data and solve the problem for the team's area. Each team member must then individually explain his/her analysis to a group of three other students, one from each of the other teams, and the group then compares the four locations for similarities and differences. The activity gives students practice in interpreting geologic maps, using stereonets, and peer teaching. The activity also connects structural geology to another geoscience discipline.Short case example version: This is an abbreviated version of the jigsaw activity described above and focuses on only one of the rock avalanche areas.

Barb Tewksbury

328

Geological and geophysical evidence for a holocene tsunami deposit in the astern Mediterranean deep-sea record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extended geological and geophysical exploration of basinal settings in different areas of the eastern Mediterranean demonstrate the existence of a Holocene mud layer several metres in thickness (up to more than 20 m) and typically showing a graded basal part. The event producing this peculiar deposit is correlated with the gigantic 'Bronze Age' or Minoan eruption of the Santorini volcano (3500 years BP), which resulted in caldera collapse and supposedly produced a strong seismic sea-wave, that is a tsunami. Order of magnitude calculations demonstrate that the wave speed was sufficient to induce erosion and liquefaction of the soft unconsolidated sediments draping the deep-sea floor. The event is recorded in over 50 deep-sea cores recovered in the last 20 years which contain the fine grained 'Homogenite' layer starting with a fining-upwards sandy base and having a thickness of more than 24 m in the Sirte Abyssal Plain area. Several depositional models related to setting and source areas and based on thickness, composition, carbonate content and sedimentary structures of the deposits have been proposed.

Cita, Maria Bianca; Rimoldi, Bianca

1997-09-01

329

Linquistic geometry: new technology for decision support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linguistic Geometry (LG) is a revolutionary gaming approach which is ideally suited for military decision aids for Air, Ground, Naval, and Space-based operations, as well guiding robotic vehicles and traditional entertainment games. When thinking about modern or future military operations, the game metaphor comes to mind right away. Indeed, the air space together with the ground and seas may be viewed as a gigantic three-dimensional game board. Refining this picture, the LG approach is capable of providing an LG hypergame, that is, a system of multiple concurrent interconnected multi-player abstract board games (ABG) of various resolutions and time frames reflecting various kinds of hardware and effects involved in the battlespace and the solution space. By providing a hypergame representation of the battlespace, LG already provides a significant advance in situational awareness. However, the greatest advantage of the LG approach is an ability to provide commanders of campaigns and missions with decision options resulting in attainment of the commander's intent. At each game turn, an LG decision support tool assigns the best actions to each of the multitude of battlespace actors (UAVs, bombers, cruise missiles, etc.). This is done through utilization of algorithms finding winning strategies and tactics, which are the core of the LG approach.

Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Vladimir

2003-09-01

330

Lowland-upland migration of sauropod dinosaurs during the Late Jurassic epoch.  

PubMed

Sauropod dinosaurs were the largest vertebrates ever to walk the Earth, and as mega-herbivores they were important parts of terrestrial ecosystems. In the Late Jurassic-aged Morrison depositional basin of western North America, these animals occupied lowland river-floodplain settings characterized by a seasonally dry climate. Massive herbivores with high nutritional and water needs could periodically experience nutritional and water stress under these conditions, and thus the common occurrence of sauropods in this basin has remained a paradox. Energetic arguments and mammalian analogues have been used to suggest that migration allowed sauropods access to food and water resources over a wide region or during times of drought or both, but there has been no direct support for these hypotheses. Here we compare oxygen isotope ratios (?(18)O) of tooth-enamel carbonate from the sauropod Camarasaurus with those of ancient soil, lake and wetland (that is, 'authigenic') carbonates that formed in lowland settings. We demonstrate that certain populations of these animals did in fact undertake seasonal migrations of several hundred kilometres from lowland to upland environments. This ability to describe patterns of sauropod movement will help to elucidate the role that migration played in the ecology and evolution of gigantism of these and associated dinosaurs. PMID:22031326

Fricke, Henry C; Hencecroth, Justin; Hoerner, Marie E

2011-12-22

331

A vision of the environmental and occupational noise pollution in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Environmental noise remains a complex and fragmented interplay between industrialization, population growth, technological developments, and the living environment. Next to the circulatory diseases and cancer, noise pollution has been cited as the third epidemic cause of psychological and physiological disorders internationally. A reliable and firm relationship between the cumulative health implications with the traffic annoyance and occupational noise has been established. This agenda has called for an integrated, coordinated, and participatory approach to the reliable protection of noise interference. Despite several fragmented policies, legislation and global efforts have been addressed; the noise pollution complaints have been traditionally neglected in developing countries, especially in Malaysia. This paper was undertaken to postulate an initial platform to address the dynamic pressures, gigantic challenges, and tremendous impacts of noise pollution scenario in Malaysia. The emphasis is speculated on the traffic interference and assessment of industrial and occupational noise. The fundamental importance of noise monitoring and modeling is proposed. Additionally, the confronting conservation program and control measure for noise pollution control are laconically elucidated. PMID:25387540

Yuen, Foo Keng

2014-01-01

332

The First Freshwater Mosasauroid (Upper Cretaceous, Hungary) and a New Clade of Basal Mosasauroids  

PubMed Central

Mosasauroids are conventionally conceived of as gigantic, obligatorily aquatic marine lizards (1000s of specimens from marine deposited rocks) with a cosmopolitan distribution in the Late Cretaceous (90–65 million years ago [mya]) oceans and seas of the world. Here we report on the fossilized remains of numerous individuals (small juveniles to large adults) of a new taxon, Pannoniasaurus inexpectatus gen. et sp. nov. from the Csehbánya Formation, Hungary (Santonian, Upper Cretaceous, 85.3–83.5 mya) that represent the first known mosasauroid that lived in freshwater environments. Previous to this find, only one specimen of a marine mosasauroid, cf. Plioplatecarpus sp., is known from non-marine rocks in Western Canada. Pannoniasaurus inexpectatus gen. et sp. nov. uniquely possesses a plesiomorphic pelvic anatomy, a non-mosasauroid but pontosaur-like tail osteology, possibly limbs like a terrestrial lizard, and a flattened, crocodile-like skull. Cladistic analysis reconstructs P. inexpectatus in a new clade of mosasauroids: (Pannoniasaurus (Tethysaurus (Yaguarasaurus, Russellosaurus))). P. inexpectatus is part of a mixed terrestrial and freshwater faunal assemblage that includes fishes, amphibians turtles, terrestrial lizards, crocodiles, pterosaurs, dinosaurs and birds. PMID:23284766

Makádi, László; Caldwell, Michael W.; ?si, Attila

2012-01-01

333

Unusual manifestations of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: clinical, endocrinological and computed tomographic features.  

PubMed Central

Clinical, endocrinological and computed tomographic features of three patients with unusual manifestations or complications of craniofacial involvement of fibrous dysplasia are presented. One patient with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia presented in late pregnancy with acute onset of bilateral optic nerve compression and blindness secondary to a rapidly expanding mass of fibrous dysplasia tissue involving the sphenoid, pituitary and optic chiasm regions. A second patient with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia developed thyrotoxicosis and probable gigantism/acromegaly in keeping with a rare form of McCune-Albright syndrome. Extensive bony distortion of the skull and facial bones by fibrous dysplasia made clinical recognition of these complications more difficult. A third patient had monostotic fibrous dysplasia with marked sclerosis of the sphenoid bone on plain radiographs which mimicked appearances of a meningioma and resulted in a negative craniotomy as computed tomography was not yet available at the time of presentation. Each case demonstrated rare complications of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia and highlighted the wide spectrum of appearances in which it may manifest, often resulting in overlap and diagnostic confusion with other disease processes. The value of computed tomography in assessment is emphasized. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8140010

Daly, B. D.; Chow, C. C.; Cockram, C. S.

1994-01-01

334

Global transients in ultraviolet and red-infrared ranges from data of Universitetsky-Tatiana-2 satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light detectors sensitive to wavelength ranges 240-400 nm and beyond 610 nm (which we refer to, for simplicity, as the UV and Red bands) on board Universitetsky-Tatiana-2 satellite have detected transient flashes in the atmosphere of duration 1-128 ms. Measured ratio of the number of Red photons to the number of UV photons indicates that source of transient radiation is at high atmosphere altitude (>50 km). Distribution of events with various photon numbers Qa in the atmosphere found to be different for "luminous" events Qa = 1023 - 1026 (with exponent of differential distribution -2.2) and for "faint" events Qa = 1021 - 1023 (with exponent - 0.97). Luminous event parameters (atmosphere altitude, energy released to radiation, and temporal profiles) are similar to observed elsewhere parameters of transient luminous events (TLE) of elves, sprites, halo, and gigantic blue jets types. Global map of luminous events demonstrates concentration to equatorial zones (latitudes 30°N to 30°S) above continents. Faint events (with number of photons Qa = 1020 - 5? 1021) are distributed more uniformly over latitudes and longitudes. Phenomenon of series of transients registered every minute along satellite orbit (from 3 to 16 transients in one series) was observed. Most TLE-type events belonged to series. Single transients are in average fainter than serial ones. Some transients belonging to series occurs far away of thunderstorm regions. Origin of faint single transients is not clear; several hypothetical models of their production are discussed.

Garipov, G. K.; Khrenov, B. A.; Klimov, P. A.; Klimenko, V. V.; Mareev, E. A.; Martines, O.; Mendoza, E.; Morozenko, V. S.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Park, I. H.; Ponce, E.; Rivera, L.; Salazar, H.; Tulupov, V. I.; Vedenkin, N. N.; Yashin, I. V.

2013-01-01

335

Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting.  

PubMed

The field of photonics starts with the efficient generation of light. The generation of efficient yet highly controllable light can indeed be accomplished with light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which are, in principle, capable of generating white light with a 20 times greater efficiency than conventional light bulbs. Deployed on a global scale to replace conventional sources, such solid-state light sources will result in enormous benefits that, over a period of 10 years, include (1) gigantic energy savings of 1.9 x 1020 joule, (2) a very substantial reduction in global-warming CO2 emissions, (3) a strong reduction in the emission of pollutants such as acid-rain-causing SO2, mercury (Hg), and uranium (U), and (4) financial savings exceeding a trillion (10(12)) US$. These benefits can be accomplished by the "replacement paradigm" in which conventional light sources are replaced by more energy efficient, more durable, and non-toxic light sources. However, it will be shown that solid-state light sources can go beyond the replacement paradigm, by providing new capabilities including the control of spectrum, color temperature, polarization, temporal modulation, and spatial emission pattern. We will show that such future, "smart" light sources, can harness the huge potential of LEDs by offering multi-dimensional controllability that will enhance the functionality and performance of light sources in a wide range of applications. These applications include optical microscopy, imaging, display technologies, communications, networking, and transportation systems. PMID:19104616

Kim, Jong Kyu; Schubert, E Fred

2008-12-22

336

Permian alkaline granites in the Erenhot-Hegenshan belt, northern Inner Mongolia, China: Model of generation, time of emplacement and regional tectonic significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is known to be the Earth's largest Phanerozoic accretionary orogenic belt. Its southern margin, particularly in the southern Mongolia and Inner Mongolia (SMIM), shows an extensive distribution of alkaline granites. Study of these granites could shed light on long-debated hypotheses on the late Paleozoic tectonic evolution of this region. In this work, we performed a detailed zircon age determination and whole rock geochemical analysis on alkaline granites from four granitic plutons in northern Inner Mongolia (Hongol, Saiyinwusu, Baolag, and Baiyinwula). U-Pb zircon dating yielded early Permian ages (ca. 280 Ma) for the four plutons. Whole-rock geochemical analyses show chemical characteristics typical of alkaline granites. Coeval alkaline granites from southern Mongolia to northern Inner Mongolia constitute a gigantic (?900 km) Permian (292-275 Ma) alkaline granite belt in the southern CAOB. Furthermore, these alkaline granites have whole-rock ?Nd(t) varying between +3.6 and +6.4 and zircon ?Hf(t) from +4.9 to +20.3. The geochemical and Nd-Hf isotopic signatures suggest derivation by partial melting of a protolith assemblage dominated by metasomatised mantle, and followed by fractional crystallization in a post-collisional extensional environment.

Tong, Ying; Jahn, Bor-ming; Wang, Tao; Hong, Da-wei; Smith, Eugene I.; Sun, Min; Gao, Jian-feng; Yang, Qi-di; Huang, Wei

2015-01-01

337

Choosing Between Yeast and Bacterial Expression Systems: Yield Dependent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a naturally occurring fluorescent protein isolated from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. The intrinsic fluorescence of the protein is due to a chromophore located in the center of the molecule. Its usefulness has been established as a marker for gene expression and localization of gene products. GFP has recently been utilized as a model protein for crystallization studies at NASA/MSFC, both in earth-based and in microgravity experiments. Because large quantities of purified protein were needed, the cDNA of GFP was cloned into the Pichia pastoris pPICZ(alpha) C strain, with very little protein secreted into the media. Microscopic analysis prior to harvest showed gigantic green fluorescent yeast, but upon harvesting most protein was degraded. Trial fermentations of GFP cloned into pPICZ A for intracellular expression provided unsatisfactory yield. GFP cloned into E, coli was overexpressed at greater than 150 mg/liter, with purification yields at greater than 100mg/liter.

Miller, Rebecca S.; Malone, Christine C.; Moore, Blake P.; Burk, Melissa; Crawford, Lisa; Karr, Laurel J.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

338

Control of Regional and Global Weather  

E-print Network

Author suggests and researches a new revolutionary idea for regional and global weather control. He offers to cover cities, bad regions of country, full country or a continent by a thin closed film with control clarity located at a top limit of the Earth troposphere (4 - 6 km). The film is supported at altitude by small additional atmospheric pressure and connected to ground by thin cables. It is known, the troposphere defines the Earth weather. Authors show this closed dome allows to do a full control of the weather in a given region (the day is always fine, the rain is only in night, no strong wind). The average Earth (white cloudy) reflectance equal 0.3 - 0.5. That means the Earth losses about 0.3 - 0.5 of a solar energy. The dome controls the clarity of film and converts the cold regions to subtropics and creates the hot deserts, desolate wildernesses to the prosperous regions with temperate climate. That is a realistic and the cheapest method of the weather control in the Earth at the current time. Key words: Global weather control, gigantic film dome, converting a cold region to subtropics, converting desolate wilderness to a prosperous region.

Alexander Bolonkin

2007-01-09

339

Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, K-Ca, O, and H isotopic study of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments, Caravaca, Spain Evidence for an oceanic impact site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of isotopic and trace-element-abundance analyses of Ir-enriched Cretaceous-Tertiary-boundary clay sediments from Caravaca, Spain, and of adjacent carbonate and marl layers, are presented. Acetic-acid and HCl leachates and residues were analyzed by isotope dilution to determine K, Rb, Sr, Sm, and Nd concentrations and Sr-87/Sr-86 and Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios. The stable isotope ratios delta-D, delta-(C-13), and delta-(0-18) were also determined. The results are presented in tables and graphs and compared with published data on the Caravaca sediments and on samples from other locations. The boundary clay is found to be distinguished from the adjacent layers by its isotopic ratios and to be of mainly terrestrial, lithospheric (deeper than 3-km) origin. Although submarine-weathering effects are evident and difficult to quantify, the degree of variation in Ni, Ir, Sr, and REE concentrations is considered too large to be attributed to postdepositional processes alone. These findings are seen as evidence for the ocean impact of a large single asteroid producing a worldwide blanket of ejecta, a large injection of water vapor into the atmosphere, and perhaps a gigantic tsunami, at the end of the Cretaceous period.

Depaolo, D. J.; Kyte, F. T.; Marshall, B. D.; Oneil, J. R.; Smit, J.

1983-01-01

340

Galaxy Mass Assembly with VLT & HST and lessons for E-ELT/MOSAIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fraction of distant disks and mergers is still debated, while 3D-spectroscopy is revolutionizing the field. However its limited spatial resolution imposes a complimentary HST imagery and a robust analysis procedure. When applied to observations of IMAGES galaxies at z = 0.4-0.8, it reveals that half of the spiral progenitors were in a merger phase, 6 billion year ago. The excellent correspondence between methodologically-based classifications of morphologies and kinematics definitively probes a violent origin of disk galaxies as proposed by Hammer et al. (2005). Examination of nearby galaxy outskirts reveals fossil imprints of such ancient merger events, under the form of well organized stellar streams. Perhaps our neighbor, M31, is the best illustration of an ancient merger, which modeling in 2010 leads to predict the gigantic plane of satellites discovered by Ibata et al. (2013). There are still a lot of discoveries to be done until the ELT era, which will open an avenue for detailed and accurate 3D-spectroscopy of galaxies from the earliest epochs to the present.

Hammer, François; Flores, Hector; Puech, Mathieu

2015-02-01

341

The evolutionary physiology of animal flight: paleobiological and present perspectives.  

PubMed

Recent geophysical analyses suggest the presence of a late Paleozoic oxygen pulse beginning in the late Devonian and continuing through to the late Carboniferous. During this period, plant terrestrialization and global carbon deposition resulted in a dramatic increase in atmospheric oxygen levels, ultimately yielding concentrations potentially as high as 35% relative to the contemporary value of 21%. Such hyperoxia of the late Paleozoic atmosphere may have physiologically facilitated the initial evolution of insect flight metabolism. Widespread gigantism in late Paleozoic insects and other arthropods is also consistent with enhanced oxygen flux within diffusion-limited tracheal systems. Because total atmospheric pressure increases with increased oxygen partial pressure, concurrently hyperdense conditions would have augmented aerodynamic force production in early forms of flying insects. By the late Permian, evolution of decompositional microbial and fungal communities, together with disequilibrium in rates of carbon deposition, gradually reduced oxygen concentrations to values possibly as low as 15%. The disappearance of giant insects by the end of the Permian is consistent with extinction of these taxa for reasons of asphyxiation on a geological time scale. As with winged insects, the multiple historical origins of vertebrate flight in the late Jurassic and Cretaceous correlate temporally with periods of elevated atmospheric oxygen. Much discussion of flight performance in Archaeopteryx assumes a contemporary atmospheric composition. Elevated oxygen levels in the mid- to late Mesozoic would, however, have facilitated aerodynamic force production and enhanced muscle power output for ancestral birds, as well as for precursors to bats and pterosaurs. PMID:10845087

Dudley, R

2000-01-01

342

Catastrophic flood origin, little Missouri River valley, Montana, South Dakota, and North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Mosaics of photographically reduced topographic maps demonstrate the Little Missouri River valley was developed by gigantic floods. Catastrophic flood landforms, oriented in a northwest-southeast direction, cross the entire Little Missouri drainage basin. Field evidence, consisting of abundant flood-deposited alluvium, supports map evidence. Flood-produced landforms, cut in easily eroded claystone bedrock, appear fresh, suggesting that floods occurred late during the last glacial cycle. Sheets of water, several hundred kilometers wide, flowed in a southeast direction, parallel with a continental ice margin. Erosion lowered the regional surface from a level corresponding to the tops of the highest present-day buttes to the surface now crossed by the headwaters of the Moreau, Grand, Cannonball, Heart, and Green Rivers. Spillway trenches served to channel flow and rapidly cut headward into easily eroded claystone. These trenches include the Moreau, Grand, Cannonball, Heart, and Missouri valleys. The Missouri valley in western North Dakota became the dominant spillway as tributary trenches systematically cut off flow feeding competing spillways. Formation of the Little Missouri spillway, first as a north-trending valley, progressively cut off floodwaters flowing into the Heart, Cannonball, Grand, and Moreau spillways. The north end of the Little Missouri spillway also was cut off by a deeper east-trending spillway. Huge sheets of floodwater continued to pour across the divide west of the Little Missouri continuing to lower that surface. These floodwaters were cut off by development of the Yellowstone spillway in eastern Montana.

Clausen, E.N.

1988-07-01

343

Interlayer coupling in ferroelectric bilayer and superlattice heterostructures.  

PubMed

Ferroelectric multilayers and superlattices have gained interest for dynamic random access memory (DRAM) applications and as active elements in tunable microwave devices in the telecommunications industry. A number of experimental studies have shown that these materials have many peculiar properties which cannot be described by a simple series connection of the individual layers that make up the heterostructures. A thermodynamic analysis is presented to demonstrate that ferroelectric multilayers interact through internal elastic, electrical, and electromechanical fields and the strength of the coupling can be quantitatively described using Landau theory of phase transformations, theory of elasticity, and principles of electrostatics. The theoretical analysis shows that compositional variations across ferroelectric bilayers result in a broken spatial inversion symmetry that can lead to asymmetric thermodynamic potentials favoring one ferroelectric ground state over the other. Furthermore, the thermodynamic modeling indicates that there is a strong electrostatic coupling between the layers that leads to the suppression of ferroelectricity at a critical paraelectric layer thickness for ferroelectric-paraelectric bilayers. This bilayer is expected to have a gigantic dielectric response similar to the dielectric anomaly near Curie-Weiss temperature in homogeneous ferroelectrics at this critical thickness. PMID:17186917

Zhong, Shan; Alpay, S Pamir; Roytburd, Alexander L; Mantese, Joseph V

2006-12-01

344

Superbubbles, Galactic Dynamos and the Spike Instability  

E-print Network

We draw attention to a problem with the alpha-Omega dynamo when it is applied to the origin of the galactic magnetic field under the assumption of perfect flux freezing. The standard theory involves the expulsion of undesirable flux and, because of flux freezing, the mass anchored on this flux also must be expelled. The strong galactic gravitational field makes this impossible on energetic grounds. It is shown that if only short pieces of the undesirable field lines are expelled, then mass can flow down along these field lines without requiring much energy. This expulsion of only short lines of force can be accomplished by a spike instability associated with gigantic astrophysical superbubbles. The physics of this instability is discussed and the results enable an estimate to be made of the number of spikes in the galaxy. It appears that there are probably enough spikes to cut all the undesirable lines into pieces as short as a couple of kiloparsecs during a dynamo time of a billion years. These cut pieces th...

Kulsrud, Russell M

2015-01-01

345

A New Azhdarchid Pterosaur from the Late Cretaceous of the Transylvanian Basin, Romania: Implications for Azhdarchid Diversity and Distribution  

PubMed Central

We describe a new taxon of medium-sized (wing span ca. 3 m) azhdarchid pterosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Transylvanian Basin (Sebe? Formation) of Romania. This specimen is the most complete European azhdarchid yet reported, comprising a partially articulated series of vertebrae and associated forelimb bones. The new taxon is most similar to the Central Asian Azhdarcho lancicollis Nessov but possesses a suite of autapomorphies in its vertebrae that include the relative proportions of cervicals three and four and the presence of elongated prezygapophyseal pedicles. The new taxon is interesting in that it lived contemporaneously with gigantic forms, comparable in size to the famous Romanian Hatzegopteryx thambema. The presence of two distinct azhdarchid size classes in a continental depositional environment further strengthens suggestions that these pterosaurs were strongly linked to terrestrial floodplain and wooded environments. To support this discussion, we outline the geological context and taphonomy of our new specimen and place it in context with other known records for this widespread and important Late Cretaceous pterosaurian lineage. PMID:23382886

Vremir, Mátyás; Kellner, Alexander W. A.; Naish, Darren; Dyke, Gareth J.

2013-01-01

346

Origin and evolution of marginal basins of the NW Pacific: Diffuse-plate tectonic reconstructions  

E-print Network

Formation of the gigantic linked dextral pull-apart basin system in the NW Pacific is due to NNE- to ENE-ward motion of east Eurasia. This mainly was a response to the Indo-Asia collision which started about 50 Ma ago. The displacement of east Eurasia can be estimated using three aspects: (1) the magnitude of pull-apart of the dextral pull-apart basin system, (2) paleomagnetic data from eastern Eurasia and the region around the Arctic, and (3) the shortening deficits in the Large Tibetan Plateau. All the three aspects indicate that there was a large amount (about 1200 km) of northward motion of the South China block and compatible movements of other blocks in eastern Eurasia during the rifting period of the basin system. Such large motion of the eastern Eurasia region contradicts any traditional rigid plate tectonic reconstruction, but agrees with the more recent concepts of non-rigidity of both continental and oceanic lithosphere over geological times. Based on these estimates, the method developed for resto...

Xu, Junyuan; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Yu, Ho-Shing

2012-01-01

347

Interplay between Superconductivity and Magnetism in Fe1-xPdxTe  

SciTech Connect

The love/hate relationship between superconductivity and magnetic ordering has fascinated the condensed matter physics community for a century. In the early days, magnetic impurities doped into a superconductor were found to quickly suppress superconductivity. Later, a variety of systems, such as cuprates, heavy fermions and Fe pnictides, show superconductivity in a narrow region near the border to antiferromagnetism (AFM) as a function of pressure or doping. On the other hand, the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetic (FM) or AFM ordering is found in a few compounds (RRh4B4 (R = Nd, Sm, Tm, Er), R'Mo6X8 (R' = Tb, Dy, Er, Ho, and X = S, Se), UMGe (M = Ge, Rh, Co), CeCoIn5, EuFe2(As1-xPx)2 etc.), providing evidence for their compatibility. Here, we present a third situation, where superconductivity coexists with FM and near the border of AFM in Fe1-xPdxTe. The doping of Pd for Fe gradually suppresses the first-order AFM ordering at temperature TN/S, and turns into short-range (SR) AFM correlation with a characteristic peak in magnetic susceptibility at T'N. Superconductivity sets in when T'N reaches zero. However, there is a gigantic ferromagnetic dome imposed in the superconducting-AFM (SR) crossover regime. Such a system is ideal for studying the interplay between superconductivity and two types of magnetic interactions (FM and AFM).

Karki, A B [Louisiana State University; Garlea, Vasile O [ORNL; Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Stadler, S. [Louisiana State University; Plummer, E. W. [Louisiana State University; Jin, Rongying [Louisiana State University

2013-01-01

348

Giant blocks in the South Kona landslide, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A large field of blocky sea-floor hills, up to 10km long and 500 high, are gigantic slide blocks derived from the west flank of Mauna Loa volcano on the island of Hawaii. These megablocks are embedded in the toe of the south Kona landslide, which extends ~80km seaward from the present coastline to depths of nearly 5km. A 10-15km-wide belt of numerous, smaller, 1-3 km-long slide blocks separates the area of giant blocks from two submarine benches at depths of 2600 and 3700m depth that terminate seaward 20 to 30km from the shoreline. Similar giant blocks are found on several other major submarine Hawaiian landslides, including those north of Oahu and Molokai, but the South Kona blocks are the first to be examined in detail using high-resolution bathymetry, dredging, and submersible diving. Dredging of two of the giant blocks brought up pillowed tholeiitic lava. Megablocks were carried by a late Pleistocene giant landslide 40-80km west from the ancestral shoreline of Mauna Loa volcano before growth of the midslope benches by later slump movement. -from Authors

Moore, J.G.; Bryan, W.B.; Beeson, M.H.; Normark, W.R.

1995-01-01

349

Study of Historical 4B/X17 Mega Flare on 28 October 2003 (P58)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

wuddin_99@yahoo.com We analysed multi-wavelength data of 28 October 2003 4B/X17.2 class extremely energetic parallel ribbon solar flare, which occurred in NOAA 10486. The flare was well observed in H-alpha at ARIES, Nainital and various space (SOHO, TRACE, RHESSI, WIND etc.) and ground based Observatories. The H-alpha observations show the stretching/detwisting and eruption of helically twisted S shaped (sigmoid) filament in the South-West direction of the active region with bright shock front followed by rapid increase in intensity and area of the gigantic flare. The flare is associated with a bright/fast full halo earth directed CME, strong type II, III and IV radio bursts, an intense proton event and GLE. It seems that the filament eruption triggered the halo CME because the helical structure is clearly visible in the SOHO/LASCO C2, C3 images. This indicates helicity transfer from chromosphere to corona and interplanetary medium. The magnetic field of the flaring region was most complex with high magnetic shear. From the above analysis we feel that the energy buildup/release process of this unique flare support helically twisted magnetic flux rope model.

Uddin, W.; Chandra, R.; Ali, S. S.

2006-11-01

350

Aniakchak Crater, Alaska Peninsula  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The discovery of a gigantic crater northwest of Aniakchak Bay (see fig. 11) closes what had been thought to be a wide gap in the extensive series of volcanoes occurring at irregular intervals for nearly 600 miles along the axial line of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. In this belt there are more active and recently active volcanoes than in all the rest of North America. Exclusive of those on the west side of Cook Inlet, which, however, belong to the same group, this belt contains at least 42 active or well-preserved volcanoes and about half as many mountains suspected or reported to be volcanoes. The locations of some of these mountains and the hot springs on the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands are shown on a map prepared by G. A. Waring. Attention has been called to these volcanoes for nearly two centuries, but a record of their activity since the discovery of Alaska is far from being complete, and an adequate description of them as a group has never been written. Owing to their recent activity or unusual scenic beauty, some of the best known of the group are Mounts Katmai, Bogoslof, and Shishaldin, but there are many other beautiful and interesting cones and craters.

Smith, Walter R.

1925-01-01

351

When Did Carcharocles megalodon Become Extinct? A New Analysis of the Fossil Record  

PubMed Central

Carcharocles megalodon (“Megalodon”) is the largest shark that ever lived. Based on its distribution, dental morphology, and associated fauna, it has been suggested that this species was a cosmopolitan apex predator that fed on marine mammals from the middle Miocene to the Pliocene (15.9–2.6 Ma). Prevailing theory suggests that the extinction of apex predators affects ecosystem dynamics. Accordingly, knowing the time of extinction of C. megalodon is a fundamental step towards understanding the effects of such an event in ancient communities. However, the time of extinction of this important species has never been quantitatively assessed. Here, we synthesize the most recent records of C. megalodon from the literature and scientific collections and infer the date of its extinction by making a novel use of the Optimal Linear Estimation (OLE) model. Our results suggest that C. megalodon went extinct around 2.6 Ma. Furthermore, when contrasting our results with known ecological and macroevolutionary trends in marine mammals, it became evident that the modern composition and function of modern gigantic filter-feeding whales was established after the extinction of C. megalodon. Consequently, the study of the time of extinction of C. megalodon provides the basis to improve our understanding of the responses of marine species to the removal of apex predators, presenting a deep-time perspective for the conservation of modern ecosystems. PMID:25338197

Pimiento, Catalina; Clements, Christopher F.

2014-01-01

352

Sinbase: an integrated database to study genomics, genetics and comparative genomics in Sesamum indicum.  

PubMed

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an ancient and important oilseed crop grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas. It belongs to the gigantic order Lamiales, which includes many well-known or economically important species, such as olive (Olea europaea), leonurus (Leonurus japonicus) and lavender (Lavandula spica), many of which have important pharmacological properties. Despite their importance, genetic and genomic analyses on these species have been insufficient due to a lack of reference genome information. The now available S. indicum genome will provide an unprecedented opportunity for studying both S. indicum genetic traits and comparative genomics. To deliver S. indicum genomic information to the worldwide research community, we designed Sinbase, a web-based database with comprehensive sesame genomic, genetic and comparative genomic information. Sinbase includes sequences of assembled sesame pseudomolecular chromosomes, protein-coding genes (27,148), transposable elements (372,167) and non-coding RNAs (1,748). In particular, Sinbase provides unique and valuable information on colinear regions with various plant genomes, including Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max, Vitis vinifera and Solanum lycopersicum. Sinbase also provides a useful search function and data mining tools, including a keyword search and local BLAST service. Sinbase will be updated regularly with new features, improvements to genome annotation and new genomic sequences, and is freely accessible at http://ocri-genomics.org/Sinbase/. PMID:25480115

Wang, Linhai; Yu, Jingyin; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Xiurong

2015-01-01

353

Structure of the TPR Domain of AIP: Lack of Client Protein Interaction with the C-Terminal ?-7 Helix of the TPR Domain of AIP Is Sufficient for Pituitary Adenoma Predisposition  

PubMed Central

Mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) have been associated with familial isolated pituitary adenomas predisposing to young-onset acromegaly and gigantism. The precise tumorigenic mechanism is not well understood as AIP interacts with a large number of independent proteins as well as three chaperone systems, HSP90, HSP70 and TOMM20. We have determined the structure of the TPR domain of AIP at high resolution, which has allowed a detailed analysis of how disease-associated mutations impact on the structural integrity of the TPR domain. A subset of C-terminal ?-7 helix (C?-7h) mutations, R304* (nonsense mutation), R304Q, Q307* and R325Q, a known site for AhR and PDE4A5 client-protein interaction, occur beyond those that interact with the conserved MEEVD and EDDVE sequences of HSP90 and TOMM20. These C-terminal AIP mutations appear to only disrupt client-protein binding to the C?-7h, while chaperone binding remains unaffected, suggesting that failure of client-protein interaction with the C?-7h is sufficient to predispose to pituitary adenoma. We have also identified a molecular switch in the AIP TPR-domain that allows recognition of both the conserved HSP90 motif, MEEVD, and the equivalent sequence (EDDVE) of TOMM20. PMID:23300914

Morgan, Rhodri M. L.; Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C.; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Zhou, Lihong; Roe, S. Mark; Korbonits, Márta; Prodromou, Chrisostomos

2012-01-01

354

Giant spin-driven ferroelectric polarization in TbMnO3 under high pressure.  

PubMed

The recent research on multiferroics has provided solid evidence that the breaking of inversion symmetry by spin order can induce ferroelectric polarization P. This type of multiferroics, called spin-driven ferroelectrics, often show a gigantic change in P on application of a magnetic field B. However, their polarization (<~0.1 ?C cm(-2)) is much smaller than that in conventional ferroelectrics (typically several to several tens of ?C cm(-2)). Here we show that the application of external pressure to a representative spin-driven ferroelectric, TbMnO3, causes a flop of P and leads to the highest P (? 1.0??C cm(-2)) among spin-driven ferroelectrics ever reported. We explain this behaviour in terms of a pressure-induced magnetoelectric phase transition, based on the results of density functional simulations. In the high-pressure phase, the application of B further enhances P over 1.8??C cm(-2). This value is nearly an order of magnitude larger than those ever reported in spin-driven ferroelectrics. PMID:25215855

Aoyama, T; Yamauchi, K; Iyama, A; Picozzi, S; Shimizu, K; Kimura, T

2014-01-01

355

Intercontinental dispersal of giant thermophilic ants across the Arctic during early Eocene hyperthermals  

PubMed Central

Early Eocene land bridges allowed numerous plant and animal species to cross between Europe and North America via the Arctic. While many species suited to prevailing cool Arctic climates would have been able to cross throughout much of this period, others would have found dispersal opportunities only during limited intervals when their requirements for higher temperatures were met. Here, we present Titanomyrma lubei gen. et sp. nov. from Wyoming, USA, a new giant (greater than 5 cm long) formiciine ant from the early Eocene (approx. 49.5 Ma) Green River Formation. We show that the extinct ant subfamily Formiciinae is only known from localities with an estimated mean annual temperature of about 20°C or greater, consistent with the tropical ranges of almost all of the largest living ant species. This is, to our knowledge, the first known formiciine of gigantic size in the Western Hemisphere and the first reported cross-Arctic dispersal by a thermophilic insect group. This implies intercontinental migration during one or more brief high-temperature episodes (hyperthermals) sometime between the latest Palaeocene establishment of intercontinental land connections and the presence of giant formiciines in Europe and North America by the early middle Eocene. PMID:21543354

Archibald, S. Bruce; Johnson, Kirk R.; Mathewes, Rolf W.; Greenwood, David R.

2011-01-01

356

Developmental palaeontology in synapsids: the fossil record of ontogeny in mammals and their closest relatives  

PubMed Central

The study of fossilized ontogenies in mammals is mostly restricted to postnatal and late stages of growth, but nevertheless can deliver great insights into life history and evolutionary mechanisms affecting all aspects of development. Fossils provide evidence of developmental plasticity determined by ecological factors, as when allometric relations are modified in species which invaded a new space with a very different selection regime. This is the case of dwarfing and gigantism evolution in islands. Skeletochronological studies are restricted to the examination of growth marks mostly in the cement and dentine of teeth and can provide absolute age estimates. These, together with dental replacement data considered in a phylogenetic context, provide life-history information such as maturation time and longevity. Palaeohistology and dental replacement data document the more or less gradual but also convergent evolution of mammalian growth features during early synapsid evolution. Adult phenotypes of extinct mammals can inform developmental processes by showing a combination of features or levels of integration unrecorded in living species. Some adult features such as vertebral number, easily recorded in fossils, provide indirect information about somitogenesis and hox-gene expression boundaries. Developmental palaeontology is relevant for the discourse of ecological developmental biology, an area of research where features of growth and variation are fundamental and accessible among fossil mammals. PMID:20071389

Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

2010-01-01

357

Effect of seasonal changes on content and profile of soluble carbohydrates in tubers of different varieties of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.).  

PubMed

A high content (60-65% of dry mass DM) of water soluble carbohydrates was found in early harvested varieties (Bella and Bianka) and middle early varieties (Topstar and Gigant) harvested 22-25 weeks after plantation. In late varieties (Waldspindel, Violet de Rennes, Rote Zonenkugel) a similar amount was obtained (55-60% of DM) when harvested 29-33 weeks after planting. There was a distinctive impact on maturing process as well as frost period alterations which resulted in conversion of high polymer inulin to low polymer inulin as well as to sucrose. In early/middle early varieties a correlation between sucrose and inulin level (r = - 0.952**) with a linear regression of y = - 1.35x + 62.32 was observed, whereas the dpn of inulin decreased from 12-14 to 6-8. In late cultivars this correlation was not as exact (r = - 0.502**); dpn of inulin decreased from 12-16 to 7-10. This knowledge about carbohydrate profiles for different varieties of Jerusalem artichoke offers the possibility of selecting suitable cultivars and deciding the appropriate harvest time for an optimum processing of tubers for their application as prebiotic and novel food component. PMID:17941691

Kocsis, Laura; Liebhard, Peter; Praznik, Werner

2007-11-14

358

Inhomogeneous and nonstationary Hall states of the CDW with quantized normal carriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest a theory for a deformable and sliding charge density wave (CDW) in the Hall bar geometry for the quantum limit when the carriers in remnant small pockets are concentrated at lowest Landau levels (LL) forming a fractionally (? < 1) filled quantum Hall state. The gigantic polarizability of the CDW allows for a strong redistribution of electronic densities up to a complete charge segregation when all carriers occupy, with the maximum filling, a fraction ? of the chain length - thus forming the integer quantum Hall state, while leaving the fraction (1 - ?) of the chain length unoccupied. The electric field in charged regions easily exceeds the pinning threshold of the CDW, then the depinning propagates into the nominally pinned central region via sharp domain walls. Resulting picture is that of compensated collective and normal pulsing counter-currents driven by the Hall voltage. This scenario is illustrated by numerical modeling for nonstationary distributions of the current and the electric field. This picture can interpret experiments in mesa-junctions showing depinning by the Hall voltage and the generation of voltage-controlled high frequency oscillations (Yu.I. Latyshev, P. Monceau, A.A. Sinchenko, et al., Presented at ECRYS-2011, unpublished [1]).

Brazovskii, S.

2015-03-01

359

Food industry and economic development in the Asia Pacific.  

PubMed

The food industry in the Asia Pacific region is gigantic in size, and is therefore a key element in the economic development prospects for the region. It is estimated that in 2000, for example, total expenditure on food and beverages in China was worth $US 188.5 billion, second only to that in Japan at $322 billion. Yet it is clear that given the expansion of both populations and incomes in the region this market will expand rapidly over the next few years. Particularly important will be the continued growth of cities and of the share of employment in industrial and service activities. Much of this growth in food purchases will be supplied from local sources, but this will demand some fundamental changes in domestic food production systems. There will also be a substantial growth in the food trade, with ever increasing levels of national and regional specialisation. These developments will put increasing pressures on quality standards at all levels, with a growing emphasis on food safety, integrity, quality, and nutritional and health impacts. This paper reviews the current status of the food industry and the food trade in the region, and presents some projections for future developments. Particular emphasis is given to policy choices that must be made to ensure that the food system in the region develops in ways that are sustainable and most beneficial to the population as a whole. PMID:17392081

McKay, John

2007-01-01

360

Energy expenditure in Crocidurinae shrews (Insectivora): is metabolism a key component of the insular syndrome?  

PubMed

A cascade of morphological, ecological, demographical and behavioural changes operates within island communities compared to mainland. We tested whether metabolic rates change on islands. Using a closed circuit respirometer, we investigated resting metabolic rate (RMR) of three species of Crocidurinae shrews: Suncus etruscus, Crocidura russula, and C. suaveolens. For the latter, we compared energy expenditure of mainland and island populations. Our measurements agree with those previously reported for others Crocidurinae: the interspecific comparison (ANCOVA) demonstrated an allometric relation between energy requirements and body mass. Energy expenditure also scaled with temperature. Island populations (Corsica and Porquerolles) of C. suaveolens differed in size from mainland (gigantism). A GLM showed a significant relationship between energy expenditure, temperature, body mass and locality. Mass specific RMR allometrically scales body mass, but total RMR does not significantly differ between mainland and island, although island shrews are giant. Our results are consistent with other studies: that demonstrated that the evolution of mammalian metabolism on islands is partially independent of body mass. In relation to the insular syndrome, we discuss how island selective forces (changes in resource availability, decrease in competition and predation pressures) can operate in size and physiological adjustments. PMID:16154371

Magnanou, Elodie; Fons, Roger; Blondel, Jacques; Morand, Serge

2005-11-01

361

A giant crocodile in the Dubois Collection from the Pleistocene of Kali Gedeh (Java).  

PubMed

The fauna of the Pleistocene Homo-bearing sites of Java has been well known for more than a century. A recent revision of the crocodylian remains confirmed both the validity of Gavialis bengawanicus and the synonymization of Crocodylus ossifragus with C. siamensis. Here we report on a still unpublished crocodylian specimen collected by Eugene Dubois in the latest Early Pleistocene of Kali Gedeh that can be tentatively referred to the genus Crocodylus. The size of the specimen, the approximately 1 m long lower jaw in particular, indicated that this crocodile attained a total length of approximately 6 or 7 m. Along with specimens from the Plio-Pleistocene of Africa, this material provides evidence for gigantism in Crocodylus. It is not clear whether or not the 'temperature-size rule' applies to fossil crocodylians, but due to the growing interest in predicting future temperature-related size changes of the extant organisms, it would be interesting to study in detail the past reaction to temperature changes of crocodylians and other terrestrial ectothermic animals. PMID:24673759

Delfino, Massimo; De Vos, John

2014-03-01

362

Interplay between superconductivity and magnetism in Fe1?xPdxTe  

PubMed Central

The attractive/repulsive relationship between superconductivity and magnetic ordering has fascinated the condensed matter physics community for a century. In the early days, magnetic impurities doped into a superconductor were found to quickly suppress superconductivity. Later, a variety of systems, such as cuprates, heavy fermions, and Fe pnictides, showed superconductivity in a narrow region near the border to antiferromagnetism (AFM) as a function of pressure or doping. However, the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetic (FM) or AFM ordering is found in a few compounds [RRh4B4 (R = Nd, Sm, Tm, Er), R?Mo6X8 (R? = Tb, Dy, Er, Ho, and X = S, Se), UMGe (M = Ge, Rh, Co), CeCoIn5, EuFe2(As1?xPx)2, etc.], providing evidence for their compatibility. Here, we present a third situation, where superconductivity coexists with FM and near the border of AFM in Fe1?xPdxTe. The doping of Pd for Fe gradually suppresses the first-order AFM ordering at temperature TN/S, and turns into short-range AFM correlation with a characteristic peak in magnetic susceptibility at T?N. Superconductivity sets in when T?N reaches zero. However, there is a gigantic ferromagnetic dome imposed in the superconducting-AFM (short-range) cross-over regime. Such a system is ideal for studying the interplay between superconductivity and two types of magnetic (FM and AFM) interactions. PMID:23690601

Karki, Amar B.; Garlea, V. Ovidiu; Custelcean, Radu; Stadler, Shane; Plummer, E. W.; Jin, Rongying

2013-01-01

363

Malignant schwannoma of the obturator nerve.  

PubMed

Lesions of obturator nerve are rare. Tumours and mainly malignant schwannoma of this nerve are extremely rare. The authors describe an unusual case of a gigantic schwannoma of the obturator nerve in 69 year old woman. Due to tumour expansion in the proximal part of the thigh MRI was performed and demonstrated extensive tumour originating most probably from the obturator nerve. The patient had no neurological symptoms. Biopsy from the lesion was taken at the Department of Orthopaedics with the following conclusion: malignant schwannoma. The patient received neoadjuvant chemotherapy due to diffuse metastatic spread on the chest X ray, after which metastatic spread subsided. The main lesion reduced its size by 1 cm. In 4 months after biopsy the patient was referred for operation to neurosurgery. The tumour was removed along its borders and except of minimal weakness of adduction of the right thigh there was no neurological deterioration. She was subsequently referred for further care to oncology and radiotherapy.The goal of this work is to emphasize the extremely rare occurrence of tumours of this nerve and suggest therapeutic options (Fig. 4, Ref. 11). PMID:24156686

Kanta, M; Petera, J; Ehler, E; Prochazka, E; Lastovicka, D; Habalova, J; Valis, M; Rehak, S

2013-01-01

364

The fatal wound of Hector, according to a drawing by Peter Paul Rubens designed for tapestry weaving.  

PubMed

According to the Iliad(Chapter XXII, Verses 322-329), Hector, while fighting his last duel, was almost entirely protected by bronze armor, with only a small area "where the clavicle marks the boundary between neck and thorax" exposed. It was precisely into this area, "the shorter way to death," that Achilles thrust his lance. This fatal wound, although covering Hector with blood, allowed the victim to pronounce a few words. In designing the Story of Achilles, his fourth and last series of drawings especially designed for tapestry weaving, Rubens depicted Achilles stabbing Hector near the midline of his neck. There is evidence that Rubens was always well acquainted with the literary sources of his pictures. It is also likely that he became familiar with contemporary editions of the Iliad that were enhanced with commentaries. Realizing that the wound depicted in his original drawing should have prevented Hector from speaking, Rubens altered the scene, then showing the lance piercing the cervical vascular bundle. The careful scrutiny for literary accuracy that was typical of Rubens' artistic behavior did not prevent an additional minor imprecision in the final tapestry. Nevertheless, his outstanding expressive power enabled him to give form to a gigantic baroque representation of the death of Hector in masterly fashion. PMID:11220386

Rubino, M; Viale, G L

2001-02-01

365

Wafer-scale metasurface for total power absorption, local field enhancement and single molecule Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The ability to detect molecules at low concentrations is highly desired for applications that range from basic science to healthcare. Considerable interest also exists for ultrathin materials with high optical absorption, e.g. for microbolometers and thermal emitters. Metal nanostructures present opportunities to achieve both purposes. Metal nanoparticles can generate gigantic field enhancements, sufficient for the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Thin layers containing metal nanostructures ("metasurfaces") can achieve near-total power absorption at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Thus far, however, both aims (i.e. single molecule Raman and total power absorption) have only been achieved using metal nanostructures produced by techniques (high resolution lithography or colloidal synthesis) that are complex and/or difficult to implement over large areas. Here, we demonstrate a metasurface that achieves the near-perfect absorption of visible-wavelength light and enables the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Our metasurface is fabricated using thin film depositions, and is of unprecedented (wafer-scale) extent. PMID:24091825

Wang, Dongxing; Zhu, Wenqi; Best, Michael D; Camden, Jon P; Crozier, Kenneth B

2013-01-01

366

Energy and globalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before the Industrial Revolution, nations required no energy fuel. People relied on human, animal, and wind and waterpower for energy need. Energy (oil) has resettled populations, elected officials in the free world, or changed the governments of the energy rich countries by force. Energy fueled wars, played the major factor in the might of those who have it or more importantly the abilities to acquire it by force. This dissertation researches the primacy of oil as an energy source from the time of oil's discovery to the present times. Between 1945 and 1960, the use of oil and gas doubled as power was generated for industries as steel, cement, metalworking and more important of all filling station hoses into automobiles gas tanks, thus energy swept people and societies quite literally off their feet. One in every six jobs in the industrial world hired by the giant automotive industries. The big five American oil companies spurred on by special tax benefit, these companies grew to gigantic sizes by taking out the best part of the nation's oil. Then, for greater growth, they leaped overseas and built up an immensely profitable system, in alliance with Anglo-Dutch Shell and British Petroleum, known as seven sisters. On the other side of the world, the energy producing nations form an alliance mainly to protect themselves from downward price fluctuations of oil. The struggle for survival in the global energy market forced those countries to get together and form OPEC, which is referred as an "oil cartel".

Birjandi, Hossein Saremi

367

Thermal Expansion Anomaly Regulated by Entropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal expansion, defined as the temperature dependence of volume under constant pressure, is a common phenomenon in nature and originates from anharmonic lattice dynamics. However, it has been poorly understood how thermal expansion can show anomalies such as colossal positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion (CPTE, ZTE, or NTE), especially in quantitative terms. Here we show that changes in configurational entropy due to metastable micro(scopic)states can lead to quantitative prediction of these anomalies. We integrate the Maxwell relation, statistic mechanics, and first-principles calculations to demonstrate that when the entropy is increased by pressure, NTE occurs such as in Invar alloy (Fe3Pt, for example), silicon, ice, and water, and when the entropy is decreased dramatically by pressure, CPTE is expected such as in anti-Invar cerium, ice and water. Our findings provide a theoretic framework to understand and predict a broad range of anomalies in nature in addition to thermal expansion, which may include gigantic electrocaloric and electromechanical responses, anomalously reduced thermal conductivity, and spin distributions.

Liu, Zi-Kui; Wang, Yi; Shang, Shunli

2014-11-01

368

Thermal expansion anomaly regulated by entropy.  

PubMed

Thermal expansion, defined as the temperature dependence of volume under constant pressure, is a common phenomenon in nature and originates from anharmonic lattice dynamics. However, it has been poorly understood how thermal expansion can show anomalies such as colossal positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion (CPTE, ZTE, or NTE), especially in quantitative terms. Here we show that changes in configurational entropy due to metastable micro(scopic)states can lead to quantitative prediction of these anomalies. We integrate the Maxwell relation, statistic mechanics, and first-principles calculations to demonstrate that when the entropy is increased by pressure, NTE occurs such as in Invar alloy (Fe3Pt, for example), silicon, ice, and water, and when the entropy is decreased dramatically by pressure, CPTE is expected such as in anti-Invar cerium, ice and water. Our findings provide a theoretic framework to understand and predict a broad range of anomalies in nature in addition to thermal expansion, which may include gigantic electrocaloric and electromechanical responses, anomalously reduced thermal conductivity, and spin distributions. PMID:25391631

Liu, Zi-Kui; Wang, Yi; Shang, ShunLi

2014-01-01

369

Earth After the Moon Forming Impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hadean Earth is widely and enduringly pictured as a world of exuberant volcanism, exploding meteors, huge craters, infernal heat, and billowing sulfurous steams; i.e., a world of fire and brimstone punctuated with blows to the head. In the background the Moon looms gigantic in the sky. The popular image has given it a name that celebrates our mythic roots. A hot early Earth is an inevitable consequence of accretion. The Moon-forming impact ensured that Earth as we know it emerged from a fog of silicate vapor. The impact separated the volatiles from the silicates. It took -100 years to condense and rain out the bulk of the vaporized silicates, although relatively volatile elements may have remained present in the atmosphere throughout the magma ocena stage. The magma ocean lasted approx. 2 Myr, its lifetime prolonged by tidal heating and thermal blanketing by a thick (CO2-rich steam atmosphere. Water oceans condensed quickly after the mantle solidified, but for some 10-100 Myr the surface would have stayed warm (approx. 500 K) until the CO2 was removed into the mantle. Thereafter the faint young Sun suggests that a lifeless Earth would always have been evolving toward a bitterly cold ice world, but the cooling trend was frequently interrupted by volcanic or impact induced thaws.

Zahnle, Kevin

2006-01-01

370

Ultrafast observation of critical nematic fluctuations and giant magnetoelastic coupling in iron pnictides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the iron pnictides have strongly anisotropic normal-state characteristics, important for the exotic magnetic and superconducting behaviour these materials exhibit. Yet, the origin of the observed anisotropy is unclear. Electronically driven nematicity has been suggested, but distinguishing this as an independent degree of freedom from magnetic and structural orders is difficult, as these couple together to break the same tetragonal symmetry. Here we use time-resolved polarimetry to reveal critical nematic fluctuations in unstrained Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2. The femtosecond anisotropic response, which arises from the two-fold in-plane anisotropy of the complex refractive index, displays a characteristic two-step recovery absent in the isotropic response. The fast recovery appears only in the magnetically ordered state, whereas the slow one persists in the paramagnetic phase with a critical divergence approaching the structural transition temperature. The dynamics also reveal a gigantic magnetoelastic coupling that far exceeds electron-spin and electron-phonon couplings, opposite to conventional magnetic metals.

Patz, Aaron; Li, Tianqi; Ran, Sheng; Fernandes, Rafael M.; Schmalian, Joerg; Bud'Ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Perakis, Ilias E.; Wang, Jigang

2014-02-01

371

A visualization framework for large-scale virtual astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by advances in modern positional astronomy, this research attempts to digitally model the entire Universe through computer graphics technology. Our first challenge is space itself. The gigantic size of the Universe makes it impossible to put everything into a typical graphics system at its own scale. The graphics rendering process can easily fail because of limited computational precision, The second challenge is that the enormous amount of data could slow down the graphics; we need clever techniques to speed up the rendering. Third, since the Universe is dominated by empty space, objects are widely separated; this makes navigation difficult. We attempt to tackle these problems through various techniques designed to extend and optimize the conventional graphics framework, including the following: power homogeneous coordinates for large-scale spatial representations, generalized large-scale spatial transformations, and rendering acceleration via environment caching and object disappearance criteria. Moreover, we implemented an assortment of techniques for modeling and rendering a variety of astronomical bodies, ranging from the Earth up to faraway galaxies, and attempted to visualize cosmological time; a method we call the Lightcone representation was introduced to visualize the whole space-time of the Universe at a single glance. In addition, several navigation models were developed to handle the large-scale navigation problem. Our final results include a collection of visualization tools, two educational animations appropriate for planetarium audiences, and state-of-the-art-advancing rendering techniques that can be transferred to practice in digital planetarium systems.

Fu, Chi-Wing

372

Polarity-manipulation based on nanoscale structural transformation on strained 2D MgO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strain induced nanoscale structural transformation is demonstrated in this paper to have the ability of triggering polarity flipping in a wide bandgap system of MgxZn1-xO/MgO/Al2O3. Relaxation dynamics of semiconductor components under large compressive pressures up to 13.7 GPa were studied by a combination of theoretical analysis and experimental characterizations including in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The gigantic force between MgZnO and ultrathin-MgO/Al2O3 delayed the structural transformation of MgZnO from six-fold cubic to four-fold wurtzite into the second monolayer, and consequently flipped the polarity of the film deposited on relaxed MgO. Additionally, dislocation-induced strain relaxation was suggested to happen around 1 nm thick cubic MgO grown on Al2O3, instead of the previous well-accepted concept that wurtzite structures can be inherited from the oxygen sub-lattice of sapphire substrates below the critical thickness. Finally, the structural transformation method employing an ultrathin-MgO interfacial layer was demonstrated to be a suitable technique for accommodating the large lattice mismatch comparing with the dislocation-relaxation mechanism achieving a UV photodetector with four orders of rejection ratio of the UV-to-visible photoresponse.

Liu, Zhanglong; He, Xiang; Mei, Zengxia; Liang, Huili; Gu, Lin; Duan, Xiaofeng; Du, Xiaolong

2014-03-01

373

Sex-specific effects of a parasite evolving in a female-biased host population  

PubMed Central

Background Males and females differ in many ways and might present different opportunities and challenges to their parasites. In the same way that parasites adapt to the most common host type, they may adapt to the characteristics of the host sex they encounter most often. To explore this hypothesis, we characterized host sex-specific effects of the parasite Pasteuria ramosa, a bacterium evolving in naturally, strongly, female-biased populations of its host Daphnia magna. Results We show that the parasite proliferates more successfully in female hosts than in male hosts, even though males and females are genetically identical. In addition, when exposure occurred when hosts expressed a sexual dimorphism, females were more infected. In both host sexes, the parasite causes a similar reduction in longevity and leads to some level of castration. However, only in females does parasite-induced castration result in the gigantism that increases the carrying capacity for the proliferating parasite. Conclusions We show that mature male and female Daphnia represent different environments and reveal one parasite-induced symptom (host castration), which leads to increased carrying capacity for parasite proliferation in female but not male hosts. We propose that parasite induced host castration is a property of parasites that evolved as an adaptation to specifically exploit female hosts. PMID:23249484

2012-01-01

374

Revolutionising landscapes: Hydroelectricity and the heavy industrialisation of society and environment in the Comte de Beauharnois, 1927--1948  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation analyses the rapid industrialisation of the rural Comte de Beauharnois and the adjacent stretch of the Fleuve Saint-Laurent owing to the construction, between 1929 and 1948, of a gigantic canal for hydroelectricity production and navigation by an electricity corporation called the Beauharnois Light Heat and Power (BLH&P). Using principally the archives of the BLH&P---especially its complaints files and its rich photographic record---this thesis argues that this process exemplifies the finance capitalist reorganisation of the society and ecosystems of the Canadian province of Quebec from the 19th century to the Great Depression. In keeping with recent work in environmental history, the transformation of rural landscapes and a river for heavy industry is described as an important dimension of a revolution in modes of production. More specifically, I argue that, in the case under study, the finance-capitalist reorganisation of Quebec revolved around two central and explicit projects, one social and the other environmental: the grouping of most individuals in an industrial working class without control over the means of production and the reorganisation of rural landscapes into reservoirs of modern energy and industrial natural resources.

Pelletier, Louis-Raphael

375

Cell size versus body size in geophilomorph centipedes.  

PubMed

Variation in animal body size is the result of a complex interplay between variation in cell number and cell size, but the latter has seldom been considered in wide-ranging comparative studies, although distinct patterns of variation have been described in the evolution of different lineages. We investigated the correlation between epidermal cell size and body size in a sample of 29 geophilomorph centipede species, representative of a wide range of body sizes, from 6 mm dwarf species to gigantic species more than 200 mm long, exploiting the marks of epidermal cells on the overlying cuticle in the form of micro-sculptures called scutes. We found conspicuous and significant variation in average scute area, both between suprageneric taxa and between genera, while the within-species range of variation is comparatively small. This supports the view that the average epidermal cell size is to some extent taxon specific. However, regression analyses show that neither body size nor the number of leg-bearing segments explain this variation, which suggests that cell size is not an usual target of change for body size evolution in this group of arthropods, although there is evidence of its correlation with other morphological variables, like cuticle thickness. Scute sizes of miniaturized geophilomorph species are well within the range of the lineage to which the species belong, suggesting recent evolutionary transitions to smaller body size. PMID:25809818

Moretto, Marco; Minelli, Alessandro; Fusco, Giuseppe

2015-04-01

376

No evidence for directional evolution of body mass in herbivorous theropod dinosaurs  

PubMed Central

The correlation between large body size and digestive efficiency has been hypothesized to have driven trends of increasing mass in herbivorous clades by means of directional selection. Yet, to date, few studies have investigated this relationship from a phylogenetic perspective, and none, to our knowledge, with regard to trophic shifts. Here, we reconstruct body mass in the three major subclades of non-avian theropod dinosaurs whose ecomorphology is correlated with extrinsic evidence of at least facultative herbivory in the fossil record—all of which also achieve relative gigantism (more than 3000 kg). Ordinary least-squares regressions on natural log-transformed mean mass recover significant correlations between increasing mass and geological time. However, tests for directional evolution in body mass find no support for a phylogenetic trend, instead favouring passive models of trait evolution. Cross-correlation of sympatric taxa from five localities in Asia reveals that environmental influences such as differential habitat sampling and/or taphonomic filtering affect the preserved record of dinosaurian body mass in the Cretaceous. Our results are congruent with studies documenting that behavioural and/or ecological factors may mitigate the benefit of increasing mass in extant taxa, and suggest that the hypothesis can be extrapolated to herbivorous lineages across geological time scales. PMID:23193135

Zanno, Lindsay E.; Makovicky, Peter J.

2013-01-01

377

Origin of marginal basins of the NW Pacific and their plate tectonic reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geometry of basins can indicate their tectonic origin whether they are small or large. The basins of Bohai Gulf, South China Sea, East China Sea, Japan Sea, Andaman Sea, Okhotsk Sea and Bering Sea have typical geometry of dextral pull-apart. The Java, Makassar, Celebes and Sulu Seas basins together with grabens in Borneo also comprise a local dextral, transform-margin type basin system similar to the central and southern parts of the Shanxi Basin in geometry. The overall configuration of the Philippine Sea resembles a typical sinistral transpressional "pop-up" structure. These marginal basins except the Philippine Sea basin generally have similar (or compatible) rift history in the Cenozoic, but there do be some differences in the rifting history between major basins or their sub-basins due to local differences in tectonic settings. Rifting kinematics of each of these marginal basins can be explained by dextral pull-apart or transtension. These marginal basins except the Philippine Sea basin constitute a gigantic linked, dextral pull-apart basin system.

Xu, Junyuan; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Kelty, Tom; Yu, Ho-Shing

2014-03-01

378

Thermal Expansion Anomaly Regulated by Entropy  

PubMed Central

Thermal expansion, defined as the temperature dependence of volume under constant pressure, is a common phenomenon in nature and originates from anharmonic lattice dynamics. However, it has been poorly understood how thermal expansion can show anomalies such as colossal positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion (CPTE, ZTE, or NTE), especially in quantitative terms. Here we show that changes in configurational entropy due to metastable micro(scopic)states can lead to quantitative prediction of these anomalies. We integrate the Maxwell relation, statistic mechanics, and first-principles calculations to demonstrate that when the entropy is increased by pressure, NTE occurs such as in Invar alloy (Fe3Pt, for example), silicon, ice, and water, and when the entropy is decreased dramatically by pressure, CPTE is expected such as in anti-Invar cerium, ice and water. Our findings provide a theoretic framework to understand and predict a broad range of anomalies in nature in addition to thermal expansion, which may include gigantic electrocaloric and electromechanical responses, anomalously reduced thermal conductivity, and spin distributions. PMID:25391631

Liu, Zi-Kui; Wang, Yi; Shang, ShunLi

2014-01-01

379

Giant lizards occupied herbivorous mammalian ecospace during the Paleogene greenhouse in Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

Mammals dominate modern terrestrial herbivore ecosystems, whereas extant herbivorous reptiles are limited in diversity and body size. The evolution of reptile herbivory and its relationship to mammalian diversification is poorly understood with respect to climate and the roles of predation pressure and competition for food resources. Here, we describe a giant fossil acrodontan lizard recovered with a diverse mammal assemblage from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation of Myanmar, which provides a historical test of factors controlling body size in herbivorous squamates. We infer a predominately herbivorous feeding ecology for the new acrodontan based on dental anatomy, phylogenetic relationships and body size. Ranking body masses for Pondaung Formation vertebrates indicates that the lizard occupied a size niche among the larger herbivores and was larger than most carnivorous mammals. Paleotemperature estimates of Pondaung Formation environments based on the body size of the new lizard are approximately 2-5°C higher than modern. These results indicate that competitive exclusion and predation by mammals did not restrict body size evolution in these herbivorous squamates, and elevated temperatures relative to modern climates during the Paleogene greenhouse may have resulted in the evolution of gigantism through elevated poikilothermic metabolic rates and in response to increases in floral productivity. PMID:23740779

Head, Jason J; Gunnell, Gregg F; Holroyd, Patricia A; Hutchison, J Howard; Ciochon, Russell L

2013-07-22

380

Sale of US military aircraft to Saudi Arabia. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

The end of the Cold War in the late 1980s resulted in a gigantic downsizing and consolidation of America`s defense industries, as domestic demand plummeted and the volume of international arms trading fell. However, in total world arms exports the United States exports more arms than any other nation. The country of Saudi Arabia has been the destination of a disproportionate amount of these weapons. The following account is an examination of the US military aerospace industry, the world military aerospace market, US government policy concerning arms exports, and the Saudi aerospace market. Each of these entities profoundly impacts US-Saudi military aerospace commerce. By individually analyzing the above factors, it will be demonstrated that the supply relationship between the US and Saudi Arabia is dependent on the convergence of several long standing and deep seated aspirations on the part of the three major players: the US Aerospace Industry, the US Government, and the Saudi Government. The US military aerospace industry`s exports are critical to ensure its independent survival, help fund crucial RD programs, and maintain a viable defense high tech industrial base in the U.S. In addition, it wishes to exert a military presence in the Gulf area and nurture relations with Saudi Arabia in particular, as the world`s leading oil producer. The Saudi government requires a military defense anchored in high tech aerospace systems, as well as a dependable and capable military ally such as the US.

Bents, E.R.

1995-05-01

381

Measuring engagement effectiveness in social media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social media is becoming increasingly prevalent with the advent of web 2.0 technologies. Popular social media websites, such as Twitter and Facebook, are attracting a gigantic number of online users to post and share information. An interesting phenomenon under this trend involves that more and more users share their experiences or issues with regard to a product, and then the product service agents use commercial social media listening and engagement tools (e.g. Radian6, Sysomos, etc.) to response to users' complaints or issues and help them tackle their problems. This is often called customer care in social media or social customer relationship management (CRM). However, all these existing commercial social media tools only provide an aggregated level of trends, patterns and sentiment analysis based on the keyword-centric brand relevant data, which have little insights for answering one of the key questions in social CRM system: how effective is our social customer care engagement? In this paper, we focus on addressing the problem of how to measure the effectiveness of engagement for service agents in customer care. Traditional CRM effectiveness measurements are defined under the scenario of the call center, where the effectiveness is mostly based on the duration time per call and/or number of answered calls per day. Different from customer care in a call center, we can obtain detailed conversations between agents and customers in social media, and therefore the effectiveness can be measured by analyzing the content of conversations and the sentiment of customers.

Li, Lei; Sun, Tong; Peng, Wei; Li, Tao

2012-03-01

382

Software implementation of the SKIPSM paradigm under PIP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SKIPSM (separated-kernel image processing using finite state machines) is a technique for implementing large-kernel binary- morphology operators and many other operations. While earlier papers on SKIPSM concentrated mainly on implementations using pipelined hardware, there is considerable scope for achieving major speed improvements in software systems. Using identical control software, one-pass binary erosion and dilation structuring elements (SEs) ranging from the trivial (3 by 3) to the gigantic (51 by 51, or even larger), are readily available. Processing speed is independent of the size of the SE, making the SKIPSM approach practical for work with very large SEs on ordinary desktop computers. PIP (prolog image processing) is an interactive machine vision prototyping environment developed at the University of Wales Cardiff. It consists of a large number of image processing operators embedded within the standard AI language Prolog. This paper describes the SKIPSM implementation of binary morphology operators within PIP. A large set of binary erosion and dilation operations (circles, squares, diamonds, octagons, etc.) is available to the user through a command-line driven dialogue, via pull-down menus, or incorporated into standard (Prolog) programs. Little has been done thus far to optimize speed on this first software implementation of SKIPSM. Nevertheless, the results are impressive. The paper describes sample applications and presents timing figures. Readers have the opportunity to try out these operations on demonstration software written by the University of Wales, or via their WWW home page at http://bruce.cs.cf.ac.uk/bruce/index.html .

Hack, Ralf; Waltz, Frederick M.; Batchelor, Bruce G.

1997-09-01

383

Anomalous surface lattice dynamics in the low-temperature phase of Ba(Fe1?xCox)2As2  

PubMed Central

In complex materials, how correlation between charge, spin, and lattice affects the emergent phenomena remains unclear. The newly discovered iron-based high-temperature superconductors and related compounds present to the community a prototype family of materials, where interplay between charge, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom can be explored. With the occurrence of structural, magnetic, and superconducting transitions in the bulk of these materials, creating a surface will change the delicate balance between these phases, resulting in new behavior. A surface lattice dynamics study on (001) Ba(Fe1?xCox)2As2, through electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements, reveals unusual temperature dependence of both the phonon frequency and line width in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase. The rate of change of phonon frequency with temperature is gigantic, two orders of magnitude larger than in the bulk. This behavior cannot be explained using conventional models of anharmonicity or electron–phonon coupling; instead, it requires that a large surface-spin-charge-lattice coupling be included. Furthermore, the higher surface-phase-transition temperature driven by surface stabilization of the low-temperature orthorhombic phase seems to turn the first-order transition (bulk) into the second-order type, equivalent to what is observed in the bulk by applying a uniaxial pressure. Such equivalence indicates that the surface mirrors the bulk under extreme conditions. PMID:23284168

Teng, Jing; Chen, Chen; Xiong, Yimin; Zhang, Jiandi; Jin, Rongying; Plummer, E. W.

2013-01-01

384

Nature of potential barrier in (Ca 1/4,Cu 3/4)TiO 3 polycrystalline perovskite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonohmic electrical features of (Ca 1/4,Cu 3/4)TiO 3 perovskite ceramics, which have very strong gigantic dielectric is believed originate from potential barriers at the grain boundaries. In the present study, we used the admittance and impedance spectroscopy technique to investigate (Ca 1/4,Cu 3/4)TiO 3 perovskite ceramics with low nonohmic electrical properties. The study was conducted under two different conditions: on as-sintered ceramics and on ceramics thermally treated in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. The results confirm that thermal treatment in oxygen-rich atmospheres influence the nonohmic properties. Annealing at oxygen-rich atmospheres improve the nonohmic behavior and annealing at oxygen-poor atmospheres decrease the nonohmic properties, a behavior already reported for common metal oxide nonohmic devices and here firstly evidenced for the (Ca 1/4,Cu 3/4)TiO 3 perovskite related materials. The results show that oxygen also influences the capacitance values at low frequencies, a behavior that is indicative of the Schottky-type nature of the potential barrier.

Marques, V. P. B.; Bueno, P. R.; Simões, A. Z.; Cilense, M.; Varela, J. A.; Longo, E.; Leite, E. R.

2006-04-01

385

Semiconductor electronics and the birth of the modern science of surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconductor surfaces were the launching platform for the solid state electronic revolution. The brilliant concept of surface states led directly to the discovery of the transistor in 1947. The chemical instability of the Ge surfaces, however, rendered the new devices irreproducible and unstable. This threat to the viability of semiconductor electronics, precipitated an international search, of a magnitude unparalleled in the history of science and technology, directed at the understanding and controlling of semiconductor surfaces. The roots of all of today's powerful experimental tools, techniques, procedures and fundamental concepts at the disposal of surface science and engineering can be traced to that gigantic effort on the study of semiconductor surfaces. Clearly, solid state electronics, born and nurtured on semiconductor surfaces, gave, in turn, birth to the modern science of all surfaces. In this article, I attempt to convey a general impression of the mutually constructive interplay between the evolution of solid state electronics on the one hand and surface science and engineering on the other. I take this opportunity to highlight my own experiences and research involvement with semiconductor surfaces.

Gatos, Harry C.

1994-01-01

386

Creating the brain and interacting with the brain: an integrated approach to understanding the brain  

PubMed Central

In the past two decades, brain science and robotics have made gigantic advances in their own fields, and their interactions have generated several interdisciplinary research fields. First, in the ‘understanding the brain by creating the brain’ approach, computational neuroscience models have been applied to many robotics problems. Second, such brain-motivated fields as cognitive robotics and developmental robotics have emerged as interdisciplinary areas among robotics, neuroscience and cognitive science with special emphasis on humanoid robots. Third, in brain–machine interface research, a brain and a robot are mutually connected within a closed loop. In this paper, we review the theoretical backgrounds of these three interdisciplinary fields and their recent progress. Then, we introduce recent efforts to reintegrate these research fields into a coherent perspective and propose a new direction that integrates brain science and robotics where the decoding of information from the brain, robot control based on the decoded information and multimodal feedback to the brain from the robot are carried out in real time and in a closed loop. PMID:25589568

Morimoto, Jun; Kawato, Mitsuo

2015-01-01

387

Chryse Basin channels: low-gradients and ponded flows.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gradients on the floors of the Martian outflow channels that are derived from radar-elevation profiles across Lunae Planum and Chryse Basin have much lower values than those obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey's topographic map. Whereas the gradients of Maja and Ares Valles are similar to those of the catastrophic flood channels in the Scablands of Washington State, the gradients of Simud and Tiu Valles are essentially level, and the movement of fluids to the N poses problems. It is proposed that ponding may have formed lakes in depressions associated with the Valles Marineris grabens, ancient craters in the chaotic terrain area, and possibly even the regional low where most chaotic terrains occur. It is envisaged that lakes eventually overflowed, forming the present channels. When dams broke, floods were released catastrophically, with a final gigantic flood from the Valles Marineris system of troughs, which would have had sufficient head to move fluids across nearly level gradients through the Simud and Tiu channels. -P.Br.

Lucchitta, B.K.; Ferguson, H.M.

1983-01-01

388

The Status and Future Prospect of the LAAS Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Area Air Shower (LAAS) group was established in 1996 under a unique conception of cosmic ray observation in Japan. The LAAS group has been performing a network observation of EAS using 9 indep endent scintillator arrays scattered over a very large area. Two more arrays, one of which is at Norikura Observatory (2770m a.s.l.), are planned to be constructed in the near future. They utilize GPS receivers (1µs accuracy) for getting time stamps of EAS arrivals and the observational data are recorded under a standardized format. Thus we can handle all datasets from the LAAS arrays easily and homogeneously as if they were from a gigantic EAS detector system. The sub jects we are studying by this project include large-scale correlations in EAS, GRB-like sporadic phenomena, EHE cosmic rays around 1018 eV and large-scale atmospheric dynamics. The current status and future prosp ects of the LAAS project are presented here.

Ochi, N.; Iyono, A.; Konishi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Nakatsuka, T.; Ohara, S.; Ohmori, N.; Okei, K.; Saitoh, K.; Tada, J.; Takahashi, N.; Tsuji, S.; Wada, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Yamashita, Y.; LAAS Group

2003-07-01

389

Chemical control of downy mildew on lettuce and basil under greenhouse.  

PubMed

Eight experimental trials were carried out during 2007 and 2008 to evaluate the efficacy of different fungicides against downy mildew of lettuce (Bremia lactucae) and basil (Peronospora belbahrii) under greenhouse conditions, at temperatures ranging from 19 to 24 degrees C. The mixture fluopicolide (fungicide belonging to the + propamocarb hydrochloride (fungicide belonging to the new chemical class of acyl-picolides) was compared with metalaxyl m + copper, zoxamide + mancozeb, iprovalicarb + Cu, fenamidone + fosetyl-Al and azoxystrobin. Two treatments were carried out at 8-12 day interval on lettuce and basil. The artificial inoculation of B. lactucae on lettuce (cv Cobham Green) and P. belbahrii. on basil (cv Genovese gigante) was carried out by using 1 x 10(5) CFU/ml 24 h after the first treatment. In the presence of a medium-high disease severity, all fungicides tested in these trials were effective against downy mildew on lettuce and basil as the other fungicides already available. The importance of the availability of a number of different chemicals to control downy mildews is discussed. PMID:20222581

Gullino, M L; Gilardi, G; Garibaldi, A

2009-01-01

390

Embryonic and paralarval development of the central nervous system of the loliginid squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana.  

PubMed

The embryonic development of the central nervous system (CNS) in the oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana is described. It has three distinct phases: (1) The ganglionic accumulation phase: Ganglionic cell clusters develop by ingression, migration, and accumulation of neuroblasts. (2) The lobe differentiation phase: Ganglia differentiate into lobes. The phase is identified by the beginning of an axogenesis. During this phase, neuropils are first formed in the suboesophageal mass, then in the basal lobe system, and finally in the inferior frontal lobes and the superior frontal-vertical lobe systems. (3) The neuropil increment phase: After the shape of the lobes reached its typical form, neuropil growth occurs, specifically in the vertical lobe. The paralarval central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by neuronal gigantism of the giant fibers and some suboesophageal commissures and connectives. The neuropil formation in the CNS of S. lessoniana occurs somewhat earlier than in Octopus vulgaris, although the principal developmental plan is quite conservative among the other coleoids investigated. Some phylogenetic aspects are discussed based on the similarities in the morphologic organization of their brains. PMID:11503146

Shigeno, S; Tsuchiya, K; Segawa, S

2001-09-01

391

Detection and direct readout of drugs in human urine using dynamic surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machines.  

PubMed

A new, novel, rapid method to detect and direct readout of drugs in human urine has been developed using dynamic surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (D-SERS) with portable Raman spectrometer on gold nanorods (GNRs) and a classification algorithm called support vector machines (SVM). The high-performance GNRs can generate gigantic enhancement and the SERS signals obtained using D-SERS on it have high reproducibility. On the basis of this feature of D-SERS, we have obtained SERS spectra of urine and urine containing methamphetamine (MAMP). SVM model was built using these data for fast identified and visual results. This general method was successfully applied to the detection of 3, 4-methylenedioxy methamphetamine (MDMA) in human urine. To verify the accuracy of the model, drug addicts' urine containing MAMP were detected and identified correctly and rapidly with accuracy more than 90%. The detection results were displayed directly without analysis of their SERS spectra manually. Compared with the conventional method in lab, the method only needs a 2 ?L sample volume and takes no more than 2 min on the portable Raman spectrometer. It is anticipated that this method will enable rapid, convenient detection of drugs on site for the police. PMID:25634247

Dong, Ronglu; Weng, Shizhuang; Yang, Liangbao; Liu, Jinhuai

2015-03-01

392

Planet Mars: Story of Another World  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars has captured the imagination of people throughout the ages, inspiring many stories. Remarkably, though, little was known about the red planet until recently. Through a great deal of exploration and theory, planetary scientists have striven to correct this situation. Over the course of the past half century, since the first flyby of Mars by NASA's Mariner 4 spacecraft in 1967, a multitude of probes have landed on, orbited, and flown past the planet. From these missions, a great deal has been learned about Mars. Its surface has now been studied to a respectable level of detail, revealing an astonishing amount of information about volcanoes such as Olympus Mons in Mars's Tharsis region; about the gigantic Valles Marineris (Valley of Wonder), the largest known canyon in the solar system; and about lava flows, outflow channels, and the Martian regolith, among many other aspects of the planet. This level of detail is made more incredible because of the difficulty in gathering such information. And there is still a staggering wealth of learning left to do. This book provides an overview of the current understanding of the past and present state of Mars, and a brief introduction to the planet.

Leatherland, Alex

2009-05-01

393

Displacement-type ferroelectric transition with magnetic Mn ions in perovskite Sr1-xBaxMnO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost all the proper ferroelectrics with a perovskite structure discovered so far have no d-electrons in the off-center transition metal site, as exemplified by BaTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3. This empirical d^0 rule is incompatible with the emergence of magnetism and has significantly restricted the variety of multiferroic materials. In this work, we have discovered a displacement-type ferroelectric transition originating from off-center Mn^4+ ions in antiferromagnetic Mott insulators Sr1-xBaxMnO3. As Ba concentration increases, the perovskite lattice shows the typical soft mode dynamics, and the ferroelectricity shows up for x .45. In addition to the large polarization and high transition temperature comparable to BaTiO3, we demonstrate that the magnetic order suppresses the ferroelectric lattice dilation by ˜70% and increases the soft-phonon energy by ˜50%, indicating gigantic magnetoelectric effects [1]. This work was supported by the FIRST program on ``Quantum Science on Strong Correlation''. [4pt] [1] H. Sakai et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 137601 (2011).

Sakai, Hideaki; Fujioka, Jun; Fukuda, Tatsuo; Okuyama, Daisuke; Hashizume, Daisuke; Kagawa, Fumitaka; Nakao, Hironori; Murakami, Youich; Arima, Takahisa; Baron, Alfred Q. R.; Taguchi, Yasujiro; Tokura, Yoshinori

2012-02-01

394

DNA Viruses: The Really Big Ones (Giruses)  

PubMed Central

Viruses with genomes greater than 300 kb and up to 1200 kb are being discovered with increasing frequency. These large viruses (often called giruses) can encode up to 900 proteins and also many tRNAs. Consequently, these viruses have more protein-encoding genes than many bacteria, and the concept of small particle/small genome that once defined viruses is no longer valid. Giruses infect bacteria and animals although most of the recently discovered ones infect protists. Thus, genome gigantism is not restricted to a specific host or phylogenetic clade. To date, most of the giruses are associated with aqueous environments. Many of these large viruses (phycodnaviruses and Mimiviruses) probably have a common evolutionary ancestor with the poxviruses, iridoviruses, asfarviruses, ascoviruses, and a recently discovered Marseillevirus. One issue that is perhaps not appreciated by the microbiology community is that large viruses, even ones classified in the same family, can differ significantly in morphology, lifestyle, and genome structure. This review focuses on some of these differences rather than provides extensive details about individual viruses. PMID:20690825

Van Etten, James L.; Lane, Leslie C.; Dunigan, David D.

2010-01-01

395

Deficiency of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor, CDKN1B, Results in Overgrowth and Neurodevelopmental Delay  

PubMed Central

Germline mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, CDKN1B, have been described in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), a cancer predisposition syndrome with adult onset neoplasia and no additional phenotypes. Here, we describe the first human case of CDKN1B deficiency, which recapitulates features of the murine CDKN1B knockout mouse model, including gigantism and neurodevelopmental defects. Decreased mRNA and protein expression of CDKN1B were confirmed in the proband's peripheral blood, which is not seen in MEN syndrome patients. We ascribed the decreased protein level to a maternally derived deletion on chromosome 12p13 encompassing the CDKN1B locus (which reduced mRNA expression) and a de novo allelic variant (c.-73G>A) in the CDKN1B promoter (which reduced protein translation). We propose a recessive model where decreased dosage of CDKN1B during development in humans results in a neuronal phenotype akin to that described in mice, placing CDKN1B as a candidate gene involved in developmental delay. PMID:23505216

Grey, William; Izatt, Louise; Sahraoui, Wafa; Ng, Yiu-Ming; Ogilvie, Caroline; Hulse, Anthony; Tse, Eric; Holic, Roman; Yu, Veronica

2013-01-01

396

Deficiency of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, CDKN1B, results in overgrowth and neurodevelopmental delay.  

PubMed

Germline mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, CDKN1B, have been described in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), a cancer predisposition syndrome with adult onset neoplasia and no additional phenotypes. Here, we describe the first human case of CDKN1B deficiency, which recapitulates features of the murine CDKN1B knockout mouse model, including gigantism and neurodevelopmental defects. Decreased mRNA and protein expression of CDKN1B were confirmed in the proband's peripheral blood, which is not seen in MEN syndrome patients. We ascribed the decreased protein level to a maternally derived deletion on chromosome 12p13 encompassing the CDKN1B locus (which reduced mRNA expression) and a de novo allelic variant (c.-73G>A) in the CDKN1B promoter (which reduced protein translation). We propose a recessive model where decreased dosage of CDKN1B during development in humans results in a neuronal phenotype akin to that described in mice, placing CDKN1B as a candidate gene involved in developmental delay. PMID:23505216

Grey, William; Izatt, Louise; Sahraoui, Wafa; Ng, Yiu-Ming; Ogilvie, Caroline; Hulse, Anthony; Tse, Eric; Holic, Roman; Yu, Veronica

2013-06-01

397

Expression of parasite genetic variation changes over the course of infection: implications of within-host dynamics for the evolution of virulence.  

PubMed

How infectious disease agents interact with their host changes during the course of infection and can alter the expression of disease-related traits. Yet by measuring parasite life-history traits at one or few moments during infection, studies have overlooked the impact of variable parasite growth trajectories on disease evolution. Here we show that infection-age-specific estimates of host and parasite fitness components can reveal new insight into the evolution of parasites. We do so by characterizing the within-host dynamics over an entire infection period for five genotypes of the castrating bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa infecting the crustacean Daphnia magna. Our results reveal that genetic variation for parasite-induced gigantism, host castration and parasite spore loads increases with the age of infection. Driving these patterns appears to be variation in how well the parasite maintains control of host reproduction late in the infection process. We discuss the evolutionary consequences of this finding with regard to natural selection acting on different ages of infection and the mechanism underlying the maintenance of castration efficiency. Our results highlight how elucidating within-host dynamics can shed light on the selective forces that shape infection strategies and the evolution of virulence. PMID:25761710

Clerc, Melanie; Ebert, Dieter; Hall, Matthew D

2015-04-01

398

Korea microlensing telescope network: data management plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing three 1.6m optical telescopes and 18k by 18k mosaic CCD cameras. These telescopes will be installed and operated at three southern astronomical sites in Chile, South Africa, and Australia for the Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) project. The main scientific goal of the project is to discover earth-like extrasolar planets using the gravitational microlensing technique. To achieve the goal, each telescope at three sites will continuously monitor the specific region of Galactic bulge with 2.5 minute cadence for five years. Assuming 12 hour observation in maximum for a night, the amount of 200GB file space is required for one-night observations at each observatory. If we consider the whole project period and the data processing procedure, a few PB class data storage, high-speed network, and high performance computers are essential. In this paper, we introduce the KMTNet data management plan that handles gigantic data; observation data collecting, image calibration, data reduction pipeline, database archiving, and backup.

Lee, Chung-Uk; Kim, Dong-Jin; Kim, Seung-Lee; Park, Byeong-Gon; Cha, Sang-Mok

2012-09-01

399

Uncovering the structures of modular polyketide synthases.  

PubMed

Covering: up to 2014The modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) are multienzyme proteins responsible for the assembly of diverse secondary metabolites of high economic and therapeutic importance. These molecular 'assembly lines' consist of repeated functional units called 'modules' organized into gigantic polypeptides. For several decades, concerted efforts have been made to understand in detail the structure and function of PKSs in order to facilitate genetic engineering of the systems towards the production of polyketide analogues for evaluation as drug leads. Despite this intense activity, it has not yet been possible to solve the crystal structure of a single module, let alone a multimodular subunit. Nonetheless, on the basis of analysis of the structures of modular fragments and the study of the related multienzyme of animal fatty acid synthase (FAS), several models of modular PKS architecture have been proposed. This year, however, the situation has changed - three modular structures have been characterized, not by X-ray crystallography, but by the complementary methods of single-particle cryo-electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. This review aims to compare the cryo-EM structures and SAXS-derived structural models, and to interpret them in the context of previously obtained data and existing architectural proposals. The consequences for genetic engineering of the systems will also be discussed, as well as unresolved questions and future directions. PMID:25310997

Weissman, Kira J

2015-02-26

400

Giant lizards occupied herbivorous mammalian ecospace during the Paleogene greenhouse in Southeast Asia  

PubMed Central

Mammals dominate modern terrestrial herbivore ecosystems, whereas extant herbivorous reptiles are limited in diversity and body size. The evolution of reptile herbivory and its relationship to mammalian diversification is poorly understood with respect to climate and the roles of predation pressure and competition for food resources. Here, we describe a giant fossil acrodontan lizard recovered with a diverse mammal assemblage from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation of Myanmar, which provides a historical test of factors controlling body size in herbivorous squamates. We infer a predominately herbivorous feeding ecology for the new acrodontan based on dental anatomy, phylogenetic relationships and body size. Ranking body masses for Pondaung Formation vertebrates indicates that the lizard occupied a size niche among the larger herbivores and was larger than most carnivorous mammals. Paleotemperature estimates of Pondaung Formation environments based on the body size of the new lizard are approximately 2–5°C higher than modern. These results indicate that competitive exclusion and predation by mammals did not restrict body size evolution in these herbivorous squamates, and elevated temperatures relative to modern climates during the Paleogene greenhouse may have resulted in the evolution of gigantism through elevated poikilothermic metabolic rates and in response to increases in floral productivity. PMID:23740779

Head, Jason J.; Gunnell, Gregg F.; Holroyd, Patricia A.; Hutchison, J. Howard; Ciochon, Russell L.

2013-01-01

401

Landslides in Valles Marineris, Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The morphology of the landslides in the Martian equatorial troughs, the geologic structure of the troughs, the time of emplacement, the similarity to terrestrial landslides, and the origin and mechanism of transport are analyzed. About 35 large landslides well-resolved on Viking images were examined, and it is found that the major landslides cover 31,000 sq km of the trough floors, and individual slides range in area from 40 to 7000 sq km. The morphologic variations of the landslides can be attributed mainly to their degree of confinement on trough floors. Many prominent landslides appear to be of similar age and were emplaced after a major faulting that dropped the trough floors. Most sliding occurred after the created scarps were dissected into spurs, gullies, and tributary canyons. Emplacement of the landslides approximately coincided with a late episode of major eruptive activity of the Tharsis volcanoes, and it is suggested that the slides may have originated as gigantic mudflows with slump blocks at their heads. The large size of many landslides is due to the fault scarps as high as 7 km on which they formed in the absence of vigorous fluvial erosion. The landslides suggest that Mars is earthlike in some respects, which may be important for further evaluations.

Lucchitta, B. K.

1979-01-01

402

Norwegian petroleum resources with focus on challenges and opportunities in the Barents Sea  

SciTech Connect

The Norwegian Continental Shelf can be subdivided into 3 different petroleum provinces: (1) the North Sea, (2) the Norwegian Sea including the Jan Mayen ridge, and (3) the Barents Sea including the islands of Svalbard. The majority of the fields and discoveries and most of the resources are located in the mature North Sea Basin. Significant resources are however also discovered in the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. 39 fields are in production or decided to be developed while 3 fields are closed down. Approximately 70% of the discovered resources are located in these fields, of which some are gigantic in size (Statfjord, Ekofisk, Gullfaks, Oseberg, Troll and Snorre). Most of the remaining discoveries (134) are smaller in size and approximately 2/3 of the resources are gas. According to a recent study carried out by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate the expected undiscovered Norwegian Petroleum Resources are assessed to be on the order of 3,5 billion Sm{sup 3} o.e. with a level of uncertainty ranging from 2 to 6 billion Sm{sup 3} o.e. 40% of the undiscovered petroleum resources are expected to be found as oil. These are the perspectives of the Norwegian Petroleum Resources. The resources of the Barents Sea is included in this perspective. The significance of the Barents Sea resources is not particularly important in the short-medium term perspective, but will be important in the longer perspective.

Aamodt, F.R. [Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, Stavanger (Norway). Exploration Branch

1995-12-31

403

[Gender in view].  

PubMed

A manual recently published by Mexico¿s National System for Integral Development of the Family, ¿The gender perspective: a tool for constructing equity between men and women¿, is intended to put into practice the Cairo accords. The gender perspective has been applied in recent years to interpretation of the situation of women in past and present societies. Gender is not sex; it is the manner in which societies have symbolized and understood relations between men and women. The manual concludes that the main difference between the sexes beyond the obvious genital differences is in the greater musculature and strength of males. In contemporary societies, these attributes are less needed than technical knowledge and skills, which may be obtained by either sex. Economic evolution has led increasing numbers of women to work outside their homes. The gender roles assigned for millennia, and accepted as the natural order, are no longer adequate. The power of men has been preserved by attributing the gigantic cultural differences resulting from specialization into male and female roles to the small physical differences between the sexes. Governments have slowly established legal equity, but discrimination against women has not disappeared in the workplace, public offices, or any other social sphere, and their incorporation into the work force has left them with the double workday as they continue to perform the great bulk of domestic work. It is therefore necessary to seek equity as well as equality, understood as the creation of equivalent opportunities for men and women. PMID:12349308

1998-03-01

404

Morphogenetic Mechanisms in the Cyclic Regeneration of Hair Follicles and Deer Antlers from Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

We have made comparisons between hair follicles (HFs) and antler units (AUs)—two seemingly unrelated mammalian organs. HFs are tiny and concealed within skin, whereas AUs are gigantic and grown externally for visual display. However, these two organs share some striking similarities. Both consist of permanent and cyclic/temporary components and undergo stem-cell-based organogenesis and cyclic regeneration. Stem cells of both organs reside in the permanent part and the growth centres are located in the temporary part of each respective organ. Organogenesis and regeneration of both organs depend on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Establishment of these interactions requires stem cells and reactive/niche cells (dermal papilla cells for HFs and epidermal cells for AUs) to be juxtaposed, which is achieved through destruction of the cyclic part to bring the reactive cells into close proximity to the respective stem cell niche. Developments of HFs and AUs are regulated by similar endocrine (particularly testosterone) and paracrine (particularly IGF1) factors. Interestingly, these two organs come to interplay during antlerogenesis. In conclusion, we believe that investigators from the fields of both HF and AU biology could greatly benefit from a comprehensive comparison between these two organs. PMID:24383056

Li, Chunyi; McMahon, Chris

2013-01-01

405

A Phororhacoid bird from the Eocene of Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bird fossil record is globally scarce in Africa. The early Tertiary evolution of terrestrial birds is virtually unknown in that continent. Here, we report on a femur of a large terrestrial new genus discovered from the early or early middle Eocene (between ˜52 and 46 Ma) of south-western Algeria. This femur shows all the morphological features of the Phororhacoidea, the so-called Terror Birds. Most of the phororhacoids were indeed large, or even gigantic, flightless predators or scavengers with no close modern analogs. It is likely that this extinct group originated in South America, where they are known from the late Paleocene to the late Pleistocene (˜59 to 0.01 Ma). The presence of a phororhacoid bird in Africa cannot be explained by a vicariant mechanism because these birds first appeared in South America well after the onset of the mid-Cretaceous Gondwana break up (˜100 million years old). Here, we propose two hypotheses to account for this occurrence, either an early dispersal of small members of this group, which were still able of a limited flight, or a transoceanic migration of flightless birds from South America to Africa during the Paleocene or earliest Eocene. Paleogeographic reconstructions of the South Atlantic Ocean suggest the existence of several islands of considerable size between South America and Africa during the early Tertiary, which could have helped a transatlantic dispersal of phororhacoids.

Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Mahboubi, M'hammed; Adaci, Mohammed; Bensalah, Mustapha

2011-10-01

406

Pressure-induced Polarization Reversal in Z-type Hexaferrite Single Crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiferroic materials with a gigantic magnetoelectric (ME) coupling at room temperature have been searched for applications to novel devices. Recently, large direct and converse ME effects were realized at room temperature in the so-called Z-type hexaferrite (Ba,Sr)3Co2Fe24O41 single crystals [1,2]. To obtain a new control parameter for realizing a sensitive ME tuning, we studied ME properties of the crystals under uniaxial pressure. Upon applying a tiny uniaxial pressure of about 0.6 GPa, magnetic field-driven electric polarization reversal and anomaly in a M-H loop start to appear at 10 K and gradually disappear at higher temperature above 130 K. By comparing those results with longitudinal magnetostriction at ambient pressure, we propose the pressure-dependent variations of transverse conical spin configuration as well as its domain structure under small magnetic field bias, and point out the possibility of having two different physical origins of the ME coupling in this system. [1] Y. Kitagawa et al., Nat. Mater. 9, 797 (2010) [2] S. H. Chun et al., submitted.

Jeon, Byung-Gu; Chun, Sae Hwan; Kim, Kee Hoon

2012-02-01

407

Using a smart phone application to measure high-energy radiation from thunderstorms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial airline flights and developing cell phone technologies present a burgeoning opportunity for the public to help investigate radiation from thunderstorms, including terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs), longer-lived gamma-ray glows, x-rays from lightning stepped leaders, and possible high-energy radiation, never yet observed, from blue jets, gigantic jets, and blue starters. GammaPix is a smartphone application from Image Insight, Inc. that uses the camera's CCD or CMOS sensor to identify and qualitatively assess threats related to gamma radioactivity, e.g., those caused by accidental exposure to radioactive material, high-altitude air travel, or acts of terrorism. A science-oriented version of the app is under development that will be publicized for use aboard commercial airline flights and on the ground in regions (like Japan in the wintertime) where thunderstorm charge centers come close to the ground. The primary goal of the project is to learn whether TGFs close to passenger aircraft and population centers on the ground occur often enough to create concern about radiation risk.

Bowers, G. S.; Smith, D. M.; Rexroad, W. Z.; Kelley, N. A.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; Rubenstein, E. P.; Drukier, G.; Benes, G. N.

2013-12-01

408

Tracing explosives in soil with transcriptional regulators of Pseudomonas putida evolved for responding to nitrotoluenes  

PubMed Central

Summary Although different biological approaches for detection of anti?personnel mines and other unexploded ordnance (UXO) have been entertained, none of them has been rigorously documented thus far in the scientific literature. The industrial 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) habitually employed in the manufacturing of mines is at all times tainted with a small but significant proportion of the more volatile 2,4 dinitrotoluene (2,4 DNT) and other nitroaromatic compounds. By using mutation?prone PCR and DNA sequence shuffling we have evolved in vitro and selected in vivo variants of the effector recognition domain of the toluene?responsive XylR regulator of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida that responds to mono?, bi? and trinitro substituted toluenes. Re?introduction of such variants in P. putida settled the transcriptional activity of the cognate promoters (Po and Pu) as a function of the presence of nitrotoluenes in the medium. When strains bearing transcriptional fusions to reporters with an optical output (luxAB, GFP) were spread on soil spotted with nitrotoluenes, the signal triggered by promoter activation allowed localization of the target compounds on the soil surface. Our data provide a proof of concept that non?natural transcription factors evolved to respond to nitroaromatics can be engineered in soil bacteria and inoculated on a target site to pinpoint the presence of explosives. This approach thus opens new ways to tackle this gigantic humanitarian problem. PMID:21261843

Garmendia, Junkal; De Las Heras, Aitor; Galvão, Teca Calcagno; De Lorenzo, Víctor

2008-01-01

409

Tracing explosives in soil with transcriptional regulators of Pseudomonas putida evolved for responding to nitrotoluenes.  

PubMed

Although different biological approaches for detection of anti-personnel mines and other unexploded ordnance (UXO) have been entertained, none of them has been rigorously documented thus far in the scientific literature. The industrial 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) habitually employed in the manufacturing of mines is at all times tainted with a small but significant proportion of the more volatile 2,4 dinitrotoluene (2,4 DNT) and other nitroaromatic compounds. By using mutation-prone PCR and DNA sequence shuffling we have evolved in vitro and selected in vivo variants of the effector recognition domain of the toluene-responsive XylR regulator of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida that responds to mono-, bi- and trinitro substituted toluenes. Re-introduction of such variants in P. putida settled the transcriptional activity of the cognate promoters (Po and Pu) as a function of the presence of nitrotoluenes in the medium. When strains bearing transcriptional fusions to reporters with an optical output (luxAB, GFP) were spread on soil spotted with nitrotoluenes, the signal triggered by promoter activation allowed localization of the target compounds on the soil surface. Our data provide a proof of concept that non-natural transcription factors evolved to respond to nitroaromatics can be engineered in soil bacteria and inoculated on a target site to pinpoint the presence of explosives. This approach thus opens new ways to tackle this gigantic humanitarian problem. PMID:21261843

Garmendia, Junkal; de las Heras, Aitor; Galvão, Teca Calcagno; de Lorenzo, Víctor

2008-05-01

410

A full-field strategy to take texture-induced anisotropy into account during FE simulations of metal forming processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During metal forming, the mechanical properties in all locations of the part evolve, usually in a heterogeneous way. In principle, this should be taken into account when performing finite element (FE) simulations of the forming process, by modeling the evolution of the mechanical properties in every integration point of the FE mesh and coupling the result back to the FEshell. This is the meaning of the term `full-field modeling.' The issue is developed further with focus on the evolution of texture and plastic anisotropy. It is explained that in principle, such fullfield modeling would require a gigantic computational effort which (at least at present) would be out of reach of most research organizations. A methodology is then presented to overcome this difficulty by using efficient models for texture updating and for texture-based plastic anisotropy, and by optimizing the overall calculation scheme without sacrificing the accuracy of the texture prediction. Some of the first results (obtained for cup drawing of anisotropic deep drawing steel) are shown, including comparison to experimental results. Possible future applications of the method are proposed.

van Houtte, Paul; Gawad, Jerzy; Eyckens, Philip; van Bael, Bert; Samaey, Giovanni; Roose, Dirk

2011-11-01

411

The Internal Subbetic of the Velez Rubio area (SE Spain): Is it tectonically detached or not?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sierras of Maria and Maimon form part of the Internal Subbetic in the eastern part of the Betic Cordillera, in contact with the Internal Zone. Previous papers have interpreted the Internal Subbetic as being tectonically detached at its bottom, thrusting the Solana Fm., and moreover thrusting the Internal Zone. Nevertheless, the analysis of the structure of these sierras (with great development of folds), and that of the Sierra del Gigante, indicates that this detachment does not exist and, on the contrary, the structure is clearly rooted. Moreover, the general rectilinear trend of the contact between the Internal and External Zones leads to the interpretation that it in fact corresponds to a dextral transcurrent contact, this contention being supported by the analysis of minor faults. According to the age of the younger sediments involved (the Espejos and Solana Fms.), the main deformation processes occurred from the early Miocene and continued during the middle Miocene, at least in part. The structure and characteristics of the geologic evolution of this area are comparable to that of the Internal Subbetic (Penibetic) in the western part of the cordillera.

Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos; López Garrido, Angel Carlos; Andreo, Bartolomé

2015-01-01

412

The effect of albumin fusion structure on the production and bioactivity of the somatostatin-28 fusion protein in Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

Somatostatin, a natural inhibitor of growth hormone (GH), and its analogs have been used in clinical settings for the treatment of acromegaly, gigantism, thyrotropinoma, and other carcinoid syndromes. However, natural somatostatin is limited for clinical usage because of its short half-life in vivo. Albumin fusion technology was used to construct long-acting fusion proteins and Pichia pastoris was used as an expression system. Three fusion proteins (SS28)(2)-HSA, (SS28)(3)-HSA, and HSA-(SS28)(2), were constructed with different fusion copies of somatostatin-28 and fusion orientations. The expression level of (SS28)(3)-HSA was much lower than (SS28)(2)-HSA and HSA-(SS28)(2) due to the additional fusion of the somatostatin-28 molecule. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealed that severe degradation occurred in the fermentation process. Similar to the standard, somatostatin-14, all three fusion proteins were able to inhibit GH secretion in blood, with (SS28)(2)-HSA being the most effective one. A pharmacokinetics study showed that (SS28)(2)-HSA had a prolonged half-life of 2 h. These results showed that increasing the number of small protein copies fused to HSA may not be a suitable method for improving protein bioactivity. PMID:24752560

Ding, Yuedi; Fan, Jun; Li, Wenxin; Peng, Ying; Yang, Runlin; Deng, Lili; Fu, Qiang

2014-06-01

413

Genetic mutations in sporadic pituitary adenomas--what to screen for?  

PubMed

Pituitary adenomas are benign intracranial neoplasms that can result in morbidity owing to local invasion and/or excessive or deficient hormone production. The prevalence of symptomatic pituitary adenomas is approximately 1:1,000 in the general population. The vast majority of these tumours occur sporadically and are not part of syndromic disorders. However, germline mutations in genes known to predispose individuals to familial pituitary adenomas are found in a few patients with sporadic pituitary adenomas. Mutations in AIP (encoding aryl-hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein) are the most frequently observed germline mutations. The prevalence of these mutations in patients with sporadic pituitary adenomas is ?4%, but can increase to 8-20% in young adults with macroadenomas or gigantism, and also in children. Germline mutations in MEN1 (encoding menin) result in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and are found in very young patients with isolated sporadic pituitary adenomas, which highlights the importance of the chromosome 11q13 locus in pituitary tumorigenesis. In this Review, we describe the clinical features of patients with sporadic pituitary adenomas that are associated with AIP or MEN1 mutations, and discuss the molecular mechanisms that might be involved in pituitary adenoma tumorigenesis. We also discuss genetic screening of patients with sporadic pituitary adenomas and investigations of relatives of these patients who also have the same genetic mutations. PMID:25350067

Lecoq, Anne-Lise; Kamenický, Peter; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Chanson, Philippe

2015-01-01

414

What big eyes you have: the ecological role of giant pterygotid eurypterids.  

PubMed

Eurypterids are a group of extinct chelicerates that ranged for over 200 Myr from the Ordovician to the Permian. Gigantism is common in the group; about 50% of families include taxa over 0.8 m in length. Among these were the pterygotids (Pterygotidae), which reached lengths of over 2 m and were the largest arthropods that ever lived. They have been interpreted as highly mobile visual predators on the basis of their large size, enlarged, robust chelicerae and forward-facing compound eyes. Here, we test this interpretation by reconstructing the visual capability of Acutiramus cummingsi (Pterygotidae) and comparing it with that of the smaller Eurypterus sp. (Eurypteridae), which lacked enlarged chelicerae, and other arthropods of similar geologic age. In A. cummingsi, there is no area of lenses differentiated to provide increased visual acuity, and the interommatidial angles (IOA) do not fall within the range of high-level modern arthropod predators. Our results show that the visual acuity of A. cummingsi is poor compared with that of co-occurring Eurypterus sp. The ecological role of pterygotids may have been as predators on thin-shelled and soft-bodied prey, perhaps in low-light conditions or at night. PMID:25009243

Anderson, Ross P; McCoy, Victoria E; McNamara, Maria E; Briggs, Derek E G

2014-07-01

415

The changing pace of insular life: 5000 years of microevolution in the Orkney vole (microtus arvalis orcadensis).  

PubMed

Island evolution may be expected to involve fast initial morphological divergence followed by stasis. We tested this model using the dental phenotype of modern and ancient common voles (Microtus arvalis), introduced onto the Orkney archipelago (Scotland) from continental Europe some 5000 years ago. First, we investigated phenotypic divergence of Orkney and continental European populations and assessed climatic influences. Second, phenotypic differentiation among Orkney populations was tested against geography, time, and neutral genetic patterns. Finally, we examined evolutionary change along a time series for the Orkney Mainland. Molar gigantism and anterior-lobe hypertrophy evolved rapidly in Orkney voles following introduction, without any transitional forms detected. Founder events and adaptation appear to explain this initial rapid evolution. Idiosyncrasy in dental features among different island populations of Orkney voles is also likely the result of local founder events following Neolithic translocation around the archipelago. However, against our initial expectations, a second marked phenotypic shift occurred between the 4th and 12th centuries AD, associated with increased pastoral farming and introduction of competitors (mice and rats) and terrestrial predators (foxes and cats). These results indicate that human agency can generate a more complex pattern of morphological evolution than might be expected in island rodents. PMID:24957579

Cucchi, Thomas; Barnett, Ross; Martínková, Natália; Renaud, Sabrina; Renvoisé, Elodie; Evin, Allowen; Sheridan, Alison; Mainland, Ingrid; Wickham-Jones, Caroline; Tougard, Christelle; Quéré, Jean Pierre; Pascal, Michel; Pascal, Marine; Heckel, Gerald; O'Higgins, Paul; Searle, Jeremy B; Dobney, Keith M

2014-10-01

416

Theory of supercoupling, squeezing wave energy, and field confinement in narrow channels and tight bends using ? near-zero metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we investigate the detailed theory of the supercoupling, anomalous tunneling effect, and field confinement originally identified by Silveirinha and Engheta [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 157403 (2006)], where we demonstrated the possibility of using materials with permittivity ? near zero to drastically improve the transmission of electromagnetic energy through a narrow irregular channel with very subwavelength transverse cross section. Here, we present additional physical insights, describe applications of the tunneling effect in relevant waveguide scenarios (e.g., the “perfect” or “super” waveguide coupling), and study the effect of metal losses in the metallic walls and the possibility of using near-zero ? materials to confine energy in a subwavelength cavity with gigantic field enhancement. In addition, we systematically study the propagation of electromagnetic waves through narrow channels filled with anisotropic near-zero ? materials. It is demonstrated that these materials may have interesting potentials, and that for some particular geometries, the reflectivity of the channel is independent of the specific dimensions or parameters of near-zero ? transition. We also describe several realistic metamaterial implementations of the studied problems, based on standard metallic waveguides, microstrip line configurations, and wire media.

Silveirinha, Mário G.; Engheta, Nader

2007-12-01

417

Light Work: Contemporary Artists Consider the Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern day life and timekeepers have profoundly affected the way we conceptualize time and our position in the universe. Over the past year, I have been investigating the apparent movement of the Sun both sculpturally and photographically. In this paper, I discuss my collaborations with Woody Sullivan and highlight several of the sundials, both gigantic and intimate, created by University of Washington students in the class Where is Noon? Regarding Giant Sundials that we co-taught in Spring 2003. I have continued to develop artistic approaches to solar events. Some of these sunworks have not been designed specifically to measure the exact time of day as a classic sundial does, but to stimulate a greater awareness of our subjective and paradoxical relationship to nature and technology. Other, almost domestic, poetic, humorous or intimate ways of interacting with science and technology are being actively explored. I will also provide a background to previous works I have done in relation to the Sun and optics, and briefly mention artists who are using astronomical events as a point of departure.

Cummins, Rebecca

2005-01-01

418

``Drag'' of photoelectrons in the calcium vapor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the previously theoretically well-founded, yet experimentally challenging phenomenon of ``drag current'' - an electric current appearing in gases upon the photoionization of their atoms by incident photons of frequency ?. The drag current J(?) is caused by a nonzero photon momentum, and is proportional to the dipole photoionization cross section ?(?), to the nondipole photoelectron angular distribution parameter ?(?) and to the elastic electron-atom scattering cross section ?_el(?). Consequently, the drag current, J(?)??(?)?(?)/?_el(?), provides an additional unique macroscopic dimension for testing our understanding of quantum structures. Specifically, in a photon energy domain of sharp variations in ?(?) due to an autoionizing resonance in a quadrupole photoionization amplitude [where ?_el(?) and dipole ?(?) remain essentially constant], the measurement of the drag current provides direct information about the nondipole parameter ?(?) which has been an ad hoc topic of studies in recent years. We provide a new important example of such a situation emerging in calcium vapor due to a gigantic quadrupole 3s arrow 3d resonance in calcium. It is shown that the drag current is resonantly increased by several factors in magnitude, changes direction twice within a narrow photon energy region of about 1 eV, and is quite measurable. The drag current would be a nice novel subject for advanced experimental studies. We strongly urge them.

Bailey, Daniel; Dolmatov, Valeriy

2004-11-01

419

Shedding Light on the Cosmic Skeleton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have tracked down a gigantic, previously unknown assembly of galaxies located almost seven billion light-years away from us. The discovery, made possible by combining two of the most powerful ground-based telescopes in the world, is the first observation of such a prominent galaxy structure in the distant Universe, providing further insight into the cosmic web and how it formed. "Matter is not distributed uniformly in the Universe," says Masayuki Tanaka from ESO, who led the new study. "In our cosmic vicinity, stars form in galaxies and galaxies usually form groups and clusters of galaxies. The most widely accepted cosmological theories predict that matter also clumps on a larger scale in the so-called 'cosmic web', in which galaxies, embedded in filaments stretching between voids, create a gigantic wispy structure." These filaments are millions of light years long and constitute the skeleton of the Universe: galaxies gather around them, and immense galaxy clusters form at their intersections, lurking like giant spiders waiting for more matter to digest. Scientists are struggling to determine how they swirl into existence. Although massive filamentary structures have been often observed at relatively small distances from us, solid proof of their existence in the more distant Universe has been lacking until now. The team led by Tanaka discovered a large structure around a distant cluster of galaxies in images they obtained earlier. They have now used two major ground-based telescopes to study this structure in greater detail, measuring the distances from Earth of over 150 galaxies, and, hence, obtaining a three-dimensional view of the structure. The spectroscopic observations were performed using the VIMOS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope and FOCAS on the Subaru Telescope, operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Thanks to these and other observations, the astronomers were able to make a real demographic study of this structure, and have identified several groups of galaxies surrounding the main galaxy cluster. They could distinguish tens of such clumps, each typically ten times as massive as our own Milky Way galaxy - and some as much as a thousand times more massive - while they estimate that the mass of the cluster amounts to at least ten thousand times the mass of the Milky Way. Some of the clumps are feeling the fatal gravitational pull of the cluster, and will eventually fall into it. "This is the first time that we have observed such a rich and prominent structure in the distant Universe," says Tanaka. "We can now move from demography to sociology and study how the properties of galaxies depend on their environment, at a time when the Universe was only two thirds of its present age." The filament is located about 6.7 billion light-years away from us and extends over at least 60 million light-years. The newly uncovered structure does probably extend further, beyond the field probed by the team, and hence future observations have already been planned to obtain a definite measure of its size. More information This research was presented in a paper published as a letter in the Astronomy & Astrophysics Journal: The spectroscopically confirmed huge cosmic structure at z = 0.55, by Tanaka et al. The team is composed of Masayuki Tanaka (ESO), Alexis Finoguenov (Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, Germany and University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA), Tadayuki Kodama (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, Japan), Yusei Koyama (Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Japan), Ben Maughan (H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, UK) and Fumiaki Nakata (Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the

2009-11-01

420

HUBBLE VIEWS A STARRY RING WORLD BORN IN A HEAD-ON COLLISION  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[Right] - A rare and spectacular head-on collision between two galaxies appears in this NASA Hubble Space Telescope true-color image of the Cartwheel Galaxy, located 500 million light-years away in the constellation Sculptor. The new details of star birth resolved by Hubble provide an opportunity to study how extremely massive stars are born in large fragmented gas clouds. The striking ring-like feature is a direct result of a smaller intruder galaxy -- possibly one of two objects to the right of the ring -- that careened through the core of the host galaxy. Like a rock tossed into a lake, the collision sent a ripple of energy into space, plowing gas and dust in front of it. Expanding at 200,000 miles per hour, this cosmic tsunami leaves in its wake a firestorm of new star creation. Hubble resolves bright blue knots that are gigantic clusters of newborn stars and immense loops and bubbles blown into space by exploding stars (supernovae) going off like a string of firecrackers. The Cartwheel Galaxy presumably was a normal spiral galaxy like our Milky Way before the collision. This spiral structure is beginning to re-emerge, as seen in the faint arms or spokes between the outer ring and bulls-eye shaped nucleus. The ring contains at least several billion new stars that would not normally have been created in such a short time span and is so large (150,000 light-years across) our entire Milky Way Galaxy would fit inside. Hubble's new view does not solve the mystery as to which of the two small galaxies might have been the intruder. The blue galaxy is disrupted and has new star formation which strongly suggests it is the interloper. However, the smoother-looking companion has no gas, which is consistent with the idea that gas was stripped out of it during passage through the Cartwheel Galaxy. [Top Left] - Hubble's detailed view shows the knot-like structure of the ring, produced by large clusters of new star formation. Hubble also resolves the effects of thousands of supernovae on the ring structure. One flurry of explosions blew a hole in the ring and formed a giant bubble of hot gas. Secondary star formation on the edge of this bubble appears as an arc extending beyond the ring. [Bottom Left] - Hubble resolves remarkable new detail in the galaxy's core. The reddish color of this region indicates that it contains a tremendous amount of dust and embedded star formation. Bright pinpoints of light are gigantic young star clusters. The picture was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2 on October 16, 1994. It is a combination of two images, taken in blue and near-infrared light. Credit: Kirk Borne (ST ScI), and NASA

2002-01-01

421

Unforecasted earthquake and forgotten tsunamis: Lessons from 2011 Tohoku event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 11 March Tohoku earthquake was the largest (M~9) earthquake in Japan's history. Historical data indicated that large (M<8) earthquakes have repeated in Miyagi-oki since 1793 with an average recurrence interval of 37 years. Because the most recent event occurred in 1978, the probability of an earthquake in the next 30 years was forecasted as 99 %, the highest number of such a long-term forecast around Japan. The March event, however, was not a characteristic type as repeated in the last few centuries, but the size and spatial extent far exceeded the forecast. Very few seismologists anticipated such a gigantic earthquake would occur around Japan. The March earthquake caused about 20,000 fatalities, mostly from its tsunami. Such devastating tsunami was not the first one in Japan. The Sanriku coast, a sawtooth-shaped submerging coast of northern Tohoku, has suffered from damaging tsunamis in the last century. The 1960 Chilean tsunami was about 3 to 5 m high, and caused about 120 fatalities. The 1933 Sanriku tsunami caused up to 20 m tsunami and about 3,000 fatalities. The 1896 Sanriku tsunami caused more than 30 m tsunami with 22,000 fatalities. The 2011 tsunami heights and fatalities were roughly comparable to those from the 1896 tsunami. To the south of Sanriku coast around Sendai, the coastlines are simpler and characterized by flat plains. While the above historic tsunamis were not high on Sendai plain, a historical document and recent geological studies of tsunami deposits have shown that AD 869 Jogan tsunami caused several km of tsunami inundation and a thousand fatalities, very similar to the 2011 tsunami. However, tsunami hazard maps were constructed for the characteristic earthquake with high probability. On March 11, the tsunami warning message was issued by Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) within 3 minutes of the earthquake. The rupture process of the giant earthquake took a few minutes to complete, hence the estimated earthquake size for the tsunami warning was underestimated. The tsunami arrival time and coastal heights calculated for an earthquake of M 7.9 were announced with tsunami warning message. When a few meters of tsunami was detected on offshore tsunami gauges, JMA upgraded the tsunami warning level, but this information did not reach all the coastal residents particularly at heavily damaged area. The March earthquake and tsunami disaster left many lessons. (1) the long-term forecast should consider prehistoric paleoseismological data, even if historical data for centuries are available, (2) tsunami hazard maps may need to be prepared for infrequent gigantic earthquakes as well as more frequent smaller-sized earthquakes, (3) the past tsunami disaster must be remembered and transmitted to next generation, and (4) upgrading tsunami warning level in emergency situation is rather difficult.

Satake, K.

2011-12-01

422

Rare normal faulting earthquake induced by subduction megaquake: example from 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A month after March 11 gigantic M9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake, M7.0 intraplate earthquake occurred at a depth of 5 km on April 11 beneath coastal area of near Iwaki city, Fukushima prefecture. Focal mechanism of the mainshock indicates that this earthquake is a normal faulting event. Based on field reconnaissance and LIDAR mapping by Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, we recognized coseismic surface ruptures, presumably associated with the main shock. Coseismic surface ruptures extend NNW for about 11 km in a right-stepping en echelon manner. Geomorphic expressions of these ruptures commonly include WWS-facing normal fault scarps and/or drape fold scarp with open cracks on their crests, on the hanging wall sides of steeply west-dipping normal fault planes subparallel to Cretaceous metamorphic rocks. Highest topographic scarp height is about 2.3 m. In this study we introduce preliminary results of a trenching survey across the coseismic surface ruptures at Shionohira site, to resolve timing of paleoseismic events along the Shionohira fault. Trench excavations were carried out at two sites (Ichinokura and Shionohira sites) in Iwaki, Fukushima. At Shionohira site a 2-m-deep trench was excavated across the coseismic fault scarp emerged on the alluvial plain on the eastern flank of the Abukuma Mountains. On the trench walls we observed pairs of steeply dipping normal faults that deform Neogene to Paleogene conglomerates and unconformably overlying, late Quaternary to Holocene fluvial units. Sense of fault slip observed on the trench walls (large dip-slip with small sinistral component) is consistent with that estimated from coseismic surface ruptures. Fault throw estimated from separation of piercing points on lower Unit I and vertical structural relief on folded upper Unit I is consistent with topographic height of the coseismic fault scarp at the trench site. In contrast, vertical separation of Unit II, unconformably overlain by Unit I, is measured as about 1.5 m, twice as large as coseismic vertical component of slip, indicative of penultimate seismic event prior to the 2011 earthquake. Abrupt thickening of overlying Unit I may also suggest preexisting topographic relief prior to its deposition. Radiocarbon dating of charred materials included in event horizons and tephrostratigraphy at two sites indicate that penultimate event prior to the 2011 event might occurred at about 40 ka. This normal fault earthquake is in contrast to compressional or neutral stress regimes in Tohoku region before the 2011 megaquake and rarity of the normal faulting earthquake inferred from these paleoseismic studies may reflect its mechanical relation to the gigantic megathrust earthquakes, such as unusual, enhanced extensional stress on the hangingwall block induced by mainshock and/or postseismic creep after the M~9 earthquake.

Ishiyama, T.; Sugito, N.; Echigo, T.; Sato, H.; Suzuki, T.

2012-04-01

423

Resonances and Tides in Natural Satellites Systems. (Breton Title: Ressonâncias e Marés em Sistemas de Satélites Naturais.) Resonancias y Mareas en Sistemas de Satélites Naturales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we describe some aspects of the dynamics of the mean-motion resonances. Emphasis to the case of resonances between regular satellites of the giant planets will be given, even so some aspects of the physics of the resonances in extra-solar planetary systems are also briefly treated. The role of the resonances in satellites systems is discussed through examples, showing how certain resonances, and its relations with the tidal dissipation effects, can be the key of the explanation of some phenomena still not explained in the Solar System. Amongst some examples we highlight the problem of the resurfacing of Enceladus, the existence of active volcanoes in Io, and the possible existence of the subsurface ocean in Europe. This work has as objective the divulgation of some topics in Celestial Mechanics and Planetary Sciences for an undergraduate public in exact sciences, as Astronomy and Physics, and not their detailed description. Neste trabalho descrevemos alguns aspectos da dinâmica de ressonâncias de movimentos médios. Será dada ênfase maior ao caso de ressonâncias entre satélites regulares dos planetas gigantes, embora alguns aspectos da física das ressonâncias em sistemas planetários extra-solares também sejam discutidos brevemente. A importância do estudo de ressonâncias em sistemas de satélites é discutida mais detalhadamente através de exemplos, mostrando como certas ressonâncias e suas relações com efeitos de dissipação de maré podem ser a chave de parte da explicação de alguns fenômenos ainda não explicados no Sistema Solar. Dentre vários exemplos destacamos o problema da remodelagem da superfície do satélite Enceladus, a existência de vulcões ativos em Io, e a possível existência do oceano subterrâneo em Europa. Este trabalho tem como objetivo a divulgação de alguns tópicos de Mecânica Celeste e Planetologia para um público de nível de graduação em disciplinas na área de exatas, em especial Astronomia e Física, e não a descrição detalhada dos conceitos aqui discutidos. Describimos en este trabajo algunos aspectos de la dinámica de resonancias de movimientos promedio. Será dado un énfasis mayor al caso de las resonancias entre satélites regulares de los planetas gigantes, aunque también son discutidos brevemente algunos aspectos de la física de resonancias en sistemas panetarios extrasolares. La importancia del estudio de las resonancias en sistemas de satélites es discutida más detalladamente através de ejemplos, mostrando cómo ciertas resonancias y los efectos de disipación por mareas pueden ser la clave de parte de la explicación de algunos fenómenos aún no comprendidos en el Sistema Solar. Entre varios ejemplos se destacan el problema de la superficie remodelada del satélite Enceladus, la existencia de volcanes activos en Io y la posible existencia de un océano subterráneo en Europa. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo la divulgación de algunos tópicos en Mecánica Celeste y Planetología para un público universitario de ciencias exactas, en particular Astronomía y Física, y no la descripción detallada de los conceptos aquí discutidos.

Callegari, Nelson, Jr.

2006-12-01

424

Sliding-surface-liquefaction of sand-dry ice mixture and submarine landslides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the historic records of off-shore mega-earthquakes along the subduction zone offshore Japan, there are a lot of witnesses about large-scale burning of flammable gas possibly ejected from sea floor. This gas was supposed to be the dissolved methane hydrates (MH), which have been found in the soundings of IODP and other oceanology projects. Since the vast distribution of the BSR in the continental margins, a lot of papers have been published which pointed out the possibilities of that gasification of those hydrates could have triggered gigantic submarine landslides. Global warming or large earthquake or magma intrusion may trigger extremely deep gigantic landslides in continental margins that which could cause catastrophic tsunami. However, recent triaxial compression tests on artificially prepared sand-MH-mixture samples revealed that the they have slightly higher strength than the ones of only sands and MH’s endothermal characteristics may resist against accelerating shear and large-displacement landslides as well. While, the stress-controlled undrained ring shear apparatuses have been developed by Sassa and Fukuoka at Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University to reproduce subaerial landslides induced by earthquakes and rainfalls. Using the apparatuses, they found localized liquefaction phenomenon along the deep saturated potential sliding surface due to excess pore pressure generation during the grain crushing induced bulk volume change. This phenomenon was named as “sliding surface liquefaction.” Similar sudden large pore pressure generation was observed in pore pressure control test simulating rain-induced landslides. In this paper, authors examined the shear behavior of the dry sand-dry ice mixture under constant normal stress and shear speed control tests using the latest ring shear apparatus. Sample was mixture of silica sands and dry-ice pellets (frozen carbon-dioxide). Those mixtures are often used for studying the mechanism of the methane hydrates in laboratories because no explosion protection facility is required. In order to prevent rapid gasification, the specimen was prepared without water. Applied total normal stress was 200 kPa and initial normal stress was maintained at about 70 kPa by slightly opening the drainage valve to vent pressured CO2 gas. When the sample was sheared at 30 cm/s, the stress path reached failure line of friction angle of about 37 degrees immediately. However, excess pore air pressure increased soon after and the stress path moved to the origin along the failure line. This means rapid shearing generates frictional heat and it accelerates the gasification of dry ice quickly. On the other hand, crushing of pellets may contribute to increase the total surface area of dry ice and to acceleration of gasification, to some extent. Authors are conducting to examine the velocity weakening characteristics of the samples and upcoming results will give more detail of the mechanism. But this sliding-surface-liquefaction in the mixture supports the possibility of similar accelerating displacement in the sand-MH mixture or boundaries between MH and sand layer induced by certain strong ground motion under sea floor.

Fukuoka, H.; Tsukui, A.

2010-12-01

425

Axonal abnormalities in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the 'hyperspiny Purkinje cell' mutant mouse.  

PubMed

The hyperspiny Purkinje cell (hpc) is a murine, autosomal recessive mutation affecting cerebellar Purkinje cells. Axonal abnormalities in these neurons have been revealed by selective silver impregnation, specific immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy. The main pathological feature consists of a massive axonal degeneration in the terminal domains of the Purkinje cell projection. This process starts approximately ten days postnatally, simultaneously with the onset of cerebellar symptoms, and evolves very rapidly. By 21 days, the vast majority of the terminal arbors have degenerated, resulting in an almost complete disruption of the corticonuclear projection. Axonal degeneration, although proceeding in a dying-back fashion, only provokes retrograde death in a small percentage of Purkinje cells (less than 15%). Purkinje cells exhibit other signs of axonal damage and axonal reaction: (a) Almost all of them bear gigantic varicosities (spheroids or torpedoes) along their transit through the granular layer. (b) In a small percentage of cases, a dendritic segment is inserted between the axon hillock and the initial segment (meganeurite). These ectopic dendrites receive a normal contingent of synaptic inputs, and are transient structures observed in four- to six-week-old mice. (c) The infra- and supraganglionic plexuses, formed by recurrent collaterals of Purkinje cell axons, have increased density and terminal domains. (d) In mice aged over 50 days, many Purkinje cells have developed 'arciform' axons, which is evidence of a compensatory reaction. The definite axonal pathology of hpc Purkinje cells confers to this mutation its own specificity, which differs from all other known mutations primarily affecting this neuronal population. Therefore, the hpc mutation offers a valuable tool to analyse some of the genetic factors involved in the differentiation and maintenance of cerebellar Purkinje cells. PMID:2077114

Sotelo, C

1990-10-01

426

A New Sauropodomorph Dinosaur from the Early Jurassic of Patagonia and the Origin and Evolution of the Sauropod-type Sacrum  

PubMed Central

Background The origin of sauropod dinosaurs is one of the major landmarks of dinosaur evolution but is still poorly understood. This drastic transformation involved major skeletal modifications, including a shift from the small and gracile condition of primitive sauropodomorphs to the gigantic and quadrupedal condition of sauropods. Recent findings in the Late Triassic–Early Jurassic of Gondwana provide critical evidence to understand the origin and early evolution of sauropods. Methodology/Principal Findings A new sauropodomorph dinosaur, Leonerasaurus taquetrensis gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Las Leoneras Formation of Central Patagonia (Argentina). The new taxon is diagnosed by the presence of anterior unserrated teeth with a low spoon-shaped crown, amphicoelous and acamerate vertebral centra, four sacral vertebrae, and humeral deltopectoral crest low and medially deflected along its distal half. The phylogenetic analysis depicts Leonerasaurus as one of the closest outgroups of Sauropoda, being the sister taxon of a clade of large bodied taxa composed of Melanorosaurus and Sauropoda. Conclusions/Significance The dental and postcranial anatomy of Leonerasaurus supports its close affinities with basal sauropods. Despite the small size and plesiomorphic skeletal anatomy of Leonerasaurus, the four vertebrae that compose its sacrum resemble that of the large-bodied primitive sauropods. This shows that the appearance of the sauropod-type of sacrum predated the marked increase in body size that characterizes the origins of sauropods, rejecting a causal explanation and evolutionary linkage between this sacral configuration and body size. Alternative phylogenetic placements of Leonerasaurus as a basal anchisaurian imply a convergent acquisition of the sauropod-type sacrum in the new small-bodied taxon, also rejecting an evolutionary dependence of sacral configuration and body size in sauropodomorphs. This and other recent discoveries are showing that the characteristic sauropod body plan evolved gradually, with a step-wise pattern of character appearance. PMID:21298087

Pol, Diego; Garrido, Alberto; Cerda, Ignacio A.

2011-01-01

427

Thermal and electrical conductivity of iron at Earth's core conditions.  

PubMed

The Earth acts as a gigantic heat engine driven by the decay of radiogenic isotopes and slow cooling, which gives rise to plate tectonics, volcanoes and mountain building. Another key product is the geomagnetic field, generated in the liquid iron core by a dynamo running on heat released by cooling and freezing (as the solid inner core grows), and on chemical convection (due to light elements expelled from the liquid on freezing). The power supplied to the geodynamo, measured by the heat flux across the core-mantle boundary (CMB), places constraints on Earth's evolution. Estimates of CMB heat flux depend on properties of iron mixtures under the extreme pressure and temperature conditions in the core, most critically on the thermal and electrical conductivities. These quantities remain poorly known because of inherent experimental and theoretical difficulties. Here we use density functional theory to compute these conductivities in liquid iron mixtures at core conditions from first principles--unlike previous estimates, which relied on extrapolations. The mixtures of iron, oxygen, sulphur and silicon are taken from earlier work and fit the seismologically determined core density and inner-core boundary density jump. We find both conductivities to be two to three times higher than estimates in current use. The changes are so large that core thermal histories and power requirements need to be reassessed. New estimates indicate that the adiabatic heat flux is 15 to 16 terawatts at the CMB, higher than present estimates of CMB heat flux based on mantle convection; the top of the core must be thermally stratified and any convection in the upper core must be driven by chemical convection against the adverse thermal buoyancy or lateral variations in CMB heat flow. Power for the geodynamo is greatly restricted, and future models of mantle evolution will need to incorporate a high CMB heat flux and explain the recent formation of the inner core. PMID:22495307

Pozzo, Monica; Davies, Chris; Gubbins, David; Alfè, Dario

2012-05-17

428

Retort abandonment: issues and research needs  

SciTech Connect

This paper has identified key issues in retort abandonment and has addressed research needs. Retort abandonment for vertical modified in-situ (VMIS) shale oil recovery is an environmentally sensitive research area that has received recognition only within the past five years. Thus, experimental data and information are, in general, limited. In addition, there is presently a wide spectrum of unresolved issues that range from basic problem definition to technical details of potential control technologies. This situation is compounded by the scale of the problem and the absence of a commercial industry. The problems involve large numbers and will require engineering on a gigantic scale. Abandoned retorts are large - up to 700 feet deep and several hundred feet in cross section. They will exist in huge blocks, several square miles in area, which are inaccessible at several thousand feet below the surface. The processes that will ultimately be used to extract the oil are undefined. The technology is in transition, and representative samples of materials have not been available for research. Research efforts in this area have concentrated on basic studies on the nature and magnitude of environmental problems resulting from VMIS oil extraction. These investigations have used laboratory reactors to generate spent shales and modeling studies to predict water quality and hydrologic impacts. The technology for retort abandonment is just now being developed, using engineering analyses to identify promising environmental control options and laboratory and modeling studies to determine feasibility. We expect that, as the environmental problems are better defined and understood, conventional control technologies will prove to be adaptable to a majority of the problems associated with this new process and that laboratory and modeling research on the problem definition will be refocused on technology development and field experiments.

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.; Wagner, P.; Peterson, E.J.

1980-08-01

429

ENSO regulation of MJO teleconnection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extratropical teleconnections associated with Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) are shown to have an action center in the North Pacific where the pressure anomalies have opposite polarities between the Phase 3 (convective Indian Ocean) and Phase 7 (convective western Pacific) of the MJO. The teleconnection in the same phase of MJO may induce opposite anomalies over East Asia and North America between El Niño and La Niña years. During MJO Phase 3, a gigantic North Pacific anticyclonic anomaly occurs during La Niña, making coastal northeast Asia warmer/wetter than normal, but the west US colder/drier; whereas during El Niño the anticyclonic anomaly is confined to the central North Pacific, hence the northwest US experiences warmer than normal weather under influence of a downstream cyclonic anomaly. During Phase 7, an extratropical cyclonic anomaly forms over the northwest Pacific during La Niña due to convective enhancement over the Philippine Sea, causing bitter winter monsoon over Japan; whereas during El Niño, the corresponding cyclonic anomaly shifts to the northeast Pacific due to enhanced convection over the equatorial central Pacific, which causes warm and wet conditions along the west coast of US and Canada. Further, the presence of ENSO-induced seasonal anomalies can significantly modify MJO teleconnection, but the aforementioned MJO teleconnection can still be well identified. During Phase 3, the MJO teleconnection pattern over North Pacific will be counterbalanced (enhanced) by El Niño (La Niña)-induced seasonal mean anomalies. During Phase 7, on the other hand, the MJO teleconnection anomalies in the northeastern Pacific will be enhanced during El Niño but reduced during La Niña; thereby the impacts of MJO teleconnection on the North America is expected to be stronger during El Niño than during La Niña.

Moon, Ja-Yeon; Wang, Bin; Ha, Kyung-Ja

2011-09-01

430

Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenomas (FIPA) and the Pituitary Adenoma Predisposition due to Mutations in the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Interacting Protein (AIP) Gene  

PubMed Central

Pituitary adenomas are one of the most frequent intracranial tumors and occur with a prevalence of approximately 1:1000 in the developed world. Pituitary adenomas have a serious disease burden, and their management involves neurosurgery, biological therapies, and radiotherapy. Early diagnosis of pituitary tumors while they are smaller may help increase cure rates. Few genetic predictors of pituitary adenoma development exist. Recent years have seen two separate, complimentary advances in inherited pituitary tumor research. The clinical condition of familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) has been described, which encompasses the familial occurrence of isolated pituitary adenomas outside of the setting of syndromic conditions like multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Carney complex. FIPA families comprise approximately 2% of pituitary adenomas and represent a clinical entity with homogeneous or heterogeneous pituitary adenoma types occurring within the same kindred. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene has been identified as causing a pituitary adenoma predisposition of variable penetrance that accounts for 20% of FIPA families. Germline AIP mutations have been shown to associate with the occurrence of large pituitary adenomas that occur at a young age, predominantly in children/adolescents and young adults. AIP mutations are usually associated with somatotropinomas, but prolactinomas, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, Cushing disease, and other infrequent clinical adenoma types can also occur. Gigantism is a particular feature of AIP mutations and occurs in more than one third of affected somatotropinoma patients. Study of pituitary adenoma patients with AIP mutations has demonstrated that these cases raise clinical challenges to successful treatment. Extensive research on the biology of AIP and new advances in mouse Aip knockout models demonstrate multiple pathways by which AIP may contribute to tumorigenesis. This review assesses the current clinical and therapeutic characteristics of more than 200 FIPA families and addresses research findings among AIP mutation-bearing patients in different populations with pituitary adenomas. PMID:23371967

Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Daly, Adrian F.

2013-01-01

431

Nitrogen in Solar System Minor Bodies: Delivery Pathways to Primeval Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen isotope data point towards enstatite and ordinary chondrites as presumable building blocks of primordial Earth. Nitrogen was incorporated as nitrides to these first building blocks and was outgassed in the early stages of chemical segregation. However, giant impacts with planetesimals played an important role in partially eroding the atmosphere of Earth, and promoting thermal escape of diverse components. As a consequence, the Earth's atmospheric composition could have been subjected to important changes along the eons. A last, and probably less massive, delivery of volatiles took place at the time of a gigantic cataclysm known as Late Heavy Bombardment. During a short interval roughly between 3.9 and 3.8 Gyr ago, a gravitational migration inwards of Jupiter and Saturn occurred, that perturbed hundreds of small bodies rich in water, ammonia, methane and organic compounds that were stored until then in the outer regions. Current atmospheric signatures suggest that by that mechanism a continuous shower of outer-disk primordial components enriched the volatile inventory of terrestrial planets. The relevance of such contribution is still debated, but significant progress has been made in the last decades from the study of undifferentiated bodies. Consequently, planetary scattering of undifferentiated bodies delivered to Earth a significant fraction of minerals, and light elements that could have played a key role in the volatile enrichment the terrestrial crust. I suggest some unexplored pathways to allow a safe delivery of organics to Earth's surface, following recent evidence on meteoroid fragmentation, fireball spectra and Antarctic micrometeorite discoveries. Recent compositional studies of asteroids, comets and meteorites corroborate the need of having more precise data on the abundance and isotopic ratios of N in these minor bodies. Future space missions to primitive bodies like Rosetta, OSIRIS-Rex, Hayabusa II, or Marco Polo-R could help us to complete the big picture, and this chapter tries to compile our present knowledge of its delivery to Earth along the eons.

Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M.

432

Male meiosis, morphometric analysis and distribution pattern of 2× and 4× cytotypes of Ranunculus hirtellus Royle, 1834 (Ranunculaceae) from the cold regions of northwest Himalayas (India)  

PubMed Central

Abstract In this study, we examined the chromosome number, detailed male meiosis, microsporogenesis, pollen fertility and morphological features and distribution of 2× and 4× cytotypes of Ranunculus hirtellus Royle, 1834. The majority of the populations scored now from cold regions of the northwest Himalayas showed tetraploid (n=16) meiotic chromosome count and one of the populations studied from the Manimahesh hills existed at diploid level (n=8). The individuals of diploid cytotype exhibited perfectly normal meiotic course resulting in 100% pollen fertility and pollen grains of uniform sizes. On the other hand, the plants of the tetraploid cytotype from all the populations in spite of showing normal bivalent formation and equal distribution to the opposite poles at anaphases showed various meiotic abnormalities. The most prominent among these meiotic abnormalities was the cytomixis which involved inter PMC (pollen mother cell) chromatin material transfer at different stages of meiosis-I. The phenomenon of cytomixis induced various meiotic abnormalities which include chromatin stickiness, pycnotic chromatin, laggards and chromatin bridges, out of plate bivalents at metaphase-I, disoriented chromatin material at anaphase/telophase and micronuclei. Consequently, these populations exhibited varying percentages of pollen sterility (24 - 77 %) and pollen grains of heterogeneous sizes. Analysis of various morphometric features including the stomata in 2× and 4× cytotypes showed that increase in ploidy level in the species is correlated with gigantism of vegetative and floral characters and the two cytotypes can be distinguished from each other on the basis of morphological characters. The distribution patterns of the 2× and 4× cytotypes now detected and 2×, 3×, 4× cytotypes detected earlier by workers from other regions of the Indian Himalayas have also been discussed. PMID:24260626

Kumar, Puneet; Singhal, Vijay Kumar

2011-01-01

433

Extreme plasticity in life-history strategy allows a migratory predator (jumbo squid) to cope with a changing climate.  

PubMed

Dosidicus gigas (jumbo or Humboldt squid) is a semelparous, major predator of the eastern Pacific that is ecologically and commercially important. In the Gulf of California, these animals mature at large size (>55 cm mantle length) in 1-1.5 years and have supported a major commercial fishery in the Guaymas Basin during the last 20 years. An El Niño event in 2009-2010, was accompanied by a collapse of this fishery, and squid in the region showed major changes in the distribution and life-history strategy. Large squid abandoned seasonal coastal-shelf habitats in 2010 and instead were found in the Salsipuedes Basin to the north, an area buffered from the effects of El Niño by tidal upwelling and a well-mixed water column. The commercial fishery also relocated to this region. Although large squid were not found in the Guaymas Basin from 2010 to 2012, small squid were abundant and matured at an unusually small mantle-length (<30 cm) and young age (approximately 6 months). Juvenile squid thus appeared to respond to El Niño with an alternative life-history trajectory in which gigantism and high fecundity in normally productive coastal-shelf habitats were traded for accelerated reproduction at small size in an offshore environment. Both small and large mature squid, were present in the Salsipuedes Basin during 2011, indicating that both life- history strategies can coexist. Hydro-acoustic data, reveal that squid biomass in this study area nearly doubled between 2010 and 2011, primarily due to a large increase in small squid that were not susceptible to the fishery. Such a climate-driven switch in size-at-maturity may allow D. gigas to rapidly adapt to and cope with El Niño. This ability is likely to be an important factor in conjunction with longerterm climate-change and the potential ecological impacts of this invasive predator on marine ecosystems. PMID:23505049

Hoving, Henk-Jan T; Gilly, William F; Markaida, Unai; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J; -Brown, Zachary W; Daniel, Patrick; Field, John C; Parassenti, Liz; Liu, Bilin; Campos, Bernardita

2013-07-01

434

Clinical applications of somatostatin analogs for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas.  

PubMed

Excessive growth hormone (GH) is usually secreted by GH-secreting pituitary adenomas and causes gigantism in juveniles or acromegaly in adults. The clinical complications involving cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic systems lead to elevated morbidity in acromegaly. Control of serum GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 hypersecretion by surgery or pharmacotherapy can decrease morbidity. Current pharmacotherapy includes somatostatin analogs (SAs) and GH receptor antagonist; the former consists of lanreotide Autogel (ATG) and octreotide long-acting release (LAR), and the latter refers to pegvisomant. As primary medical therapy, lanreotide ATG and octreotide LAR can be supplied in a long-lasting formulation to achieve biochemical control of GH and IGF-1 by subcutaneous injection every 4-6 weeks. Lanreotide ATG and octreotide LAR provide an effective medical treatment, whether as a primary or secondary therapy, for the treatment of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma; however, to maximize benefits with the least cost, several points should be emphasized before the application of SAs. A comprehensive assessment, especially of the observation of clinical predictors and preselection of SA treatment, should be completed in advance. A treatment process lasting at least 3 months should be implemented to achieve a long-term stable blood concentration. More satisfactory surgical outcomes for noninvasive macroadenomas treated with presurgical SA may be achieved, although controversy of such adjuvant therapy exists. Combination of SA and pegvisomant or cabergoline shows advantages in some specific cases. Thus, an individual treatment program should be established for each patient under a full evaluation of the risks and benefits. PMID:24421637

Wang, Ji-Wen; Li, Ying; Mao, Zhi-Gang; Hu, Bin; Jiang, Xiao-Bing; Song, Bing-Bing; Wang, Xin; Zhu, Yong-Hong; Wang, Hai-Jun

2014-01-01

435

Inferences of Diplodocoid (Sauropoda: Dinosauria) Feeding Behavior from Snout Shape and Microwear Analyses  

PubMed Central

Background As gigantic herbivores, sauropod dinosaurs were among the most important members of Mesozoic communities. Understanding their ecology is fundamental to developing a complete picture of Jurassic and Cretaceous food webs. One group of sauropods in particular, Diplodocoidea, has long been a source of debate with regard to what and how they ate. Because of their long lineage duration (Late Jurassic-Late Cretaceous) and cosmopolitan distribution, diplodocoids formed important parts of multiple ecosystems. Additionally, fortuitous preservation of a large proportion of cranial elements makes them an ideal clade in which to examine feeding behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings Hypotheses of various browsing behaviors (selective and nonselective browsing at ground-height, mid-height, or in the upper canopy) were examined using snout shape (square vs. round) and dental microwear. The square snouts, large proportion of pits, and fine subparallel scratches in Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, Nigersaurus, and Rebbachisaurus suggest ground-height nonselective browsing; the narrow snouts of Dicraeosaurus, Suuwassea, and Tornieria and the coarse scratches and gouges on the teeth of Dicraeosaurus suggest mid-height selective browsing in those taxa. Comparison with outgroups (Camarasaurus and Brachiosaurus) reinforces the inferences of ground- and mid-height browsing and the existence of both non-selective and selective browsing behaviors in diplodocoids. Conclusions/Significance These results reaffirm previous work suggesting the presence of diverse feeding strategies in sauropods and provide solid evidence for two different feeding behaviors in Diplodocoidea. These feeding behaviors can subsequently be tied to paleoecology, such that non-selective, ground-height behaviors are restricted to open, savanna-type environments. Selective browsing behaviors are known from multiple sauropod clades and were practiced in multiple environments. PMID:21494685

Whitlock, John A.

2011-01-01

436

Change in and Long-Term Investigation of Neuro-Otologic Disorders in Disaster-Stricken Fukushima Prefecture: Retrospective Cohort Study before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake  

PubMed Central

On March 11, 2011, Japan’s northeast Pacific coast was hit by a gigantic earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture is situated approximately 44 km north of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Soma General Hospital is the only hospital in Soma City that provides full-time otolaryngological medical care. We investigated the changes in new patients from one year before to three years after the disaster. We investigated 18,167 new patients treated at our department during the four years from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2014. Of the new patients, we categorized the diagnoses into Meniere’s disease, acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo, sudden deafness, tinnitus, and facial palsy as neuro-otologic symptoms. We also investigated the changes in the numbers of patients whom we examined at that time concerning other otolaryngological disorders, including epistaxis, infectious diseases of the laryngopharynx, and allergic rhinitis. The total number of new patients did not change remarkably on a year-to-year basis. Conversely, cases of vertigo, Meniere’s disease, and acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss increased in number immediately after the disaster, reaching a plateau in the second year and slightly decreasing in the third year. Specifically, 4.8% of patients suffering from these neuro-otologic diseases had complications from depression and other mental diseases. With regard to new patients in our department, there was no apparent increase in the number of patients suffering from diseases other than neuro-otologic diseases, including epistaxis, and allergic rhinitis. Patients suffering from vertigo and/or dizziness increased during the first few years after the disaster. These results are attributed to the continuing stress and tension of the inhabitants. This investigation of those living in the disaster area highlights the need for long-term support. PMID:25849607

Kuriyama, Shinichi; Obara, Taku; Hashimoto, Ken; Tateda, Yutaka; Okumura, Yuri; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Katori, Yukio

2015-01-01

437

Identification of old tidal dwarfs near early-type galaxies from deep imaging and H I observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has recently been proposed that the dwarf spheroidal galaxies located in the Local Group discs of satellites (DoSs) may be tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs) born in a major merger at least 5 Gyr ago. Whether TDGs can live that long is still poorly constrained by observations. As part of deep optical and H I surveys with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) MegaCam camera and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope made within the ATLAS3D project, and follow-up spectroscopic observations with the Gemini-North telescope, we have discovered old TDG candidates around several early-type galaxies. At least one of them has an oxygen abundance close to solar, as expected for a tidal origin. This confirmed pre-enriched object is located within the gigantic, but very low surface brightness, tidal tail that emanates from the elliptical galaxy, NGC 5557. An age of 4 Gyr estimated from its SED fitting makes it the oldest securely identified TDG ever found so far. We investigated the structural and gaseous properties of the TDG and of a companion located in the same collisional debris, and thus most likely of tidal origin as well. Despite several Gyr of evolution close to their parent galaxies, they kept a large gas reservoir. Their central surface brightness is low and their effective radius much larger than that of typical dwarf galaxies of the same mass. This possibly provides us with criteria to identify tidal objects which can be more easily checked than the traditional ones requiring deep spectroscopic observations. In view of the above, we discuss the survival time of TDGs and question the tidal origin of the DoSs.

Duc, Pierre-Alain; Paudel, Sanjaya; McDermid, Richard M.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Serra, Paolo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Cappellari, Michele; Emsellem, Eric

2014-05-01

438

Simulação de ejeções de massa coronal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ejeções de massa coronal (EMC) são bolhas gigantes de gás permeadas por campos magnéticos que são ejetadas do Sol durante um período de várias horas. Caso estas ejeções atinjam a Terra, geralmente, causam uma série de distúrbios às comunicações de longa distância e navegação, além de danos a satélites e transformadores. Portanto, é desejável que sejamos capazes de prever quando estas ejeções atingirão a Terra. Para tanto, é necessário um bom entendimento dos mecanismos causadores das ejeções e, principalmente, de como se dá a propagação das EMC e sua interação com o vento solar que permeia o meio interplanetário. Nesse sentido foi desenvolvido um programa computacional para resolver as equações MHD (Magneto-Hidro-Dinâmica) que regem a evolução das EMC. Primeiramente foram estabelecidas as condições necessárias para descrever o vento solar, no estado estacionário, que permeia todo o meio interplanetário. Num primeiro momento, resolveu-se o sistema de equações para o caso do vento isotérmico, conhecida como a solução de Parker, a fim de testarmos o modelo. Então, foi considerado o caso do vento solar com temperatura variável no meio interplanetário. Este resultado foi utilizado como a base de nosso sistema em seu instante inicial. Posteriormente foram feitas as considerações necessárias para descrever a propagação da Ejeção de Massa Coronal. As EMC foram simuladas como um aumento de densidade e temperatura local na coroa solar. A órbita e a posição da Terra foram incluídas no sistema. Os dados gerados possibilitaram uma análise da evolução da EMC pelo meio interplanetário até encontrar-se com a Terra. Os perfis de densidade e temperatura a 1 Unidade Astronômica são comparados com os dados de satélites reportados na literatura.

Corsini, M. A.; Silva, A. V. R.

2003-08-01

439

Investigating onychophoran gas exchange and water balance as a means to inform current controversies in arthropod physiology.  

PubMed

Several controversies currently dominate the fields of arthropod metabolic rate, gas exchange and water balance, including the extent to which modulation of gas exchange reduces water loss, the origins of discontinuous gas exchange, the relationship between metabolic rate and life-history strategies, and the causes of Palaeozoic gigantism. In all of these areas, repeated calls have been made for the investigation of groups that might most inform the debates, especially of taxa in key phylogenetic positions. Here we respond to this call by investigating metabolic rate, respiratory water loss and critical oxygen partial pressure (Pc) in the onychophoran Peripatopsis capensis, a member of a group basal to the arthropods, and by synthesizing the available data on the Onychophora. The rate of carbon dioxide release (VCO2) at 20 degrees C in P. capensis is 0.043 ml CO2 h(-1), in keeping with other onychophoran species; suggesting that low metabolic rates in some arthropod groups are derived. Continuous gas exchange suggests that more complex gas exchange patterns are also derived. Total water loss in P. capensis is 57 mg H2O h(-1) at 20 degrees C, similar to modern estimates for another onychophoran species. High relative respiratory water loss rates ( approximately 34%; estimated using a regression technique) suggest that the basal condition in arthropods may be a high respiratory water loss rate. Relatively high Pc values (5-10% O2) suggest that substantial safety margins in insects are also a derived condition. Curling behaviour in P. capensis appears to be a strategy to lower energetic costs when resting, and the concomitant depression of water loss is a proximate consequence of this behaviour. PMID:18805813

Clusella-Trullas, Susana; Chown, Steven L

2008-10-01

440

Oxygen-sensitive flight metabolism in the dragonfly erythemis simplicicollis  

PubMed

Insect flight metabolism is completely aerobic, and insect resting metabolism is quite insensitive to atmospheric oxygen level, suggesting a large safety margin in the capacity of the tracheal system to deliver oxygen during flight. We tested the sensitivity of flight initiation and metabolism to atmospheric oxygen level in the libellulid dragonfly Erythemis (Mesothemis) simplicicollis using flow-through respirometric measurements of the rate of CO2 emission (CO2). Flight initiations were unimpaired in atmospheric oxygen levels as low as 10 %. However, flight metabolic rate was affected by ambient oxygen level. Flight CO2 decreased in hypoxic mixtures (5 kPa or 10 kPa oxygen) and increased in hyperoxic atmospheres (30 kPa or 50 kPa oxygen), suggesting that ambient oxygen level influences flight muscle oxygen partial pressure (PO2) and the vigour of flight. These are the first data to show oxygen-limitation of flight metabolism in a free-flying insect. A low safety margin for oxygen delivery during dragonfly flight is consistent with a previous hypothesis that atmospheric hyperoxia facilitated gigantism in Paleozoic protodonates. However, allometric studies of tracheal morphology, and mechanisms and capacity of gas exchange in extant insects are necessary in order to test the hypothesis that the oxygen-sensitivity of aerobic metabolism increases with body size in insects. PMID:9576884

Harrison; Lighton

1998-06-01

441

Giant blocks in the South Kona landslide, Hawaii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large field of blocky sea-floor hills, up to 10 km long and 500 m high, are gigantic slide blocks derived from the west flank of Mauna Loa volcano on the island of Hawaii. These megablocks are embedded in the toe of the South Kona landslide, which extends ˜80 km seaward from the present coastline to depths of nearly 5 km. A 10 15-km-wide belt of numerous, smaller, 1 3-km-long slide blocks separates the area of giant blocks from two submarine benches at depths of 2600 and 3700 m depth that terminate seaward 20 to 30 km from the shoreline. Similar giant blocks are found on several other major submarine Hawaiian landslides, including those north of Oahu and Molokai, but the South Kona blocks are the first to be examined in detail using high-resolution bathymetry, dredging, and submersible diving. Dredging of two of the giant blocks brought up pillowed tholeiitic lava. Observations from the U.S. Navy submersible Sea Cliff on the asymmetrically steep eastern flank of one block 10 km long and 300 m high revealed a succession of fractured massive basalt, laminar lava flows, hyaloclastite, and pillow lavas. Chemical analyses of dredged lava identified 19 units that overlap compositionally with lavas from the south rift-zone ridge of Mauna Loa. Sulfur content indicates that most of the lavas were erupted in subaerial and shallow submarine (<200 m depth) sites, but some were erupted in deeper submarine sites. These results indicate that the megablocks were carried by a late Pleistocene giant landslide 40 80 km west from the ancestral shoreline of Mauna Loa volcano before growth of the midslope benches by later slump movement.

Moore, James G.; Bryan, Wilfred B.; Beeson, Melvin H.; Normark, William R.

1995-02-01

442

Muzzle of South American Pleistocene ground sloths (Xenarthra, Tardigrada).  

PubMed

Sloths are among the most characteristic elements of the Cainozoic of South America and are represented, during the Pleistocene, by approximately nine genera of gigantic ground sloths (Megatheriidae and Mylodontidae). A few contributions have described their masticatory apparatus, but almost no attention has been paid to the reconstruction of the muzzle, an important feature to consider in relation to food intake, and particularly relevant in sloths because of the edentulous nature of the muzzle and its varied morphology. The relationship between dietary habits and shape and width of the muzzle is well documented in living herbivores and has been considered an important feature for the inference of alimentary styles in fossils, providing an interesting methodological tool that deserves to be considered for xenarthrans. The goal of this study was to examine models of food intake by reconstructing the appearance and shape of the muzzle in five species of Pleistocene ground sloths (Megatherium americanum, Glossotherium robustum, Lestodon armatus, Mylodon darwini, and Scelidotherium leptocephalum) using reconstructions of the nasal cartilages and facial muscles involved in food intake. The preservation of the nasal septum, and the scars for muscular attachment in the rostral part of the skulls, allow making a conservative reconstruction of muzzle anatomy in fossil sloths. Wide-muzzled ground sloths (Glossotherium and Lestodon) had a square, nonprehensile upper lip and were mostly bulk-feeders. The lips, coupled with the tongue, were used to pull out grass and herbaceous plants. Narrow-muzzled sloths (Mylodon, Scelidotherium, and Megatherium) had a cone-shaped and prehensile lip and were mixed or selective feeders. The prehensile lip was used to select particular plants or plant parts. PMID:16315216

Bargo, M Susana; Toledo, Néstor; Vizcaíno, Sergio F

2006-02-01

443

Reproductive Biology and Its Impact on Body Size: Comparative Analysis of Mammalian, Avian and Dinosaurian Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Janis and Carrano (1992) suggested that large dinosaurs might have faced a lower risk of extinction under ecological changes than similar-sized mammals because large dinosaurs had a higher potential reproductive output than similar-sized mammals (JC hypothesis). First, we tested the assumption underlying the JC hypothesis. We therefore analysed the potential reproductive output (reflected in clutch/litter size and annual offspring number) of extant terrestrial mammals and birds (as “dinosaur analogs”) and of extinct dinosaurs. With the exception of rodents, the differences in the reproductive output of similar-sized birds and mammals proposed by Janis and Carrano (1992) existed even at the level of single orders. Fossil dinosaur clutches were larger than litters of similar-sized mammals, and dinosaur clutch sizes were comparable to those of similar-sized birds. Because the extinction risk of extant species often correlates with a low reproductive output, the latter difference suggests a lower risk of population extinction in dinosaurs than in mammals. Second, we present a very simple, mathematical model that demonstrates the advantage of a high reproductive output underlying the JC hypothesis. It predicts that a species with a high reproductive output that usually faces very high juvenile mortalities will benefit more strongly in terms of population size from reduced juvenile mortalities (e.g., resulting from a stochastic reduction in population size) than a species with a low reproductive output that usually comprises low juvenile mortalities. Based on our results, we suggest that reproductive strategy could have contributed to the evolution of the exceptional gigantism seen in dinosaurs that does not exist in extant terrestrial mammals. Large dinosaurs, e.g., the sauropods, may have easily sustained populations of very large-bodied species over evolutionary time. PMID:22194835

Werner, Jan; Griebeler, Eva Maria

2011-01-01

444

Earthquake calamity warning from space station: orbital dynamics coupling geology mantle convection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is not surprising that the earthquakes happened among clashing tectonic plate boundaries where numerous earthquake stations exist. Then, why do we need more? The significance of Sichuan and Tongshan earthquakes of China is a wakeup call that major earthquakes of logarithmic Richter scales beyond 7 could happen exactly within a single tectonic plate surprisingly. Thus, the previous border surveillance is broadened to areas coverage. Judging the success of archival survey of NASA with the gravitational potential by Liu et al., we review a unified earthquakes theory covering both the peripheral and the central plate in this paper, so that we can take seriously the need of a comprehensive global surveillance of natural calamity in the Space. The earth surface crust, like a kitchen kettle lid, covers tightly the melted mantle rock layer, like a pea soup cooking in the kettle. Given the time they will all become bubbling, rattling & shaking, known as the Bernard instability. This instability is ubiquitous for any liquid state matter being heated from below, if and only if it has a real positive thermal expansion coefficient. Likewise, the earth mantle is being cooked from below by an enormously hot fireball of the size of a moon. The heat comes from the radioactive decay confined within the core over eon's age. Due to the enormous gravitation attraction being always real positive and additive, the inner core is bifurcated into 2 regimes, a heat-melted liquid metal regime, where the earth magnetic field is produced and predicted by Faraday induction law. And further inside there exists a tightly squeezed solid metal ball regime, due to the gigantic weight compression, as confirmed by sonar experiments. The complexity of earth Bernard instability is due to the extra rotational Coriolis force that makes the up-down thermal convection side-way, creating the mass imbalance and permitting in-situ measurements feasible at a distance.

Szu, Harold H.; Liu, Han-Shou

2009-04-01

445

Towards to Creation Unit Theory Oil Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creating a unified theory of the genesis of oil encompasses all aspects of oil's life beginning from the formation the chemical elements. Globally, in the spatio-temporal aspect oil's life covers a Cosmic (pre geological) stage and geologically stage of formation of the planet Earth. In conces of spatio-temporal aspect unified theory of oil formation is based on the sequence of occurrences of chemical elements from which to create the Planet Earth and its Granite and Basalt Domains. From this standpoint is an independent Oil Domain along with Granite and Basalt. Sequence analysis of the appearance of chemical elements (H, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, etc.) reveals the genesis of oil at a very early stage of the creation of Earth according appearance first of H and C. Next, according to the sequence of appearance (creation) of the elements are formed of Granite and Basalt Domain. The appearance of: (chemical element - serial number of) H 1, O 8 corresponds to the appearance of the aqueous layer. The appearance of Na 11, Al 13, Si 14 corresponds to the appearance of the Granite layer. The appearance of Ca 20, Fe 26 corresponds to the appearance of the Basalt layer. The process of formation of domains continues to today. Currently, Oil Domain encircles Globe on the south and north and manifests itself from micro quantities to gigantic clusters. In the formation of unit oil involves various methods involving initial elements C and H of various geneses. A unity of theory of oil generation in her polygenic !

Galant, Yuri

2014-05-01

446

Change in and Long-Term Investigation of Neuro-Otologic Disorders in Disaster-Stricken Fukushima Prefecture: Retrospective Cohort Study before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake.  

PubMed

On March 11, 2011, Japan's northeast Pacific coast was hit by a gigantic earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture is situated approximately 44 km north of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Soma General Hospital is the only hospital in Soma City that provides full-time otolaryngological medical care. We investigated the changes in new patients from one year before to three years after the disaster. We investigated 18,167 new patients treated at our department during the four years from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2014. Of the new patients, we categorized the diagnoses into Meniere's disease, acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo, sudden deafness, tinnitus, and facial palsy as neuro-otologic symptoms. We also investigated the changes in the numbers of patients whom we examined at that time concerning other otolaryngological disorders, including epistaxis, infectious diseases of the laryngopharynx, and allergic rhinitis. The total number of new patients did not change remarkably on a year-to-year basis. Conversely, cases of vertigo, Meniere's disease, and acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss increased in number immediately after the disaster, reaching a plateau in the second year and slightly decreasing in the third year. Specifically, 4.8% of patients suffering from these neuro-otologic diseases had complications from depression and other mental diseases. With regard to new patients in our department, there was no apparent increase in the number of patients suffering from diseases other than neuro-otologic diseases, including epistaxis, and allergic rhinitis. Patients suffering from vertigo and/or dizziness increased during the first few years after the disaster. These results are attributed to the continuing stress and tension of the inhabitants. This investigation of those living in the disaster area highlights the need for long-term support. PMID:25849607

Hasegawa, Jun; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Obara, Taku; Hashimoto, Ken; T